Columbia University

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Columbia University in the City of New York

Motto

In lumine Tuo videbimus lumen (Latin)

Motto in English

In Thy light shall we see light (Psalm 36:9)

Established

1754

Type

Private

Endowment

US $6.5 billion[1]

President

Lee C. Bollinger

Academic staff

3,566[2]

Students

26,399[3]

Undergraduates

7,169[3]

Postgraduates

17,065[3]

Location

New York, N.Y.

Campus

Total, 299 acres (1.23 km²)

Newspaper

Columbia Daily Spectator

Colors

Columbia blue and White

Nickname

Columbia Lions

Athletics

NCAA Division I FCS, Ivy League 29 sports teams

Affiliations

MAISA; AAU

Website

www.columbia.edu

Columbia University in the City of New York (Columbia University) is a private researchuniversity in New York City and a member of the Ivy League. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States,[4] and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution. It was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, and is one of only three United States universities to have been founded under such authority. Columbia annually administers the American literary award, the Pulitzer Prize, and is one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities. More Nobel Prize laureates have been affiliated with Columbia than with any other institution in the world. Columbia is ranked in the first tier of the nation's top universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance, which takes into account total research, federal research, endowment assets, annual giving, National Academy members, faculty awards, doctorates granted, postdoctoral appointees, and undergraduate SAT/ACT range.[5] The University currently operates four global centers overseas in Amman, Jordan; Beijing, China; Paris, France; and Mumbai, India. Notable alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States; four United States Presidents, including the incumbent; nine Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States; 26 foreign heads of state; 97 Nobel Prize winners, the most of any university; 101Pulitzer Prize winners, the most of any university;[6] 25 Academy Award winners garnering over a combined 30 Oscars, the

most of any university;[7] more than 30 alumni and ten affiliate recipients of the National Medal of Science; and 50 recipients of the MacArthur Genius Award. Columbia is currently home to nine Nobel Laureates, 30 recipients of the MacArthur Genius Award, four recipients of the National Medal of Science, 143 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 38 members of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 20 members of the National Academy of Engineering, and 43 members of theNational Academy of Sciences.[8][9]
Contents
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1 History 1.1 King's College: 1754–1784 1.2 Early Columbia College: 1784–1857 1.3 Expansion and the move to Madison Avenue 1.4 Morningside Heights 1.5 Manhattanville campus expansion 2 Academics 2.1 Admissions and financial aid 2.2 Organization 2.3 Rankings 3 Campus 3.1 Morningside Heights 3.2 University Hospital 3.3 Other campuses 4 Student life 4.1 Housing 4.2 Campus Organizations

   o o o o o

4.2.1 Publications 4.2.2 Broadcasting 4.2.3 Speech and debate 4.3 Greek life 4.4 Technology and entrepreneurship 4.5 Athletics 4.6 World Leaders Forum 4.7 Other

4 ROTC ban 6 Traditions 6.1 Alumni and famous past students 8.2 Tree-Lighting and Yule Log ceremonies 6.1 Protests of 1968 5. and in 1896 it was further renamed Columbia University. King's College was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Founded and chartered as King's College in 1754.2 Protests against racism and apartheid 5.2 Faculty and affiliates 9 In geography 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links [edit]History Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in the state of New York. Columbia has grown over time to encompass twenty schools and affiliated institutions.1 Orgo Night 6. [edit]King's College: 1754–1784 . Columbia is the sixth-oldest such institution in the United States (by date of founding. fifth by date of chartering).3 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visit and speech controversy 5. The university now operates under a 1787 charter that places the institution under a private board of trustees. After the American Revolutionary War.• o o o o • o o o • • o o • • • • • 5 Controversies and student demonstrations 5.3 The Varsity Show 7 Faculty and research 8 Notable Columbians 8.

Concerns arose both because it was founded by "newlight" Presbyterians influenced by the evangelical Great Awakening and. 1754. and in 1767 it established the first American medical school to grant the M. King's College. degree.Trinity Church schoolyard. far surpassing all other colonial colleges of the period. the first home of King's College c. as imagined in a 1954 illustration created for Columbia's bicentennial. A few months later. 1754 in Trinity Church yard. In 1760. Classes began on July 17. such as the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Secretary of State for the Colonies.D. because it provoked fears of New York developing a cultural and intellectual inferiority. first president of King's College Controversy surrounded the founding of the new college in New York. when local graduates of Yale and members of the congregation of Trinity Church (then Church of England. Fears of the establishment of a Church of England episcopacy and of Crown influence in America through King's College were underpinned by its vast wealth. King's College moved to its own building at Park Place. Great Britain's King George II officially granted a royal charter for the college. and elected as its first president Samuel Johnson. as it was located in the province just across the Hudson River. near the present City Hall. now Episcopal) in New York City became alarmed by the establishment of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). Samuel Johnson. with Johnson as the sole faculty member. but serious consideration of such proposals was not entertained until the early 1750s. on October 31. as it was a thoroughly Church of England institution dominated by the influence of Crown officials in its governing body.[10] . (Columbia University Archives) Discussions regarding the foundation of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704. Dr.1755. The Rev. They established their own 'rival' institution.

that drafted the Declaration of Independence. and who later became the first Chief Justice of the United States.[11][12] Although the college had been considered a bastion of Tory sentiment. The college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and then British forces.Gouverneur Morris. Alexander Hamilton. Among the earliest students and trustees of King's College were five "founding fathers" of the United States: John Jay. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. and the first Secretary of the Treasury. the author of the final draft of the United States Constitution. a member of the Committee of Five. it nevertheless produced many key leaders of the Revolutionary generation — individuals later instrumental in the college's revival. Along with Nicholas Fish. Robert R.Alexander Hamilton (shown here as a young man) Hamilton's first experience with the military came while a student during the summer of 1775. It suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army in the spring of that year. Robert Troup. military aide to General George Washington. and Egbert Benson who represented New York in the Continental Congress and the Annapolis Convention and who was a ratifier of the United States Constitution. Livingston. Arguably the most famous King's College alumnus. after the outbreak of fighting at Boston. 1770 The American Revolution and the subsequent war were catastrophic for King's College.King's College Hall. and a group of other students . who negotiated the Treaty of Paris between the United States and Great Britain. ending the Revolutionary War. author of most of the Federalist Papers.

petitioning the Legislature of New York to "make such alterations in the Charter as the changed condition of affairs might demand. instructing Treasurer Brockholst Livingstonand Secretary Robert Harpur (who was Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at King's) to recover the books. Finally. Paul's Chapel. the remaining members of the Board of Governors of King's sought to resuscitate the college. complete with the words "Liberty or Death" on their hatbands. one of the first students enrolled in "Columbia College" After the war. only to be — after his dueling death twenty-eight years later — entombed on the site of the first home for King's College in the Trinity Church yard. the Legislature stipulated that "the College within the City of New York heretofore called King's College be forever hereafter called and known by the name of Columbia College.a. it passed "an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called King's College. and on May 1. in 1776 Captain Hamilton would engage in and survive the Battle of Harlem Heights.k. in an effort to demonstrate its support for the new Republic. 1784. 1784. They adopted distinctive uniforms. [edit]Early Columbia College: 1784–1857 DeWitt Clinton. In August 1775.from King's he joined a volunteer militia company called the "Hearts of Oak" – Hamilton achieving the rank of Lieutenant. while under fire from HMS Asia. and . records and any other assets that had been dispersed during the war. the "Corsicans") participated in a successful raid to seize cannon from the Battery. but prohibiting the College from administering any "religious test-oath" to its faculty."[14] The Act created a Board of Regents to oversee the resuscitation of King's. which took place on and around the site that would become home to his Alma Mater over a century later. giving them the power to hire a college president and appoint professors. and drilled under the watchful eye of a former British officer in the graveyard of the nearby St. the Hearts of Oak (a."[14] On May 5. the Regents held their first meeting.[13] Ironically. becoming an artillery unit thereafter." The Legislature agreed.

was beset with even more financial difficulties as hostile politicians took power and as new upstate colleges. argued for privatization of the college. George Washington. however. Samuel Johnson's son. which would only later prove lucrative. particularlyHamilton and Union. along with Duane. An expansion of the Regents to 20 New York City residents had placed Hamilton and Jay at the helm. notably. In addition. the college. Contention between . and nascent interest in legal education commenced under ProfessorJames Kent. Cochran agreed — in no small part due to the fact that DeWitt's uncle. As the state and country transitioned to a considerably more Jeffersonian era.[14] As the state proved negligent in its funding of the institution. broke off to merge with the independent College of Physicians and Surgeons. already receiving less from the state following its privatization. College Hall in 1790 For a period in the 1790s. brought his son DeWitt Clinton to New York on his way to enroll him as a student at the College of New Jersey. In 1787 a new charter was adopted for the college. What Columbia did receive was Manhattan real estate. attended the commencement of 1790. granting power to a private board of Trustees. this arrangement became increasingly unsatisfactory for both. after the legislature passed the act restoring the college. George Clinton. had recently been elected Chancellor of the College by the Regents — and DeWitt Clinton became one of nine students admitted to Columbia that year. appointing William Cochran instructor of Greek and Latin. the Regents moved quickly to rebuild Columbia's faculty. the Governor of New York. a revived Columbia thrived under the auspices of Federalists such as Hamilton and Jay.appointing a committee to supervise the repairs of the college building. William Samuel Johnson. a hero of the revolutionary war. and they. and in 1807 the medical school. When James Duane. hoping to arrest its decline. the Mayor of New York and a member of the Regents.[14] In the summer of 1784. became its president. he pleaded with Cochran to offer him admission to the reconstituted Columbia. with New York City as the federal and state capital and the country under successive Federalist governments. still in use today. Columbia's performance flagged for the remainder of the 19th century's first half. The law faculty never managed to thrive during this period. Major GeneralJames Clinton. the college's good fortunes began to dry up. heard that the younger Clinton was leaving the state for his education. The primary difficulty was funding. lobbied effectively for subsidies.

due to his Unitarian affiliation. in which students violently protested the faculty's decision not to confer a degree upon John Stevenson. The transition to the new campus coincided with a new outlook for the college. during the commencement of that year. By July. the country's first such institution and the precursor to today's Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science. Columbia Law School was founded in 1858. under the leadership of President F. the institution rapidly assumed the shape of a true modern university. in an article entitled "The Recent Difficulties at Columbia College". where it remained for the next fifty years. and in 1864 theSchool of Mines. Though the college was finally able to shake its embarrassing reputation for structural shabbiness by adding several wings to College Hall and refinishing it in the more fashionable Greek Revival style. noted that the school was "good in classics" yet "weak in sciences". was established.P.students and faculty were highlighted by the "Riotous Commencement" of 1811. who had inserted objectionable words into his commencement speech. established by the eponymous .[15] [edit]Expansion and the move to Madison Avenue The Gothic Revival Law School building on the Madison Avenue campus In 1857. including frustrated diarist and trusteeGeorge Templeton Strong. The event demonstrated to many. the College moved from Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue. in which famed chemistry professor Oliver Wolcott Gibbs was denied a professorship at the college. from which he had graduated. and was soon overshadowed by the Gibbs Affair of 1854. the narrow-mindedness of the institution. and had "very few distinguished graduates". During the last half of the nineteenth century. College President Charles King proclaimed Columbia "a university".A. Barnard College for women. Barnard. the effort failed to halt Columbia's longterm downturn. 1854 the Christian Examiner of Boston.

with the creation of the baseball team in 1867. The site was formerly occupied by the Bloomingdale Lunatic Asylum. The first intercollegiate Columbia football game was a 6–3 loss to Rutgers. Columbia University in 1893. the trustees officially authorized the use of yet another new name. It currently houses the offices of the President . and Pure Science awarded its first PhD in 1875. university president Seth Low moved the campus again. still stands today.[17] [edit]Morningside Heights Development of the Morningside Heights campus by 1915 In 1896. more rural) campus in the developing neighborhood of Morningside Heights. Engineering and Chemistry.[15][16] This period also witnessed the inauguration of Columbia's participation in intercollegiate sports." At the same time. Columbia University. the engineering school was renamed the "School of Mines. the building is still referred to as "Low Library" although it has not functioned as a library since 1934. from 49th Street to its present location. the administrative center of Columbia University The building often depicted as emblematic of Columbia is the centerpiece of the Morningside Heights campus. Philosophy. the organization of the football team in 1870. in 1877. was established in 1889. and today the institution is officially known as "Columbia University in the City of New York. followed by Teachers College.Columbia president. TheColumbia Daily Spectator began publication during this period as well. the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons came under the aegis of the university in 1891.[18] Trustees Room in Low Memorial Library. a more spacious (and. Constructed in 1895. Low Memorial Library. One of the asylum's buildings. The Graduate Faculties in Political Science. the warden's cottage (later known as East Hall and Buell Hall). at the time." Additionally. and the creation of a crewteam by 1873.

Nicholas Murray Butler. deans. Columbia University.[19] Rotunda of Low Memorial Library. Patterned loosely on the Classical Pantheon. and secretaries. Butler went on to serve as president of Columbia for over four decades and became a giant in American public life (as one-time vice presidential candidate and a Nobel Laureate). . circa 1900–1910. the Visitor's Center. and the College of Physicians & Surgeons. On the Morningside Heights campus. His introduction of "downtown" business practices in university administration led to innovations in internal reforms such as the centralization of academic affairs. provosts. the Graduate Faculties. Columbia centralized on a single campus the College. as well as the formation of a professionalized university bureaucracy. the Trustees' Room and Columbia Security. The building was later converted to administrative use and the rotunda became a ceremonial space. the School of Law.and Provost. Under the leadership of Low's successor. the direct appointment of registrars. unprecedented among American universities at the time. it is surmounted by the largest all-granite dome in the United States. the School of Mines (predecessor of the Engineering School). setting the "multiversity" model that later universities would adopt. Columbia rapidly became the nation's major institution for research.

historical. and the School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery. The school is the administrator of the Pulitzer Prize and the duPont-Columbia Award in broadcast journalism. Courses in Extension Teaching eventually give rise to the Columbia Writing Program. In 1904 Columbia organized adult education classes into a formal program called Extension Teaching (later renamed University Extension). and to promote and encourage the publication of literary works embodying original research in such subjects." Among its publications are The Columbia Encyclopedia. . literary. Uris Hall houses the Columbia Business School. first published in 1935. first published in 1952. scientific and other subjects. In 1902. New York newspaper magnate Joseph Pulitzer donated a substantial sum to the university for the founding of a school to teach journalism. The result was the 1912 opening of theGraduate School of Journalism—the only journalism school in the Ivy League. the Columbia Business School.One of the earliest logos of Columbia University Press In 1893 the Columbia University Press was founded to "promote the study of economic. and The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World.

During the first half of the 20th Century Columbia and Harvard University had the largest endowments in the United States. Dwight Eisenhowerserved as Columbia's president from 1948 until he became the President of the United States in 1953. Charles Evans Hughes and Harlan Fiske Stone (who also held the position of Law School dean). a Columbia student could study with the likes of Jacques Barzun. served successively as Chief Justices of the United States. from a 1902 poster By the late 1930s. The university's graduates during this time were equally accomplished—for example. Rabi. I. Lionel Trilling. two alumni of Columbia's Law School. Mark Van Doren. Archetypal Columbia man. Paul Lazarsfeld. and I. .Columbia Business School was added in the early 20th century.

the School was renamed the School of International and Public Affairs(SIPA).S. Dunning. SIPA inaugurated its first doctoral program — the interdisciplinary Ph. Research into the atom by faculty members John R. in 2004. the School of General Studies first granted the B. SEAS. Enrico Fermi and Polykarp Kuschplaced Columbia's Physics Department in the international spotlight in the 1940s after the first nuclear pile was built to start what became theManhattan Project. degree in 1968 and is now considered one of the three colleges of Columbia University (CC. degree since 1921. in Sustainable Development. the school began by offering the Master of International Affairs. the School added the Master of Public Administrationdegree in 1977. to meet the needs of GIs returning from World War II. The School introduced an MPA in Environmental Science and Policy in 2001 and. To satisfy an increasing desire for skilled public service professionals at home and abroad. In 1947. I. GS).A. Focusing on developing diplomats and foreign affairs specialists. In 1981.D. Rabi. the School of International Affairs was founded in 1946.The Thinker by Auguste Rodin. While the former university extension had granted the B. I. . University Extension was reorganized as an undergraduate college and designated the Columbia University School of General Studies.[20] Following the end of World War II.

Columbia College first admitted women in the fall of 1983. During the 1960s Columbia experienced large-scale student activism centering over the Vietnam War and the demand for greater student rights. in honor of Chinese businessman Z." . The fervor on campus reached a climax in the spring of 1968 when hundreds of students occupied various buildings on campus. Pro Ecclesia Dei. Y. Grayson Kirk and the establishment of the University Senate. the Columbia Engineering School was renamed the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science. and the School of International and Public Affairs. Barnard College still remains affiliated with Columbia. to merge the two schools.Earl Hall houses the chaplain's office and numerous religious and service student organizations. who gave Columbia $26 million. St.[21] In 1990 the Faculty of Arts & Sciences was created. The incident forced the resignation of Columbia's then President. an all female institution affiliated with the University. and all Barnard graduates are issued diplomas authorized by both Columbia University and Barnard College. In 1997. the School of General Studies. Many students. Paul's Chapel of Columbia University offers sanctuary for spiritual solace on campus. led by the Students for a Democratic Society and its President Mark Rudd protested the university's ties with the defense establishment and its controversial plans to build a gym in Morningside Park. after a decade of failed negotiations with Barnard College. Fu. the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The school is popularly referred to as "SEAS" or simply "the engineering school. unifying the faculties of Columbia College.

Brain.300 would be displaced from areas surrounding it. through declaration of Manhattanville's "blighted" status.[25] On May 20. Stretching from 125th Street to 133rd Street.800. Designed by Pritzker prize winning architect Renzo Piano. critical research. the New York Public Authorities Control Board approved the Manhanttanville expansion plan. gives governmental bodies the right to appropriate private property for public use. and auxiliary services. the university had purchased more than two-thirds of the 17 acres (6. and almost 3.[23][24] Subsequent public hearings drew neighborhood opposition. 2009. where research will occur on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.000 m2) of space for the University. According to the 2006 Environmental Impact Statement certified by the Department of City Planning. The space will be used for additional teaching. except three that are historically significant. which. the 17 acres (6. and Behavior. an industrial neighborhood to the north of the Morningside Heights campus. Replacing these buildings will be 6. eliminating the existing light industry and storage warehouses.9 ha) will include more accessible pedestrian streets and additional public open spaces.[22] The $7 billion expansion plan includes demolishing all buildings. Most recently. almost 300 people would be displaced from the project zone.9 ha) sought for a new campus in Manhattanville. and relocating tenants in 132 apartments.[26] [edit]Academics [edit]Admissions and financial aid . as of December 2008. Greene Center for Mind. Community activist groups in West Harlem fought the expansion for reasons ranging from property protection and fair exchange for land.000 square feet (632.[edit]Manhattanville campus expansion As of April 2007. the new campus would house buildings for Columbia's schools of business and the arts and allow the construction of the Jerome L. the State of New York's Empire State Development Corporationapproved use of eminent domain. to residents' rights.

News & World Report. . andYale.Van Am Quad Hamilton Hall. Additionally.[31] Columbia is a racially diverse school. and Princeton. Columbia is the third most selective college in the nation.[28][29] The undergraduate yield rate exceeds 60%.3% of all undergraduates in the Class of 2013 receive financial aid.S. home of the Columbia undergraduate admissions office Columbia University's acceptance rate for the class of 2014 is 9. which factors admission and yield rates among other criteria. behind Yale and Caltech and tied with Harvard.[30] According to the 2011 college selectivity ranking by U.16%. 50.[27] making Columbia the fifth most selective college in the United States by admission rate behind Harvard. with approximately 52% of all students identifying themselves as persons of color. Princeton. Stanford.MIT.

The policy change will make Columbia one of the last major academic institutions and the last Ivy Leagueuniversity to switch to the common application.[32] On April 11.or part-time. However. The University is able to extend financial aid offerings to more students. and other fees.The average financial aid package for these students exceeds $30.000. Columbia now has one of the most comprehensive financial aid policies among the nation's colleges and universities.000 are not expected to pay tuition. transfer students. The donation is among the largest single gifts to higher education. [34] Undergraduate students in Columbia College and the School of Engineering and Applied Science with family income under $60. admissions to Columbia's undergraduate colleges Columbia College and the School of Engineering and Applied Science will accept the Common Application. however. Columbia University announced a $400m to $600m donation from media billionaire alumnus John Kluge[33] to be used exclusively for undergraduate financial aid. At the same time. with an average grant size of over $20. the generous donation has helped change financial aid policy at Columbia. offering the Bachelor of Science degree Columbia also is well-known for its third undergraduate institution:  The School of General Studies (GS) is for returning and nontraditional students seeking an undergraduate degree full. all students who are eligible for financial aid (regardless of income). Starting in 2010.000. will be awarded University grants. in lieu of loans. this does not apply to international students. 2007.[35] [edit]Organization Columbia has two traditional undergraduate institutions:[36]   Columbia College (CC): the liberal arts college. . board. offering the Bachelor of Arts degree The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS): the engineering and applied science school. room. Its exact value will depend on the eventual value of Kluge's estate at the time of his death. visiting students nor students from the School of General Studies. offering both Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees.

DrPH. Columbia University Columbia's Graduate and Professional school of Education. Columbia's core undergraduate colleges Rotunda in Low Library Columbia also has a number of graduate and professional schools. and JSD degrees Columbia Business School (CBS): offers the MBA and PhD degrees Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons (P&S): offers the MD degree and MS in Nutrition    Columbia University College of Dental Medicine: offers the DDS degree School of Nursing: offers the BS.    Columbia Law School (CLS): offers the LLM. MS. DNP.D degrees . and Ph. and PhD degrees Mailman School of Public Health: offers the MPH.Logos of Columbia College (left) and Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (right). JD. including:  Teachers College.

and PhD degrees  School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA): offers MIA. all located nearby in Morningside Heights. and PhD degrees   Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS): offers the MA. Planning and Preservation (GSAPP): offers the MArch. Overseas Programs. offers the MA. Summer Session. English Language Programs.[37] Two affiliated institutions – Barnard College and Teachers College – are also Faculties of the University. classes for non- matriculated elective course students. the Union Theological Seminary. Barnard College. A joint undergraduate program is available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as through the Juilliard School. MS. MS. PEPM. MPA. and High School Programs. and PhD degrees  The Graduate School of Architecture. students may also pursue MS and PhD degree programs in engineering. MS. Post-baccalaureate Certificates. The university is affiliated with Teachers College. Graduate School of Journalism (J-School or CJS): founded by Joseph Pulitzer. EMPA.  Columbia University's School of Continuing Education offers MS degrees. and PhD degrees The School of the Arts (SoA): offers the MFA degree in four disciplines (film. and writing)   Columbia University School of Social Work: offers the MS and PhD degrees The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS): in addition to undergraduate studies. and the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. theater.[38] [edit]Rankings University rankings (overall) ARWU World[39] ARWU National[40] Forbes[41] QS World [42] 8 7 13 11 18 4 42 Times Higher Education[43] USNWR National University[44] WM National University [45] . visual arts.

[55] universities in the U. engineering.[52] Newsweek. 6th 3rd in the world 4th in North America 2nd Ranked by U. public affairs. law.S. education. News & World Report[61] . News & World Report[46] U.[49] Shanghai Jiao Tong University.[49] Global University Ranking.[57] [58][59] QS Global 200 Business Schools Report[60] U.S. News & World Report [47] Times Higher Education World University Rankings[48] QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings)[48] Shanghai Jiao Tong University. medicine. and others are widely regarded.Program Columbia College & School of Engineering (Undergraduate) Columbia College & School of Engineering (Undergraduate) Columbia Ranking 4th overall 3rd in selectivity among national universities 18th among world universities (2010) 11th among world universities (2010) 8th among world universities 7th in America 4th among world universities 8th overall 7th among best value private schools 6th Among The 25 Most Desirable Schools 3rd Among The 25 Best Schools for Future Powerbrokers 2nd in Internet Media Buzz Ranked by U.S. Columbia's graduate schools of fine arts.[50] United States National Research Council rankings Kiplinger.S.[53] Global Language Monitor. News & World Report[56] Fortune Magazine The Wall Street Journal.[51] Newsweek. Program Columbia's Graduate School of Arts Columbia Business School Columbia Business School Columbia Business School Teachers College (Columbia's Graduate School of Education) Ranking 11th overall (2011) 9th.S. business.[54] Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Tied for 1st in the First Tier among national research Center for Measuring University Performance.

Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (Columbia's Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Science) Columbia Law School College of Physicians and Surgeons (Columbia Medical School) Mailman School of Public Health The School of International and Public Affairs The School of Social Work The Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation Columbia's Graduate School of Journalism

18th 4th 10th 6th 14th(Public Affairs only) 4th 3rd 2nd

U.S. News & World Report[62] U.S. News & World Report[63] U.S. News & World Report[64] U.S. News & World Report[65] U.S. News & World Report[66][67] U.S. News & World Report[68] Architectural Record'[69] Education-Portal.com[70][71]

According to data compiled by Forbes Magazine in 2010, Columbia ranks 3rd among universities that have produced the largest number of living billionaires, surpassed only by Harvard and Stanford.[72]

[edit]Campus [edit]Morningside

Heights

Access to Columbia University is enhanced by direct subway service via the IRT 1 to 116th Street - Columbia University Station. The chief Engineer of the NYC subway, William Barclay Parsons was a Columbia graduate. Naturally, he designed a stop just outside Columbia's main campus gates.

The majority of Columbia's graduate and undergraduate studies are conducted in Morningside Heightson Seth Low's late-19th century vision of a university campus where all disciplines could be taught in one location. The campus was designed along Beaux-Arts principles by acclaimed architects McKim, Mead, and White.

Butler Library is named for former Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler.

Columbia's main campus occupies more than six city blocks, or 32 acres (13 ha), in Morningside Heights, New York City, a neighborhood that contains a number of academic institutions. The university owns over 7,800 apartments in Morningside Heights, housing faculty, graduate students, and staff. Almost two dozen undergraduate dormitories (purpose-built or converted) are located on campus or in Morningside Heights.[73] Columbia University has an extensiveunderground tunnel system more than a century old, with the oldest portions predating the present campus. Some of these remain open to students, while others are closed to the public.

Low Memorial Library

New buildings and structures on the campus, especially those built after Second World War, have often only been constructed after a contentious process often involving open debate and community protest. Often the complaints raised during periods of expansion have included issues beyond the debate over construction of designs that diverged from the original McKim, Mead, and White plan. Protests often involved complaints against the university administration. This was the case with Uris Hall, built in the 1960s and more recently with Alfred Lerner Hall, a deconstructivist structure completed in 1998 and designed by Columbia's then-Dean of Architecture, Bernard Tschumi. These same issues have surfaced in the debate over future expansion into Manhattanville.

"College Walk" provides a public path between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue, passing through the maincampus quad.

Columbia's library system includes over 10.4 million volumes, making it the fifth largest collegiate and eighth largest library system in the country.[74] Several buildings on the Morningside Heights campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Low Memorial Library, a National Historic Landmark and the centerpiece of the campus, is listed for its architectural significance. Philosophy Hall is listed as the site of the invention of FM radio. Also listed is Pupin Hall, another National Historic Landmark, which houses the physics and astronomy departments. Here the first experiments on the fission of uranium were conducted byEnrico Fermi. The uranium atom was split there ten days after the world's first atom-splitting inCopenhagen, Denmark. The name Alma Mater refers to a statue on the steps (see right) of Low Memorial Library by sculptorDaniel Chester French. There is a small owl "hidden" on the sculpture. Alma Mater is also the subject of many Columbia legends. The main legends include that the first student in the freshmen class to find the hidden owl on the statue will be valedictorian, and that any subsequent Barnard student who finds it will marry a Columbia man, given that Barnard is a women's college. Another legend exists that back-up Alma Maters are kept at the ready should need arise after one alum supposedly heard Alma Mater blow up in the 1970s. During prospective student tours, Columbia tour guides tell students to rub Alma Mater's foot, for this ensures admittance to the university. "The Steps", alternatively known as "Low Steps" or the "Urban Beach", are a popular meeting area for Columbia students. The term refers to the long series of granite steps leading from the lower part of campus (South Field) to its upper terrace. On warm days, the steps become crowded with students conversing, reading, or sunbathing. Occasionally, they play host to film screenings and concerts. The King's Crown Shakespeare Troupe annually performs an outdoor play on the steps. The design of the steps is modeled after the architecture in Raphael's "The School of Athens", a fresco in the Vatican.

and four hospitals overseas. There is a third campus on the west bank of the Hudson River. which includes the Lawrence A. wherein students can pick to live in a mix of either corridor. 20 acres (8. New York. . [edit]Student [edit]Housing life On-campus housing is guaranteed for all four years as an undergraduate. and is affiliated with nineteen other hospitals in the U.1 ha) located in the neighborhood of Washington Heights.or apartment-style housing with their friends. Columbia also owns the 26acre (11 ha) Baker Field.Panorama view of the Morningside Heights campus facing Low Memorial Library. First-year students in usually live in one of the large residence halls situated around South Lawn: Hartley Hall. Upperclassmen participate in a room selection process. According to the US News and World Reports "Americas Best Hospitals 2009". [edit]Other campuses Health-related schools are located at the Columbia University Medical Center. outdoor track and tennis. [edit]University Hospital New York-Presbyterian Hospital is affiliated with medical schools of both Columbia University and Cornell University. Columbia College and SEAS share housing in the on-campus residence halls. Columbia Medical School has a strategic partnership with New York State Psychiatric Institute.S. The Columbia University School of General Studies and graduate schools have their own apartmentstyle housing in the surrounding neighborhood. John Jay Hall. A satellite site in Paris holds classes at Reid Hall. it is ranked sixth overall and third among university hospitals. Furnald Hall or Carman Hall. fifty blocks uptown. the 157-acre (64 ha) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades. New York. at the northern tip of Manhattan island (in the neighborhood of Inwood). Wallach Hall (originally Livingston Hall). A fourth is the 60-acre (24 ha) Nevis Laboratories in Irvington. Wien Stadium as well as facilities for field sports.

[84] is a journal of undergraduate research in the social sciences. the Columbia Journal of Literary Criticism.[82] an online arts and literary magazine.[77] a journal of politics. has recently begun to delve into campus life and local politics in print and on its daily blog. The Columbia Daily Spectator is the nation's second-oldest student newspaper.[edit]Campus Organizations Undergraduate students from any of the school's three undergraduate colleges and Barnard College are allowed to join any of the over four-hundred student groups on campus recognized by the school's student government. and professional publications. Inside New York[83] is an annual guidebook to New York City.[75] and The Blue and White. The Journal of Politics & Society. Publius is an undergraduate journal of politics established in 2008 and published biannually.[79] which denotes itself as the "progressive" campus magazine and deals largely with local political issues and arts events. published and distributed nationally by the Helvidius Group. a nationally regarded literary journal. written. [edit]Publications Journalism School Building Columbia University is home to a rich diversity of undergraduate.[78] the multi-partisan political magazine of the Columbia Political Union. and AdHoc. culture and Jewish Affairs. the book is sold at major retailers and independent bookstores. the Columbia East Asia Review allows undergraduates throughout the world . dubbed the Bwog. Arts and literary publications include the Columbia Review. Columbia. Through a distribution agreement with Columbia University Press. Columbia is home to numerous undergraduate academic publications. and published by Columbia undergraduates. Political publications include The Current . theColumbia Political Review. edited.[80] the nation's oldest college literary magazine.[76] a monthly literary magazine established in 1890. [81] and The Mobius Strip. graduate.

[91] Its mission is to encourage and stimulate excellence in journalism in the service of a free society. Tibet. a biannual journal of popular philosophy produced by undergraduates. the student run radio station broadcasts to the Tri-State area and claims to be the oldest FM radio station in the world. Columbia Journalism Review is in conversation with a community of people who share a commitment to high journalistic standards in the U. WKCR. and Rhapsody in Blue.[93] a weekly live news program produced by undergraduate students. faculty profiles. Professional journals published by academic departments at Columbia University include Current Musicology[88] and The Journal of Philosophy. CJR. and commentary. giving CJR a vital presence in the ongoing conversation about the media.[87] the newly (and frequently) revived campus humor magazine both inject humor into local life. graduate students in the Journalism School publish The Bronx Beat. Other publications include The Columbian. Columbia Television (CTV)[92] is the nation's second oldest student television station and home of CTV News. from newspapers to magazines to radio. its Web site.[89] During the spring semester. analysis.[90] Columbia Journalism Review (CJR). CTV transmits a cablecast and webcast from its studio in Alfred Lerner Hall. the second oldest collegiate yearbook in the nation. delivers real-time criticism and reporting. The Fed[86] a triweekly satire and investigative newspaper. the Gadfly.S. and student research papers. a bi-weekly newspaper covering the South Bronx. The station currently has its studios on the second floor of Alfred Lerner Hall on the Morningside campus with its main transmitter tower at 4 Times Square in Midtown Manhattan. and the Jester of Columbia. . and Vietnam and is supported by the Weatherhead East Asian Institute. and commentary in the field of education. Japan. and the Columbia Science Review is a science magazine that prints general interest articles. and the world. analysis. an undergraduate urban studies magazine. Korea. a journal of research. and the Web. Founded in 1961 under the auspices of Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism.[85] is an undergraduate journal of Eastern European and Eurasian culture that is the first national student-run journal of its kind. It is both a watchdog and a friend of the press in all its forms. published continuously since 1900. WKCR-FM and CTV. [edit]Broadcasting Columbia is home to two pioneers in undergraduate student broadcasting. The magazine is published six times a year. Teachers College publishes the Teachers College Record. television. CJR examines day-to-day press performance as well as the forces that affect that performance.to publish original work on China. criticism. owing to the University's affiliation with Major Edwin Armstrong. and offers a deliberative mix of reporting.org. Both online and in print. and The Birch.

hosts speakers influential in international politics to speak on campus. Recent seminar speakers include Mark Cuban. sororities. The student-run group aims to foster entrepreneurship on campus.[96] [edit]Greek life Columbia University is home to many fraternities. and five historically black fraternities and sororities. and i-Compass. . previous sponsors include Deloitte & Touche.[95] The competitive team consistently wins best and outstanding delegation awards and is considered one of the top teams in the country.000 in seed capital. Each year CORE hosts dozens of events. making it the oldest student group at Columbia. as well as public debates on issues affecting the university. including a business plan competition and a series of seminars. trains students from underprivileged schools in New York in Model UN and oversees a competitive team. and administers the Joyce Kilmer Bad Poetry Contest (seebelow). there are thirteen NIC fraternities on the campus. As of 2006. owner of the Dallas Mavericks and Chairman of HDNet. and co-educational Greek organizations. CORE has awarded graduate and undergraduate students with over $100. Events are possible through the contributions of various private and corporate groups. The Columbia Parliamentary Debate Team. It has many famous alumni.[edit]Speech and debate The Philolexian Society is a literary and debating club founded in 1802. as well as the third oldest collegiate literary society in the country. and hosts both high school and college tournaments on Columbia's campus. Approximately 10–15% of undergraduate students are associated with Greek life. and Blake Ross. The Columbia International Relations Council and Association (CIRCA). Today.[97] There has been a Greek presence on campus since the establishment in 1836 of the Delta Chapter of Alpha Delta Phi.[94] competes in tournaments around the country as part of the American Parliamentary Debate Association. CIRCA hosts college and high school Model UN conferences. oversees Columbia's Model United Nations activities. which travels to colleges around the country and to an international conference every year.[citation needed] [edit]Technology and entrepreneurship The Columbia University Organization of Rising Entrepreneurs (CORE) was founded in 1999. Citigroup. creator of Mozilla Firefox. four NPC sororities. five multicultural Greek organizations.

The lab will support research projects on topics of content format. showing the rooftop observatory A predecessor of Facebook. was created and popularized by a Columbia engineering student Adam Goldberg in 2003. the lab will host a range of roundtable discussions between the private sector and academic institutions.[100] Their website hackny. made possible through partners such as Microsoft Corporation. CampusNetwork. the physics building.org is a huge gathering ground of ideas and discussions for New York's young entrepreneurial community. Each year. . On June 14. graduates of Columbia established over 100 technology companies. New York University. and New York City Economic Development Corporation acting to connect companies with universities in new technology research. Bloomberg launched the NYC Media Lab to promote innovations within New York's media industry. 2010.ly to facilitate the growth of student tech-startups in an effort to transform a traditionally financially-centered New York City into the next Silicon Valley. Professor Chris Wiggins of Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science is working in conjunction with Professors Evan Korth of New York University and Hilary Mason. the lab is a consortium of Columbia University. Mark Zuckerberg later asked Goldberg to join him inPalo Alto to work on Facebook[98]. SEAS' entrepreneurship activities focus on community building initiatives in New York and Worldwide. Innovation. The $250.[99] Mayor Bloomberg has provided over $6. next generation search technologies. The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science offers a minor in Technical Entrepreneurship through its Center for Technology.000 used to establish the NYC Media Lab was provided by New York City Economic Development Corporation. and Community Engagement. The Lab is modeled after similar ones at MIT and Stanford. Mayor Michael R. Columbia is a top supplier of young engineering entrepreneurs for New York City. the Silicon Alley.Pupin Hall.[101]Situated in the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. chief scientist at bit. Over the past 20 years.7 million into entrepreneurial programs that partner with Columbia and other universities in New York. while the Graduate School of Business offers a program in Entrepreneurship.

At halftime. Columbia fields varsity teams in 29 sports. and new devices development. Wien Stadium Main article: Columbia Lions A member institution of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. softball. lacrosse. Roar" each time the team scores and "Who Owns New York?" with each first down. volleyball and wrestling programs are based at the Dodge Physical Fitness Center on the main campus. One hundred blocks north of the main campus at Morningside Heights. field hockey. The basketball. Columbia University will coordinate the long-term direction of the media lab as well as the involvement of its faculty and those of other universities. At football games. soccer. the Columbia University Marching Band plays "Roar.computer animation for film and gaming. [edit]Athletics Lawrence A. Another view of Wien Stadium . fencing. "Sans Souci. track and rowing. Lion.000-seat Lawrence A. The lab will create a media research and development database. the Baker Athletics Complex also includes facilities for baseball. swimming & diving. alumni stand and sing the alma mater. emerging marketing techniques. the Columbia University fight song." Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencementand convocation and athletic games is: Colossus of Columbia. The Columbia mascot is a lion named Roar-ee. Wien Stadiumat Baker Field. tennis. The football Lions play home games at the 17.

awarded to the best collegiate woman athlete in the nation. the Men's Track Team became the first Ivy League school to win a Championship of America race at the prestigious Penn Relays since 1974 by capturing the 4x800. swimming. the 1934 squad shut out heavily favored Stanford in the Rose Bowlwinning what was the precursor to the national championship. In . N. Indoor and Outdoor Track. The team has finished no lower than fifth in the past three years.Columbia became the third school in the United States to play intercollegiate football when it sent a squad to New Brunswick. Women's Cross Country/Track and Field. with BoylanPett outkicking the anchor legs of national powerhouses Michigan. a runner-up for national assistant coach of the year while at the University of Connecticut in 2004. 5–4–1 in 1994 and 8–2 in 1996). Erison Hurtalt and Liam Boylan-Pett ran 7:22. The Lions boast a rich athletic tradition. Caroline Bierbaum. football Hall of Famer Sid Luckman and world champion women's wrestler Karyn Marshall. won the Honda award for Cross Country following a third-place finish at the NCAA meet and five All-American selections in Cross Country. winning all eight races he competed in. Under Hall of Fame coach Lou Little. That year. During the first half of the 20th century. cross country.[20] Little's 1947 edition beat defending national champion Army. Former students include baseball Hall of Famers Lou Gehrig and Eddie Collins. During World War II football players were recruited to move uranium in support of the school's participation in the Manhattan Project. fencing and wrestling. and Oral Roberts. in 1870 to play a team from Rutgers. Greats of the era included the All-American Sid Luckman. offensive lineman George Starke. in one of the most stunning upsets of the century. Olympic gold medal swimmerCristina Teuscher became the first Ivy League student to win the Honda-Broderick Cup. Rutgers and Yale to ratify the first set of rules to govern intercollegiate play. Erison Hurtault '07 completed a career sweep of the Indoor and Outdoor Ivy League 400m. the football Lions have had only three winning seasons (6–3 in 1971. and the football team was the third to join intercollegiate play. Three years later. is the latest head coach brought in to try to turn the program around. Several Lions players have gone on to success in the National Football league in the past few decades. and linebacker Marcellus Wiley. In 2007. Since sharing their only Ivy League title with Harvard in 1961. then riding a 32-game win streak.. In 2000. the quarterback who would lead the Chicago Bears to four NFL championships in the 1940s while ushering football into the modern era with the T formation. the Lions had consistent success on the gridiron. Norries Wilson. A Columbia crew was the first from outside Britain to win at the Henley Royal Regatta. Columbia students joined representatives from Princeton. The team of Michael Mark. Villanova. In 2005.J. The wrestling team is the oldest in the nation. Columbia has excelled at archery. Jonah Rathbun.[102][103] More recently.64. including quarterback John Witkowski.

2004. April 3.addition to being a nine-time Ivy League champion and All-American. Class of 2010 at Columbia Business School. Olympic silver medal fencer James L. The 1968 Ivy League championship team included future NBAplayer Jim McMillian. religion. industry. Women's Track and Field graduate and current coach Delilah DiCrescenzo has been ranked as high as 5th in the nation in the 3000m steeplechase. George Gregory. The baseball team hosted the first sporting event ever televised in the United States. running 3:58. "The Scholar's Lion".52 at the Columbia Last Chance Meet at the 168th St. In 2008. Armory. In 1999 the Columbia Daily Spectator saluted Columbia's 20 greatest athletes of the 20th century. A gift by sculptor Greg Wyatt '71.[105] [edit]World Leaders Forum Established in 2003 by current university president Lee C. including Keeth Smart. On May 17. Princeton Tigers at Columbia's Baker Field. earned the first American medals in men's fencing since 1984. the 1957 national college player of the year. Erison represented Dominica at both the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the 2009 Berlin World Championships. bringing Columbia's total number of Olympic medalists to 10. perhaps the greatest player to wear Columbia Blue was All-American Chet Forte. including Lou Gehrig. Bollinger.[104] In basketball. Williams along with three teammates. The mark is also an Ivy League indoor record. Jr. presented on Dean's Day. and academia. Sid Luckman and Marcellus Wiley. In March 2010. became the first African-American AllAmerican in 1931. Kyle Merber became the first Columbia athlete to break four minutes in the mile. 1939 fledgling NBC broadcast a doubleheader between the Columbia Lions vs. in honor of the 250th anniversary of Columbia College. finance. the World Leaders Forum at Columbia University provides the opportunity for undergraduate and graduate students alike to listen to some of the most prominent world leaders in government. .

President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov. President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai. President of the Republic of Mozambique Joaquim Alberto Chissano. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Mike Mullen. and most recently Al Gore. Prime Minister of Spain José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. India Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. Nobel LaureateMartti Ahtisaari. President Danilo Türk of Slovenia. President of Turkey Abdullah Gül.V. Iraq President Jalal Talabani. President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson of Iceland.The World Leaders Forum is a year-around event series that strive to provide a platform for uninhibited speech among nations and cultures. President Nicolas Sarkozy of France. President of the Republic of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves. President of Ghana John Agyekum Kufuor. President of the Republic of Bolivia Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert. Mayor Boris Johnson of London. President of the Republic of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga.[107] [edit]Other . Even for individuals who do not have the privilege to attend the event live. President Boris Tadic of Serbia. the 14th Dalai Lama. they can watch the forum via online videos on Columbia University's website. President Václav Klaus of the Czech Republic. while educating students about the current problems as well as progress around the globe. Mayor of New York City Michael R. Prime Minister of Portugal José Sócrates.[citation needed] Some of the invited speakers to the forum include former President Bill Clinton of the United States of America. President of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York William C. President of the Republic of Romania Ion Iliescu. former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan. President Leonel Fernández of the Dominican Republic. President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina. President of the Republic of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili. Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of AREVA Anne Lauvergeon.[106] All Columbia undergraduates and graduates as well as students of Barnard College and other Columbia affiliated schools can register to participate in the World Leaders Forum using their student IDs. Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Y. Bloomberg of New York City. first female President of FinlandTarja Halonen. CNN White House correspondent Suzanne Malveaux. President of MongoliaNambaryn Enkhbayar. Dudley. CEO of Citigroup Vikram Pandit. Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin. President Yudhoyono of Indonesia. Prime Minister of Ethiopia Meles Zenawi. Reddy.

For this reason. NOMADS (New and Original Material Authored and Directed by Students). and is the oldest continually operating university orchestra in the United States. Military Veterans of Columbia University and Advocates for Columbia ROTC. transgender. In the 2005–06 academic year. including the Columbia Players. sketch comedy group Chowdah.S. LateNite Theatre. There are a number of performing arts groups at Columbia dedicated to producing student theater.[109] Columbia University campus military groups include the U. Columbia Musical Theater Society (CMTS). Black Theatre Ensemble (BTE). (Hamilton served with George Washington during the American Revolution. was renamed the Hamilton Society for "students who aspire to serve their nation through the military in the tradition of Alexander Hamilton". King's Crown Shakespeare Troupe (KCST).[108] Undergraduate student composers at Columbia may choose to become involved with Columbia New Music. The Columbia Queer Alliance is the central Columbia student organization that represents the lesbian. the Columbia Military Society. and questioning student population. The Columbia University Marching Band. founded as the Student Homophile League in 1966 by students including lifelong activist Stephen Donaldson. Columbia's student group for ROTC cadets and Marine officer candidates. It is the oldest gay student organization in the world. and improvisational troupes Alfred and Fruit Paunch.Aerial view of Columbia University The Columbia University Orchestra was founded by composer Edward MacDowell in 1896. just as a traditional marching band would. America's first college marching band to convert to the "scramble band" format. the Band is frequently seen on campus performing as more of a humor or comedy group rather than or in addition to its role as a spirit group. gay. although it does also cheer and play songs at Columbia football and basketball games. due to both its penchant for edgy humor and its central role in campus traditions such as Orgo Night. is perhaps Columbia's most notorious student group.) . Columbia University Performing Arts League (CUPAL). which sponsors concerts of music written by undergraduate students from all of Columbia's schools.

this was seen by the protesters to be an act of aggression aimed at the black residents of neighboring Harlem. faculty.[110]Many of the university's student body and staff keep the program in operation through volunteerism. Community Impact strives to serve disadvantaged people in the Harlem. Hamilton Hall. Washington Heights.The University also houses an independent nonprofit organization. advance the public good. as well as off campus volunteers. and staff of Columbia University. The first was Columbia's proposed gymnasium in neighboring Morningside Park. Community Impact. A second issue was the Columbia administration's failure to resign its institutional membership in the Pentagon's weapons research think-tank. Students barricaded themselves inside Low Library. the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). and New York City police were called onto the campus to arrest or forcibly remove the students. and several other university buildings during the protests. and Morningside Heights communities. [edit]Controversies and student demonstrations Playwright Tony Kushner protesting at his 1978 graduation [edit]Protests of 1968 Main article: Columbia University protests of 1968 Students initiated a major demonstration in 1968 over two major issues.[111][112] [edit]Protests against racism and apartheid . Community Impact strives to provide high quality programs. and foster meaningful volunteer opportunities for students.

S.Further student protests. Trustee meetings were picketed and interrupted by demonstrations culminating in May 1978 in the takeover of the Graduate School of Business. . students marched and rallied in protest of University investments in South Africa. including hunger strike and more barricades of Hamilton Hall and the Business School[113] during the late 1970s and early 1980s.[117][118] These initial successes set a pattern which was later repeated at many more campuses across the country. University. The initial (and partial) Columbia divestment. when following a celebration of the tenth anniversary of the student uprising in 1968.[114] focused largely on bonds and financial institutions directly involved with the South African regime. A notable upsurge in the protests occurred in 1978. The Committee Against Investment in South Africa (CAISA) and numerous student groups including the Socialist Action Committee.[115] It followed a year long campaign first initiated by students who had worked together to block the appointment of former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to an endowed chair at the University in 1977. the Black Student Organization and the Gay Students group joined together and succeeded in pressing for the first partial divestment of a U.[citation needed] [edit]Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visit and speech controversy Further information: Lee Bollinger Wikinews has related news:Protests mark Ahmadinejad's visit to Columbia University Students protest Ahmadinejad's visit. resulting in the eventual divestment at hundreds of colleges and universities.[116] Broadly backed by a diverse array of student groups and many notable faculty members the Committee Against Investment in South Africa held numerous teach-ins and demonstrations through the year focused on the trustees ties to the corporations doing business with South Africa. were aimed at convincing the university trustees to divest all of the university's investments in companies that were seen as active or tacit supporters of the apartheid regime in South Africa.

but with a negative introduction (given personally by Bollinger.The School of International and Public Affairs traditionally extends invitations to many heads of state and heads of government who come to New York City for the opening of the fall session of the United Nations General Assembly. faculty.[122] [edit]ROTC ban Since 1969. during the Vietnam War. foreign policy in the Middle East.) This did not mollify those who were displeased with the fact that the Iranian leader had been invited onto the campus. we don't have homosexuals like in your country. called for research on the historical accuracy of Holocaust. The Manhattan District Attorney's Office accused Columbia of accepting grant money from the Alavi Foundation to support faculty "sympathetic" to Iran's Islamic republic.[124][125][126][127] A few undergraduate Military Science courses were taught at Columbia as late as the 1970s. defended Iran's nuclear power program.[126] [128][129] After the debate. I don't know who's told you that we have it. At a forum at the university during the 2008 presidential election campaign."[121] The latter statement drew laughter from the audience. criticizing the United Nations' policy of sanctions on his country. University President Lee Bollingertried to triangulate the controversy by letting Ahmadenijad speak. because of the military's anti-gay policies. ROTC lost the vote (which would not have been binding on the administration. Ahmadinejad criticized Israel's existence and policies towards thePalestinians. we do not have this phenomenon.S. and attacked U. and did not include graduate students. and the students who voted were almost evenly divided on the issue. In Iran.. or alumni) by a fraction of a percentage point.[120] During his speech.[119] The invitation proved to be highly controversial. even after 1969. Lee Bollinger stated that he did not favor reinstating Columbia's ROTC program. the President of the University. Ahmadinejad accepted his invitation and spoke on September 24. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was one of those invited to speak on campus. In November 2008. Thousands of demonstrators swarmed the campus on September 24 and the speech itself was televised worldwide. 2007 as part of Columbia University's World Leaders Forum. In response to a question about Iran's treatment of women and homosexuals. In 2007.. Columbia students could participate in ROTC programs at other nearby colleges and universities. the university has not allowed the US military to have Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) programs on campus. raised questions as to who initiated the 9/11 attacks. Columbia's undergraduate student body held a referendum on the question of whether or not to invite ROTC back to campus. he asserted that women are respected in Iran and that "In Iran. both John McCain and Barack Obama said that the university should consider reinstating ROTC on campus.[123] However. In April 2010 during Admiral Mike .

though vulgar. The Band tends to close their Orgo Night performances before Furnald Hall. Wallach and John Jay residence halls to entertain the residents there. The Band then plays at various other locations around Morningside Heights. [edit]Orgo Night On the day before the Organic Chemistry exam—which is often on the first day of finals—at precisely the stroke of midnight. in mockconsternation. don't tell policy were successful. known among students as the more studious and reportedly "anti-social" residence hall. The lights remain on until February 28. rain trash — including notes and course packets — and water balloons upon them from their dormitories above. see Columbia traditions. After a forty-five minutes or so of jokes and music. [edit]Traditions For more details on this topic. composed of quips that poke fun at the various stereotypes about the Columbia student body. performances by various a cappella groups. where the underclassmen in the Band serenade the graduating seniors with an entertaining. the procession then moves out to the lawn in front of Hartley. mock-hymn to Columbia. where students of the all-women's school. inaugurated in 1998. the Columbia University Marching Band occupies Butler Library to distract diligent students from studying. .Mullen's address at Columbia. presidentLee Bollinger stated that the ROTC would be readmitted to campus if the admiral's plans for revoking the don't ask. [edit]Tree-Lighting and Yule Log ceremonies College Walk is illuminated in the winter months The campus Tree-Lighting Ceremony is a relatively new tradition at Columbia. just before finals week in early December. including the residential quadrangle of Barnard College. and speeches by the university president and a guest. It celebrates the illumination of the medium-sized trees lining College Walk in front of Kent and Hamilton Halls on the east end and Dodge and Journalism Halls on the west. Students meet at the sun-dial for free hot chocolate.

I. the lighting of the Yule Log.A.[130] The ceremony is accompanied by a reading of A Visit From St. but lapsed before being revived by University President Nicholas Murray Butler in the early 20th century.[131] [edit]Faculty and research . [edit]The Varsity Show Entrance to The Miller Theatre Main article: The Varsity Show An annual musical written by and for students and is one of Columbia's oldest traditions. There is a Santa Claus by Francis Pharcellus Church (CC 1859). Virginia. where it is lit amid the singing of seasonal carols. The ceremony dates to a period prior to the Revolutionary War. and Herman Wouk. Lorenz Hart. Past writers and directors have included Columbians Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein.L. A troop of students dressed as Continental Army soldiers carry the eponymous log from the sun-dial to the lounge of John Jay Hall. Nicholas by Clement Clarke Moore(CC 1798) and Yes. Diamond. The show has one of the largest operating budgets of all University events.Immediately following the College Walk festivities is one of Columbia's older holiday traditions.

chat.Riverside Church (left). chemistry. video. It was the birthplace of FM radio and the laser. Benefix. pharmacopeia. Columbia made $178 million (compared to $24 million made by Harvard).[133] Other inventions and products related to Columbia include Sequential Lateral Solidification (SLS) technology for making LCDs.[136] In 2004. and economics. among others. Reopro (for blood clot complications). Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (which is used for audio.[134] More than 30 pharmaceutical products based on discoveries and inventions made at Columbia are on the market today. a Columbia professor of electrical engineering.[132] The MPEG-2 algorithm of transmitting high quality audio and video over limited bandwidth was developed by Dimitris Anastassiou. Latanoprost (a glaucoma treatment). homocysteine (testing for cardiovascular disease).[137] In the . Macromodel (software for computational chemistry). BiologistMartin Chalfie was the first to introduce the use ofGreen Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in labelling cells in intact organisms. as seen from Pupin Hall Columbia was the first North American site where theUranium atom was split.[135]Patent-related deals earned Columbia more than $230 million in the 2006 fiscal year.[135] Columbia's Science and Technology Ventures currently manages some 600 patents and more than 250 active license agreements. andZolinza (for cancer therapy). Xalatan (for glaucoma).[136] As of October 2009. instant messaging and whiteboarding). 95 Columbia University graduates. literature. and affiliates have been honored with Nobel Prizes for their work in physics. peace. shoulder prosthesis. a new and better recipe for glass concrete. Beamprop (used in photonics). Blue LEDs. according to the university. These include Remicade(for arthritis). System Management Arts (SMARTS).[134] Columbia scientists are credited with about 175 new inventions in the health sciences each year. medicine. faculty.

Horst Stormer (Physics. and Robert Mundell (Economics. Joseph Stiglitz(Economics. 2000). 2004). of whom nine are current faculty members while one is an adjunct senior research scientist (Daniel Tsui) and the other a Global Fellow (Kofi Annan). 20 National Academy of Engineering Award winners. Eric Kandel (Physiology/Medicine. [139] [139] 4 National Medal of Sciencerecipients. Columbia affiliates awarded the Nobel Prize in the last 10 years (1999–2009) include Barack Obama (Peace. Mather (Physics. 2009). 2006). 2005). 2006). Linda Buck (Physiology/Medicine. Edmund Phelps (Economics.[139] 43 National Academy of Sciences Award winners. Al Gore (Peace. 1998). Richard Axel. and James Heckman (Economics. 2007).[140] 38 Institute of Medicine of the National Academies Award recipients[141] and 143 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Award winners.[138] Current Columbia faculty awarded the Nobel Prize) include Martin Chalfie (Chemistry. William Standish Knowles (Chemistry. 18 Columbia affiliates have won Nobel Prizes. 2008). 2006). a Columbia graduate (Physiology/Medicine. 1999).last 12 years (1996–2008). Nobel Laureate. John C. 2000). President of the United States. 2001). Orhan Pamuk(Literature. 2001). Class of 1983 .Robert Grubbs (Chemistry. 2004). Other awards and honors won by current faculty include 30 MacArthur Foundation Award winners.[139] [edit]Notable Columbians Main articles: List of Columbia University people and List of Presidents of Columbia University [edit]Alumni and famous past students Barack Obama.

S. More than 40 U. Columbia's predecessor. and Gouverneur Morris. included Founding Fathers Alexander Hamilton. Pulitzer prizes. the most famous attendee of King's College (Columbia's progenitor) . Presidential Cabinets or as U.Four United States Presidents. and 35 U. Robert R.S. (See List of Columbia University people--National Book Awards.[142][143][144] Alumni also have received more than 22 National Book Awards and 101 Pulitzer Prizes. Alumni have founded or been the president of more than fifty-five universities and colleges in the nation and the world. two United States Senators and 16 current Chief Executives of Fortune 500 companies hold Columbia degrees. as do three of the 25 richest Americans and 16 billionaires.[145][146] Alumni of the University have served (in more than 70 positions) as members of U. John Jay. Alexander Hamilton. governors have received their education at Columbia.S. Presidential advisers. Livingston.S. Today. congresspersons. Attendees of King's College. Egbert Benson. 90 U.S.)[citation needed] Four United States Poet Laureates received their degrees from Columbia. nine Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States and 40Nobel Prize winners have studied at Columbia. senators.

Nobel Laureate. William O. President of the United States. Supreme Court Chief Justices Harlan Fiske Stone. Chief Justice John Jay and Associate JusticeSamuel Blatchford studied law at and graduated from King's .[147] TR would have graduated from Columbia in 1882 as the law school curriculum was covered in two years at that time. Columbia Law School Former U.[148] U. Charles Evans Hughes and Associate Justices Benjamin Cardozo. TR (class of 1882) and FDR (class of 1907) received posthumous law degrees from Columbia Law in 2008. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt andFranklin Delano Roosevelt attended the law school without graduating as it was common at the time for young men to enter the bar after completing only a year or two of legal education. President of the United States. andRuth Bader Ginsburg are alumni of Columbia Law School. Douglas.S.Franklin D.S. Columbia Law School Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt.

Philip Gunawardena joined Columbia in 1925 for his post-graduate studies. Tompkins. Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. respectively. degree at Columbia. . received his BA in psychology at Columbia in 1976. Abdul Zahir (Afghan Prime Minister)received his M.A. and New York governors Thomas Dewey. before the establishment of the law school. later to become U. General. Former Secretary of State Alexander Haig studied at Columbia Business School between 1954 and 1955. and Daniel D. O'Sullivan. also an unsuccessful presidential candidate. Local politicians have been no less represented at Columbia. Bhimrao Ambedkar. who served as both President of the University and Mayor of the City of New York. Other significant figures in American history to attend the university were John L. President Dwight D.College and Columbia College. one of the founding fathers of India and chief architect of itsconstitution. including Seth Low. DeWitt Clinton. Eisenhower served as President of the University.S. the journalist who coined the phrase "manifest destiny". Toomas Hendrik Ilves. from Columbia University. the President of Estonia. Jewish philanthropist Sampson Simson and progressive intellectual Randolph Bourne. having honed his debating skills in Columbia's Philolexian Society. and author John Watts de Peyster attended Columbia College and later received a M. Wellington Koo. historian. is a graduate. Hamilton Fish. Columbia Law School Former U. Alfred Thayer Mahan. Associate Justices Stanley Foreman Reed and Joseph McKennaattended Columbia Law but did not graduate. a Chinese diplomat who argued passionately against Japanese and Western imperialism in Asia at the Paris Peace Conference. Secretary of State.D. the geostrategist who wrote on the significance of sea power. Ruth Bader Ginsburg. who was a Vice President of the United States. who presided over the construction of the Erie Canal.S. as is Dr.

Founding Father. the current President of the country of Georgia. U. and economists Milton Friedman. Governor of New York David Paterson and his Chief of StaffCharles J.S. current Executive Vice-President ofBoeing James Albaugh. former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. inventor of FM radio Edwin Armstrong. Mindlin. professor and engineer Raymond D.John Jay. O'Byrne. cultural historian Jacques Barzun.George Pataki.S. architect of Manhattan Bridge Leon Moisseiff.Nur Mohammed Taraki (Prime Minister and President of . architect Santiago Calatrava. the former governor of New York State. conservative commentators Patrick J. behavioral psychologist Charles Ferster. Columbia alumni include founder of IBM Herman Hollerith. educator and founder of Harvey Mudd College Harvey Seeley Mudd. Senator Mike Gravel of Alaska. sociologists Immanuel Wallerstein and Seymour Martin Lipset. U. UN weapons inspector Hans Blix. astronaut Michael Massimino. diplomat and First Chief Justice of the United States. Buchanan.S. Senior Advisor to former U. former Afghan Finance Minister Ashraf Ghani. and Mikhail Saakashvili. former chairman of the U. inventor of nuclear submarine Hyman Rickover. President Barack Obama.S. class of 1764 More recent political figures educated at Columbia include U. Federal Reserve BankAlan Greenspan.S.S. In engineering and technology. philosophers Irwin Edman andRobert Nozick. Robert Millikan and Michael Pupin. Attorney General Eric Holder. George Stephanopoulos. inventor of industrial robot Joseph Engelberger. current U. Senators Judd Gregg of New Hampshireand Frank Lautenberg of New Jersey. graduate of King's College (Columbia's progenitor). literary critic Lionel Trilling. poet-professor Mark Van Doren. ScientistsStephen Jay Gould. President Bill Clinton. John McLaughlin and Norman Podhoretz. computer scientist Lotfi Asker Zadeh.S. and chief-engineer of New York City subway William Barclay Parsons.[149]former U. former U. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.S.

Joyce Kilmer and John Berryman. are all among Columbia's alumni. founder of Simulations Publications. Famous singer and piano player Vanessa Carlton has also attended the school. Upton Sinclair. author.F. Rodgers and Hammerstein. and humanist Thomas Merton is an alumnus both as an undergraduate and graduate student. Aravind Adiga. Jack Kerouac. Herman Wouk. Rostam Batmanglij. Lorenz Hart. Ricardo Scofidio.D. Amelia Earhart enrolled at Columbia as a pre-med student in 1919. Roger Zelazny. Urban theorist and cultural critic Jane Jacobs spent time at the School of General Studies.A. 1978–1979). Edwin Howard Armstrong. and film director and screenwriter Cetywa Powell also attended the university. Apostolos Doxiadis. Trappist monk. Jim Dunnigan. and educator Elisabeth Irwin received her M. Daniel C. the architects Robert A. Allen Ginsberg. and communications economist Harvey J. Chris Tomson. Vampire Weekend band members Ezra Koenig. Kurtzer.A.Afghanistan. Kate Millett turned her Ph.Federico García Lorca. Isaac Asimov. Class of 1913 In culture and the arts. the writers Eudora Welty. playwrights Tony Kushner and Eulalie Spence. inventor of FM broadcasting. and Chris . M. and Paul Auster. Academy Award-winning director and producer Kathryn Bigelow graduated with an M. musician Art Garfunkel. Hunter S. J. screenwriters Sidney Buchmanand I.Silent Film actress Miriam Cooper attended writing courses at the school during her later years. critic and biographer Tim Page. composers Béla Bartók and Robert Kurka. sculptorJohn Rhoden. graduated in 1970.A. Phyllis Haislip. and the most prolific board wargame designer in history. photographer Manuel Rivera-Ortiz. Salinger. considered "The Dean of Modern Wargaming". Peter Eisenman and Christine Wang. thesis into the book Sexual Politics. Inc. and children's songwriter Bobby Susser.L. Stern. D. there in 1923. Levin all obtained degrees from Columbia. Diamond. Thompson. The poets Langston Hughes.

Rider Strong. and Academy Award-nominated actors Ed Harris and Jake Gyllenhaal each attended Columbia for a time. and Mark Van Doren were legendary Columbia faculty members as well as graduates. Casey Affleck. art historian Meyer Schapiro. Ben Stein. and its financial engineering department is headed by former director of Goldman Sachs and author of Financial Modelers' Manifesto Emanuel Derman. teaching alongside such luminaries as the philosopher John Dewey. Philosopher Hannah Arendt was a visiting professor in the 1960s. Rabi. Radio personality Tom Griswold of the nationally syndicated morning radio show The Bob and Tom Show graduated from Columbia. Brian Dennehy. James Franco. Garraty. Famke Janssen. Founding members of the nostalgia rock band Sha Na Na. Amanda Peet. along with Columbia graduate Ruth Benedict. Academy Award-winning actors James Cagney and Anna Paquin. and retired as Emeritus Professor of Chinese. as did television talk show host Sally Jesse Raphael. The history of the discipline of anthropology practically begins at Columbia with Franz Boas. [edit]Faculty and affiliates Jacques Barzun. Jesse Bradford. . Grammy Award-winning R&B singers Lauryn Hill and Alicia Keys both attended Columbia for one year. he is most notable for his development of the sequence paradigm of screenwriting. and Paul Lazarsfeld. Joseph Gordon-Levitt. Lionel Trilling. sociologists Daniel Bell. Charles Beard and Reinhard H Luthin. Rachel Nichols. John R. Yale University and theUniversity of Southern California for the most Oscar-winning alumni and student affiliates. and Renaissance scholar Donald M. George Leonard and Robert Leonard. Noted Chinese author and illustrator. Merton. laying the foundation for modern genetics. Frame. John A. and Polykarp Kusch helped develop the Manhattan Project at the university. a Barnard College alumna. Wright Mills. Matthew Fox. Contemporary celebrities who graduated from Columbia include the actors Maggie Gyllenhaal. I. Chiang Yee taught Chinese from 1955 to 1977. Dunning. Singer and songwriter Sean Lennon as well as Japanese-American pop-star Hikaru Utada and Korean-American pop-star Lena Park briefly attended the College. Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered the chromosomal basis for genetic inheritance at his famous "fly room" at the university. Jonathan Taylor Thomas. exceeding New York University. Margaret Mead. were also graduates from Columbia.Baio graduated from the College in 2006 and 2007. educator George Counts. Julia Stiles. C. Robert K. George Segal. and Mario Van Peebles. Mow. I. American historians Richard Hofstadter. Alumni and former students have won at least 30 Academy Awards. Nuclear physicists Enrico Fermi. In 1978 Frank Daniel began his Columbia teaching career. and pioneering geophysicist Maurice Ewing made great strides in the understanding of plate tectonics. continued this tradition by bringing the discipline into the spotlight. Columbia's biomedical engineering department is home to President of United States Orthopaedic Research Society Van C.

Bellovin. a Nobel prize winner who conducted fundamental research in neuroscience. The postcolonial scholar Edward Said taught at Columbia. director Mira Nair. Turkish author and Nobel Prize winner Orhan Pamuk. is a professor of Psychiatry. philosopher Philip Kitcher. the star of the I. conductor Igor Buketoff. East Asian studies expert William Theodore de Bary. literary theorist Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. co-developer of Jenkins-Traub Algorithm for Polynomial Zeros and former head of Carnegie Mellon University's Department of Computer Science Joseph F. show Most Eviland a leading expert in forensic psychiatry. Fred Lerdahl and George Lewis. developer of synthetic tree. Mihalis Yannakakis. professor of industrial engineering and operations research Clifford Stein. Among Columbia's superstar computer science faculty in the School of Engineering and Applied Science are Vladimir Vapnik. and economists Jeffrey Sachs. and Nobel Laureate Robert Mundell. had been professors at Columbia. Dr. Also.D.Ferdinand Freudenstein and Elmer L. Melvil Dewey. Sunil Gulati. American historians Eric Foner and Alan Brinkley. was librarian of the University and also founded the first library school in the U. is a professor of Economics at the University. at Columbia. where he spent virtually the entirety of his academic career. This American Life producer Alex Blumberg. President of US Soccer. Middle Eastern studies expert Richard Bulliet. Jackson. Gaden. Marr Prize recipient Shree K. British historian Simon Schama. Xavier Sala-i-Martin. world-renowned environmental engineer. Nobel Laureates Liu Xiaobo (Nobel Peace Prize. respectively) of the University. each widely credited as the "father of modern kinematics" and "father of biomedical engineering" respectively. critic. architects Bernard Tschumi. writer and physician Oliver Sacks. co-developer of Vapnik–Chervonenkis theory. Ricci flow inventor Richard Hamilton. until his death in 2003. [edit]In geography . New York City historian Kenneth T. art historian Rosalind Krauss. developer of MPEG-2 technology and electrical engineering professor Dimitris Anastassiou. Steven M. Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz.S. Michael Stone. composers Tristan Murail. and pioneer of carbon capture and storage Klaus Lackner. 2010) are affiliates (Visiting Scholar and Visiting Professor. Jagdish Bhagwati. scientist. Nayar. Nobel Laureate Edmund Phelps. Eric Kandel. electrical engineering professor Nicholas F. Maxemchuk. celebrated faculty members include string-theory expert Brian Greene. creator of the Dewey Decimal Classification. Santiago Calatrava and Frank Gehry have taught at the school. physics and applied physics professor and Nobel Laureate Horst Störmer. Je Tsong Khapa Professor of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Studies Robert Thurman. co-developer of Aho–Corasick string matching algorithm Alfred Aho. Traub. 2010) and Vargas Llosa (Nobel Prize in Literature. More recently.

a Jewish student organization at Columbia University Columbia Secondary School. a standardized color combination in the Pantone Matching System. is named after the university.Mount Columbia in the state of Colorado Columbia Glacier in Alaska named after Columbia University The Columbia Glacier. Princeton. Yale and Oxford. used as a school color by Columbia University  Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning . [edit]See also New York City portal University portal  116th Street–Columbia University (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line) a station in the New York City subway system    Columbia/Barnard Hillel. one of the largest in Alaska'sCollege Fjord. Mount Columbia in theCollegiate Peaks Wilderness of Colorado also takes its name from the university and is situated among 4 other peaks named for Harvard. where it sits among other glaciers named for the Ivy League andSeven Sisters schools. a secondary school formed with partnership with Columbia University Columbia Blue.

USA. a law review published by students at Columbia Law School  Columbia Law Review. a small stellarator at the Columbia University Plasma Physics Laboratory  Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (album). a glacier in Alaska. the oldest such student organization in the United States      Columbia Scholastic Press Association Columbia Soccer Stadium at Columbia University Columbia Spelling Board a historic etymological organization Columbia Revolt. New York City Columbia Institute for Tele-Information. a black-and-white 1968 documentary film Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal published by students at Columbia University . a journal published by the Columbia Political Union at Columbia University  Columbia Queer Alliance at Columbia University. named for Columbia University Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School. a bimonthly journal published by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism  Columbia Law School  Columbia Business Law Review. Columbia Law School's organization dedicated to the interaction of law and business [2]    Columbia Lions of Columbia University Columbia MM. the main undergraduate college at Columbia University. a monthly journal published by students at Columbia Law School  Columbia Human Rights Law Review. an album of electronic music released in 1961  Columbia Political Review. a text-based mail client developed at Columbia University Columbia Non-neutral Torus. New York Columbia Glacier. a monthly law review published by students at Columbia Law School  Columbia Business and Law Association.  Columbia-Chicago School of Economics Columbia College of Columbia University. a student newspaper at Columbia University. New York City Columbia Journalism Review. New York      Columbia Daily Spectator.

      Columbia University Marching Band Columbia University Tunnels Columbia University Library System Columbia University Medical Center. publisher of the Columbia Encyclopedia Columbia Encyclopedia  Education in New York City  Go Ask Alice!  Goddard Institute for Space Studies  Jester of Columbia  John Bates Clark Medal  List of Columbia University people   List of Columbia College people List of Columbia Law School alumni  Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize  Medical School for International Health  Nobel laureates by university affiliation  Teachers College. New York Columbia University Press. New York City  The Varsity Show  WKCR  Columbia University in Films and Television [edit]References . Columbia University's Graduate School of Education  The Bancroft Prize  Biosphere2  Columbia Daily Spectator  The Blue and White  The Earth Institute  The Fed  The Philolexian Society  The Pulitzer Prize  The School at Columbia University.

studentaffairs. 2. 2004)." Ephemeral New Yorkwebsite. ISBN 1402137370. Walker & Company. May 24. 1904.A History of Columbia University.asu. New York.nsf.edu. (2004) (ISBN 1-59420- 009-2) ^ a b c d A History of Columbia University. ^ As of 2010. 8. 10. 15. David. New York. ISBN 978-0743226714 ^ Chernow. October 2002. 2010-09- 16. Robert (December 10.columbia. 17. Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. phpFaculty information ^ http://www. 3. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 9. Alexander Hamilton. Retrieved 2006-08-10. Columbia University. "Farewell. ^ "Research. May 5. 1861–1900".pulitzer.The Center for Measuring University Performance".htm ^ a b chttp://www. Aristocracy . ^ McCaughey. 1776. 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-16. ^ McCullough. "Appendix E: Institutional Comparisons". Stand. Columbia University Press. Robert (December 10. Stand.htm ^ "The Course of History". Barnet.1. ^ http://www. "Columbia's Endowment Posts 17% Return". Penguin Books. 2008 ^ Columbia College Student Life Timeline ^ "Columbia University's Lunatic Past.edu/cu/opir/abstract/enrollment_fte_school_all.columbia. 4. 14. The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution. 2003). Retrieved 2004-11-22. Simon & Schuster. NYTimes. ^ Schecter.gov/od/nms/recipients. 16. 5. 2004. ISBN 0-80271374-2 12. Columbia .cfm ^ McCaughey. 7. 6. 11. Robert A. Columbia University Press. "Leading American University Producers of PhDs. New York: Macmillan. Social History of Columbia University Fall 2004 Lectures. 2003).columbia.edu/admissions/university/academic/faculty. ^ a b McCaughey. (September 15. 1754–1904. ^ http://www. . 13.The World Turned Upside Down". Retrieved 2010-02-22.org/bycat Pulitzer By Category ^ citation needed ^http://www.A History of Columbia University. Retrieved 2006-08-10. Columbia . 18. Ron.edu/cu/opir/abstract/full_time_faculty. Mup.

The New York Times.studentaffairs. ^http://www. ^ "Columbia Manhattanville Project". Press Release. and a Family's Resolve. State Approves Eminent Domain". ^ "Manhattanville in West Harlem". Retrieved 2007-10-. 2008-03-11. Columbia University. Retrieved 2010-04-30.edu/cu/opir/abstract/admissions_all. Kim Kirschenbaum (December 18. ^ http://www. 23. William J. 34. "M'ville Expansion Clears Last Major Hurdle. ^ a b Broad.php ^ http://www. 2002-07-30. "2010 Admissions Tally". Retrieved 2007-04-01.htm ^ U. Retrieved 2006-08-10. National University Rankings. The New York Times. "In West Harlem Land Dispute. Americas Best Rankings 2011. 30. Maggie.edu/admissions/ ^ Columbia College Academics > Special Programs > Juilliard ^ "Organization and Governance of the University". The New York Times. ^ Link text.columbia. 2009. 29.columbiaspectator. "2 Gas Stations. ^ Wall Street Journal article breaking the news about Kluge's donation ^ "Columbia University to Offer Financial Aid to More Students".edu/admissions/applications/stats. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 2008). 25.nytimes. Jacques. ^ Williams. Confront Columbia Expansion Plan". Timothy (November 20. 21. News & World Report. 31. ^ http://thechoice. 22. 28. 33. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 26.com/2010/03/23/common-2/Switch to Common 36. 37.S. ^ Williams. May 20. Columbia. Residents".com/2010/04/01/cc-seas-14-more-selective-ever ^ Steinberg. 38. Retrieved 2009-08-12. App ^ "Admission Statistics".19. (2007-10-30). 24.studentaffairs. "Why They Called It the Manhattan Project". Archived from the original on 2006-06-27. 20.edu. It's Columbia vs. Retrieved 2007-10-30.The New York Times. New York Times. ^ http://www. Timothy (2008-09-21). Retrieved 2010-03-28. ^ "Low Memorial Library".blogs. 35. Columbia Spectator.columbia. 27. 2006). Retrieved 2010-03-28. ^ Astor. . Selectivity Ranking (the former is available only in the print edition and--for purchase--in the online premium edition) 32.columbia.

48. ^ "QS World University Rankings". Retrieved 2010- 09-16. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 2010. 2010. Retrieved August 29. 44. Retrieved 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2009-08-25. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities".usnews. 52. News & World Report. ^ http://grad-schools. ^ a b "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2010".S. ^ Harvard Tops Columbia in Media Buzz ^ "The Top American Research Universities: 2008 Annual Report" (PDF). 47. ^ "The 25 Best Schools for Future Powerbrokers". 57. 2010.S. Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Newsweek. 2010. Retrieved September 7. 2010. Institute of Higher Education. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. ^ "United States Universities in Top 500". ^ "The 25 Most Desirable Schools".com/best-graduate- schools/top-business-schools/rankings . 50. U. The Washington Monthly. ^ (USNWR) "America's Best Colleges 2010".rankingsandreviews.rankingsandreviews. ^ a b "World University Rankings". Kiplinger. News & World Report. Retrieved 2009-11-22. 49. Shanghai Jiao Tong University.usnews. 46. 56.com/best-graduate- schools/top-fine-arts-schools/rankings ^ http://grad-schools. The Times Higher Education. 2010. America's Best Colleges 2011. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 43. 54. ^ "National Universities Rankings". 55. 2010. Shanghai Jiao Tong University. News & World Report. Retrieved 2010-09-16. ^ "America's Best Colleges". ^ "Global Universities Ranking". 2010. Institute of Higher Education. Retrieved 2009-11-22. 2010. ^ "The Washington Monthly National University Rankings". 2010. Retrieved September 16. ^ (USNWR) "America's Best Colleges 2010".39. 2010. Retrieved May 31. 42.S. ^ [=ALL&myschool[]=none&myschool[]=7&outputby=table "Kiplinger 50 Best Values in Private Universities"]. U.The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2010- 2011". 2010. 2010. 2010. Forbes. 45. 40. 2008. ^ "Top 200 . 53. 41. Retrieved August 29. The Times Higher Educational Supplement. Retrieved August 19. Institute of Higher Education. Retrieved May 31. 2010. 2010. 2010. 51. 2010. 2009. Newsweek. U.

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