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H. C. KOBAJIEHKO T. II. "lJEllEJIEBA

BbICmMI

MAT EMATHKA

JIIIHEHHMI AJIrEEPA BEKTOPHMI AJIrEEPA AlIA.JnrrwIECKMI rEOMETPIDI

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upopexrop no HaY'lHoii pa60TC MHHCKoro IIHCTHTYTa ynpaanemra, nOKTOp 3KOHOMH'ICCKHX HaYK,lIpoqlCCCOp T. A. Xautceeu»;

xadienpa 06WCH MaTCMaTHKH 1I IlHqlopMaTlIKH McxaHHKO-MaTeMaTlI'leCKor6 cjlaKynbTcTa Ery (3aB. Kaclle,'lpOH nOKTOp qnI3l1Ko-MaTCMaTll'lCCl(HX nayx, nporpeccop B. A. Epoeenuoy;

Kacpcnpa MaTeMaTlI'lCCKHX MCTOnOB TCOpHIl ynpannenns Ery (3aB. Kaqlcnpoii nOKTOp <pH3HKO-MaTCMaTWICCKHX nayx, nporpeccop B. t: Kpomoei

KOBaJIeHlW, H. C.

K26 Bucuias MaTeM<l'fIlKa. JIIIHe(lHaJl anre6pa. BeKTopH3Jl anre-

6pa. Aaanarnuecxaa reOMeTpl151: Y'ie6HOe nocotine .ll.nJl 3KOHOMIl'ieCKIIX II I1H)KeHepHhIX cnenuansuocreii BY30B / H. C. KOBaneHKO, T. 11. Heneneaa. - MH.: IOHlmpecc, 2006. - 208 c.

ISBN 985-507-054-2.

,JJ:OCryIlHO II nonno 113nOlKeHbI pasnenu: nHHei-iHa5f anrefipa, BeKTOpHaJl anrefipa II aHanHTl1'1CCKaJl rCOMCTpIIJl. Ilem, aBTopOB ~- MaKCHManbHO IIpH6nH3HTb MaTCMaTHKY K 3KOHOMIIKC. Y'lC6HOC lIoc06HC uanncano c HCllonb30BaHl1CM 3KOHOMH'ICCKHX, TCXHH'ICCKHX H npyrnx sanax, COCTaBnCHHblX na OCHOBe npnxicpon 113 peansnori lK1I3HH.

Kaura rrpC,[(Ha3Ha'ICHa .l1JIJI CTY,I{CHTOB 3KOHO~1H'ICCKI1X H TCXHll'ICCKHX CnCI(HanbHOCTcii Y'lpClK.l1CHnii, 06CCnC'II1BalOwnX nonyaemrc ssicurero 06pa30BaHHJI, MOlKCT 6blTb nOJIC3Ha CTY.l1CHTaM npyrnx cneIIHanbHOCTdL a TaKlKC MOllO.l1bIM npCnO.l1aBaTCJIJlM.

Y.l"(K 51 (075.8) 66K 22.115173

ISBN 985-507-054-2

© KOBaJleHKO H. C, LJCrrCJICBa T. II., 2006

© Otpopuneuue. -rvrr «113.l1-BO IOHlmpeCC», 2006

ITPE,IJ;MCJlOBIIE

BmIl'VlaIUUO 'lIITaTeJleH rrpennaraercs Y'le6HOe noco- 6He no xypcy «BbICrna51 Ma:reMaTIIKa» (JIlIHeHHa51 anre6pa, BeIZTOpHa5I anrefipa II aHaJIIITIi'leCKa51 reOMeTpII51), MaTepHan xoroporo COOTBeTCTByeT 6a30BbIM YQe6HbIM nporpauMaM xypca «BbICrna51 MaTeMaTIIKa» II MO:lKeT 6blTb IICnOJIb- 30BaH crynerrraaa pa3JIWIHbIX TeXHII'leCI<I1X II 3KOHOMIIqeCKIIX cnerrIIMbHOCTeH BbICrnIIX y-refinsrx 3aBep:efIIIM. XapaxTepHOH oco6eHHOCTblO ztaimoro 113p:aHII51 5lBJI51eTC51 ero MHOrouerrenoe Ha3HaQeHHe. Ilpn nanacaamr rrocofins asropsr npnnepaoraamrct, CJIep:YfOWIIX npammnoa:

1) nOJIHOTa xrarepaana;

2) CllCTel\1aTII3~rrIl51 II aBTOHOMHOCTb nop:aqH MaTepHMa;

3) CB5131 C cOBpeMeHHbIMll TeOpII51MII;

4) nOCTaHOBKa II peurenne aKTyaJI1HbIX sana-r C 3KOHOMHQeCKIIM H TeXHI1QeCKHM conepacamreu.

I10JIHOTa II3JIO)l(eHH51 B CO'leTaHllII C QeTKO BbIJI:ep:lKaH-

. HOM nepapxn-recxoi; CTPYKTypOM MaTepllaJIa n03BOJIHT CTyzrearan 3HacIIUeJIbHO npome pesoriparr.cs B HeM. 3TO OCO- 6eHHo axryansno p:JI51 CTyp:eHToB 3aOQHOM H p:HcTaHI(IlOHHOM <pOpM o6YQeH1151.

YQe6HOe nocofine 6yp:eT rrOJIe3H011 HaQIIHafOw11M npenonaaarenau. B 60JIbll111HCTBe YQe6HHKOB OTCYTCTByeT P:OCTaTOQHOe KOJIHQeCTBO 3KOHOMIIQeCKI1X, TeXHIIQeCKIIX I1 zrpyrux sazra-r, 11 rr03TOIvIY npenonasarerno 6bIBaeT TPYP:HO peunrrs, KaKI1e pasnerm cnenyer npOQIITaTb, a KaI<He HeT, He napyrnaa CTpOrOCTI1 11 crpOI1HOCTI1 H3JIO:lKeHI151. B p:aH-

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HOM rrOC06lUI Ka)l(,n:a5I rnasa pasneneaa na naparpadrst, KOropsre ssmecenu B ornasnenne. HYMepaUlI5[ 6JIOKOB 5IBJI5IeTC5I aBTOHOMHOH, -rro rr03BOJI5IeT JIerKO opramnoaart, CChIJIKH na npenunynraii xrarepaan.

Ylfe6Hoe nocofine conepzorr runoasie 3K3aMeHarrHOH:" nsre 6IIJIeThI, rrro.nacr CTy,n:eHTY B03MO)l(HOCTh caMOKOHTpOJI5I CTerreIIH YCBoeHH5I xrarepnana.

I1PI1 nanacannn KHHfH asropu opHeHTHpOBaJIHCh na H3BeCTHhIe Ylfe6HHKH H yaefiasre IIOco6H5I, xoropsre rrpHaezrem.r B cnncxe mrreparypsr.

ABTOPhI asrpaacator HCKpeHHIOlO 6JIaro,n:apHOCTh saaenyronreay Ka<pe,n:pOH 06rn:eH MaTeMaTHKH II lU1<popMaTHKH MexaHHKO-MaTeMaTHlfecKoro <PaKYJIhTeTa EfY, ,n:OKTOpy <pH- 3IIKO-MaTeMaTHlfeCKIIX HaYK, npodieccopy B. A. EpOBeHKO, sanenyrotueay Ka<pe,n:pOH MaTeMaTIIlfeCKIIX MeTo,n:OB 'recpnn yrrpaBJIeHII5I EfY, ,n:OKTOPY <pH3IIKO-MaTeMaTW-IeCKMX rrayx, nporpeccopy KpOTOBY B. r. sa uennsre I1pe,n:JIO)l(eHII5I II Hexoropsre 3aMelfaHII5I B nponecce perreH3HpOBaHII5I KHIIfII, a rarose 'lJerreJIeBY A. H., ocymecrsnaurejry KOMI1hlOTepHYlO BepCTKY rtauuoro y-refinoro nOC06II5I.

rJIABAl.

JIHHeHHaH anrefipa

3TAIIbI PA3BIITIUI MATEMATI1KII

B 06lI(eM cnysae MaTeMaTHI.:a - HaYKa 0 KOJUlqeCTBeHHhlX OTHOlIIemmX H npOCTpaHCTBeHIlbIX cI>0pMaX )];eiiCTBlITeJIbHOrO MHpa.

AKa,lleMHK A. H. KOJIMOrOpOB BbI,lleJI5.!eT -rerupe OCHOBHbIX nepaona pa::\BIITH5.! MaTeMaTHKII:

1. 3apO)l():(eHHa5.! xrareuarmca (no VI B. zto H. 3.).

2. 3JIeMeHTapHa5.! MaTeMaTHKa (VI B. zro H. 3. - XVII B.).

3. MaTeMaTHKa rrepexrennsrx BeJIWIIIH (XVII-XIX BB.).

4. COBpeMeHHa5.! MaTeMaTIIKa (XIX B. - Harne BpeM5.!).

Ha nepsoxr orane rrpOIICXO,llIIT rrpOII,eCC aapozcneaaa MaTeMaTIIKH 'KaK HayKI-I. K 3TOMY nepnony OTHOC5.!TC5.! 'rpy,llbI MaTeMaTIIKOB II MexaHHKOB ,JJ;peBHeiI fpeII,IIII (ApIICTOrena, Apxmrezta, Tepoaa, )J,IIOrVaHTa, EBKnII,lla, Ilmparopa, Ilrrarona, IIToneMe5!, cDaneca, ~3paToccpeHa II zrp.), a TaIOKe KIITa5.!, I1H,llIIII.

80 BTOPOM nepnozre rrponcxozurr KaqeCTBeHI-IOe coseprneHCTBOBaHIIe MaTeMaTHKH KaK HaYKH. 113 apIIcpMeTHKH nsrpacraer TeOpH5.! qIICen. rI05.!Bn5.!eTC5.! anre6pa KaK 6YKBeHHoe HCqHCneHHe, reOMeTpH5.! EBKJIH,lla - 06pa3eI~ zrenyxTHBHoro rrOCTpOeHlI5.! MaTeMaTHqeCKOH 'reopnu.

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Ko BTOPOMY nepnony OTHOC}lTC}I rpynsr MaTeMaTI1KOB Cpezmeii A3I1I1 I1 3aKaBKa3b}l: AJI-XOpe3MI1 (IX B.), A6YJIbBadia (X B.), AJI-BYPYHI1 (XI B.), I1TaJIb}lHCKOrO MaTeMaTI1- xa, clmJIococpa LI,. Kapnano (1501-1576), cppaHIIY3cKoro MaTeMaTHKa, fOpI1CTa B. cDpaHcya (l540-1603), I1TaJIb}lHCKOro cpII31IKa, MeXaHI1Ka, acrponova I1 MaTeMaTHKa f. faJII1JIe}l (1564-1642), cppaHIJ;y3cKoro cpIfJIOcocpa H MaTeMaTHKa P. Ll,eKapTa (1596-1650), cppaHIIY3cKoro MaTeManIKa 11. cDepMa (1601-1665), rOJIJIaII,llCKOrO srcxannxa, CPII3IIxa, MaTeMaTI1Ka X. Froiirenca (1629-1695) n.np.

TpeTHH nepnon pa3BI1TII}I MaTeManIKH - 3TO nepnozt rrpe06pa30BaHH}I reOMeTpI1qeCKIIX cpIIryp, C03,llaHH}I xrareMaTIIQeCKIIX MeTO,llOB, rr03BOn}lIOIUIIX II3YQaTb ,llBIIJKeHIIe Ten, rrpOIIeCCbI II3MeHeHII}I BeJIIIQHH, nepevenasrx BenUQIIH (r.e: C03,I(aHIIH ,I(IIcpcpepeHIIIIaJIbHoro II nnrerpansnoro IICQIICJIeHllH) .

K rperseay nepnony OTHOC}lTC}I rpynsr aHrJIIIHCI<oro cpII3IIKa"u MaTeMaTIIKa II. HbIOToHa (1643-1727), He:rv1eII«oro CPIIJIOcocpa, MaTeMaTIIKa, <pII3llKa II I1306peTaTeJIH, IOpUCTa, I1CTOpIIKa, }l3bIKOBe,lla f. JIeil6HllIIa (1646-1716), cppaHIIY3CKOro MaTeMaTllKa f. cD. JIorIllTaJI}I (1661-'.--1704), MaTeMaTIIKa, MexaHUKa U qm3IIKa JI. 3i1.Tlepa (1707-083), urseiinapcxoro MaTeMaTllKar. Kpaxrepa (1704-1752), <ppaHIIY3cxoro MaTeMaTllKa, srexannxa, <pliJIOcocpa)K. JI. n' AnaM6epa (1717-1783), rpparruyacxoro MaTeMaTl1Ka 11 MexaHIIKa )K.JIarpaHJKa (1736-1813), cppaHIIY3cKoro rvIaTeMaTl1Ka )K.B. cDYPbe (1768-1830), ueueuxoro MaTeMaTlIKa K. faycca (1777-1855), <ppaHIIY3cKoro MaTeMaTHKa o. JI. KOIIm (1789--1857), HOpBeJKCKOrO MaTeMaTl1Ka H. X. A6eJI}I

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(1802-1809), HeMel(KOrO MaTeMaTI1Ka K. r. 51K0611 (1804- 1851), nesreuxoro MaTeMaTlIKa I1. f. )J,l1pl1xJIe (1805-1859), HeMel(KOrO MaTeMaTHKa K. T. Beiiepnrrpacca (1815-1897), HeMel(KOrO MaTeMaTHKa H ¢113HKa M. B. KYTTa (1867- 1944), a TaK)Ke rpynu PYCCKHX MaTCMaTHKOB: H. 11. JI06aneacxoro (179-1856), M. B. Ocrporpancxoro (1801- 1862), B. 51. Eyaaxoncsoro (1804-1889), IT. JI. l.Jc6bIllieBa (1821-1894), C. B. KOBaJICBCKOlr, A. A. Mapxona (1856- 1922), A. M. Jlsnynoaa (1857-1918), IrY3HHa H. H. (1883-1950) H )],p.

l.JCTBepTbIH rtepnozt - 3TO BpeM5I cnnouraoa KOMIIbIOTepI13aUHH, H3Y1leHH.5I pa3JIH4HhIX KOJIl14eCTBCHHhIX OTHOureaati n npocrpancrserumx ¢opM.K 3TOMY nepnozty OTHOCHTC.5I reOMCTpH5I H. JI06a'IeBCKOro, OTpa)KaIOma51 CB.5I3b MaTeMaTI1KH H CCTeCTB03HaHH5I. «MaTeMaTII3aUI151» pa3JIH4- HhIX 06JIaCTeH HayKII, T.e. ee IIPOHHKHoBeHHc nocpencraosi MaTeMaTII'ICCKI1X MeTo,n:OB BO MHorIIe crpepsr IIpaKTI14eCKOH )],e5lTeJIbHOCTH, coapenemroe nporpeccasnoe pa3BIITHc BhILTHCJIIITeJIbHOH TeXHHKH H nporpasmaoro ooecrresenas npHBCJIli K IIO.5lBJIeHHIO pana HOBhIX MaTeMaTH'IeCKHX )],HCl(IIIIJIHH: 'reopnn nrp, 'reopan rpadios, HCCJIe,n:OBaHIIIO onepaunii, MaTCMaTI14eCKOH 3KOHOMJlKe II zip.

B MJlPOBOH MaTeMaTH4eCKOH HaYKe na nepezuretr fIJIaHe CT05lT TPY)],bI 3HaMeHIITbIX POCCl1HCKIIX, 6eJIOpYCCKHX MaTCMaTHKOB A. ,ll,. AJIeKcaH,n:pOBa, IT. C. AJIeKcaH,n:pOBa, B. 11. II C. H. EepHIlITelrHOB, H. H. EoroJU060Ba, 11. H. Bexya, 11. M. Bnaorpanona B. M. fJIYWKOBa, H. IT. Epyrrma, JI. B. KaIHOpOBII'Ia, M. B. Kenzu.nna, B. 11. KphIJIOBa, A. M. Komroropona, M. A. Jlaapeirrsesa, IO. B. JIHHHIIKa,

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A. H. Mam.nesa, II. C. HOBHKOBa, IO. B. H B. H. CMHPHOBhIX, C. J1. C060JIeBa, ,n:. A. CyrrpYHeHKO, A. H. Tnxonona H )lp.

B HaCT05IIllee BpeM5I MaTeManlI~a - 3TO MOll(HOe Cpe)l;CTBO peurenna npHKJIanHLlX aanax, YHHBepCaJIbHbIH H3bIK HaYKH n 3JIeMeHT o6meii KYJIhTYPhi.

CJIe)lOBaTeJIhHO, MaTeMaUiqeCKOe 06p330BaHHe -- Ba)KHeHll1a5I COCTaBJUlIOIlla5I B CIiCTeMe ~yH)laMeHTaJIhHOll nonfOTOBKIi CTY)leHTOB MHOfHX Crre~HaJIhHOCTeH, B TOM qIiCJIe TeXHHqeCKHX H 3KOHOMHqeCKIiX.

IIpHMEHEHHE MATEMATHKH ,UJHI PEIIIEHIDI 3KOHOMH4ECKHX, TEXHU4ECKHX H ,UpyrHX 3A,nAQ

3KOHOMHKO-MaTeMaTIi'feCKHe MO)leJIH, qaCTO rrpasreaseMhle B HaCT05IIllee BpeM5I B IIJIaHOBOll HJIH B accneztoaarem.cxoti pafiore, npennaanaaeansre )lJI5I orrIiCaHH5I 3KOHOMHQeCKHX crpYKTYP B HX )lHHaMHKe, HY)K)laIOTC5f B QeTKOM H3JIO)KeHH11.

)J,JI5I 60rree Y)106HOfO crroco6a 11 KOMIIaKTHOfO onncaHH5I CJIO)KHhIX 3KOHOMlfQeCKHX crpyxryp Hcrrorrh3YIOTC5I IiX MaTpWIHhle oTo6paJKeHIi5L Qro6hI 60JIee QeTKO cpopMaJIH- 30BaTh rrOCTaBJIeHHYIO saztasy, 3KOHOMHCTY rrpIiXO)lHTC5I HC~ nonssonarr. B CBOHX pac-rerax OCHOBHhle, rrOH5ITIUI MaTpHqHOll anrefipu. To ecrt., 3KOHOMHCT He MO)KeT 6bITh 3KOHOMHCTOM 6e3 cepsesaoa M3TeMaTHqeCKOH rrO)lfOTOBKH.

Cnenyer 3aMeTHTh, 'ITO 3JIeMeHTbI nImelllmll 3JIfe6pbI rrpHMeH5IIOTC5I He TOJIbKO )lJI5I rrOCTpOeHlI5I onpeneneansrx

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3ROHOMHKO-MaTeMaTlIL£eCKHX MO,I(eJIeH, HO H ,I(JI5I CTaTHCTHL£eCKHX paCl.JCTOB, rne acofixonmaa ofipafiorxa 60JIblilOrO 1fHCJIa MaCCHBOB HHcpOpMaUHlI.

MhI )KIlBCM B YCJIOBH5IX PbIHOL£HOH 3KOHOMI1KH. Pa3YMeeTC5I, ycrrex npe,I(rrpHHI1MaTeJIbCKOH ,I(e5ITeJIbHOCTH 3aKJIlOl.JaeTC5I B CnOC06HOCTH KOMMepCaHTOB rrpOBeCTH aexoropue pacl.JCTbI, rrpOaHaJIH3HpOBaTb pe3YJIbTaTbI. 3nI pa60TbI CB5I3aHbI C Kpe,I(HTHblMH BbP-lHCJleHH5IMI1, C MaTeMaTI1l.JeCKI1M nOHI1MaHI1- eM 611p)KeBbIX H 6aHKOBCKHX pa60T, YMeHl1eM nporuoaapoaan, pHCK. COBpeMeHHbIH 6H3Hec rpeoyer 3KOHOMHKO-MaTeMaTHnecxoro MbIlllJIeHIUI, xoropoe OCHOBbIBaeTC5I na BceB03MO)KHbIX BbIl.JHCJIHTeJIbHbIX MeTO,I(ax. PaCqCTbI pa3JIHl.JHbIX ,I(HBH,I(eH,I(OB, peHTa6~JIbHOCTH, ,I(OXO,llOB, y6bITKOB, npH6bIJIH, CCY,ll, HaJIOroB H T. n. Be,I(YTC5I C rrOMOIUblO MaTeMaTHL£eCKHX MeTO,llOB H C rrproreaeanesr HHcpopMaUHOHHbIX TeXHOJIOrHH.

CJIH5IHHe 3KOHOMHKH H 6H3Heca C MaTeMaTHKOH, T. e. C BblqHCJIHTeJIbHOH Ma:reMaTHKOH, Bep05ITHOCTHbIMH paCLICTaMH H CTaTHCTHKOH rrOJIyqHJIa B HaCT05IIUee BpeM5I ,I(a)Ke oco6oe Ha3BaHHe: «3KOHOMHKO-MaTeMaTHqeCKHe MeTO,I(bI pac-rera ,I(JI5I peurenna COBpeMeHHbIX 3KOHOMHl.JeCKHX, 'rexHHL£eCKHX nnpyrnx sazraa».

COBpeMeHHbII1 3KOHOMI1CT, pa60Ta5I na npezmpnarna, nOJI)KeH 3HaTb Crre[~Hcp.HKY TeXHWIeCKHX sana-r H HX peureHHe C nOMOIUbfO MaTeMaTWIeCKHX MeTO,llOB: CerOnH5I OH- 3KOHOMHCT, a aasrpa -= _- KpynHbrl1 yqCHbII1. OH nOJI:tKeH YMeTb MO,I(eJIl1pOBaTb CJImKHble MeXaHHQeCKI1e CHCTeMbI, COCTaBJI5ITb ,I(IIHaMJIl-IeCKHe cxexm MexaHHL£eCKl1X, rH,I(paBJIHLfeCKHX, 3JIeKTpHL£eCKHX II T. n. cncren, no rrOJIYQeHHbIM ,I(IIHaMHQeCKHM cxevau paspafiarsraars IIX MaTeMaTlIQeC-

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KIIe MO)lemr. 11 YMeTh, pa3YMeeTC5I, rrposomrrs ucofixonnMble pac-reri.r na BbICOKOM HayqHO-MaTeMaTHqeCKOM yposBe. llT06bl IlOCT05IHHO pa3BlfBaTh II yny-uuars 3KOHOMIIKY, qT06bI rpaMOTHO peurars 3KOHOMH"lIeCKHe 3a)laqH,)lJI5I 3TOro HY)KHO ananers MaTeMaTHqeCKIlMH MeTO)laMI1 penreanii aanas.

§1. MATPHJJ;bI If OllPE,UEJUITEJIII

1.1. MATPMUbI

1.1.1. OCHOBHhIE OnPE,LI,EJlEHIDI

IToH5ITlle MaTpI1IIhI paCCMOTpIIM na npnnepe pacnpe)leJIeHIl5I 3apa60THhIX HJlaT (oKJIa)lOB) npodieccopcxo-npenonasarem.cxoro COCTaBa Kacpe)lpbI nexoroporo syaa II ernrreH)lIlH cTY)leHTOB (2003 r.).

KaK Il3BeCTHO, HaKacpe)lpe BhlcIlle:i1 xrareuarnxa pa- 60TaIOT rtporpecccpa, )lOI~eHTlI, crapmne nperronasarerra, aCCI1CTeHTbI C yqeHOHlI 6e3 yqeHOH CTerreHI1 . .l1.JI5I yxera I1X 3apa6oTHbIX nnar Y)l06HO COCTaBI1Tb Ta6JIIlUY (Ta6JI: 1.1).

Tafinnna 1.1

3apaooTliaSl C YLICIIOii liC3 yqCHoii
unara / OKJIaA
(yen, ezt.) crenem.ro crenenu
ITpoq)CCCOP I 80 77
Jl,ol1:eHT 2 75 65
Crapurnii 3 70 64
nperronasarem,
ACCI1CTeHT 4 65 60 -10-

AHaJIOrI1QHYIO rafimnty MO)l{HO rrOCTpOI1Tb ,I(JI5I KOHTpOJI5I paCrrpe,I(eJIeHI15I CTlmeH,I(I1H CTY,I(eHTOB (Ta6JI. 1.2). CnmeH,I(H5I cTY,I(eHTa 3aBI1CHT OT ero ycneaaenocrn, ofimeCTBeIlHOH HarpY3KH H YQaCTH5I B HaYQHOH ,I(e5ITeJIbHOCTH.

TIO,I(06Hble Ta6mlUbI 3arUICbIBaIOTC5I TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIMH rvlaTPHUaMH, rrOCKOJIbKY OHH 60JIee HafJI5I,I(HO vI306pfl)l{aIOT HCXO,I(Hble ,I(aHHble H 60JIee y,u06HbI B HCrrOJIh30BaHI1H, B ocooea-. HOCTI1 ,I(JI5I ,I(aJIbHeHllIeH o6pa6oTI<H CTanrCnrQeCKHX ,I(aHHbIX.

Tafirnrna 1.2

CnmCUJUUI Cpenuuii 6aJ1Jl
(yc,n. CA.) 5-4,5 4,5-4 4--3,5
Crapocra 1 32 27 23
CTYJJ:eHT,3aHHMaIOlll}LU:C5! 2 40 35 30
HaY4HoH JJ:e5!TeJIbHOCTbIO
06bI4HbIH CTYJJ:eHT 3 27 22 17 OnpeJleJIeHlIe. Marpmteri pasxepnocra m na 11 (m X 11) Ha3bIBaeTC5I npauoyronsaaa Ta6JIHua, coCTaBJIeHHa5I H3 mn 3JIeMeHTOB a HeKOTO-

I)

poro MHO)l{eCTBa, rne neparaii HH,I(eKC i

YKa3bIBaeT na HOMep CTPOKH, BTOPOH j - nanosrep crontiua, i = 1,111; j = 1,11 :

all al2 alII
A= an °22 a21l
alii I al1l2 ({mil 0603mNaIOT Ma:rpHUbI 3amaBHbIMH 6YICBarvfI1 JIaTHHCKOrO andiasnra: A, B, C, ... , a 3JIeMeHTbI- CTP04HbIMH 6YKBaMH: a .. , b., C., .... 3JIeMeHT a .. -- 3TO 3JIeMeHT, CTO-

Y Y lj lj

-1] -

51liHIH na nepece-reana i-H CTPOKI1 11 j-ro cronfiua. Kpoxre xpyrnux CKo6oK ,UJI5I 0603HaLfeHII5I MaTpIIU: I1CrrOJIB3YIOT xaazrparnsre CKo6K11 [ ] I1JII1 ,L(BOHHble sepruxansasre II II·

3JIeMeHTbI a'l' a'2' ... , a, , COCTaBJI5IIOT i-IO CTPOKY, a

! I ·/11

3JIeMeHThI ai" a2" ... , a ,-j-H crorrfieu MaTpl1UbI A. Ilpo-

j J nv

113BOJIhHa51 crpoxa (cronfieu) MaTpIIUbI Ha3hIBaeTC5I erne

...

P5f,UOM, 'ITO 6y,UeT HCrrOJIh30BaThC5f B ,L(aJIhHeHIIIe~l npn orr-

pe,L(eJIeHI1I1 11 ,UOKa3aTeJIbCTBe CBOHCTB MaTpI1U.

Marpnna, 3JIeMeHTaMl:I KOTOPOH 51BJI5IIOTC5I 'IHCJIa, aa- 3bIBaeTC5I 'IHCJIOBOH.

OrrpelLeJIeHlle. ABe MaTpl1UbI Ha3bIBaIOTC5f paBHbIMu, eCJIlI OHI1 I1MelOT O,UHHaKOBhle passrepsr 11 cooTBeTcTBYIOlII11e 3JIeMeHThI O,UHOH MaTp11UhI pannst 3JIeMeHTaM npyroii MaTp11UhI,

OrrpelI.eJIeHne. Marpmra Ha3hIBaeTC5I KBa)1.paTHOii 11JII1 MaTp11ueH ll-ro IIOp5I,UKa, eCJI11 m = 11, T.e. 'I11CJIO CTPOK paBHO Lf11CJIY CTOJI6qOB.

B 3TOM CJIY'Iae 3JIeMeHTbI al i' a22, .;., arm 06pa3YIOT rJIaBHYIO J(IIarOHaJIh, a 3JIeMeHTbI alii' an-I,2' ... , aln - IIO- 60'IHYIO ,L(IIarOHaJIb.

OnpeueJIeHlle. JI,HarOHaJIhHOii Ha3bIBaeTC5I KBa'upaTHa5I MaTpHua, y KOTOPOH see 3JIeMeHThI nynensie sa HCKJIIO'IeHHeM 3JIeMeHTOB rnasnon )1.11arOHaJI11.

Onpel1,eJIeHue. EUHHlPIHoii Ha3bIBaeTC5I ,UllarOHaJIbHa5I MaTp11ua (E), y xoropoii Ka>K,L(hIH 3JIeMeHT rnaanoii ,UlIarOHaJIH pasen emnrane.

-12-

E=

1 a a

a 1 a

a 0

OnpelleJIelUIe. HYJIeBOH Ha3hIBaeTC5I MaTpHll,a, BCe aneMeHTbI KOTOPOH paansr HynIO. Ee 0603Ha'IaIOT [0).

OnpelleJIeHUe. TpeyrOJIbHOH Ha3bIBaeTC5I KBa)lpaTHa5I MaTpHll,a, y KOTOPOH BCe 3neMeHTbI ITO onny CTOPOHY OT rnaaaoii mrarona.m panHbI HynIO. Ilpn 3TOM MaTpHIIY BYI)la

all al2 a13 aln
a a2l ({23 a2n
a 0 a33 «;
a 0 0 ann Ha3bIBaIOT sepxneii rpeyronsnoii, a MaTPHIIY BH)la

all a a 0
a21 a22 0 0
a31 a32 a33 0
ani =.. <, ann
Ha3bIBaIOT HI1)ImeH rpeyrom.aon. -13-

[~ 3 ~l [I 0 ~l
lluHMen· 1 II 9 3 - TpeyrOJIbHble
0 8 5
MaTpIIQbI (BepXH5I5I, HIDKH5I5I).
Onuei!eJIeHne. Tpaneuneaunuou Ha3bIBaeTC5I MaTpHIJ,a
npOH3BOJIbHbIX paaxrepos BH,lla:
all al2 al3 al,· aln
0 an a23 «; '" a2n
0 0 0 a.; a,."
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 rne aii j:. 0, i = 1, r.

OnuerreJIeHne. CUMMeTp"'.fHOH Ha3bIBaeTC5I KBanpaTHa5I MaTprIUa A = (aij) , eCJIH au = aji.

Onuei!eJIeHue. MaTpIIIJ,eJ:i: -cTOJI6IJ,OM (BeKTOpOM -cTOJI6- IIOM) Ha3blBaeTC5I MaTpIIlIa, COCT05Ima5I II3 ozmoro cToJI6IJ,a, a COCT05ImaJI 113 O'[(Hon crpoxn-c- MaTpIIIJ,en-CTpOKOli (BeKTOpOMCTpOKOli).

OnuerreJIeHne. Tpaucnoaaponanrron K MaTpIIlIe AJJlJ1 Ha3bIBaeTC5! »rarpmra Blma:

-14-

all a21 ami
al2 an am2
alII «; «;
all al2 alII
AI1lI1 = an an a21l
me
ami am2 «; BepHh1CH K sr.nue paCCMOTpeHHOMY npmrepy

. 113 Ta6JI. 1.1 BHp,HO, 'lTO sapafioruue nJIaTbI (OKJIaP,bI) npocpeccopcKo-nperrop,aBaTeJIbCKOfO COCTaBa xarpezrpsr HeKOTOPOfO BY3a COCTaBJUHOT OT 60 11.080 (YCJI. ep,.). 3TY UHcpopMaUHlo MO)J{HO npencraanrs nsnae MaTpHUbIA4X2• A BOT eCJIU OKJIap,bI YBeJIUqUTb B 4 pasa, TO IIOJIyqUM rafinany sapa60THhIX nnar (OKJIap,OB) nporpe CCOPCKO-IIperrOp,aBaTeJIbCKOrO COCTaBa KOMMepqeCKOrO BY3a, IIpU 3TOM Ka)J{lJ,bIH 3JIeMeHT Ta6JI. 1.1 YBeJIJfq11TC5I B 4 pasa 11 COOTBeTCTBeHHO Ka)l(p,hII1 3JIeMeHT Marp11UbI A YBeJI11'l11TC}{ B 4 paaa, rrOJIY<{HM MaTp11UY 4A.

AHaJIOfHqHO, eCJIH YBeJIHq11Tbpa3Mepbl CTI1IIeHp,UH cryneirros, npnaenennsre BTa6JI. 1.2, B 3 pasa, TO Ka)J{p,hIH 3JIeMeHT Ta6JI. 1.2 YBeJI11qI1TCH B 3 pasa. COOTBeTCTBeHHO Ta6JII1qHbIM naHHbIM, MO)J{HO COCTaB11Tb MaTpI1UbI B II 3B.

TaKIIM 06pa30M, npIIXOnHl\'J K ouepannn YMHO)l(emI5I MaTpIIUbI na 'lIICJIO, OTJIH'lHOe OT HYJI5I: 'lTo6bI YMHO)l(HTb MaTpl1UY na nexoropoe HeHYJIeBOe <{HCJIO, ucofixonnno xazcp,bIH 3JIeMeHT MaTpliULI YMHO)J{IITb na 3TO 'lHCJIO.

-\5-

Hrax, sanaruesc 3TH I\taTPHUhI.
80 77 , B'K'= l~~
27 23]
75 65 30-
L44X2 = 35
70 64
22 17
65 60 xrarpnnu OKJIa)lOB npenonaaareneii Ii crunearurf CTY)leH-

TOB;
320 308
[96 81 69J
300 260
4A= , 3B = 120 105 90 -
280 256
81 66 51
260 240 MaTpHUbI OKJIa)lOB npenonaaareneii H CTImeH)lHM CTY,UeHTOB rrOCJIe HX YBeJIHqeHH5I B YKa3aHI-We QHCJIO pas.

3aLJ,aQa 1. TOprOBa5I cj:mpMa aa nexaziy rrOJIYQaeT II rrponaer BepXHlOIO ozteacny OT ,UByX rrpOI13BO,LUITeJIeM FI II F2 euctueii u nepeoii sameeopuii xaQeCTBa: 120 nansro, 100 nnamcti II 200 KOCTIOMOB eucuieii «ameeopuu 11 COOTBeTCTBeHHO 80 nansro, 75 nnameii If 150 KOCTIOMOB nepeou sameeopuu OT F 1, a TaK)Ke 80 nansro, 50 nrrarneii If 100 KOCTIOMOB euciueu «ameeopuu II COOTBeTCTBeHHO 20 nansro, 25 nnanieii 11 50 KOCTIOMOB nepeoii «ameeopuu OT F2. HaHTl1 o6beMbI nOCTaBOK aa ztexany no KaTeropH5IM KaQeCTBa If BH,UaM H3)lerrI1H.

-16-

Petueune.

ITyCTh MaTpHUhI A H B xapaIUepH3YIOT IIOCTaBKH 01' rrpOJ13BO}lHTeJJeM Fl II F2 COOTBeTCTBeHHO:

A = (120 80

100 200) B=(80

75 150 J' 20

50 ]OOJ 25 50 .

Torna OqeBII}lHO, qTO I1CKOMble 06beMhI IIOCTaBOK OIIpe.1leJ151eT MaTpHua

C = (200 100

150 300] 100 200 '

rzie Ka)£(.1lhIM '3J1eMeHT pasen cyMMe cooTBeTcTBYfOllIl1X :meMeHTOB MaTpHU A H B.

TaKHM 06pa30M, MbI npaxoziau K orrepauna CJJO)£(eHH51 MaTpIIII.

OnperreJIeHHe. CYMMOM .1lByX MaTpIIII O.1lIIHaKOBhIX pas-

MepoB Amxll = (au) H B",xll = (bij) Ha3hIBaeTCH MaTpIIIIa Cmxll = (Cij) TaKaH, qTO Cij = aij + bu; i = 1,111; j = I, n. Kparxo IIIIuryr C=A + B.

OnpeLl,eJIeHHe. Pasnocrt. .1lB~TX MaTpHII A II B O.1lIIHaKO:BOfO passrepa ecrs MaTpI1ua C = A - B = = A +(-1) B, T. e. K MaTpHIIe A HY)£(HO npn- 6aBIITh MaTpIIIIY, IIpoTIIBOnOJ1O)£(HYIO MaTpIIIIe B.

Onpe.ueJIeHue. I1pOI-I3Be,neHHeM MaTpIIIIhI A = (ai/LxII na qHCJ10 ex Ha3hIBaeTC51. raxaa MaTp'Iiua

B = (bij)",xll, qTO j = 1,11. Kparxo B = exA.

bu = exaij , i = 1,111 , fIl1WYT: B = Aa IIJIII

1.1.2. CBoiIcTBA CJIO)KEHlUI. MATPHlJ,

J1 YMHO)KEHH5I MATPHlJ,bl HA 4HCJ10

1°. A+B=B+A.

2°. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C).

3°. A +O=A.

4°. A+(-A)=O.

5 ° . a ( f3 A) =( a (3)A.

6°. a(A+B)=aA+aB.

7°. (a +(3)A =aA +f3A, a,f3 E R.

8°. 1·A=A.

9°. 0 . A =0.

1.1.3. YMHO)KEHJ1E MATPJllJ, OnpeneJIeHHe. MaTpIII.(a A Ha3bIBaeTC~ cOrJIaCOBaHlIOH C MaTplIu:eil: B, ecnn -nrcno cronfiuos MaTpnnsr A pasno qlIcrry CTPOK xrarpausr B.

Hanpmrep: A3X5 1I B 5x2 - cornaconamrsre MarpuU.bI, rae

1 -1
AM:[: 1 3 I 4] 1 2
0 1 5 ·6' B = 7 9
, Sx2
2 5 -1 2 -1 3
4 5 ECJIII rrepeMHO)KHTb3TIl MaTpIIU:bI, TO rrOJIYQIITC51 MaTpnua pasuepon 3x2.

3aMeQaHue.

Ksanparusre MaTpIIll,bI ozruoro II 'roro »ce nopaznca scerna cornacosanaue. IlpOII3Be,n:eHIIeM MaTpIIll,bI A = (a.,.)

11\ mXI1

a a MaTplIUY B = (av) Ha3bIBaeTC51

q nxp

-18-

C = (c.) TaKa5I, 'ITO

U mx p

11

Cij = ailblj + Gi2b2j + .. , + ai"b"i = L a;sb~/' s=1

i = 1, Ill, j = 1, p .

Ilponsaenenae MaTpHlIJ)I A na MaTpl1O:Y B 0603HaQaeTC5I C = AB. f1paBHJIO YMHO)KeHI15I MaTpHll, MQ)KHO CcpOpMyJIH-

posars CJIe.uYIOIllI1M 06pc130M: anexienr cil' CT05IIllI1H na nepeCeQeHI1I1 i-H CTPOKJI I1j-ro cronona MaTp111~hI C, pasen aJIre6paH'IeCKOH cyMMe napnux np0I13Be.ueHIIH 3JIeMeHTOB i-H CTPOKI1 MaTpI1ll,hI A C 3JIeMeHTaMI1j-ro CTOJI6ll,a xrarpnur; B.

Ilpuuepu. YMIWJICeWl.H. suintpuu

1. Ilponssenemre« MaTpI1ll,hI A"xl/ na MaTpII~y-cTOJIfieu Bnx' 5IBJI5IeTC5I MaTpIIll,a-CTOJI6e1t C"XI :

all a'2 «; x, allx, + a'2x2 + ... + a'l/xl/
a21 a22 a211 x2 a2lx, + a22x2 + .;. + all/x"
ani al/2 an" xl1 allixi + a,,2x2 + ... + annx" 2. (I 3)(!)~ 14

3. ilpOH3Be.ueHI1eM MaTPHUhI-CTOJI6~a Amx' na MaTPII~CTPOKY Blx" 5IBJI5IeTC5I MaTpIIll,a CII1XI/ :

al alb, a/)2 alb"
a2 . (b, b2 bJ= a2b, a2b2 a2b"
am a",bl amb2 ambn
-19- 4. I1pOJI3Be)lemleM MaTpJIIJ,hI AXil na MaTpI1IJ,Y" B"xI
bl
5IBJHleTC5I MaTpI1IJ,a CIXI: (al aJ b2
a2 ...
bl]
= (albl +a2b2 + ... +allbll)·
Flyers A ~ (~ 2 ~) B~(: H10ma
5.
5 AB = ( 1· 0 + 2 . 1 + 3· 1 1· 1 + 2 . 2 + 3 . 0 J = (5 5 )

4·0+5·1+0·1 4·1+5·2+0·0 5 14 .

BA=(~II:~~ ~~:~~ ~::~,~J=[: 152 ~3J·

1·1+0·4 1·2+0·5 1·3+0·0 1 2

6. Ilycrr. A~G ~), B~(~l ~} 'Iorna

AB = (95 6) BA ::::;,(5 6 )

14 ,. 9 14 .

B nprorepe 6 MaTpJIIJ,hI rrepeCTaHOBO'IHhI (KoMMYTaTI1BHhI), O)lHaKO 3TO CBoiicTBO He BhIIIOJIH5IeTC5I B npasrepe 5.

3al1,aQa 2. BKYCHO rrpHrOTOBJIeHHble orypnsi rrOJIh3YIOTC5I 60JIbllIHM crrpocoxi. <DepMepcKoe X035IHCTBO HX ssrpanmsaer; 3arOTaBJIHBaeT II npozraer B pasnsre CTpaHbI. I1MeeTC5I Ta6JIIIIJ,a (Ta6JI. l.3)

-20-

sarpar paooxero speuean B LJaCaX na Ka)K,Il,OM pa60QeM MeCTe C YQeTOM o6pa6oTKH OBOIueH (ytiopxa, COPTHpOBKa, 3aKaTKa), pasnepos (xpynnsre, cpennne, MeJ1KHe) II Ta6J1IIua (Ta6J1. 1.4) 3aKa30B na MOCKBY, BaUIlIHlTOH. Onpenemrn, MaTpHUY nOJ1HbIX sarpar na IIpIIlOTOBJ1eHlle H peannaaumo orypuos.

Tafinnua 1.3

l.{aeoBan aapatio maa nnara ua KaJK).lOM
Orypnr.r pafi01.JCM MCCTC (yen, CLl.)
1 (yriopxa) 2 (cop rupouxa) 3 (3aKaTKa)
~ynHble 1 1 2 3
CpCJJ:HUC 2 2 2 4
MeJIKYIe 3 3 'l 5
.) Tafirmua 1.4

3aKa3 OrYPlI,b1 (xr)
1 2 3
KPYUJlblC CPC,IlIlItC MCJIKIfC
MocKBa 1 120 270 241
BaWHHlTOH 2 120 240 360 Pemenne.

ComaCHO ,Il,aHHbIM .rafimm (1.3, 1.4) COCTaBHM MaTpHUbI A HB.

A -- MaTpHua CIIPOCOB, B -- MaTpHua qaCOBOH aapIIJ1aTbI na Ka)K,Il,OM pa6o~IeM MeCTe, C - MaTpI1Ua sarpar.

A =(120 120

270 240

-21-

(120 270 240J [1 2

c == AB == . 2 2

120 240 360

3 3

== (1380 1500 2640J. 1740 1800 3120

3anaqa 3. I1PlI paanenemm cnrrrxa 30rrOTa na 3 sacra

OKa3aJIOCb, lITO B O,D:HOM rpaxeae Ka)K,D:OrO I1.3 HHX paann-msre 3HaqeHH5I Me,D:I1. H )I{eJIe3a (Ta6JI. 1.5). I13 Ka)I{,D:OrO CJIMTKa 6bIJIM If3fOTOBJIeHbI :QenOQKH, xoropsre ceiiaac y TaHH, J1eHbI 1I Canm. Onpenemrn, KOJIYIQeCTBO MenH H )I{eJIe3a B HCXO,D:HOM CJIHTKe, eCJIlI nOJIYQeHHble CJIlITKlI BeCHJIH COOTBeTCTBeHHO 2; 2,5; 3 (r),

Ta6JIHo:a 1.5

KOJIII q eCTBO BnAhl CJIlITKOB
(r) 1 (TanH) 2 (JIeHa) 3 (Carua)
Mezrs 0,3 0,25 0,28
)l{eJIe30 0,1 0,14 0,12 Peurenne. Bnenexr MaTpH:QbI:

A ~ (~:;

Torna C == AB .

0,25 0,14

[21

0,28

], B == 2,5 . 0,12

3

(0,3

c-

. - 0,1

0,25 0,14

O,28) (2~.5J ~ C,585)

0,12 l3 \ 0,91

-22-

113 peuremrs cnenyer, lITO B IICXO)lHOM CJIIITKe coztep)KaJIOCb 1,585 r Me)l1I II 0,91 r )KeJIe3a.

1.1.4. CBoilcTBA YMHOIKEHIUI MATPHU

1°. (AB)· C = A· (BC) .

2°. (A+B)·C=AC+BC.

3 0. C· (A + B) = CA + CB .

4°. a·(AB)=(aA)·B=A·(aB)=aAB.

5°. Al1/x/lE'/lX/l = E",xII/AII/x/l = AII/x/l .

6°. AlIlx/l()/lX/l = Oi/1x",A",x/l = 0I1lX/l .

B 06meM crryvae AB:f:. BA (CM. npnnep 5). EcJIY[

AB = BA (CM. npavep 6), TO MaTpliUbI A II B Ha3bIBaIOTC51 nepecrarroaounuma, IUlII KOMMYTaTHBllbIMIl.

IIpuMep. BbI"U1CJIIITb AB 11 BA

(1 2.J (-1

A= B=

o 1 ' 1

Pernenne.

AB~G ~I), BA~( ~I ~}

AB:f:.BA·

1.1.5. MHOrOlJJIEH OT MATPHL~bl

Onpelle.JIeHue. IJ,eJIoi1 110JlO)KHTeJIbHOH crenem.ro AI, (k > 1) xsanparnoii MaTpHllbl A nassrBaeTC5I npousaenetme k MaTpm~, KaJKJJ.a51

H3 KOTOPbIX panna A, Ak = A ..... A .

'-----...~ k-pct3

-23-

OrrpeneJIeHlIe. HyneBoH crenensio AO KBaL\paTHoH MaTpnusr A Ha3hIBaeTC5I eL\I1HI1LfHa5I MaTpHua EToro ace nopanxa, lITO II A : AO = E.

OrrpelleJleHlIe. Maoroxneuov lImI rrOJIIIHOMOivl crerreHI1 k (k - rrerroe, HeoTpHuaTenbHoe LfI1Cno) OT KBaL\paTHOJ:'[ MaTjJl1UhI A H a3hIBaeTC5I s up aace n ae BlIL\a: peA) == aoAk + aJAk-1 + ... + a"Ao. Ecrm peA) - nynesaa MaTpl1ua, TO A Ha3hIBaeTCH sopnexr MHorOLfneHa.

OrrpelleJIeHue. Ecrra L\JI5I KBaL\paTHOH MaTplII~bI A BbIrronHHeTC5I paseHCTBO AT =: A ,TO MaTpHna A Ha3hISaeTC5I clfMMeTplIqHoH. 3neMeHTbI CIiMMeTplILfHoH MaTpllUhI, pacrronozcennsre cllMMeTpnLfHo rJIaBHoH zmaronann, pasnsr Me)KL\Y cofioii, T. e. au =: aji •

Hanpauep, MaTpHlIa A = l ~ ~ ~ j .. Jl.eTC' CHM-

MeTpI1LfI-IOH.

CBoHCTBa 'rpaacnonnpoaannsrx MaTpIUJ,:

1°. ( .: {)T = A.

2°. (aAf==aAT,aER.

3°. (A+B/ =: AT +B'.

4°. (ABt == BTAT.

5°. (ABC)T=:CTBTAT.

--- 24-

1.2. OIIPEJI,EJII1TEJIM (JI,ETEPMI1HAHTbI)

1.2.1. OnPE)J,EJIHTEJIl1 MAJIblX nOPH)J,KOB

OnpeLleJIeHue. DYCTb nana KBa,upaTHa5I srarpnua A rrop5I)U<a 11 (n = 1, 2, 3). OnpeneJIUTeJIeM MaTpHUbI A, lIJIH npocro onpcnenrrrenea, 0603Ha'IeHH5I ero (det A, IAI, ~) Ha3bIBaeTC5I 'IHCJIO BI1,ua:

1) det A = all' eCRH 11 = 1;

all al2 au
3) detA= a21 a22 a23 = all ·an ·a33 +~12 ·a23 ·a31 +
{[JI a32 a"
_'0 +a21 ·a32 ·alJ -aJI·a22 ·au -a21·a12 ·a33- -alla23a32' 11 = 3.

Onpenennrem, nroporo nopaaxa BbI'iIICmeTC5I ITO cxexie:

.=' .. J' . . "'. / .





Onpezrenrrrem, rpersero nopxnxa BbI'IHCJI5IeTC5I ITO rrpasnny TpeyrOJIbHHKOB (MeTo,u Cappsoca):













-25-

I1plolep 1.

8 5 .

= 8·2 - 4 . 5 = -4. 4 2

I1pHl\Iep 2.

1 3 5

-2 4 1 =1·4·2+3·1·0+3·(-2)·S-O·4·S-(-2)x o 3 2

x3·2-3·1·1=-13.

1.2.2. OrrPE)l,EJIIHEJIb 11-['0 rrOP5IJ],KA

BBe,I{eM nexoropne orrpene.renna, xoropsre neofixo,I{IIMI,I ,I{rr5! BBe,I{eHH5! onpenenenna onpenemrrena 11-['0 nop5!,I{Ka:

OIIpeJleJ1eH'He. MHHOPOM M nopsnxa k MaTpHIlbIAmxJ1 Ha3bIBaeTC5! orrpe,I{eJIIITeJII" co crannenHhIH H3 ee 3JIeMeHTOB, CT05!IIIIIX na nepeCeqeHIIH 3a,I{aHHI,IX k CTPOK H k CTOJI6IJ,OB, BhI6paHHblx e,I{HHCTBeHHI,IM 06pa30M, rne 1 < k S min(m,n).

Jl,rr5! KBa,I{paTHoH MaTpHI~I,I BBe,I{eM orrpencnenaa ,I{Orronmrrem.noro snmopa H anrefipan-recxoro ,I{OIIOJIHeHH5!. OnpelleJ1eHHe. Jl,orromunCJ1I,HI,IM MHHOPOM M K MHHOpyM rrop5!AKa It Ha3I,IBaeTC5! onpezremrrem, MaTpHIJ,I,I, OCTaBIIIeHC5! rrocrre BI,IQepKHBaHH5! k. CTPOK II k CTOJI6I~OB, BXO,I{5!IIIJ1X B ,r:(aHHI,IH MHHOp.

OIIpeIleJ1eHue. Arrre6paIFleCKHM ,I{OIIOnHCHHeM K MHHOpy M Ha3hIBaeTC5! ,I{OrrOrrHHTcnI,HI,IH MHHOP,

-26-

)'MHO)KeHHbIH: na MI1HYC e)),HHHUY B creneHH, COCT05IIIIeH: H3 C)'MMbI HOMepOB BblqepKHYTbIX k CTPOK H k CTOJI6UOB ( (5), BXOll5IIIIIIXBMHHOpM,T.e. M"=(-l)" M'.

IIpHMep. ,ll,aHa MaTpHI(a A, Heo6xo)),HMO HanTH )),orrOJII-U1TeJIbHbln MI1HOP H aJIre6paHQeCKOe )),onOJIHeHHe K MIIHOpy, cTo5IIIIeMY na nepece-reana BblQepKHYTbIX 2-n II 4-H CTPOK, 4-ro H 5-ro cTon6I(OB.

3 1 7 5 8
1 3 4 7 8
7 8
A= 1 2 -3 1 2 ==> M=
8
-1 3 9 8
-1 3 4 9 2 3 7
I Mil = (_1)2+4+4+5. M' ,
M 1 2 -3,
-1 3 4 3 1 ~l
" = (_lY5
M 2
-1 3 OnpelleJIeHue. Onpe)),eJIHTeJIeM MaTplIlJ,blll-ro nopn)],Ka Ha3bIBaeTC5I cYMMa npOII3Be,lleHI1H }JIeMeHTOB nexoroporo psna (CTpOKH, CTOJIfiua) na ax anrefipaa-recxne )lOnOJIHeHII5I.

-27-

1.2.3. CBOMCTBA OIIPE)l,EJII1TEJIEM

1°. det A = detAT, T.e. orrpenemrrem, MaTpHIJ:bI A,

rrOJIyqeHHOH [13 )J,aHHOM TpaHC[10HHpOBaHHeM, pasen orrpe.neJIHTeJIIO MaTpHIJ:bI A (HHBapHaHTHocTb OTHOCHTeJIbHO rpancrtonnpoaamra ).

I1poBe)J,cM )J,OKa3aTCJIbCTBO )J,JI5I11 = 2.

dctA = all 012
=all·a22 -a21·aI2;
a21 a22
detAT = all a21
= all· a22 - al2 . a21•
al2 a22 2°. ECJlH see :mCMeHTbI HCKOTOPOM CTPOKH (cTOJI6-

IJ:a), T.e. nexoroporo P5I.na MaTpHIJ:hI, pannsr HyJIIO, TO ee onpenennrem, paaen HyJIIO.

3 0. ECJIII 3JICMeHTbI nexoroporo P5I.na onpenemrre-

JI5I HMeIOT 06mHM MHO)KHTCJIh, TO OH BbIHOCHTC5I sa 3HaK orrpc.nCJIlITeJI5I, T.e.

aln all a12 aln
a02n all an «:
=a
ann 1anl «: «: all al2

aa21 aa22

4 0. Onpenemrrem., y xoroporo Ka)K,lJ,bIM 3JIeMeHT

aexoroporo p5I)J,a 5IBJI5IeTC5I CYMMOM ,lJ,ByX CJIaraeMbIX, paBeH cyMMe )J,ByX orrpC,lJ,eJIHTCJIeM, y rrepsoro H3 KOTOPbIX B YKa3aHHOM P5I.ny CT05IT nepssre cnaraesnre, a y sroporo - sropsre cnaraexrste, OCTaJIbHble - 6e3 H3MeHeHHH, T.e.:

-28-

all al2 + bl2
a21 an + b22
ani «: + bll2 all bl2
+ a21 b22
aliI bn2 ann

5°. ECnJr MaTpl1IIa B rrOJJY'IeHa 113 MaTpl1IIhI ;[ rrepe-

CTaHOBKOH J(BYX rrapaJJJJeJJhHhIX P5IJ(OB, TO det A = - det B .

6°. ECJJIf onpenermrem, HMeeT J(Ba OJ(lUIaKOBhIX

p5IJ(a, TO OH pasen HYJJIO.

7°. ECnJI onpezternrrens If xreer J(Ba nporropuno-

HaJJbHbIX p5IJ(a, TO OH pasen HYJJIO.

8°. ECJJI1 K 3JJeMeHTaM nexoroporo p5IJ(a orrpenenn-

TeJJ5I npntiasnrs 3JJeMeHThI ztpyroro napannensnoro p5IJ(a, YMHO)KeHHble na JJI060e ql1CJIO (aepasnoe HYJIIO), TO orrpeJ(eJJI1TeJJb He 113MeHI1TC5I.

1.2.4. METO,lJ,bI BhI4MCJIEHM5I OIlPE,lJ,EJII1TEJIEH CymecTBYIOT pasmrsnsre MeTOJ(bI BbIQIICJIeHH5I onpeJ(eJJIITerreH n -1'0 rrOp5IJ(Ka: no onpeJ(eJIeHHIO (KaK paanoxceHHe orrpenemrrens no ).iIeMeHT;;tM aexoroporo p5IJ(a), C IICrrOJIh30SaHHeM reopeusrJlannaca; CBeJ(eHH5I onpeziennreJI5I K TpeyrOJJbHOMY BIIJ(Y nYTeM 3J1eMeHTapHhIX npeofipa- 30BaHliH II np.

-29-

1) ITo onpenenennro det A, me A - MaTplUJ,a

Il-ro nOpH)1,I~a: orrpenernrrem, MaTplU~bI paseacysore npoJI3Be):lemIil 3JIeMeHTOB nexoroporo psna aa JIxaJIre6paJIqeCKJIe )lOIIOJIHeHJI5I ..

IIpHMep.

Pa3JIO}[{JIM orrpenennrern, no 3JleMer·ITaM -terneproii CTPOKJI:

3 4 -] 2
4 -1 2 ., -1 2
.)
2 4 3 =1'(-lt3'2 3 +(-6),(_1)2+3·1
4 4 3 +
1 -6 0 2
1 5 2 3 5 2
3 5 2 3 4 -1

+2'{-1)4+31 2 4 =32-3+20-8+4-60+6·(24-9+ 3 1 5

+ 10-24+ 2-45)-2 ·(30 +48-1 +6 -20 -12) = =-15-252-102 =-369.

2) ITo 'reopesre Jlannaca

Jlannac Ilsep CJIMOH (1749-1827) - ¢paHIJ:y3CKJIH MaTeMaTJIK, ¢II3JIK H acrponon, B 06JIaCTH MaTeMaTHKH OH nposen ¢YH)laMeHTaJ1bHble IICCJIe)lOBaHJI5I no anre6pe, )lH¢¢epeH~HaJIbHbIM ypaBHeHH5IM II TeOpJIH Bep05lTHOCTH. 'Feop'eMa Jlannaca.

Onpenernrrem, n-tc nopaznca paaen CYMMe rrpOH3Be)leHJIH BceB03MO)KHbIX MHHOPOB k rropansa (Ie < 11) , xoropsre MO}[{HO COCTaBHTh H3 rrpOH3BOJIbHO BbI6paHHblX k CTPOK (cTOJI6~OB) aa HX anreriparrrecKJIe )lOrrOJIHeHH5I.

-30-

PaCCMOTpl1M npaueaenae reopensrJlannaca ua KOHKpeTHOM npnnepe.

JIpHlvlep.

,., 4 -1 2
_)
2 4 3 2 ·(_1)2+3+1+2. -1 2 +~ ~ ,(-1)"''''' .~ 2
= +
-6 0 2 -6 5 2 2
,., 5 2
_) 1 3 '+'+1+4 4 -1 2 4 '+, 7' ~ 2

+ 1 2' ( -1 t .' . 1 5 + -6 O· ( -1 r . +-+0 . ~ 2 +

+ 2 3'(-'-1)2+3+2+4.3 -11+~ 31'(_1)2+3+3+4.P 4:::

-6 2 3 5 \0 2 \3 1

(-8)·( -12) +( -4).( -1) '6+(-1) ·21 +24·0 + +22·( -1) ·18 +8 '(-9) =-369.

3) Ilyresr CBe}l,eHHSI orrpenennrena K 'rpeyruns-

HOMY BH}l,Y

Onpenemrrens CBO.n:l1TCJI K TpeyrOJIbHoMY nnzty rrYTeM snenearapnsrx npeofipasonamrii, K KOTOPbIM OTHOCJITCJI: nepecranosxa MeCTaMl1 .nsyx rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIX pJU.lOB; yMHO)J{em1JI ncex 3JIeMeHTOB psna MaTpIIIIbI na ql1CJIO, OTJIIIQHOe OT HyJIJI; rrp116aBJIeHIIe KO BceNi: anevearaanexcropor-o ]J'5I)J;a cooTBeTcTBYID!UIIX 3JIeMeHTOB rrapaJIJIeJIbHOrO PJI.n:a, YMHO)J{eHHblX na O.n:HO II TO xce QllCJIO. Torna onpenermrem, paBeH rrpOIl3BC.n:eHIIID .n:llarOHaJIbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB.

fIpI1:MeHeHIIC 3JICMCHTapHbIX upeoopasonanna 3ITal.UITCJIbHO YCKOPJICT BbIQl1CJIllTeJIbHbIC npOIIeCCbI.

-31-

IIplfMep.

BbJlIIiCJIHTb onpenennrem, MeTOJ],OM csezteans K rpeyrOJIhHOMY BH,ll,Y.

3 4 -1 2 1 2 4 3 2 4 3
1 2 4 3 3 4 -1 2 o -2 -13 -7
= == =
1 -6 0 2 1 -6 0 2 o -8 -4 -1
3 5 2 3 5 2 o -5 -7 -7
1 2 4 3 1 2 4 3
10-2-13 -7 90 -2 -13 -7
= ::::-- =
20 0 48 27 20 0 16 9
0 0 51 21 0 0 17 7
1 2 4 3 1 2 4 3
9 o -2 -13 -7 9 o -2 -13 -7
:::::--- == =-369.
2·160 0 16 9 320 0 16 9
0 0 17 7 0 0 0 -41
1.2.5. TEOPEMbI 0 MATPMIJ,AX TeopeM3 (06 onpenemrrene npOII3Be}J,eHHH }J,Byx M3TplfU).

Onpenemrrem, npomsenean» ,ll,Byx MaTpHll, OJ],HHaKoBoro nopanxa pasea rrpOH3Be,ll,eHHIO HX onpenemrrenen: det AB = det A . det B .

)J;JI5f ,ll,OKa3aTeJIbCTBa reopexrs: aHHYJIHpOBamm ueofiXO,ll,HMa reopeva 3aMeII{eHIUl.

TeopeM3 (aaxreuterma).

CYMMa npoaasenenaii npOH3BOJIbHbIX 17- QHCeJI d., d2, ... , d ; na anreopanvecxae

-32-

;J:orrOJIHeHIUI 3JIeMeHTOB HeKOTOpOrO p5I;J:a MaTpIIUbI rrOp5I;J:Ka 11 pasaa onpenernrreJI10 MaTpIIUbI, rrOJIYl.JeHHOM II3 )J,aHHOM 3aMeHOM 3JIeMeHTOB YKa3aHHOrO p5I;J:a na QIICna di' d2, •.. , d ; .

.lJ..Q.lia3aTeJIhCTBO. PaCCTvIOTpI1M )J,Be l"vraTpHUbI A H B, B MaTpHue B B i-M crpoxe BMeCTO 3JIeMeHTOB aii' ai2, ... , a.; CT05IT QIICJIa d., d2, ••. , dl1, OCTaJIhHble ace 3JIeMeHTbI 6e3 H3MeHeHI1M. Pa3nO)l(HM det B no 3neMeHTaM i-M CTPOKH, noJIYQHM detB = dID, + d2D2 + ... + dD; , me D, - anre- 6paHQeCKHe ;J:onOJIHeHH5I COOTBeTCTBeHHO 3JIeMeHTOB di' d2, ..• , dl1, HoD, = Aii' D2 = Ail' ... , DI1 = Ai,,' rorrra det B = dIAd + d2A;2 + ... + dl1A;11 . AHaJIOrIIQHO )J,oKa3bIBaeTC5I reopesra )J,n5I cJIYQa5I, sorna LIHCJIa d., d2, •.• , d , yMHO)l(aIOTC5I na aJIre6paHQeCKHe )J,orrOJIHeHIUI 3JIeMe.HTOB HeKOToporo cTOJI6ua .

..

TeopeMa (aHHYJIUpOBaHlISI).

CYMMa npOI:J3Be.neHHM 3neMeHTOB npomBOJIhHOro p5I;J:a MaTpHUhI na anrefipanaecKHe .norrOJIHeHH5I 3JIeMeHTOB ztpyroro, napannensnoro eMY p5I)J,a, panna HyJIIO.

lIoI(a3aTeJIhCTBO. )J,aHa xrarpaua A, . HY)l(HO )J,OKa3aTb,

4TO a;,Ak,+anAk2+ ... +oiI1Akl1=O, r)J,e i w k , l:S::i:S::n, 1:S:: k :s:: /1 .

CJIeBa HMeeM CyMMy rrpmI3Be)J,emIll anreopanxecrorx .nonOJIHeHHM 3JIeMeHTOB k-M CTPOKH MaTpHUbI A na QHCJIa ail' ail' ... , (lil1· TIo reopeve 3aM~HH5I sra cyMMa pasna

2 3aK. 2540

-33-

onpenernrrenro MaTpIIll:bI B (detB), KOTOpa5I rronysena H3 MaTpHIIbI A 3aMeHOH: 3JIeMeHTOB k-H: CTPOKH qHCnaMH ail' ai2, ... , ain· Torzta detBHMeeT zrse oztaaaxonsre CTpOKI1 11 OH pasen HynID. (,QOKa3aTenbCTBO ,lln51 CTon6IIOB MaTpHIIbI aaarroruano).

A

§2. OEPATRAJI MATPIUJ;A. PARr MATPIUJ,hI

2.1. TEOPEMA 0 CYIlJ,ECTBOBAHlUf OEPATHOH:

MATPMI.(bl

OnpelleJIemte. HeBblpO)K,lleHHOH: Ha3bIBaeTC5I xsaztparnas MaTpHIIa, onpezremrrens KOTOPOH: He paBeH HyJIID. B rrpOTHBHOM crry-rae (~=O) MaTpHIIa Ha3bIBaeTC5I BblpO)K,lleHHOH:.

OrrpelleJIeHHe. MaTpIlIIa A-I Ha3bIBaeTC51 o6panlOH K MaTpHIIe A, ecna AA-I = A-IA = E (2.1).

OnpeaeJIeHne. COlO3HOH (npacoennaenuon) K MaTpl1- IIe A Ha3bIBaeTC5I xrarpnua BH,lla:

All A21 A"I
c= AI2 A22 A,,2
AlII A211 Anfl rne A - anrefipaaxecxoe ,llOrrOnHemfe K

II _

3neMeHTY aJj' i, j = 1, n .

-34-

JIeMMa.

ECJUI A - xsazrparaxaas MaTpHua rropxnsa /1, a C - COlD3Ha51 K HeH MaTpHua, TO

AC == CA == EIAI·

.2loKa33TeJJbCTBO.

BbJlIHCJUIM

all all «; All An Ani
D=AC= a21 a22 «: AI2 An AI12
alii «: aI/II Aln A2n An II (det A 0 1 (1

-l 0 det A j l 0

~ J det A = E I Al

0603HatIHM tIepe3 d;; CyMMy rrpOI13Be.ueHHH3JleMeHTOB i-H CTPOKH MaTpHUbl A na HX anrefipausecxae nononHeHHH. OHa pasna det A (cornacno onpenenemoo onpeneJlIITeJlH n-ro nopsnxa).

)1,Jl51 3JleMeHTOB d;j (i *- j) no reopeue aHHYJlHpOBaHH51:

dij=O.

AHaJlOrHtIHO CA=EIAI =>AC=CA=EIAI· ...

TeopeMa. )1,lliI 'roro LIT06bI cyutecrsosana ofiparnaa MaT-

pnua A-I K MaIpHue A, neooxoznoro H .uOCTaTOtIHO, tIT06bT MaIpHua A 6bIJla HeBblpofK.ueHHoi1 . .2loKa3aTeJJbCTBo.

Heofixonrnrocrr; I1yCTb nana MaTpHuaA H cynrecrsyer MaTpHrlaA-l. Torzta AA-I ==E H det(AA-I)=detE. HCrrOJlb3Y5.1

-35-

.reopewy 06 onpenennrene nponsaenenaa MaTplIU:, HMeeM: detA·detA-I=detE, rrOCKOJIbKY detE=l, TO det A*-O =:} A- HeBbIpmK)leHHa5I.

lI,oCTaT01{HOCTh. I1YCTb A - HeBhlpO)K)leHHa5I MaTpmxa, T.e.

1

det A*-O. )J,oKa)KeM, 'lTO xrarpana -- C (rne C - codetA

103Ha5I K A) 5IBJI5IeTC5I otiparnoti K srarpaue A.

1 1

Co rrracno JIeMMe: --AC = ---CA = E

det A det A

A-(_l C)=(_l C).A =E=>

det A detA

lIJIrr

MaTpHu,a _l_C - detA

,\ .

o6paTHa5I K MaTpHu,e A, 'r.e.

All A21 AUI

A-I =_l_C =_1_ AI2 An All 2

det A detA

A.

Teopel\-Ia. )J,mI HeBhlpO)K)1eHHOH MaTpHU:bI cYIIJ,ecTByeT

e)1HHCTBeHHa5I o6paTHa5I MaTpHu:a. )J,oKa3aTeJIbCTBO 'reopexr na eArrHCTBeHHOCTh npono)1lITC5I B OCHOBHOM MeTO)J,OM OT npornsnoro.

lI,oKa3aTeJIhCTBO (MeT0)10M OT rrpornanoro). I1yCTh )J,JI5I MaTpHU:bI A cYIlJ,eCTBYlOT nse ofiparnsre - AI-I rr A;I . TaK KaK crrpasennnao pasencrao AAI-I = E , YMHO)KlIM o6e qaCTH ero na A;l CJIeBa. I10JIYLIlIM:

A-IAA-I = A-IE::: (A-I A)A-I = E rl = A-I = A-I

2 I 2 .2 2 "I I 2'

-36-

Ofiparnsre MaTpl1UhlllIHPOKO rrpI1MeH5IlOTC5IrrpI1113YQeHI1I1 MO,UeJIeH Me)KOTpaCJIeBOrO 6aJIaHCa ,UJI5I rrp0I13BO,UCTBa 11 BhIllYCKa TOBapOB. PaCCMOTpl1M O,UHY 113 TaKI1X 3a,UaQ.

3anaqa. ITYCTh <pHpMa rrpOH3BO,UHT 11 peaJII13yeT TpI1 BH,Ua neraneii: raHKI1, 60JIThI, BUHThI, T.e. ,UeTaJII1 BH,Ua a, b, c. ITOCTaBKI1 ocynrecTBJUIIOTC5I TpI1)K)lhI B MeC5IU TpeM Pa3JIW-IHhIM qmpMaM-I10RyrraTeIDlM I, II, III rro Pa3JII1QHhIM nenav. KO.)IJ1qeCTBO rrOCTaBnsexurx ,UeTaJIeH npn O,UH0I1 rrOCTaBKe 3a,UaHO Ta6JIHueH 2.1. Onpenemrn, MaTpHUY ,UOXO,UOB.

TaOJ1Hl~a 2.1

KOJIllqCCTBO )J.cTaJlCH, IIOCTaBJlHCMblX
.l--(cTaJIIl tf!upMaM
$HpMa I <Dnpl\Ia II $npMa III
a.faHKI1 320 200 180
b. BOITTbI 220 120 210
c. BHHTbI 160 180 200 Lleasr aa e,UHHI1UY lf3,UeJII15I B (YCJI. ezr.) CBe,UeHbI B Ta6JI.2.2.

IJ,eHbI B raonnne YKa3aHbI cornacno TpeM )lOCTaBKaM.

Tafinnua 2.2

D:ClIhl raiiKIl nOJlThI BIlHThl
I 1 2 2
II 2 1 2
III 2 1 1 - uensr npn nepsoii nOCTaBKe.

- neau npH BTOPOH nOCTaBKe.

(

-- llCHbI npl1 rperseii nOCTaBKC.

J],JI5I ynpomeans paCQeTOB BBe,n:eM MaTpHUbI:

B ~ [~ : ~] - MaTpnua nen rrOCTaBOK TOBapoB;

-37-

Torrra

200 180J

120 210 - xrarpana o6beMa rrOCTaBOK.

180 200 .

(1 2 2J (320 200 180J

D = BA = 2 1 2 . 220 [20 2[0

2 1 1 160 180 200

[320

A= 220 160

(1080 800 1000J

= 1180 880 970 ,r):(e anexrenrsr MaTprrUhI D - npn-

1020 700 770

6hIJIh aa zrerana OT <prrpM npn pa3JIrrQHhIX nocrasxax, nanpusrep:

1080 yCJI. e):(.- rrpU6hIJIh sa TOBap OT <pUpMhI I npn I-Ii rrOCTaBKe;

880 yCJI. en. - rrp116hIJIh sa TOBap OT <pI1PMhI II npn 2-Ii rrOCTaBKe;

770 yCJI. en. - rrpH6hIJIh sa TOBap OT <pHPMhI III npn 3-Ii rrOCTaBKe H T. zr,

Paccnorpaa otiparnyro sanaxy. ITyCTb nana MaTpHua D. ITJIaHHpy.5I rrOJIyqeHHYlO npnfisnn, H CTOHMOCTh Ka)K)loIi ,D,eTaJIH rrpI1Ka)K):(oIiH3 rpex nOCTaBOK, Heo6xo):(HMO paCCQII'rars KOJmQeCTBO 3aBO,D,CKHX ,D,eTaJIeIi npu O,D,HOll rrOCTaBKe.

Pemenne.

,L(aHhI xrarpmrsr B H D. Tpe6yeTC.5IHaIiTH MaTprruy A. D = BA => B-1B A = B~ID => A = B-1D

'----V-" '

E

B~l~ 2 ~l
1 detB = 1 +8+ 4- 4-4- 2 = 3,
1
-38- 2 1 21 3 2 2

All = (-1) 1 11= -1, AI2 = (-1) 2 1 = 2,

4 2 1

AI3 = (-1) 2 1 = 0,

32 2 41 2

A?I=(-l) "=0, A27=(-1) =-3,

- 1 I ~ 1 2

_ 1 2

An = (-IY 2 1 = 3,

422 41 2

A'I = (-1) 1 = 2, A'l = (-1) = 2,

" 2··~ 2 2

612

A33=(-1) =-3,

2 1

A=~l~l ~3

o 3

(960 600 = ~ 660 360 480 540

~J'

-3

2 J(1080 800 1000J

2 1180 880 970 =

-3 1020 700 770

540J (320 200 180J

630 = 220 120 210.

600 160 180 200

-39-

2.2. P AHr MATPMlJ,bI

TIyCTh zraaa MaTpIIlI,a A,IlX/1 . ,D,JUI IICCJIe,nOBaHII5I COBMeCTHOCTII CIICTeM JIIIHeHHhIX anrefipan-recxax ypaBHeHIIH B ,naJIhHeHilleM HaM rroHa):(06IITC5I panr MaTpIIlI,hI. Onpe)leJleHHe. Paurosr MaTpIIlI,hl A Ha3bIBaeTC51 HaI160JIh-

lllI1H I13 rrOp5I):(KoB MHHOPOB, OTJIHQHbIX OT HYJI5I·

2.2.1. CBOllCTBA PAHrA MATPHIJ,bI

1°. 0$ r $ min(m,n), min(m,n) - 3TO 3HaQIIT

MeHhllJ,eeII}~IIceJIm, It,

2°. Panr He MeH5IeTC5I npHTpaHCIIOllIIpOBaHIIH MaT-

pIIlI,hI.

3 0. Panr MaTpIIlI,hI He MeH5IeTC5I IIpII 3JIeMeHTapHhIX

npe06pa30BaHII5IX MaTpIIlI,hl.

4 0. TIPH BhIQepKIIBamm II3 MaTpHlI,hI HYJIeBOrO pana

HJIII rrpn IIPIIIIIIChIBaHIIII ero panr He MeH5IeTC5I.

5°. Panr MaTpIIlI,hI, IIonYQeHHOH II3 ):(aHfJOHrrpIIIIII-

ChIBaHIIeM K Hell cToJI6lI,a (CTpOKII), pasen panry IICXO):(HOH MaTpIIUl>I IfJIH6om=!rue erOHae):(IIHIIUy.

6°. Paar MaTpIIlI,hl, IIOJIyqeHIiOH II3 mUlHOll asrrep-

KIIBaHIIeM KaKoro""JIII60 cToJl6ua{CTppKII), paBeH panry ncXO):(HOll MaTpIIlI,bI HJIH MeHhille ero na e):(IIHIIlI,y.

2.2.2. 3JIEMEHTAPHbIE fiPEOliPA30BAHH}I lVIATPJUJ,bl Onpe)leJleHlte. 3JIeMeHTapHhIMII rrpe06pa30BaHII5IMH l'v1aTpIIlI,bI Ha30BeM CJIe):(YlOIlI,He rrpeo6pa- 30BaHH5I:

-40-

1. YMHO)KeHIIe HeKOTOpOH CTPOKII (cronfiua) MaT-

PIIUbI na qIICJIO, OTJIIIqHOe OT HYJI5I.

2. ITpII6aBJICHIIC K O,llHOH CTPOKC (cTOJI6uy) MaT-

PUUbI ,llpyron: CTPOKII (cronfiua), YMHO)KeHHOH na nponsBOJIbHOe qHCJIO.

3. ITcpecTaHoBKY MeCTaMH ztsyx crpok (cronfinon)

MaTpHUbI.

Cnpanennnnu cneztyromne 'reopensr.

TeopeMa. BC5IKa51 HeBblpO)K,lleHHa51 MaTpnua MO)KeT 6bITb npasenena K e,llHHJiqHOH MaTpHue C nosroumo anesrearapasrx rrpe06pa30BaHHH:.

TeopeMa. 06 IIHBapllaHTHocTH (HeH3l\leHHeMocTH) paHraMaTpuU;bloTHOCIITeJlhHO JJleMeHTapHblX npeo6pa30BaHIIH.

Panr MaTpHUbI, rrOJIyqeHHOH 113 ,llaHHOH 3JIeMeHTapHbIMI1 rrpeo6pa30BaHI151MI1, pasea panry ,llaHHOH MaTpl1UbI.

Bsenexronpezrenenaa:

OnpeneJleHue. rOBOp5lT, qTO n-H cTOJI6eu MaTpl1IIhI A"", 51BJI5IeTC5I mmen:HOH KOM6I1HaIIl1eH OCTaJIbHbIX ec CTOJI6U;OB, ecna CYlll,CCTBYlOT TaKI1C QHCJIa ai' a2, ... , a,,_I' qTO BbIIIOJIH5IeTC5I· paBcHCTBO:

+ .. , + an_I

a/lln

-41-

OnpeIleJIelme. CTPOI<I1 MaTpIlI(bI Ha3bIBalOTCR .mmetino- 3aBIfCHMbIMIf, eCJIIi XOT5I 6bI ozma Il3 HIiX 5IBJIReTCR JIImeHHOH KOM6IIHaI(IleH OCTaJIbHbIX, B rrpOT}IBHOM cny-tae CTPOKIi 5IBJI5IIOTC5I JIIiH eHHO- He3aBIlCHMbIMH.

Bseneu rrOH5ITHe 6a3I1CHOfO MIII-IOpa MaTpIlIIbl.

OrrpeLleJIeHlfe. na3HCllblM l\HlHOPOM Ha3bIBaeTC5I MIIHOp, rrOp5I)lOK KOTOPOro pasen panry MaTpHUbI.

TeopeMa (0 6a3I1CHOl\l MIIlIOpe).

JI106a5I CTpOKa (cTOJI6eI() MaTpIIIIbI 5IBJI5IeTC5I JIIfHeHHOHKOM6IIHaIIIIeH 6a3IICHbIX CTPOK (cTOJI6II0J3). Basncasre CTPOKlI (CTOJI- 6IIbI) MaTplIIIbI JIlIHeHHO He3aBIlCHMbI.

~JI5I BbIqHCJIeHIl5I panra MaTpIlIIbI IlCrrOJIb3YIOTC5I B OCHOB HOM MeTO)lbI OKaHMJI5IIOII(HX MIlHOPOB, 3JIeMeHTapHbIX rrpe06pa30BaHHH, rrp5IMoyroJIbHHKOB. I1pH HCrrOJIb30Bamm MeTO)la OKaHMJI5IIOII(HX MIll-IOPOB K MaTpHIIe A, cornacno reopexre 0 6a3HCHOM MIIHope, eCJIH IIMeeTC5I MIlHOP M rropsnxa r, OTJIHqHbIH OT HyJI5I, a nee MHHOPbI MaTpHIIbIA, OKaHMJI5IIOII(He MHHOP M, pasnst HyJIIO, HJIH MHHOPOB, OKaHMJI5IIOII(lIX MHHOP M, He cymecrsyer, TO rorna panr MaTpHllbI A pasen r.

C yrreroi« rrpnaeneaaux ortpeneneami H TeopeMbI 0 6a31IcHoM MHHope cnezryer, LITO MaKCHMaJIbHOe qHCnO rmHeHHO He3aBIICHMbIX CTPOK (cTon6110B) MaTpHllbI paBf.IO panry MaTpIIIIbl. OTCIO)la H BbI1;eKaeT BTOPOH cnocof naXO)K)leHH5I panra MaTpl1IIbI nYTeM ~JIeMeHTapHbIX npeofipa- 30BaHIIH.

-42-

KaK BbFfl1CmleTC.SI panr MaTpH~bI, paCCMOTpl1M aa fIPI1- MepaX.

TIpllluep. HaHTI1 panr MaTplI~bI

231 -1 4 0 3

-1 2 3 0

1 2 0

2.2.3. METOLl,hl BhILIl1CJIEHH5I PAHf'A MATPHU,hl

1) Merna oKaifMJ1HlOmlIX MlfHOpOB.

OqeBH):lHO, qTQ,GP~)]lI .MHBopoBrrepB.oro rrOp.SI)J,Ka ecrs

OTJUI'IHble OT HyJI5I. B03bMeM M[ = 1 B JIeBOM sepxnev yrrry OKaHMJI5IlOIUI1H: MI1HOP JJ,JI5l nero 6y)],eT paaen

1 M-

2 - --1

2

= 6:;t:O. 4

OKaH:MJI.SIlOll]I1H MHHOP )],J1.SI MI1HOpa M 2 :

1 2 3

M3 = -1 4 0 = O. -1 2 3

Torna paccnorpma .npyrae, OKaH:MJ15IlOil]He MHHOPbI rv1l1HOpa M 2 .

2
M:= -1 4 3 :;t: O.
0
-1 2 0 BbPUICJIHM MHHOP, OKaHMJ15llOIUHH M;:

-43-

1 2 3 1
-1 4 ° 3
M4= =-30*0.
-1 2 3 °
1 2 ° 1 CJIe)lOBaTeJIbHO, rang A = 4.

2) MeTO)l anexrerrrapru.rx npeofipaaonannti.

BbFIHCJIIIM paHr MaTplIU;bI A MeTO)lOM snesrearapasrx

npeotipaaoaanuii. Caezren ee K e)lIIHlIqHOll: MaTplIu;e, panr KOTOPOll: 6Y)leT pasen qlICJIY JIIIHell:HO-:He3aBIICIIMhIX CTPOK MaTpIIU;bI.

1 2 3 1
-1 4 ° 3
-1 2 3 ° (l-ro CTPOKY YMHO)KIIM na (-1) II upnfia-
1 2 ° 1
BIIM K 3-ll:)
1 2 3 1
-1 4 ° 3
~ (3-ll: cronfien )leJIIIM na 3) ~
-2 ° ° 1
2 ° 1 2 1 1
-1 4 ° 3
~
-2 ° ° 1
2 ° 1 Tpernii cronfien MaTpIIU;bI YMHO)KIIM na (-1) II rrpufiaBIIM K nepnoxry, 3aTeM'3TOT)Ke cTOJI6eu; YMHO)KIIM na (-2) II

-44-

rrpIf6aBIfM KO BTOPOMY, a rrOTOM YMHO)KIfM ero na (-1) If npa-

6aBHM K qeTBepTOMY. B If Tore nOJIyqIfM:
0 0 1 0
-1 4 0 3
-2 0 0 1 (2-i1 cTOJI6eI( ,lJ,eJ(HM na 2) =>
1 2 0 1
0 0 1 0
~l 2 0 3
=> (4-i1 cTOJI6eI( YMHO)KIfM na 2 If rrpnfia-
-2 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
5 2 0 3
BIfM K nepsoxry) => 0 0 0 1
3 1 0 1 3-IO CTPOKY nonysemroii MaTpIfI(hI YMHO)Kl1M na (-3) If np116aBIfM KO BTOPOi1, 3aTeM 3 - IO CTPOKY YMHO)Kl1M na (-1)

H rrpH6aBHM K xerseproii. Ilorry-nur:
0 0 1 0
5 2 0 0
0 0 0 1 (4-IO CTPOKY YMHO)KHM na (-2) H npn-
3 0 0 0 0 1 0
6aBHM KO BTOpOi1) => -,-1 0 0 0 (2-IO CTPOKY yMHO-
0 0 0 1
3 0 0
)KHM ua 3 If rrpH6aBHM K xeraeproti). -45-

f10JIY'IHM MaTpnuy:
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 f1oMeH5IB MeCTaMH CTPOKH, rrOJIyqHM enHI-IH'IHYEO MaTPHUY, panr KOTOPOH pasen 4.

OTCIOna cnezryer, 'ITO panr HCXOnHOH MaTpnUbI 'raxxce pasen 4.

3) MeTo)J, npHMoyrOJIbIUIKOB.

Ilycrs sanana xrarpnua

all al2 alII
a21 a22 a211
A=
am] am2 «: Ilpennonoaour; 3JIeMeHT 0] I =f. 0 (B npOHIBHOM cnysae, nepecraaan MeCTaMH CTpOKII). Ha30BeM naHHbIH 3JIeMeHT pa3pcrnaIOwnM, a CTPOKY If CTOJI6cI(, rzte OH HaXOnHTC5I, - pa3pernaIOwnMII .

Ilpnaezrei« anroprrrxr MeTOna:

1) 3neMeHTbI paspemarotneji CTPOKl1 OCTaBn5IeM

HeH3MeHHbIMH.

2) 3JIeMeHThI paapeuraroutero cTOJI6ua, pacrrorro-

)f{eHHble HH)f{e paspeuraromero 3JIeMeHTa, 3al1HChIBaeM nyJIeBhIMH (ofipamaexr B HyJIH) (pHC. 2.1).

3) Bee OCTaJIhHhle3neMeHThI nOJIY'IaIOTC5I H3 pac-

'IeTa ol1peJJ.eJIHTeJICH nroporo nOp5IJJ.Ka (IIX 3JIeMeHThI co-

-46--

CTaBJUHOT npavoyro.n.au«), y KOTOPhIX nepecsarsraaesrsiii 3JIeMeHT BMeCTe C pa3pellIaIOllJ,IIM06pa3YIOT maBHYIO )lIIarOHaJIh.

/* •

,. .

-,

Pllc.2.l

.\







· ,/

4) BHoBh rrOJIyqeHHa5I MaTpIII(a npeofipasyercs ana-

JIOrWIHbIM o6pa30M C yqeTOM paspenraiourero 3JIeMeHTa a22 .

5) TaKHM 06Pa30M, C Ka)J()lhIM uraroxr amrynapyror-

C5I 3JIeMeHTbI CTOJI6I(OB HII)J(e r]Jam-TOH )lIIarOHaJIH rnaanoro MHHopa MaTpl1UbI (snmopa aanaucmero nopsnxa, pacnonoacennoro B JIeBOM BepXHeM yrny), II MaTpIII~a npHBO)lHTC5I JUl60 K )lHarOHaJJbHOH, JIII60 K rparreuneannnoa q)OpMe.

6) Panr fIOJIY'IeHtIOH MaTpHI(bI 6Y)leT pasen qHCJIY

HeHYJIeBbIX CTPOK MaTpIU~bI, T.e. nopxnxy 6a3HcHoro MHHOpa MaTpm~LI, H pasen panry HCXO)lHOH MaTpHI(bI.

TIpnMep. HaHnI panr rvIaTPIIIJ,bl:

r -3 A=l;

-2 o -2

-47-

-2

Peurenne.
r-3 -2 1 -IJ
4 0 -2 I=?
3 . 2 1 0
r~ -2 1 -IJ r-J -2 1 -IJ
8 2 1 =? 0 8 2 l~ =? r= 3,
12 -6 3 0 0 -72 §3. PEIIIEHIIE CIICTEM JIIIHEHHbIX AJIrEEPAlIqECKIIX YPABHEHlIH

3.1. OCHOBHbIE nOH5ITIUI II OnPE,LI,EJIEHIUI

OnpeneJIeHHe. JIHHeHHoH CHCTeMOH m ypaBHeHHH C n HeH3BeCTHhIMH Xi' X2, .. " Xn Ha3hIBaeTC5I CHCTeMa BH,[(a

alixi + al2x2 + .. , + alnXn = b, a21xI + anx2 + , .. + a2nXn = b2

rne au - K03¢CPI1III1eHThI CHCTeMhI.

BBe,[(eM MaTpHIIhI:

-48-

all al2 aln
A= an a22 a2n - OCHOBHa5I MaTpIII(a CIIC-
alii I am2 «:
TeMbI; x = Xl - BeKTOp-CTOJI6eI( HeIl3BeCTI-IbIX;

bl

B = - BeKTOp-CTOJI6eI( CBo60)lHbIX qJIeHOB.

bill

OnpeLl,eJleHHe. YlIOp5I)lOQeHHbIH:

Ha60p

Cp C2, ... , C, Ha3bIBaeTC5I peurenneer CMCTeMbI, ecnn, 6Y)lYQll rrO)lCTaBJIeHHbIM, B xaxcaoc 113 ypasneuaii, OH ofipantaer nx B sepmae paBI."HCTBa.

OrrpelleJleHlIe. CIICTeMa nnaeiiasrx aJIre6pallQeCKIIX ypaanemril Ha3bIBaeTC5I COBMeCTlIOH, eCJIa OHa IIMeeT peIIIeHIf5I. B rrpOTIIBHOM CJIYQae OHa Ha3blBaeTC5I HeCOBMeCTlWH.

OrrpeIleJleHne. COBMeCTHa5I CIICTeMa Ha3bIBaeTC5I orrpenenenuoii, ecnn OHa llMeeT e)lIIHCTBeHHoe penremre, B rrpOTIIBHOM CJIYQae OHa HOCIIT Ha3BaHIIe -. aeonpenenenaok.

-49-

OnpeneJIeHlle. )J,Be CHCTeMhI Ha3hIBaIOTC5I JKBHBa.TleHTHbIMII, eCJIH peurenna O,[{HOH H3 HlIX 5IBJI5IIOTC5I peIIIeHlI5IMII ,[{pyroH, II naofiopor;

OnpeneJIeHlle. CIiCTeMa JIIIHeHHhIX aJ1re6palIqeCKIIX ypaBHeHHH Ha3hIBaeTC5I O)lHOPOJ(HOH, eCITII BeKTOp-CTOJ16eII CBo6o,[{HhIX L[J1eHOB 5IBJ15I.eTC5I HYJIeBhIM.

O'[{HOpO'[{Ha5I CHCTeMa J1I1HeHHhIX arrrefi-

3aMeQaHue.

paIIQeCKIIX ypasaenaii scerna 5IBJ15IeTC5I COBMeCTHOH, TaK KaK eH scerna y,[{OBJ1eTBOp5IeT HYJIeBOe peIIIeHIIe.

3.2.MATPI1QHbIH METO,Ll, PEWEHI151 CHCTEM JUlHEHHblX AJIrEEPAHQECKHX YPABHEHHH

I1yCTh sanaaa CIICTeMa J1IIHeHHhIX aJ1re6palIQeCKIIX ypaBHeHIIH AX=B, npWleM QIICJIO ypaBHeHIIH pasno QIICJ1Y HeII3BeCTHhIX, T.e. OCHOBHa5I MaTplIIIa 5IBJI5IeTC5I KBa'[{paTHOH. Torna IIMeeT MeCTO CJIe,[{YIOllla5I 'reopexta.

TeOpeMa. ECJIII onpenennrens OCHOBHOH MaTpIIIIbI CIICTeMbI OTJIIIQeH OT HyJ15I, TO CHCTeMa COBMeCTna, II ee e,[{HHCTBeHHoe pemenne MO)KHO HaHTll no diopxryne: X= A-lB.

)1oKa3aTeJIbCTBo.

I1yCTh ,[{aHaCIICTeMa JIIIHeHHhlx anretipan-recsnx ypas-

He HUH AX = B . (1)

TaK xax IAI i= 0, TO cynrecrsyer e,[{HHCTBeHHa5I o6paTHa5I MaTpHIIa A-I. YMHOJI<I1},I CJIeBa o6e QaCHI paaencrsa (1) na A-I,rrO.JIY'il1l"l A-lAX =X-IB=> EX = A-IB => X = A-lB ...

-50-

3aMeTIIM, 4TO CHCTeMhI JIHHeHHhIX ypaBHeHHH I1MeIOT IIIIIpOKOe rrpIIMeHeHIIe JlJI5l petuenna pa3JII14HhIX 3KOHOMH- 4eCKHX, TeXHH4eCKI1X II JlpyrIIx sanan. LJarrre BCerO B 3KOHOMHlleCKOH npaxrnxe CyrueCTBYIOT pasnromsre pa3BeTBJICHHbIe B3aHMOCB5l3H B pa3HbIX 06JIaCT5lX HapOJlHOrO XO- 35lHCTBa, HCCJIeJlOBaHHe KOTOPbIX npOBOJlIITC5l C nouoursto MaTpWIHhIX CHCTeM JIHHeHHhIX anrefipan-recrorx ypaBHeHHH, a JlJI5l rrOCTpOeHTI5l 3KOHOMHlleCI<HX MOJleJIei1 rrpOH3BOJlCTBa HCnOJIb3YIOTC5l rpadisr. Tpadi paCCMaTpHBaeTC5l KaK HeKOTOpoe yrropanosennoe MHO)KeCTBO, r.e, MHO)KeCTBO, 3JIeMeHThI xoroporo ynopsnoveau, rrOJlLIHHeHhI KaKOMY-TO saxony. 3JIeMeHThI 3Toro MHO)KeCTBa. H306pa)KaIOTC5! B RHJle roses, a CB5!3H-«pe6pa» Me)KJlY HHMH - B BHJle HarrpaBJIeHHhIX OTpe3KOB. ECJIH HMeeTC5l MHO)KeCTBO Y3JIOBbIX ronex TH MHO)KeCTBO «petiep» R, TO Me)l(JlY 3JIeMeHTaMH H3 T H R ycraHaBJIHBaeTC5l ornonrenne HHrrHJleHTHOCTH. Maresrarn-recKH, eCJIH cyutecrsyer «pefipo», seztymee H3 T04im i B TOllKY j, TO 3JIeMeHT au B MaTpHrre HHrrHJleHTHOCTH rrpHHHMaeTC5l sa ezraamry, eCJIH HeT CB5l3eH, TO aij pasen HYJIID. Ilpn 3TOM rronaraercs, -rro HII OJlHa .rosxa He CB5l3aHa caxra C C060H. Eonee nonpotino paccxtorpmr na sanase.

3allaQa.

PaCCMOTpHM MOJleJIh rrJIaHHpOBaHH5l llaCTHOro npOH3BOJlCTBa. fIYCTh see sarparsr na npoH3BOJlCTBO IIpOIIOpI~HOHaJIhHhI BhIIIyCKy BaJIOBOH nponyxmnr (r.e, JIHHeHHa5! 3aBHCHMOCTb). Ilycrt, HMeeTC5I p BlfJlOB H3JleJIHH (JleTaJIH, y3JIhI, IIpOJlYKrrIU1 H T. n.), rrpHllbvl Me)KJlY OTJleJIhHhIMH H3JleJIH5lMH C06JIlOJleHhI TeXHOJIOrtrrecxae CooTHollIeHHH, H306pa)KCHHhle rpa-

~51-

<pOM na pHC. 3.1. qHcna II nanpannemrste OTpe3KII (pHC. 3.1 )rroKa3bIBalOT,CK0J1bKO ep:HHIIU i-ro H3p:emuI He06xop:HMO p:n5! H3roToBneHH5! ep:IIHHUhI j-ro Il3P:enH5!.

HailTII TaKOH sexrop aanonoii nponyxnnn, KOTOPbIH 6yp:eT orpaxcart, nnan KOHe4HhIX nsnenHH xazcztoro BIIAa c Y4eToM BHyTpeHHHx B3aHMOCB5!3eH.

Pemeune,

113 rpadia (pIIC. 3.1) cnenyer, 4TO KOHe4Ha5! rrponyxmta He ncnom.syerca CHona B rrpOII3Bop:CTBe, a p:JI5!H3rOTOBneHH5! ozmoro Ipp:enH5! rnna 3 aarpaxaaaerca zina H3p:enH5! 'rnna 1 II zrsa H3p:enH5! 'nma 2, IJP:J15! rrpOH3Bop:CTBa ozmoro II3p:enH5! 'rnrra 2 He06xoP:HMO OP:HO nsnenne 'rnna 1.

)J,aHHOMY rparpy (pHC. 3.1.) COOTBeTCTByeT xrarpnrra A K03<p<PHUHeHToB npam,rx sarpar YKa3aHHoH cern.

ITYCTb X - sexrop sanosoii nponysumr (asnrycxa TOnapa), i - nexrop nnana (xoneaasrxjnponaac rosapa. BanOBa5! rrporryrcmra BKn104aeT B ceria, rrOMHMO KOHe4HblX rrpop:a)l(, TaK )l(e rrpoH3BoP:CTBO p:eTaneH, He06xop:HMhIX p:n5! nponaaoncraa H3,2lenHH. Hrax, ofimee KonH4eCTBO ep:IIHHII

P-ro H3p:enH5! ynounernopaer COOTHOIlleHHlO EX =A-IB~, IInI1 B pa3BepHYToM BH,2le:

{XI = YI + allxl + a]yl2 + a13x3 x2 : Y2 + aWll + a2Y~3 + [[23ol3' X3 - Y3 + a31xI + a32x2 + [[33X3

-52-

Ilycrs saztan BeKTOp-)1rraH e)Ke,llHeBHbIX nponax 113- ,lleJUIH: Y = (5,10,20f·

Tpe6yeTC5I HaHTH BeKTOp BarrOBOH nponyxunn X.

1

Puc. 3.1

- - - - - - --

X = Y + AX ¢=> EX - AX = Y ¢=> (E - A)X = Y,

(E-Arl(E -A)X =(E-Ar1y ~ X = (E -Arlf.

Torna, CO maCHO 3a,llaHHOMY rpadiy:

AJ~ ~ ~J' (E-AJJ~ ~l

lo 0 0 lo 0

HaH,lleM (E - Arl .

1 -2 0 -2 0 1

All = 0 1 = 1, AI2 = - 0 1 = 0, AI3 = 0 0 = 0,

-2J

~.' Ll(E-A)=l.

-1 -2 1 -2 -1 -1

A21 = - 0 1 = 1, An = 0 1 = 1, An = .... 0 0 =0,

-1 -2 1 -2 1 -1

A'I = 1 = 4, A,) = - = 1, A" = = 1.

" -2 0" 0 -1 0.' 0 1

~(E-Arl =·l~ : ~J.

001

-53-

YMHO)KHB MaTpHUY (E ~ Arl na BeKTOprrpO,IJ,a)K TOBapa Y, rrOJ1yqHM BeKTOp BaJIOBOH rrpO,IJ,yKUHH

1 1 o

ITOJIYQeHHhIH BeKTOp BaJIOBOH rrpO,ayKUHII onpezrenaer; KaKOe KOJIH'-IeCTBO rreranefi, KOHeQHhIX Y3ITOB, I13,aeITI1H Ka)K,IJ,OrO BI1,IJ,a ,aOJDf(HO 6hITh I13roTOBJIeHO, QT06hl BhIIIOITHI1Th nnan peaJIH3aUI1H rosapa C YQeTOM BHyTpeHIIHx B3aHI\10CB~3eH.

3.3. PElIJEHI1E HEBbIPQ)K)l,EHHbIX Cl1CTEM. <})OPMYJIbI . KPAMEPA

113 xrarpn-moro xrerona peIIIeHH~ CHCTeM JIlIHeHHhlx aJIre6paRQeCKHX ypaBHeHHH CITe,IJ,yeT, QTO

Xl Al A"I bl
X = A-I. B ::::} 1 Ali A,rj bj
x-
I L1
x" All A"" bll -54-

fro reopene 3aMemeHlUI 6y,n:eM HMeTb:

AljbJ + A2jb2 + ... + A"/b,, = ~ j ,

me ~. _ 3TO orrpenernrrens MaTpHUbI, nonyseuuoii H3

J

masnoro orrpe,n:eJIIITeJI5I ~ 3aMeHoli )-ro cronfiua CTOJl6-

UOM CB060,n:HbIX LIJIeHOB, ~ _ rrraBHbIli onpenennrem, CHcresua. <D0PMYJIbI

1 .

x = -~ 1=1,11

I ~ I'·

Ha3hIBalOTC5I <l>0pMYJlaMH Kpaxtepa.

l1MelOTC5I nsa npennpnarna _. npoaaaoznrreJIH ,n:eTaJ'IeH MamHH. Ilycrs conokynnsrii npoztyxr; BbmycKaeMbIH npezrnpnarnen 1 sa ron, B CTOHMOCTHhIX 06beJVlaX COCTaBJl5IeT 500 TbIC. (YCJI. en.). ,Il,JI51 nponssoncraa ,n:eTaJ1eH MamIIH HCrrOJIb3YIDTC5I II3,n:eJIlI5I coficraemnrx nonpas,n:eJIeHHH npennpnarua 1 B 06beMe 50 H3,n:eJlHH II 3aKyrrJleHHhle y npennpnarns 2 B 06beMe 120. )l,JI5I npeunpasrns Z couoxyrmsni nponyxr COCTaBJI5leT 420 ThIC. (YCJI. en.), OHa I1CrrOJIbsyer rrOCTaBKII c06CTBeHHhIX rronpaaneneuua B 06beMe 120, a TaK)Ke 3aKYilKII y npennpnaTII5l 1 B 06beMe ISO H3,n:eJmll (puc. 3.2). Tpe- 6yeTC5I HaHTH coaonyrnrsni nponyxr .uJ15I Ka)K.noro rrpennpnarna B OT,n:eJIhHOCTH.

Peurenne.

COCTaBIIM l\lO,n:eJIb «aarparsr-aunycx» Me)KOTpaCJIeBOro 6aJlaHCa (pRC. 3.2).

-55-

B 3KOHOMIIKe IIO,Ilo6Hble MO,IleJIII Ha3bIBaIOTC5I MO,lleJI5IMH Jleorrrseaa, ComaCHO ,IlaHHOll MO,IleJIH COCTaBHM ypaBHeHHe Jleonrseaa.

50.----I,IT~p=e:lln=p=Jtl:T:H:e~1 500

120 d ITpellnpHlITHe 2 ~He'l.HhIH npoayxr) 420 -120 -260 = 40 Pllc.3.2

TIepell,IleM KHOpMHpOBaHHbIM BeJIIIqHHaM, T.e. K 3aTparajr, OTHeceHHbIM K emmane (B CTOHMOCTHOM oTHOIIIeHHH). Pe3YJIbTaTbI paC'-IetoB CBeAeM B jlla6JI. 3.1.

Ta6JJHu;a 3.1

Ilpennpnarne IIocTaBKu npennpuarmo
1 2
1 0,1 0,3
2 . 0,5 0,4 22_ - 0 1 260 "" 0 3 120 "" 0 5 160 == 0 4.

T. e. 500 - "500 "420 "420 '

Ilonanaon rafimnre nocrpoaa MaTpHIIY A:

A ==(0,1 0,.5

0,3J

0,4 .

A -- MaTpHIIa uopvapoaaaasrx BeJIH'-II1H, rne nepasni cToJI6eII MaTpI1IIhI 03Ha'-IaeT, '-ITO AJI5I IIP0I13BOACTBa neraneii (eAI1HHIIhI H3,I1eJIH5I) C06JIIOAaIOTC5I Heo6xOAI1Mble IIOC!aBKH OT npeAIIpH5ITI15I 1 (caMoMY ce6e) B paasrepe 0,1, a OT IIpeAnpmITI15I 2 B pasnepe 0,8. BTOPOll cTOJI6eII -- IIOCTaBKH IIpeAIIpH5ITHIO 2, raicse B CTOHMOCTHOM H HOPMH-

-56-

pOBaHHOM nsrpaacemm. ITo CMbICJIY, BbIIIYCK rrpO,uYKU1111 rrpOrrOpU110HaJICH rrp5IMbIM aarparaxr, T.C. cofimoztaercs JI11- HeHHOCTb CB5I3CH; COCTaB11M COOTBCTCTBYIOIIIYIO C11CTCMY ypaBHCHHH. 0603Ha'l11M 'lCPC3 X" X2 - conoxyrraocrs 113- ,uCJI11H rrpc,urrp115IT115I 111 rrpc,ul1pH5ITH5I 2, a y" Y2 - KOHCl-I-

, HbIH nponyxr rrpc,ul1p115IT115I 1 H rrpc,unp115ITH5I 2.

{X, = 0, lx, + 0,3x) + YI

- ° 5' ° 4 ~ , , - CHCTCMa JIHHCHHbIX ypas-

x2- , x,+ , X2-t-J2

(0,1 MbI, rne A =

, 0,5

(XIJ=(O,l 0,3J(X'J+(YIJ.

x2 0,5 0,4 X2 Y2

X = AX + Y - Ha3bIBaCTC5I ypaaaeaaen Jleorrn.eaa, KOTOPOC nrpaer OC06yIO pOJIb B PCIlICHHH pa3JIH'lHbIX 3KOHOM11'lCCKHX sanaa.

ITOCKOJIbKY B PblHO'lHOH 3KOHOMHKC B OCHOBHOM crrpoc saziaer 06'beMblrrpOH3Bo,uCTBa, TO. rrpHXOJl,HT<;5I naxozurn, cOBoKyrrHbIH' HpO,uyKT X.

(E_A)=(l 0J_(O,l

° 1 0,5

0,3J =( D,9

0,4 -0,5

-0,3J'

06 '

,

(E-A)X=Y, {0,9XI-O,3X2=290.

, -0,5x, +0,6x2 = 40

Pemaa C11CTCMY MCTO,uOM Kpastepa, HaH,ucM neofixo,uHMbIH cosoxynmra rrpO)J.yIIT Ka)J()J.oro rrpc)J.rrpH5ITH5I:

-57-

290 -0,3
40 0,6 = 186 =477
x] = 0,9 -0,3 0,39 '
-0,5 0,6
0,9 290
-0,5 40 =~=464
x2 = 0,39 039 '
, rne 290 - KOHe'-IHbIH nponyxr l-ro IIpe,IlIIpIUITIUI , 40- KOHeLIHbIH I1pO,IlyKT 2-ro IIpe,IlIIpIUITM>I.

OTneT:ix] = 477; x2= 464 (Heo6xo,IlIIMbIH:) cosoxynHbIH IIpO,IlyKT 1-ro M 2-ro npe,IlnpI1>ITHH B OT,IleJIbHOCTH.

3.4. METO,U r AYCCA

Faycc KapJI <Dpll,IlPI1X (1777-1855) - HeMeUKIiH MaTeMaTIIK, aCTpOHOM, CPlI3HK Jl reO,Ile3HCT.

1. Taycc rrpe,IlJIo)KHJI HeCKOJIbKO BapHaHToB ,IlOKa-

3aTeJIbCTBa OCHOBHOH reopenu anreopsr (rnofioii MHorol.IJIeH C KOMIIJIeKCHbIMII K03q)cpHL(lIeHTaMH HMeeT KOMIIJIeKCHbIH xopens).

2. ITOCTPOHJI reopmo KOMIIJIeKCHblX '-IIICeJI.

3. HCCJIe,IlOBaJI ypasnenne XII -1 = 0. YCTaHOBHJI CB5I3b MOK,Ily MeTO,IlaMIl pemenns 3THX ypaBHelIHH 11 IIOCTpOeHlleM IIpaBHJIbHbIX MHoroyrOJIbHHKOB.

MeTO,Il I'aycca 5IBJI5IeTC5I O,IlHHM 113 3cpcpeKTHBHbIX H YHHBepCaJIbHbIX MeTO,IlOB penreans CHCTeM JIIIHeHHblx anrefipaH'-IeCKHX ypaBHeHHH:.

-58-

OnpelleJIeHHe. 3rreMeHTapHbIMH rrpe06pa30BaHH5IMH CHCTeMbI Ha3bIBa1OT:

1. YMHO)KeHIIe nexo roporo ypaBHeHI15I na nepasaoe nyrno qIICrro.

2. Ilpntiaaneaae K O,llHOMY ypaBHeHJIIO CHCTeMbI npyroro ee ypaBHeHJI5I, yMHO)KeHHOrO na nponaaonsuoe QHCrro.

3. Ilepecrauonxy MeCTaMH nsyx ypasneHHH CJICTeMbI.

ITpJI 3rreMeHTapHbIx npe06pa30BaHJI5IXrrOJlyqaeM CJICTeMY, 3KBI1BarreHTHYIO ,llaHHOH, T. e. peIIleHH5I rrorrYQeI-IHOH CHCWMJ:,I 6Y,llyr COarra,lla,rbC.peW~HH5IMH JICXO,llHOH CHGJe¥t>I.

CYTh MeTO,lla Taycca COCTOIIT B cneztytontesr.

ITYCTb nana CHCTeMa 111 rrHHeHHbIX anreripan-recxnx ypaBHeHHH C 11 HeH3BeCTI-IbIMH, Tpe6yeTC5I HaH!H ee peureHHe:

G] IX] + GI2X2 + + all1'X:" = b,

G2IXI +a22x2 + +a2"xlI = b2

3anHIIleM OCHOBHYIO HpaCIIIHpeHHyIO MaTpJILJ,bI pacCMaTpHBaeMOH CHCTeMbI:

all al2
A= a21 a22
ami GI112 - OCHOBHa}1 MaTpI1Ua CHCTeMbl,

-59-

all al2 aln b,
C= a21 a22 a2n b2 - paCIIIlIpeHHa5I MaT-
ami am2 alllll bm
pnua CHCTe11bI. Ilycn, all *- 0 , B npOTHBHOM cnysae acerzra MO)l{HO rrpnH5ITb sa rrepsoe ypaaaeane TO, B KOTOPOM K03<pqmuHeHT npn Xi OTJII-FIeH OT HyJI5I, H nepeaysreposart, HeH3BeCTHbIe.

ComaCHO rrp5IMOMY XO,lJ,y MeTO,lJ,a Taycca, nposenen CJIe,lJ,yroIUHe onepauna.

1) I1CKJIIO'lHM 3JIeMeHTbI ail' i = 2, m YMHO)l(eHHeM

nepaoii C'IpOKH na sstpaaceaae - ~, i = 2, 111 H npH6aBJIeHHall

eM ee K nOCJIe,lJ,yroIUHM CTpOKaM. 3,lJ,eCb B03MO)l(HbI CJIyqaH:

all al2 alll bl
0 (I) (I) b(l)
C(I)= a22 a21! 2
0 (I) (I) b(l)
am2 <: 111
a) Ilony-nrnacs CTpOKa paCIIIHpeHHOH MaTpIIubI CO) , YKOTOPOH ace 3JIeMeHTbI arl), i = 2, m ; j = 2,11 pannsr HYJIro, a xorafisr O)J,HH cooTBeTcTByroIUHH 3JIeMeHT b?) *- 0 . Torna HCXO)J,Ha5I CHCTeMa HeCOBMeCTHa.

b) TOJIbKO nepsaa crpoxa MaTpHubI el) HeHYJIe-

Ba5I. TOI')J,a HCXO)J,Ha5I CHCTel\1a COCTOHT H3 O,lJ,HOrO ypasneHH5I. ECJIH B 3TOM ypaBHeHHH ace K03<pcpHuHeHTbI, aa HC-

-60-

KJUoLIeHlieM all' pasnsr HyJUO, TO ncxonnaa CI1CTeMa HMeeT e)],HHCTBeHHoe pemenne. B rrpOTHBHOM cnynae CHCTeMa neonpezterrenaaa.

C) CpeJl.I1 K03cP(tlHUI1eHTOB a:/) cyurecrsyer XOT5I

61,1 O)],I1H OTJII1qH1,IH OT nyns. Tonia CJIe)],yeT nepeiirn K o-repe)],HOMY mary.

2) ITyCTh agJ *- O. B MaTpI1l~e C(I) liCKJIlOqIIM 3JIe-

MeHT1,I ail' i = 3,111 . ITOJIyqI1M MaTpHUY BIIJIa .

all Gil al3 al17 b,
0 a~~l a(l) all) b(l)
23 211
0 0 aO) al) b(2)
e(2) == 33 31/ 3
0 0 a(2J a(2) b(2)
43 417 4
0 0 a(2) a(2) v»
/1/3 11111 11/
3)],ec1, B03MO)l{H1,1 CJIyqaH a, b, c. Ecmr IIMeeT MeCTO TpeTIII1 CJIyqaH, TO CJIe)],yeT nepeiiru K TpeT1,eMY mary, II T.)],.

Marpnue C(2) COOTBeTcTByeT CHCTeMa mmeiiasrx aJIre6paHQeCKHX ypaBHeHIIH, 3KBlIBaJIeHTHa5l IICXO)],HOH CIICrexre, nOCKOJIbKY OHa rrOJIYQeHa rryresr JIIIHeHH1,1X npeo6- pa30BaHIIM Ha)], cTpoKaMII pacurapennofi MaTplIU1,I IICXO)J,HOM CIICTeM1,I. Ilepexon OT IICXO)],HOH CIICTeM1,1 K 3KBIIBaJIeHTHOH eM CIICTeMe Ha3bIBaeTC5I rrp5IMbIM XO)],OM MeTo)],a Taycca.

3) Ha 1'-1 mare, rrOCJIe anexrenrapaux rrpeo6pa-

30BamIH HaJI MaTpHueH C(2) , rrOJIYQIiM MaTpHUY d3). 3)],ec1, B03MO)l{Hbl CJIYQaH.

-61-

all «, (Ill all' «: b.
0 a(lJ a~:1 a(11 a(l) bill
22 c» 2,. 211 2
0 0 d2) d21 a~2) b(2)
33 3r 011 )
c(3) == a,I;.·-IJ air-II b(l-11
0 0 0 /'fl I'
0 0 0 0 0 61,-11
1"+1
0 0 0 0 0 b("-I)
//I
a) XOT5I 611 O)J:HH H3 3JIeMeHTOB br-I br-I He
1'+1' .. " /11
paaea aymo. Torna I1CXO)J:Ha5I cacreua HeCOBMeCTHa, T. e.
OHa He I1MeeT HI1 O)lHOfO peWeHH5I. b) Bee 3JIeMeHTbI bil-I), i=r+l,m He pas asr

HYJIIO. TOr,Ua MaTpilua C(3) MO)f(eT I1MeTb O)J:I1H II3 zrayx BII)lOB: TpeyrOJIbHbIH: - MaTpIIua R (npu r = 11 ) I1JIII rpane-

UI1eBII)lHbIH: - MaTpHua D (rrpn r < ll), r,l1,e
all al2 alII_I alII bl
0 (I) (I) (I) b(l)
a22 a211-1 a211 2
R=
0 0 (11-2) (11-2) b(I1-2)
al1_111_1 al1-111 11-1
0 0 0 (11-1) b(I1-I)
«: /I
([II al2 au all all1 bl
0 a~~) (I) (I) (II b~IJ
a23 Cl2r a211
D= 0 0 (21 (2) a(2) b,(2)
a33 «: 311 j
0 0 0 (r-I) II-I) e:»
all' a/7/ r
npH 3TOM 3JIeMeHTbI all' (I) (r-I) OTJIWIHbI OT HYJI5I.
a22 ' .'" a1'/'
-62- OCyr.uCCTBJUUI 06paTHhIH: XO)l MeTO)la Taycca, orrpeneJUIIDTC5I HeH3BCCTHble Xi' i = 1,11 .

4) Comacno MaTpHIre R (rpeyrom.inrti BI-m), BI1)lI1M,

qTO HCH3BCCTHoe XII orrpC)lCn5ICTC5I C)lI1HCTBeHHhIM 06Pa30M, TaK KaK 0(11-1) '* O. I10)lCTaBll515IHaM)lCHHoe 3HaqCHIIC XII B

/111

npC)lDOCnC)lHCC ypaBHCI'IHC CHCTCMbl, pacWHpCHHa5I MaTpHIra KOTOPOH R, onpezrermxr XII._I Ii T. n., «nO)lHHMa5IChl> CHII3Y

BBCpX, onpenenmr HCH3BCCTHhIC XII_2, ... , XI'

5) 113 BH)la pacuncpennoii MaTpHIIhI D cnenyer,

QTO COOTBCTCifBYIDr.u35I eM CHCTeMa nI1HCMHbIX anrefipanQCCKHX ypaBHcHHM cO)lCP:)J01T HCH3BCCTHhIX 60llbilie QHCrra ypaBHcHHH. TaK KaK a" '* 0, TO II3 IIOCJIC)lHCrO ypasneHII5I 3TOM ClICTCMbI HCH3BCCTHOC X, C)lIIHCTBCHHbIM 06-

pa30M asrpazcaerca QepC3 X,_I' X,_2' ... , XI' xoropsre, B CBOID OQCPC)lb, BbIpa)KaIDTC5I 4epC3 X,+1' Xn2, .... , XIJ . I1PHnanax X,+p X,+2' ... , XIJ IIPOH3BOllbHbIC 3Ha4CHH5I i (i = r + 1, n), IIOJlYQHM 6ectIHCncHHoc MHo)KCCTBO pCIlICmIM CIICTeMbI JIIIHCMHhIX anreopaasecxax ypaBHCI-IHM. npllluep. PClliIITb CHCTCMY JIlmCMHbIX 3nrc6paIIQCCKHX

ypaBHcHIIH MCTO)lOM Faycca II MeTO)lOM KpaMepa, cpamnrn, PC3YllhTaTbI PCIlICHHH:

{XI - 3x2 + 8X3 :::: 6 5x1 -6X2 +3X3 ::::-8 -4xl + 2.X2 + 7X3 = 5

-63-

Peurenne. PeIIIlIM CIICTeMY MeTO)lOM Taycca, HeTpY)lHO y6e)lIITbC5I, -rro panr )laHHOH CIICTeMbI pa-

BeH 'rpexi, rrpIIlfeM rangA := rangA = 3 .
Torna
l ~I -3 8 6 r [I -3 8 -H~
-5 -1 ~4 ~ ~ 1 -17
2 2 -1 10
~[~ -3 8 6J
1 -17 -16 .
0 -7 -7
Ocyruecrnaa 06paTHblH XO)l MeTO)la Taycca. Ha 'rpert.ero ypaBHeHH5I rrOJ1YlfIIM: -7x} = 7 ===> X3 = 1. f10)lCTaBJ15I5I x} = 1 BO nropo e ypaane ane, rrOJ1YlfHM x2 = 17 X3 -16 = 1. 1-'13 nepaoro ypaBHeHU5I, rrO)lCTaBUB x2 = 1, x}-= 1, rronYlfuM XI = 3x2 - 8X3 + 6 = 1. Hrax:

XI = x2 = X3 = 1 .

PeIIIIIM )laHHYlO cIIcTeMY MeTO)lOM Kpavepa II cpasHUM pesynrrarsr peIIIeHHH.

/J,AA aroro BbIlfUCJ1UM COOTBeTCTBYIOru:He onpenemrrerrn. rnaBHbIH onpenemrrens CHCTeMbl pasen 7, OH He pasen HyJ1lO.

6 -3 8 1 6 8
-4 -5 -1 2 -4 -1
3 2 2 -7 -1 3 2 -7
x- ---1 x2 = ---1
I- I -3 8 - -7-' -7 - -7- ,
2 -5 -1
-1 2 2
-64- 1 -3 6 2 -5 -4

-1 2 3 -7

X3 = '---------'- = - = 1. Hrax. XI = x2 = X3 = 1.

-7 ~7

3anaqa.

HeMeU;KHe nerxosste MallIHHbI (<<HHo:rvrapKH») Ha aBToM06unbHoM psnrxe I1MeIOT OC06bIM. cnpoc. cDHpMa 3aHI{l\IaeTC5I He 'rom-so ztocrausoilarax MaruIIlI, HO H YCTpaHeFIHeM MenKHX nenozrenox, rrepexpecrnoii nponaxeii HX .n:BYM POCCHM.CKHM qmpMaM. Kormnecrao nponaaaeirsrx MallIHH B resenae rpexzmeii CBe.n:eHO B rafin, 3.2. Orrpeztenars cpezuuoro rrpH6bmb OT Ka)KLJ:oii MapKH MaIlIHHbI B OT.n:enbHOCTH, ecnn OT nponaxc nepaoii qmpMe npU6bIJ1b cocranana 8,8 TbIC. (yen. en.), BTOp0M. -6,8 TbIC. (yen. en.), TPeTI,eii -7,4 TbIC. (yen. en.).

Tafirnma 3.2

~I AYLl,Il-lOO McpCCACC AYLl,H-80
I
I 2 3 4
II 2 :2 3
III 3 3 1 Penrenne.

ComaCHO rafin. 3.2 Ii ycnomno sanasn COCTaBHM MaTeMaTHIfeCKYr:o Mo.n:eJIb, orpaxcaionryto rrpH6bIJIb OT npona:« 3THX Manum.

ITYCTb Xi' X2, X3 - COOTBeTCTBeHHO cpe.n:H5I5I npnfisnn, OT rrpoztaxc MaruFIH MapOK Ay.n:H-100, Mepcezrec, Ay.n:H-80.

3 3aK. 2540

-65-

COCTa13HM CHCTeMY JIHHeHHhIX anreripansecxnx ypa13- fIeHHH:

{2XI + 3x2 + 4X3 = 8,8 2x) + 2X2 + 3X~ = 6,8. 3x1 + 3x2 + X3 - 7,4

,lJ,eJIHM nepsoe ypaaaenne na 2:

{XI + 1.5x2 + 2X3 = 4,4 2xI + 2X2 + 3X3 = 6,8 3x, + 3x2 + X3 = 7,4

,lJ,J151 y,L(06cTBa 13 ,L(aJIhHeHllIeM 6Y,L(eM aarracsmart, O,L(HH K03<PCPIIIIHeHThI.

Ilepsoe ypannerrae YMHO)l{IIM na (-2) H CJIO)l{HM co 13TOphIM, 3aTeM nepsoe ypasnemre YMHO)l{HM ira (-3) H CJIO)l{HM C TpeThl1M, IIOJIYlJ:HM:

[1 1,5 2 4,4 J

o -1 -1-2

o -1,5 -5 -5,8

Ilepasre ,L(13a ypa13HCHH5l 3aIIHllIeM 6e3 H3MeHeHHH. 3aTeM sropoe ypaaaeane YMHO)l{llM na (-1,5) II CJIO)l{IIM C TpeThHM ypa13HeHIIeM:

(1 1,5

o -1

° °

2 4,4]

-1 -2 =>-3,5x3=-2,8=>X3=0,8.

-3,5 -2,8

I10,L(CTa13J15UI x ,= 0,8130 nropoe ypasuenue, 110JIYQHM:

.'

- x2 - 0,8 = -2 => x2 =' 1,2.

-66-

ITo.uc:raBI1M naiinemrste 3HaI.J:eHIUI X2 I1 X3 B rrepsoe ypasaeaae:

XI +1,5·1,2+2·0,S= 4,4==?

=> XI =4.4-1,8-1,6= I==? XI = 1, x2 = 1,2, X3 = 0,8.

3.5. METOp, r AYCCA-)J{OPp,AHA

Hapaay C MeTo.uOM Faycca, cyniecrsyer MeTO.u Taycca)Kop.uaHa, KOTOPhIH TaK;'Ke rrpHMeH5IeTC>I .uJI5I peWeHIl5I 3KOHOMIl'IeCKI1X sanas. ComaCHO .uaHHOMY MeTO.uy, C nonoun.io onpeneneansrx cxexr I1 Ta6JII1II OCHOBHa>I xrarpana cncreMhI rrpaaomrrca K e.uKIHIlI.J:HOH. B pe3YJIhTaTe He HY:>KeH 06- paTHbIM XO.U MeTo.ua Taycca. A I.J:11CJIO e.uIlIIIlII rnaanoii .mrarOHaJIH YKa3hIBaeT paar MaTpHIIhI OCHOBHOM CilCTeMhI. MeCTa cznmnn rJIaBHOH rmaronamr - 3TO ecrt, MeCTa rnanHhIX, 6a3IlCHhIX HeIl3BeCTHhIX CHCTeMhI.

AJIrOpIlTM MeTo.ua Faycca-Kopnana:

1. Bufinpae« 3JIeMeHT au *' ° .

2. Torna 3JIeMeHTbI i-H CTPOKil .ueJIIlM na au n sarmcsrsaen B i-lO CTPOKY Ta6JIIll',bI.

3. Bsrecro au aanacsmaev 1, a BMeCTO OCTaJIbHhIX

3JIeMeHToBj-ro cToJI6IIa, neprrenznrxynspnoro i-H crpoxe 11 3JIeMeHTY au' aarmcsraaev HyJIH.

4. Bee OCTaJIbHble 3JIeMeHTbI BbPUICJI>IeMrrO diop-

MYJIe:

-67-

Eonee HarmI,1J;HO paCCMOTpl1M na npnxrepe.

IIpuMep. Peunrrs CHCTeMY nHHet'IHbIX anrefipairtec-

KHX ypaBHeHHH: MeTOnOM Taycca-Xopzrana.

{;.~~:~:~ ~;~~=20

- 2.11 - 3.12 + x:; = -4

PemeHne. fIOCTPOI1M Ta6m1UY corrracno anropan-ry TaOJIHI.a 3.3

K01<!J(!mUlleIlTbI KOHTpOJIhHa51 cYMMa, KO-
npu IIeII3BeCTlII>IX bi L.1(
XI X2 X3 TOpa5I Bhl"'U1CJI5ICTC51 no
I -2 3 2 4 CXCMC np5!MoyrOJIhHHKOB
3 4 -7 0 0 11 paBHa CyMMC 3JICMCHTOB
-2 -3 1 -4 ~8 BCCH CTPOKI1, BKJIIOQa51 b;
1 -2 3 2 4
0 10 -16 -6 -12 3ncMeHThl CTPOKI1 pasne-
nI1M aa «2».
0 -7 7 0 0 3ncMeHThi CTpOl<H pasne-
nHM aa «7».
I -2 3 2 4
0 5 -8 -3 -6
0 -1 1 0 0
I 1 0 2 4
0 -3 0 -3 -6 3ncMeHThI CTPOKI1 pasne-
nI1M aa «-3».
0 -1 1 0 0
I 1 0 2 4
0 I 0 1 2
0 -1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 2
0 I 0 I 2
0 0 1 1 2 113 Ta6mIUbI cnenyer: xl=x2=x3=1.

-68-

3.6. Kpl1TEPMH COBMECTHOCTI1 CHCTEM JUlHEl1HhIX AJlrEEPAHQECKI1X YPABHEHlICt (TEOPEMA KpOHEKEPA-KAllEJIJIl1)

PaCCMOTpHM CHCTeMY III ypaaaennii C 11 HeI1'3BeCTHbIMI1. B )J,aJIbHeHllIeM IIoHa)J,06HTC5I IIOH5ITHe 6a3HCHblX HeH3BCCTHbIX.

OrrpeLleJIeHue. na3HCHbIMH HeH3BeCTHblMl1 COBMeCTHQH CHCTCMbI, panr KOTOPOH pasea 1', Ha3bIBaeTC5I r -- HeH3BeCTHblX, K03cpqmll,HeHTbl IIpH KOTOPbIX o6pa3yIOT 6a3IICHbIH MIIHOP, OCTaJIbHbIe HeH3BeCTHbIe Ha3bIBaIOTC5I CBo6o)J,HbIMH.

,I(oKa)KeM reopesry 0 COBMeCTHOCTH CHCTeM.

Teopel\ta (Kponercepa-Kanennn).

,I(n5I COBMeCTHOCTH CHCTeMbI mmCHHbIX aJIretipau-recxnx ypaBHeHHH Hco6xo)J,HMO H )J,OCTaTO'IHO, QT06bI panr pacnrapeaaii MaTpHll,bI 6bIJI paBCH panry OCHOBHOH MaTpHll,bI.

.1!oKa3aTeJIhCTBo.

Heo6xOllHMOCTh.

JlaHo. CHCTeMa COBMCCTHa.

,ll,0Ii:a3aTh, QTO panr OCHOBHOH MaTpHll,bI paBCH panry pacllIHPCHHOH MaTpHll,bI: Ii; == 1'4 ' rzre

[ G" a12 a I [ il, (/12 (/In b, I
In
«, (/22 «: (/1' a" a, 1~2
A = - B = " .:.11
, -
alii I (/1112 o.: «: am2 a b
1/1/1 1/1 OCHOBHa5I H pacunrpemras xrarpmrsr CHCTeMbI.

-69-

TIOCKOJIbKY CIiCTeMa COBMeCTHa, TO cymecrsyer ee pe-

memre, T. e. cym:eCTBYIOT TaKHe qllCJIa Cl' C2, ... , CI1' qTO CrrpaBe)1,JIHBO paBeHCTBO:

all al2 alII bl
a21 a22 a211 bo
CI + C2 + ... + <> bm

TIoCJIe)1,HI-IH crontieu MaTpllIJ:bI B - ecrt, JIHHeHHa51 KOM6Imau.H51 OCTaJIbHhIX ee CTOJI6IJ:OB.

ECJIH nsraecrt, H3 rrOCJIe)1,HerO cronona aarpmrsr B yxa- 3aHRYIO JIHHeHHYio KOM6HHaUHIO OCTaJIhHbIX CTOJI6u.OB, TO rrOJIyqHM MaTpHUY C:

all al2 a.; 0
a21 a.; a211 0
c=
ami alll2 «: 0 Panr MaTpIIUhI C pasen paary MaTpHUhI B II paaen panry MaTpIII~hI A.

l!oCTaTO"lfHOcTh.

l!aHo. r, = rB = r .

~a3aTb, qTO cncrena JIIIHeHHblx aJIre6paWTeCI(lIX ypasHeHlIH COBMeCTI-ra.

y!3 paneacrsa paaros MaTpIII~ cnezryer, qTO cynrecrnyer 6a3IIcHhIH MHHOP 3TIIX MaTp1m. A TOr)1,a rrOCJIe)1,HIIH CTOJI- 6eu MaTpIIIJ:bI B 5IBJI5IeTC5I JIHHeHIIOH KOM6ImaUIIeH 6a3IIcHhIX CTOJI6uOB, T.e. ncex CTOJI6u.OB II MaTpIIIJ:hl A na OCHOBaHIm 'reopeutr 0 6a3IIcHoM MHHope. CJIe)lOBaTeJlbHO, cy-

-70-

IlJ,eCTBYIOT QlICrra Xi' X2' ... , x, , raxne, qTO BhIIlOrrHJIeTCJI

cneztyrouiee paBeHCTBO:

bl all al2 aln
b, a21 a22 a211
XI+ x) + ... + x" =>
bm ami am2 amn Xi' X2' ... , ill - pernemrs CIICTeMhI JIlmeHHhIX anrefipanqeCKI1X ypaBHeHHH .

...

3.7. METO,U PEWEHI1JI llPOH3BOJIbHOH CHCTEMbI J111HEHHbIX AJIrEEPAH4ECKJilX YPABHEHHH

CcpopMyrrlIpyeM ,UBe 'reopexrst 6e3 ,UOKa3aTeJIhCTB.

TeopeMa. ECJIII panr COSMeCTHOH CliCTeMbI pasen qHcrry He1I3BeCTHbIX, TO CI1CTeMa HMeeT e,UlIHCTBeHHOe penreane.

Teopel\ta. ECJIli panr COBMeCTHOH CliCTeMhI MeHhllleqlICJIa HeH3BeCTHhIX, TO cncreva lIMeeT 6eCqIICJIeHHOe MHO)KeCTBO peurennii.

MeTo,U peurenna rrpOH3BOJIhHOll CIICTeMhI mIHeHHhIx anreriparrsecxax ypaImeHIII1: COCTOIIT B CJIe,UYIOIlJ,eM:

HaH,UeM panrn MaTpIfII (OCHOBlIOH 1I paCIIIHpeHHoH). 3aIIIIIIIeM pacnrapemryto MaTpHIIY B B crre,UYIOIlJ,eM BlI,Ue:

all ((Ie aln b,
B= a21 an a1n b2
ami a",2 «; b111
-71- I10CKOJIbKY ::meMeHTbI MaTpHU:bI A BXO.lUIT B srarprary B, TO panrn 3TI1X MaTpHU: 6Y.lleM HCKaTb O.llHOBpeMeHHO rryTeM 3JIeMeHTapHbIX rrpe06pa30Baf-II1H rro CTpOKaM, .llBHra- 5ICb CJIeBa aanpaso (rrOCKOJIhKY HMeeM zicno C CHCTel\1OH JIHHeHHhIX aJIre6paWleCKHX ypaBHeHHH), T. e. He Hal.IHHa5I C

3JIeMeHTOB b.,

UplIMep. Ilycri, pacunrpeunas MaTpHu:a CHCTeMbI HMeer BH.ll

(1

B= ~

~ ;~I.

3 47 J

HaHTH pememre CIICTeMbI JIHHeHHblx anrefipaII'-IeCKHX ypannenmi.

Penrenne,

,I.(JI5I HaXO)J(.lleHH5I panra MaTpHU: (OCHOBHOH a pacumpennoii) YMHO)J(IlM nepayro CTPOKY na (-5) II CJIO)J(HM co BTOPOH, 3aTeM nepsyro YMHO)J(IIM aa (-1) H CJIO)J(HM C rpeTheI1. I10JIYQIIM

3 -14 o

411J

-.18 -3 .

o 6

ECJIII B KaKOH-JIH60 crpoxe (cronfiue) l1MeeTC5I ennncTBeHHbIH HeHYJIeBOH 3JIeMeHT, OCTaJIbHhle - nyneaste, TO B rrepneazuncynspuou P5I.llY, KOTOPhIH nepecexaer .llaHHhIH 3JIeMeH1~ see 3JIeMeHTbI 6Y.llYT HYJIeBbIMH KpOMe YKa3a.HHOro, eCJIH .llaHHhlH 3JIeMeHT He pasen eznnnrue, TO,pa3)leJIHB

-72-

na Hero, rrOJ1YlJHM e.llHHHIlY. YlJHThlBa5l 3TO npaBHJ10 npn HaXO)KL(emIH panra MaTpHllhI, 6YL(eM HMeTh:

o 1 o

o OJ

00 .

o 1

T. e. r4 = 2, re = 3 .

11TaK: 1. ECJ1H r4 =trs , TO CHCTeMa J1HHeHHhIX anrefipaHlJeCKHX ypaBHeHHH HeCOBMeCTHa.

2. ECJ1H rA = rs = r H panr pasen lJHCJ1Y HeH3BeCTHhIX, TO CHCTeMa naaeiinsrx aJ1re6paHQeCKHX ypaBHeHHH HMeeT eL(HHCTBeHHoe penreane, xoropoe MO)KHO HaHTH H3BeCTHbIMH MeTOL(aMH: Kpaxtepa, MaTpHlJHhIM, I'aycca.

3. ECJ1H ':4 = rs = r H panr MeHhIIJe lJHCJ1a HeH3BeCTHbIX, TO CHCTeMa HMeeT 6eClJHCJ1eHHOe MHO)KeCTBO peureHHH. Torna HaXOL(HM 6a3HCHhIH MHHOP, T. e. MHHOP, nopsL(OK KOTOPOro pasen panry MaTplIIlbI. 3aMeTHM, lJTO, KaK npaBHJ10, eCJ1lI panr HCKaJ1lI MeTOL(OM 3J1eMeHTapHbIX rrpeo6pa- 30BaHHi1, TO OH pasen cyMMe Tex eL(HHlIlJHbIX 3J1eMeHTOB MaTpHIIbI B, xoropsre OCTaJ1HCb rrOCJ1e 3J1eMeHTapHbIX npe- 06pa30BaHlIH.

He1I3BeCTHble npn 3THX K03cpqmIIHeHTax, na MeCTax KOTOPbIX CT05IT eL(HHHIIbI, 06b5IBJ151eM rJIaBHbIMH, OCTaBJI5leM HX B JIeBOH QaCTH CHCTeMbI, OCTaJIbHble 06b5lBJI5leM CBO- 60L(HbIMII, nepenoctor B npasyro QaCTb CIICTeMbI, nassmas HX CBo60L(HbIMH QJIeHaMIi. YpaBHeHII5I, B KOTOPbIX K03cpcjmIII1eHTbI npn HeH3BeCTHbIX He BOrnJ1H B 6a3IICHbIH MIIHOP, oT6paCblBaIOTC5I. lloJ1YlJeHHYIO CHCTeMY pernaen H3BeCTHbI-

-73-

MH MeTO)laMH. Ona 6Y)leT HMeTb 6eCl.IHCJIeHHOe MHO)l(eCTBO pemeanii, IIOCKOJIbKyo6mee pcuremrc nsrpaacaercs qepe3 IIPOH3BOJIbHhle IIOCT05IHHhle.

HpHMep. ITyCTh pacurapeanas MaTpHua CHCTeMbI HMeer BH)l

[11 3

B= 5 2 2 6

-41J

16.

-82

HaHTH peureane CHCTeMbI JIlIHeHHbIX anrefipanqeCKHX ypaBHeHHH.

Peurenne.

3aMeTIIM, qTO TpeTb5! CTpOKa J1IIHeI-iHO Bblpa)l(aeTC5I Qepe3 nepsyro.

OqeBH)lHO, r4 = Is = 2 . Ilycrt. X3 = c3·

{XI + 3x2 = 1 + 4c3 , 5x1 + 2X2 = 6c}

Torna

11 1+4c'l

_ _ 5 6 - c3° _ 6 - c3 - 5 - 20c3 _ 1 - 21e3 _ 1 21, .

. \,------ -----_---+--(,

"-13 -13 -13 13 13'

-74-

3.8. CMCTEMbI O,llHOPO,llHbIX JIMHEMHbIX YPABHEHMM. METO,ll PEllIEHli51. $YH,llAMEHTAJIbHA5l CMCTEMA PEllIEHMM

allxl +a12x2 + +al"x" =0

a21xI + anx2 + + a2"x" = 0

Ha3bIBaeTC5I O,IJ:HOPO,IJ:HOH CliCTeMOH naaeiinux anreripanlJeCKliX ypaanennri. D,aHHa5I cncreva JIIIHeHHbIX anrefipanlJeCI<I1X ypaBHeHIIH BCer,IJ:a COBMeCTHa, I10CKOJIbKY HYJIeBOe peurenne BCer,IJ:a eH y,IJ:OBJIeTBOp5IeT.

TeopeMa. ,lJ,JI5I TOro lJT06bI O,IJ:HOpO,IJ:Ha5I CHCTeMa IIMeJIa HeHYJIeBbTe peuremrs, He06xo,IJ:HMO II ,IJ:OCTaTOlJHO, lJT06bI panr ee xrarpans; 6bIJl MeHbIlIe qllCJIa He1l3BeCTBbIX ( r < 11 ).

TeopeMa. ,lJ,Jl5I roro qT06bI O,IJ:HOpo,[J;I-Ia5I CHCTeMall JIllneiinsrx ypaBHeHIIH C 11 HeH3BeCTHbIMII HMeJIa HeHYJIeBble penrenua, He06xo,IJ:HMO II ,IJ:OCTaTOlJHO, QT06bI OIlpe)~eJIIITeJIb ee MaTpIIll,bI 6bT.11 paaen nyrno.

D,oKa3aTeJIhCTBO 'reopejrst CJIe,IJ:yeT II3 KpI-ITepII5I COB MeCTI-IOCTII.

OnpelleJ1eUIIe. I1YCTb Cp C2, ... , C; - BeIGOp-peIlIeHII5I CHCTeMbI O,IJ:HOPO,IJ:HbIX JIHHeHHbIX ypaBI-IeHIIH II ai' a2, ••• , a" -- HeKOTOpsre lJIICJIa, r o rna Bblpa)KeHIIe BII,IJ:a alCI + a2C2 + ... + anc" Ha3bIBaeTC5I

-75-

JIliHeH:HOH KOM6liHaUlieH: sexrop-pemeHliH Cl' C2, ... , Cn, aal' a2, ... , an - xoopzmnarana :nOH: KOM6liHaUliH.

OnpeneJleHne. BeKTOp-perneHH5I Cp C2, ... , C" Ha3bIBalOTC5I JIHHeHHO 3aBHCHMhIMH, ecnn XOT5I 6bI O):lHO H3 HHX 5IBJI5IeTC5I JIHHeHfIOH KOM- 6:VIHaUHeH OCTaJIbHhIX.

TeopeMa. JlIo6a5I KOM6HHaUH5I KOHeqlIOrO qHCJIa BeKTOppemeanii CHCTeMbI O):lHOPO):lHbIX mIHeHHhIX ypaBHeH11H: 5IBJI5IeTC5I sexrop-pemeaaen 3TOH C11CTeMbI.

OnpeneJleHHe. Conoxyrnrocrs MaKCliMaJIbHOrO lIHCJIa mIHeH:HO He3aBHCHMbIX peruemrii O):lHOPO):lHOH CHCTeMbI Ha3hIBaeTC5I cpYH):laMeHTaJIhHOH: CliCTeMOH: pemerraii.

I1PH pememnr O):lHOPO):lHOH C11CTeMbI B TOM cnysae, ecrra paar r MeHhrne -nrcrra He113BeCTHbIX, TO HeH3BeCTHhle, K03cpcpHUHeHThI rrpn KOTOPbIX He aomnn B 6a3liCHbIH MHHOp, 06b5IBJI5IIOTC5I CBo60):lHbIMH 11 rrepeHOC5ITC5I B npasyro xacn, CHCTeMhI. ~aJIee CHCTeMa JIHHell:HhIX anrefipan-recKHX ypaanenaii pemaercs rro BblrneH3JIO)KeHHhIM rrpasnrraa.

l.JT06bI HaHTH cpYI-!)J,aMeH'faJIbHYfO CHCTeM:y pemeanii, HYMHO, KaK npaBHJIO, B rrony-reinryro 06IIIym CHCTeM:y pemennji BMecTO npOH3BOJIhHbIX rrOCT05IHHbIX nO):lCTaBHTb noosepezrao o HJIH 1 (rro cxexre 3JIeMeHTOB CTPOK e):lHHWIHOH MaTPHUbI, IIOPMOK KOTOPOll: paaen qHCny rrpOH3BOJIbHbIX 110CT05IHHbIX).

IIpHMep. Hairrn CPYH):laMeHTaJIbHOe pemeane O):lHOPO):lHOll: CHCTeMbI JIHHell:HhIX anrefipaunecxax ypaaaennii,

-76-

{Xl - 2X2 + 3X3 + X4 = 0 3xl -6x2 :9X3 +3X4: 0"

Xl + X2 X3 + X4 - 0

Petnenne.

HaHJ~eM panr MaTpI1U:bI CliCTeMbI

A = [~ =~ ~ ~ J"

1 -1-1

HeTPYJJ:HO 3aMeTI1Tb, 'ITO BTOpa5I CTpOKa MaTpI1U:bI A JII1HeHHO nsrpaacaerca 'Iepe3 rrepsyro, rroarosry rang A = 2 " ITYCTb X3 = c3, x4 = c4" TOfJJ:a paccnarpasaexraa CI1Crena 3KBliBaJIeHTHa cacrexre BI1JJ:a:

{Xl -2X2 ~ -3c3 -c4" Xl + X2 - c3 + c4 PeIIII1M ee rro rrpasany Kpaxrepa:

-3c3 -c4 -2
c3 + c4 1
XI = 1 -2
1 1 3c3 - c4 + 2c3 + 2c4 = -c3 + c4 "

3 3 3'

1 -3c3 -c4

c3 +c4 c3 +c4 +3c3 +c4 4 2

x2='----3-=--'--.:..:.=" 3 =}c}+3C4"

Torna ofimee penrenne CIICTeMhI IIMeeT BM)]::

X4 = C4

3amIIIleM qJYH)]:atvleHTaJlhHYIO CHCTeMY peIIleHHH.

)J,mr nonfiopa 3HaQeHYIH C3 H C4 nocnom.ayexrcs e,UIIHWIHOrr MaTpHuerr:

x ::::...,. C3 + C4

, 3 3

4 2

X2="3C3+"3Ccj

I10IlYQIIM ¢YH,UaMeHTaIlhHYIO cIIcTeMY peIIleHHH:

X3 :::: 1 x4 =0

HIlH BeKTop-peIIleHIIH:

1

x, ::::--

3

1 x, =3

2

x =- 2 3'

X3 = 0 x4 = 1

4

x, ::::-

- 3'

a

1 3 4 3 1

o

3 2 b 3

o

-78-

PaCCMOTpIIM O,nHY II3 3a,naLI 3KOHOMIIKII CeJIhCKOI'O XO- 3Hll:CTBa.

B I-IaCTOHmee BpeMH cymecrsyer euie Hel\1aJIO y6hITOLIHhIX cem.xosnpezmpnarmi. Ilonsrraeucs 3aI1HCaTb npOH3- BO,nCTBO IIX OT,neJIhHhIX TOBapOB H paCCLIHTaTb npH6hIJ1h OT 3THX TOBapOB. KaK H3BeCTHO, HMeIOTCH CeJIhX03npe,nnpII5Inm, xoropsre He MoI'yT KOMneHCHpOBaTb CBOH ,nOJII'H rocyztapcmy.

Baenen nexoropsie 0603Ha4eHH5I.

Ilycrs Xi - CTOHMOCTh sa e,nHHHIIY nponyxnan; aij - KOJIHLIeCTBO cofipannoii nponyxuan;

hij - KOJIH4eCTBO npo,nyKIIHII, omycsaeaoii pa- 60THHKaM H rocynapcrsy CeJIhX03npe,nnpIIHTIIeM.

3anaQa. B npOIIIJIOM rozry KOJIX03 cofiparr 700 II KapTO<peJIH, 200 II CBeKJIhI H 150 II MOPKOBH, a B 3TOM rony - 800 II KapTOqJeJIH, 400 II CBeKJIhI H 100 II MOpKOBH. Ozraaxo H B 3TOM, H B npOIIIJIOM rony eMY npHIIIJIOCh MOPKOBbIO II CBeKJIOll: pacCLIHTaTbCH sa ,nOJII'H, 4TO cocrannno CTOHMOCTh ncero KapTO¢eJIH no I'o,naM B OT,neJIbHOCTH. Onpenemrrs CTOHMOCTb KIIJIOI'paMMa xaprorpena, CBeKJIbI II MOpKOBII.

Peurenae.

ITYCTb xi' Xl' X3 - CTomvWCTb ozmoro KHJlOrpaMMa CBeKJlbI, KapTO¢eJIH, MOPKOBH COOTBeTCTBeHHO.

COCTaBHM CIICTeMY JIIIHell:HbIX arrre6paIILIeCKIIX ypasHeI-mti:

-79-

{700XI - 200x2 -150x3 = 0 800xI - 400x2 -1 OOx} = 0 .

PeI1lI1M O)lHOPO)J,HYlO C11CTeMY JI11HeHHblx arrrefipanaecK11X ypaBHeH11H. TIYCTb x} = c4, TOf)J,a

150c} -20~ lOOc, -40

x = .'

. I 600 -200

800 -400

-60000+ 20000 -40000c

------------c,= J

- 24000+ 16000 J -80000

1 -c,~ 2 J

x = 800 100c3 _ 60000c3 -120000c3

2 -80000 -80000

XI = 100; 600 150c,

J

-60000c, 3

_____ _::_J =~c

-80000 4 3·

TIYCTb c3 = X3 = 200, rorna x] = 100, x2 = 150. 3KOHOM11CT, 11CXO)J,}l 113 peIIleH11H C11CTeMbI, B11)l11T, xaK11M11 )lOJI)KHbI 6bITb IIeHbI na TOBap, 'lT06bI He OKa3aTbC5I B y6bITKe, 11 KaK ztansnre I1JIaH11pOBaTb 11X na 6Y)lYIII11H ron.

IlpHMep. PeIIlHTb CHCTeMY nImeHlfbIX O)J,HOPO)J,HbIX

ypanuemni:

{X] + 5x2 -3x] = a 2x] - X2 + XI == o. XI - 2X2 - XI == 0

PellleHlIe .. HCCJIe)lyeM ee Hd orrpe)leJleHHOCTb. )J,JI5I3TOro BbI'l11CJIHIvl onpenenarem, MaTp11IIbI CHCTeMbI:

-80-

1 5 -3
~=2 -1 1 =271=0.
1 -2 -1 ITOCKOJIhKY orrpenennrem, JIJIHellHOll O~HOpO~HOll CJICTeMhI He pasen HYJIlO, TO OTClO~a CJIe.rrYeT, qTO CHCTeMa HMeeT e~HHCTBeHHoe HYJIeBOe penrenne, T.e.

x, = X2 = X3 = 0 .

Hrax: O~HOpO~Ha5I CJICTeMa JIMeeT HeHYJIeBhle penreH115I npn ~ = 0 H B 3TOM cnyxae CJIe~yeT HallTJI He TOJIhKO ee ofiuree penrerme, HO 11 <pYH~aMeHTaJIhHYlo C11CTeMY pemeaaii, eCJI11 ~ 1= 0 , TO C11CTeMa 11MeeT TOJIhKO enancracnHoe, HYJIeBOe penrenne.

ECJIJI panr r OCHOBHOll MaTpHn:hI C11CTeMhI r < 11 , T. e MeHhrue q11CJIa He113BeCTHhIX, TO C11CTeMa 11MeeT 6eCKOHeQHoe MHO)KeCTBO HeHYJIeBhIX peuremrii.

-81-

rJIABA 2.

BeKTopHaH anrefipa

§4. BEKTOPhI

4.1. OCHOBHbIE OnPE)I,EJ1EHIHI

KaK I13BeCTHO, B cpH3HKe CYllleCTBYlOT csanspar.re H BeK~ ropusre BeJUPHIHbL

BeJIHqHHhI, xoropsre rrOJIHOCThlO orrpe,ueJI5IlOTC5I CBO~ HMH qHCJIeHHhIMII 3HaqeHIf5IMII, Ha3hIBalOTC5I CKaJI5IpHhIMIf, aanpmtep: ,uJUma, nnomazn., o6beM, rexmeparypa, xracca, paficra, BpeM51.

BeJIIfQIII-IbI, xoropsre xapaKTepIf3YlOTC5I He TOJIbKO qIfC~ rreHHhIMIf 3HaQeHIf5IMIf, HO If nanpaanenaev, Ha3hIBafOTC5I sexropmana If If306pmKalOTC5I C nojaoursto BeKTopOB, narrpaxrep: CKOPOCTb, YCKopeHHe, CHJIa.

B nam.netiures, 6y,ueM paccaarpnsart, rrpOCTpaHCTBa 3JIeMeHTapHOH: reonerpaa R2, R3.

OnpeueJIeHHe. BeKTOp AB - 3TO ynopsnoaennaa napa TOQeK A II B, me A Ha3bIBaeTC5I HaqaJIOM aexropa, a B - KOHll,OM, T.e. BeKTOp AB - 3TO HarrpaBJIeHHhIH oTpe30K, noCKOJIhKY ITOP51,uOK BO MHO)l{eCTBe KOHUOB C03,uaeT onpenenennoe HanpaBJIeHIIe.

OnpeUeJIeHHe. Bexrop BA, Y xoroporo HaqaJIO B TOQKe B, a xonen B TOQKe A, lIa3hIBaeTC5I npornBOnOJIO)l{HhIM sexropy AB .

-82-

OnpelleJIeHHe. Koopzutnarasta BeKTOpa AB Ha3bIBaIOTC5I qHCJIa X:::: XI - .Yo H y:::: YI - Yo, eCJHI

A(xo'YeJ" Bt x, 'YI)·

OnpeneJIeHne. Bexropu HC13bIBaJOTC5I paBHbIMH, ecnn HX

COOTBeTCTBYJOmHe xoopnanau; COBrra)laJOT. 3aMeTI1M, qTO BeI{TOpbI ]\IOj£{HO 3aIIHCbIBaTh O)lHOH 6YK-

BOH a, B03MOj£{HO C YKa3aHHeM ero KOOp)lHHaT a(xq,y,). OnpeneJIeHue. )J;JII1HOH sercropa nassmaercs usrpascenue anna: leil:::: I \"2 +)} .

". ~I a

OnpeLleJIeHue. E)lHHHY.HbIM Ha3bIBaeTC5f scxrop, )lJIHHa

xotoporo panna 1.

4.2. OIlEPAlI,HH HA,LI, BEKTOPAMI1

K JIImeHHhIM orreparman nan BeKTopaMH OTHOC5fTC5f CJIOj£{eHHe BeKTopOB H YMHOj£{eHHe nercropa na qHCJIO. OnpelleJIeHHe. CYMMOH JIJ06hIX BeKTopOB a II jj Ha3bIBaeTC5f BeKTOp c:::: a + jj C KOOp)lHHaTaMH xn + Xb H Ya + Yb· Feoaerpn-recxn ero naqaJIO cosnanaer C narranoj« sexropa a, a KOHeu - C KOHUOM nexropa jj (pHC. 4.1).

PIIC. 4.1

OrrpeLleJIeHlIe. Ilpoaanenenaesi BeKTOpa a na qHCJIO a Ha3bIBanC5f BeKTOp aa C KOOp)lHHaTaMH a5:" , a.Va.

-83-

Bexrop (-a) Ha3bIBaeTC5I rrpOTliBOrrOJIO)KHbIM LJ:JI5I BeKropa a.

OnpelleneHlle. Pa3HOCTbIO (a -l;) BeKTopOB a II b Ha- 3bIBaeTC5I BeKTOp a, paBHbIII CYMMe BeKTOPOB a II b .

OnpelleneHHe. BeKTOp Ha3bIBanC5I HYJIeBbIM, eCJIII KOHeu: sercropa COBnaLJ:aeT C ero na-ranow.

OnpelIeneHlle. BeKTOpbI Ha3bIBaIOTC5I paBHbIMH, ecnn OHli OLJ:llHaKOBO uanpasnenu II llMeIOT pasnsre LJ:JlllHbl.

1'13 onpezrenenas paBeHCTBa BeKTOpOB cnenyer, qTO BeKTOp MO)KHO nepenocrrn, napannensno caMOMY ce6e. OnpeneneHHe. Bexropsr, xoropsre rrexcar na OLJ:HOH npsMOll: lIJllI na napannensusrx rrp5IMbIX, na- 3hIBaIOTC5I KOJIJIHHeapHbIMU.

OnpelleneHue. Tpn nexropa, pacnonoacemrsre B rrpoCTpaHCTBe, Ha3hlBaIOTC5I KOMnnaHapHbIMH, ecnn OHn nezcar B OLJ:HOll: rrJIOCKOCTlI lIJUI B napannensnsrx rrnOCKOCT5IX.

OnpelleneHlle. BeKTOp ao Ha3hIBaeTC5I HOpMHpOBaHHbIM, HJm eLJ:lIHHqHhIM, eCJII1 ero )J.nHHa panna enunnne. OH onpenerraerca rro

,}. . ao

rpopnyne: 12101'

1..IT06bI CJlO)KlITb HeCKonbKO BeKTopOB,

3aMeqaHlIe.

ecrnr KOHeu: O)J.HOro 5IBJI5IeTC5I nasanoxr npyroro.jreooxomoao COe)lI1HI1Th nanano nepsoro sexropa C KOHU:OM nocnezmero (PI1c. 4.2). IlYCTb d = a + b + c

-84-

jj

Pile 4.2

3aMeQaHHe.

OnpeaeJ1eHue. BeKTOphI AB H CD Ha3f>IBatqTC5I conanpaBJIeHHbIMH, ecnn JIyqH [AB) H [CD) conanpaanem,r, B 3TOM cnyxae rnnuyr

ABttCD.

OnpeueJ1eHHe. Bexropu AB H CD Ha3bIBaIOTC5I nporaBOrrOJIO)KHbIMH, eCJIH rrpoTIIBOrrOJIO)KHO nanpanneasr JIyqH [AB) H [CD), B 3TOM cnysae rnnuyr AB t -1 CD . IIpolI3Be)J,eI-UIe sexropa a na qHCJIO a ecrs sexrop b_ TaKOH, qTO Ibl = l.al·lal ;

BeKTop11 a II b - COHarrpaBJIeHbI, eCJIH a> 0, H rrpOTHBOrrOJIO)l(HO aanpaaneasr, eCJIH a < 0.

4.3. CBOMCTBA BEKTOPOB

1°. a + b = b + a (KoMMYTaTHBHocT1).

2°. (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (acCOQHaTHBHocTb y.

3 0. ~JI5I JII06oro sexropa a H JII06oro l.II1CJla a cy-

nrecrnyer e)J,HHcTBeHHbIH sercrop aa .

4°. a({3a) = (3(aa) = (a{3)a ,. (a,{3 E R).

5°. a(a+b)=aa+ab, (aER).

6°. (a+ (3)a = ad + {3a, (a,{3 E R).

-85-

TeopeMa. )J,JI5I roro qT06hI ,UBa HeHYJIeBbIX BeKTOpa a II b 6hIJIH KOJIJIllHeapHbIMII, He06xo,UIIMO II ,UOCTaTOqHO, qT06bIBbIIIOJIH5IJIOCb YCJIOBIIe b = ad .

4.4. TEOPEMbl 0 PA3JIO)J{EHHH BEKTOPA no EiA3HCHbIM BEKTOPAM

1l0H5ITl1e xoopzuraar sexropa IIMeeT IIIIIpOKoe npmaeHeHIIe K penrenmo 3a,Uaq pa3JIIIQHbIX ofinacreii 3HaHI15I II rr03BOJI5IeT paCCMaTpIIBaTb sexropsr He065I3aTeJIbHO reoxrerpIIQeCKOIi rrpnponsr. Hanpmrep: npOII3BO,UCTBeHHa5I. clmpMa HCnOJIb3yeT 11 Bll,UOB csrpsa. Torna, ecmr a, -_ KOJIHQeCTBO

csrpsx z-ro BII,Ua, i = 1,11 ,TO BeKTOp a(al' a2, •.• , aJ MO)KeT YKa3hIBaTh MeC5IQHYID norpeonocn, <pIIPMbl B csrpse. OnpeneJIeHHe. Ilycrs zransr aercropsr ap a2, a3• BeKTOp

a = (Xla] +(X2a2 + (X3a3' me a, - HeKOTOpsie QIICJIa, Ha3hIBaeTC5I JIllHeliHoH KOM- 6IIHaIUfeH nexropon a], a2, a3, a (x, -- KOopW1HaTaMII, i:= 1.3.

ECJIII a = (Xla] + (X2aZ + (X3a3' TO rOBOp5IT, QTO a pa3JIO)KeH no sexropan aI' a2, a.,

OnpeneJIeHlIe. na3JICOM HarrJIOCKOCTll (B rrpOCTpaHCTBe) Ha3bIBaIDTC5I ,UBa (rpn) I-IeKOJIJIIIHeapHbIX (HeKOMflJIaHapHhIX) sercropa, B35IThIX B onpeneireaaosr nOp5I,Il,Ke.

TeopeMa. ECJIII 3a,UaH 6a3IIC el, e2, TO JI106011 BeKTOp a :HOH rrJIOCKOCTII MO)KeT 6hITb e,UIIHCTBeHHhlM 06pa30M pa3JIO)f(eH no 6a3l1CHbIM sercropaxr.

-86--

.I!0I~a3aTeJIhCTBO.

3.uCCb B03MO)l{HbI CJIY'falI:

1) a - xonnnneapea O.uHOMY II3 62L1IICHbIX BeK-

TOPOB, nycrs el ' T. c.

a ::= aiel + u e2 .

2) BCKTOP a He KOJIJIImCapCH HH O.uHOMY H3 6a-

3I1CHbIX BCKTOPOB, a::= OA = OB + BA (pHc.4.3)

-+

a

o

B

Pllc.4.3

OB = aiel (KOJIJIHHeapeH el), BA = a2e2 (KOJIJIIIHCaPCH (2), a = aiel + ai2 .rne ai' a2 xoopznmaru BCKTopa a .

"CJIeLlCTBlIe.

Ka)l{.uOMY BCKTOpy na IIJIOCKOCTH n-sananHOM 6a3HCC COOTBCTCTBYCT C.uHHcTBCHHa5I napa 'fHCCJI, B35ITbIX B onpc.uC}ICHHOM IIOP5I.uKC.

BepHO n o6paTilOe. Ka)l{.uoH nape LIrICeJI, B35ITbIX B onpe-

nenennow nopanxe, COOTBeTCTBYCT B sa.uaHHoM 6a311CC e.ulIHCTBCHHbIH BCKTOP na nJIOCKOCTI1.

-87-

TeopeMa

(0 e.lumCTBeHHOCTH pa3J10)KeHlUl sexropa no Oa3HCHbIMBeKTopaM B TpeXMepHOM npoCTpaHCTBe). ITYCTh B IIpOCTpaHCTBe sanan 6a- 3HC el, e2, e3, rorna mo6oH: BeKTOp a M02KeT 6hIThe,I1JIHCTBeHHhIM 06pa30M pa3JI02KeH IIO 6a311CHhIM eercropan,

nOKa3aTeJIhCTBO.

1) ITYCTh Zi II zma 6a3HCHbIX nercropa el, e2.KOMII-

nanapnu. Torna ii = aiel + ai2 (e)lllHCTBeHHhIM o6pa30M), llJIlI

Zi = aiel + ai2 + O· e3·

2) ITYCTh a He KOMIIJIaHapeH Hll C KaKllMll )lBYMR

113 6a3HCHbIX BeKTopOB

OA =OB + BA (PI1c. 4.4), SA - KOJIJII1HeapeH e3• Torna BeKTOp OB - KOMITrraHapeH nereropasr e1, e2• OTCIO)la cnenyer

A

Puc. 4.4

OA = aiel. + ai~2 + a/i3· .i.

3aMeQaHlul. 1) ap a2, a3 - Ha3bIBaIOTC5I KOOp)llIHaTaMI1 BeI<TOpa a B 6a311ce el, e2, e3.

2) Ka2K)lOMY sexropy npocrpancrsa B sa)laHHOM 6a3I1Ce coornercrnyer e)lHH-·

-88-

CTBeHHa5I TpOHKa xncen, B35IThIX B orrpe,IleneHHOM nopanxe.

3) KmK,Ilol[ rpoiixe qIICen, B35IThIX B orrpenenemrov nopsnxe, cooraercrnyer B 3a,IlaHHOM 6a3IIce e,IlIIHCTBeHHhIH BeKTOp.

Ilyc n, zran 6a3I1C el' e2, e3 II aercropsr

a = ail + ai2 + a3e3 H jj = f3l~+ f32e2 + f3i3·

Torna:

1) a + b = (al + 131 )el + (a2 + 132 )e2 + ( a3 + 133) e3 '

T. e. Ka)K,Ila5I xoopznrnara CyMMhI BeKTopOB B HeKOTopOM fiasnce pasaa cysore COOTBeTCTBYIOIIIHX KOOp,IlHHaT cnaraeMhIX BeKTopOB B TOM)Ke 6a3Hce.

2) 'Aa = 'A( aiel + a2e2 + aA) = ('Aal )e; + (iI,a2 )e2 + ('Aa3 )~ , Ka)K,Ila5IKOOp,IlIIHaTa seKTOpaA(lS HeKoTopoM6a311ce pasna rrpOII3Be,IleHIIIO -mcna A na COOTBeTCTBYIOIIIYIO KOOp,IlIIHaTY BeKTOpa B TOM )Ke 6a3Hce.

3aMeqaHHe.· IIYCTh a H b - xonnaaeapasr, 'rorzra

b = Aa , nrrn f3lJ + f32e2 + f3i3 = = (Aal )eJ + (Af32 )"e2 + (Af3)e3 =} f3i = Aai =}

TOQHOe YCJ10BIIe KOJIJIIIHeapHocTII BeKTOPOB, 1'. e. K03cj)(jmIJ,lleHTbI 3THX BeKTOpOB ,IlOJ1)KHhI 6bITh nporropnnonansnsr. .

Teopei\Ia. ,lJ;n5I roro QTo6bI sercropt.r 6WIII IWJIJIIIHeapHbI, Heo6xo,IlIIMO II ,IlOCTaTOqHO, -rrofisr K03CPcpllIIIIeHThI3TllX BeKTopOB 6bIJ1II rrpOIIopIIIIOHanbHbI.

-89-

§5. CKAJUIPHOE, BEKTOPHOE II CMEIIIAHHOE IIPOIBBE)),EHIIE BEKTOPOB

5.1. CKAJHIPHOE flPOH3BE,LI,EHHE BEKTOPOB Ii Ero CBOHCTBA

OrrpeIleJIeHlIe. I1YCTb d., a2- nenynesste sexropsr, 'rorna CKaJIHpHhIM nponaaeneaaen BeKTopOB a1 H a2 na-

3blBaeTC5I QHCnO (al ,aJ = laJ 10J cos(a/,aJ, rne (a: b) - 0603HaQeHHe yrna Me)K.llY BeKTopaMH 0 H b .

113 onpenenenaa CKan5IpHOrO npoaaaenenna Cne.llYIOT CBOHCTBa:

Feonerpnuecxae CBOHCTBa

1. a1 .L a2 ¢=> (01' (2) = 0 - ycrrosne oproronans-

HOCTH (yrorr Me)K.llY BeKTopaMH 90°).

2. . Ecnn CP=(GI"G2),TO os;cp<~ ¢=>(GpG2»0,

JT: < (- -) 0

ecnH - < cp _ JT:, TO apa2 < .

2

AJIrefipaHqeCKlIeCBoicTBa

1. (Zi,b) = (b,Zi) -KoMMYTaTIIBHOcTb.

2. (Aa,b) = A(a,b) .

- -

3. (Zi+b,c}=(a,c)+(b,c).

- - -

(a,b)=lal·llPab=b·npr,a.!_ rzte npz/)-

ecrs npoexnna sexropa b na sexrop a .

-90-

5.2. BbIPAlKEHME CKAJUIPHOro llPOM3BE,UEHMJI l.J.EPE3 KOOP,UMHATbI BEKTOPOB

fIYCTb sanau 6a3IIC (T,],f ), nexropst KOTOPOfO ermHIIqHbI II B3aIIMHO oproronarn.nsr, II B 3TOM 6a3IIce aanansi

nexropsr a II b: a(xpypzJ, b(X2'Y2,Z2)' Torna (a,6)= = (xl + yJ + zJ;'_)· (xi + Y2] + zi:) = XtX2 + YtY2 + ZIZ2' me T·/ = 1, .7-] = 1, k k = 1, T.J = ]. k = k·/ = 0, a

C- A b--) (a,b)·

cos a =--_-.

, I all b I'

5.3. TEOPEMA OJi OPTOrOHA:JlbHOCTM ,UBYX HEHYJIEBbIX BEKTOPOB

Teopel\Ia. ,[I,rr>I TOfO LIT06bI zrsa neayrreasrx sercropa 6bIJIlI opTOfOHaJIbHbIMII, Heo6xo,n:IIMO II ,n:OCTaTOqHO, -rrofisr IIX CKarr5IpHOe rrpOII3Be,n:eHIIe 6bIJIO pasHO HyrrIO .

.I!oKa3aTeJIbCTBO.

Heo6xOllHMOCTb.

,[I,aHo: llBa nenyrrenux aexropa oprorotram.nsr.

Tpefiyerca noxaaarr., QTO CKaJI5IpliOe nponsaezreaae IIX pas-

HO nyrno.

OqeBH,n:HO, TaK KaK yrorr Me}f(,n:y BeKTopaMH 90°. ,IJ,ocTaTOQHOcTb.

,[I,aHo: cxanapnoe npomnenenne zmyx nenynenux aexropos paBHO nymo.

-91-

Tpeoyercs )WKa3aTb, qTO BeKTOphI OpTOrOHaJIhHhI. ,l!oKa3aTe{IbCTBO.

ITOCKOJIhKY CKaJI5IpHOe IIpOH3Be,IXemre ):(BYX HeHYJIeBhIX BeIG'OpOB paBHO HYJIIO, TO cos(a/' b) = ° => yroJIMe)K,IXYBeKTOpaMH IIp5IMOiI, CJIe,IXOBaTeJIhHO, sercropsr opTOrOHaJIhHhI. .A. 3 all alIa. BhlqHCJIHTh pa6OTY, BhIIIOJIHeHHYIO IIO,IX B03,IXeH-

CTBHeM CHJIbI F (1,3,5), eCJIH TOl_IKa ee IIPIIJIO)KeHH5I rrepesremaerca IIP5IMOJIHHeiIHO II3 IIOJIO)KeHII5I A (4,0,8) B IIOJIO)KetIIIe B (5,3,9).

Peureune.

L = AB = (1,3,1), A = FL = 1·1+3·3+5·1 = 15.

3allaQa.

bH3HeCMeu IIMeeT B Ka)K,IXOM II3 II5ITH paiionoa ropozta IIO 40 KOMIIhIOTepHhIX KJIy60B, CTOHMOCTh naca pa60ThI KOMIIhIOTepoB pa3JIIIqHa B 3aBHCIIMOCTH OT HX MapKH II CBe,IXeHa B Ta6- JIIIrry ,IXJI5I O,IXHOrO KJIy6a (sa nac pa60ThI sa O,IXHIIM KOMIIbIOTepoM b). KaKYIO ITpII6hIJIb IIMeer 6II3HeCMeH sa nac pa60ThI ITO ropozty?

Ta6JIHu;a 5.1

KOJIlILIeCTBO KOMIIblOTepoB a 20 40 30
CTOIIMOCTb sa 1 nac pa60TbI /; 0,3 0,4 0,5
(YCJI. en.) Pemenne.

BhlqIICJIIIM ITpH6hIJIh OT O,IXHOrO I(OMIThIOTepHoro KJIY 6a. 3TO ecrs CKaJI5IpHOe ITpOII3Be,IXeHIIe BeKTopOB (a,b). B ropozte KOMIThIOTepUbIX KJIy60B: 40·5 = 200.

- -

a(20,40,30), b(0,3;0,4;0,5), a- b = 20·0,3 + 40· 0,4+

+ 3 0·0,5 = 6 + 16 + 15 = 37 (YCJI. e,IX.). Torna IIPII6hIJIh COCTaBIIT: 37 . 200 = 7400 (YCJI. e,IX.) sa 1 nac pa60ThI ITO ropony, -92-

5.4. BEKTOPHOE IIPOM3BEfJ,EHI1E BEKTOPOB M icro CBOMCTBA

OnpeueJleHHe. Ynopsnoseanas rpoiisa nexoxmrraaapmrx BeKTopOB e1' e2, e3 Ha3hIBaeTC5I rrpasoii, eCJ1I1 nafirnonarerno, HaXO,D:5IIIIeMYC5I BHYTpH renecnoro yma, 06pa30BaHHoro 3THMH BeKTopaMII, KpaTQaHIIIHe nOBopOThI OT e] zro e2 H OT e2 zto e3 Ka){(YTC5I rrpOHCXO)l5IIIIIIMII npOTHB )lBH){(eHII5I QaCOBOH crpenKH (B npOTHBHOM crrynae - nesaa).

OnpeLleJIeHHe. BeKTopHbIM npOH3BeL!:e1HleM BeKTOpa a] na BCKTOP a2 Ha3hIBaeTC5I BeKTOp, 0603HaQaeMhIH CHMBorrOM [Zi], Zi2] IIrrI1 a]x Zi2, )lrr5I xoroporo BhITIOrrH5IlOTC5I ycrrOBI15I:

1) )lrrHHa sexropa [Zi] , Zi2] pasaa rrnoma- . )lH rrapanrrerrorpasraa, nocrpoennoro na 3THX sexropax Zi1 II Zi2, T. e.

I [Zip Zi2 ] I = I'Zi]IIZi21 sine Zip 1\ Zi2 );

2) nexrop [Zi], Zi2] neprrenuaxynapen nrrOCKOCTH uercropo a a] II Zi2, T. e. [ Zi] , Zi2 ] j_ Zi] 11 l Zip ZiJ j_ Zi2;

3) ynop5I)lOQeHHa5I rpoiixa nexropo s Zip Zi2, [Zip a2] - rrpaaas.

Anretipanaecxne CBOHCTBa aexropnoro npOH3BeL!:eHHH

l. [ Zip a2] = -[ Zi2 ' Zi1 ].

2. [?cal' Zi2] = ?c [ Zil' Zi2].

3. [Zi1 + Zi2'Zi3] = [ap Zi3] + [Zi2, Zi3].

-93-

5.5. TEOPEMA 0 KOJIJII1HEAPHOCTI1 )l,BYX HEHYJIEBblX BEKTOPOB

TeopeMa. BeKTOpHOe rrpoasaenearre nsyx HeHYJIeBhIX BeKTOPOB ecrs HYJIeBOM BCKTOP 'rorzta 11 TOJIhKO Torna, xorna COMHQ)I<IITemI KOJIJIlIHeapHhI, T. c.:

[al,aJ=O¢:? alii 02·

1l0I~a3aTeJlbCTBo. TaKKaK 1[211 ,0211=lollla2Isin(0," (12), HO 01 :;t: 0, 212 * O. Torna 1[211 x 212]1 =0, CCJI11 sin <p =0 => qJ =0; <p = Jr => nexropsr KOJIJII1HeapHbI.

Ofiparuoe: eCJIH 211 H 212 - KOJlJII1HeapHbI, TO B 3TOM cay-rae sin(al, (12) = 0 => [211,212] - 5IBJI5ICTC5I HYJICBhIM BCKTOPOM rro orrpenerremno .

.A

5.6. BblPA)KEHI1E BEKTOPHoro np0I13BE)l,EHI151 "L(EPE3 KOOP)l,I1HAThI BEKTOPOB

Hatizrev xoopnnnarn sexropnoro rrpOH3Be}lCHH5I B HCKOTOPOM 6a3HCC.

I1YCTb 211 (xI'YI'Z,)H a2(x2'Y2,zz}-BeKTophI,3a}lUHHbIC CBOHMH KOOp.n:IIHaTaMH B rrpaeon npsjaoyronr.nou 6a-

3HCC (T,],k), 'rorna pa3JIO)KCHHe nexropnoro nponsnezteHH5I B TOM )Ke 6a3HCC HMeeT BH.n::

1 j k
[a" 212] = Xl Yl Zl = (Y,Z2 -zlyJT +
X Y2 Z2
2 + (ZJX2 - Xh)] + (xlh - y,x2)k . -94-

,lI0I~a3aTeJIhCTBO.

[al ,a2]=(x/ + yJ + zl )(xi + Y2] + zi-) =

= (YIZ2 - ZIY2)Z + (ZIX2 - XIZ2)] + (XIY2 - YlxJk , r.D:e T·/~-'··j-:=k·k=O I'j-:=k j-:'k=i I·k=-,·

, '" < ,

t i = -i, k..7 = -I, T· k =rl.

Bexropuoe npOH3Be.D:eHHe HJ'vreeT npHJIO:JKeHHe B Mexannxe H cjm311Ke.

Bana-ra. Tpn CI1JIbI ~ (1, 6, 5), F2 (0, - 3,2), F3 (2, 1,-7) npnnozcenst B TOL[Ke A(3,0,8). Onpenernm, BeJIllL[}IHY 11 HarrpaBJI5IIOlUHe KOCllHYCbI MOMeHTa paBHo.ueHcTBYIOw:eH 3TlIX CIIJI OTHOCHTeJIbHO TOL[Kll B(2, -1, 6) .

Pemeane. MOMeHT paBHO.D:eHcTBYIOIIIeH CHJI 6Y.D:eT pa-

BeH BeKTopHoMY np01I3Be.D:eHIIIO nexropoa BA II F .

F = ~ + F2 + F3 = (1 +0+ 2,6- 3+ 1,5+ 2+ -7)= (3,4,0), BA = (3 - 2,0 - (-1),8 - 6) = (1,1,2) .

i J k

[BA,F]= 1 1 2 =-8T+6]+k,M=i[BA,FJi=-JiOl, 3 4 0

-8 6 1

cos cr= ~ cos{3= ~ cosY= ~.

,,101' ,,101' ,,101

Onpe.D:eJIHTb BeJIWHmy CKOPOCTH TO'JKII A Hexoroporo TBCP.D:OrO TeJIa, BpaI.UaIOu~erOC5! C yrJI0i30H CKOPOCTbIO noxpyr HerrO.D:BH:JKI-IOH OCH, ill = 2z + 5] .... 2k , eCJIII panayc-sexrop OT OCB .D:O TOL[KH A (OM = -21+.7 +3k).

-95-

Peurenne. ComaCHO diopvyne 3Hrrepa:

i j k

v=[w,OM]= 2 5 -2 =15£ -2J+12k;

-2 3

v=1 [w,OM] 1=~225+4+144=.J373.

5.7. CMEWAHHOE npOI13BEJI,EHHE BEKTOPOB 11 EfO CBOHCTBA

OnpeaeJIeHHe. OuernaHHblM npOH3BeaeHHeM ynopano- 4emIOH TpOHKH BeKTopOB °1, a2, d, Ha- 3hIBaeTC5I -mcno [ai' a2] a, (BeKTOpHoe rrponaaenemre al If a2, CKarr5IpHO YMHO)KeHHOe na BeKTOp (3).

TeopeMa. Ecna ai' °2, a3 - nexounnanapnsre BeKTOpsr, TO Mo,uyrrh cxreuiaaaoro rrpOH3Be,ueHH5I 3THX BeKTopOB 4HcrreHHO panen 06beMY napannenermrrena, petipasnr xoroporo 5IBrr5IlOTC5I at, a2, a3 (pnc.fi.l ).

Q1

Pltc.5.l

-96-

,lI,oKa3aTeJIbCTBO.

Ilocrpomanapannenerranen, pefipaxin KOTOpOrO ~Brr5IIQTC~ BeKTOpbI ai' a2, a3 (puc, 5.1). Torna

[al x a2]a3=c'a3=\c\'npCa3' me \c\=\[a1xaJ\=SIIJIOmaL{b napannenorpasoaa, nocrpoeaaoro na sercropax 01 ' a2·

_ {h' ecrnr npasaa rpoiixa BeKTOPOB}

IJv"a3 = ~

-h, eCJII1 nesaa Tp~HKa nexropon

===> [al x a2] d, = S (±h) ===> [ai, a2 ] d, = ± V , me

===>

V-

06beM napannenenaneaa, h - BblCOTa ....

113 reopexrsr cneziyer reOMeTpHqeCKHH cxrsrcrr CMeIIIaHnoro rrpOH3BeLleHH5I.

CBOHCTBa CMernaHHoro npOH3Be)1,eHlISI

10. OCHOBHbIM anreripansecxna CBOHCTBOM 5IBJI~-

eTC5I QIfKJIHqHOCTb, soropoe cnenyer H3 KOMMYTaTIlBHocTH cMeruaHHoro rrpOH3BeLleHH5I: cvcnraaaoe npomaeneaae He MeH5IeTC5I npn U:HKJIWleCKOH nepecraaonse ero COMHO)KHTerreH:

[al x a2] Q3 =[ a2 x a3] QI =[ a3 x Q2] s, , nocsorrsxy B 3TOM cnysae He MeH~eTC~ HH 06beM napanncnennrrena, HH opHeHTaU:H~ pefiep (pnc. 5.2).

PRc.5.2

4 3aK. 2540

~97-

2°. CMernaHHoe npousaenenne He MeIUleTC5I rrpn

nepesrene MeCTaMH 3HaKOB sexropaoro 11 CKaJ15IpHOrO rrpo-

H3Be,UeHII51, T. e. [a) x a2] a3 = a) [a2 x a3], rrOCKOJ1hKYTPOHKH a), a2, a3 II a2, a3, a1 - O,UHOH opIIeHTaUHH.

3aMeqaHlIe. Csremarmoe rrpOH3Be,UeIIHe MO)KHO samrChIBaTh.6e3CKo60K:

5.8. BbIPA)}(EHI1E CMElllAHHoro IlP0I13BEfl,EHI15I QEPE3 KOOPfl,I1HATbI BEKTOPOB

I1YCTb B npaaosr rrp5IMoyrOJ1bHOM 6a3Hce 3a,UaHhI BeKTOphI:

a) =x/ + yJ+zl, a2 = x): + Y2]+zi, a3 =x/ + y) +z/;.

I1cnOJIb3Y5I Bhlpa)KeHHe B xoopnnnarax ,UJI5I BeKTopHOro H cxanspnoro npOH3Be,UeHH5I, HaH,UeM I1X csreuraanoe npOH3Be,UeHHe:

i j k
[a1 x'a2]a3 x J') Z, . (x/ + yJ+z/c)=
1
X2 Y2 Z2
~(I~; Z)II_lx) ZII]+IX) ~:i'; } (4 + y,] +zil =
22 X2 Z1 X2 XI J') 7
=I~~ ~I
Zl IXI z'l lx' J'II
·X3 - ·Y3+ ·Z3 = X2 J'2 Z2
22 X2 Z2 X2 .1'2
X, J'3 Z
-' 3
-98- 3aMenIM, qTO IIOJ1YQIImI pa3J10)KeHIIe OIIpe)leJ1IITeJ151 IIO :meMeHTaM TpeT1eH CTpOKII.

CJIeLlCTBlfe. CM~lllaHHOe nponaaenenne BeKTopOB paBHO onpenenarerno, COCTaBJIeHHOMY II3 KOOp)lHf£aT )laHHhIX BeKTopOB.

5.9. TEOPEMA 0 KOMnJIAHAPHOCTI1 TPEX HEHYJIEBbIX BEKTOPOB

TeopeMa. Heo6xo)lIIMhIM II )lOCTaTOQHbIM YCJIOBIIeM KOl\mJIaHapHOCTIf 'rpex HeHYJ1eBhIX BeKTopOB 5IBJ15leTC5I paBeHCTBO HyJ110 IIx cxretuamroro rrpOII3Be)leHII5I.

,11.oKa3aTeJIhCTHo.

He06xOllHMOCTh.

):(aHo: a" a2, a3 - xosmnanapnsre.

):(oKa3aTh: [a, x a2] s, =0.

L ECJ1II a" a2 - KOJ1J1HHeapHbI => [a, x a2] a3 = o.

2. ECJIII a" a2 - He KOJ1J1IIHeapHhI => [a, x a2] H a3 - opTOfOHaJ1hHhI => [al x a2] a3 = O.

,11.ocTaTOQHOCTh.

):(aHO: [al x a2] n, = O.

):(OKa3aTh: QTO aercropsr ai' (/2' a3 - xosmnaaapm.r. 3)leCb B03MO)KHhI crrysan:

1. [al x a2 ]=0 => a" a2 - KOJ1JIHHeapHbl.

2. [a, x a2] 11 a3 - opTOrOHaJ1bHbI. Cnenoaarensno, a, ' a2 .ii, - KOMIIJ1aHapHbl.



3aMeQaHHe. 1. ECJ1lI [a, x a2] a3> 0, TO TpOHKa BeKTOpOB

a" s; a3 - rrpasaa. EcnII [al x a2] n, < 0, TO TpOHKa BeKTOpOB ai' a2, a3 - J1eBa5I. -99-

2. CMernaHHoe nponssenemre MeIDIeT CBOM 3HaK npn rrepeaene MeCT rnofisrx ,n:Byx BeKTOpOB--cOMHO)J{I1TeJIeM, rrOCKOJIhKY TaKa5I nepecranonxa paBHOClUThHarrepeCTaHOBKe COMHO)lGITeJIeM B BeKTOPHOM rrpOI13Be.l{eHHH, MeIDIIOlueM 3HaK Y rrpoH3Be,n:eHlI51: a1a2a3= -a1a3a2, ala2a3~ -rala3a2'

,ai(ba3,::;=\~aiala3' C!la2tt3 = "-7QiWAI'

IIpHMep. )J,OKa3aTh, qTO aexrop sr al = {1,2- 2}, a2 = {1,- 2, I} , a] = { 5,- 2,- I} KOMrrJIaHapHbI.

PerneHHe.

Ha OCHOBaHHH reopesna 0 KOMnJIaHapHOcTH rpex HeHYJIeBhIX BeKTopOB cnezryer BhlqHCJIHTb orrpenerrarern., coCTaBJIeHHhIM H3,Koop;UHHaT 3TI1X BeKTOpOB, T.e. HaMTH CMemannoe npOH3Be,[(eHHe 3THX BeKTopOB.

a1Ziii3 = 1 -2 1 = 0. 5 -2 -1

1 2 -2

I10CKClJIhKY csremaaaoe rrponaaenenne BeKTopOB pasHO nymo, TO OHH KOMrrJIaHapHhI.

3alla-.a HaMTI1 o6beM IUlpaMH,n:hI, eCJIH sazransr ee KOOp.l{HHaThI nepnmn: A(l, 0, -3), B(O, -1, 1), C(-1,3,0), D(2,4,5).

Peurenn e. HaM,n:eM BeI<T0phI: AB = (-1, -1,4), AC = (-2,3,3), AD = (1,4,8). Torna

~1 -1 4

V = l-2 3 3 = 75.

6 6

1 4 8

-100-