This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
- Free Online Library
Literature Title Author Topic
Member login User name Password Remember me Join us Forgot password?
Submit articles free
18,226,092 articles and books
The Free Library > Business and Industry > Business > Modern Casting > August 1, 1990 The Free Library > Business and Industry > Metals, metalworking and machinery > Modern Casting > August 1, 1990 The Free Library > Date > 1990 > August > 1 > Modern Casting
Causes and cures for shell-related defects.
Post Natal Hair Problem? Losing hair after giving birth? Seek help from our experts!
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Ads by Google
Title Annotation: investment castings Author: Twarog, Daniel L. Publication: Modern Casting Date: Aug 1, 1990 Words: 2724 Previous Article: Investment casting industry forecasts strong demand. (Investment Casting Institute survey) Next Article: Getting more from your ceramic shell slurry. (metal casting mold slurry) Topics: Investment casting (Process) Methods Metal castings industry Quality management Precision casting Methods
Natural ADHD Treatment Safe and effective remedy. Proven results - no side effects!
Post Nasal Drip Remedies Fast, Effective and safe. Proven to stop PND naturally.
Best Acne Control Product Stop and clear acne without causing skin irritation
Colloidal Silver 100 PPM Best quality. See lab test results on website. Read/buy it here now.
Cure All Skin Diseases Internal-External Therapy Dermatitis, Dry Tinea, Eczema
Link to this page Causes and Cures For Shell-Related Defects
Defects are part of nearly every foundry's operations, and their causes are many and varied. The booming investment casting industry shares these problems, of course, but its defects are largely shell-related, and differ somewhat from other metalcasting processes. What follows is a brief outline defining seven common investment casting defects in relation to the shell system used, and several ways to prevent them. Finally, the four most common causes of these defects (drying conditions, slurry composition, dewax/firing techniques and cluster preparation) are examined. Vitiligo Organics™ Ads by Google Voted # 1,Tested & Proven Vitiligo Treatment By Organic Care Australia
Ultrasonics may be the NDT wave of the future. (nondestructive testing) A systematic approach to cast iron defect analysis. Process, alloy enhancements focus of precision casting program. New investment casting method combines CAD and CNC. (direct shell production casting utilizes computer-aided design and computer numerical control) Gains mark 1992 ICI gathering. (40th Investment Casting Institute conference) An unconventional approach to producing investment castings. Investment casters examine new techniques, products. Increase Ceramic Shell Quality via the Infiltration Method.(PCC Structurals technique)(Technical) Investment Casters Discuss RP, Ceramic Shell Strength. (Investment Casting Institute Meeting & Exhibition) (Technical) Ceramic molding process helps metalcasting facilities remain competitive.(New Product)
Stop Macular Degeneration Regain Lost Vision with Dr. Todd's Proven no-Surgery or Drugs Approach
Defects/Causes: Inclusions This defect is generally nonmetallic and usually can be detected on the surface or a few microns below the casting surface. Many subsurface inclusions become evident during welding repair of a pinhole-type defect. Jagged in shape, inclusions sometimes will have the ceramic from the shell, which caused the condition, embedded. An example is shown in Fig. 1. The major causes of shell-related inclusion defects are: Mold Cracks - If a burned out shell has cracked, erosion from the edges of the crack may occur, disbursing refractory particles throughout the casting. Often, if a seal dip is added to a cracked shell, the slurry will run into the crack and break off during shell firing or pouring. Mold Handling - Poor shell handling may cause loose stucco particles to fall into the mold prior to pouring. The two most common problems are cup orientation in the firing cycle, or a jagged cup collar remaining after dewaxing. Spalling or Scabbing - The ceramic shell that spalls or scabs not only causes a
1 of 7
10/6/2010 8:32 PM
Free Online Library http://www. The metal does not fill the entire mold cavity.. Although the crack is often sealed by subsequent dips. Uneven Prime Coat Thickness . a particular cluster configuration can dry quite rapidly. shown in Fig. This difference can lead to stress concentrations along the thick-to-thin boundaries. after prime coat application. 4. Other common inclusion sources are pattern design. positive metal-type defect. Destabilized Wax . Excessively long drying times between the prime and backup dips can cause delamination of the shell and subsequent cracking. Permeability of the Primary Slurry Coats . These include the following: Process Control . The expanding and contracting wax causes stress on the slurry coat causing small cracks in the coating.This principal defect leading to lower overall shell strengths is caused by inadequate process control of shell composition following. the back pressures within the cluster can build and prevent metal fill. is sometimes called "non-fill". If the cluster dries prior to stuccoing.Temperature and humidity fluctuations in the dip and drying area. the casting will have an irregular surface. Shell cracking is most common on cylindrical casting sections as shown in Fig. Prime Coat Buckle Prime coat buckling defects usually occur on flat surfaces as an island of surplus metal. The most common causes of shell cracking defects are found in several distinct areas of a foundry's operation. particularly at the outside edges of the casting. spalled ladle or furnace linings and improperly reclaimed wax. Figure 2 illustrates this defect. Air movement around the drying dip can result in uneven drying which puts the coating under stress. Misrun This defect. The most common shell-related causes for the formation of the primary slurry cracks include the following: Environmental Conditions .Expansion stresses caused by improper dewaxing equipment or techniques can cause shell cracking. temperature. Slow heat-up rate and uneven firing furnace temperature distribution is common.thefreelibrary. There are many other factors which can cause misruns to occur in castings. The binder and/or slurry spreads and dries beneath the first dip. The length and thickness of these fins sometimes can be correlated to the cause of the crack. the coating will not build up the required strength. Firing . Several additional factors. It is characterized by an incomplete casting.The drying rates of thick and thin coatings differ. Dip Room . Overuse of a binder pre-wet can also cause weaker.If the shell is not permeable at elevated temperatures.Causes and cures for shell-related defects.Improper firing cycles in respect to time. inadequate binder concentration.com/Causes+and+cures+for+shell-related+defe. cause expansion differentials between the wax and the slurry dip. gating design. . The two most common appearances of a misrun casting are rounded out at the defect front and cupped inward at the defect front. Shell Cracking This defect is characterized by a line(s) of positive metal on the casting surface. excessive anti-foam or wetting agents and stucco grain fineness distribution. but the ceramic is generally distributed throughout the casting to cause inclusions.Flawed dipping techniques and drying practices cause this defect. that can affect misrun are metal temperature. and normally have hairline fins associated with them. especially in low humidity. Generally. This problem is caused by predip and/or second coat slurry entering a crack on the surface of the first coat. Dry Before Stuccoing . and most of them are not shell related. usually at a casting's edges. gassy metal and incomplete burnout of organic materials.Occasionally. easily cracked shells. high temperature environments. misruns which are cupped inward are related to gas back pressure within the mold and can be shell related.. 3. incompatible shell materials. though not shell related. ceramic in melt returns. Dewaxing Control ..A mold dipped in slurry prior to wax stabilization will cause prime slurry cracking and/or nonadhesion. 2 of 7 10/6/2010 8:32 PM . rate and number of times leads to adverse phase changes within the dewaxed shell. shell temperature.
or is too thin. Sections of the mold buckles inward and the metal runs in back of the associated crack to form a scab which is illustrated in Fig. silica-based slurries are often used beyond their reasonable life.thefreelibrary. Cluster Design and Orientation . Buckling A shell buckle (see Fig. As the metal fills this area. Bubbles in the Prime Slurry . Improper Shell Construction . buckle/bulge on large flat areas. . Wax Stresses . Shell buckling or bulging are defects usually seen on long. Its common cause is described here. flat surfaces of a casting.Many of the causes associated with scabbing are similar to those associated with buckling/bulging. and buckling or bulging will occur. Metal breakthrough or penetration can also be associated with buckling.Causes and cures for shell-related defects. Destabilized Slurry .Over-drying prior to a third dip application will set up a 3 of 7 10/6/2010 8:32 PM . In some cases. This delamination is associated with drying conditions and/or shell composition. ranging in diameter from 0. particularly in higher temperature areas. rough surfaces will form. 7. Stucco Penetration . Scabbing . the primary stucco will penetrate the slurry coat and come in contact with the wax pattern causing rough casting surfaces.Any bubbles in the prime slurry will cause a noncontinuous coating to dry on the surface of the wax. An outward movement of the shell is a bulge leading to excessive casting dimensions in the bulged areas.Different coefficients of expansion of materials within a slurry composition of a shell system can cause buckling or bulging. A scab is a worst-case buckle. Stresses are magnified on large flat or bowed patterns.If a shell system is incompatible or contaminated with materials (such as Fe) that react with liquid metal. the next dip is a more viscous one containing a coarser stucco. The second type of buckle or bulge defect is associated with areas on the pattern which do not allow for a consistent shell to be built. and covering all or part of a casting's surface as illustrated in Fig.005-0. can cause the deformation. This type of buckle normally has metal penetration associated with it.Free Online Library http://www. Roughly surfaced casting can be attributed to a wide range of shell-related inconsistencies. The possible causes of the buckle or bulge of the shell can be divided into two distinct areas. this high concentration of silica reacts with molten metal to form a rough surface on the casting..Nonadherence of the primary slurry to the wax because of residual mold release is a common cause of buckling or bulging. If the shell is not constructed adequately. combined with high metallostatic head pressures.Internal stresses in a pattern may be relieved during dipping and cause the shell to pull away from the wax pattern. This factor. These agglomerates may be deposited on the wax and are undetectable after stuccoing.Colloidal.After the primary dips and stucco is applied.Cluster design plays an important role when considering the buckle or bulge defect.Rounded stucco material with poor screen distribution (too many fines) causes a delamination of the prime dips to the backup dips. The first. 5. When the shell is fired. the third dip will bridge slotted areas on the pattern.com/Causes+and+cures+for+shell-related+defe. 6) is an inward movement of the shell. Drying Conditions . Rough Surface The general appearance of this type of defect can be described as positive metal.015 in. Stucco Distribution . The primary cause of scabbing is delamination of the prime coats and the backup dips..If a slurry is allowed to drain too much. As noted. Metal will penetrate these areas and form a rough surface. indentations occur in the casting. The flat surfaces should be oriented perpendicular to the slurry when dipping to minimize the effects of gravity pulling the coating material from the wax. is commonly caused by the following: Cleanliness of Patterns . Metal-Mold Reaction . Expansion Differential . metal will penetrate the cracks in the shell and enter the bridged area. scabbing is an extreme buckle. Several of these are described below. Subsequent dips will not build adequate shell strength. Scab A scab is a rough deposit of positive metal on an area on the casting's surface. Bacterial contamination can partially gel the binder to cause agglomeration.
a manufacturer must consider the excess [O. however. Finally. but as the surface area of the shells increases. slurry composition. A manufacturer should know the maximum surface area of clusters his autoclave will hold. Small amounts of them can reduce shell strengths significantly. the cure should be a straightforward correction of the materials utilized.2] particles within the slurry can alleviate green and fired shell strength inconsistencies. Unfortunately. most shells must cure at 1600F for a minimum of 30 minutes during their firing cycle to assure that fired shell strengths are maximized and that all residual wax has been removed. particularly during peak production situations. shell overloading in the firing furnace is the 4 of 7 10/6/2010 8:32 PM .2] available within a furnace.sub. If this does not occur. The drying conditions surrounding the cluster during and after its primary coats contribute more to various shell defects than any other condition. Three additives that contribute to weakened shells are wetting agents. In addition to these temperature and time requirements. The [O. Temperature or humidity fluctuations beyond [+ or -] 2F or [+ or -] 5%. Therefore. The balance of binder sol particles. the process techniques and/or the shell system composition.thefreelibrary. Curing the Defect Once the cause of a defect is understood. so careful control must be maintained to assure the dip's contraction as it drys. . then "swiss cheese"-type defects will occur like the one shown in Fig. dewaxing and firing techniques.com/Causes+and+cures+for+shell-related+defe. so does the number of BTU's necessary to heat the total load. Again. Primary dips provide the refractory coating necessary to resist metal/mold reaction.Causes and cures for shell-related defects. not just the total number of clusters. anti-foams and water.Free Online Library http://www. prefire and fire a shell for pouring. also will place undo stress on the thin primary shell. This effect can be exaggerated if improper pre-wetting techniques are used between the second and third dip. An efficient autoclave requires reaching 60 lb pressure within 6-8 seconds at approximately 350F. the shell absorbs more water than evaporates to the air. This gives a false dryness indication. the chances of cracking or failure rise. water evaporates and the shell layer dries. care must be taken when developing a process or technique to dewax. The Big Four There are many causes which may be attributed to shell related defects. As shell layers build up. The second most common mistake is overloading shells in the dewaxer. Shell Composition . impart strength to the shell system. If a shell still contains moisture as it enters the dewaxing cycle. 8. Maintaining a fixed percentage of [SiO. Additional defects can result in overloading a flash-fire dewaxing unit and give even more detrimental results.2] must be available to combine with the carbonaceous wax by-products to form [CO. The most common mistake made with autoclaves and flash-fire dewaxers is the length of time an investment caster waits between the last dip and the dewaxing procedure. Additionally.A third-dip stucco with an adequate distribution may cause a similar two-component shell system to form. Raw water (non-deionized or undistilled) can cause slurry destabilization and gelling. This may be easy with some clusters. but the four most prevalent are drying conditions. The consistent maintenance of a dynamic slurry compositions is the key to repeatable shell properties. scabbing or buckling. Table 1 is the metalcaster's reference guide to the most common causes of investment casting shell-related defects and suggested action for curing them. uneven air velocities around the cluster will cause uneven shell drying and contraction.2].sub. the 60 lb in 6-8 seconds at 350F parameters may be insufficient. total solids content.2] (from condensed slurry) can cause lower strengths in the shell than slurries which have too low a percentage of [SiO. Wetting agents or anti-foamers are commonly overused and cause premature failure of the shell in its fired condition. Inappropriate air velocity will evaporate water carried from a colloidal binder at a rate that will cause the thin ceramic shell to contract too rapidly around the wax cluster.2] gas.. In dewaxing and firing techniques.sub. and must be controlled to avoid shell cracking.sub. Deviations may cause serious shell defects. aggregate balancing and additive quantities are difficult objectives to maintain. two-component shell. They do not.sub.. High percentages of [SiO.sub. respectively.
5. Shell cracking. Further. PHOTO : Fig. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company. causing the molten metal to surface shrink. Piece Orientation . No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.Clusters with multiple parts can be assembled with parts too close together. Uneven coatings can lead to uneven shell thicknesses and lower the overall fired shell strengths. Improper dipping and draining results in uneven shell thickness and strength. as this line of surplus metal indicates. 11. the shell may not build up correctly and cause bridging. but it is worth repeating that unless proper flow and thermal gradients are controlled within the cluster.com Homeopathy Training Learn w/ Live & Online Video Cases Start Your Distance Learning Now ! ResonanceSchoolofHomeopathy. PHOTO : Fig. An example of this would be a part with a cylindrical core to be formed by the shelling process. 4. is most common in cylindrical castings. causing several defects. 8. All rights reserved.Free Online Library http://www. . 1. Inc. COPYRIGHT 1990 American Foundry Society. Fig. Many defects may occur due to inadequate cluster preparation. PHOTO : Fig.sub..2] due to furnace overloading. Surface shrinkage is caused by uneven shell coating between cluster parts. Three of the most common preparation mistakes include the following. A scab is a worst-case buckle in which metal runs behind a shell crack. Flawed surface of this part is the result of poor cluster gating. 10 shows the results of poor gating system design. Gating System Design . thus absorbing much of the shell firing. Part Spacing . 11..greenlife-herbal. 10. An assembly with the core dipped parallel to the slurry's surface will build an uneven shell as compared to an assembly which would have the core dipped and dried perpendicular to the slurry's surface. 7.Much has been written on this subject. Misrun defects occur because poured metal does not fill the mold cavity. PHOTO : Fig. The shell may build in thickness between the parts. This has sought to provided some useful insights into some common shellrelated defects. PHOTO : Fig. (See Fig. PHOTO : Fig. Metal runout or shell buckling could result. 2. Copyright 1990.Causes and cures for shell-related defects. your votes are noticed and appreciated: Diabetes Dellitus Gospel Ads by Google Natural External foot patch Clinica Proved 100% sugar down to NORMAL www. Outward and inward bulges in the shell cause excess metal or dimpling in castings surfaces. 6. PHOTO : Fig. Please bookmark with social media. their causes and potential cures. PHOTO : Fig.com/Causes+and+cures+for+shell-related+defe. 3.The ability of a cluster to evenly drain excess slurry after dipping is an important design criteria. 9.com 5 of 7 10/6/2010 8:32 PM . the desired surface and internal results from shell molded castings will be lost. Prime coat buckling usually occurs on flat surfaces as irregular islands of excess metal. "Swiss cheese" defect is caused by insufficient oxygen to combine with carbonaceous wax by-products to form [CO. 9). major cause of this problem. Results of poor piece orientation can be seen in Fig. Gale Group. Rough metal defects leave small islands of positive metal dotting the casting surfaces. Surface or sub-surface entrainment of ceramic particles causes inclusion defects. PHOTO : Fig. Shell defects that are properly identified can be corrected by understanding how they are formed.thefreelibrary. PHOTO : Fig. PHOTO : Fig.
Causes and cures for shell-related defects. 7 of 7 10/6/2010 8:32 PM .thefreelibrary... .Free Online Library http://www.com/Causes+and+cures+for+shell-related+defe.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?