This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Michael Crotty Chapter 6: Critical Inquiry-The Marxist Heritage
The Foundations of Social Research Demystification v. demythologizing Paul Ricouer Demystification=suspicion/disillusion ment. the text represents a false reality and efforts are made to remove the masks and illusions and gain new interpretation Demythologizing=text is reverenced and its hidden meaning caringly sought after One is critical. one is interpretive .
The Foundations of Social Research Research that seeks to understand v. research that challenges Research that reads the situation in terms of interaction and community and research that reads it in terms of conflict and oppression Research that accepts the status quo and research that seeks to bring about change .
The Foundations of Social Research Critical Inquiry is about the power of ideas. Saul: “language provides legitimacy…” Is all critical inquiry necessarily Marxist? Why start with Marx? Who was Marx? Pp.” . 115-116 “All social life is essentially practical.
integral to Marx’s view of history.The Foundations of Social Research Marx retains Hegel’s central view of history: that the succession of societal forms and regimes we find in history also represents stages in our human self-understanding. Marx retains the concept of the dialectic. called dialectic materialism/historical materialism .
causal relationship to one another. Each “stage” of society is a society essentially at war with itself. . reality can only be understood as multifaceted interaction. forever in conflict with itself. Dialectically.The Foundations of Social Research To recognize the dialectic is to recognize that realities are never isolated entities standing in a linear. Reality and thought are the bearers of contradiction.
comes to be encapsulated in the term ‘class struggle. this perennial antagonism within every form of society.’ The ultimate synthesis of this struggle emerging from the dialectic of thesis and antithesis.The Foundations of Social Research For Marx. is the culmination of a truly socialist or communist or classless society . ala Hegel.
dependent upon the material conditions. Means of production differ from era to era as do social relations created by means of production . action of human beings on the world.The Foundations of Social Research Driving this struggle/liberating process are the relations of production Production=mode of life.
The Foundations of Social Research Over time the relationship between the forces of production and the corresponding social relations of production is an uneasy one. Eventually. new productive forces emerge and the social relations of production have to change in order to accommodate them. society’s basic economic equilibrium shatters and new forms of social relations of production must be established. . When this happens.
The Foundations of Social Research How does Marx characterize other factors and causes in societal evolution? What does he call them? How does he explain them? Hint: p. 120 What impact does the ruling economic class have on society according to Marx? Hint: p. 121 top What does this permeating rule do to the working class? .
what ought to be an expression of their very being becomes merely instrumental.The Foundations of Social Research Marx’s concept of alienation The activity or process by which someone becomes a stranger to himself Economic alienation is at the root of any other form that alienation may take Work no longer belongs to the worker. therefore. the worker does not fulfil himself/herself in his/her work. . a means of subsistence.
The Foundations of Social Research The alienation of the thing: the relationship of the worker to the product of labor as an alien object which dominates him. The proletariat must emancipate itself. Humans are also alienated from other humans. Marxism after Marx? .
culture rather than economic substructures The Frankfurt School Founder Felix Weil (Institute for Social Research) and Kurt Gerlach Inaugural director Carl Grunberg Marxism the starting point.The Foundations of Social Research Western Marxism switches focus to superstructures. but is the Frankfurt school really Marxist? .
The Foundations of Social Research What happened to the institute and its affiliates during World War II and the Nazi era? Where did they go? What happened to them? What did they do when they got there? .
Critical theory: theory that seeks to change the current situation Traditional theory is not wedded to practice because of its cartesian dualism of thought and being .The Foundations of Social Research What is ‘critical theory’? Is it unified and coherent? Horkheimer attempts to define: Traditional theory: theory that merely reflects the current situation v.
but no concept can ever capture the richness of the reality. . Objects do not go into their concepts without leaving a remainder. wrote a lot about arts/aesthetics We substitute concepts for what they represent.The Foundations of Social Research Philosophy and science must find a way to inform each other in dialectical fashion Adorno Musicologist.
The Foundations of Social Research Adorno wants us to defend the irreducibility of non-conceptual material against the ravenous power of the concept. Negative dialectics: Philosophy must strive by way of the concept to transcend the concept and thus reach the nonconceptual Adorno: concerned with mimesis/mimetic or imitation Constellations (borrowed from Benjamin) rather than conceptual systems It is a temporary structure only. for negative dialectics means thinking in such a way that the thought form will no longer turn its objects into immutable ones. . into objects that remain the same.
The Foundations of Social Research Adorno is engaging in a phenomenological critique .