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EZ[hjZlhjgZy jZ[hlZ‹ .................


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6
<hijhku

§1.
1. FZl_jbZevgZy lhqdZ h[eZ^Z_l fZkkhc gh bf__l ij_g_[j_`bfh
fZeu_jZaf_ju
2. FZl_jbZevgZylhqdZ ²wlhZ[kljZdlgh_ihgylb_
3. >eymijhs_gbyaZ^Zq
4. Dh]^Z\ mkeh\bbaZ^ZqbjZaf_jZfbwlh]hl_eZfh`ghij_g_[j_qv
5. AZ fZl_jbZevgmx lhqdm fh`gh ijbgylv Z\lhfh[bev ijb
hij_^_e_gbb _]h kdhjhklb gZ fZjrjml_ ] Ijhl\bgh ± ] Fhkd\Z
Wlhl `_ Z\lhfh[bev g_evay kqblZlv fZl_jbZevghc lhqdhc ijb
jZkq_l_^Z\e_gbyhdZau\Z_fh]hbfgZ^hjh]m
6. IjbihklmiZl_evghf^\b`_gbb
7. FZl_jbZevghc lhqdhc gZau\Z_lky l_eh jZaf_jZfb dhlhjh]h
fh`ghij_g_[j_qv\ mkeh\byo^ZgghcaZ^Zqb
8. Ijbijyfhebg_cghf^\b`_gbbl_eZ
9. Kbkl_fZhlkq_lZhlghkbl_evghdhlhjhcjZkkfZljb\Zxl^\b`_gb_
ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc kh\hdmighklv kbkl_fu dhhj^bgZl ijb[hjZ ^ey
baf_j_gby \j_f_gb b lhqdb hlkq_lZ k dhlhjhc k\yaZgZ kbkl_fZ
dhhj^bgZl
§2.
1. G_l\k_aZ\bkblhlljZ_dlhjbb^\b`_gbyG_evaymagZlv]^_[m^_l
Z\lhfh[bevq_j_a qZk_kebg_agZ_rvihdZdbf^hjh]Zfhgih_^_l
2. <_dlhjgZijZ\e_gguchllhqdbhlkq_lZgZqZeZ^\b`_gbyd lhqd_
hlkq_lZdhgpZ^\b`_gbyl_eZ
3. Fh`gh
§3.
1. <uqbke_gbyijhba\h^ylkhkdZeyjgufb\_ebqbgZfb
2. ?keb \_dlhj khgZijZ\e_g k hkvx lh _]h ijh_dpby gZ g__ [m^_l
iheh`bl_evgZ b gZh[hjhl _keb \_dlhj ijhlb\hiheh`gh gZijZ\e_g
hkblh_]hijh_dpbygZg__[m^_lhljbpZl_evgZ
3. o1 = o0 + so.

§4.
1. Kdhjhklvx jZ\ghf_jgh]h ijyfhebg_cgh]h ^\b`_gby gZau\Z_lky
U Y
ihklhygguc \_dlhj v  jZ\guc hlghr_gbx i_j_f_s_gby s l_eZ aZ
Y
U s
ex[hcijhf_`mlhd\j_f_gbt d agZq_gbxwlh]hijhf_`mldZ v = .
t
7
2. Ihnhjfme_sx = vxt.
3. Ijbijyfhebg_cghfjZ\ghf_jghf^\b`_gbb
4. Wlh\b^ghbajbkmq_[gbdZ
5. Hgb^\b`mlkyjZ\ghf_jgh\ jZaguogZijZ\e_gbyokhkdhjhklyfb
jZ\gufbihfh^mex b dfq

§5.
1. D g_jZ\ghf_jghfm^\b`_gbx
2. Kdhjhklvl_eZ\ ^Zgghclhqd_\ ^Zggucfhf_gl\j_f_gb
U
3. Mkdhj_gb_f jZ\ghmkdhj_ggh]h ^\b`_gby l_eZ a gZau\Z_lky
U
\_ebqbgZjZ\gZyhlghr_gbxbaf_g_gbykdhjhklb∆ v d ijhf_`mldm
U U U
U ∆v v − v 0
\j_f_gbtaZdhlhjucwlhbaf_g_gb_ijhbahreh a = = .
4. >\b`_gb_k ihklhyggufmkdhj_gb_f
t t

5. HgihdZau\Z_l[ukljhlmbaf_g_gbyfh^mey\_dlhjZkdhjhklb
6. < kbkl_f_KBfk2.
7. M\_ebqb\Z_lky ijb iheh`bl_evghf mkdhj_gbb \ wlhf kemqZ_
\_dlhjkdhjhklbb \_dlhjmkdhj_gbykhgZijZ\e_gu mf_gvrZ_lky²
ijb hljbpZl_evghf \ wlhf kemqZ_ \_dlhj kdhjhklb b \_dlhj
mkdhj_gbyijhlb\hiheh`ghgZijZ\e_gu 

§6.
1. Z vx = v0x + axt[ vx = axt.
2. < h[hbokemqZyoijyfZy\ kemqZ_ ©Zª²ijhoh^ysZyq_j_agZqZeh
kbkl_fudhhj^bgZl
3. Wlb ^\b`_gby jZ\ghmkdhj_ggu_ h^gZdh \ i_j\hf kemqZ_
mkdhj_gb_iheh`bl_evghZ \h\lhjhf²hljbpZl_evgh

§7.
1. Ijh_dpby\_dlhjZi_j_f_s_gby\uqbkey_lkyihnhjfme_
axt 2
s x = v0 x t + .
Ih^klZ\bf\ wlmnhjfmem\ujZ`_gb_^eyijh_dpbbmkdhj_gby
2

v − v0 x
ax = x .
Ihemqbf
t

v − v0 x t 2 v0 x + v x
s x = v0 x t + x ⋅ = ⋅t .
t 2 2

8
LZddZdv0x = AO, vx = BC, t = OB kfjbkZ mq_[gbdZ lhfu
ihemqZ_fqlhijh_dpby\_dlhjZi_j_f_s_gby s x =
AO + BC
⋅ OB
jZ\gZiehsZ^bnb]mjuOACB ²ijyfhm]hevghcljZi_pbbk
2

hkgh\ZgbyfbAO, BC b \ukhlhcOB.
axt 2
2. s x = v0 x t + .
2
§8.

1. Ihnhjfme_ s x = ²^eyijh_dpbbi_j_f_s_gby s =
2
axt at 2

^eyfh^mey\_dlhjZi_j_f_s_gby
2 2

2. < n2 jZaihkdhevdms ~ t2
s n a (nt1 ) 2 / 2
3. = 2
= n2 .
st1
4. DZdjy^ihke_^h\Zl_evguog_q_lguoqbk_e
at1 / 2

5. >eyhij_^_e_gbyjZ\ghmkdhj_ggh]h^\b`_gby

1. < jZaguokbkl_fZohlq_lZwlb\_ebqbgubf_xljZagu_agZq_gbyb
§9.

ihjZaghfmhjb_glbjh\Zggu
2. RZjbd iZ^Zxsbc gZ ihe ^\b`ms_]hky Z\lhfh[bey g_ bf__l
]hjbahglZevghc kdhjhklb hlghkbl_evgh g_]h Hlghkbl_evgh A_feb
hgbf__lkdhjhklvjZ\gmxkdhjhklbZ\lhfh[bey
3. Kdhjhklv imlv ljZ_dlhjby b l^ jZaebqgu \ jZaguo kbkl_fZo
hlkq_lZ
4. =_ebhp_gljbq_kdZy kbkl_fZ k\yaZgZ k Khegp_f ]_hp_gljbq_kdZy
²k A_fe_c
5. Kf_gZ^gyb ghqbh[tykgy_lky\jZs_gb_fA_feb\hdjm]k\h_chkb

1. JZ\ghf_jghb ijyfhebg_cghbebihdhblky
§10.

2. G_l
3. L_hjby :jbklhl_ey aZdexqZxsZyky \ lhf qlh ijb hlkmlkl\bb
\g_rg_]h\ha^_ckl\byl_ehfh`_llhevdhihdhblvky
4. L_f qlh ih =Zebe_x l_eZ fh]ml jZ\ghf_jgh ^\b]Zlvky \
hlkmlkl\bb\g_rgbokbe
5. Hiul bah[jZ`_gguc gZ jbk  mq_[gbdZ ^hdZau\Z_l lh qlh
ihfbfh bg_jpbZevguo kbkl_f hlkq_lZ \ dhlhjuo \uihegy_lky
i_j\uc aZdhg GvxlhgZ  kms_kl\mxl kbkl_fu bgh]h oZjZdl_jZ Hg
9
khklhbl \ ke_^mxs_f GZ l_e_`d_ h^bg rZjbd e_`bl gZ
]hjbahglZevghc ih\_joghklb Z \lhjhc ih^\_rb\Z_lky gZ gblb
KgZqZeZ l_e_`dZ ^\b`_lky ijyfhebg_cgh b jZ\ghf_jgh b \ wlhf
kemqZ_ h[Z rZjbdZ gZoh^ylky \ ihdh_ hlghkbl_evgh l_e_`db Klhbl
lhevdh ijb^Zlv l_e_`d_ mkdhj_gb_ eb[h __ ijblhjfhablv eb[h
ih^lhedgmlv  dZd rZjbdb ijb^ml \ ^\b`_gb_ k mkdhj_gb_f
hlghkbl_evghl_e_`dbLZdbfh[jZahfhlghkbl_evghl_e_`dbi_j\uc
aZdhgGvxlhgZg_\uihegy_lky
6. Kms_kl\mxl kbkl_fu hlkq_lZ hlghkbl_evgh dhlhjuo l_eZ
khojZgyxl k\hx kdhjhklv g_baf_gghc _keb gZ gbo g_ ^_ckl\mxl
\g_rgb_ kbeu beb bo ^_ckl\b_ kdhfi_gkbjh\Zgh LZdb_ kbkl_fu
gZau\Zxlkybg_jpbZevgufb
7. Bg_jpbZevgu_kbkl_fum^h\e_l\hjyxli_j\hfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZ
g_bg_jpbZevgu_²g_l
8. Fh`gh
9. G_l

§11.
1. Ijbeh`_ggZyd l_emkbeZ
2. Q_f [hevr_ fhsghklv Z\lhfh[bey Z khhl\_lkl\_ggh _]h kbeZ
ly]bl_f[uklj__hgm\_ebqb\Z_lk\hxkdhjhklv
3. Hiul bah[jZ`_gguc gZ jbk  mq_[gbdZ ^hdZau\Z_l lh qlh
ijbeh`_ggZy d l_em kbeZ y\ey_lky ijbqbghc mkdhj_gby >ey
ijh\_^_gby^Zggh]hhiulZgZ^h\aylvl_e_`dmmklZgh\blvgZg_c^\Z
h^bgZdh\hjZ[hlZxsbo\_glbeylhjZb dZi_evgbpm>eydhfi_gkZpbb
kbeulj_gbyijbdj_ibfd l_e_`d_h^bgbadhgph\gblbi_j_dbgmlhc
q_j_a [ehd Z d ^jm]hfm dhgpm gblb ih^\_kbf ]jma AZl_f hldjh_f
djZg dZi_evgbpu b \dexqbf h[Z \_glbeylhjZ Ih^ ^_ckl\b_f kbeu
\_glbeylhjh\ l_e_`dZ ijb^_l \ ^\b`_gb_ Ijb wlhf gZ klhe [m^ml
iZ^Zlv dZieb q_j_a h^bgZdh\u_ ijhf_`mldb \j_f_gb L_i_jv _keb
baf_jylvjZkklhygbyf_`^mkhk_^gbfbdZieyfblhfh`ghm[_^blvky
qlh wlb jZkklhygby [m^ml hlghkblvky dZd jy^ ihke_^h\Zl_evguo
g_q_lguo qbk_e LZdbf h[jZahf fh`gh aZdexqblv qlh l_e_`dZ
^\b]ZeZkvjZ\ghmkdhj_ggh kf§ IhkqblZ_fmkdhj_gb_ihnhjfme_
a = 2  aZf_jb\ ijhc^_ggh_ l_e_`dhc jZkklhygb_ s b \j_fy __
2s

^\b`_gby t ?keb mf_gvrblv kbem ^_ckl\mxsmx gZ l_e_`dm \ ^\Z


t

jZaZ \udexq_gb_f h^gh]h ba \_glbeylhjh\  b kgh\Z ihkqblZlv


mkdhj_gb_ lh hgh ihemqblky \ ^\Z jZaZ f_gvrbf q_f i_j\uc jZa
?keb l_i_jv m\_ebqblv fZkkm l_e_`db \ ^\Z jZaZ ^h[Z\e_gb_f d
l_e_`d_ ]jmaZ fZkkhc jZ\ghc fZkk_ l_e_`db  b kgh\Z ihkqblZlv
10
mkdhj_gb_ lh hgh ihemqblky \ ^\Z jZaZ f_gvrbf q_f i_j\uc jZa
LZdbf h[jZahf aZdexqZ_f qlh mkdhj_gb_ l_e_`db ijyfh
ijhihjpbhgZevgh ijbeh`_gghc d g_c kbe_ b h[jZlgh
ijhihjpbhgZevgh__ fZkk_
4. Mkdhj_gb_ l_eZ ijyfh ijhihjpbhgZevgh jZ\gh^_ckl\mxs_c
ijbeh`_gguo d g_fm kbe b h[jZlgh ijhihjpbhgZevgh _]h fZkk_
U
U F
a= .
d] ⋅ f
m
5. HgbkhgZijZ\e_gu 6. G 1 2 .
k
§12.
1. Hiulubah[jZ`_ggu_gZjbkmq_[gbdZih^l\_j`^Zxl
lj_lbc aZdhg GvxlhgZ <h \k_o wlbo hiulZo ijb ihfhsb ^\mo
^bgZfhf_ljh\ baf_jyxlky kbeu k dhlhjufb ^\Z l_eZ ^_ckl\mxl
^jm]gZ^jm]Z< i_j\hfhiul_\aZbfh^_ckl\b_l_eijhbkoh^blijb
bo g_ihkj_^kl\_gghf dhglZdl_ \h \lhjhf ² gZ jZkklhygbb \
lj_lv_f ² \ ijhp_kk_ ^\b`_gby Ijb wlhf \ dZ`^hf kemqZ_
ihdZaZgby ^bgZfhf_ljh\ hdZau\Zxlky h^bgZdh\ufb LZdbf
h[jZahf fh`gh k^_eZlv \u\h^ qlh ^\Z l_eZ ^_ckl\mxl ^jm] gZ
^jm]Z k kbeZfb jZ\gufb ih fh^mex b ijhlb\hiheh`gufb ih
gZijZ\e_gbx
2. Kbeuk dhlhjufb\aZbfh^_ckl\mxl^\Zl_eZjZ\guihfh^mexb
ijhlb\hiheh`guihgZijZ\e_gbx
3. Wlhmkdhj_gb_\\b^m[hevrhcfZkkuA_febij_g_[j_`bl_evghfZeh
4. GZijbf_j Khegp_ b EmgZ \aZbfh^_ckl\mxl ihkj_^kl\hf
]jZ\blZpbhgguokbe
5. Wlbkbeuijbeh`_gud jZagufl_eZf

1. >\b`_gb_ih^^_ckl\b_fkbeuly`_klb
§13.

2. GZ^h baf_jblv jZkklhygby dhlhju_ rZjbd ijhoh^bl aZ


ihke_^h\Zl_evgu_ h^bgZdh\u_ ijhf_`mldb \j_f_gb b m[_^blvky \
lhf qlh ^Zggu_ jZkklhygby hlghkylky dZd jy^ ihke_^h\Zl_evguo
g_q_lguo qbk_e Wlh b [m^_l y\eylvky ^hdZaZl_evkl\hf lh]h qlh
k\h[h^gh_iZ^_gb_l_eZy\ey_lkyjZ\ghmkdhj_gguf^\b`_gb_f kf

3. K p_evx ihdZaZlv qlh mkdhj_gb_ k\h[h^gh]h iZ^_gby h^bgZdh\h


§8).

^ey\k_ol_e
4. Mkdhj_gb_\ua\Zggh_^_ckl\b_fkbeuly`_klb
5. BaaZkbeukhijhlb\e_gby\ha^moZ

11
6. =Zebe_c
§14.
1. >ZhgZij_iylkl\m_l_]hih^t_fm
2. K mkdhj_gb_f g Ijb ^\b`_gbb l_eZ \\_jo _]h kdhjhklv
mf_gvrZ_lky ih aZdhgm v(t) = v0 – gt < \_jog_c lhqdb ljZ_dlhjbb
kdhjhklv l_eZ jZ\gZ gmex b hgh gZqbgZ_l ^\b]Zlvky \gba
m\_ebqb\ZykdhjhklvihaZdhgmv(t) = gt^hl_oihjihdZg_ miZ^_l
gZa_fex
3. Hl\_ebqbgugZqZevghckdhjhklb
4. ?keb gZijZ\blv hkv \\_jo lh ijh_dpby \_dlhjZ kdhjhklb gZ wlm
hkv iheh`bl_evgZ Z ijh_dpby mkdhj_gby k\h[h^gh]h iZ^_gby ²
hljbpZl_evgZ

§15.
1. <aZbfgh_ ijbly`_gb_ \k_o l_e <k_e_gghc ]jZ\blZpbhggh_
\aZbfh^_ckl\b_l_e 
2. =jZ\blZpbhggufb
3. BkZZdGvxlhg\ ;9,,\_d_
4. >\Z l_eZ ijbly]b\Zxlky ^jm] d ^jm]m k kbehc ijyfh
ijhihjpbhgZevghc ijhba\_^_gbx bo fZkk b h[jZlgh
ijhihjpbhgZevghcd\Z^jZlmjZkklhygbyf_`^mgbfb
5. F = G 1 2 2  ]^_ F ² fh^mev ]jZ\blZpbhgghc kbeu m1, m2 —
mm

fZkku \aZbfh^_ckl\mxsbo l_e r ² jZkklhygb_ f_`^m gbfb G —


r

]jZ\blZpbhggZyihklhyggZyjZ\gZy ⋅10-11 G⋅f2d]2.


6. AZdhg\k_fbjgh]hly]hl_gbykijZ\_^eb\\ ke_^mxsbokemqZyo
^ey^\mol_ejZaf_judhlhjuoij_g_[j_`bfhfZeuk jZkklhygb_fr
f_`^mgbfb _kebh^ghbal_ebf__lnhjfmrZjZjZ^bmkb fZkkZ
dhlhjh]h \h fgh]h jZa [hevr_ q_f m \lhjh]h l_eZ ijhba\hevghc
nhjfu    ^ey ^\mo h^ghjh^guo l_e rZjhh[jZaghc nhjfu ijb
ex[uobojZaf_jZo
7. >Z

1. <_jgh 2. Mf_gvrZ_lky3. Fl = mg.


§16.

4. KbeZly`_klb[hevr_gZ ihexkZoldA_fey g_fgh]hkiexkgmlZ


m ihexkh\
5. Hghijb[ebabl_evgh\ jZaf_gvr_a_fgh]h

12
1. RZjbd ^\b`_lky hl lhqdb : d lhqd_ < ih^ ^_ckl\b_f kbeu
§18.
U
mijm]hklb F  WlZ kbeZ \hagbdeZ \ j_amevlZl_ jZkly`_gby rgmjZ
Kdhjhklv mkdhj_gb_ rZjbdZ b ^_ckl\mxsZy gZ g_]h kbeZ
gZijZ\e_gu hl lhqdb A d lhqd_ B RZjbd ^\b`_lky ijyfhebg_cgh
l__]hljZ_dlhjby²ijyfZyebgby
2. KbeZmijm]hklb\ rgmj_\hagbdeZ\ j_amevlZl__]hjZkly`_gbyb
hgZgZijZ\e_gZd lhqd_OKdhjhklvrZjbdZb ^_ckl\mxsZygZg_]h
kbeZ gZijZ\e_gu ih ijyfuf i_j_k_dZxsbfky ih^ m]ehf  R .
LjZ_dlhjby rZjbdZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc hdjm`ghklv l_ rZjbd
^\b`_lkydjb\hebg_cgh
3. ?keb kdhjhklv l_eZ b ^_ckl\mxsZy gZ g_]h kbeZ gZijZ\e_gu
\^hev i_j_k_dZxsboky ijyfuo lh l_eh ^\b`_lky djb\hebg_cgh
_keb\^hevh^ghcijyfhclhl_eh^\b`_lkyijyfhebg_cgh

1. Hiulih\uk_dZgbxbkdjubalhqbevgh]hdZfgy
§19.

2. Mkdhj_gb_ gZijZ\e_gh ih jZ^bmkm d p_gljm hdjm`ghklb b hgh


gZau\Z_lkyp_gljhklj_fbl_evguf

3. Ihnhjfme_Zp =
v2
.
4. Ih jZ^bmkm d p_gljm hdjm`ghklb ?_ fh^mev hij_^_ey_lky ih
r

nhjfme_Fp =
mv 2
.
r
§20.
1. H[jZs_gb_ieZg_l\hdjm]KhegpZb kimlgbdh\\hdjm]ieZg_l
2. Ld hg h[eZ^Z_l ^hklZlhqgh [hevrhc kdhjhklvx gZijZ\e_gghc
ihdZkZl_evghcd ljZ_dlhjbb^\b`_gby
3. >Z ld lZdh_ ^\b`_gb_ ijhbkoh^bl lhevdh ih^ ^_ckl\b_f kbeu
ly`_klb
4. Khh[sblv_fmi_j\mxdhkfbq_kdmxkdhjhklv

5. Zp = ; v 2 = gr ⇒ v = gr . IheZ]Zyr ≈ RAlhihemqZ_f
v2 v2
;g=
r r
qlh v = gRA ≈ dfk
6. Ihweebilbq_kdhchj[bl_\hdjm]A_febihweebilbq_kdhchj[bl_
\hdjm]KhegpZ

13
§21.
1. Bfimevkhf l_eZ gZau\Z_lky nbabq_kdZy \_ebqbgZ jZ\gZy
ijhba\_^_gbxfZkkul_eZgZ_]hkdhjhklv
2. Bfimevkb kdhjhklv^\b`ms_]hkyl_eZ\k_]^ZkhgZijZ\e_gu
3. < kbkl_f_KBd]⋅fk

§22.
1. Hiul bah[jZ`_gguc gZ jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ ijh\h^blky
ke_^mxsbfh[jZahf;_jmlky^\ZrZjbdZih^\_r_ggu_gZgblyolZd
qlh[u hgb dZkZebkv ^jm] ^jm]Z H^bg ba rZjbdh\ hldehgyxl gZ
g_dhlhjuc m]he b hlimkdZxl RZjbd ^hklb]gm\ k\h_]h ij_`g_]h
iheh`_gby m^Zjy_lky h \lhjhc b hklZgZ\eb\Z_lky Ijb wlhf \lhjhc
rZjbd hldehgy_lky gZ lhl `_ m]he LZdbf h[jZahf ijb
\aZbfh^_ckl\bbbfimevki_j\h]hrZjbdZmf_gvrbekygZklhevdhgZ
kdhevdhm\_ebqbekybfimevk\lhjh]hWlhlhiulih^l\_j`^Z_laZdhg
khojZg_gbybfimevkZ
2. Kbkl_fZl_egZau\Z_lkyaZfdgmlhc_kebgZwlbl_eZg_^_ckl\mxl
\g_rgb_kbeu
3. <_dlhjgZykmffZbfimevkh\l_eaZfdgmlhckbkl_fuihklhyggZ\h
\j_f_gbijbex[uo^\b`_gbyob \aZbfh^_ckl\byowlbol_e
U U U U U U
4. m1v1′ + m2 v ′2 = m1v1 + m2 v2  ]^_ m1, m2 ² fZkku l_e v1 , v 2 ² bo
U U
kdhjhklb ^h \aZbfh^_ckl\by v1′ , v 2′ ² bo kdhjhklb ihke_
\aZbfh^_ckl\by
§23.
1. >\b`msbcky \ha^mo h[eZ^Z_l g_dhlhjuf bfimevkhf Ih aZdhgm
khojZg_gby bfimevkZ rZjbd h[eZ^Z_l lZdbf `_ ih fh^mex gh
ijhlb\hiheh`guf ih gZijZ\e_gbx bfimevkhf < j_amevlZl_ hg
^\b`_lkyijhlb\hiheh`ghkljm_\uoh^ys_]hbarZjbdZ\ha^moZ
2. >\b`_gb_ \h^hf_lguo ]b^jhfhlhpbdeh\ j_Zdlb\guo kZfhe_lh\
b jZd_l
3. <h_ggh_gZmqghbkke_^h\Zl_evkdh_ljZgkihjlgh_b l^
4. =jmah\hc hlk_d ihe_aghc gZ]jmadb \ kemqZ_ bah[jZ`_gghf gZ
jbkmgd_ wlh dhkfbq_kdbc dhjZ[ev  ijb[hjguc hlk_d [Zd k
hdbkebl_e_f[Zdk ]hjxqbfgZkhkudZf_jZk]hjZgbykhieh
5. JZkkfhljbf ijbgpbi ^_ckl\by jZd_lu gZ ijbf_j_
h^ghklmi_gqZlhc K ihfhsvx gZkhkh\ lhieb\h b hdbkebl_ev
ih^Zxlky\ dZf_jmk]hjZgby]^_hgbk]hjZyh[jZamxl]Za\ukhdhc
l_fi_jZlmju b \ukhdh]h ^Z\e_gby < j_amevlZl_ \hagbdgh\_gby
[hevrhc jZaghklb ^Z\e_gbc \ dZf_j_ k]hjZgby b \ dhkfbq_kdhf

14
ijhkljZgkl\_]ZaubadZf_juk]hjZgby\ulZedb\ZxlkygZjm`mq_j_a
khieh k h]jhfghc kdhjhklvx < kbem aZdhgZ khojZg_gby bfimevkZ
jZd_lZ ihemqZ_l bfimevk jZ\guc ih fh^mex b ijhlb\hiheh`gh
gZijZ\e_ggucbfimevkm\ue_l_\r_ckljmb]ZaZ
6. Hlkdhjhklbbkl_q_gby]ZaZfZkkulhieb\ZlbiZlhieb\Zb l^
7. Kihkh[ghklvjZa\b\Zlv[hevrmxkdhjhklv
8. Khiehf\gbald\ lZdhfkemqZ_j_Zdlb\gZykljmy]Zkblkdhjhklv
jZd_lu

1. Dhe_[Zgb_fZylgbdZqZkh\kljmgu]blZju
§24.

2. >\b`_gb_ih\lhjy_lkyq_j_ahij_^_e_ggucijhf_`mlhd\j_f_gb
3. I_jbh^hf dhe_[Zgbc gZau\Z_lky ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb q_j_a
dhlhjuc ^\b`_gb_ ih\lhjy_lky \j_fy kh\_jr_gby h^gh]h
dhe_[Zgby 
4. AZ\j_fyjZ\gh_i_jbh^mdhe_[ZgbcdZ`^h_babah[jZ`_gguogZ
jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ l_e ^\Z`^u ijhoh^bl q_j_a iheh`_gb_
jZ\gh\_kby ^\b]Zykv\ ijhlb\hiheh`guogZijZ\e_gbyo 

§25.
1. KbeZmijm]hklb^_ckl\m_lgZrZjbd\ lhqdZo<, K, D, :lddh]^Z
rZjbdgZoh^blky\ wlbolhqdZoijm`bgZ^_nhjfbjh\ZgZ jZklygmlZ
beb k`ZlZ  < lhqd_ O kbeZ mijm]hklb gZ rZjbd g_ ^_ckl\m_l ld
dh]^Z rZjbd gZoh^blky \ wlhc lhqd_ ijm`bgZ g_ ^_nhjfbjh\ZgZ
LhqdZO gZau\Z_lkyiheh`_gb_fjZ\gh\_kbyrZjbdZ
2. Ih f_j_ ijb[eb`_gby rZjbdZ d lhqd_ O kdhjhklv l_eZ
m\_ebqb\Z_lky ld kbeZ mijm]hklb b mkdhj_gb_ kh\iZ^Zxl ih
gZijZ\e_gbx kh kdhjhklvx Ih f_j_ m^Ze_gby rZjbdZ hl lhqdb O
kdhjhklv l_eZ mf_gvrZ_lky ld kbeZ mijm]hklb b mkdhj_gb_
ijhlb\hiheh`ghgZijZ\e_gukdhjhklb
3. Ld ex[h_ l_eh h[eZ^Z_l k\hckl\hf khojZgylv k\hx kdhjhklv
_kebgZg_]hg_^_ckl\mxlkbeubeb^_ckl\b_kbekdhfi_gkbjh\Zgh
Ijb ijhoh`^_gbb iheh`_gby jZ\gh\_kby gZ rZjbd g_ ^_ckl\m_l
kbeZ mijm]hklb Z _]h kdhjhklv g_ jZ\gZ gmex b khojZgy_l k\h_
agZq_gb_b gZijZ\e_gb_
4. Dhe_[ZgbygZau\Zxlkyk\h[h^gufb_kebhgbijhbkoh^yllhevdh
aZkq_lgZqZevgh]haZiZkZwg_j]bbkbkl_fu
5. Dhe_[Zl_evgufbkbkl_fZfb gZau\Zxlkykbkl_ful_ekihkh[guo
kh\_jrZlvk\h[h^gu_dhe_[Zgby
6. FZylgbdhf gZau\Z_lky l\_j^h_ l_eh kh\_jrZxs__ ih^
^_ckl\b_f ijbeh`_gguo kbe dhe_[Zgby hdheh g_ih^\b`ghc lhqdb
beb\hdjm]hkb
15
7. Ijm`bggucfZylgbdkhklhblbal_eZaZdj_ie_ggh]hgZijm`bg_
GblyghcfZylgbdkhklhblbal_eZih^\_r_ggh]hgZgblb

§26.
1. :fieblm^Z ² fZdkbfZevgh_ kf_s_gb_ dhe_[exs_]hky l_eZ hl
iheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kby:fieblm^Zh[hagZqZ_lky[md\hc©:ªb \KB
baf_jy_lky\ f_ljZo f 
I_jbh^ ² \j_fy kh\_jr_gby h^gh]h dhe_[Zgby I_jbh^
h[hagZqZ_lky[md\hc©Tªb \KBbaf_jy_lky\ k_dmg^Zo k 
QZklhlZ ² dhebq_kl\h dhe_[Zgbc \ _^bgbpm \j_f_gb QZklhlZ
h[hagZqZ_lky[md\hc©νªb \KBbaf_jy_lky\ ]_jpZo =p 
2. H^ghihegh_dhe_[Zgb__klvdhe_[Zgb_aZi_jbh^
3. K\yavf_`^mi_jbh^hfb qZklhlhc\ujZ`Z_lkynhjfmehcL = 1/ν
bebν = 1/L.
4. Z Q_f[hevr_^ebgZgblbfZylgbdZl_ff_gvr_qZklhlZ[ q_f
[hevr_^ebgZgblbfZylgbdZl_f[hevr_i_jbh^
5. Kh[kl\_gghcqZklhlhcdhe_[Zl_evghckbkl_fugZau\Z_lkyqZklhlZ
k\h[h^guodhe_[Zgbckbkl_fu
6. ?keb fZylgbdb dhe_[exlky \ ijhlb\hiheh`guo nZaZo lh bo
kdhjhklb ijhlb\hiheh`gh gZijZ\e_gu _keb \ h^bgZdh\uo lh bo
kdhjhklbkhgZijZ\e_gu

§27.
1. Hiul klZ\beky k p_evx ihdZaZlv qlh dhe_[Zgby ijm`bggh]h
fZylgbdZy\eyxlky]Zjfhgbq_kdbfbHgaZdexqZ_lky\ lhfqlh]jma
gZijbf_j \hjhgdZ k gZeblhc djZkys_c `b^dhklvx  mdj_ie_gguc
gZ ijm`bg_ ijb k\h_f dhe_[Zl_evghf ^\b`_gbb hklZ\ey_l ke_^
ljZ_dlhjbb gZ ^\b`ms_cky k ihklhygghc kdhjhklvx [mfZ`ghc
e_gl_ Ihemq_ggZy lZdbf kihkh[hf ljZ_dlhjby y\ey_lky
kbgmkhb^hc
2. Kbgmkhb^hc Hlj_ahd OA khhl\_lkl\m_l Zfieblm^_ dhe_[Zgbc Z
hlj_ahdOB ²i_jbh^m
3. =Zjfhgbq_kdbfb dhe_[Zgbyfb gZau\Zxlky dhe_[Zgby \ dhlhjuo
baf_g_gb_dZdhceb[h nbabq_kdhc \_ebqbgu ijhbkoh^bl ih aZdhgm
kbgmkZbebdhkbgmkZ
4. Qlhdhe_[Zgbygbl_\h]hfZylgbdZy\eyxlky]Zjfhgbq_kdbfb
5. FZl_jbZevgZy lhqdZ h[eZ^ZxsZy fZkkhc b dhe_[exsZyky gZ
ihklhygghf jZkklhygbb hl lhqdb ih^\_kZ gZau\Z_lky
fZl_fZlbq_kdbffZylgbdhf

16
6. Dhe_[Zgby gblygh]h fZylgbdZ fh`gh kqblZlv ]Zjfhgbq_kdbfb
_keb^ebgZgblbfgh]h[hevr_jZaf_jh\ih^\_r_ggh]hgZg_cl_eZ
gZijbf_j rZjbdZ  gblv hq_gv e_]dZy b fZehjZkly`bfZy kbeu
lj_gby\ kbkl_f_hlkmlkl\mxlZfieblm^Zdhe_[ZgbcfZeZ
7. F_gyxlkyihaZdhgmkbgmkZbebdhkbgmkZ

§28.
1. Ijbmkeh\bbhlkmlkl\byihl_jvwg_j]bb
2. KmffZ dbg_lbq_kdhc b ihl_gpbZevghc wg_j]bc ihklhyggZ
kh]eZkgh aZdhgm khojZg_gby wg_j]bb b jZ\gZ i_j\hgZqZevghfm
aZiZkmihl_gpbZevghcwg_j]bbdhe_[Zl_evghckbkl_fu
3. G_l
4. Mf_gvrZ_lky
5. < \h^_ ld \ g_c gZ fZylgbd ^_ckl\m_l [hevrZy kbeZ
khijhlb\e_gbyq_f\ \ha^mo_

§29.
1. G_lbaaZkhijhlb\e_gbykj_^u
2. Ijbeh`blvd dhe_[exs_fml_emi_jbh^bq_kdmx\g_rgxxkbem
3. Dhe_[ZgbygZau\Zxlky\ugm`^_ggufb_kebhgbijhbkoh^ylih^
^_ckl\b_fi_jbh^bq_kdbbaf_gyxs_cky\g_rg_ckbeu
4. <ugm`^Zxs_c kbehc gZau\Z_lky i_jbh^bq_kdb baf_gyxsZyky
\g_rgyykbeZ\uau\ZxsZydhe_[Zgby
5. Dh]^Z Zfieblm^Z b qZklhlZ \ugm`^_gguo dhe_[Zgbc i_j_klZxl
f_gylvky
6. WlbqZklhlujZ\gu
7. Fh]mlgZijbf_jihjr_gvihfih\h]hgZkhkZ
8. >hl_oihjihdZ^_ckl\m_l\ugm`^ZxsZykbeZ

§30.
1. Hiul ijh\h^blky k p_evx ^_fhgkljZpbb y\e_gby j_ahgZgkZ >ey
wlh]h [_jml ^\Z fZylgbdZ \bkysb_ gZ h[s_f rgmj_ >ebgZ
fZylgbdZ  g_baf_ggZ b ke_^h\Zl_evgh _fm khhl\_lkl\m_l
hij_^_e_ggZy qZklhlZ k\h[h^guo dhe_[Zgbc kh[kl\_ggZy qZklhlZ 
>ebgm fZylgbdZ  fh`gh f_gylv ijb ihfhsb k\h[h^guo dhgph\
gbl_cIjbwlhff_gy_lky_]hkh[kl\_ggZyqZklhlZ?kebhldehgblv
fZylgbdhliheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kbyb ij_^hklZ\blvkZfhfmk_[_lh
hg gZqg_l kh\_jrZlv k\h[h^gu_ dhe_[Zgby Wlh \uah\_l dhe_[Zgby
rgmjZ \ j_amevlZl_ q_]h gZ fZylgbd  [m^_l ^_ckl\h\Zlv
\ugm`^ZxsZy kbeZ k qZklhlhc jZ\ghc kh[kl\_gghc qZklhl_

17
fZylgbdZ Ih^ ^_ckl\b_f wlhc kbeu fZylgbd  gZqg_l kh\_jrZlv
\ugm`^_ggu_dhe_[Zgby?kebl_i_jvmf_gvrZlv^ebgmfZylgbdZ
lh _]h qZklhlZ b qZklhlZ \ugm`^Zxs_c kbeu ^_ckl\mxs_c gZ
fZylgbd  [m^ml m\_ebqb\Zlvky Ijb wlhf Zfieblm^Z
mklZgh\b\rboky \ugm`^_gguo dhe_[Zgbc fZylgbdZ  [m^_l
\hajZklZlv HgZ ^hklb]g_l fZdkbfZevgh]h agZq_gby ijb jZ\_gkl\_
^ebg fZylgbdh\ Z khhl\_lkl\_ggh ijb jZ\_gkl\_ qZklhlu
\ugm`^Zxs_c kbeu b kh[kl\_gghc qZklhlu fZylgbdZ  < wlhf b
khklhblkmlvy\e_gbyj_ahgZgkZ
2. Y\e_gb_ j_ahgZgkZ aZdexqZ_lky \ j_adhf m\_ebq_gbb
Zfieblm^u mklZgh\b\rboky \ugm`^_gguo dhe_[Zgbc ijb
kh\iZ^_gbb qZklhlu kh[kl\_gguo dhe_[Zgbc kbkl_fu k qZklhlhc
\ugm`^Zxs_ckbeu
3. ldbo^ebguZke_^h\Zl_evghb qZklhlujZ\gu
4. Lhevdhd \ugm`^_gguf
5. Ihe_agh_ y\e_gb_ \ fmaudZevguo bgkljmf_glZo <j_^gh_
y\e_gb_ ijb ijhoh`^_gbb khe^Zl ih fhklm \ gh]m \ j_amevlZl_
j_ahgZgkZfhklfh`_ljZajmrblvky

1. <hafms_gby jZkijhkljZgyxsb_ \ ijhkljZgkl\_ b m^Zeyxsb_ky


§31.

hlf_klZbo\hagbdgh\_gbygZau\Zxlky\hegZfb
2. < gboijhbkoh^bli_j_ghkwg_j]bb[_ai_j_ghkZ\_s_kl\Z
3. G_lg_ijhbkoh^bl
4. Mijm]bfb \hegZfb gZau\Zxlky \hegu jZkijhkljZgyxsb_ky \
mijm]bokj_^Zo
5. We_dljhfZ]gblgu_\hegu

1. Ijh^hevgu_\hegu²wlhlZdb_\hegu\ dhlhjuodhe_[ZgbyqZklbp
§32.

kj_^u kh\_jrZxlky \^hev gZijZ\e_gby jZkijhkljZg_gby \heg


gZijbf_ja\mdh\u_\heguIhi_j_qgu_\hegu²wlhlZdb_\heguijb
dhlhjuo dhe_[Zgby qZklbp kj_^u kh\_jrZxlky i_ji_g^bdmeyjgh
gZijZ\e_gbxjZkijhkljZg_gby \heg gZijbf_j\hegu gZ ih\_joghklb
\h^u
2. <hegZfb k^\b]Z y\eyxlky ihi_j_qgu_ \hegZfb k`Zlby ²
ijh^hevgu_
3. Ihi_j_qgu_ \hegu fh]ml jZkijhkljZgylvky lhevdh \ l\_j^hc
kj_^_ijh^hevgu_²\ l\_j^hc`b^dhcbeb]Zahh[jZaghckj_^_
4. Ld\ ]ZaZob `b^dhklyog_\hagbdZ_lmijm]bokbeijbk^\b]_

18
§33.
1. >ebghc\hegugZau\Z_lkyjZkklhygb_f_`^m^\mfy[eb`Zcrbfb
lhqdZfb\hegudhe_[exsbfky\ h^bgZdh\uonZaZo
2. ;md\hc©λª qblZ_lky©eZf[^Zª 
3. AZi_jbh^L h^gh]hihegh]hdhe_[Zgby
4. IhnhjfmeZfλ = vL b v = λ/L = λν.
5. F_`^mlhqdZfbb b 

1. Wlb hiulu ^_fhgkljbjmxl dhe_[Zl_evguc oZjZdl_j


§34.

\hagbdgh\_gby a\mdZ < i_j\hf hiul_ \ dZq_kl\_ bklhqgbdZ a\mdZ


[_j_lky h[uqgZy ebg_cdZ aZ`ZlZy \ lbkdZo \h \lhjhf ² kljmgZ
dhgpudhlhjhcaZdj_ie_gu\ lj_lv_f²dZf_jlhg?kebdZ`^mxba
\ur_ i_j_qbke_gguo kbkl_f \u\_klb ba iheh`_gby jZ\gh\_kby b
^Zlv _c kh\_jrZlv k\h[h^gu_ dhe_[Zgby lh fu mkeurbf a\md
LZdbf h[jZahf bklhqgbdZfb a\mdZ y\eyxlky dhe_[Zl_evgu_
kbkl_fu
2. Ex[hcbklhqgbda\mdZy\ey_lkydhe_[Zl_evghckbkl_fhc
3. Dhe_[Zgby k qZklhlhc hl  =p ^h  =p gZau\Zxlky
a\mdh\ufbihkdhevdm\hkijbgbfZxlkyq_eh\_dhf
4. BgnjZa\mdh\ufb gZau\Zxlky dhe_[Zgby k qZklhlhc gb`_  =p
mevljZa\mdh\ufb²k qZklhlhc\ur_=p

1. Hiul ijh\h^blky k p_evx \uykgblv aZ\bkbfhklv \ukhlu a\mdZ hl


§35.

qZklhlu dhe_[Zgbc >ey ijh\_^_gby ^Zggh]h hiulZ [_jml ijb[hj


khklhysbcbag_kdhevdboam[qZluof_lZeebq_kdbo^bkdh\bf_xsbo
jZaebqgh_ qbkeh am[v_\ b aZdj_ie_gguo gZ h^ghc hkb AZl_f \k_
^bkdb ijb\h^yl \h \jZs_gb_ b lhgdhc dZjlhgghc ieZklbgdhc
ihhq_j_^gh dZkZxlky am[v_\ dZ`^h]h ba ^bkdZ Ijb wlhf fu
mkeurbfjZagu_ih\ukhl_a\mdbFh`ghaZf_lblvqlhq_f [hevr_
qbkeh am[v_\ gZ ^bkd_ b khhl\_lkl\_ggh [hevr_ qZklhlZ dhe_[Zgbc
dZjlhgghcieZklbgdbl_f [hevr_ [m^_l\ukhlZa\mdZ :gZeh]bqgmx
aZ\bkbfhklvfh`gh \uy\blv bkihevamy \k_]h lhevdh h^bg ^bkd >ey
wlh]hgZ^h m\_ebqb\Zlvkdhjhklv ^bkdZ Q_f [hevr_ kdhjhklv ^bkdZ
l_f [hevr_ qZklhlZ dhe_[Zgbc dZjlhgghc ieZklbgdb b l_f \ur_
[m^_lba^Z\Z_fuca\md
2. Hiulijh\h^blkyk p_evx\uykgblvaZ\bkbfhklv\ukhlua\mdZhl
qZklhlu dhe_[Zgbc >ey ijh\_^_gby ^Zggh]h hiulZ [_jml ^\Z
dZf_jlhgZ ba^Zxsbo a\mdb jZaghc \ukhlu H[Z dZf_jlhgZ
ijb\h^yl \ dhe_[Zl_evgh_ ^\b`_gb_ Ijb wlhf hkljby

19
aZdj_ie_ggu_ gZ gbo hklZ\eyxl gZ ^\b`ms_cky kl_deygghc
ieZklbgd_ke_^u?kebkjZ\gblvwlbke_^ulhfh`ghm[_^blvkyqlh
qZklhlZdhe_[Zgbc[hevr_m dZf_jlhgZk [he__\ukhdbfa\mdhf
3. HlqZklhludhe_[Zgby
4. Qbkluf lhghf gZau\Z_lky a\md bklhqgbdZ kh\_jrZxs_]h
]Zjfhgbq_kdb_dhe_[Zgbykljh]hhij_^_e_gghcqZklhlu
5. A\md hij_^_e_gghc \ukhlu khhl\_lkl\mxsbc kZfhc gbadhc
qZklhl_ keh`gh]h a\mdZ kh\hdmighklb g_kdhevdbo qbkluo lhgh\ 
gZau\Z_lky hkgh\guf lhghf h[_jlhgu beb \ukrb_ ]Zjfhgbq_kdb_
lhgu²\k_hklZevgu_lhgukeh`gh]ha\mdZ
6. DZq_kl\h a\mdZ hij_^_ey_fh_ kh\hdmighklvx h[_jlhgh\
keh`gh]ha\mdZgZau\Z_lkyl_f[jhf
7. <ukhlZa\mdZhij_^_ey_lkyqZklhlhchkgh\gh]hlhgZ
8. L_f[ja\mdZhij_^_ey_lkykh\hdmighklvx_]hh[_jlhgh\

1. Hiulijh\h^blkyk p_evx\uykgblvaZ\bkbfhklv]jhfdhklba\mdZ
§36.

hl Zfieblm^u dhe_[Zgbc >ey ijh\_^_gby ^Zggh]h hiulZ [_jml


dZf_jlhg AZl_f _]h ijb ihfhsb fhehlhqdZ ijb\h^yl \
dhe_[Zl_evgh_ ^\b`_gb_ kgZqZeZ k h^ghc Zfieblm^hc ihke_ k
[hevr_c Ijb wlhf dZf_jlhg dh]^Z dhe_[e_lky k [hevr_c
Zfieblm^hca\mqbl]jhfq_
2. =jhfdhklvlZd`_mf_gvrblky
3. A\mdqZklhlu=p]jhfq_
4. Hl\_ebqbguZfieblm^udhe_[Zgbc
5. < kbkl_f_KB^; 6. Kemoq_eh\_dZmom^rZ_lky

§37.
1. Hiul ijh\h^blky k p_evx ihdZaZlv qlh \ \Zdmmf_ a\md g_
jZkijhkljZgy_lky >ey wlh]h a\hghd ihf_sZxl ih^ dhehdhe
\ha^mrgh]h gZkhkZ b \dexqZxl _]h AZl_f baih^ dhehdheZ
gZqbgZxl hldZqb\Zlv \ha^mo Ih f_j_ jZaj_`_gby \ha^moZ a\md
keur_g\k_lbr_b lbr_bgZdhg_pij_djZsZ_lkykh\k_f?keb`_
\ha^mo gZqZlv \gh\v \imkdZlv lh a\md klZgh\blky keur_g \k_
]jhfq_b ]jhfq_LZdbfh[jZahfa\md\ [_a\ha^mrghfijhkljZgkl\_
g_jZkijhkljZgy_lky
2. >Z fh`_l Ijbf_ju jZkijhkljZg_gby a\mdZ \ l\_j^uo l_eZo ²
jZkijhkljZg_gb_ a\mdZ ih `_e_agh^hjh`guf j_evkZf \ `b^dhklyo
²[jhr_ggucih^\h^mdZf_gv\ ]ZaZo²]jhf
3. Mijm]b_ l_eZ y\eyxlky emqrbfb ijh\h^gbdZfb a\mdZ q_f
ihjbklu_ D mijm]bf l_eZf hlghkylky [hevrbgkl\h f_lZeeh\

20
^_j_\vy ]Zau `b^dhklb d ihjbkluf ² \hcehd ihjhehg
i_ghieZkl
4. Iml_fhl^_edbihf_s_gbca\mdhbaheypbhggufbfZl_jbZeZfb

1. K qZklhlhckhhl\_lkl\mxs_ca\mdm
§38.

2. Ijh^hevgmx\hegm\ h[hbokemqZyo
3. Q_j_ag_kdhevdhk_dmg^ihke_\kiurdbfhegbbfukeurbf]jhf
4. < f \_d_ njZgpmakdbfb mq_gufb [ueZ baf_j_gZ kdhjhklv
a\mdZ< ^\moimgdlZojZkklhygb_f_`^mdhlhjufb[uehba\_klgh
ijhba\h^beb \uklj_eu ba imr_d < h[hbo imgdlZo baf_jyeb
hlj_adb \j_f_gb f_`^m \kiurdhc h]gy ijb \uklj_e_ b fhf_glhf
dh]^Z [ue keurZg a\md \uklj_eZ Kdhjhklv a\mdZ hij_^_eyeb dZd
hlghr_gb_ jZkklhygby f_`^m imgdlZfb d baf_j_gghfm hlj_adm
\j_f_gb
5. v fk
6. >ZaZ\bkbl

1. < j_amevlZl_hljZ`_gbya\mdZhljZaebqguoij_]jZ^
§39.

2. < fZe_gvdhc dhfgZl_ hljZ`_gguc a\md \hi_j\uo keb\Z_lky k


hkgh\gufb\h\lhjuoohjhrhih]ehsZ_lkyf_[_evx
3. Kl_guaZeZke_^m_lhl^_eZlva\mdhih]ehsZxsbffZl_jbZehf
4. Lda\mdh\u_\hegu\ jmihj_h[jZamxlmadhgZijZ\e_ggucimqhd

1. DhjimkZ]blZju[ZeZeZcdb
§40.

2. >eym\_ebq_gby]jhfdhklb
3. BogZagZq_gb_²mkbe_gb_a\mdZb kha^Zgbyl_f[jZ
4. =hehkh\u_k\yadb
5. HlnhjfujZaf_jZfZl_jbZeZj_ahgZlhjZ

1. Hiulihkeh`_gbxa\mdh\uo\heghl^\mobklhqgbdh\ijh\h^blky
§42.

ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf < dZq_kl\_ bklhqgbdh\ a\mdZ [_jml ^\Z


]jhfdh]h\hjbl_ey=jb =jih^dexq_ggu_d a\mdh\hfm]_g_jZlhjm
A= BaemqZ_fuc bfb a\md ihiZ^Z_l \ fbdjhnhg F ]^_ ihke_
ij_h[jZam_lky \ we_dljbq_kdb_ dhe_[Zgby Wlb dhe_[Zgby
mkbeb\Zxlky mkbebl_e_f gbadhc qZklhlu MGQ b j_]bkljbjmxlky
]Zev\Zghf_ljhf = GZkljhbf ]_g_jZlhj gZ qZklhlm  =p l_ gZ
^ebgm \hegu ijb[ebabl_evgh jZ\gmx  kf =jhfdh]h\hjbl_eb
mklZgh\bfgZjZkklhygbbf hlfbdjhnhgZ?kebl_i_jvdZ`^uc

21
]jhfdh]h\hjbl_ev ihhq_j_^gh ih^dexqblv d ]_g_jZlhjm lh fh`gh
aZf_lblv qlh ihdZaZgby ]Zev\Zghf_ljZ = \ h[hbo kemqZyo [m^ml
h^bgZdh\u LZdbf h[jZahf a\mdh\u_ \hegu h^bgZdh\hc qZklhlu
[m^ml bf_lv h^bgZdh\u_ Zfieblm^u ?keb l_i_jv ih^dexqblv ^\Z
]jhfdh]h\hjbl_ey h^gh\j_f_ggh lh ihdZaZgby ]Zev\Zghf_ljZ
m\_ebqZlky ijbf_jgh \ ^\Z jZaZ ih kjZ\g_gbx kh kemqZyfb dh]^Z
dZ`^uc ba gbo ih^dexqZeky \ hl^_evghklb Wlh ]h\hjbl h lhf qlh
\hegukdeZ^u\Zykvmkbeb\Zxl^jm]^jm]Zl_Zfieblm^Zdhe_[Zgbc
\ kmffZjghca\mdh\hc\heg_[hevr_q_f\ h^ghc?kebl_i_jvh^bg
ba ]jhfdh]h\hjbl_e_c ihkl_i_ggh ijb[eb`Zlv d fbdjhnhgm lh
fh`gh gZclb lZdb_ _]h iheh`_gby dh]^Z ihdZaZgby ]Zev\Zghf_ljZ
[m^ml jZ\gu gmex \hegu ]Zkyl ^jm] ^jm]Z  b dh]^Z hgb [m^ml
fZdkbfZevgu \hegu mkbeb\Zxl ^jm] ^jm]Z  < i_j\hf kemqZ_ wlb
iheh`_gby [m^ml khhl\_lkl\h\Zlv jZkklhygbyf f_`^m
i_j_^\b]Z_fuf ]jhfdh]h\hjbl_e_f b fbdjhnhghf
ijhihjpbhgZevgufkf iheh\bg_^ebgu\hegu \h\lhjhfkemqZ_
wlhjZkklhygb_ijhihjpbhgZevghkf ^ebg_\hegu 
2. JZaghklv jZkklhygbc ijhc^_gguo ^\mfy \hegZfb hl bklhqgbdh\
^hdhgdj_lghclhqdbgZau\Z_lkyjZaghklvxoh^Z^\mo\heg
3. < aZ\bkbfhklbhljZaghklboh^Z\hegj_amevlbjmxsb_dhe_[Zgby
eb[hmkbeb\Zxlkyeb[hhkeZ[_\Zxl
4. <hegu gZau\Zxlky dh]_j_glgufb _keb hgb bf_xl h^bgZdh\mx
qZklhlmb ihklhyggmx\h\j_f_gbjZaghklvnZa
5. G_ f_gyxsZyky \h \j_f_gb dZjlbgZ jZkij_^_e_gby \
ijhkljZgkl\_fbgbfmfh\b fZdkbfmfh\Zfieblm^j_amevlbjmxsbo
dhe_[Zgbc gZau\Z_lky bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc dZjlbghc
Bgl_jn_j_gpbhggZy dZjlbgZ ihemqZ_lky lhevdh hl dh]_j_glguo
bklhqgbdh\
6. Y\e_gb_keh`_gby\ ijhkljZgkl\_ \heg ijb dhlhjhf ihemqZ_lky
ihklhyggh_ \h \j_f_gb jZkij_^_e_gb_ Zfieblm^ j_amevlbjmxsbo
dhe_[ZgbcgZau\Z_lkybgl_jn_j_gpb_c
7. GZ^h ijbdju\ h^gh moh gZdehgylvky \ jZagu_ klhjhgu <
aZ\bkbfhklb hl lh]h ihiZ^_l moh \ h[eZklv bgl_jn_j_gpbhggh]h
fZdkbfmfZ beb fbgbfmfZ fu [m^_f khhl\_lkl\_ggh keurZlv
mkbe_gb_bebhkeZ[e_gb_]jhfdhklba\mdZ
8. >ey\k_o\b^h\\heg

§43.
1. >\b`msbfbkywe_dljbq_kdbfbaZjy^Zfb
2. <gmlj_ggbfbwe_dljbq_kdbfblhdZfbfZ]gblZ
3. FZ]gblgufb ebgbyfb gZau\Zxlky \hh[jZ`Z_fu_ ebgbb \^hev
dhlhjuo jZkiheh`bebkv [u fZ]gblgu_ klj_edb ihf_s_ggu_ \
fZ]gblgh_ihe_

22
4. Khhl\_lkl\_gghijyfhebg_cghb djb\hebg_cgh
5. AZgZijZ\e_gb_fZ]gblghc ebgbb\ dZdhceb[hlhqd_ijbgbfZxl
gZijZ\e_gb_ k_\_jgh]h ihexkZ fZ]gblghc klj_edb ihf_s_gghc \
wlmlhqdm
6. Q_fkbevg__ihe_l_f]ms_jZkiheh`_gu\ g_ffZ]gblgu_ebgbb
7. H gZijZ\e_gbbb \_ebqbg_fZ]gblgh]hihey

§44.
1. FZ]gblgu_ ebgbb ihehkh\h]h fZ]gblZ \uoh^yl ba k_\_jgh]h
ihexkZ \oh^yl \ x`guc <gmljb fZ]gblZ hgb gZijZ\e_gu hl
x`gh]hihexkZd k_\_jghfmM fZ]gblguoebgbcg_lgbgZqZeZgb
dhgpZ hgb eb[h aZfdgmlu eb[h b^ml ba [_kdhg_qghklb \
[_kdhg_qghklv Ebgbb ihey ihehkh\h]h fZ]gblZ bkdjb\e_gu M
ihexkh\fZ]gblZhgbjZkiheh`_gu[he__]mklhq_f\^Zebhlgbo
2. <hdjm] fZ]gblZ b ijh\h^gbdZ h[jZam_lky g_h^ghjh^gh_
fZ]gblgh_ihe_\gmljbkhe_ghb^Z²h^ghjh^gh_
3. < h^ghjh^ghf fZ]gblghf ihe_ wlZ kbeZ \ dZ`^hc lhqd_ ihey
ihklhyggZ b ih fh^mex b ih gZijZ\e_gbx < g_h^ghjh^ghf
fZ]gblghfihe_hgZ\ jZaguolhqdZoiheyfh`_l[ulvjZaebqghc b
ihfh^mexb ihgZijZ\e_gbx
4. < h^ghjh^ghf fZ]gblghf ihe_ fZ]gblgu_ ebgbb iZjZee_evgu b
jZkiheh`_guk h^bgZdh\hc]mklhlhc< g_h^ghjh^ghffZ]gblghfihe_
fZ]gblgu_ebgbbbkdjb\e_gub jZkiheh`_guk jZaebqghc]mklhlhc
5. Dj_klbdZfbb lhqdZfb

1. GZ^h\aylvijh\h^gbdb ijhimklblvihg_fmlhdkgZqZeZ\ h^ghf


§45.

gZijZ\e_gbbZ aZl_f\ ^jm]hfIjbbaf_g_gbbgZijZ\e_gbylhdZgZ


ijhlb\hiheh`gh_ jy^hf jZkiheh`_ggZy k ijh\h^gbdhf fZ]gblgZy
klj_edZih\_jg_lkygZ°LZdbfh[jZahfgZijZ\e_gb_fZ]gblguo
ebgbck\yaZghk gZijZ\e_gb_flhdZ
2. ?keb gZijZ\e_gb_ ihklmiZl_evgh]h ^\b`_gby [mjZ\qbdZ
kh\iZ^Z_l k gZijZ\e_gb_f lhdZ \ ijh\h^gbd_ lh gZijZ\e_gb_
\jZs_gby jmqdb [mjZ\qbdZ kh\iZ^Z_l k gZijZ\e_gb_f ebgbc
fZ]gblgh]hiheykha^Zggh]hwlbflhdhf
3. AgZy gZijZ\e_gb_ lhdZ fh`gh hij_^_eblv gZijZ\e_gb_ ebgbc
fZ]gblgh]h ihey b gZh[hjhl agZy gZijZ\e_gb_ fZ]gblguo ebgbc
fh`ghhij_^_eblvgZijZ\e_gb_lhdZ
4. ?keb h[o\Zlblv khe_ghb^ eZ^hgvx ijZ\hc jmdb b gZijZ\blv
q_luj_iZevpZihgZijZ\e_gbxlhdZ\ g_flh hlklZ\e_gguc gZ °

23
[hevrhc iZe_p [m^_l mdZau\Zlv gZijZ\e_gb_ ebgbc fZ]gblgh]h
ihey\gmljbkhe_ghb^Z
5. AgZy gZijZ\e_gb_ lhdZ \ khe_ghb^_ fh`gh hij_^_eblv
gZijZ\e_gb_ ebgbc fZ]gblgh]h ihey \gmljb g_]h b gZh[hjhl agZy
gZijZ\e_gb_ fZ]gblguo ebgbc \gmljb khe_ghb^Z fh`gh
hij_^_eblvgZijZ\e_gb_lhdZ

§46.
1. ;_j_lkyijh\h^gbdb ih^\_rb\Z_lkygZ]b[dboijh\h^Zodhlhju_
q_j_aj_hklZlih^dexq_gud bklhqgbdmlhdZIjh\h^gbdihf_sZxl
\ fZ]gblgh_ ihe_ ih^dh\hh[jZagh]h fZ]gblZ ?keb aZfdgmlv p_iv
lhijh\h^gbdk lhdhfijb^_l\ ^\b`_gb_?keb`_fZ]gblm[jZlvb
aZfdgmlv p_iv lh k ijh\h^gbdhf ijhbkoh^blv gbq_]h g_ [m^_l
LZdbf h[jZahf gZ ijh\h^gbd k lhdhf ihf_s_gguf \ fZ]gblgh_
ihe_^_ckl\m_lkbeZ
2. FZ]gblgh_ihe_h[gZjm`b\Z_lkyk\hbf^_ckl\b_fgZijh\h^gbdk
lhdhf
3. GZijZ\e_gb_ wlhc kbeu aZ\bkbl hl gZijZ\e_gby lhdZ \
ijh\h^gbd_b gZijZ\e_gbyfZ]gblguoebgbc
4. >eyijh\h^gbdZ_kebe_\ZyjmdZjZkiheh`_gZlZdqlh__ q_luj_
iZevpZgZijZ\e_guihgZijZ\e_gbxlhdZZ fZ]gblgu_ebgbb\oh^yl
\ eZ^hgv i_ji_g^bdmeyjgh d g_c lh hlklZ\e_gguc [hevrhc iZe_p
mdZ`_lgZijZ\e_gb_^_ckl\mxs_cgZijh\h^gbdkbeu
>ey^\b`ms_ckyaZjy`_gghcqZklbpu_kebe_\ZyjmdZjZkiheh`_gZ
lZd qlh __ q_luj_ iZevpZ jZkiheh`_gu ijhlb\ gZijZ\e_gby
^\b`_gby hljbpZl_evghc qZklbpu ih gZijZ\e_gbx ^\b`_gby
iheh`bl_evghc  Z fZ]gblgu_ ebgbb \oh^yl \ eZ^hgv
i_ji_g^bdmeyjgh d g_c lh hlklZ\e_gguc [hevrhc iZe_p mdZ`_l
gZijZ\e_gb_^_ckl\mxs_cgZwlmqZklbpmkbeu
5. AZ gZijZ\e_gb_ lhdZ \h \g_rg_c qZklb p_ib ijbgbfZxl
gZijZ\e_gb_^\b`_gbyhliheh`bl_evgh]hihexkZbklhqgbdZlhdZd
hljbpZl_evghfm
6. Ih ijZ\bem e_\hc jmdb fh`gh hij_^_eblv gZijZ\e_gb_ kbeu
^_ckl\mxs_c gZ ijh\h^gbd k lhdhf \ fZ]gblghf ihe_ beb
gZijZ\e_gb_ kbeu ^_ckl\mxs_c gZ aZjy`_ggmx qZklbpm
^\b`msmxky \ fZ]gblghf ihe_ LZd`_ ihevamykv wlbf ijZ\behf
fh`ghhij_^_eblvgZijZ\e_gb_lhdZ\ ijh\h^gbd_ _kebagZ_fdZd
gZijZ\e_gu fZ]gblgu_ ebgbb b kbeZ ^_ckl\mxsZy gZ ijh\h^gbd 
gZijZ\e_gb_ fZ]gblguo ebgbc _keb agZ_f dZd gZijZ\e_g lhd \
ijh\h^gbd_b kbeZ^_ckl\mxsZygZg_]h agZdaZjy^Z^\b`ms_cky
qZklbpu _keb agZ_f dZd gZijZ\e_gu fZ]gblgu_ ebgbb kdhjhklv
^\b`_gbyqZklbpub kbeZ^_ckl\mxsZygZg__ b l^
24
7. < kemqZ_dh]^ZgZijZ\e_gb_lhdZ\ ijh\h^gbd_eb[hgZijZ\e_gb_
kdhjhklbqZklbpukh\iZ^Zxlk gZijZ\e_gb_ffZ]gblghcebgbbbeb
iZjZee_evgu_c

§47.
1. FZ]gblgZy bg^mdpby ² wlh \_dlhjgZy nbabq_kdZy \_ebqbgZ
U
oZjZdl_jbamxsZyfZ]gblgh_ihe_HgZh[hagZqZ_lkykbf\hehf < .
2. Fh^mev \_dlhjZ fZ]gblghc bg^mdpbb hij_^_ey_lky dZd
hlghr_gb_ fh^mey kbeu ^_ckl\mxs_c gZ jZkiheh`_gguc
i_ji_g^bdmeyjghfZ]gblgufebgbyfijh\h^gbdk lhdhfd kbe_lhdZ
b _]h^ebg_ B = .
F

3. < kbkl_f_KBLe qblZ_lky©l_keZª 


Il

4. EbgbyfbfZ]gblghcbg^mdpbbgZau\Zxlkyebgbb dZkZl_evgu_ d
dhlhjuf \ dZ`^hc lhqd_ ihey kh\iZ^Zxl k gZijZ\e_gb_f \_dlhjZ
fZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb
5. FZ]gblgh_ ihe_ h^ghjh^gh _keb \h \k_o _]h lhqdZo fZ]gblgZy
U
bg^mdpby < ihklhyggZ < ijhlb\ghf kemqZ_ fZ]gblgh_ ihe_
g_h^ghjh^gh
6. KbeZ^_ckl\mxsZygZfZ]gblgmxklj_edmbeb^\b`msbckyaZjy^
\ fZ]gblghf ihe_ [m^_l l_f [hevr_ q_f [hevr_ fh^mev \_dlhjZ
fZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb\ ^Zgghclhqd_ihey

§48.
1. FZ]gblgucihlhdijhgbau\Zxsbciehkdbcdhglmj\ fZ]gblghf
ihe_ aZ\bkbl hl fh^mey \_dlhjZ fZ]gblghc bg^mdpbb iehsZ^b
dhglmjZ b hjb_glZpbb dhglmjZ ih hlghr_gbx d gZijZ\e_gbx
fZ]gblguoebgbc
2. M\_ebqb\Z_lky \ n jZa ihkdhevdm fZ]gblguc ihlhd ijyfh
ijhihjpbhgZe_gfh^mex\_dlhjZfZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb
3. FZ]gblguc ihlhd fZdkbfZe_g _keb iehkdhklv dhglmjZ
i_ji_g^bdmeyjgZ d gZijZ\e_gbx fZ]gblguo ebgbc b jZ\_g gmex
_kebiehkdhklvdhglmjZiZjZee_evgZfZ]gblgufebgbyf
4. >Zf_gy_lky

§49.
1. <k_ hiulu ^_fhgkljbjmxl y\e_gb_ we_dljhfZ]gblghc bg^mdpbb
aZdexqZxs__ky \ \hagbdgh\_gb_ lhdZ \ aZfdgmlhf ijh\h^gbd_ ijb
baf_g_gbb fZ]gblgh]h ihlhdZ ijhgbau\Zxs_]h ho\Zq_ggmx

25
ijh\h^gbdhf iehsZ^v < i_j\hf hiul_ ]Zev\Zghf_lj j_]bkljbjm_l
ihy\e_gb_ lhdZ \ aZfdgmlhc gZ g_]h dZlmrd_ ijb \klZ\e_gbb \ g__
fZ]gblZ <h \lhjhf hiul_ dZlmrdZ \dexq_ggZy \ p_iv bklhqgbdZ
lhdZ \klZ\ey_lky \h \lhjmx dZlmrdm aZfdgmlmx gZ ]Zev\Zghf_lj
IjbaZfudZgbbb jZafudZgbbp_ib]Zev\Zghf_ljkgh\Zj_]bkljbjm_l
lhd
2. Ijbbaf_g_gbbfZ]gblgh]hihlhdZq_j_adZlmrdm
3. Y\e_gb_we_dljhfZ]gblghcbg^mdpbbaZdexqZ_lky\ \hagbdgh\_gbb
we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ \ aZfdgmlhf ijh\h^gbd_ ijb baf_g_gbb
fZ]gblgh]h ihlhdZ ijhgbau\Zxs_]h ho\Zq_ggmx ijh\h^gbdhf
iehsZ^v
4. Y\e_gb_ we_dljhfZ]gblghc bg^mdpbb bkihevam_lky \
we_dljh]_g_jZlhjZoihemqb\rborbjhdh_jZkijhkljZg_gb_

§50.
1. We_dljbq_kdbc lhd i_jbh^bq_kdb f_gyxsbcky \h \j_f_gb ih
fh^mex b ih gZijZ\e_gbx gZau\Z_lky i_j_f_gguf lhdhf
I_j_f_gguc lhd fh`gh ihemqblv _keb \ dZlmrd_ aZfdgmlhc gZ
]Zev\Zghf_lj i_jbh^bq_kdb ^\b]Zlv fZ]gbl \\_jo b \gba Ijb wlhf
klj_edZ ]Zev\Zghf_ljZ [m^_l i_jbh^bq_kdb hldehgylvky hl gme_\h]h
agZq_gby lh \ h^gm klhjhgm lh \ ^jm]mx Wlh [m^_l
k\b^_l_evkl\h\Zlv h lhf qlh b fh^mev kbeu bg^mdpbhggh]h lhdZ b
_]h gZijZ\e_gb_ i_jbh^bq_kdb f_gyxlky \h \j_f_gb l_ \ dZlmrd_
h[jZam_lkyi_j_f_gguclhd
2. < we_dljhk_lyo
3. GZy\e_gb_we_dljhfZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb
4. =_g_jZlhj khklhbl ba klZlhjZ ² g_ih^\b`ghc qZklb
\uihegyxs_cnmgdpbxaZfdgmlh]hdhglmjZjhlhjZ²\jZsZxs_cky
qZklb \uihegyxsbc nmgdpbx fZ]gblZ \ ijhfure_gguo
]_g_jZlhjZo bkihevamxlky h[uqgh we_dljhfZ]gblu  Ijbgpbi
^_ckl\by ]_g_jZlhjZ hkgh\Zg gZ y\e_gbb we_dljhfZ]gblghc
bg^mdpbbIjb\jZs_gbbjhlhjZ\g_rg_ckbehcf_gy_lkyfZ]gblguc
ihlhdijhgbau\ZxsbcklZlhj\ j_amevlZl_q_]h\ g_fbg^mpbjm_lky
i_j_f_gguclhd
5. GZ l_ieh\hc we_dljhklZgpbb jhlhj ]_g_jZlhjZ ijb\h^blky \h
\jZs_gb_ iZjh\hc lmj[bghc gZ ]b^jhwe_dljhklZgpbb ² \h^yghc
lmj[bghc
6. LZd dZd kdhjhklv \jZs_gby \h^yguo lmj[bg hlghkbl_evgh
g_\ukhdZ lh ^ey kha^Zgby lhdZ klZg^Zjlghc qZklhlu ijbf_gyxl
fgh]hihexkgu_jhlhju
7. =p

26
§51.
1. :g]ebckdbfmq_guf>DFZdk\_eehf  \ ]WlZ
l_hjby \djZlp_ k\h^blky d lhfm qlh f_gyxs__ky \h \j_f_gb
we_dljbq_kdh_ ihe_ ihjh`^Z_l i_j_f_ggh_ fZ]gblgh_ ihe_ b
gZh[hjhl f_gyxs__ky \h \j_f_gb fZ]gblgh_ ihe_ ihjh`^Z_l
i_j_f_ggh_we_dljbq_kdh_ihe_
2. Bklhqgbdhfwe_dljhfZ]gblgh]hiheykem`ZlaZjy^u^\b`msb_ky
k mkdhj_gb_f
3. Kbeh\u_ ebgbb \boj_\h]h we_dljbq_kdh]h ihey aZfdgmlu Z
kbeh\u_ ebgbb we_dljhklZlbq_kdh]h ihey gZqbgZxlky gZ
iheh`bl_evguoaZjy^Zob aZdZgqb\ZxlkygZhljbpZl_evguo

§52.
1. We_dljhfZ]gblgZy \hegZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc kbkl_fm
ihjh`^Zxsbo ^jm] ^jm]Z b jZkijhkljZgyxsboky \ ijhkljZgkl\_
i_j_f_gguo we_dljbq_kdh]h b fZ]gblgh]h ihe_c
i_ji_g^bdmeyjguo ^jm] ^jm]m We_dljhfZ]gblgu_ \hegu y\eyxlky
ihi_j_qgufb lZd dZd iehkdhklv \ dhlhjhc e_`Zl dhe_[exsb_ky
U U
\_dlhju B b E  i_ji_g^bdmeyjgZ gZijZ\e_gbx jZkijhkljZg_gby
\hegu Bklhqgbdhf we_dljhfZ]gblguo \heg y\eyxlky mkdhj_ggh
^\b`msb_ky we_dljbq_kdb_ aZjy^u Kdhjhklv jZkijhkljZg_gby
we_dljhfZ]gblguo\heg\ \Zdmmf_jZ\gZkdhjhklbk\_lZl_
dfk
U
2. <_dlhj gZijy`_gghklb we_dljbq_kdh]h ihey E b \_dlhj
U
fZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb B .
3. λ = cT = k/ν.
U
4. >eywlh]hg_h[oh^bfhqlh[uqZklhlZν dhe_[Zgbc\_dlhjh\ B b
U
E [ueZ^hklZlhqgh[hevrhc
5. We_dljhfZ]gblgu_ \hegu \i_j\u_ m^Zehkv h[gZjm`blv =_gjbom
=_jpm\ ]
6. <b^bfuck\_lmevljZnbhe_ljZ^bh\hegu
7. JZ^bhk\yavjZ^bhehdZpbyjZ^bhZkljhghfbyj_gl]_gb ^j

1. GZ kq_l k\_lZ kms_kl\h\Zeb ^\_ hkgh\guo l_hjbb


§53.

dhjimkdmeyjgZyb \hegh\Zy< hkgh\_i_j\hce_`Zehml\_j`^_gb_h


lhf qlh k\_l ² wlh ihlhd qZklbp \ hkgh\_ \lhjhc ml\_j`^_gb_ h
lhfqlhk\_l²wlh\hegZ

27
2. <  ] Zg]ebckdbc mq_guc LhfZk Xg] ihdZaZe qlh k\_lm
ijbkms_ k\hckl\h bgl_jn_j_gpbb Wlh ^hdZau\Zeh lh qlh k\_l
h[eZ^Z_l\hegh\ufbk\hckl\Zfb
3. GZ ijh\hehqgh_ dhevph k jmqdhc aZlygmlh_ fuevghc ie_gdhc \
aZl_fg_gghc dhfgZl_ gZijZ\eyeky k\_l gZijbf_j `_elh]h p\_lZ
Ijb wlhf gZ ie_gd_ h[jZah\u\Zebkv q_j_^mxsb_ky `_elu_ b
l_fgu_ihehku
4. K\_l iZ^Zy gZ ie_gdm qZklbqgh hljZ`Z_lky hl i_j_^g_c
ih\_joghklb \ lhqd_ : Z qZklbqgh ijhoh^bl \gmljv ie_gdb b
hljZ`Z_lky hl aZ^g_c ih\_joghklb \ lhqd_ < ihke_ q_]h \uoh^bl ba
ie_gdb \ lhqd_ K <hegu \uoh^ysb_ ba lhq_d : b K y\eyxlky
dh]_j_glgufb ld hgb h[jZamxlky hl h^gh]h b lh]h `_ bklhqgbdZ
JZaghklv oh^Z ^ebg \heg aZ\bkbl hl lhesbgu ie_gdb dhlhjZy \
jZaguo lhqdZo jZaebqgZ ?keb lhesbgZ ie_gdb hdZ`_lky lZdhc qlh
\hegu[m^ml\uoh^blvbalhq_d: b Kbf_yh^bgZdh\u_nZaulhwlb
\hegu ijb keh`_gbb mkbeyl ^jm] ^jm]Z < j_amevlZl_ \hagbdg_l
fZdkbfmf bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc dZjlbgu ² `_elZy ihehkZ ?keb
lhesbgZie_gdbhdZ`_lkylZdhcqlh\hegu[m^ml\uoh^blvbalhq_d
: b K \ ijhlb\hiheh`guo nZaZo lh wlb \hegu ijb keh`_gbb [m^ml
]Zkblv ^jm] ^jm]Z < j_amevlZl_ \hagbdg_l fbgbfmf
bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghcdZjlbgu²l_fgZyihehkZ
5. Wlhlhiul^hdZau\Z_llhqlhk\_lh[eZ^Z_l\hegh\ufbk\hckl\Zfb
6. QZklhlu beb^ebgu k\_lh\uo\hegjZaguop\_lh\jZaebqgu

§54.
1. < \b^_mijm]bo\hegih^h[gha\mdh\uf
2. L_fqlhk\_ljZkijhkljZgy_lkyb \\Zdmmf_
3. FZdk\_ee ij_^iheh`be qlh k\_l ² wlh qZklguc kemqZc
we_dljhfZ]gblguo \heg Hkgh\Zgb_f ^ey wlh]h ihkem`beh lh qlh
k\_lh\u_ b we_dljhfZ]gblgu_ \hegu y\eyxlky ihi_j_qgufb b
h[eZ^Zxlh^bgZdh\hckdhjhklvxjZkijhkljZg_gby
4. QZklbpZwe_dljhfZ]gblgh]hbaemq_gbygZau\Z_lkynhlhghf

§55.
1. Hldjulb_ ;_dd_j_ey khklhyeh \ lhf qlh g_dhlhju_ \_s_kl\Z
kZfhijhba\hevgh baemqZxl g_\b^bfu_ emqb gZa\Zggu_
\ihke_^kl\bbjZ^bhZdlb\gufbaemq_gb_f
2. JZ^bhZdlb\ghklvx
3. <  ] Wjg_kl J_a_jnhj^ hiulguf iml_f h[gZjm`be qlh
jZ^bhZdlb\gh_ baemq_gb_ jZ^by g_h^ghjh^gh b bf__l keh`guc
khklZ\ < lheklhkl_gguc k\bgph\uc khkm^ hg ihf_sZe djmibgdm
28
jZ^by Imqhd jZ^bhZdlb\gh]h baemq_gby jZ^by ijhoh^be kd\hav
madh_ hl\_jklb_ b ihiZ^Ze gZ nhlhieZklbgdm Ihke_ ijhy\e_gby
nhlhieZklbgdb gZ g_c h[gZjm`behkv h^gh iylgh AZl_f hiul
\b^hbaf_gyeb L_i_jv imqhd baemq_gby ijhoh^be q_j_a h[eZklv
fZ]gblgh]h ihey ij_`^_ q_f ihiZklv gZ nhlhieZklbgdm <
j_amevlZl_ fZ]gblgh_ ihe_ jZa^_eyeh wlhl imqhd gZ ljb b gZ
nhlhieZklbgd_ ihke_ ijhy\e_gby h[gZjm`b\Zehkv ljb iylgZ ²
h^gh ih p_gljm ^\Z k[hdm hl g_]h Wlh ]h\hjbl h lhf qlh imqhd
baemq_gby khklZ\eyeb iheh`bl_evgh aZjy`_ggu_ αqZklbpu 
hljbpZl_evgh aZjy`_ggu_ βqZklbpu  b g_cljZevgu_ γqZklbpu
qZklbpu
4. αqZklbpZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc iheghklvx bhgbabjh\Zgguc Zlhf
]_eby k aZjy^hf jZ\guf fh^mex m^\h_ggh]h aZjy^Z we_dljhgZ β-
qZklbpZ ² we_dljhg γqZklbpZ ² h^bg ba ^bZiZahgh\
we_dljhfZ]gblgh]hbaemq_gby
5. H keh`ghfkljh_gbbZlhfZ

§56.
1. Kh]eZkgh fh^_eb ij_^eh`_gghc Lhfkhghf Zlhf ij_^klZ\eye
rZj ih \k_fm h[t_fm dhlhjh]h jZ\ghf_jgh jZkij_^_e_g
iheh`bl_evguc aZjy^ <gmljb wlh]h gZoh^ylky we_dljhgu dZ`^uc
badhlhjuodhe_[e_lkyhdhehk\h_]hiheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kby
2. < k\bgph\uc khkm^ K ihf_sZeky jZ^bhZdlb\guc we_f_gl J
baemqZxsbc αqZklbpu Ba wlh]h khkm^Z αqZklbpu \ue_lZeb kh
kdhjhklvx  dfk b ihke_ ihiZ^Zeb gZ wdjZg W ]^_ hgb
j_]bkljbjh\Zebkv WdjZg [ue ihdjul ki_pbZevguf \_s_kl\hf
[eZ]h^Zjy q_fm \ f_klZo ihiZ^Zgby gZ g_]h αqZklbp \hagbdZeb
\kiurdb dhlhju_ j_]bkljbjh\Zebkv ijb ihfhsb fbdjhkdhiZ F
LZdhc kihkh[ j_]bkljZpbb gZau\Z_lky f_lh^hf kpbglbeeypbc
\kiur_d  Ihke_ \ky wlZ mklZgh\dZ ihf_sZeZkv \ khkm^ ba
dhlhjh]h [ue hldZqZg \ha^mo b ijh\h^beky hiul ?keb gZ imlb α-
qZklbpg_lgbdZdboij_]jZ^lhhgbihiZ^ZebgZwdjZgmadbfke_]dZ
jZkrbjyxsbfky imqdhf Ijb wlhf gZ wdjZg_ gZ[ex^Z_lky
g_[hevrh_ k\_lh\h_ iylgh ?keb `_ l_i_jv ihklZ\blv gZ imlb α-
qZklbp lhgdmx nhev]m N lh ijb \aZbfh^_ckl\bb k \_s_kl\hf hgb
[m^mljZkk_b\Zlvkyih\k_fgZijZ\e_gbyfgZjZagu_m]euHkgh\gZy
qZklv αqZklbp ijhreZ kd\hav nhev]m fZeh baf_gb\ k\h_]h
i_j\hgZqZevgh]h gZijZ\e_gby Gh g_[hevrZy qZklv αqZklbp
jZkk_yeZkvgZm]euihjy^dZ°Z g_dhlhju_^Z`_gZm]eu ihjy^dZ
180°.

29
3. J_a_jnhj^ ijbr_e d \u\h^m qlh klhev kbevgh_ hldehg_gb_ α-
qZklbp \hafh`gh lhevdh lh]^Z dh]^Z \gmljb ZlhfZ bf__lky hq_gv
kbevgh_we_dljbq_kdh_ihe_LZdh_kbevgh_ihe_lhevdhfh]eh[ulv
kha^Zgh aZjy^hf kdhgp_gljbjh\Zgguf \ hq_gv fZehf h[t_f_ ih
kjZ\g_gbx k h[t_fhf ZlhfZ Bkoh^y ba \k_]h wlh]h J_a_jnhj^
ij_^eh`be ieZg_lZjgmx fh^_ev ZlhfZ Kh]eZkgh wlhc fh^_eb \
p_glj_ ZlhfZ gZoh^blky iheh`bl_evgh aZjy`_ggh_ y^jh dhlhjh_ b
[ueh ijbqbghc kbevgh]h hldehg_gby αqZklbp <hdjm] y^jZ
^\b`mlkywe_dljhgufZkkZdhlhjuofgh]hf_gvr_fZkkuy^jZ
4. Kh]eZkgh y^_jghc fh^_eb \ p_glj_ ZlhfZ gZoh^blky
iheh`bl_evgh aZjy`_ggh_ y^jh <hdjm] y^jZ ^\b`mlky we_dljhgu
fZkkZdhlhjuofgh]hf_gvr_fZkkuy^jZ
5. ?keb αqZklbpZ ijhe_lZ_l hq_gv [ebadh d y^jm lh hgZ kbevgh
hldehgy_lky hl i_j\hgZqZevgh]h gZijZ\e_gby ^\b`_gby
dmehgh\kdhc kbehc Ld jZaf_ju y^jZ hq_gv fZeu ih kjZ\g_gbx k
jZaf_jZfbZlhfZlhhkgh\gZyqZklvαqZklbpijhe_lZ_l^hklZlhqgh
^Ze_dhhly^jZb g_bkiulu\Z_lkbevgh]hhldehg_gby

§57.
1. JZ^bcij_\jZsZ_lky\ jZ^hg
2. Ijhbkoh^blij_\jZs_gb_h^gh]hobfbq_kdh]hwe_f_glZ\ ^jm]hc
3. Y^jh
88 Rd → 86 Rn + 2 He  ]^_ 2 He — αqZklbpZ 88 Rd ² y^jh
4. 226 222 4 4 226

jZ^by 222
86 Rn ²y^jhjZ^hgZ
5. <_jog__qbkeh²fZkkh\h_qbkehgb`g__²aZjy^h\h_qbkeh
6. FZkkh\h_qbkehy^jZZlhfZ^Zggh]hobfbq_kdh]hwe_f_glZjZ\gh
k lhqghklvx^hp_euoqbkemZlhfguo_^bgbpfZkkukh^_j`Zsboky
\ fZkk_ wlh]h y^jZ AZjy^h\h_ qbkeh y^jZ ZlhfZ ^Zggh]h
obfbq_kdh]h we_f_glZ jZ\gh aZjy^m y^jZ \ujZ`_gghfm \
we_f_glZjguowe_dljbq_kdboaZjy^Zo
88 Rd → 86 Rn + 2 He Ba^Zgghcj_Zdpbb\b^ghqlh\uihegyxlky
7. 226 222 4

aZdhgu khojZg_gby fZkkh\h]h qbkeZ b aZjy^Z >_ckl\bl_evgh


fZkkh\h_qbkeh  b aZjy^  jZkiZ^Zxs_]hkyy^jZZlhfZjZ^by
jZ\gu khhl\_lkl\_ggh kmff_ fZkkh\uo qbk_e       b
kmff_ aZjy^h\       h[jZah\Z\rboky \ j_amevlZl_ jZkiZ^Z
Zlhfh\jZ^hgZb ]_eby
8. Y^jZZlhfh\bf__lkeh`gh_kljh_gb_
9. JZ^bhZdlb\ghklvxgZau\Zxlkihkh[ghklvy^_jZlhfh\g_dhlhjuo
obfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\ kZfhijhba\hevgh ij_\jZsZlvky \ ^jm]b_
y^jZk bkimkdZgb_fqZklbp
30
§58.
1. Kq_lqbd =_c]_jZ khklhbl ba ]_jf_lbqghc kl_deygghc ljm[db
aZiheg_gghc jZaj_`_gguf ]Zahf gZijbf_j Zj]hghf < g__ \iZygu
we_dljh^u dZlh^ b Zgh^  ih^dexq_ggu_ q_j_a khijhlb\e_gb_ R d
bklhqgbdm \ukhdh]h gZijy`_gby Ijbgpbi kq_lqbdZ =_c]_jZ
ke_^mxsbc Ijb ijhe_l_ \gmljb ljm[db dZdhcgb[m^v [ukljhc
qZklbpu kihkh[ghc bhgbabjh\Zlv Zlhfu ]ZaZ h[jZam_lky g_dhlhjh_
qbkehwe_dljhgbhgguoiZjWe_dljhgugZqbgZxl^\b]Zlvkyd Zgh^mZ
iheh`bl_evgu_ bhgu ² d dZlh^m ?keb gZijy`_gghklv ihey
^hklZlhqgh\_ebdZlhwe_dljhgmkdhjyykvfh`_lijbh[j_klbwg_j]bx
^hklZlhqgmx ^ey bhgbaZpbb Zlhfh\ ]ZaZ <gh\v h[jZah\Z\rb_
we_dljhgumkdhjyxlkyihe_fb \k\hxhq_j_^vijhba\h^ylbhgbaZpbx
^Z\Zy gZqZeZ gh\uf we_dljhgZf b bhgZf < ljm[d_ h[jZam_lky lZd
gZau\Z_fZy we_dljhgghbhggZy eZ\bgZ < j_amevlZl_ wlh]h \ ljm[d_
\hagbdZ_l jZajy^ b \ p_ib kq_lqbdZ ijhbkoh^bl djZldh\j_f_ggh_ b
j_adh_ \hajZklZgb_ kbeu lhdZ dhlhjh_ j_]bkljbjm_lky ki_pbZevguf
mkljhckl\hf JZajy^ ^eblky ijbf_jgh fbdjhk_dmg^m b aZl_f
ij_djZsZ_lky ld hkgh\gZy qZklv gZijy`_gby iZ^Z_l gZ
khijhlb\e_gbb R b \ j_amevlZl_ wlh]h gZijy`_gb_ f_`^m dZlh^hf b
Zgh^hfj_adhmf_gvrZ_lky
2. >eyj_]bkljZpbbwe_dljhgh\b γd\Zglh\
3. DZf_jZ <bevkhgZ khklhbl ba pbebg^jZ KK kh kl_deygghc
djurdhcLL<gmljbpbebg^jZfh`_li_j_f_sZlvkyihjr_gvPGZ
^g_ dZf_ju e_`bl q_jgZy ijhiblZggZy kf_kvx \h^u kh kibjlhf
ldZgv FF [eZ]h^Zjy dhlhjhc \ dZf_j_ \ha^mo gZkus_g < dZf_j_
hlkmlkl\mxl y^jZ dhg^_gkZpbb Ijbgpbi ^_ckl\by dZf_ju
<bevkhgZke_^mxsbc< j_amevlZl_j_adh]h^\b`_gbyihjrgy\gba
l_fi_jZlmjZ \ g_c iZ^Z_l b iZju \gmljb klZgh\ylky
i_j_kus_ggufb l_ hgb l_i_jv fh]ml e_]dh dhg^_gkbjh\Zlvky gZ
y^jZo dhg^_gkZpbb gZijbf_j gZ bhgZo Q_j_a lhgdh_ hdhrdh
dZf_ju \imkdZ_lky imqhd bkke_^m_fuo qZklbp dhlhjuc ijhe_lZy
q_j_a ]Za kha^Z_l gZ k\h_f imlb bhgu y^jZ dhg^_gkZpbb  IZju
dhg^_gkbjmxlky gZ bhgZo b \ blh]_ \^hev ljZ_dlhjbb ^\b`_gby
qZklbpu h[jZam_lky \b^bfuc ke_^ ba dZi_e_d iZjZ lj_d  LZdbf
h[jZahf k ihfhsvx dZf_ju <bevkhgZ fu fh`_f magZlv
ljZ_dlhjbx^\b`_gbyqZklbpu
4. ?kebdZf_jm<bevkhgZihf_klblv\ fZ]gblgh_ihe_lhhij_^_eb\
ljZ_dlhjbx ^\b`_gby qZklbpu fu fh`_f hij_^_eblv agZd aZjy^Z
qZklbpu ih gZijZ\e_gbx ba]b[Z  __ fZkkm wg_j]bx aZjy^ ih
jZ^bmkmdjb\baguljZ_dlhjbb 

31
5. Imaujvdh\Zy dZf_jZ h[eZ^Z_l [hevrbf [ukljh^_ckl\b_f \
hlebqb_ hl dZf_ju <bevkhgZ Imaujvdh\Zy dZf_jZ hlebqZ_lky hl
dZf_ju <bevkhgZ l_f qlh \ g_c \f_klh i_j_kus_ggh]h iZjZ
ijbf_gy_lkyi_j_]j_lZy\ur_lhqdbdbi_gby`b^dhklv

1. Hiul aZdexqZ_lky \ bkke_^h\Zgbb \aZbfh^_ckl\by αqZklbp k


§59.

y^jZfbZlhfh\ZahlZE_lysZyk [hevrhckdhjhklvxαqZklbpZ ijb


ihiZ^Zgbb \ y^jh ZlhfZ ZahlZ \u[b\ZeZ ba g_]h y^jh ZlhfZ
\h^hjh^Zdhlhjh_J_a_jnhj^gZa\Zeijhlhghf
2. H lhfqlh\ j_amevlZl_\aZbfh^_ckl\byαqZklbpk y^jZfbZlhfh\
ZahlZh[jZah\Zebkvy^jZdbkehjh^Zb \h^hjh^Z
3. Y^jh ZlhfZ \h^hjh^Z 11 G bgZq_ gZau\Z_lky ijhlhghf b
h[hagZqZ_lkykbf\hehf 11 p bebp.
4. Ij_^iheh`_gb_h lhfqlhijhlhgu\oh^yl\ khklZ\y^jZex[h]h
ZlhfZ

§60.
1. Y^jZZlhfh\bf_xl[hevrmxfZkkmq_fkmfZfZkkkhklZ\eyxsbo
boijhlhgh\Wlh[uehmklZgh\e_ghhiulgufiml_fb ^Z_liheZ]Zlv
qlhihfbfhijhlhgh\\ khklZ\y^jZ\oh^yldZdb_lh^jm]b_qZklbpu
2. Wlhij_^iheh`_gb_[ueh\ukdZaZghWjg_klhfJ_a_jnhj^hf\ ]
3. >`_cfkQ_^\bd\ ]
4. M g_cljhgh\ hlkmlkl\m_l aZjy^ ihkdhevdm hg g_ hldehgy_lky
we_dljbq_kdbf b fZ]gblguf ihe_f FZkkm hij_^_ebeb ba
dhebq_kl\_gguo oZjZdl_jbklbd \aZbfh^_ckl\by g_cljhgZ k ^jm]bfb
qZklbpZfb
5. G_cljhgh[hagZqZ_lkykbf\hehf 01 n bebn_]hfZkkZihqlbjZ\gZ
g_fgh]h[hevr_ fZkk_ijhlhgZ

§61.
1. Gmdehgu
2. FZkkh\uf qbkehf gZau\Z_lky qbkeh gmdehgh\ \ y^j_ ZlhfZ
FZkkh\h_qbkehh[hagZqZ_lky[md\hc:.
3. FZkkh\h_ qbkeh jZ\gh k lhqghklvx ^h p_euo qbkem Zlhfguo
_^bgbpfZkkukh^_j`Zsboky\ fZkk_ZlhfZ
4. Qbkeh ijhlhgh\ \ Zlhf_ h[hagZqZ_lky [md\hc Z b gZau\Z_lky
aZjy^h\ufqbkehf
5. I_j_^kbf\hehfkgbam

32
6. AZjy^h\h_qbkehjZ\ghaZjy^my^jZ\ujZ`_gghfm\ we_f_glZjguo
we_dljbq_kdbo aZjy^Zo AZjy^h\h_ qbkeh ZlhfZ jZ\gh _]h
ihjy^dh\hfmghf_jm\ lZ[ebp_F_g^_e__\Z
7. ZA X a^_kvO ²kbf\heobfbq_kdh]hwe_f_glZ
8. Qbkehg_cljhgh\\ y^j_h[hagZqZxl[md\hcN.
9. A = Z + N.
§62.
1. Bahlhiu ² we_f_glu k h^bgZdh\ufb aZjy^Zfb y^_j gh
jZaebqgufbfZkkZfb
2. Y^jZbahlhih\h^gh]hwe_f_glZbf_xlh^bgZdh\ucaZjy^
3. JZagu_ bahlhiu h^gh]h we_f_glZ kh^_j`Zl jZagh_ dhebq_kl\h
g_cljhgh\
4. M \h^hjh^Z _klv ljb bahlhiZ ijhlbc 11 G  ^_cl_jbc 21 G ),
ljblbc 31 G ).
5. IhlhfmqlhfZkkZZlhfh\\uqbkey_lkydZdkj_^g__agZq_gb_fZkk
\k_o_]hbahlhih\

1. FZkkZZlhfZmf_gvrZ_lkygZZ aZjy^_]hy^jZ²gZ
§63.

2. GZijbf_j 226
88 Rd → 86 Rn + 2 He .
222 4

3. Y^jhjZ^hgZkh^_j`blgZijhlhgZf_gvr_q_fy^jhjZ^by
4. Ijb αjZkiZ^_ h[jZam_lky gh\uc obfbq_kdbc we_f_gl
ihjy^dh\uc ghf_j dhlhjh]h \ lZ[ebp_ F_g^_e__\Z f_gvr_
bkoh^gh]hgZ
5. Ijb βjZkiZ^_ baemqZ_lky we_dljhg b Zglbg_cljbgh H^bg
g_cljhg\ y^j_ijblZdhfjZkiZ^_ij_\jZsZ_lky\ ijhlhgwe_dljhg
b Zglbg_cljbgh
6. Ijb βjZkiZ^_ h[jZam_lky gh\uc obfbq_kdbc we_f_gl
ihjy^dh\uc ghf_j dhlhjh]h \ lZ[ebp_ F_g^_e__\Z [hevr_
bkoh^gh]hgZ
7. G_l ihlhfm qlh fZkkh\h_ qbkeh jZ\gh qbkem gmdehgh\ Z wlh
qbkehijbβjZkiZ^_g_f_gy_lky
8. >eyαjZkiZ^Z ZA X → AZ−−42Y + 42 He .
>eyβjZkiZ^Z A X → A Y + 0 e+ 0 ~ .
Z Z +1 −1 0
9. αb βjZkiZ^qZklhkhijh\h`^Z_lkyγbaemq_gb_f

33
§64.
1. <hagbdZe\hijhkh lhfihq_fmy^jZg_jZkiZ^ZxlkygZhl^_evgu_
gmdehgu ih^ ^_ckl\b_f we_dljhklZlbq_kdbo kbe hllZedb\Zgby
f_`^m iheh`bl_evgh aZjy`_ggufb gmdehgZfb Bkoh^y ba wlh]h
mq_gu_ ijbreb d aZdexq_gbx qlh f_`^m gmdehgZfb y^jZ
^_ckl\mxlkbeuijbly`_gby^jm]hcijbjh^u
2. Kbeuijbly`_gbyf_`^mgmdehgZfb\ y^j_gZau\Zxlkyy^_jgufb
Bo hkh[_gghklv khklhbl \ lhf qlh bo ^_ckl\b_ agZqbl_evgh
ijhy\ey_lky gZ jZkklhygbyo kjZ\gbfuo k jZaf_jZfb y^jZ ihjy^dZ
10-15 f M`_gZjZkklhygbbihjy^dZ-14 bo^_ckl\b_gbqlh`ghfZeh

§65.
1. Wg_j]b_c k\yab y^jZ gZau\Z_lky fbgbfZevgZy wg_j]by dhlhjmx
g_h[oh^bfhaZljZlblvgZjZks_ie_gb_y^jZgZhl^_evgu_gmdehgu
2. ∆m = (Zmp + Nmn) – My ]^_ ∆m ² ^_n_dl fZkk Z b N ² qbkeh
ijhlhgh\ b g_cljhgh\ \ y^j_ khhl\_lkl\_ggh mn b mp ² fZkku
ihdhyg_cljhgZb ijhlhgZkhhl\_lkl\_gghMy ²fZkkZy^jZ
3. ∆E0 = ∆mc2]^_∆E0 ²wg_j]byk\yab y^jZ∆m ²^_n_dlfZkkk
²kdhjhklvk\_lZ\ \Zdmmf_

§66.
1. >_e_gb_ y^_j mjZgZ ijb [hf[Zj^bjh\d_ bo g_cljhgZfb [ueh
hldjulh\ ]Hllh=Zghfb Njbp_fRljZkkfZghf
2. Ijb ih]ehs_gbb y^jhf g_cljhgZ hgh ^_nhjfbjm_lky b
ijbh[j_lZ_l \ulygmlmx nhjfm Ld y^_jgu_ kbeu ²
dhjhldh^_ckl\mxsb_lhgZgmdehgu\ \ulygmlhfy^j_bo^_ckl\b_
hkeZ[_\Z_l b gmdehgu jZae_lZxlky ih^ ^_ckl\b_f
we_dljhklZlbq_kdbo kbe LZdbf h[jZahf ^_e_gb_ y^jZ fh`_l
gZqZlvky lhevdh lh]^Z dh]^Z hgh ^_nhjfbjm_lky ih^ ^_ckl\b_f
ih]ehs_ggh]hnhlhgZ
3. < j_amevlZl_ ^_e_gby y^jZ h[jZamxlky ^\Z hkdhedZ jZgg__
khklZ\eyxsb_y^jh b g_cljhgZ
4. QZklv \gmlj_gg_c wg_j]bb y^jZ ijb _]h ^_e_gbb i_j_oh^bl \
dbg_lbq_kdmxwg_j]bxh[jZah\Z\rbokyhkdhedh\b g_cljhgh\
5. Dbg_lbq_kdZy wg_j]by hkdhedh\ ijb bo lhjfh`_gbb
ij_h[jZam_lky\h\gmlj_ggxxwg_j]bxhdjm`Zxs_ckj_^u
6. J_Zdpby ^_e_gb_ y^_j mjZgZ b^_l k \u^_e_gb_f wg_j]bb \
hdjm`Zxsmxkj_^m

34
§67.
1. JZkkfhljbf f_oZgbaf ijhl_dZgby p_ighc j_Zdpbb ^_e_gby y^jZ
gZ ijbf_j_ bahlhiZ mjZgZ 235
92 U jbk  mq_[gbdZ  Ijb ^_e_gbb
y^jZ ZlhfZ mjZgZ \ j_amevlZl_ aZo\ZlZ g_cljhgZ h[jZamxlky ljb
g_cljhgZ >\Z ba gbo \ua\Zeb j_Zdpbx ^_e_gby _s_ ^\mo y^_j
mjZgZijbwlhfh[jZah\Zehkvq_luj_g_cljhgZ<gh\vh[jZah\Z\rb_
g_cljhgu \ua\Zeb ^_e_gb_ q_luj_o y^_j mjZgZ ijb wlhf
h[jZah\Zehkv ^_\ylv g_cljhgh\ b l^ LZdbf h[jZahf qbkeh
g_cljhgh\\ dmkd_mjZgZeZ\bghh[jZaghjZkl_lk l_q_gb_f\j_f_gb
Z ke_^h\Zl_evgh j_adh \hajZklZ_l qbkeh ^_e_gbc y^_j mjZgZ b
wg_j]by\u^_eyxsZyky\ _^bgbpm\j_f_gb
2. Djblbq_kdhc fZkkhc mjZgZ gZau\Z_lky gZbf_gvrZy fZkkZ ijb
dhlhjhc g_cljhgh\ ihy\b\rboky ijb ^_e_gbb y^_j jZ\gh qbkem
ihl_jygguo g_cljhgh\ aZo\Zq_gguo y^jZfb [_a ^_e_gby b
\ue_l_\rboaZij_^_eudmkdZmjZgZ 
3. ?keb fZkkZ mjZgZ f_gvr_ djblbq_kdhc lh j_Zdpby ^_e_gby g_
ijhl_dZ_lbaaZg_^hklZldZg_cljhgh\
4. ?keb fZkkZ mjZgZ [hevr_ djblbq_kdhc lh p_igZy j_Zdpby
ijb\h^bl d \aju\m baaZ j_adh]h m\_ebq_gby qbkeZ k\h[h^guo
g_cljhgh\
5. FZkkZmjZgZgZebqb_hljZ`Zxs_ch[hehqdbgZebqb_ ijbf_k_c
aZf_^ebl_evg_cljhgh\

1. Y^_jguc j_Zdlhj ² wlh mkljhckl\h kihkh[gh_ hkms_kl\eylv


§68.

mijZ\ey_fmxy^_jgmxj_Zdpbx
2. MijZ\e_gb_ y^_jghc j_Zdpb_c aZdexqZ_lky \ j_]mebjh\Zgbb
kdhjhklb h[jZah\Zgby g_cljhgh\ lZdbf h[jZahf qlh[u bo qbkeh
hklZ\Zehkvg_baf_gguf
3. Hkgh\gu_qZklbj_ZdlhjZ^_eys__ky\_s_kl\h y^_jgh_lhieb\h 
aZsblgZy h[hehqdZ Zdlb\gZy ahgZ hljZ`Zl_ev j_]mebjmxsb_
kl_j`gbl_iehh[f_ggbd
4. < Zdlb\ghc ahg_ j_ZdlhjZ gZoh^ylky mjZgh\u_ kl_j`gb
y\eyxsb_ky y^_jguf lhieb\hf j_]mebjmxsb_ kl_j`gb
ih]ehsZxsb_ g_cljhgu \h^Z kem`ZsZy aZf_^ebl_e_f g_cljhgh\ b
l_iehghkbl_e_f
5. >ey lh]h qlh[u \ h^ghf kl_j`g_ p_ighc j_Zdpbb g_
ijhbkoh^behWlh^_eZ_lkyjZ^b[_ahiZkghklb
6. J_]mebjmxsb_ kl_j`gb gZoh^ykv iheghklvx \ Zdlb\ghc ahg_
ih]ehsZxlg_cljhgub p_igZyj_Zdpbyb^lbg_fh`_l>eyaZimkdZ

35
j_Zdpbb j_]mebjmxsb_ kl_j`gb \u\h^yl ba Zdlb\ghc ahgu ^h l_o
ihjihdZg_gZqg_lkyp_igZyj_Zdpby
7. <lhjZy nmgdpby \h^u ihfbfh aZf_^e_gby g_cljhgh\  ²
l_iehghkbl_evhl\h^ysbcl_ieh
8. <h \lhjhf dhglmj_ iZj h[jZah\Z\rbc \ af__\bd_ \jZsZ_l
lmj[bgm dhlhjZy ijb\h^bl d \jZs_gbx jhlhjZ ]_g_jZlhjZ
we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ AZl_f hljZ[hlZgguc iZj ihklmiZ_l \
dhg^_gkZlhj ]^_ ij_\jZsZ_lky \ \h^m AZl_f pbde ih\lhjy_lky
LZdbfh[jZahfg_ij_ju\gh\ujZ[Zlu\Z_lkywe_dljbq_kdbclhd
9. Ijb ihemq_gbb we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ gZ Zlhfguo we_dljhklZgpbyo
ijhbkoh^yl ke_^mxsb_ ij_h[jZah\Zgby wg_j]bb <gmlj_ggyy wg_j]by
Zlhfguoy^_jmjZgZijb^_e_gbbqZklbqghi_j_oh^bl\ dbg_lbq_kdmx
wg_j]bx g_cljhgh\ b hkdhedh\ G_cljhgu b hkdhedb jZae_lZykv k
[hevrhc kdhjhklvx ihiZ^Zxl \ \h^m Ijb wlhf bo dbg_lbq_kdZy
wg_j]byqZklbqgh i_j_oh^bl \h \gmlj_ggxx wg_j]bx \h^u Ijb wlhf
\h^Z gZ]j_\Z_lky b ijhoh^y q_j_a l_iehh[f_ggbd i_j_^Z_l wg_j]bx
\h^_ gZoh^ys_cky \ af__\bd_ ij_\jZsZy __ \ iZj l_ \gmlj_ggyy
wg_j]by \h^u i_j_oh^bl \h \gmlj_ggxx wg_j]bx iZjZ Z aZl_f \ _]h
dbg_lbq_kdmx AZl_f iZj \jZsZ_l lmj[bgm dhlhjZy ijb\h^bl d
\jZs_gbx jhlhjZ ]_g_jZlhjZ we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ l_ dbg_lbq_kdZy
wg_j]by iZjZ i_j_oh^bl \ dbg_lbq_kdmx wg_j]bx jhlhjZ lmj[bgu b
jhlhjZ ]_g_jZlhjZ dhlhjZy \ k\hx hq_j_^v i_j_oh^bl \
we_dljbq_kdmx

§69.
1. < k\yabk [hevrbfjhklhfihlj_[e_gbywe_dljhwg_j]bb
2. <hi_j\uo:WKlj_[m_lkygZfgh]hf_gvr__dhebq_kl\hlhieb\Z
q_f LWK <h\lhjuo :WK \ f_gvr_c kl_i_gb aZ]jyagyxl
hdjm`Zxsmxkj_^m ijbijZ\bevghcwdkiemZlZpbb q_fLWK
3. :lhfgZywg_j]_lbdZ lj_[m_l j_r_gby ke_^mxsbo lj_o hkgh\guo
ijh[e_f   kh\_jr_gkl\h\Zgb_ l_ogheh]bc k p_evx mf_gvr_gby
h[jZah\Zgby hloh^h\   i_j_jZ[hldZ hloh^h\ b mf_gvr_gb_
hiZkghklb hl jZkijhkljZg_gby \ hdjm`Zxs_c kj_^_   gZ^_`gZy
baheypbyhloh^h\hlhdjm`Zxs_ckj_^u
4. Hl\_j`^_gb_`b^dbohloh^h\hkl_deh\Zgb_hloh^h\

1. < lhf qlh \ha^_ckl\b_ α- β b γemq_c gZ `b\mx ldZgv


§70.

ijhbkoh^bl __ bhgbaZpby  gZjmrZ_l `bag_^_yl_evghklv de_lhd


^Zgghc ldZgb qlh hljbpZl_evgh kdZau\Z_lky gZ a^hjh\v_ `b\h]h
hj]ZgbafZ

36
2. Ih]ehs_gghc ^hahc baemq_gby gZau\Z_lky ih]ehs_ggZy
\_s_kl\hf wg_j]by bhgbabjmxs_]h baemq_gby jZkkqblZggZy gZ
_^bgbpm fZkku Ih]ehs_ggZy ^haZ baemq_gby D hij_^_ey_lky ih
nhjfme_ D =  ]^_ ? ² ih]ehs_ggZy \_s_kl\hf wg_j]by m —
E

fZkkZ\_s_kl\Z?^bgbp_cbaf_j_gbyih]ehs_gghc^haubaemq_gby
m

1 >`
\ kbkl_f_KBy\ey_lky]j_c =j =j 
1 d]
.
3. Ijb[hevr_c^ha_baemq_gby
4. JZagu_ \b^u bhgbabjmxsbo baemq_gbc ijb h^bgZdh\hc
ih]ehs_gghc ^ha_ h[emq_gby hdZau\Zxl jZaebqgu_ ih \_ebqbg_
[bheh]bq_kdb_ wnn_dlu \ `b\hf hj]Zgbaf_ GZijbf_j ijb
h^bgZdh\hc ih]ehs_gghc ^ha_ [bheh]bq_kdbc wnn_dl hl α-
baemq_gbyijbf_jgh\ jZa[hevr_q_fhlγbaemq_gby
5. Dhwnnbpb_gl dZq_kl\Z baemq_gby ihdZau\Z_l \h kdhevdh jZa
[hevr_jZ^bZpbhggZyhiZkghklvhl\ha^_ckl\bygZ`b\hchj]Zgbaf
^Zggh]h \b^Z baemq_gby ih kjZ\g_gbx k γbaemq_gb_f ijb
h^bgZdh\uo ih]ehs_gguo ^haZo Dhwnnbpb_gl dZq_kl\Z baemq_gby
^ey αbaemq_gbyjZ\_g^eyβ- γb j_gl]_gh\kdh]h baemq_gby ²

6. Wd\b\Ze_glgZy ^haZ baemq_gby [ueZ \\_^_gZ \ k\yab k l_f qlh


1.

ijb h^bgZdh\hc ih]ehs_gghc ^ha_ baemq_gby jZaebqgu_ \b^u


baemq_gbc \uau\Zxl jZaebqgu_ [bheh]bq_kdb_ wnn_dlu
Wd\b\Ze_glgZy ^haZ baemq_gby H \uqbkey_lky dZd ijhba\_^_gb_
ih]ehs_gghc ^hau D gZ dhwnnbpb_gl dZq_kl\Z D: H = DK ?_
_^bgbp_cbaf_j_gbyy\ey_lkyab\_jl A\ 
7. Qm\kl\bl_evghklv jZaebqguo ldZg_c `b\h]h hj]ZgbafZ
hij_^_ey_lky dhwnnbpb_glhf jZ^bZpbhggh]h jbkdZ  \j_fy
h[emq_gby
8. Hl \ha^_ckl\by gZ `b\hc hj]Zgbaf jZ^bhZdlb\guo baemq_gbc
ijbf_gyxlky ki_pbZevgZy h^_`^Z jZaebqgu_ aZsblgu_ m[_`bsZ
JZ^bhZdlb\gu_ ij_iZjZlu ke_^m_l ojZgblv \ ki_pbZevguo
aZsblguodhgl_cg_jZoh[uqghk\bgph\uo

§72.
1. L_jfhy^_jghc j_Zdpb_c gZau\Z_lky j_Zdpby kebygby e_]dbo y^_j
ijbhq_gv\ukhdhcl_fi_jZlmj_ ihjy^dZkhl_gfbeebhgh\]jZ^mkh\ 
2. Ijhl_dZgb_ l_jfhy^_jguo j_Zdpbc \hafh`gh lhevdh ijb hq_gv
\ukhdbo l_fi_jZlmjZo ld g_h[oh^bfh ijb^Zlv y^jZf ^hklZlhqgh
[hevrmxdbg_lbq_kdmxwg_j]bx^eybok[eb`_gbygZhq_gvfZeu_
jZkklhygbyijbdhlhjuo\hafh`ghbokebygb_
37
3. Kebygb_e_]dboy^_j
4. 21 H + 31 H → 42 He+ 01n .
5. Hkgh\gZy ljm^ghklv ijb hkms_kl\e_gbb l_jfhy^_jghc j_Zdpbb
aZdexqZ_lky \ lhf qlh[u m^_j`Zlv \ukhdhl_fi_jZlmjgmx ieZafm
\gmljb mklZgh\db ?keb ieZafZ dhkg_lky kl_ghd mklZgh\db \
dhlhjhchgZgZoh^blkylhhgbjZkieZ\ylkyb ij_\jZlylky\ iZj
6. < j_amevlZl_ l_jfhy^_jguo j_Zdpbc ijhl_dZxsbo gZ Khegp_
\u^_ey_lkywg_j]byg_h[oh^bfZy^ey`bagbgZA_fe_

38
MijZ`g_gby
MijZ`g_gb_ 
1. Fh`gh \ h[hbo kemqZyo ld jZaf_jZfb Z\lhfh[bey ijb ^Zgguo
gZqZevguomkeh\byofh`ghij_g_[j_qv
2. <k_aZ\bkblhlmkeh\bcaZ^Zqdhlhju_gm`ghj_rblv^bki_lq_jm
b iZkkZ`bjm
3. Ih\_joghklvA_feb
4. IjZ\ b fZevqbd b ^_\hqdZ FZevqbd \u[jZe kbkl_fm hlkq_lZ
k\yaZggmxk a_fe_c^_\hqdZ²k dj_kehfdZjmk_eb
5. Z  hlghkbl_evgh A_feb [  hlghkbl_evgh \h^u \  hlghkbl_evgh
A_feb] hlghkbl_evghhkbdhe_kZ^ hlghkbl_evghA_feb

MijZ`g_gb_ 
1. Ijhc^_ggucimlv2. Ijyfhebg_cgh

MijZ`g_gb_ 
U U
1.
s\ sf

x\ xf
x\ = xk + s\o = 10 df + (–2 df) = 8 df;
O xc

xf = xk + sfo dfdf df


2. Z o0 f[ sto = s1o + s2o f  ±f  f
\ xt = o0 + sto f f f
MijZ`g_gb_ 
1. =jZnbd fh^mey \_dlhjZ kdhjhklb g_ fh`_l gZoh^blvky ih^ hkvx

ijh_dpbb \_dlhjZ kdhjhklb fh`_l gZoh^blvky ih^ hkvx Ot,


Otihkdhevdmfh^mev\_dlhjZkdhjhklb\k_]^Ziheh`bl_e_g=jZnbd

ihkdhevdm agZd aZ\bkbl ijh_dpbb \_dlhjZ kdhjhklb hl \u[hjZ


kbkl_fudhhj^bgZl

vx, dfq
2.
80
60

tq

–90
39
MijZ`g_gb_ 
1. I_j\uc Z\lhfh[bev ^\b]Zeky k [hevrbf mkdhj_gb_f ihkdhevdm
_]hkdhjhklvaZh^bgZdh\u_ijhf_`mldb\j_f_gb\hajZklZeZ[uklj__

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

55 fk − 10 fk
v1 fk = 1,5 fk 2 .
t = 30 c v −v
30 k
a= 2 1 =
v2 fk
t
GZclbZ. Hl\_la fk2.

>Zgh J_r_gb_
3.

6 fk
v2 – v1 fk = 0,5 fk 2 .
t = 12 c v −v
12 k
a= 2 1 =

GZclbZ. Hl\_la fk2.


t

MijZ`g_gb_ 

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

v1 fk v −v
a = 2 1 ⇒ v2 = v1 + at =
a = –20 fk2
t=4c
fk  ±fk2) ⋅ k fk
t

GZclb v2. Hl\_lv2 fk

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

a fk2 2 fk
= 10 k
v −v v v
a 0,2 fk 2
a= 2 1 = 2 ⇒t = 2 =
v2 fk
v1 = 0 t t
GZclbt. Hl\_lt k

Y[
3.



  W

40
4.
vx

-5 5 10 t

5. >eyl_eZ,Z fk2^eyl_eZ,,Z fk2.

MijZ`g_gb_ 

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

0,5 fk 2 ⋅ (5 k )
Zo fk2 fk ⋅ k
t=5c axt 2 2
sx = v0 o t +
v0o dfq fk
=
f
2 2

GZclbsx. Hl\_lsx f

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

Zo fk2
t = 20 c axt 2 v v t2 v t
sx = v0 o t + ; ao = − 0 x ⇒ sx = v0 o t − 0 x = 0 x =
v0o fk
fk ⋅ k  f
2 t 2t 2

GZclbsx. Hl\_lsx f

MijZ`g_gb_ 

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

s3 f s1 : s2 : s3 = 1 : 3 : 5; s1 : 2 f = 1 : 5 ⇒ s1 = 2 f 5 = 0,4 f;
t1 k
2 ⋅ 0,4 f
= 0,8 f/k2.
at12 2s
(1 k)
s1 = ⇒ a = 21 = 2
2
GZclb s1, a. Hl\_ls1 fa fk2.
t1

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

s5 f s1 : s2 : s3 : s4 : s5 = 1 : 3 : 5 : 7 : 9; s1 : 6,3 f = 1 : 9 ⇒
t1 k ⇒ s1 = 6,3 f 5 = 0,7 f;
t5 k
2 ⋅ 0,7 f
= 1,4 f/k2;
at12 2s
(1 k)2
s1 = ⇒ a = 21 =
2
v5 = at5 fk2 ⋅ k fk
t1

GZclbv5. Hl\_lv5 fk


41
MijZ`g_gb_ 
1. fk
2. G_l ihkdhevdm b ^_j_\h b \hdaZe `_kldh k\yaZgu k ^jm]hc
kbkl_fhchlkq_lZ²A_fe_c
3. Ijbmkeh\bbg_ih^\b`ghklbwlbol_ehlghkbl_evgh^jm]^jm]Z
4. dfq fk

>Zgh J_r_gb_
5*.

v1 dfq fk v\ = v1 + v2 fk fk fk


v2 fk va = v2 – v1 fk ±fk fk
GZclbv\, va. Hl\_lv\ fkva fk

MijZ`g_gb_ 
AZdhgbg_jpbb\uihegy_lky\ kbkl_f_hlkq_lZk\yaZgghck A_fe_cb
\ kbkl_f_ hlkq_lZ k\yaZgghc k ih_a^hf \h \j_fy _]h
ijyfhebg_cgh]h b jZ\ghf_jgh]h ^\b`_gby g_ \uihegy_lky \
kbkl_f_ hlkq_lZ k\yaZgghc k ih_a^hf \h \j_fy _]h lhjfh`_gby
Bg_jpbZevghckbkl_fhcfh`ghkqblZlva_fexZ ih_a^²g_evay

MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

Z fk2 IhhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZ
m d] F = ma d]⋅ fk2 G
GZclbF. Hl\_lF G

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

F = ma ²hcaZdhgGvxlhgZ
v fk
t = 20 c
mv 1,84 ⋅ 10 5 d] ⋅ 4 fk
m l ⋅10 d]
20 k
v
5 a = ⇒ F = = =
G dG
t t

GZclbF. Hl\_lF dG

>Zgh J_r_gb_
3.

IhhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZ
a1 fk2 F1 = m1a1; F2 = m2a2. Ldm1 = m2lhihemqZ_f
m1 = m2

a2 fk2 F1 F2 a F 0,64 fk 2 ⋅ 1,2 G


0,08 fk 2
F1 = 1,2 H = ⇒ F2 = 2 1 = = 9,6 H.
a1 a 2 a1
GZclbF2. Hl\_lF2 G
42
>Zgh J_r_gb_
4.

m = 0,5 d] IhhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZF = ma.


FA = 10 H F = FA – FL – FC ⇒ FA – FL – FC = ma ⇒
fk2.
FL = 5 H F − FL − FC 10 H − 5 H − 2 H
0,5 d]
FC = 2 H ⇒a = A =

GZclbF2. Hl\_la fk2.


m

5. Ijb ^\b`_gbb \\_jo kdhjhklv b i_j_f_s_gb_ ijhlb\hiheh`gh


gZijZ\e_gu k kbehc ly`_klb mkdhj_gb_ ² khgZijZ\e_gh Ijb
^\b`_gbb\gbakdhjhklvi_j_f_s_gb_b mkdhj_gb_khgZijZ\e_guk
kbehcly`_klb
6. Mkdhj_gb_ \k_]^Z khgZijZ\e_gh k jZ\gh^_ckl\mxs_c
ijbeh`_gguo d l_em kbe Kdhjhklv b i_j_f_s_gb_ fh]ml [ulv dZd
khgZijZ\e_gu k jZ\gh^_ckl\mxs_c ijbeh`_gguo d l_em kbe lZd b
ijhlb\hiheh`ghgZijZ\e_gu
MijZ`g_gb_
U U
1. GZ l_eh ^_ckl\mxl kbeZ ly`_klb Fl b kbeZ j_Zdpbb hihju N
kfjbk 
U
N

U
Fl
2. G_ ij_\ukbl ld jZ\gh^_ckl\mxsZy ijbeh`_gguo kbe gZ
^bgZfhf_ljjZ\gZ

>Zgh J_r_gb_
3.

m1 d]  IhhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZ
m2 d] F2x = m2ax d]⋅ fk2 G
a fk2 IhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZF1x = –F2x ±G
 IhhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZ
F1x = m1ax d]⋅ fk2 G
IhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZF2x = –F1x ±G
  < i_j\hf kemqZ_ gblv f_`^m l_e_`dZfb gZlygmlZ
kbevg__
 IhhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZ
Fx = (m1 + m2)ax  d]d] ⋅ fk2 G
GZclb F1x, Hl\_l F1x ±GF2x G F1x GF2x =
F2x, Fx. ±G \ i_j\hfkemqZ_ Fx G
43
MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

g ≈ fk2 gt 2 10 fk 2 ⋅ (2 k )
f
2
t=2c h= =
GZclbh. Hl\_lh f
2 2

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

g ≈ fk2 2 ⋅ 0,8 f
h = 80 cf f = 0,4 k.
gt 2
10 fk 2
2h
h= ⇒t= =

GZclbt. Hl\_lt k


2 g

>Zgh J_r_gb_
3.

g ≈ fk2 2 ⋅ 45 f
h = 45 f k
gt 2
10 fk 2
2h
h= ⇒t= =
2 g
gt12 10 fk 2 ⋅ (1 k )2
t1 = 1 c
= 5 f;
∆t = 1 c
s1 = =

gt 2 g (t − ût )
2 2
2
s2 = − =

10 fk 2 ⋅ (3 k ) 10 fk 2 ⋅ (3 c − 1 c )
2 2

=5f
2 2
= −
GZclb t, s1, s2. Hl\_lt ks1 fs2 f
2 2

MijZ`g_gb_
>Zgh J_r_gb_
v fk v − v1 v 9,8 fk
g 9,8 fk 2
v
= ⇒t= =
g fk2
v1 = 0 g= =1 c;
t t
9,8 fk 2 ⋅ (1k )
fk ⋅ k ± f
2
gt 2
s = vt −
GZclbt, s. Hl\_lt ks f
2 2

MijZ`g_gb_
1. <k_l_eZiZ^ZxlgZa_fexih^^_ckl\b_fkbeuly`_klb
2. KlZgpby m^Zey_lky hl A_feb ijb[eb`Zykv d Emg_ BaaZ
baf_g_gbc jZkklhygbc f_`^m ieZg_lZfb b klZgpb_c kbeZ __
ijbly`_gby d A_fe_ mf_gvrZ_lky Z kbeZ ijbly`_gby d Emg_
44
m\_ebqb\Z_lky Dh]^Z klZgpby gZoh^blky gZ k_j_^bg_ hgZ kbevg__
ijbly]b\Z_lkyd A_fe_ldfZkkZA_feb[hevr_fZkkuEmgu
3. G_l
4. Z ^_ckl\h\ZeZ[ ijbly`_gb_A_feb\ baaZ^_ckl\bykbeuly`_klb
5. >Zijbly]b\Z_lky ghwlZkbeZ]hjZa^hf_gvr_kbeuly`_klb ba
aZjZkklhygbcEmgZlZd`_ijbly]b\Z_lkyd wlhfmq_eh\_dm
MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

g ≈ fk2 Fl = mg ⇒
m1 d] Fl fk2 ⋅ d] G
m2 ] d] Fl fk2 ⋅ d] G
m3 l d] Fl fk2 ⋅ d] G dG
m4 l d] Fl fk2 ⋅ d] ⋅105 G dG
GZclb Fl1, Fl2, Fl3, Fl4. Hl\_lGGdGdG

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

g ≈ fk2; m d] Fl = mg d]⋅ fk2 G


GZclbFl. Hl\_lFl G

>Zgh J_r_gb_
3.

g ≈ fk2; Fl 819,3 G
Fl G d]
g 10 fk 2
Fl = mg ⇒ m = =

GZclbFl. Hl\_lm d]


4. G_lihkdhevdm\ukhlZihe_lZkjZ\gbfZk jZaf_jZfbA_febKbem
F a mj
ly`_klb fh`gh jZkkqblZlv ih nhjfme_ Fl = G  ]^_ h —
( Ra + h) 2
\ukhlZgZ^A_fe_c
5. GZyklj_[Z^_ckl\m_lkbeZly`_klbb _kebhgkeh`bldjuevylh
hgmiZ^_lgZA_fex
6. GZjZkklhygbbRa; 3Ra (Ra ²jZ^bmkA_feb ihkdhevdmFl~
1
(Ra + h)2

MijZ`g_gb_
U
1. KbeZ F fh]eZ^_ckl\h\Zlvlhevdh\ gZijZ\e_gbb
2. KbeZ ^_ckl\h\ZeZ gZ rZjbd gZ mqZkldZo    
RZjbdih\hjZqb\Zekyih^^_ckl\b_f\g_rgbokbe
3. KbeZ^_ckl\h\ZeZgZl_ehgZ\_jgydZgZmqZkldZo:<&'GZl_eh
fh]eZ^_ckl\h\ZlvkbeZb gZhklZevguomqZkldZo
45
MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

r kf f v 2 (20 fk )2


v fk Z= ≈ fk2.
0,21 f
=

GZclba. Hl\_lZ ≈ fk2.


r

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

R kf f
T k Z= ⇒Z= 2 = 2 =
v2 l 2πR 4π 2 R 2 4π 2 R
;v= =
R T T
4 ⋅ (3,14 ) ⋅ 0,02 f
T R T

≈ 2⋅10-4 fk2.
2

(60 k )2
=

GZclba. Hl\_lZ ≈ 2⋅10-4 fk2.

3. Z1 = ; Z2 = = 2a1 ⇒ ml\_j`^_gb_\_jgh
v2 v2 v2
= 2⋅
r r/2 r

>Zgh J_r_gb_
4.

T1 k
T2 k . :gZeh]bqgh a 2 =
v 2 (2πR T1 )2 4π 2 R 4π 2 R
a1 = 1 = = 2
.
R R T1 T22

Ke_^h\Zl_evgh
2
a1  T1 
2
 3600 c 
=   =   = 3600.
a 2  T2   60 c 

GZclb Hl\_l
a1 a1
. = 3600.
a2 a2

>Zgh J_r_gb_
5.

Fa = 6⋅1024 d] F aF e G ⋅ f2
Fe = 6⋅1022 d] Z F]j = G
d] 2
= 6,67⋅10-11 ×
G ⋅ f2
2

6 ⋅ 10 24 d] ⋅ 7 ⋅10 22 d]
r

d] 2 ≈ 1,9⋅1020 G
G=6,67⋅10-11
(3,84 ⋅ 10 8 f 2
×
r = df
= 3,84⋅108 f 1,9 ⋅ 10 20 G
[ Zp = ≈ 3,17⋅10-5 fk2;
F]j
Fa 6 ⋅ 10 24 d]
=

\ v = ap r = 3,17 ⋅10−5 fk2 ⋅ 3,84⋅108 f ≈fk


GZclbF]j, Zp, v. Hl\_lF]j ≈ 1,9⋅1020 Gv ≈ fk
Zp = 3,17⋅10-5 fk2.
46
MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

h df ⋅106 f Ma
Fa = 6⋅1024 d] v≈ G =
Ra = 6,4⋅106 f
Ra + h

G ⋅ f2 G ⋅ f2 6 ⋅ 1024 d]
d] 2 (2,6 ⋅ 106 f + 6,4 ⋅ 106 f
= 6,67 ⋅ 10−11
d] 2
G = 6,67⋅10-11 ⋅ =

fk dfk
GZclbv. Hl\_lv dfk

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

v dfk ⋅103 fk


1,67 ⋅10 3 fk
( )
ge ≈ fk2
2
v2 v2
1,6 fk 2
re = ⇒ re = = =
re ge
= 1,7⋅106 f ⋅103 df
GZclb re. Hl\_lre = 1,7⋅103 df

MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

v1x = –v2x fk p1x = mv1x d]⋅ fk d]⋅fk


m = 0,2 d] p2x = – p1x ±d]⋅fk
<_dlhjubfimevkh\fZrbgg_jZ\guldhgb
ijhlb\hiheh`gh gZijZ\e_gu Fh^meb
\_dlhjh\bfimevkh\jZ\gu
GZclb p1x, p2x. Hl\_lp1x d]⋅fkp2x ±d]⋅fk

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

v1 dfq fk
v2 dfq fk
∆j = m∆v = m(v2 – v1) =
d]⋅ fk ± fk  d]⋅fk
m l d]
GZclb ∆p. Hl\_l∆p d]⋅fk

MijZ`g_gb_
1. Ih aZdhgm khojZg_gby bfimevkZ eh^dZ gZqg_l ^\b]Zlvky \
klhjhgmijhlb\hiheh`gmx^\b`_gbxq_eh\_dZ

47
>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

m1 l AZibr_faZdhgkhojZg_gbybfimevkZ
m2 l
v2 fk
m + m2
m1v1 = (m1 + m2)v2 ⇒ v1 = 1 v2 =

35 l + 28 l
m1

= ⋅ 0,5 fk fk


GZclb v1. Hl\_lv1 fk
35l

MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

ve fk AZibr_faZdhgkhojZg_gbybfimevkZ
m\ d]
(me + m\)ve + m\v\ = mev ⇒ v = e
( m + m\ ) v e + m\ v \
v\ fk
me d]
=
me
(200 d] + 5 d] )⋅ 2 fk + 5 d] ⋅ 8 fk fk
200 d]
=

GZclb v. Hl\_lv fk

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

mj ] d] AZibr_faZdhgkhojZg_gbybfimevkZ


mi ] d] 0,1 d] ⋅ 100 fk
vi fk mjvj=mivi⇒vj= i i = ≈ fk
0,3 d]
m v
mj
GZclb vj. Hl\_lvj ≈ fk

MijZ`g_gb_
1. Dhe_[Zl_evgufb kbkl_fZfb y\eyxlky [ ] _ G_ y\eyxlky
dhe_[Zl_evgufbZ\^
2. Z Ih^^_ckl\b_fkbemijm]hklbrgmjh\[ g_l\ rgmju^bkd
] ^Zy\ey_lky
MijZ`g_gb_
1. :fieblm^Z : qZklhlZ ν i_jbh^ L ² ihklhyggu_ F, v —
i_j_f_ggu_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

ν = =p
= 0,5 k
ν 2 =p
1 1
T= =

GZclb T. Hl\_lT k


48
>Zgh J_r_gb_
3.

T k
= 2 =p
1 1
ν= =

GZclb ν. Hl\_lν =p


T 0,5 c

>Zgh J_r_gb_
4.

t fbg k = 10 =p


n = 600 1 t n 600
ν= ; T = ⇒ν= =

GZclb ν. Hl\_lν =p


T n t 60 c

5. kfkfkfkf

>Zgh J_r_gb_
6.

A = 10 kf
= 2 c AZ  k l_eh kh\_jrZ_l ihegh_
ν = 0,5 =p ν 0,5 =p
1 1
T = =
t k dhe_[Zgb_b ijhc^_limlvS = 4: kf
GZclb S. Hl\_lS kf
7. Dhe_[exlky \ h^bgZdh\uo nZaZo \ kemqZyo [  ^  Dhe_[exlky \
ijhlb\hiheh`guonZaZo\ kemqZyoZ \ ] _ 

MijZ`g_gb_

GZijZ\ ?i ?d ?ihe
1.
Fmij
e_gb_ K lj_ ;_a lj_
v

^\b`_gby gb_f gby


fZylgbdZ
Hl< d H mf_gv m\_e mf_gv m\_e mf_gv g_
baf_g
HlH d : m\_e mf_gv m\_e mf_gv mf_gv g_
baf_g
Hl: d H mf_gv m\_e mf_gv m\_e mf_gv g_
.

baf_g
HlH d < m\_e mf_gv m\_e mf_gv mf_gv g_
baf_g
2. Z   >`  >` [   >`  >`  >` \   >` \h \k_o
.

kemqZyo
MijZ`g_gb_
1. Kihkh[gu kh\_jrZlv k\h[h^gu_ dhe_[Zgby l_eZ [  _ 
\ugm`^_ggu_dhe_[Zgby²\k_l_eZ
2. Z ^ZgZijbf_jkljmgZfmaudZevgh]hbgkljmf_glZ[ g_l
49
MijZ`g_gb_
1. Z <ugm`^_ggu_[ [eZ]h^Zjydhe_[ZgbxfZylgbdZ\ qZklhlZ
fZylgbdZ jZ\gZ qZklhl_ fZylgbdZ  m fZylgbdZ  qZklhlZ [hevr_
q_fm fZylgbdZm fZylgbdZqZklhlZf_gvr_q_fm fZylgbdZ]
ldbo^ebgub khhl\_lkl\_gghkh[kl\_ggu_qZklhlukh\iZ^Zxl
2. FZevqbdb \h^ZgZqbgZxldhe_[Zlvky\ ijhlb\hnZa_
3. Q_j_ak L = 1/ν k 

MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

λ f λ 270 f
= 20 fk
T k T 13,5 k
v= =

GZclb v. Hl\_lv fk

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

ν =p v 340 fk


= 1,7 f
v fk ν 200 =p
λ= =

GZclb λ. Hl\_lλ f


3.

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

v fk 6f
= 4 k
λ f
λ
T 1,5 fk
v= =

GZclbT. Hl\_lT = 4 c.

MijZ`g_gb_
E_lysZyilbpZkha^Z_lbgnjZa\mdh\u_\hegu

MijZ`g_gb_
1. DhfZjA\mdkha^Z\Z_fucbfkZfuc\ukhdbc
2. Mf_gvrblkyihkdhevdmqZklhlZ__ \jZs_gbylZd`_mf_gvrblky
3. Ijb ih\ur_gbb l_fi_jZlmju kljmgZ jZkly]b\Z_lky i_jbh^ __
dhe_[Zgbc m\_ebqb\Z_lky qZklhlZ b khhl\_lkl\_ggh \ukhlZ
a\mqZgbymf_gvrZ_lky
MijZ`g_gb_
1. G_lf_`^mA_fe_cb Emghcg_lmijm]hckj_^uihdhlhjhcfh`_l
jZkijhkljZgylvkya\md
2. A\mdh\u_\hegujZkijhkljZgyxlkyihgblb

50
MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

λ f 2,9 f
= 1450 fk
T k
λ
T 0,002 k
v= =

GZclb v. Hl\_lv fk

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

v1 fk v 340 fk 1483fk


v2 fk ≈ 0,47 f; λ 2 = 2 = ≈ 2,05 f;
ν 725 =p 725 =p
v
λ1 = 1 =
v3 fk
ν
5500 fk
ν =p ≈ 7,59 f.
725 =p
v
λ3 = 3 =
ν
GZclbλ1, λ2, λ3. Hl\_lλ1 ≈ fλ2 ≈ fλ3 ≈ f
3. A\md [m^_l jZkijhkljZgylvky b ih f_lZeem b ih \ha^mom b
q_eh\_dmkeurbl^\Zm^ZjZ

>Zgh J_r_gb_
4.

ta\ k Sa\ = va\ta\; SiZj = viZjtiZj; Sa\ = SiZj; va\ta\ = viZjtiZj ⇒
va\ fk 340 fk ⋅ 2 k
tiZj k ⇒ viZj = a\ a\ = = 20 fk
34 k
v t
t iZj
Sa\ = SiZj
GZclbviZj. Hl\_lviZj fk
5. Dh]^Z\b^bfu_b keurbfu_m^ZjugZqbgZxlkh\iZ^Zlvkgh\Zlh
wlhagZqblqlhq_eh\_dkeurblij_^u^msbci_j_^\b^bfufm^Zj
MijZ`g_gb_
1. Kms_kl\m_l
2. FZ]gblgh_ ihe_ [m^_l ^_ckl\h\Zlv gZ klj_edm k gZb[hevr_c
kbehc \ lhqd_ N k gZbf_gvr_c ² \ lhqd_ F K jZkklhygb_f
fZ]gblgh_ihe_hkeZ[_\Z_l
MijZ`g_gb_
1. Z ?klvwlhlhqdbD b K[ \ lhqd_:.
3
GZ iZju lhq_d P − Q, X − Y kh
2.

klhjhgu g_h^ghjh^gh]h fZ]gblgh]h <


ihey ^_ckl\mxl kbeu h^bgZdh\u_ ,
dZd ih fh^mex lZd b ih 2
gZijZ\e_gbx ld PO = QO, XO = ,

;
YO.
4

51
MijZ`g_gb_
1.

2.

3. K_\_jguc ihexk gZoh^blky kijZ\Z Z x`guc ke_\Z Bo


iheh`_gb_fh`ghbaf_gblvihf_gy\iheyjghklvkhe_ghb^Z
4. Lhd[m^_ll_qvhllhqdbS d lhqd_N.
5. KijZ\Z ² k_\_jguc ihexk ke_\Z ± x`guc ih ijZ\bem ijZ\hc
jmdb 
6. < i_j\hf kemqZ_ \aZbfh^_ckl\b_ h[mkeh\e_gh fZ]gblgufb
kbeZfb\h\lhjhf±dmehgh\kdbfb

MijZ`g_gb_
1. IhijZ\beme_\hcjmdbhij_^_ey_fqlh\ijZ\h
2. Ih ijZ\bem e_\hc jmdb hij_^_ey_f qlh lhd l_q_l hl lhqdb B d
lhqd_ A b ke_^h\Zl_evgh \_jogbc ihexk bklhqgbdZ lhdZ
ih^dexq_g d hljbpZl_evghfm ihexkm Z gb`gbc ² d
iheh`bl_evghfm

52
3. GZ e_\hf jbkmgd_ e_\uc ijh\h^gbd ^\b`_lky \\_jo ijZ\uc
ijh\h^gbd²\gbaGZijZ\hfjbkmgd_e_\ucijh\h^gbd^\b`_lky
\gbaijZ\ucijh\h^gbd²\\_jo
4.

U U
v
F

5. Ih ijZ\bem e_\hc jmdb hij_^_ey_f qlh wlh iheh`bl_evgh


aZjy`_ggZyqZklbpZ

MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

0,2 G
l kf f = 0,5 Le
Il 0,1 f ⋅ 4 :
I = 4 A; F = 0,2 H F
B= =

GZclbB. Hl\_lB Le


2. FZ]gblgZy bg^mdpby g_ baf_gy_lky hgZ ihklhyggZy \_ebqbgZ
Baf_gy_lkylhevdhkbeZ^_ckl\mxsZygZijh\h^gbd²hgZlZd `_
dZdb lhdmf_gvrZ_lky\ jZaZ

MijZ`g_gb_
FZ]gblguc ihlhd ijhgbau\Zxsbc dZlmrdm D2 fh`gh f_gylv
iml_fbaf_g_gby\aZbfghchjb_glZpbbdZlmr_db baf_g_gb_fkbeu
lhdZj_hklZlhfR bebaZfudZgb_fjZafudZgb_fdexqZD

MijZ`g_gb_
1. Baf_gblvfZ]gblgucihlhdq_j_adZlmrdmD2 iml_fhibkZgguf\
mijZ`g_gbb
2. Bg^mdpbhgguclhd\hagbdZ_l\ kemqZ_] g_\hagbdZ_l\ kemqZyo
Z [ \ ^ 

MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

53
ν =p
= 0,02 k
ν 50 =p
1 1
T= =

GZclb T. Hl\_lT k


2. Ih]jZnbdmgZoh^bfqlhT= k , ν= = =p
1 1 1
T (1 60 )c
: f:
60

MijZ`g_gb_
Wlbiheygbq_fg_hlebqZxlkyb kms_kl\h\Zeb[u[_adZlmrdbK

MijZ`g_gb_

>Zgh J_r_gb_
1.

ν = = −7 = 10 7 =p
T = 10-7 c 1 1

GZclbν. Hl\_lν = 107 =p


T 10 c

>Zgh J_r_gb_
2.

S = ct = 3⋅108 fk ⋅ 8,3⋅10-7 k f


c = 3⋅108 fk
t = 8,3⋅10-7 c

GZclb S. Hl\_lS = 249 f

>Zgh J_r_gb_
3.

λ f c 3 ⋅ 108 fk


c = 3⋅108 fk = 5 ⋅ 105 =p
600 f
ν= =
λ
GZclbν. Hl\_lν = 5⋅105 =p
4. AgZy kdhjhklv jZkijhkljZg_gby kb]gZeZ k hgZ jZ\gZ kdhjhklb
k\_lZ  b \j_fy _]h jZkijhkljZg_gby t g_ljm^gh jZkkqblZlv
ijhc^_ggh_ jZkklhygb_ S AZ \j_fy t kb]gZe ijhc^_l jZkklhygb_ S
lm^Zb h[jZlghbke_^h\Zl_evghS = ct/2.
5. G_la\mdh\u_\hegug_jZkijhkljZgy_lky\ \Zdmmf_

MijZ`g_gb_
1. 126 K ²Z_f 63 Li ²Z_f 40
20 Ca ²Z_f
2. 6, 3, 20.

54
6 Z_f
3. < n = jZa
1 Z_f
4. Z [ Z_f\ \ jZa] ^ _ ` 
5. 146 K → 146−+01O + −01 _ ⇒147 O =147 N ²Zahl

MijZ`g_gb_

7 N + 2 He → 8 O +1 H  Bf__f   
       Ke_^h\Zl_evgh
14 4 17 1

aZdhgkhojZg_gbyaZjy^Z\uihegy_lky

MijZ`g_gb_
1. < y^j_ ZlhfZ [_jbeeby 94 Be gmdehgh\ ²  ijhlhgh\ ² 
g_cljhgh\²N = A + Z = 9 – 4 = 5.
19 D  Z  Z
2. 39   [  Np = Z   \  Q   \ we_f_glZjguo
we_dljbq_kdboaZjy^Zo ] Ne = Np ^ _ ` : a N =

±  b m Z_f


A–Z=

3. Qbkeh ijhlhgh\ khhl\_lkl\_ggh we_dljhgh\  \ Zlhf_ jZ\gh _]h


ihjy^dh\hfm ghf_jm \ lZ[ebp_ F_g^_e__\Z ke_^h\Zl_evgh Z
eblbc[ nlhj

MijZ`g_gb_
Wlb Zlhfu bf_xl h^bgZdh\u_ fZkku gh bo obfbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z
jZaebqguWlhh[tykgy_lkyl_fqlh m gbojZagu_aZjy^h\u_ qbkeZ
ZagZqblb dhebq_kl\hwe_dljhgh\

MijZ`g_gb_
92 U → 90Th + 2 He .
238 234 4
1.
90Th → 91Pa + −1 e+ 0  ; 91Pa → 92 U + −1 e+ 0   Ke_^h\Zl_evgh \
234 234 0 0 ~ 234 234 0 0~

j_amevlZl_^\moβjZkiZ^h\
2.

MijZ`g_gb_
Ld gmdehgu bf_xl fZkkm lh f_`^m gbfb ^_ckl\mxl kbeu
]jZ\blZpbhggh]hijbly`_gby

55
AZ^Zqbij_^eZ]Z_fu_^eyih\lhj_gby
b ijbqZkZonbabdb\ g_^_ex
U
1. >ey\_dlhjZ a bf__fZ     [ Zy ± ±\ _Zy| =
U
]  | a | = (0,5 − 0,5) 2 + (2 − 5) 2 = 3.
U
>ey\_dlhjZ b bf__fZ     [ by ±  \ _by_ ]
U
U
| b | = (4 − 1) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 5.
>ey\_dlhjZ c bf__fZ     [ cy   ±   \  _cy_  ]
U
U
| c | = (6 − 4) 2 − (1 − 1) 2 = 2.
>ey\_dlhjZ d bf__fZ    ± [ dy ±± ±\ _dy_ ]
U
| d | = (3 − 6) 2 + (−4 − 0) 2 = 5

>ey\_dlhjZ e bf__fZ  ±   [ ey ±± ±  \


U
|ey_ ]  | e | = (0,5 − 0,5) 2 + (−1 − (−4)) 2 = 3.
U U
2. ax = 0, bx = | b | , cx = 0, dx = − | d | .
3. Z A (0;2), B ± [ sx = 12 – 0 = 12, sy ±±  ±\ _sx| = 12,
U
|sy| = 5; ]  | s | = (12 − 0) 2 + (−3 − 2) 2 = 13.
4.
y
 B



    x



A

sAB = ( 4 − ( −8)) + (3 − ( −2))


2 2
 LZd dZd imlv g_ fh`_l ij_\ukblv
i_j_f_s_gby fh^mevdhlhjh]h_klvgZbf_gvr__jZkklhygb_f_`^m
gZqZevghcb dhg_qghclhqdZfbimlb lhhgfh`_l[ulveb[hjZ\_g
eb[h[hevr_i_j_f_s_gbyghgb \dh_fkemqZ_g_f_gvr__]h
5. Ijyfhebg_cguf jZ\ghf_jguf ^\b`_gb_f gZau\Z_lky lZdh_
^\b`_gb_ ijb dhlhjhf aZ h^bgZdh\u_ ijhf_`mldb \j_f_gb l_eh
kh\_jrZ_l h^bgZdh\u_ i_j_f_s_gby \^hev g_dhlhjhc hkb lZd dZd
^\b`_gb_ ijyfhebg_cgh_  Ihwlhfm sx = vxt ]^_ vx ² ihklhyggZy

56
\_ebqbgZ oZjZdl_jbamxsZy kdhjhklv i_j_f_s_gby Bkoh^y ba
mjZ\g_gbyo = o0 + sxihemqbfx = x0 + vxt.

>Zgh J_r_gb_
6.

vx fkx0 f x(t) = x0 + vxt ⇒ x(t) = 3 + 5t.


GZclbx(t). Hl\_lx(t) = (3 + 5t f

<hdaZe x\
7.
xl xi

     


X
>Zgh J_r_gb_
xi = 260 – 10t < gZqZevgucfhf_glgZ[ex^_gby
xl = –100 + 8t xi = 260 – 10 ⋅ 0 = 260; xl = –100 + 8 ⋅ 0 = –100.
< fhf_gl\klj_qbxi = xl beb±t = –100 + 8t.
Hlkx^ZgZoh^bffhf_gl\j_f_gb\klj_qbt = 20 c.
x\ = 260 – 10 ⋅ 20 = –100 + 8 ⋅  f
GZclb xi, Hl\_lxi = 260, xl = –100, t = 20 c, x\ f
xl, t, x\.
8. Kh]eZkgh]jZnbdmiehl[uekims_ggb`_klhygdbgZf_ljh\
Ih]jZnbdmhij_^_ebfo0 = –10; vx fk fko = –10 + 2t.

>Zgh J_r_gb_
9.

t=2c v − v0 v v t 4,5 fk ⋅ 2 k


3 fk
v
= ; t1 = 1 = 1 =
v fk
v0 = 0 a= = 3 c;

at 2 vv 2 t 2 v 2 t (4,5 fk )2 ⋅ 2 k
t t a v
v1 fk = 6,75 f
2 ⋅ 3 fk
s= 1 = 1 2 = 1 =

GZclbt1, s. Hl\_l: t1 = 3 c, s = 6,75 f.


2 2tv 2v

U U U U
U U at 2  U at  t U U U v +v
10. s = v0 t + = t  v0 +  = (v0 + (v0 + at )) = 0 t.
U U U U U U U
2  2 2 2
U U a t 2 U v − v0 U U (v − v 0 )t 2 v 0 + v
11. s = v0 t + ; a= ; s = v0 t + = t;
U U U U U2 U2
(aU, sU) =  v − v0 , v0 + v t  = 1 ⋅ (vU, vU0 ) + vU2 − vU02 − (vU0 , vU) = v − v0 ⇒
2 t 2t 2

( )
U2 U2
 t 2  2 2
U v − v0
⇒a= U .
2s

>Zgh J_r_gb_
12.

tx = 0,3 k
57
s f s 0,43 f
≈ 1,43 fk
0,3 k
vkj ==

2 s 2 ⋅ 0,43 f
t

≈ 2,87 f/k.
0,3 k
2s
a = 2 ; v = at = =

GZclbvkj, v. Hl\_lvkj ≈ fkv ≈ fk


t t

13. so[ = o[ ; sFd = cd = o[ = 3sh[. ⇒ < jZaZ[hevr_


2
a t a t 2 3a t 2

vkd = acdt = 3ah[t = 3vh[. ⇒ < jZaZ[hevr_


2 2 2

>eykdhjhklgh]h
14.

ebnlZ
vx

>eyh[uqgh]h
ebnlZ

0 t

>Zgh J_r_gb_
15.

v0x = vx(0) = 10 + 0,5 ⋅  fka fk2.


K l_q_gb_f \j_f_gb fh^mev \_dlhjZ kdhjhklb
vx(t) = 10 + 0,5t

Z\lhfh[bey\hajZklZ_l lZddZdZ!b v0>0).


GZclbv0x. Hl\_lv0x fk

16. Ihke_ m^ZjZ mkdhj_gb_ rZc[u gZijZ\e_gh ijhlb\ kdhjhklb


Dh]^Z kdhjhklv h[jZsZ_lky \ gmev mkdhj_gb_ lh`_ klZgh\blky
(5 − t ) fk 0 ≤ t ≤ 5;
jZ\gufgmex | v x (t ) |= 
0 fk t > 5.

vx







       t

58
17. o = o0 + sx JZg__ [ueh ^hdZaZgh qlh ijb jZ\ghmkdhj_gghf
^\b`_gbbk mkdhj_gb_fZo b gZqZevghckdhjhklvx v0x i_j_f_s_gb_
jZ\ghsx = v0xt + x ihwlhfmo = o0+ v0xt + x .
a t a t
2 2

>Zgh J_r_gb_
18.

ax fk2 vx(t) = v0x + axt = 0,1t \ fk2).


v0x = 0 a t2 0,1 ⋅ t 2
x0 = 0 x(t) = x0 + v0xt + x = = 0,05t2.
GZclbvx(t), x(t). Hl\_lv0x fk
2 2

>Zgh J_r_gb_
19.

|v\_ dfq |vf| = ||v\| – |v\|| ijb v\ ↑↑ vf beb |vf| = ||v\| + |v\||
Z |vhlg| = 0 ijb v\ ↑↓ vf.
[ |vhlg_ dfq Z) v\ ↑↑ vf b v\ ↑↓ vf ⇒ |vf| = |40 df/q ± 0 df/q| =
\ |vhlg_ dfq = 40 df/q.
] |vhlg_ dfq [) v\ ↑↑ vf ⇒ |vf| = |40 df/q – 10 df/q| = 30 df/q.
v\ ↑↓ vf ⇒ |vf| = |40 df/q + 10 df/q| = 50 df/q.
\ v\ ↑↑ vf ⇒ |vf_ _dfq ±dfq_ 
v\ ↑↓ vf ⇒ |vf_ _dfq dfq_ dfq
] v\ ↑↑ vf ⇒ |vf_ _dfq dfq_ dfq
v\ ↑↓ vf ⇒ |vf_ _dfq ±dfq_ dfq
GZclbvf. Hl\_l Z   dfq [   dfq beb  dfq \  
bebdfq[ dfq bebdfq
20. KdhjhklvdZl_jZhlghkbl_evgh[_j_]Zihl_q_gbxvd =
= vd + vl = 6vl a^_kvvd ²kdhjhklvdZl_jZhlghkbl_evgh\h^uvl —
kdhjhklv l_q_gby \h^u hlghkbl_evgh [_j_]Z  kdhjhklv dZl_jZ
hlghkbl_evgh [_j_]Z ijhlb\ l_q_gby vd = vd – vl = 4vl LZdbf
h[jZahf d + = = 1,5.
v 6
vd − 4
m 3,87 ⋅ 10 −3 d]
 d]f3 Fu \b^bf qlh iehlghklv
3 ⋅ 10 −3 f 3
21. ρ = =

rZjbdZjZ\gZiehlghklb\ha^moZZke_^h\Zl_evgh\ulZedb\ZxsZy
V

kbeZ ^_ckl\mxsZy gZ rZjbd jZ\gZ _]h kbe_ ly`_klb AgZqbl ih


i_j\hfm aZdhgm GvxlhgZ rZjbd hklZg_lky \ khklhygbb ihdhy ld
_]h hlimklbeb [_a gZqZevghc kdhjhklb bgZq_ [u hg jZ\ghf_jgh b
ijyfhebg_cghi_j_f_sZeky 
22. Kh]eZkghlj_lv_fmaZdhgmGvxlhgZkbeu^_ckl\mxsb_gZrZju
jZ\guKh]eZkgh\lhjhfmaZdhgmGvxlhgZbomkdhj_gbyjZ\gu

59
Zk = , ZZ =  Hlkx^Z c = a  < j_Zevguo nbabq_kdbo
F F a m

aZ^ZqZo dh]^Z fZkku rZjh\ g_ jZ\gu gmex  fh^mev mkdhj_gby


mc ma a a mc

klZevgh]h rZjZ g_ fh`_l jZ\gylvky gmex Hg fh`_l [ulv dZd
[hevr_ lZd b f_gvr_ fh^mey mkdhj_gby Zexfbgb_\h]h rZjZ qlh
aZ\bkblebrvhlkhhlghr_gbyfZkkrZjh\
23. Ba nhjfmeu ^ey g0 ihemqZ_f GM3 = g 0 R32  Ih^klZ\eyy \

nhjfmem^eygihemqZ_fg =
g 0 R32
.
( R3 + h) 2

= a1 ; L1 = ma1 ; L2 = ma 2 = ma1 = L 1 .
v2 v2 1 1 1
24. a1 = ; a1 =
DZd mkdhj_gb_lZd b kbeZ^_ckl\mxsZy gZ \lhjhc rZjbd \ jZaZ
r 2r 2 2 2

f_gvr_ZgZeh]bqguo\_ebqbg^ey\lhjh]hrZjbdZ
25. GZ \ukhl_ h hlghkbl_evgh a_feb r = R3 + h; mapk = mg;
v2 g 0 R32 g 0 R32
= ⇒ v =
( R3 + h) ( R3 + h) 2 R3 + h

>Zgh J_r_gb_
26.

R df ⋅ 106 f <hkihevam_fkynhjfmehc ihemq_gghc \


g0 fk2 ij_^u^ms_caZ^Zq_
h df ⋅ 106 f g 0 R32 9,8 fk ⋅ (6,4 ⋅10 6 f 2
6,4 ⋅ 10 6 f + 3,6 ⋅10 6 f
v=v= = ≈
R3 + h
≈ fk
GZclbv. Hl\_lv ≈ fk

vx, fk
27. vx = gt.







t, c
     

>Zgh J_r_gb_
28.

l d] ∆p = m∆v = mg∆t.


60
Ld∆v1 = ∆v2 jZ\ghmkdhj_ggh_^\b`_gb_ lh
t k ∆p1 = ∆p2 = ∆p d]⋅fk2 ⋅ 1 c d]⋅fk
v0 = 0

∆t = 1c
GZclbv. Hl\_l∆p1 = ∆p2 = ∆p d]⋅fk
29. Ld m ² ihklhyggZy \_ebqbgZ lh baf_g_gb_ bfimevkZ [m^_l
hij_^_eylvky lhevdh baf_g_gb_f kdhjhklb Ih ]jZnbdm kf aZ^Zqm
 \b^ghqlh_keb∆t1 = ∆t2lhb ∆v1 = ∆v2bagZqbl∆p1 = ∆p2.
30. < mkeh\byo k\h[h^gh]h iZ^_gby kdhjhklb h[hbo rZjbdh\ \
ex[hc fhf_gl \j_f_gb [m^ml h^bgZdh\u b ke_^h\Zl_evgh
hlghr_gb_ bo bfimevkh\ [m^_l aZ\bk_lv ebrv hl hlghr_gby bo
fZkk LZd dZd ih mkeh\bx h[t_fu h^bgZdh\u hgh [m^_l jZ\gh
ρ f 8,9 ⋅ 10 3 d]f 3
hlghr_gbxiehlghkl_cf_^bb Zexfbgby
ρ Z 2,7 ⋅10 3 d]f 3
= ≈ 3,3.

BlZd \ ex[hc fhf_gl \j_f_gb f_^guc rZjbd bf__l bfimevk


ijbf_jgh\ jZaZ[hevr_q_fZexfbgb_\uc

^hklhedgh\_gby
31.
1 2 X
ihke_klhedgh\_gby
1 2 X

>Zgh J_r_gb_
v1x fk Ih aZdhgm khojZg_gby bfimevkZ gZ hkv O):
v2x fk mv1x + mv2 x = mv1′ x + mv′2 x ⇒ v ′2 x = v1x + v 2 x − v1′ x =
v1′ x fk fk fk ±fk fk
GZclbv. Hl\_l v ′2 x fk

^hklhedgh\_gby
32.
1 2 X
ihke_klhedgh\_gby
1 2 X

>Zgh J_r_gb_
v1x fk Ih aZdhgm khojZg_gby bfimevkZ gZ hkv O):
v2x ±fk mv1x + mv2 x = mv1′ x + mv′2 x ⇒ v ′2 x = v1x + v 2 x − v1′ x =
v1′ x = –fk fk  ±fk ± ±fk  fk
GZclbv. Hl\_l v ′2 x fk
33.

E=
mv12x mv22x m 2
2
+
2 2
( ) mv ′ 2 mv ′22x m
= ⋅ v1x + v 22x ; E ′ = 1x +
2 2 2
(
= ⋅ v1′ x2 + v ′22x ; )
61
v12x + v22x  fk 2 + ±fk 2 = 0,05 f2k2; v1′x2 + v′22x  ±fk 2 +
+ fk = 0,05 f k ⇒ v1x + v2 x = v1′ x + v′2 x ⇒ E = E′.
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

34. Ih ]jZnbdm hij_^_ey_f qlh L   k b ν =


  =p
1 1
=
Ex[Zy^jm]ZylhqdZbaf_gy_lkdhjhklvk lhc`_kZfhcqZklhlhc
T 2c

35. <havf_f aZ t   fhf_gl dh]^Z hldehg_gb_ kj_^g_c lhqdb


kljmgujZ\ghgmex
=jZnbdg_]h^blky^ey^jm]bolhq_dkljmguldZfieblm^ZbohlebqgZ
hlZfieblm^ukj_^g_clhqdb>eykj_^gbolhq_dkljmg ^jm]bo Zjnhg
l_f[he__g_]h^blkylZddZdhgbbf_xlbgu_qZklhludhe_[Zgbc
;ff



WfF

     



36. GZ^h ^\Z h^bgZdh\uo dZf_jlhgZ jZkiheh`blv gZ g_dhlhjhf
jZkklhygbb ^jm] hl ^jm]Z lZd qlh[u bo j_ahgZlhjgu_ ysbdb [ueb
h[jZs_gu ^jm] d ^jm]m ?keb l_i_jv m^Zjblv ih h^ghfm ba gbo b
q_j_ag_dhlhjh_\j_fyaZ]emrblvijbdhkgm\rbkvjmdhcd g_fmlh
fu mkeurbf a\md hl \lhjh]h dZf_jlhgZ < hkgh\_ ^Zggh]h hiulZ
e_`bly\e_gb_a\mdh\h]hj_ahgZgkZ
37. Ihevamykv ]jZnbdhf hij_^_ey_f Z  ijb  =p Zfieblm^Z
mklZgh\b\rboky dhe_[Zgbc [m^_l [hevr_ q_f ijb  =p [  qlh[u
Zfieblm^Z mklZgh\b\rboky dhe_[Zgbc [ueZ fZdkbfZevghc dZq_eb
gZ^hih^lZedb\Zlvk qZklhlhc=p\ kh[kl\_ggZy qZklhlZ dZq_e_c
jZ\gZqZklhl_\ugm`^Zxs_ckbeul_=p

>Zgh: J_r_gb_
38.

l kf f mg 0,002 d] ⋅ 9,8 fk 2


m ] d] Fl = Ff; mg = BIl ⇒ I =
4 ⋅10 −2 Le ⋅ 0,1 f
=
B = 4 ⋅ 10-2 Le
=
Bl

GZclbI. Hl\_l: I = 4,9 A.


= 4,9 A.

39. < ^Zgghf kemqZ_ jhev p_gljhklj_fbl_evghc kbeu \uihegy_l


kbeZ k dhlhjhc fZ]gblgh_ ihe_ ^_ckl\m_l ^\b`msbcky we_dljhg
IhevamykvijZ\behfe_\hcjmdbhij_^_ey_fqlhwe_dljhg\e_l_e\
dZf_jm\ lhqd_<.

62
>Zgh J_r_gb_
40.

v = 3 ⋅ 107 fk
|_| = 1,6 ⋅ 10-19 De
mv 2 mv
Fpk = Ff; = B|_|v ⇒ r =
m = 9,1 ⋅ 10-31 d]
=
r B|e|
B = 8,5 ⋅ 10-3 Le 9,1 ⋅ 10 −31 d] ⋅ 3 ⋅10 7 fk
= 2 ⋅ 10-2 f
8,5 ⋅ 10 −3 Le ⋅ 1,6 ⋅10 -19 De
=

GZclbr. Hl\_lr = 2 ⋅ 10-2 f


41. < j_amevlZl_βjZkiZ^Z 146 C → 147 N + -01 e .
13 Al+ 0 n → 11 N + 2 He .
27 1 24 4
42.
43. 10 7+ 4−10
5 Al+ 3+ 2−5 X → 3 N + 2 He
7 4
⇒ 7 + 4−10
3+ 2−5 X = 01 n ²g_cljhg

63
EZ[hjZlhjgu_jZ[hlu
EZ[hjZlhjgZyjZ[hlZ‹
Bkke_^h\Zgb_jZ\ghmkdhj_ggh]h^\b`_gby[_agZqZevghckdhjhklb
<ZjbZgl
P_evjZ[hlum[_^blvky\ jZ\ghmkdhj_gghfoZjZdl_j_^\b`_gby
[jmkdZb hij_^_eblv_]hmkdhj_gb_b f]gh\_ggmxkdhjhklv
< ^Zgghf\ZjbZgl_jZ[hlubkke_^mxloZjZdl_j^\b`_gby[jmkdZ
ih gZdehgghc iehkdhklb K ihfhsvx ijb[hjZ bah[jZ`_ggh]h gZ
jbk  Z  mq_[gbdZ fh`gh baf_jylv fh^meb \_dlhjh\
i_j_f_s_gbckh\_jr_gguo[jmkdhfaZijhf_`mldb\j_f_gbt1, t2 =

= 3t1,…, tn = nt1hlkqblu\Z_fuohlfhf_glZgZqZeZ^\b`_gby?keb
2t1, t3 =

aZibkZlv^ey^Zgguofh^me_c\_dlhjh\i_j_f_s_gbcbo\ujZ`_gby
a (2t1 ) at 2 a (3t1 )
2 2
at12 at 2 22 32
s1 = , s 2 = 2 == = s1 , s3 = 3 = = s3 ,…,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
at 2 a (nt1 )2 n 2
sn = n = = s1 ,
lhfh`ghaZf_lblvke_^mxsmxaZdhghf_jghklv
2 2 2

?keb wlZ aZdhghf_jghklv \uihegy_lky ^ey baf_j_gguo \ jZ[hl_


s1 : s2 : s3 : … : sn = 12 : 22 : 32 :…: n2 = 1 : 4 : 9 :…: n2.

fh^me_c \_dlhjh\ i_j_f_s_gbclh wlhb [m^_l ^hdZaZl_evkl\hf lh]h


qlh ^\b`_gb_ [jmkdZ ih gZdehgghc iehkdhklb y\ey_lky
jZ\ghmkdhj_gguf
Ijbf_j\uiheg_gbyjZ[hlu.
AZ^Zgb_  Bkke_^h\Zgb_ oZjZdl_jZ ^\b`_gby [jmkdZ ih gZdehgghc
iehkdhklb
0,02
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,10
0,12
0,14
0,16
0,18
0,20
0,22
0,24
0,26
0,28
0,30
t, c
0
sff

102
126
146
170
198
227
15
24
36
50
65
82
0
1
3
7

<uqbke_gby.
s 2 3 ff 7 ff 15 ff 24 ff
s1 1 ff s1 1 ff s1 1 ff 1 ff
s s s
= = 3, 3 = = 7, 4 = = 15, 5 = = 24,
s1

64
s 6 36 ff 50 ff 65 ff 82 ff
1 ff 1 ff 1 ff 1 ff
s s s
= = 36, 7 = = 50, 8 = = 65, 9 = =82,
s1 s1 s1 s1
s10 102 ff s 11 126 ff 146 ff
1 ff ff ff
s s
= = 102, = = 126, 12 = = 146, 13 =
s1 s1 1 s 1 s1
170 ff 198 ff 227 ff
1

1 ff 1 ff 1 ff
s s
= = 170, 14 = = 198, 15 = = 227.

Hlkx^ZgZoh^bf
s1 s1

s1 : s2 : s3 : s4 : s5 : s6 : s7 : s8 : s9 : s10 : s11 : s12 : s13 : s14 : s15 =

WlZ aZdhghf_jghklv g_ hq_gv kbevgh hlebqZ_lky hl l_hj_lbq_kdhc


= 1 : 3 : 7 : 15 : 24 : 36 : 50 : 65 : 82 : 102 : 126 : 146 : 170 : 198 : 227.

aZdhghf_jghklb ^ey jZ\ghmkdhj_ggh]h ^\b`_gby LZdbf h[jZahf


fh`gh kqblZlv qlh ^\b`_gb_ [jmkdZ ih gZdehgghc iehkdhklb
y\ey_lkyjZ\ghmkdhj_gguf
AZ^Zgb_ Hij_^_e_gb_mkdhj_gby^\b`_gby[jmkdZ
Mkdhj_gb_[m^_f\uqbkeylvihnhjfme_a = 2 .
2s

2 ⋅ 0,102 f
t
t10 = 0,2 c; s10 = 102 ff = 0,102 f; a1 = = 5,1 f/k2.
(0,2 k) 2

2 ⋅ 0,227 f
t15 = 0,3 c; s15 = 227 ff = 0,227 f; a1 = ≈ 5,04 f/k2.
(0,3 k)2
a1 + a 2 5,1 fk 2 + 5,04 fk 2
akj = = fk2.
AZ^Zgb_  Hij_^_e_gb_ f]gh\_gghc kdhjhklb [jmkdZ \ jZagu_
2 2

fhf_glu \j_f_gb b ihkljh_gb_ ]jZnbdZ aZ\bkbfhklb f]gh\_gghc


kdhjhklbv hl\j_f_gbt.
AgZq_gb_f]gh\_gghckdhjhklb[m^_f\uqbkeylvihnhjfme_v = at.
t = 0,1 c; v fk2 ⋅ k fk
t = 0,2 c; v fk2 ⋅ k fk
t = 0,3 c; v fk2 ⋅ k fk
=jZnbdaZ\bkbfhklbf]gh\_gghckdhjhklbv hl\j_f_gbt.

65
v, fc







     t, c
>hihegbl_evgh_ aZ^Zgb_ Ihkljh_gb_ ]jZnbdZ aZ\bkbfhklb
dhhj^bgZlu x [jmkdZ hl \j_f_gb t. x0 = 0, t0 = 0, xi(ti) = si, i =

x, ff
1,2,3,…,15.












    
<ZjbZgl
t, c

P_ev jZ[hlu hij_^_eblv mkdhj_gb_ ^\b`_gby rZjbdZ b _]h


f]gh\_ggmxkdhjhklvi_j_^m^Zjhfh pbebg^j
>\b`_gb_ rZjbdZ ih gZdehgghfm `_eh[m y\ey_lky
jZ\ghmkdhj_gguf ?keb fu hlimklbf [_a gZqZevghc kdhjhklb
rZjbd b baf_jbf ijhc^_ggh_ bf jZkklhygb_ s ^h klhedgh\_gby k
pbebg^jhf b \j_fy t hl gZqZeZ ^\b`_gby ^h klhedgh\_gby lh fu
fh`_fjZkkqblZlv_]hmkdhj_gb_ihnhjfme_a = 2 .
2s

AgZymkdhj_gb_afufh`_fhij_^_eblvf]gh\_ggmxkdhjhklvv ih
t

nhjfme_

Ijbf_j\uiheg_gbyjZ[hlu.
v = at.

Qbkeh Mkdhj_gb_
<j_fy F]gh\_ggZy
m^Zjh\ JZkklhygb_
^\b`_gby kdhjhklv
f_ljhghfZ fk
2s 2
sf a=
n
t, c t2 v = atfk
3 0,9 1,5 0,8 1,2

66
<uqbke_gby.
2 ⋅ 0,9 f
fk2; v fk2 ⋅ k fk
(1,5 k )2
t = 0,5 c ⋅ 3 = 1,5 c; a =

EZ[hjZlhjgZyjZ[hlZ‹
Baf_j_gb_mkdhj_gbyk\h[h^gh]hiZ^_gby
P_ev jZ[hlu baf_jblv mkdhj_gb_ k\h[h^gh]h iZ^_gby k
ihfhsvxijb[hjZ^eybamq_gby^\b`_gbyl_e
K\h[h^gh_ iZ^_gb_ l_eZ y\ey_lky jZ\ghmkdhj_gguf ^\b`_gb_f
?keb fu hlimklbf [_a gZqZevghc kdhjhklb dZdhcgb[m^v ]jma gZ
mklZgh\d_hk\h[h`^Z_faZ`bf b baf_jbfijhc^_ggh_bfjZkklhygb_
s b \j_fy taZdhlhjh_ [ueh ijhc^_gh wlh jZkklhygb_ lh fu fh`_f
jZkkqblZlvmkdhj_gb_k\h[h^gh]hiZ^_gbyihnhjfme_g = 2 .
2s

Ijbf_j\uiheg_gbyjZ[hlu.
t

<j_fy
Mkdhj_gb_k\h[h^gh]h
^\b`_gbyt = Imlvsff Imlvsf
iZ^_gbyg = 2s/t2fk2
nT, c

<uqbke_gby.
0,28 400 0,4

2 ⋅ 0,4 f
n = 14; t = 14 ⋅ 0,02 c = 0,28 c; gwdki =
(0,28 k )2
≈fk2.

∆g = |gwdki – gl_hj _ _fk2 ±fk2_ fk2.


∆g 0,4 fk 2
9,8 fk 2
⋅ 100% = ⋅100% ≈ 4,1 %.
g

EZ[hjZlhjgZyjZ[hlZ‹
Bkke_^h\Zgb_aZ\bkbfhklbi_jbh^Zb qZklhluk\h[h^guo
dhe_[Zgbcgblygh]hfZylgbdZhl_]h^ebgu
P_evjZ[hlu\uykgblvdZdaZ\bkyli_jbh^b qZklhlZk\h[h^guo
dhe_[Zgbcgblygh]hfZylgbdZhl_]h^ebgu
Ijbbaf_g_gbb^ebgugblygh]hfZylgbdZf_gy_lky_]hqZklhlZb
i_jbh^ < ^Zgghc jZ[hl_ fu ^he`gu hij_^_eblv wlm aZ\bkbfhklv
I_jbh^ b qZklhlm hij_^_ey_f ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf Hldehgbf
rZjbdfZylgbdZhliheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kbygZg_[hevrmxZfieblm^m
b aZk_q_f \j_fy t \ l_q_gb_ dhlhjh]h fZylgbd kh\_jrbl N .
dhe_[Zgbc Lh]^Z i_jbh^ b Zfieblm^m fh`gh ihkqblZlv ih
nhjfmeZf

67
t 1 N
T= , ν= = .
Baf_jyy i_jbh^ b qZklhlm ijb jZaguo agZq_gbyo ^ebgu fZylgbdZ
N T t

ful_fkZfufihemqZ_faZ\bkbfhklvi_jbh^Zb qZklhluhl^ebgu
Ijbf_j\uiheg_gbyjZ[hlu.
‹ hiulZ
Nba\_e 1 2 3 4 5
lkf 5 20 45 80 125
N 30 30 30 30 30
t, c 13 27 40 53 67

ν, =p
T, c 0,43 0,9 1,33 1,77 2,23

Ba ^Zgguo \ lZ[ebp_ fh`gh aZf_lblv lZdmx aZdhghf_jghklv q_f


2,31 1,11 0,75 0,57 0,45

[hevr_ ^ebgZ fZylgbdZ l_f [hevr_ i_jbh^ b f_gvr_ qZklhlZ b


gZh[hjhl
>hihegbl_evgh_aZ^Zgb_.
P_ev aZ^Zgby \uykgblv dZdZy fZl_fZlbq_kdZy aZ\bkbfhklv
kms_kl\m_lf_`^m^ebghcfZylgbdZb i_jbh^hf_]hdhe_[Zgbc
T2 T3 T4 ≈ 4 T5
≈2 ≈3 ≈5
T1 T1 T1 T1
l2 l3 l4 l 2 = 25
=4 =9 = 16
l1 l1 l1 l1

Ba ^Zgguo \ lZ[ebp_ ohjhrh ijhkfZljb\Z_lky k\yav f_`^m i_jbh^hf

dhe_[ZgbcfZylgbdZb _]h^ebghc ]^_k fh`_lijbgbfZlv


Tk lk
=
T1
b 
l1

EZ[hjZlhjgZyjZ[hlZ‹
Bamq_gb_y\e_gbywe_dljhfZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb
P_evjZ[hlubamqblvy\e_gb_we_dljhfZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb
DZd ba\_klgh y\e_gb_ we_dljhfZ]gblghc bg^mdpbb aZdexqZ_lky
\ \hagbdgh\_gbb we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ \ aZfdgmlhf ijh\h^gbd_ ijb
baf_g_gbb fZ]gblgh]h ihlhdZ ijhgbau\Zxs_]h ho\Zq_ggmx
ijh\h^gbdhfiehsZ^v
Ijbf_j\uiheg_gbyjZ[hlu.
1. K[hjdZmklZgh\db jbkmq_[gbdZ 
2. < i_j\hfhiul_bg^mdpbhgguclhd\hagbdZe\ dZlmrd_ \ kemqZ_
dh]^Z fZ]gbl ^\b]Zeky hlghkbl_evgh dZlmrdb Ijb lhjfh`_gbb
fZ]gblZ kbeZ bg^mdpbhggh]h lhdZ j_adh \hajZklZeZ b iZ^ZeZ ^h
gmeydh]^ZfZ]gblhklZgZ\eb\Zeky ihdhbeky 

68
3. Baf_g_gb_ fZ]gblgh]h ihlhdZ y\ey_lky ijbqbghc \hagbdgh\_gby
bg^mdpbhggh]hlhdZL_fZ]gblgucihlhdΦijhgbau\ZxsbcdZlmrdm
f_gyeky\f_kl_k bg^mdpbhgguflhdhfl_\h\j_fy^\b`_gbyfZ]gblZ
4. Bg^mdpbhgguc lhd \hagbdZe \ dZlmrd_ ijb baf_g_gbb
fZ]gblgh]hihlhdZijhgbau\Zxs_]hwlmdZlmrdm
5. Ijbijb[eb`_gbbfZ]gblZd dZlmrd_ fZ]gblguc ihlhd f_gyeky
ld fZ]gblguc
U ihlhd aZ\bkbl hl fh^mey \_dlhjZ fZ]gblghc
bg^mdpbb B fh^mev wlh]h \_dlhjZ g_ ihklhyg_g ld fZ]gblgh_
ihe_ihklhyggh]hfZ]gblZg_h^ghjh^gh 
6. GZijZ\e_gb_ bg^mdpbhggh]h lhdZ [m^_l jZaebqguf ijb
ijb[eb`_gbbfZ]gblZd dZlmrd_b m^Ze_gbb_]hhlg__
7. Q_f [hevr_ kdhjhklv ^\b`_gby fZ]gblZ hlghkbl_evgh dZlmrdb
l_f [hevr_ fZ]gblguc ihlhd Φ Z ke_^h\Zl_evgh b agZq_gb_
bg^mdpbhggh]hlhdZ
8. K[hjdZmklZgh\db jbkmq_[gbdZ 
9. Bg^mdpbhgguclhd\hagbdZ_l\ kemqZyoZ b \ 
10. FZ]gblgucihlhdf_gy_lky\ kemqZyoZ b \ 
11. <hagbdgh\_gb_ we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ \ fh^_eb ]_g_jZlhjZ jbk
mq_[gbdZ Bg^mdpbhgguclhd\hagbdZ_l\ jZfd_\jZsZxs_cky
\ fZ]gblghf ihe_ \ke_^kl\b_ baf_g_gby fZ]gblgh]h ihlhdZ
y\e_gb_we_dljhfZ]gblghcbg^mdpbb 
EZ[hjZlhjgZyjZ[hlZ‹
Bamq_gb_^_e_gbyy^_jmjZgZihnhlh]jZnbyflj_dh\
P_ev jZ[hlu m[_^blvky \ kijZ\_^eb\hklb aZdhgZ khojZg_gby
bfimevkZgZijbf_j_^_e_gbyy^_jmjZgZ
Ijbf_j\uiheg_gbyjZ[hlu.
AZ^Zgb_Y^jhmjZgZijbaZo\Zl_g_cljhgZjZa^_ey_lkyijbf_jghgZ
^\_jZ\gu_qZklbdhlhju_gZau\ZxlkyhkdhedZfb^_e_gbyIjbwlhf
hkdhedb jZae_lZxlky \ ijhlb\hiheh`gu_ klhjhgu Wlh fh`gh
h[tykgblv gZ hkgh\_ aZdhgZ khojZg_gby bfimevkZ Bfimevk y^jZ
mjZgZ ^h aZo\ZlZ g_cljhgZ ijZdlbq_kdb jZ\_g gmex Ijb aZo\Zl_
g_cljhgZy^jhihemqZyhlg_]hg_dhlhjucbfimevkjZkdZeu\Z_lkygZ
^\_ jZae_lZxsboky qZklb fZkkZfb m1 b m2 ?keb aZibkZlv aZdhg
U U
khojZg_gby bfimevkZ 0 = m1v1′ + m2 v ′2  lh kjZam \b^gh qlh kdhjhklb
h[jZah\Z\rbokyhkdhedh\ijhlb\hiheh`ghgZijZ\e_gu^jm]^jm]mb
ke_^h\Zl_evghqZklbpujZae_lZxlky\ ijhlb\hiheh`gu_klhjhgu
AZ^Zgb_ . 92 U + 0 n → 56 Ba + Z X + 2 0 n  < kbem aZdhgZ khojZg_gby
aZjy^ZaZibr_f Z + 2 ⋅ Hlkx^ZihemqZ_fZ Ih
lZ[ebp_>BF_g^_e__\Zhij_^_ey_fqlhwlhy^jhdjbilhgZ

69
EZ[hjZlhjgZyjZ[hlZ‹
Bamq_gb_lj_dh\aZjy`_gguoqZklbpih ]hlh\ufnhlh]jZnbyf
P_evjZ[hluh[tykgbloZjZdl_j^\b`_gbyaZjy`_gguoqZklbp
Ijbf_j\uiheg_gbyjZ[hlu.
AZ^Zgb_  Lj_db qZklbp ^\b`msboky \ fZ]gblghf ihe_
bah[jZ`_gugZjbkmq_[gbdZldgZwlbonhlh]jZnbyobo
ljZ_dlhjbbdjb\hebg_cgu
AZ^Zgb_  Z  αqZklbpu ^\b]Zebkv ke_\Z gZijZ\h [  H^bgZdh\Zy
^ebgZ lj_dh\ αqZklbp ]h\hjbl h lhf qlh hgb bf_eb h^bgZdh\mx
wg_j]bx \  LhesbgZ lj_dZ mlhesZ_lky aZ kq_l lh]h qlh
mf_gvrZeZkvkdhjhklvbaaZklhedgh\_gbck qZklbpZfbkj_^u
AZ^Zgb_  Z  JZ^bmk djb\bagu f_gyeky aZ kq_l lh]h qlh
mf_gvrZeZkv kdhjhklv baaZ klhedgh\_gbc k fhe_dmeZfb \h^u [
QZklbpu ^\b]Zebkv kijZ\Z gZe_\h baaZ lh]h qlh lhesbgZ lj_dh\
kijZ\ZgZe_\hm\_ebqb\Z_lky
AZ^Zgb_  Z  We_dljhg ihklhyggh l_jye k\hx kdhjhklv aZ kq_l
khm^Zj_gbc k qZklbpZfb kj_^u b ihwlhfm lj_d bf__l nhjfm
kibjZeb[ We_dljhg^\b]Zeky\ gZijZ\e_gbbk]ms_gbykibjZebih
mdZaZgghc \ur_ ijbqbg_ \  Lj_d gZ jbk  ^ebgg__ ihlhfm qlh
hg\ f_gvr_ckl_i_gb\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk kj_^hc

70