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ENGLISH LANGUAGE METHODOLOGY

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\vIII, ~tllill r~I\1 ~·h.1 dlllJ IJ~.'I 111t'(lllfJ '~"Cl J J)ll r .1,0' J

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tt..l~ Ifl.] t".J n v, -n l III. 11\ H~ I ,uLtl r., .. lfl .11), 'l,IT Ill ..... dlf tl rt-'I), t' t~r-~ .''I'''I'''n \oIH ~f tl ."1r. j

:"Iopr.1~ JlI'.\j~111 v.II'lJh1ll t- ~ ... ltJllJltJ ~It ru 11-" r ,

,HI I dot. d d-r I l v r d f(\ "~'I v, r 11111'4

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\\"~Jjd \ '111''' It qUdJl- ,It rlt- 1'!111 1 ttt

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~ W I it ri .1, 'n 1111' 1",).11" 'I' l'In;« O/.,nfo II I,,, It·"

Ait til., \11 c , tlll~rd) \'lilr.lllllg llf 11'1{' \'i1h-[IL" 1 lilt t(, \l lorn!

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'):i',l"dlcol'll',II y"" '.IIIO\.t'ld he' .ll>k '1,1 IlTI lll\' ,II! 11,"1, ,',1\11 ,llulIll!

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v i q n s <,nO GUilds,

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t ~1 w rei U' "d in til rn.

IIWE' \ IgatE' l 1E' 1 ype~ c , _ I11Jnufaclurer s to have

rroduct br and names (Ire car (LillI enos en by _ i,. t th If brand

" 'Ct E'S01 e dlffef nt produ t anc IS

a , r ,lin rl~9_' 10 ~rlJin sounds recur, or are certain sounds

names and sloqans. Do It f' d -t) For example, the

.:\~5 nated \ uh particulal t1l- s 0 pi 0 ut.i . , '

" -I" 'Snickers' 'Kit KJt' and 'Picnic' ",II c ont arn

name 'TwI,\, Cr unc lie" . st a

, I P' b cause the manufJcturers want t.o sugg. -

plosl\('; pen) ,- " d

' -1' loise r e fricatives used for ~courrrig crearr» an

criSp, crJ<.."lIlg I '

liquids, or air Iresh ners? '~,

SID am CJn often use alliteration, lor example,

Be~l 1\1I\ BnjLl !1\'il',}llI1X ~lIIWl1('r1

1'-[' r'll~ ul' J Pl'I\l',lllll h:h,lI._{\ldll LI,I I , The Power to Hit I'a i n l'r e, I~tl\ I.lJ Idlgf')IL I

C 'SPd- er s also LJS IJlloneme substil.utlon il~.) regular ch-

,am nev. . ' l I

~I ue in their he adhne s Rother than e\rloltlllg sound syrnoo Isn~

this pror e s s is un 0 rule-brt:'JkIl1l) he read f e pec t s one '> un

nd qet s another \'-,blch creates J n=vv and relE'vant word or phr<l\e-

a - ff t OU r an e tll15 pro ess

sometlmr:-s with dehber a i-lv rOllllC i:'l '

III c er t ain ~ mcs 01 'corny' Jole'

Q: WIt-II dlcllhe dud. SJ\' J\ it t levv lIp~ldl' ,_I,1H'1l'

_-I l'n quack ing up

Q' \\'llatdus':d!lll,mtu,IIH'tlll!

A Fi~h and ,111)15,

V Whdl du cats rtaLi!

,--\.' I h- 1\ 1<,1\') uf L W \'\Iurld.

But the same technique can be us ed for serious purp~~es tooo Adverts can »plo.t the wa phon rn substitution an ca. up w

"'9 'Lurut ed Em"llsion' to describe a car With

phr ave s at once, as II'l U_I!, "_

a ca al uc converter (and ailing up th soptusucau nand cxclus-

, 0(· 'Linn pd· Edition' at the same time),

IVene5, - - " r

See if you an find sorn xarnple s of s,ound substituti 11 rom

nev-soaoer h ,odlines, acverusmq copy and Jokes .

- ',-"', I [ik I With

Tt-F) ioke s above are one er.ampl,- of how muc 1 W I e to pay

1_ . . I' 1I f rrn ) r

sound. Collect some further eX(lmples of sound pay, In 1 0 ,

longUE wist rs and popul r SilylllgS,

<;ign~ and s o u n d ..

S P E . C H PRO fJ cr J 0 i,L\ J) r L 5 ( RIP r J (

V () \V f_ ~ '.

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\', ,wd, "hI) pla\' t hr-ir p.u t j n our j n tr-rpn-ta tinn • If ),1 ngu;lgr'

V"Wl'h aft" al w.ivs I'(J)('('(( Unlike consonants. tlJ':y d" not in1J,I'",:: illl) ,)IY;lTUdillll • .j' liH' .rllIVJy; viJVI't"I ~(!ulld~ are !lV-H(' If) rJr; With HIP \1 LdJ1L' ,IfIU pmltiun lIt th« 'Jnguc, and whet h.-r th lip> are ;prparJ (If r'JUndl'(1

1- Jlgl h h vowel sounds an- gn H![ led in I. , t IN' r a kglJri s.: pu re \'(0\', ~I', ,1)1" "llphl'lwng.,' Whlk tlli~ torrnr-r ar« \II1.1;It' ,uunds, lfiphtl](,ng'. rifC> a "lmlliIJ,ltilmq] tWI))I)UJ1( 'I wh(_'reIlw>pt"dh.:" \t;l,!,,\'ith()nt'~'Julld m.] g 1,,11::'> I. 'IVa 1\ '" tll'~ I" ln-r t 1 f'rp :In~ t h- reI« vant ',) III hi JI',

\11,1r/ Hill el« 1111'1,\ I'IJI" ls I Jrphlilrlllg,
I Ill! h"JI1 ell bitp
11'-'1 " burn I L I 'il It
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() I'ul ,,);:> I, r uel
" 11<1 t.-r J) c.ir
( J dJr I \,(J11:' till' phUIll.'1 il~) stern ill tIllS hilI I\.. Il1,Hk~ 11\l1g \', I\\d~ with J II .r"n I I )'JU Ill.!} en ounrcr Lit'\( [lrtH)n~ in u her textbooks \\'11 re tJus m fl, l~ nu used, hut \OU will <,li.lllw ,{hIt to undervtand tile ~i'ulld~ l1er.:au\l till" -vm h.)1\ rhernvel ves do nut difter.:

In ordt'[ tu gd a ,en\t ,II' these sound-, gu through them, ftrst .ilter !JellIng hel Ween vhort <11](1 lung "'-'IV 1<; and tr)'ing to fed the diffe Ik he! IVC I> 11 them - tU1' example, l on tra sting the \'\JINe! sound in 'pit' I\'i th I !1.Jt in 'he.in': then sound out some diphthongs, Iry.lng 10 feel the \\-,)\ lhl.:~'·)' iunds are sequcnc cs 1')[ vowels.

The lIiilgril ms L dow, how when: English vowel sounds are meld", i 11 the mouth, The shari' uf the diagram (called a 'vowel trapeztum': is i111 abstrac version of the space inside the mouth: 'high', 'mid' and 'low' refer to how near the tonguE' is to the roof uf the mouth or botroi 1 of the j,lW; 'front", 'cenl'ral' and 'back' refer to how far forward or retracted tilt' bo.lv of the tongue is; the shapes drawn around tile sounds themselves .ire ex plaincd helm",

and sounds

bv a fricative. If you make these sounds in very slow motion you may be abl t -. hear this sequence. ItS I is voiceless and 1d3/ is its voiced partner.

Nasals: m n l] (as in 'singing')

The distinctive feature of these sounds is that they are produc d in a particular manner: the airstream comes out through the nose rather than the mouth. They differ from each other in being made in different places:

Im/ is bilabial, (n! is alveolar, ancl /D/ is velar. When you have a cold and au cannot escape from the nose, nasals bec me plostv 5, as in the se and version of 'good morning' below:

gud rnorun gud bo.drq

Later als: I

This sound is am times referred to as a 'liquid' sound, and is made by placing the tip of the tongue all the teeth ridge and sending air down I he sides of the mouth. The easiest way to experience this airflow IS to put the tongue in the right position to sayan !l!, then breathe in instead of out you should be able to feel the air flowing along th stdes of your tongul' This is the reverse of what happens when you say (111 II/ normally.

Approximants: r w j

The final three consonants are usually grouped together because they share the prop rry of being mid-way between consonants and vowel; in som hnguisttc lescriptions you will see them called 'semi-vowels'. They all involve less contact between the organs of speech than many of the other consonants: compare /rl with Ip!, for example. While [t] and /J/ are produced in the palatal area (roof of the mouth), /wl is a bilabial.

Glotta.l: 7

This do s not appear II the list of symbols because it doesn't represent a !.uund as such. It is a closure of the vocal cords, resulting in shutting off the airstream, and it is s metim s produced as an alternative to certain plosive sounds. To explore this, say the words 'butter' and 'water', but ·~ .... 'allow' the ttl in th - middle of ach word. The glottal stop is a strong h-altJrf- fA some regional accents, and written texts often represent it by all aposrrophe. f'JI example, 'I've go' a 10' of I i'le bo'les',

J J

!

I

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j

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-- ~S~i~g~n~5 and sounds

B J -

h e Ow IS a summary of t~e consonant system in English. The chart

~ ows place and manner of artJCuJation; a colon mark, voice where there Isa pair of sounds contrasted by this feature, voiceless sounds bein to

the left and VOiced to the right Ir/ and /'/ g

. J are together because til y arf'

both palatal. sounds, but thie;y are not separated by a colon because theyare not vOIceless/Voiced pair.

Manner of articulo 'Ion

Place of articulation
'--
Io:l III ru
.£.i 0 rtl <i5 0 -;;j
..., _,
'" ii c c Q) ~
IIJ !lJ Q.> ;- I'<l ro 0
co _J <J 0 <{ Io:l 3!
c, o
--_
P b t : d k : 9
p
tj . d3
f v o . ,'l I. Z (
h
111 n
IJ Ploslve

Affrlcclte

Frrcatlve

Lateral

ApprOXImant

w

IT'S NOT \"/1-1 T YOU S~y n 'S THE WAY THAT YOU SAllY

o ~1e of the soun?s y III have been studying vary comidera bl

Pn.:glOnal and ethnic basis: for example, ocknev and 1\ fro-Ca/b~n, J

atwa speakers have no Ill/ J _ . . _ ' ' [edit

the West Countr a . P ~Oneme, ffJ/ls regularly replaced by Inl in . . y, nd by 109/Ill some northern accents- glottal st _ > a common feature in nUn r 0 • .' <" ops Jft

reg,iOna,~ ~ariati01:s are oftel~ ;~~~a~~:e~~~:l:~~ :~~c~~~~~~s~~~~~J~e;o uc~~

Or iaz ~p e h 111 some quarters It's . .' pp

rudgements are Social, rather than 'ling~~~:rt~nt to realise that these language can be used as a sh - bb ! I . ey are examples ot how

1 0 et 1 - a way of more po f J

marking out their Own forms of Jan ua . .. WeI u groups

that at others as inadequat - dg ge as prestlglOus and 'correct' c nd e In or er to forestall - . I

prevent others' access to power. . . socia movement and

Being able to describe thes

help you to understand a d el aspects of language phonetically can

- . n exp am the differences b t - r '.

tactsandsocialattitudes 0 _}. l" n 1l1cTUIStlC

. ne aspect t rat should be apparent, if you work

i q n s and ~,ou.nd~

-----

hi\\iIYJ your palm. English plosiv (bn (.311 dstcp ') are dirteren rated from each 0\ her in two ways l'lwy ar rna t' In different place In the rnout h (pIau" of arb ulation. (jUI)\(,), and tIH:Y use lllfter"n arnourus 01 voic.e ra) .~, above). WIllie Ipl and 111( aTE' pfouUled ll\lng the t\\[) hp (bili11JjaIJ, ttf and Id/ inv .lv« U)Il1.H t [letwel-n tnc rllnglH' .. nd th-, teeth rtdge (alveular); Ikl and Igi ,II (' madt'lJY 1 I ""lOg oil <UT .It \ h, 1'..Jl '" I it t h. nu iut h (ve-lar). SeC' I I If' dldgr.HTl h l(tw

AIV('lJl.lf rFh '"

II. ,

III'

I\I.HII' 11l'1 • I

~dli1 (It tl\~,~c' I'.til' (\1 \()\I11(h 11.1\ m u. \'Oll,'j .u u l .'11\' \11((1,1,'" 1)1\,'[\'"II\(', ,\'. Il)IIL)\\";;

\ ell' cle: I \ l11l,'d
P b
d
k 9 1\' I!l\dl'l~I,IIlJ the ld,'.l"t \\'l,',' put \'"U[ hn~<'r~ 1111 vour .-\ci.llll' \) 'I'll' .111 I ,t1ll'f11,\!l' l,,'1 \,1 ,','l\ I h . \'('1 (d t'SS .1110 \\~lll'd l~hl.l\ h .. 1l1L'~ Sl'\ eral

igns .r n d v o u n d v

tJ rnes \'L'1I should he ,l\I':lfl' t h.ir \'l tI r \'0(",11 c. )rlb .1 I l' \ d)L.H I ng vv 11\' II \ I .u )3\' the' , lJilt"'d Ie' un d~. If 311 the 1'1051\'\".\ vound \'lll«'.1 r 11 Y. lll, rill" \ \ I I! I, ' hl'C .iuve ,', 'U .tll ,) Lkll ng- ,1 \'t 1\ I'd (II' h 1,'11 .11 t' ,Ill \\) I elyl1 .uu l \ l'lI r ') 1\ L"ll'" pl,'\l\l\ ,PI ]ll,kln~ \II) some o! t lu- \'1'11'1,1\ \I'iu'd qu.ilit v l'i1r \'\.11111'11', I Ull 1ll1,~,11 t h, ,Ieldtng the \Il\\'d J j I vou .\fl' dui n~ t hI'. 111.1 ~l' ! 11<' I l 'II t' 1,-\\ \(llllld, ,1\ II vou vvvrc wi i\fWl in:' tlu-rn

Frkatives' r \ II ,,\ s ; I,) h

\\ltll,' 1,1",1\', ,III 1,["dIHLd hI IIHI'I'llkll IIh,lnll·till~ I Ill' .11111,,\\ l t n .Ill\" 111\,,1\, ,I It",\c'! ,\ll\trlll 11,'n 1I'1l"ll' .ur h (1)1', "(I' t lu 1'1 '

.. • II. ), 1 III .1

d, , .. h l' ,1111 I' xult uu; III I11I ll' 1J11.111J"1 1Ii,Iil ',\)11,1\1''11 l'I(I.\il ,', "11111.,,

I, ~ 1,1 '11'111 Ill. 111\ Irll,III\"\\,111 I" tlhl'lII.lk lill' 1.1.'.1, 'I,ll ,111/~1

111.111", 11111 \111·1 1)[I,111t IHII\ 11\ 11'1-."1'1' ,I Illi "'111111 ,~''1llg \"1111'111

1111.] 'I tI til \ • I I !II d" 1'1 III< 1111, I 1\ I .. 11I"tilll\',J 11111111"'11,1

.. "'1','11,111'

I' "11 If I I III' ,til",

1 I' III 11'11""" ,.tl dl',IIIII'III\III'tllr"I'11 ".II 111.1111'11\\ t l uu

I" ,I Ii ilil I ",1,11" \"111 ",1111 P,III I'llpl\' 111'111); 1l1.ld"IIJ' ,,1,1

\1'1 ,It 1111\11<,,1]>1,"11'111, '1',111111\11\'11 1\'11,,111\\""I'II~\I!IIIII,l'

tl'

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II 11'1

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II \ II I, II

.... III 'I. I .. lIll ')

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\ I 111111" II 1'"IIIII!lI)',JlIllt ,I 1"1111\0'111\'\ "'ltllIlllll~ wlt('!l'IIII'Y .tl, 1111<1. III II" 1111111111 dill! ""III"ltfl~: IIliI 111'11 dtll,'II'IH 1'\ 1111\'1111', ",I \"1" 'I' ,,'l,1 \'1'11'111.1 !J ",utlll"\'I'It('ti,IIIJ\I',llI'I,ItI"I'),lllldll'ddtlillg 1','1\,101,,111 11111 ,J\III,.~"lJlI'11Iln,I~llkl"IIIt!I',lllI"IJ''>II[J1If_l,d)IJV(,I\1111' "'lind II [i I' ,111\. Hill! Ill" " II \,\t_i 1\'1'11' WIIl\]lI'llllg)

\, IIlll III If III'," n goll d i! 1/ d \ .. WI'.!].. d II II v lIll WI d 1)lL" r r i ( ,I l i v,' I U'l.lll .... ,,111\ 1'."l.ltlIJII .11111 11'1\11110 It\ dl,',t'IJI (' IrullJ lite!!l)' I 'giOII,tI d 't'llh 1(1 'liPIII'lllllL \ 11'1\ tll<d It 111.1\ t'l '1IIlI.dlrdjl'l)( III fJJ lilt' 1·.fJgIJ .. lll.Jrl)!'ld).','

,111,,;,:<"111'. [ , ,

Affrka·tes: I r <as in 'c_hurQl'} d,,; (as in ';uc:lge')

l here .rre l>nl\ I\\u 1)1 these lunsrmaIlt s(JullLh In Engll~h JIll'}' h.l\I· J,'ubk ~\ rnbols to repre eut tilt' fa t that eur h one i~ a pIO\II't' !\JIII '\\"d

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