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Subject Code ± MU0007 Subject Name ± Performance Management and Appraisal Assignment Set- 1 (30 Marks)
Q1. Define Performance Management? Explain the principles of developing a performance management plan. Ans. Performance Management is an ongoing, continuous process of communicating and clarifying job responsibilities, priorities and performance expectations in order to ensure mutual understanding between supervisor and employee. It is a philosophy which values and encourages employee development through style of management which provides frequent feedback and fosters teamwork. It emphasizes teamwork and focuses on adding value to the organization by promoting improved job performance and encouraging skill development. Performance management involves clarifying the job duties, defining performance standards and documenting, evaluating and discussing performance with each employee. The objectives of performance management are : 1. 2. 3. 4. Increased two way communications between supervisors and employees. Clarify mission, goals, responsibilities, priorities and expectations. Recognize quality performance. Provide a basis for administrative decisions such as promotions, succession and strategic planning and pay for performance. Principles of developing a performance management plan. Development of performance management plan should be consistent with the following principles: 1. Performance Management is considered a process, not an event. It follows good management practice in which continual coaching, feedback and communication are integral to success. 2. The performance management plan is primarily a communication tool to ensure mutual understanding of work responsibilities, priorities and performance expectations. 3. Elements for discussion and evaluation should be job specific- not generalized personality traits. The major duties and responsibilities of specific job should be defined and communicated.
If formal ratings are included. Professional development should be an important component of the plan. Adaptive capacity is cultivated through attention to assessments. Management capacity is accomplished through careful development and coordination of resources including people. Ryan and Grossman suggested four key capacities for organizational effectiveness. motivating. 8. Ryan and Grossman suggested four key capacities for organizational effectiveness. The performance management plan should be consistent with federal and state laws which address non-discrimination. collaborating and networking. One year is common evaluation period. The supervisor should be evaluated on the successful administration of the plan and ongoing performance management responsibilities. 9. 3. Letts. particularly on performing while continually adjusting and aligning itself to respond to those needs and influences. making decisions and solving problems. Technical Capacity . Leadership capacity is cultivated through attention to vision. 1.4. establishing goals. Training for supervisors and employees is encouraged. directing. 6. However they also apply to organizations in general and thus their descriptions are modified in the following paragraphs to apply to organizations in general. they should reflect the incumbent¶s actual performance in relation to the performance standard for that major duty. assessments and planning. Documentation of performance will occur as often as needed to record the continuum of dialogue between supervisor and employee. 4. Management Capacity It is the ability to ensure effective and efficient use of the resources in the organization. 5. Leadership capacity It is the ability to set direction for the organization and its resources and also guide activities to follow that direction. money and facilities. 2. Adaptive Capacity It is the ability of an organization to maintain focus on external environment of the organization. Ans. 11. Q2. Letts. These capacities were suggested for non-profit organizations. Employee involvement is encouraged in identifying major duties and defining performance standards. 7. 10.-Elucidate. The formal evaluation period should be long enough to allow for full performance and to establish a history such that evaluations are fir and meaningful.
Generative Capacity It is the ability of the of the organization to positively change its external environment. Q. verifiable. employees are held accountable as individuals for work assignments and responsibilities. When used effectively these plans can be beneficial working documents that are discussed often and not merely paperwork that is filed in a drawer and seen only when ratings of record are required. understandable. and achievable. Monitoring In an effective organization assignments and projects are monitored continually.It is the ability to design and operate products and services to customers. Performance Management is a systematic process by which the agency involves its employees. The nature of that technical capacity depends on the particular type of products and services provided by the organization. and how well it should be done. Through critical elements.3 Explain the process of performance management Ans. as individuals and members of a group in improving organizations effectiveness in the accomplishment of an agency mission and goals. Getting employees involved in planning process will help them understand the goals of the organization. educate and persuade policy makers. Employee performance plans should be flexible so that they can be adjusted for changing program objectives and job requirements. what needs to be done. This capacity is exercised by engaging in activities to inform. equitable. Planning In an effective organization work is planned out in advance. The regularity requirements for planning employee¶s performance include establishing the elements and standards of their performance appraisal plans. 2. Ongoing monitoring provides the opportunity to check how well employees are meeting predetermined standards and to make changes to unrealistic and problematic standards. Performance Management process involves 5 steps 1. Monitoring well means consistently measuring performance and providing ongoing feedback to employees and work groups for their progress toward reaching their goals. Regulatory requirements for monitoring performance includes conducting progress reviews with employees where their performance is compared against their elements and standards. 5. community leaders and other stakeholders. why it needs to be done. Planning refers to setting performance expectations and goals for groups and individuals to channelize their efforts towards achieving organizational objectives. Performance elements and standards should be measurable. By monitoring continually unexpected performance can .
natural part of day to day experience. Within the context of the formal performance appraisal requirements. Carrying out process of performance management provides an excellent opportunity to identify developmental needs. such as the introduction of new technologies. A basic principle of effective management is that all behavior is controlled by its consequences. 3. improving work processes or other methods. for their performance and acknowledging their contributions to the agencies mission. such as granting within grade pay increases and determining additional retention service credit in a reduction in force. Providing employees with training and developmental opportunities encourages good performance. Recognition is an ongoing. It means recognizing employees. strengthens job related skills and competencies. Rating From time to time organizations find it useful to summarize employee performance.be identified at any time during the appraisal period and assistance provided to address such performance rather than wait until the end of the period when summary rating levels are assigned. . Those consequences should be both formal and informal and both positive and negative. employee developmental needs are evaluated and addressed. During planning and monitoring of work. giving assignments that introduce new skills or higher levels of responsibility. individually and as members of groups. Good performance is recognized without waiting for nominations for formal awards to be solicited. This can be helpful for looking at and comparing performance overtime or among various employees. A lot of actions that reward good performance don¶t require a specific regulatory authority. rating means evaluating employee or group performance against the elements and standards in an employee¶s performance plan and assigning a summary rating of the record. and helps employees keep up with changes in the workplace. It is based on work performed during entire appraisal period. deficiencies in performance become evident and can be addressed. and action can be taken to help successful employees improve even further. Rewarding In an effective organization. 4. Developing In an effective organization. Organizations need to know who their best performers are. The rating of record is assigned according to procedures included in the organizations appraisal program. 5. Areas of improving good performance also stand out. rewards are used well. The rating of record has a bearing on other personal actions. Developing in this instance means increasing the capacity to perform through training.
If they comply with rules and regulations and are careful about their documentations they feel they are secure enough and have a defensible position. Managers must realize that ethics is the process of deciding and acting. In the worst scenario low ethics managers use the performance review process as a form of forced humility for individuals reporting to them. his feelings of personal worth will suffer. honesty and truthfulness in connection with the performance review.without taking a swing. If the person being reviewed feels ignored. cynical and withdrawn. To abandon the performance appraisal process is a breach of business ethics. The . Performance appraisal must be recognized and treated as an ethical issue of high pay off and peril. However being legal does not always equate to being ethical.Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester IV Subject Code ± MU0007 Subject Name ± Performance Management and Appraisal Assignment Set. That requires telling people where they stand and being straight with them. The ethical ramifications of performance review have caused managers and employees at all the levels to become frustrated.1 Explain the role of ethics in performance appraisal. the individual is more likely to perform at a higher level and the organization is less likely to lose a valuable employee. Ethics has a very important role to play in performance management. Many managers talk about ethics but do not act upon ethical issues in day to day managerial responsibilities. Ans. The overall objective of high ethics performance review should be to provide an honest assessment of performance and to mutually develop a plan to improve individual¶s effectiveness. A perfunctory review is an ethical strike out. Unless the employee and the reviewer are successful in negotiating an ethical balance each may review other as taking unfair shots. When a performance review helps the individual recognize that his or her objectives are closely assigned with the organizations. Most ethical questions arise from peoples relationship with the organization. Managers and non supervisory employees alike cite concern about politics and lack of fair treatment. Employees have a big stake in the way managers evaluate and operate. Some managers feel that being legal in performance review is enough. Sometimes major miscommunications occur in performance review sessions due to basic differences in ethical orientation.2 Q.
It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. A hierarchical system is needed with arrow span of control at each level. Due of this workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of control developed. autonomy and empowerment. They will blame the person first in most situations. Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives. Sunil is having of his subordinates. McGregor¶s X-Y theory Douglas McGregor proposed two different sets of assumptions as to what motivates people ± theory X and theory Y. In theory Y McGregor proposes that management assumes employees may be ambitious. Sunil is a manager in a manufacturing company. Performance review as a matter of ethics. Treatment of people is the most fundamental ethical issue. to avoid responsibility is relatively not ambitious and wants security above all else. an authoritarian style of leadership. 2. not to threaten self esteem. 3. policy or lack of training that deserves the blame. Employees shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever needed. According to McGregor theory. what assumptions Mr. The assumptions that Mr. The average person dislikes work and will avoid it. Ans. avoid work and they needs supervision to perform tasks and therefore he shows authority over his subordinates¶.objective of the performance review is to develop the person. anxious to accept greater responsibility and exercise self control. Usually managers feel the sole purpose of employees interest in job is money. Assumptions under theory Y (participative management style) 1. Effort in work is as natural as work and play. without questioning whether it may be the system. And also elucidate McGregor both the theories. According to this theory employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. In theory X McGregor proposes that management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. He thinks that his subordinates are inherently lazy. It is also believed that if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. . The average person prefers to be directed. self direction. self motivated. Q. Sunil has on his subordinates are : 1. According to McGregor¶s theory Mr.2 Mr. There is a chance of greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform at the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. 4. Sunil follows theory X.
The capacity to use a higher degree of imagination. work quality. The supervisor rates employees according to items on the numerical scale. Q.3 Write notes on: Management by Objectives Behavioral Anchored Rating Scales Graphic Rating scale Behavioral checklist Ans. ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely not narrowly distributed in the population. 6. zero defect units produced. profits. In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilized. 3. 2. 4. People usually accept and often seek responsibility. cooperation that the supervisor uses to rate employee performance using an incremental scale. 5. Behavioral checklist The rater is given a checklist of descriptions of the behavior of the employee on the job. The method aligns objectives with quantitative performance measures such as sales. Graphic Rating scale This method lists a set of performance factors such as job knowledge. Management by Objectives It evaluates how well an employee has accomplished objectives determined to be critical in the job performance. without external control or the threat of punishment. 1. 3. . Behavioral Anchored Rating Scales( BARS) This combines elements from critical incident and graphic rating scale approaches. 4. Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. The checklist contains a list of statements on the basis of which the rater describes the on the job performance of the employees.2. People will apply self control and self direction in pursuit of organizational objectives.