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Published by Utkarsh Sethi

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Utkarsh Sethi on Nov 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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DEFINITION Personality may be understood as the characteristic pattern of behaviour and modes of thinking that determine a person s adjustment to the environment. -Hilgrad, Atkinson and Atkinson
In simple words,

The collective pattern of behavioral, temperamental, emotional, and mental traits of a person to determine how people adjust to the environment and how they react in specific situations.

Elements of Personality
y Represents distinctive traits. y Integrating and Organizing agent between physiological and psychological facets of an individual. y Unique in nature. y Becomes habitual to the person. y Results into action behavior in relation to a person, organization or situation.

Types of Personalities
y Outer Personality y Inner Personality

INNER PERSONALITY way of Thinking Nature Inner Purity Selection OUTER PERSONALITY  Behaviour  Style  Dressing sense  Outer appearance

Outer Personality y Related to Physique. y Easy to change. y Diminish with time. y Reflects in behaviour. eg. Amitabh Bacchan Inner Personality y Related with Mind & Soul. y Difficult to change. y Enlightens with time. y Reflects in Nature. eg. Mahatma Gandhi.

Transmission of Qualities from ancestor to descendent. Example:- Physical stature, facial attractiveness, temperament, muscle composition etc.

ESB research indicated better understanding of human personality and behaviour might come from study of brain.

Degree to which one responds emotionally also contributes in developing personality.

Individual s external appearance may have a tremendous effect on his personality.

Family influences the behaviour of a person especially in the early stages. The nature of such influence will depend upon following factors.
1.Socio-economic level of family 2.Family size 3.Birth order 4.Religion 5.Parents education level 6.Geographic location

Motives are the inner drives of the individual, represent goaldirected behaviour of individual.

Development of individual s personality is also influenced by social factors. For ex:-Influence of social status on individual perception about self, others, work, money etc.

Demand of different situations may call for different aspects of one s personality. For ex:- Versatile behaviour

A personality trait can be defined as an enduring attribute of a person that appears constantly in a variety of situations. Trait Theory makes certain fundamental assumptions. y Traits distinguish one personality from another. y Individuals can be described in terms of construction of traits such as affiliation, achievement, anxiety, aggression and dependency. y Difference in personality and behavior between two individuals is assumed to be the result of differences in the amount of each trait each person has.

Premise: Personality can be efficiently described with five relatively independent trait dimensions which are valid predictors of certain behaviors in the workplace. Openness to experience Emotional Stability Conscientiousness



> A high conscientious person focuses on a single or a few goals at one time. > Likely to be organized, systematic, careful, thorough, responsible, self-disciplined, and achievement-oriented.

> It focuses on an individual s ability to cope up the stress. > Individual with positive emotional stability tends to be calm, enthusiastic, secure and happy.

> Refers to a persons ability to get along with others. > People value harmony more than they value having their say to their way. > cooperative, warm, caring, good- natured, courtous and trusting.

> reflects a person s comfort level with relationships. > Extroverts are sociable, talkative, assertive and open to establishing new relationships.

> Addresses one s range of interests. > Extremely open people are fascinated by novelty and innovation. > More keen to listen to new ideas and to change their own ideas, beliefs, and attitudes in response to new information.

y Personality continue to develop throughout the lifetime. Specific traits change at different rates and to different degrees. y Some personality traits seem to remain constant throughout a person s life, while others undergo dramatic changes.

Personality Development
y Personality development is more obvious during childhood, when people are experiencing rapid physical, emotional, and intellectual growth. y At adulthood, personality traits change at a slower rate. However personality development varies form individual to individual. y In an organization, training and development programmes play a important role in affecting employees personality.

> Refers to belief that there should be status and power differences among people in organization. > Authoritarians are, ^ rigid in their positions. ^ place high moral value on their beliefs. ^ strongly oriented towards conformity to rules & regulations. > Naturally prefer stable and structured work environments, governed by clear rules and regulations.

> This trait is also known as Mach. > High Mach is pragmatic,maintains emotional distance. > High Mach manipulate more, win more, persuaded less and persuade others more. > Flourish when direct interaction takes place rather indirect. > High self confidence and high self esteem, subsequently more cool,calculating, carry less hesitation.

Introversion and Extroversion
> Both terms are associated with an individual s sociability and interpersonal orientation. > Extroverts are gregarious and social individuals while Introverts are shy, quiet, and retiring. > Extroverts are fit for positions, require interaction with others while introverts are fit for positions, require proper thought and analytical skills.

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
> Self concept is the way individuals define themselves as to who they are and derive their sense of identity. > Self esteem denotes extent to which they consistently regard themselves as capable, successful, crucial and worthy. > High self esteem ones take on challenging goals and contribute significantly to organizational goals. > Low self esteem ones are more susceptible to external influence than high esteem ones.

Locus of Control
This term means, whether people believe that they are in control of events or events control them.

Internal Locus of Control 
People Control and shape the course of events themselves. Greater control over behaviour.  More active in seeking the information to make decisions.  More active socially.  More independent and less susceptible to influence of others.

External Locus of Control 
Events occur by chance due to uncontrollable factors. Less satisfied with job, higher absenteeism rate. Feel influence of outside forces in their life & are at mercy of destiny, chance or other people. More interested in Job security than career advancement.


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