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©irst of all thanks to Allah Almighty who has given human beings brilliant
minds and made us the crown of the creation.

Secondly, we would like to honor our respected sir Akhtar Khurshid for his
advice and encouragement in making this project. We would also like to thank
him for always being available for our guidance and help inside and outside
the class.

©inally, we would like to thanks our parents for their love. We would also
like to acknowledge with appreciation of their support in our studies.

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An Õ   Õ  is a safety system on motor vehicles
which prevents the wheels from locking while braking.

The Anti-lock Braking System is designed to maintain vehicle control,
directional stability and optimum deceleration under severe braking conditions on
most road surfaces

It does so by monitoring the rotational speed of each wheel and controlling
the brake line pressure to each wheel during braking. This prevents the wheels
from locking up.

A rotating road wheel allows the driver to maintain steering control under
heavy braking.


c m Anti-lock braking systems were first developed for aircraft, by Gabriel Voisin.

Dunlop's Maxaret introduced a system and still in use on some aircraft

c A fully mechanical system used in the ©erguson P99 racing car, the Jensen ©©
and the ©ord Zodiac, but saw no further use; the system proved expensive and, in
automobile use, somewhat unreliable.

c Å Limited form of ABS in Austin 1800, utilizing a valve which could adjust front
to rear brake force distribution when a wheel locked.

c c Chrysler and Bendix Corporation introduced imperial called "Sure Brake".

c c ABS Systems based Mercedes design were later introduced on other cars.

©ord also introduced ABS on the Lincoln Continental Mark III and the ©ord
LTD station wagon, called "Sure Trak͟

c Bosch and Mercedes-Benz introduced the first completely electronic 4-

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Anti-lock Braking System ‘ m c ‘

wheel multi-channel ABS system in trucks and the Mercedes-Benz S-Class.

c BMW became the world's first motorcycle manufacturer to introduce an
electronic/hydraulic ABS system, this on their BMW K100.

c m Honda launched its first ABS system, this on the ST1100 Pan European.

c Suzuki launched its GS©1200SA (Bandit) with ABS.

Today ABS has become standard equipment even for small cars.

{ Õ 
The basic design of a braking system has been around and in use in other
applications for many years. The brakes in a car use the simple principle of
hydraulics. This principle reduces the amount of work required by the user. ©igure
below illustrates the basic design of a modern braking system.

©igure: Basic braking system design

The problem with the traditional braking system is that the force exerted by
the brakes on the wheel cannot exceed the force of friction between the wheel
and the road. If the braking force exceeds the force of friction from the road the
vehicle will begin to slide. This problem brought about the invention of the anti- 

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Anti-lock Braking System ‘ m c ‘

locking breaking system (ABS). The ABS detects drastic changes in the speed of
the wheels. When a sharp deceleration is detected the ABS will reduce the
hydraulic pressure supplied to the braking system until the wheel begins to
accelerate again. When the acceleration is detected the pressure is again
increased until an unusual amount of deceleration is detected. The process is
repeated until the user removes their foot from the brake pedal or the vehicle
comes to a complete stop.

‘ Õ   
 Õ  Õ

The ABS consists of speed sensors, valves, a pump, and a controller. The
location of these devices within a vehicle is shown in figure below:

©igure: Anti-Lock Braking System Design
The speed sensor is used to determine the acceleration
or deceleration of the wheel. A picture of this sensor is
shown in figure right: 

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These sensors use a magnet and a coil of wire to generate a signal. The
rotation of the wheel or differential induces a magnetic field around the sensor.
The fluctuations of this magnetic field generate a voltage into the sensor. A
schematic of this system is shown in figure below. The ABS controller interprets
this signal.

©igure: Speed Sensor Schematic

Since the voltage inducted on the sensor is a result of the rotating wheel, this
sensor can become inaccurate at slow speeds. The slower rotation of the wheel
can cause inaccurate fluctuations in the magnetic field and thus cause inaccurate
readings to the controller.

The valves within an ABS serve three distinct functions. The first function of
the valves is to open and allow the hydraulic fluid from the brake pedal or the
pump to reach the braking system. The second function of the valves is to
maintain the current pressure provided to the braking system. This is
accomplished by closing the valve to resist further pressure from the brake
pedal. The third function of these valves is to reduce the amount of hydraulic
pressure at the braking system. This is accomplished by opening the valves to
allow the hydraulic fluid to be released from the braking system. A picture of a
standard ABS valve and pumping system is show in figure below.

The majority of problems with the valve system occur due to clogged
valves. When a valve is clogged it is unable to open, close, or change position. 

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An inoperable valve will prevent the system from modulating the valves and
controlling pressure supplied to the brakes.

©igure: ABS Valves and Pumping System
The pump in the ABS is used to restore the pressure to the hydraulic brakes
after the valves have released it. A signal from the controller will release the valve
at the detection of wheel slip. After a valve release the pressure supplied from the
user, the pump is used to restore a desired amount of pressure to the braking
system. The controller will modulate the pumps status in order to provide the
desire amount of pressure and reduce slipping. A picture of the pumping system
is shown in figure above.

Similar to the valves, the major limitation or mode of failure is due to blockage
within the pump. A blockage within the pump will prevent the pump from
supplying the correct pressure to the pumping systemב

The entire system is observed and manipulated by the ABS controller. A
detailed control system used in ABS is shown in figure below. 

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©igure: ABS Control System

‘ Õ
{ Õ 
Õ  Õ 

The parts described above produce the control loop shown in figure below:

©igure: Control Loop Described in the Background Section

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©or the purpose of the analysis the pump and valves will be combined in
the system to form the actuator and the controller will be modified to a P, PD, or
a PID controller. The control loop shown in figure below will be used for the
remainder of the analysis.

©igure: Control Loop Evaluated for the ABS

The basic equation of rotational motion will be used to evaluate the plant.
This formula is shown below in Equation 1.

Where J is the moment of inertia of tire about the axis of rotation
‘‘ ‘   is the angular acceleration of the tire
  is the angular velocity of the tire
b is the rotational damping of the tire (bearings).
©or the purpose of this analysis the values below will be used:

Tire Weight = 75 Kg
Tire Radius = 33 cm
©rom these values the moment of inertia is calculated to be J = 4.1 Kg*m^2.
Since the wheel has bearing and the bearings are well lubricated the assumption
is that the rotational damping factor is b = 1. Equation 2, Equation 3, and Equation
4 show how the equation above is converted into a transfer function with the
appropriate J, b, and   (0) values.

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Anti-lock Braking System ‘ m c ‘

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Where   (0) is the initial angular velocity

The valves and pumping system are combined in this analysis to represent
the actuator. The actuator can be modeled as a servo system. The servo system
has the transfer function shown in Equation 5.

The same values used to define Equation 4 are valid for Equation 5.
Equation 6 is the servo motor transfer function with the appropriate values for
the rotational damping and the moment of inertia.

The sensor used for the ABS application converts the velocity of the
rotating wheel into a voltage. This application can be modeled as a tachometer.
Equation 7 is the transfer function of a tachometer.

The new control loop obtained from the transfer functions above is shown
in figure below.

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©igure: ABS Control Loop Including System Transfer ©unctions

The controller in the revised control loop is then tested under P, PD, and
PID control. In the analysis the gain of the sensor (Ktach) is assumed to be 25. This
assumption is based on the fact that the voltage produced by the sensor is small.
The controller will require a higher voltage signal in order to receive the
information from the sensor. Therefore the voltage from the sensor must be
amplified and thus the gain is high. The gain of the actuator (Kact) is assumed to
be 0.25 in the controller analysis. This is due to the high pressures of the hydraulic
system. The valve and pumping system will not have to do much work in order to
achieve the desired pressures at the braking system.

The results of the P control analysis are shown in figures below. In first
figure the proportional gain (Kp) is 1000 and the transfer function shown in
Equation 8 is used. In latter figure the proportional gain (Kp) is 1 and the transfer
function shown in Equation 9 is used. As seen in the graphs, the braking effects
are liner with a higher proportional gain. When Kp is reduced the braking pattern
is non-linear. The non-linear results are due to slipping.

©igure in next page:

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Anti-lock Braking System ‘ m c ‘

©igure: ABS Proportional Control w/ Kp = 1000

©igure: ABS Proportional Control w/ Kp = 1

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The results of the PD control analysis are shown in figure below and the
results of the PID control analysis are shown in last figure. These graphs show that
linear braking can be achieved through the use of PD and PID control.

©igure: ABS Proportional and Derivative Control

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©igure: ABS Proportional, Derivative, and Integral Control


The control analysis shows that a proportional (P), proportional / derivative
(PD), and the proportional / Integral / Derivative (PID) is able to control the ABS.
Since all of the control systems will achieve the desired results, the best design
must be determined by another method. Since the proportional control is the
least complex, the ABS controller should use this method. The ABS is responsible
for preventing car accidents and personal injury. A simplified system should
reduce the complexity, cost, as well as increase the easy of serviceability.

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Online resources for ͞ABS Braking Systems͟
Georgia Institute of Technology
George W. Woodruff School of Technology

Article ͞Introduction and History͟

Motorola for the article ͞Anti-Lock Braking Systems͟

Controls Tutorial for Matlab

How Stuff Works for the article ‘

Magneto-Resistive Wheel Speed Sensors, ͞New ͞Active͟ Wheel Speed Sensors
Changing ABS Diagnostic Procedures͟, David W. Gilbert.

Heavy Truck Pneumatic Braking System Modeling, ͞Analysis and Anti-lock Braking
Robust Controller Design͟, Prof. Umit Ozgumer.

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