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1. Why was the study done? What questions were the authors investigating?
2. What type of study was done? How do you know?
Is this design appropriate? Why or why not?
3. What are the study characteristics? Patients:
or number of true positive. false positives. Are the results valid? Was there opportunity for bias? What effect would bias have? Are there specified inclusion/ exclusion criteria? Is there an explicit description of study subjects? Is an appropriate spectrum of consecutive patients who would normally be tested for the disorder of interest and whose disease status is not known included? Is an appropriate ‘gold standard’ reference test used? Are all participants are assessed with both study test and reference standard test? Are assessments of test outcomes are independent and assessors blind to result of other test? Are both sensitivity and specificity. protocols involved. What are the results? 6. definitions used. etc? . true negatives and false negatives reported? 5.4. Will the results help you to care for your patients? Similar patient population.