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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8

:
SALT
CHAPTER 8 : SALTS

A. SYNTHESISING SALTS

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
state examples of salts used in daily life,
explain the meaning of salt
identify soluble and insoluble salts,
describe the preparation of soluble salts,
describe the purification of soluble salts by recrystallisation,
list physical characteristics of crystals,
describe the preparation of insoluble salts,
write chemical and ionic equations for reactions used in the
preparation of salts,
design an activity to prepare a specified salt,
construct ionic equations through the continuous variation method
 solve problems involving calculation of quantities of reactants or
products in stoichiometric reactions

Activity 1 : Meaning and uses of Salts

1. A salt is an ……………………..……… formed when the ……………….. ion, from an
…………… is replaced by a ……………. ion or an …………………..ion.

2. Example of salts : Complete the table below

Acid Formula of Salt Formula Cation Anion
acid
Sodium chloride NaCl Na+ Cl-
Potassium carbonate K2CO3
Copper(II) sulphate CuSO4
Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3
Magnesium nitrate Mg(NO3)2
Sodium ethanoate CH3COONa

3. Match the following salts with their uses.

Salts Uses
Barium sulphate BaSO4   Fungicide
Calsium sulphate CaSO4   Bleaching agent
Iron sulphate FeSO4   Paint for yellow line on road
Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3   X-ray ‘meals’ in hospital
Copper(II) sulphate CuSO4   Nitrogenous fertilizer
Sodium chloride NaCl   Toothpaste
Sodium hydrogen carbonate   Iron tablets, for anaemia
patient
Sodium nitrite NaNO2   Baking powder
Sodium hypochlorite   Preserve food
NaOCl
Tin(II) fluoride SnF2   A flavouring
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Lead(II) chromate PbCrO4   Plaster of Paris for broken
bone

Activity 2 : Identify soluble and insoluble salt.

Ba2+ NO3 -
SO4 2-
Ca2+
Pb2+
Water
Na+
Pb2+ K+ CO3 2-
Ag+ Cl- NH4+
Hg+

Fill in the blanks with the correct word(s)

1. All ………………. , ………………., and …………………. salts are soluble in water.

2. All ………………. salts are soluble in water.

3. All sulphate salts are soluble in water except …………….. sulphate, …………. sulphate and
………… sulphate.

4. All chloride salts are soluble in water except …………….. chloride , …………. chloride and
………… chloride.

5. All carbonate salts are insoluble in water except …………….. carbonate, ………….
carbonate and ………… carbonate

6. State whether each of the following salt is soluble or insoluble in water

No Formula of Salt Solubility ( √, X ) No Formula of Salt Solubility ( √, X )
1 PbCO3 21 MgCO3
2 NaCl 22 KCl
3 CaSO4 23 (NH4)2SO4
4 AgNO3 24 Cu(NO3)2
5 K2CO3 25 SnCO3
6 FeCl3 26 CaCl2
7 Na2SO4 27 BaSO4
8 NH4NO3 28 KNO3
9 CuSO4 29 Ag2CO3
10 PbCl2 30 MgCl2
11 ZnCO3 31 ZnSO4
12 Ca(NO3)2 32 Ba(NO3)2
13 Na2CO3 33 FeCO3
14 AgCl 34 NH4Cl
15 PbSO4 35 Fe(NO3)3
16 Pb(NO3)2 36 MgSO4
17 (NH4)2CO3 37 BaCO3
18 HgCl2 38 ZnCl2
19 Na2SO4 39 FeSO4
20 NaNO3 40 Mg(NO3)2
Ba2+
2+
2 CaPb 2+
Na+
2+
PbAg+ K+ -
NO 3 +
Hg2+ WaterAiNH4
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
SALT

Activity 3 : Write chemical and ionic equations for reactions used in the preparation of soluble salts

1. Complete these general equation for preparing soluble salts.

a. metal + acid  …………… + …………………….

b. metal oxide (or metal hydroxide) + acid  …………… + ……………………

c. alkali + acid  …………… + …………………….

d. metal carbonate + acid  …………… + ……………… + ……………………….

2. Using the general equations in question 1, complete the following chemical equation. It may
also be necessary to balance the equation.

a. Mg + H2SO4  …………… + …………………….

b. (i) CuO + HCl  …………… + ……………………

(ii) Zn(OH)2 + HNO3  ................................... + .........................

c. NaOH + HCl  ………………….. + ……………………….

d. MgCO3 + H2SO4  …………… + ……………… + ……………………….

3. Deduce the identity of the acid, metal, salt, or other product by filling in the missing details in
this table of preparation of soluble salt

Method of Reactants Salt Formed Other
Preparation Product

a) metal + acid Magnesium + ……………… Magnesium chloride Hydrogen

b) metal oxide + acid Copper(II) oxide + sulphuric ……………………… …………….
acid

c) metal carbonate + ……………… + ……………… Zinc sulphate Water +
acid …………….

……………..

d) metal hydroxide + ……………… + ……………… Potassium nitrate ……………
acid

e) alkali + acid ……………… + ……………… Sodium chloride ……………

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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4. Name the reactants which are needed to prepare the following soluble salts:

(a) Copper(II) sulphate : ……………………………………………………………………………..

(b) Zinc chloride : …………………………………………………………………………….

(c) Potassium nitrate : ……………………………………………………………………………..

(d) Ammonium sulphate : ……………………………………………………………………………..

(e) Magnesium nitrate : ……………………………………………………………………………..

5. Rewrite each of the following chemical equation as ionic equation. Shown below is an example
where a chemical equation can be simplified into an ionic equation.

Example : Chemical equation : Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq)  ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Zn + 2H+ + SO42-  Zn2+ + SO42- + H2
(s) (aq) (aq) (aq) (aq) (g)

Ionic equation : Zn(s) + 2H+ (aq)  Zn2+ (aq) + H2(g)

a. Chemical equation : Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2 (g)

Ionic equation : .........................................................................................................................

b. Chemical equation : MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2O (l)

Ionic equation : ........................................................................................................................

c. Chemical equation : NaOH (aq) + HNO3 (aq)  NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (l)

Ionic equation : .......................................................................................................................

d. Chemical equation : CuCO3 (s) + H2SO4 (aq)  CuSO4 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Ionic equation : .......................................................................................................................

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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Activity 4 : Write out the procedure for the preparation of soluble salts of sodium, potassium and
ammonium

Soluble salt Sodium Chloride, NaCl
Name two chemical
substances to prepare 1. …………..…………………………..
the salt
2. ………………………………………

Chemical equation

Procedure: (Diagram) Description

Describe the physical
characteristics of the
crystals that you obtained

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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Activity 5 : Write out the procedure for the preparation of soluble salts (not sodium, potassium or
ammonium salt)
Soluble salt Copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4
Name two chemical
substances to prepare 1. …………..…………………………..
the salt
2. ………………………………………
Chemical equation

Procedure: (Diagram) Description

Describe the purification
process of the crystals

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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Activity 6 : Write chemical and ionic equations for reactions used in the preparation of insoluble
salts

1. Insoluble salts can be prepared by ………………….. method through
…………………………….. reaction. In this reaction, two different aqueous solution mutually
exchange their …….. to form
………………………….

Soluble salt solution + Soluble salt solution  Insoluble salt MX
containing cation M+ containing anion X-
Chemical equation : AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq)  AgCl (s) + NaNO3(aq)

Ionic equation : Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)  AgCl (s)

2. Preparation of insoluble salts
Example 1: Barium sulphate, BaSO 4
Solution 1: ……………………………………... Solution 2: ……….………………………………….

Chemical equation : ………………………………………………………………..……………………..

Ionic Equation : …………………………………………………………………………………………….

Observation : White precipitate formed

Example 2: Copper(II) carbonate, CuCO3

Solution 1: …………………………………….. Solution 2: ……………………………………….

Chemical equation : …………………………………………………………………………………….

Ionic Equation : ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Observation : ……………….. precipitate formed

Example 3: Lead(II) chromate(VI), PbCrO 4

Solution 1: …………………………………….. Solution 2: …………………………………….

Chemical equation : ………………………………………………………………………………….

Ionic Equation : ………………………………………………………………………………………..

Observation : ……………….. precipitate formed

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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Activity 7 : Describe the preparation of insoluble salts

Insoluble salt Lead(II) iodide, PbI2
Name two chemical
substances to prepare the 1. …………..…………………………..
salt
2. ………………………………………

Chemical equation

Ionic equation
Procedure: (Diagram) Description

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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Activity 8 : Construct ionic equation for the formation of lead(II) chromate through the
continuous variation method,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Test tube 2… 2.cm3 Fixed the volumes
of potassium of lead (II) nitrate
chromate (VI), test at 5.0 cm3.
tube 3…3 cm3
varying the
volumes of
potassium chromate
(VI)…

Figure 1

Figure 1 shows seven test tubes for the reaction between lead(II) nitrate Pb(NO3)2 0.5 mol dm-3 and
potassium chromate(VI) K2CrO4 0.5 mol dm-3.

(a) (i) Using a ruler, measure the height of lead(II) chromate(VI) precipitate formed.
Record the measurements in Table 1.
(ii) Calculate the number of moles of lead(II) nitrate solution Pb(NO3)2 and potassium
chromate(VI) solution,K2CrO4 used in test tubes 1-7. Write your answers in Table 1.

Test Tube 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Volume of Pb(NO3)2 /cm3 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

No. of mole of Pb(NO3)2

Volume of K2CrO4 /cm3 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

No. of mole of K2CrO4

Height of precipitate / cm

Colour of solution above
precipitate

Table 1

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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(b) Based on Table 1, draw a graph of the height of the precipitate against volume of lead (II)
nitrate solution on the graph paper.

(c) On the graph that you have drawn in (b),
(i) mark and write the minimum volume of potassium chromate(VI) solution needed for complete
reaction with 5.0 cm3 of lead(II) nitrate solution 0.5 mol dm-3.

(ii) Calculate the number of moles of chromate(VI) ions that has reacted with 1 mole of Pb2+. ions.

(iii) Write the formula of lead(II) chromate.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(iv) Write the ionic equation for the formation of lead(II) chromate(VI).

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(d) What can you observe about the height of the precipitate in Figure 1?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
(e) What is your inference based on your answer in (d)?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Activity 9 : Solve problems involving calculation of quantities of reactants or products in
stoichiometric reactions

Example 1 : A student prepares copper (II) nitrate by reacting copper (II) oxide with 100 cm3
1.5 mol dm-3 nitric acid. Calculate the mass of copper (II) oxide needed to react
completely with the acid. [Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64 ; O, 16]
Solution :
Chemical equation : CuO + 2HNO3  Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
Mole ratio : 1 mole 2 mole 1 mole 1 mole

Number of moles of HNO3 = 1.5 x 100 = 0.15 mol
1000
Mole ratio of CuO : HNO3 = 1 : 2

Number of mole of CuO = 1 x 0.15 = 0.075 mole
2
Mass of CuO = 0.075 x (64 + 16) = 6 g

Question :
1 Excess zinc powder is added to react completely with 50 cm 3 of 2.0 mol dm −3 hydrochloric
acid.
(a) Write an ionic equation for the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

(b) Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid used.

(c) Calculate the volume of hydrogen gas liberated at room conditions.
[Molar volume: 24 dm 3 mol −1 ]

2 Excess of magnesium carbonate powder, MgCO3, is reacted with 100 cm3 of a 1 mol dm-3
sulphuric acid H2SO4 , What is the mass of magnesium sulphate formed?
[Relative atomic mass : Mg =24, O=16, S = 32 ]

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
SALT
3. 0.12 g of magnesium reacts with excess hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas. Given
that the relative molecular mass of H=1, Mg = 24, CI =35.5 and 1 mol of gas occupies 24
dm3 at room temperature and pressure.
Fnd the (a) mass of salt formed (b) volume of gas produced

Example 2 : A sample of insoluble lead (II) sulphate is prepared by mixing 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3
lead (II) nitrate solution and y cm 3 of 1.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.
[Relative atomic mass: O, 16 ; S, 32 ; Pb, 207]

(a) Calculate the volume, y, of the sulphuric acid needed to react completely with the
lead (II) nitrate solution.

Solution :
Chemical equation : Pb(NO3)2 + H2SO4  PbSO4 + 2 HNO3
Mole ratio : 1 mole 1 mole 1 mole 2 mole

Number of moles of Pb(NO3)2 = 1.0 x 50 = 0.05 mol
1000

Mole ratio of Pb(NO3)2 : H2SO4 = 1 : 1

∴ Number of mole of H2SO4 reacted = 0.05 mol
1.5 x y = 0.05 mole
1000
y = 0.05 x 1000 = 33.33 cm3
1.5

(b) Calculate the mass of lead (II) sulphate obtained.

Solution :
Number of mole of PbSO4 = Number of moles of Pb(NO3)2 = 0.05 mol
Mass of PbSO4 = 0.05 x (207 + 32 + 4 x 16) g
= 15.15 g

Question

4. A sample of insoluble silver chloride is prepared by mixing 50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 silver nitrate
solution and z cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm −3 sodium chloride solution.
[Relative atomic mass: Ag 108; Cl 35.5]

(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between silver nitrate and sodium chloride.

(b) Calculate the volume, z, of the sodium chloride needed to react completely with the silver
nitrate solution.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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(c) Calculate the mass of silver chloride obtained.

B. SYNTHESISING QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SALTS

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• state the meaning of qualitative analysis,
• make inferences on salts based on their colour and solubility in water,
• describe tests for the identification of gases,
• describe the action of heat on salts,
• describe the tests for anions,
• state observation of reaction of cations with sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia
solution,
• describe confirmatory tests for Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+ and NH4+,

Activity 10 : Qualitative Analysis

1. Qualtitative analysis of a salt is a chemical technique used to identify the …….. that are
present in a salt by analysing its ………………. and ……………………. properties.

2. Make inferences on the following substances based on their colour: (use formula of substance
when writing your answer. Make it is correct!)

Colour (solid or solution) Substance or cation or anion
Green powder Salt: Cation
Blue powder Cation:
Brown powder Cation:
Black powder Two metal oxides:
Yellow powder when hot and white when
cold
Brown powder when hot and yellow when
cold
Blue solution Cation:
Pale green solution Cation:
Brown solution Cation:
Solid : White 6 cations :
Solution : colourless
Solid : White 4 anions :
Solution : colourless

3. Complete the following table

Salts Solubility in water Colour

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
SALT
Insoluble white
Copper(II) carbonate
Iron(II) sulphate
Soluble Brown
Lead(II) sulphate
Magnesium carbonate
Zinc chloride
Ammonium carbonate
Insoluble Yellow

Activity 11 : Confirmatory Tests for gases,

Tests For Gases Complete the observation for the confirmatory test for gases

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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Gas Method Diagram Observation
Carbon Bubble the gas produced into lime
dioxide water
Heating
Carbonate
salts

Oxygen Insert a glowing splinter into the
test tube

Nitrogen Observe the colour of gas
dioxide produced. Bring a piece of moist
blue litmus paper to the mouth of
the test tube

Chlorine Observe the colour of the gas.
Bring a piece of moist blue litmus
paper to the mouth of the test tube

Ammonia Dip a glass rod into concentrated
hydrochloric acid and bring a drop
of acid to the mouth of the test
tube .
/place moist red litmus paper at
the mouth of the test tube

Bring a lighted splinter to the
Hydrogen mouth of the test tube.

Mg + HCl release
hydrogen gas

Hydrogen Dip a glass rod into concentrated
chloride ammonia solution and bring a
drop of ammonia to the mouth of
test tube

Activity 12 : Action of Heat On Carbonate Salts
Carbonate salts (except Na+ & K+ ) decompose on heating giving off carbon dioxide gas and
residue metal oxide

Metal oxideColourCopper (II)
oxideBlackZinc oxideHot: yellow ;
Cold: WhiteLead (II) oxideHot:
brown ; Cold: YellowIron(III) 15
oxideBrown
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
SALT
Lime water
turn chalky

Activity : Complete the chemical equation and observation for the action of heat on carbonate salt
Carbonate salt Action of heat
Potassium carbonate K2CO3 , Not decompose by heat
Sodium carbonate Na2CO3
Metal Carbonate  metal oxide + carbon dioxide
Calcium carbonate
CaCO3  CaO + CO2

Observation : White solid formed. Gas liberated turn
lime water chalky
Magnesium carbonate
MgCO3  ……….. .. + …. ………

Observation : ……………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………….
Aluminium carbonate
Al2(CO3)3  ……….. .. + …. ………

Observation : ……………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………….
Zinc carbonate
ZnCO3  ……….. .. + …. ………

Observation : ……………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………….
Lead(II) carbonate
PbCO3  ……….. .. + …. ………

Observation : ……………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………….
Copper(II) carbonate
CuCO3  ……….. .. + …. ………

Observation : ……………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………….

Activity 13 : Action of Heat On Nitrate Salts
Nitrates Salts - Decompose on heating liberate nitrogen dioxide gas and oxygen gas except
NaNO3 and KNO3 which liberate oxygen gas only
Brown gas turn Colourless gas
moist blue relighted glowing
litmus to red splinter (O2 )
Heat (NO2) Heat
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Activity: Complete the chemical equation and observation for the action of heat on nitrate salt
Nitrate salts Action by Heat
Metal Nitrate  metal nitrite + oxygen
Potassium nitrate
2KNO3  2 KNO2 + O2

Observation : white solid formed, gas released relighted
glowing splinter
Sodium nitrate
2NaNO3  ……….. .. + …. ………

Observation :
………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………….
Metal Nitrate  metal oxide + nitrogen dioxide + oxygen
Calcium nitrate
2Ca(NO3)2  2CaO + 4NO2 + O2

Observation : white solid formed, Brown gas which turns moist
blue litmus red released. Another gas released relighted
glowing splinter
Magnesium nitrate
Mg(NO3)2  ……….. .. + …. ……… + ……………

Observation :
………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………….
Zinc nitrate
Zn(NO3)2  ……….. .. + …. ……… + ……………

Observation :
………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………….
Lead(II) nitrate
Pb(NO3)2  ……….. .. + …. ……… + ……………

Observation :
………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………….
Copper(II) nitrate
Cu(NO3)2  ……….. .. + …. ……… + ……………

Observation :
………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………….

Activity 14 : Confirmatory Tests for Anions,

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1. Write the ionic equation for the following reactions.

Effervescence – CO2
CO3 2- + Dilute
Lime water turns milky
acid
Ionic equation : …………………………

Cl- + HNO3 White precipitate
Anions
+ AgNO3 Ionic equation : …………………………

SO4 2- + HCl White precipitate
+ BaCl2 Ionic equation : …………………………

NO3 - + dilute H2SO4 Brown ring
+ FeSO4
+ concentrated H2SO4

2. Which anion produce the following observations?
Add AgNO3 solution
a) Add BaCl2 solution b) + HNO3 acid
+ HCl acid

Inference :
Inference :

White precipitate White precipitate
formed formed

Salt K1 Salt K2

c) d)
Add FeSO4 solution Add sulphuric acid
+ concentrated sulphuric acid

Inference :
Brown ring Inference : Effervescence,
formed Gas bubbles,
Gas turn lime
water chalky

Salt K4
Salt K3

Activity 15: Reaction of Cations with alkali solution

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
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1. Positive ions are identified by their reactions with a. sodium hydroxide NaOH solution
b. Ammonia solution NH3
2. In these reactions, the cations (positive metal ions) produce different coloured precipitate which
may or may not be soluble in excess alkali
5 drops of alkali
(NaOH or NH3)

See if
Look for Solution of Precipitate
precipitate
cations dissolves

Q1 State whether each of the following precipitate is soluble or insoluble in excess alkali.

NaOH solution Ammonia Solution NH3
A little In excess A little In excess
Soluble ( √, Soluble ( √, X )
X)
Ca2+ White precipitate No change
Zn2+ White precipitate White precipitate
Al 3+ White precipitate White precipitate
Pb 2+ White precipitate White precipitate
Mg2+ White precipitate White precipitate
Cu 2+ Blue precipitate Blue precipitate
Fe 2+ Green precipitate Green precipitate
Fe 3+ Brown precipitate Brown precipitate

Q2 Which anion produces the following observations?
Add 5 drops of NaOH solution Add excess NaOH solution
a)
Inference 2 :
No white precipitate White precipitate
formed , when heated Dissolves in excess
Alkali gas released NaOH solution
(ammonia) released White precipitate alkali
formed
Inference 1 Inference 3:
White precipitate
does not dissolve in
excess NaOH
Salt K5 solution

b) Add 5 drops of NH3 solution
Add NH3 solution in excess

Inference5 :
No White White precipitate
precipitate Dissolve in excess
formed White precipitate NH3 solution
formed
Inference 4 White precipitate
does not dissolve in Inference 6:
excess NH3
solution
Salt K6
Activity 16 : Confirmatory Tests for Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+ and NH4+

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(A) The table shows how confirmatory tests are conducted for ammonium ion, NH4+ , Iron(II) ion,
Fe2+ , Iron(III) ion, Fe3+ , and lead(II) ion, Pb2+ . Complete the confirmatory tests and observation.

Cation Name of Reagent Observation

Add a few drops of …………………… ……………… precipitate is formed
to the test tube containing 2 cm3 of
Pb 2+
lead(II) nitrate solution ( Pb 2+ ions) which ………………..in the hot water
Add 2 cm3 of distilled water and boil
the mixture. Cool the contents using and is ……………… on cooling
running water from the tap.
Add a few drops of Potassium
Fe2+ hexacyanoferrate(III) solution to the ……………….. precipitate is formed
test tube containing 2 cm3 of iron(II)
sulphate solution ( Fe 2+ ions)
Add a few drops of potassium
Fe 3+ thiocyanate solution to the test tube ……………….. solution is formed
containing 2 cm3 of iron(III) sulphate
solution ( Fe 3+ ions)
+
NH 4
Add a few drops of …………………… ……………….. precipitate is formed
to the test tube containing 2 cm3 of
+
ammonium chloride solution ( NH 4
ions)

The diagram below shows the flow chart for the chemical test of Fe2+ ions and Fe3+ ions.

Test I
Potassium Light blue Fe2+ ions
Solution hexacyanoferrate(II) precipitate
contains K4Fe(CN)6
Fe2+ ions or
Fe3+ ions. Dark blue
precipitate Fe3+ ions
Test II
Potassium
Solution thiocyanate No change Fe2+ ions
contains KSCN
Fe2+ ions or
Fe3+ ions. Blood red Fe3+ ions
solution

Based on the flow chart, explain how to differentiate Fe2+ ions and Fe3+ ions.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Activity 17 : Qualitative analysis to identify salts

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(A). Identify the salt S1
The following tests were carried out to identify salt S1. Based on the observations given for
each test, state its inference. Finally, identify salt S1

Test Observation Inference
1. Heat S1 strongly in a test Brown gas and a gas
tube. Identify any gas relights a glowing splinter
liberated. are liberated.
Residue is brown when hot
and yellow when cold
2. Dissolve a spatulaful of Residue dissolve in acid to
S1 in distilled water. produce colourless
Divide into four portions and solution
carry out the following tests:
(a) add NaOH solution until White precipitate, dissolve
excess. in excess NaOH solution
(b) add NH 3 solution until White precipitate, insoluble
excess in excess ammonia
solution
(c) add potassium iodide Yellow precipitate formed
solution
(d) add dilute H 2 SO 4 ,
followed by FeSO 4
solution. Carefully add about
Brown ring formed
1 cm 3 of concentrated
H 2 SO 4

(A). Conclusion for salt S1 : …………………………………………………………………….

(B). Identify the salt S2
The following tests were carried out on an aqueous solution of salt S2. Based on the
observations given for each test, state its inference. Finally, identify salt S2.

Test Observation Inference
1. Pour about 2 cm 3 of S2 White precipitate,
into a test tube. Add dissolve in excess
NaOH solution until excess NaOH solution
2. Pour about 2 cm 3 of S2 White precipitate,
into a test tube. Add dissolve in excess
NH 3 solution until excess ammonia solution
3. Pour about 2 cm 3 of S2 into a test No change
tube. Add dilute HNO 3 , followed
by silver nitrate, AgNO 3 solution
4. Pour about 2 cm 3 of S2 into a test White precipitate
tube. Add dilute HCl solution,
then add BaCl2 solution

(B). Conclusion for salt S2 : ……………………………………………………………………..

Activity 18 : plan qualitative analysis to identify anions

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Rajoo works in a laboratory. He noticed that there are two large bottles. However both the labels
have fallen off. He found four labels beside the bottles. i.e ‘Sodium Chloride Solution’, ‘Sodium
Carbonate Solution’, ‘Sodium Sulphate Solution’ and ‘Sodium Nitrate Solution’. So he has to carry
out confirmatory test to identify the anions in both the solutions.

Complete the graphic organizers describing four tests and their results. The charts can then be
used by Rajoo to distinguish which bottle contains which solution.

CHART A: SODIUM CARBONATE AND SODIUM NITRATE

Test 1
Add dilute HNO3
Result 1 (or any dilute acid) Result 1

Test 2
Add dilute H2SO4
Result 2 Result 2
followed by …………
SODIUM CARBONATE

solution. SODIUM NITRATE
Carefully add 1 cm3 of
……………………
H2SO4

Test 3
Add dilute HNO3,
Result 3 followed by Result 3
……………
…………., solution

Test 4
Add dilute HCl,
followed by
Result 4 …………… Result 4

……………. solution

CHART B: SODIUM CHLORIDE AND SODIUM SULPHATE
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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 CHAPTER 8:
SALT

Test 1
Add dilute HNO3
Result 1 (or any dilute acid) Result 1

Test 2
Add dilute H2SO4
Result 2 Result 2
followed by …………

SODIUM SULPHATE
SODIUM CHLORIDE

solution.
Carefully add 1 cm3 of
……………………
H2SO4

Test 3
Add dilute HNO3,
Result 3 followed by Result 3
……………
…………., solution

Test 4
Add dilute HCl,
followed by
Result 4 …………… Result 4

……………. solution

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