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'~'ll:en. det,aUs o[ :I'tuid f:I!ow an: 'wmpol'tantt we IJse diH~lieDti&1 laIJ1alysis. ~~'e I()ol~at :lin l.Q.l1ni esnnal GV as difEeren.

&~IIJUW a finite cv tha" lIve used In our iDtegr,aJ . reatmeet.

Consider a ''Fj ery sm,aU :flIuid e~ement (llm !J.y Az) in a fim"l' (sal, a Lagt'ilngian obs:e[wt.i:on). L~t . be 80'0v ha,ve some finit)B Vi1lCOSE'ty SQ . bait shear forces are ,ah~o present im addition '0 prn8'tuue' and bodv forces. As-the 1,emeot moves. form one 1oc,ti:on 0 anQthc;r ,I!)ot only does"!!.e ]emeIlrt occupy an "W .locati:on bl!ii:t its ",eloci,t)' ma.y be v -ry dUfel"el'llt (tl!:e velocity components lnfi;}T be very dlffe:tell' frmnthose at [Lhe' pre,r~ous lOC9,' The pressure ~ the new IDocation m~' be very d!i:ftiea'en:t from the value at the previous locatiofl. The observed effects c'aol1lot be explained by a. s:imp~et[,Rna],aUo.1IJi of the j2lement and! '~m .b.a;ve to aseribethe changes as beil1g due ·ova:dornls stresses eX,p.ed,encedbyb:e fluid ,e1,eme.n:r a,1)(111,8 ·~ts path. A mere translation of a fLnM element canno:t resuls in a seress, since by a c]UUl,g13 of coosdinate sys1tem 'he elemen can b brougbt to r>€lSL SimHarlYI a, UTufoll'lfJ rot.aUoD or solidi body" rotation of a 'f!iUlid ,element ,'aIIIDO resul mn R stress since, wi· h res)· ect to Ute ro'ta -lOg sys em, th'£ie is DO reia:tive motion. Thus tb,e ,em lets of :s,t,.IrCSSe:s 'thawe observe Ina fIDuid. Bowmust be the result .of dis:to:m:tiom) 01' dcfol1na.ticm of the ,flluid e~eBum. Thesie dis'tOFiUo.:Ilsm,ay be volumetric' assodated ,\tlth .!Iim. 'ar deforma 'iO'DS i[lj coordinat ' dlrecsiona as\vfill'l as; angular d!efo'rmation:s assoeiated with S11&pe defor.w3i'tiofl m an angular sense, So to describe the motion. of the fluid element in addu jon 'to Tr·a~ns]a.nOD,. we have to consider Rotation, .Angldru- de [()I'Dla:tion." and Volumetric defo,rmatiioQ,.

Tra __ uslation, is llnear d.isp~ace.l:llent from locat~on, B~rj (Xtl' Ylh zG)' 'to {~ll Yh z.)i. if

.bere ~:[O no vel:Qei~y gracHe.DltS' at ;aJl in a flm;v~ the.n. 8! .fLuid eleme.n:t in mo,t~on \'rLU simply translate f1'on1 one loeatiOf~ to 3iWO her If there are no veloci y gradients at all, Uum there are no. ,a,ccompan)dng stresses i:rn:tbe now field, The 1I.uid in ,such a case win retru~} its shape, In. Ro'tat,io,n! the or:i'13uta' ion of the elm nt as shO\vn in the !l]g!lu~ , wben~ the sides of'the element are parallel 'to the coordinate axes, :tlI1Q· r chang about any

ne (or aU ,tbree) 0(' 'tne 'OOOooiu8'te axes, Agam here is no di,torion in shape, A:og1l1a_r defo'rm,atlon involves a ,disto:rtiou of the e~emien:t in, 'vihicb pl,BJ:l!eB oi~he elc:rneElt tha:t 'weIDe oll.'igIDIl.alJ3 p,eF'p'!il:lld'..:!ularue no ~oDge[ perpendieular .. Vo:lumetrj!c dj'elormat:i'on involvesa chang' in sibap,ewlthon't a. change in tbe odemt:atio'l], of the ,eh~mre~t and bere planes of t.h,e eiel11l.eut ~h"~t "re'.t:,e O'1-.i,g,iD,ally perpendlcular remain peD."pel'ldicular.

r--~i I I I


[RoI~cnJ 14






~.':<I JefotMrdi,pJ'


A Huld elemen: QiJay uudert'go [-ala,tical due ~Q 8lliwda;_r mDmnentum in t~c ftO\!!l' 6,eld, For a Bo~lid body '~~'j'.! m.cas,llIlJiC' ,1Iot~tioD by .l'lloting 'tbe ,a1'llglW.~a:r disl'}~aClemeht a,f a line on the plane 6,( ro~a:tiQlfi!fro,m a .re,[erence. H0l1I'€\r18:t\ a fLuid 'O,hlnllf!!Il& is deformable and 'h f'erO' ~o' meeure oo'&s'tion, lV,C' cillOO!f!1:! Ito ,cansidl~r tlile '~l1,e ,Q:¥er,a,;:e roa:tion of L\:\O JiJII~S or fhe emfmllt!1l'1,t UWlat wer,e mutu.aUy perl~eud~iclllar ,nt the begilloilng of Ith - fl!0\,., F~ures (~) ,and (b) mO\VS a plane luiid I.demen cf ides Ax 3Dd ~y ha' Ues oz. It.he :r; ~ U p],a;mll. Con U~e,E' Fipu,e "l). The axis, of rotation is, ltD zaxis ~)(zfld OA and OB are' be iWO initial~ prpendicwllf,1izUIB, om the iblid ,el~em[lt., TJJevel!oeity componeolh; at 0 af,f.! U and 11. These u'o illcre~ed ,ai A and .B '00 q~l,jiJJ![ltiti~s cxprnssib']:e _bro~gb Tqrl,gr's 5er~ and as iudh::ated ill tile figure., The 01'1 8n.d OB sball. mo'~e em 00 tb,e posit[o:ns OAf a-ruj OBI,crwing 01,]10 Ret "reIQc'ity d~fI!1',~nt\es H,t II ,and B ow~,r l1C eO.DlliHml'!tllt:s a 0 .. Th(l!SE! 'ountstitub~ tbealllGIJdur defo'I,llIiation of th~ H,offid e~run:eDt. Ovel a Jme tit tli€ dlia,pla:c:emeo'ts ;iu:e

• A' - (~ll"') rI!

BB/ - (. !u au). ,dt


The' 'Cfil~ PGJld~ng; angles: of d,e~ol'.t1latiol1 per unit time are' iobta:in,ed b3'" di,\',[dmg he l"e8pe(:th/e arm leingtbs. T~~ler(lf()[e',


• .~ -,. . dtJ11 __ ' Jl)l'/ fix _. . (,~,e..t£) dt

dO] - Hm. - - Iml . -- ,bm ~:_. ----"'_

- ,d~~'fJ ,cit 'd'~~'OI cit iU-o.!l.Z tJt

SimUatlYl1 d~,


¥le'mo" ,ado)) a, can~en.t]on. Anti-clo,ckw]se' r,ot~ti01l! i~ pos~,tj1i',e. Tb~' ,a'Vera,~ 'DnB~dw: \vl,QcUy o:f the I'uid ele.mnent aboD' "'ne z axis, ill Fi,gm.1e (3;,) is

. w.=! (dbl + 19.) = H:; - ;)

For a . "il(lCiI! dhuel~sioIla:1 ,e:~em'eOl't ,the rot.ation,s about Uu~ .$ and, 'IJ ni,s, are sbniilady obtalned as, and ~~. lil:lt the three ,U:

1 C~V a,,) (2i~U3)
W'~ - atE, ~ ~'I
'2 fJy /.
1 (:i av) (29Ij)
IWi!: - - --
2: ,fJ,z '.
1 (~ :) ('2'918)
Wy ~ - -
2' la'z
and1w ~ w=i, + wyj +W1=k (299) Inpure mntation, 'th,e fluid ,elemeul' ~ ,as shown m~igu:l',e (b).wi,n .~ota;te abou' th z axis aa an undeformed 'elem,crrut such th,(1l1 dOl == dri~,. (F~)l'C(3d vortex). But, EoI' pure liotation, tlB''l = -t and it Is a.1l,tj1cl,ocl'iw'i!se" 'Tber,efo're', for pure rota:UoD :: = .... ,1;,

and w~:; == :.: == ~t: .. ','.e.'(', let mS look a.:t general aJngu1ar deform,D ion, We'see from the Figu:n~ (.a:) that in addition to the oo;t,at,iOi,O. associated \",~.i, h der.i'V,3th~es ~: 001;'1 lke . se del'~va ive,· may ia~so cause tbe element 'to undergnan angular Id!.fo~ma.tionand h ''IIlee' .; cballlg;e' in shape Tbe ,change i'o tbe dgb:- ang.ieformed by 'the Hues OA ,and. DB due 0, such anguJ,a;r deformatioD" (dD:1 - d'e2)~ is called tIle s:hearmg str,ain ill ' he :c - !I plane, 7~. The rate of ,a,:ngular deformati,orn isMle l's"te of dscresse ,of the a:ng,le between luu,s

OA and OB'" (rJ6'~ - d92) is caUedthe r',a11b:~! of':she,mdng s,trmn 01' the rate O1f au.gularde'fo:rma:ti:@D,~ 7lrY" Thus~

('8'0 au),

t~y;:::: ax + a'll .... := f:cy :: (!;liZ ,

'\¥here be 1 JIlO'ta:tiOJl has been includedsinee many p~.u),p,IDe' use ,hat iUSr,ftad of l' 0 deno e fa; :. 0:£ ste,al'ing-,traiJ'UJ., Sirnil:,,-, Iy,


(aw au),

- -. + ~.'_ .' = fYJ; == f;1I-

a,ry lJz ..

= I('~.· .•• ·• il + ~ilD)·.' = f:r == 611:01'

VZ V:E' .• '


.,'i\~e see :tb a;t anp:iam' defortnal;ions a;re ,RS50ei ated lvitb sbe'Ot· '. I~l'ain fa; ies, 'l'a would expect he sb,ear stram rates 'to, arise as a result 'of shear s:t;OOSS'6 "

C~e'ar]y tbe rat'e oJ ,sieCl'im,g 5,. rain .WB seem. to be zero for .pure Iota tien (for e.'tample; stlUd body .nJtatiuu).

We mote' Jram Vee'~o!r' [cab::uhls tha:t, :2 ,W = V' x V., U is cUBtomUl'lrY to set 2: w = V x V = <: and" is. caned the VOf'Ucit, oftb.u HoY!. '¥. -hoo, , ;: [0, tbe Umiilms, saidto be Irrotat.~,o'Q81. Tl el"'efon, for ,an irrot atioual Sow-

fJv' fht. (303.)
fj,tx fiy'
B·w a,
, . (.304)
- :!!. ~
By Biz
au 8w (SO,fi)
a~ a~ 1 (au lJ'U)" .-.

w .. =":""'. I ... - .. -~- .... =11)

.. 2 83: lJy

'This coo~d be satisfied -if (1)< ~: =. ~=' ~ 0' [Olf U (2) (Ii ~ t) == O. Condi'l'Iwon (2) IDS s,u,tiis6ed when (1) is true, Gomdi,tion (1) is more stdngient aad is sa:Usfiad:w a n';!;ctmrmal' motion of an 1111 li.s'Cid ,8 'lid. V\h n 00 invisc~d fluid ~ folmoViring]n.a ,co.l:1Hi[l1l[e~n,: :IDJatl1, co.IIJdit.iOD (1) is oo·t sais6ed but 'condii' ion (2) Ell.aybQld (Pre vor ex) .

• [ Volumetdc defo·rmm len

During ltnear defo,r:ma;tion ieb _ ~:~ap·e of Ule fIluid element, described bv lie<l!salt it \rel~tj,c€S. remains UD"ch.angedt since rigfu: c ,angles ICQntinue to 'be r.ight angl' .. Thl! Ruid [e'~eme'nt wiU c!ban,g'l! .~'Wlg it in. tll~ x dh=ect.iom ,only if ~ is nOl1l-Ze1'O. SbnUar'ly fOf change mthe iI and z dimews:]oJls :; and ~i .must both be nen-seroa. '~']]'~I[ ,g: :; and ~~ are ·tbe oomponents of Iongitudh'l a:~ rates of" t-ra~ n in tbe :z;, 'IJ ,(ttlld z dir CI ions, respeetively, Tbi" can b seenas fhUO\\ ~ D'enn ,

1 d(Av)' ~v ,fit

1 [d(llfl: 81)[ .0.3)

. tJ.,t} ,fit

Ra'te of change of Vohlm[e Volume

1 d(tlx tl:y ~z)


du tit

.... ............1.-. {. A. ' .. 11.. . .,.d· A.-z _ }I,

.4:u . u1J~ d:t I- .• " .

(3;07) (30S) (309)

-,- ~ d(6.x) 1 berefor[~'· -

. ~·Jt


(:no) (3;11) (31.2)


Tile qllla:nt~ti.e ::l t :~ causea nn~«' dforma. ion iOl ~ fI,uid ,eh~mll!!:nt., V\~e se~ tb<f'lit tl1,a e deriva: hies dell;ot:e rates o.f stnum. in nCll,Wll,a] dmIl'0c'th1'~tS ,or llormam B'tl,'ain rates. ~ormaUy we set


2......... =

lJ':f; .'.


'. We seelihat lmear deformmtj'oIls are ,~c:uliatedl ,vith n:ormam Si&UU,[I, fa as, 'YIfe wOlldd expec' n,onna[ s;tr,El'ln I,rutes to arise as a result of n.o.rma~ streSSGS"

NO\\~' V· Vrep'Ie"Sjimiis thE! cb3luge of 'IlO]umep,et· 'unit '\~ohnne (If the' ftufild as th,e ftu~d IQ'lem.e:ut :rnO,'i'es (ram, lone loca ,i'OBI 0 8lnOUU:!f m ,the 80\\r uli2,hlL U Ithere is ,l\ '¥lo;Iume change then there has: to b~ a d,e'Dsi'l' cbange. B'u.t tor' H'I1incom,pl-ess~bte fhllid 'he den .l:y d~ange in Ute 6low fie~d. is, ~el'o. 'Tbel1efor,e', fu'l an iucIQmpifli!lssibl,e fJi:uid'!I lndep"endellti of' whether ,the ifI,o,w is st:ead;r ,ar n,o:t'!i \1 .' 'V - {)I., NoW' '''I! an! .rea<lr' to de-velDlp U.,e, oonserv,ation '@Qu,a.ions in diierential, rO(f,ms" Vve shaJI concentrate IOlll CO!D8enfutw,on 0,[ mass (eon. inllity)~ conse[Vat.~'i:Uil Olf Urn ear mORu~ntu'm, ,an,d'c1o,nslfnra'l 'lOR of mlecb.ani/ca1' ,ener,gy (i sotll}~[m,aJilG'Wfl)"



wk.v, .•. .!

.... ' _' -',

til ;i!





Tit controlvolume .is, iufim. e'~:ma.UY' small a;n!r~ is ,abc,,), - a po,in' P(x~ 111' z). Hi 11· 'W are \rel,oc~_jy ,components of fluid vwocili31! at P. "Vi'-ll, rfei nee' 0 ,the' 6gulle:- rmewoedng , hat D.ux denotes quanti'Ues per unl't time ,and 'per un~.t area>

Mass Oux ;[!llt,el'ing C"rI ill x ..... dIDect.~on p u. (317)

[- 8'(p~)]

. Iass Dux leaving c:v in x - direc:' i!OD P'1' + - {J~-r; 8$ (3,18)

Area, of ru.ther x face (!ly' . .o.z) (319)

No" mass! 8ving evper mut 'ime in x - direction - [fJ ~ u) .I!:. . J tl.y.6..(3.20)

The net maSS;i€lllVil!1g the eonsrol 'voluIDle must eau e the mass in h,e ev It,O dc:' as -. The ra . of decrease olf mass in ~be tv is


since the ev is non .. deformable. From Equations 821 and 32'21'

a (.0' u) + {;, ~P lJ)_ + 8' (11 w) _

[j,ll ,ay Bz

V"pV =

v . (V p) + p (V . V) ~




ap at 8p



: -+ v . (V p) + P ('''if ·V) ~. 0

(32'5) 1(3216)

The'refore i' funmvs tho; IOl' an incompmss,ibt :Oluid, iu_d-pendeul of whetherhfltwid 80'\11 is s,telJdy or not-I,V' • V' ;= O. \IVe had ilIJr~ady SGern ,thi_s result In g,enelral, fluid Rmvs Ilnus,t sa'· isfy' Equation '3,26. equatioi,D 3,2 G will ,apply .Fe,~Ettd~,1ess oftbe ehelee of the cOQ'fdinat!B systeim:-r,eet~guJal' ,c:artesbm, cyliDdlrj,cal] sphel"ical et,c",

6.2 .. 1 ,S'teady: inCOIDpressible" planar (two .. ,dwutosi,onal) flow and ''uity eq :nat:m'C1ID

This is ODe of, he si.mpi!esttYP'M o£S!ow of pra "j, "aJ lmpor a:nC'e. V = V(,:r;~ y). '1 bermo:lI"e" V' • V = (J becomes

,au a'll

--+~=O 8x ,a.y

[lJ'Lrod ucea fuoct.ion 'I/J (.:I; ~ y) s.u.c:htba·


The equ.a;Uon 328 abeml" 'that rnne 'jou ~ a;u.toma;ticaUv sa'i'mcs 32'7' and we , an l'e'preSient u(,J;', y) and vl(a; y)by just. ,oDefuncli~on '1/1(,$'1' y) .. Thfiis: fUllc;timt 'i~l m called the S:tf'>eam flilDc.tiolJ],. vVb!C'll!!:!''Iffar'be stream :f~J~~~(ln formulaJt~on is used to de· eribe H. 2D Bow pro:lbl!em. he contioU'l1.)' lequatiolD is ,autJomaticaUysa.tisfied andwe neednot worf'Y a,bcl1_' it. However~tbe order .of t'b,c aocompanying equations will inerease. ,~,~ ha ·e te deal with ha(t" AEllu"tl~er .ad\qIu,tage ,of the 'Use ,a,' 1/J' is 'hat '¢J :::;::;. eons a.u' denotes va;~~iau streamlines im, the flmv Jor diH:'ereD, y~Juelli ,0" the CC\rJ ant. [-{'Ol¥ so? RecaJ]~hl€ ,e-qu,81'UoLl for a streamline in a. 2D flow:

ely ~

Id.?; 'll

'U,d'y - vdx - 0'

,[J'l/J r , _ o¢,. n

F .. dY+!'.I dx 'U

f:.1'y lUX

fftP ~~1',i + lh/J cb; ,d.~" fl'Om ch.ain rule

81}~" .' fJ$' .. 'Y

(.3'29) (330')


Alo,.uJ~: a s,r,e-aJtllineJ d'lj) - 0 Therefore, along a s'tremn nnB, ," ~ constant

(3,3:2) (33,8.) (33~)

The aetual uemerical value associated] with a parti!clll1ar st.:r.eam llilnc't,j)OI,ll and :lDle SM:,earn= linetha: it demo, es is uuimpor an ',. But l'h~ dJwlliel~e'n!ce ba·wfBI!:ll 't\V,Q< stl'emII fttne'L~011l6 In a :HO'M;r is I, measure of "be lquan i~y ,of fblid fIlo\, pass~ng be'liveen, he two s'tretJunBues p€ff unit ,~~idth p1e'rpendtcularto 'the plane m:mt.ainrmg to.'! streall'lJines, Ffo'\'\* never ere ses a 5, l'Mmlm.e .. too,k~D.g ~t the figure, ccnslder ~be "Bow bOrund,ed by .streamHnes \Ni.tlll ¢ Qud .,p, + dTjl 'for' the stream :fu.DcJ:.ilCim$. L~rt dq be Ute infloi\v,g ,any arbibrary sm'face AG. Thi& must equ L~ ,the' ne·t ou r -Bow' hrough surfaces ABMld Be.

dq ....
fJ (:J3S) {33(~) (.33:7) (aas)


o r.

16~,3 Oonservafion oflinear momentum -fora vlscous Huid~ Th.e N',flvller~8t'Olkes equQ,t:iOID

In a. viscous Duid, evaluat,.ioll of' he surface Iorces are c'0fJ1sio!eiI'ably' more complicated. There are normal stresses s,imiIlar to, pf~ssure'l but tl~i"3;'l' fnay 0,0 be ] sam - in aU dir-ec'tio'Hs.Tberilare shear 5tn~S"8GS whose directions ,iBi.IfiC paranel two the surfaees 011 whkh tbey aJet. Look at the figuF'teI3. Nota(;ion: 'fY;I:' denotes strlllss a,cUng in r..h:e:JJ diliecti,oH, en a surface nrbo,ae normal pon1Jts in tbe y direction, l'bis is Lherefeu'e a shear is ] 85. SiIInUndy lY%% tndicat -is a normal :stIFess • Outward d:r8.wn normals iJld~· a e pos,i.'ti,ve dh~ 'tiOH, '.

. dFilo~ . ,dF 5Jl' • dF.s: I'.~ <:H"I~I

O'r.l: ,;;;;;;, h:m --. Jl::g -= .hm .~. i"ln!, = lim -. - - \oJ""'J

1M.!' .Q ,d#~l.i: . . ~.iit.r-l'D' dAz I - '- l1 .. y,,:~o dAr .....

To develop, equa~io':ns, we oS' _ 'the stl~ ··SOOSi at be c utel' of tim. in:GnHII!'s]tna'l fluid element equal to U&r, '.ry,", ', .. _ and so on.


~llI.d w[' hree imenslom are ILlik 11 ~JJ'Lo a ccount, Jor th flI·· I so fa' - Ioree in hez dlr ~t:l,ioH \ve would ebtala,

l}(a.rr) . ,0I'1(r.'7&) . 8(T.=)

. . ,tiU,dxdz ,n dxil'S},(/z + . "hd::/x#j',

O~f 8y Eh

Tb n t body fo,r· '{! in II.h(' .J: ,]ilr~~ ion is, fJ dxdyd .. f~ .whei :tr. is h ne !Jodi' [( re ill Lhe X direetinn per uni muss of lhdd. Thanet to al force in the .r d.irocti,on will gitv~ rls I 3ej!:; I l;al.~On in th • x dlree ion .. W know that the ae ler,atiuu compenent in III ' ~~ di ~C'tiOtll is ~~ 1 U ' iml,G ILJm V = itt ji' + kJl anrl 1~~ is Lh I'JIlat,riw' 1 l·tVH,ti V(i t~Wil I. ~'!I!" o~(,,"'~N :llowi~lg OlQJluu~ \\'it-h It~"" ,r:h~id. Sow·e h(Q,;vc~ n ['qmll;~ IJII:~ ~HJt ruril1:~! in I,~l~' .r dill"f. ]O~I to I he ,a cl~lcrati(m iUJI ~rL-d in l.h. x dlre 'tj.rlll to thp f1uwd el l:nen'l r m~ p d:t:dll,/~. 'fbl~u~fln'" W(' ul}1 < In,




To, obtahaltbe net sYlrfa€:e force in the x-dil1!~ti_ dF S·I ~ve must sum tbe forcesJ ~D the x .. dif6C't.ion.. Thus, from tbe Ggul'e sbo'viiug, be S&lIe5se m che x .. dlr· . ion

( _ lJU'Jl;J; tk)' )1.- (.... ()a~ ax) . _

- I ,(J~ + ..._........ ~ ... ' IJ,;yi([z - 1 .. tJrr.s: - -....... ~." .... dT,riz

_ 8m :2' . . '. 1f)'tli:2"

( fJf':!Ja>d'!l).. ( .... _ lorli':l' d.1JJ)' -

+ Tp + fJ~ 2'. a.'l:,(jz - I ~!l.1: - a.~ 2"1 cl:lJdz

+ (T~;T+ a::.~ dZ)" ckr;dy _ I(·.··.'T;~ _ 8;n: ~Z)·I d!l1q.

.... ;z 2 -. uzt •

U PODl ISw.mpUfyin:g!,

dF.~= 8(U;uJ!dxdy,dz -jL8('1'~~),dYld$rlz + 18(T~~) dzd"dy

{JiI; Chj az

81 ~



["= ''''''9 ~ .. ]
t')til' O';r;, '"I,e
- .,~" \Tn ,(iI'~ In 3421 'We !C3:.D. divide tll.tilUlgbout by- dzrJ.'IJ'rlt ~il! obtm:.i 1'1, the ,eqUa:~ID!lI apPUcl:iIlbJ:, fOil" U~e x ooection., Nowl, remember w care mring tbe stress system. En. three dime.m~imu;: ,S.hOllli'1Iii ill ,the de:ool'mhu!llIt and \\1'8 are also re~)' ou tb!c f~ct that the IS Ii:te of s -t",ess ,at ,8; point eM be desceibed ,oomPrJ(l'~ely by slfooilYfung' he sw~e.s: ae' illlg on thr~' mu-'uaUy Ilel'pencllcl!IJ, '1' planes t!lDirol!l!,gh ,th.e po~.· (pri.ncipal P]lULI3iS ~md. principal, ,axes). ThlllS, we ean gene;HiL]ze 342 to' ,three di:meM!~noEisto o~itaIn:

Du .P Dt

Dv ,p' D_

Dw P Dt'



The above diH'ereiiltial eq~u;J: iOll:8 apply Jj !r 3'1:1)' Huffid ttl, .ioQ ;a, i:sfying Lhe r rrtinuum assumption • .!:iO\',\lB\!er, \'\IE IU.'i.\1iG . 0' Link the stressesto vel.Qc1I y and. pressur fi Ids. NO\1i" or tlu! nine stress e]cmen'Ls" (1.-.,0"1111" O'.=::t 1";1'1" T'JIl''%11 ''I'";r.::_ T",r:;3', "r~, T_!i onl slx ax, ' i~ul pond flL! because of stress tensor syml1llc [y. Thus, \!f,le call !!I.s~ Jl,'" (ada T!,il: = T;rY'I1",I:: ;;;;: J,r:iI:. TNI ;;; T,,!!' simpH.£y bi:ll~s. From our d~SC~SSWDI!D.S 'of rate of shear strainand rate or ft.!'l'fmall ~t Iliiil, we know 'ha sbear s ['1~es must b· pmpo:r lonal t, .rates of shear seratn DC! Rorn:tal .s:tr,e:5SeS 'mus' he :propOor~,io[la1 00 rates of norlrtR~ Si ,mhl.

In par']cu],ar, for, . ~"!i,rtonial:l. Huiid, tbe st,J',ess-s:L.r, ,in iii I !!I! t.i ushlp .on I b" It ,~i'S of rl'!X:pel'LmelllltaJ oiJse;r\mtkms and. mean~l1gru~ ("Onje'tines m,a), be ''1~ritten

(8 IL) (3jL6)
T.:I!J,1 = 7'~:I! l -.-+ ~
- It li:J; fJy.
1'~.::= 1'";1! . (8)11 a~) (34'7)
- 11, f) + [)-
.j; ..
".I . = 1";r: ~ 11 (ail I ow) (~S)
{J'il ax
l)u 2 _ (3 9,
U;r,;r - -p+ 2/J-.. - -:-" V· V
a 2 ~ (35,(Dr)
(J'111J -IJ+2/l-- - - JJ 'IIi. V
8y 3- -
oro :2 (3-1)
i1:l! - -1' + 2/1- - - I~ V· V
. liz 3
82 where tbi!' '00 eflcien:t ,DE' prop oo:tio\f.i,ali~J' Ib etweelJlJ tm~e 5li:ooss andt,h,e rate o,f strawn is the d!Y!U!l,miic~soosigr.of be Brud f.l;. In 'theabo,v(il' :p :replJ.I'eseets the 'i'ave.ra:p' p essure" and .~ be shown ,to be givll2u by

1 . } .

p= -3 (1'1%3: + UllW + Un = P"4 - xv· VI


wlielre Pt:l~ is, the ,tberm(ldyoa;m:~c pr:MSi.J!felmdi istbe Ol~G iteht,~ed, totbe density and 1)@I!!.lpera Ute by ,thO! 'ther,[Uodynamic 'eq]uatton of state andl l is ealled 'he second cae-Hiden:!;. v]sco.'imty. l has th€, ,same dim~IlS~.oI!S ,8S #1-'- Iathe d,e'1~lo'P:melfl:t ,~ ;l!;;ppliCiDitiOG (If Buu:id mn-dulJlri~8 up, te tl~e pJ:esel'l:~ 'time, the seeead (:;Q,e:ffiJcl ut ,of viSOO'8i y plays muol~ l!2SS of a rel - . han ,tbe ·fl:rst. FOiIt inoompl'essib[e 6:wds tbe erm in ,\ diSRprpems cl1mple 'ely and fo comp:r-essibie fLwids :it ls of signifj'c.a:ncc nmIn]y ]11 a ie!\I11.~ specia!li';'lcd 1J)'l'oblenl~ ",\~'he. very large velocity and ' emp@i"a' me gradients ma~t OCGI!I!!f' such as in tli!!c atitalyslsof t~,e S'lm ck 1!~.f&VC sti!.·ucture or pe.rhaps in he S"1.lldr o.F e.lec !l'i.cfi, ld efFects on tIlames (m sa,~! 'PI'ha:ps~ iril Ifr.'e lat®e:r ease because I dOD~t knOl:V far rs~l"e if tit ]s impc:l"ta!IJ bu it could be) Ot hi ,extmmesi,tuatiO'fllS: iuv,t),riing po~y,a.tomit gases,. An.YWa1'y, fe,\lIr dh:ed measurements of ). are available. StiU, the d]s,j.inct.ion betwoo:n.t.he tbermodyrl,ami, pl'~l1!.!.f'e an lite average IJ),ressl!l!nl appr'Il!(!,1,a,ted Uid ,tbi,s is l!!1ot M:Wa:Y8 ,carefuU~f ill books, With he e.."(p.r,essiO[l:il, for the etresses i.o:tt-odueed i.mThto them, Itbern.oi,me.!!ID um 'fqnat.i'lil!1S become:

p Du = _0, +2~ (·'.I-i~U·).'·' -!~(Il V" V)+.~ .{, 1£ (. Qtl + aV)1 l+ i!)' { .. v. (a~ , OW) .. }' .: +,0 J~

- Dt ax ,a.~, ,oJ;··3 at}.; all I ". 8y ,al;.' $ 8z .OZ lh;· .

(3513) .

Dv 81'-'/)' (' .. iJv ). 2 I} . _ .. . a { (:., au ,f)lJ )': } a {' .( .. - (hr 'OUJ) }" ,

P Dt = - By +21&y 1/18'11' -38; b~ v· VJ+ 8\11 ',JJ.'fJy + /!J'x, . + 8;; i /1. " lJz + {J1JI .+fJ lu


P O't} = -'~P+2:~ (,p.Ow) _~~ (Jj ''\7. V)+ a {.·.It (. OIU + aw), -}+~ {JI. ({IV + iJ~~J .). }"+IJ I~

D! f}z lh ". oz' 3,2h [13:·. VZ 83i 8]J. iJ'z ,au·'

. (355)

These th~@)l'! equatlons are thethree cOmpOl:!iab~S 'of tffirue N:avw.'~:Il'~Stokes ,equat.~(ilR. Tll'es, equa i:OIllJISllI'l1!: grea/ [y ::rimp1il'i.d,wh:e.n appllted to an i!lolmpI'ess:i.ll:ile .Row ( V·V = 0) and wi, b cou:t:acn V:iSC05i~ '. Tb n these el.)UaLQUS rm:hu:e flu:

(au t}u fjT1, ,au).. CJp (·.··,flU fPu 81.7.,,)' '.

p -" + '~~ + t/- .. ' + m-.. ..1 = --'--. + p 1 -. ~ + -, + -. - + p' I~

,ijl f}:t;. fJtJ a~ . lJ~' 8:lJ. fJy~ f} Z 2

(8v aliBI) (h))'.' op (fl}_!) ,fj:'v rfi2u).,

PiT + ur.- + I ~" '. + !1J'T .. = ~r. '.' + {c' I ~ ,,2 + n '.2 + ~ '2. P JI/

u~ ",,;,/, uy u~ . ,uy uj, uy az=,

(iJW ·aU} Q~U . QW) 8'p. ("rPm fj'2iIJl fPllJ)

P .~. + U-;- + 8 ... ~ .. ' + w~ I = -n- + p, 1 '" .;? + a. 2 + .~I '2 .' + Pi J.

u,t ,vX vy IU,3; . v Zu y oe

'WI!! (:au wrlte '~bes ,t"im~' 'OUI,P' '11' nl._luati us ,f.! :ITlJH1~!'t]~' H.,l'l:

(3 6)


{ ev (V' ''1:"7) v} n

p -.-, - ····v,· . '. = -1;' I'

{)f. 1

35 )



(J {.a; + (V" V) V } = - ~p + IJV2V + ,f) £'1

:Mqu~l"e5 preserihed jJlit~aI allldbO'uudary CO'uwt;iO[.lJ5. Inii'tiaJ (;;ODdiiom: are diei abed by the il.o,w cond,irti.orm ,t 'til ,start ,oF tb ,iDvestiga,tion ,Oif study. The h01l.mdoll'jr ,eondi ~on!!i must be e~u .. erllWly pil·escribed.

For flow over a. oolid sn.rEaee oD,llIie basis ,or!lli!lIental results ,the 'tangential and norma] oompoaeuts g.ftbiefinld.!lm eeen 0< be equalto bt\l COt'J'BSi,pOIJltUng Gumpi()nelJ~S, of the ,urface i,l:ge~,f. In o'tb r "to lids tbere is no rela hI mo,t:ioll lor J Up" b~ \V,oon hG Rui.1:] and the mUd. If U1'E~ SQ,~id is at r~stl 'th,eml, .for the ftllJiid! V ]8 mt1l'. If the surFao is moving,! ben at the 5udaQe~ tile vclodty of "i1e luid is equal ' 0. 'th,Jltdoci,ty of Wme stufooel wotion. H,ol"II"l'l1!!'erl wb:eh the Er,e pa,tb of ':lIe Du),iooules of ,the fluid become!:! appreci, ble willie!:! com,&1"ed Q;J:.II, }mpGJ',[tant phjl'sic'al rnmnelll,~ou or b.€: :body ower wl~,ic1:t or'Ough whiclli~ the flow eeeurs (e.g'j Ra~I'@6.@d gas flow ,a;I';V{!ry bjgh altitudes), I'~e dilfeoon:oo m. tamg;e!!l$Da] ,re1()icUies bet1.¥eem '~M~lhl~d aDd the .solid is not sero but iB pr.o:portlonal to 'he surface 8b~~n' stress. At. a free :surfac or iJlted3J :e. be\\!oon -"Vo i:m:J:Jliscible Hoods, the sl)ear strl@ss must be' ,co.l:I:thnJ'QIUJI". If WI ap:pr.~i.filbll.e surface bUlJsiou ,e.xmt:s S" the ~nterra.oo, the nermal comnp,onent of . h,e' stress 'vee or is diseon !J1UiOU:s. by an aIDOllITt

- )

··1 l

l}.p'=q ('. -+ ...... I

"1 r1··


The N,~l.vie.rJStoi~es equ,IIi.'M,o!n is dlimcl1Lt 00 :soh~e, ,esp' chilly SQ, when the flow is U.fW eady a.'Ild./,OJ,· ruJ]Jf . bree-dJinliensio~a]. I;-! ~~. ~lnW:! number of 'C!I!SCS1 Undif.!'T some resillrictlw as·, 'sUIDptious or because of bill ~pecial natul"i'il.of he pblTsita:1 p,roMem, '1'rhlch admlis of :5im:p~~yiJlg ~UJil"l':l;)·ti'O:illi" a:l!IJa[ytieru solo:t~O:l1s are pCl5sible.\l\.tBwiU 5 ~dy R £eli\1 or these cssea sou. These days, man' soWutiiOIDlS for reatistie [Drml1~8' ~ot!sare' dew loped employimwg ec)r~e:tlshr,e flUm.e.r~eaj oo.~~el'!les. '\IVi lilt S1l1P'~' ,oompl:'I'ter.s" '''re ~'j\ve made soree progr ss, bu ill],)! 3-D Direct Namerieal S~mwfll;tiou is; .5,tn~ a veryroirnrddable task

Ho'w'ev:. 1', based on a " bomlJigb pby,ed al uudclrsim:ndingl reasona.ble a.p[;>1'O:dmarMou mal' be introdlll:ced to c1-\fWOP bll'pli' edm lLbemD:ticaJ :s~;ruc'Lllfi . go¥ef[l~n.g he [flOrn nt~mm tralJls_[J,ortt Bnd the II:'fil!.lilti,bg equBti'O,DS: maf llile sclved ILD g.ain s., deep llDdemtru]d]ug of Ithe .fIOli;V field. Togatberwitb experimental obsesva io:ns:W,-at p!l'Ogr,essmacy be made by.5nc:b p,rocedllll"es" Fhf ~"a:mp[e1 foUowillg 'P-'rand,tl) nU:UIY Dow ffie1d.s :may b d~vided iute

WG l'~g.ions.l' one e),os'!! ,to tl~i!iurfMe 0. r bOluldary, tbe 0' 'her iinv.olv·ug the fem,a.i:nmder iOf til. fl.,ow. lill be .r-egjon close to t~be boundary, visco. Hi;y ' demed :im[)Ol~l~an't, bl!l!t~le main portion 01 the fluid is l€1:garded.e: irllviseid (amd p'er.ll!Ja'llSl a:dditionWly~i_t:[1ota,tio'I1i!lkI);

IL1Pelf'f'e{!:t:" fluids do, no a.ctU!aUy IDtiist asiiclernl:{sibly fro,t'!!II~iquid. be~,um at emperasures near zero, Nverrthel:ru!s~, tl!n:d~.r eertaln condit,j,oflls 'be I:.H~.h31,mtCl<l· of a:~. aJctmlill J]u-id iL,"\ra'J' lirom a bound 'ry appl"; tha of tbe ~pIEnfe· t fl!uid. So we need to' el,e~u]y understand an.jnvisdd irrotatiol!l'_l lnoomp:r-essihle 60'\~' andth]s wUl,enl8lht, Y 'rea;t, a. signLiiliicoll.t f'egton of I h,e 60'1\1 :6:~[d ,ao,,',ay from the bau:nc),ar' ,Mel ~a'te:r U' m,ay IOUIJle ( r mat h) it '",\4th the ooentmcnl. of the boundary ]';l'le['. In the bO!lll'lld.a;vy itself!, on the basis C),of th.e OiSSum.pti.on of 8, P,~,)!SiicamlJi Ud:" layerl .sc'ijl'era~ ,8PP:f'mtDations may be made m 'l:hf! ]lI!"CiGe5S, of1']c' development oftlleMous momeatum Illqllll3i'UOIiID \!jlbicll were nOI possi:ble '\\!beol\\le d v@l.oped N~S eqUiation.y.,~ 'will laam ,about. tbe:re soon, •. Filirst" let us look a:t Invlsdd, Irrota:tional lnCO!l1il:pmssi,b~e flows ..

Invlseid, Ir~olt,ati,onal :fl,QWs and tl1.e~ Velocity Potent],aJ.

RecaU that r~"'r a HO\\Ii' fie.lld \liritb f1o,'·a:tioD.,

:2~w == V X'V-Iel

and "hen"

,il€ 80\i1,,? IS, said to b e 11'rottat~,1oDal Tb'c;l'r'@fcmflll fo:r IU~ :ill'fOt,a,;tjolllal 80.,,! lJv lh,~ lh:u ,CJ1JI 8u aw

ItJX = ,fhJ 1 ,ay = az (jz ~ ax

Now" from Vector calculus" for an"r [seal,ar fUDct·ion fjb(X1 'IJ;:i'! t) "ith continuous, 6mt and ,~e(1oDd deriva,twvllS,

v x V'¢J= O.


at; ;U, _ 8,rP

ttl: = ......... 1 'V ~ - w - ,_

,83; ,- flg '!' 8z .

F:b,[ a" turo-dl~men8.~omal irrota: lonal,fI]o\\1"1 we n~ed to c(ms~de:r~

Next eonskler a two-dl.tnen:siooal mCi(},mpres5ib~e lo,w. Hecall U~,~ltwe 11 ad, lntrodnced 'ifJ(x 11) as. he' ,s:tr'08ftl runct,i!on fbr ,such a :II,ow and S,llOW)l tba: L au omaticaHy sa iaDed Itb,e 'ctln'tin,lI1ity lequ,jit'tiollV ·V == O. Toe 1i(2i- 'I)) as give:1l by ,3:28 w,as suehthae

Bif} fJ.r/J

11 =......,_ and 11'=~"""" (36U)1

IBg 0:1;

Let sncl1 a twe-dimenslenal, inoompressSble ilow 1 e h'~otation,i~d as wen" Thenwe have,


The eqnations"ghr,en bl 37'01 are lrn,"""~n as t:~ie GarucD)r'"-Ri'l\unallD equaslons, TheBe ftHIC'Eions Me "Harmonic! . vVe eaa !'lee "that more ,eJq),Ii iUy b" in.troducing . _be deiniti,ons, of, and

l'into tb.e ICOIfljnUJity equa'ti~oD and the irro atilonaJit ,r condi ion n38pecUvely

B'lt/JI a'l¢ . . tP~ fj'A1/J, (,":1 s "'1, 1)

~ + ----- = 0< and ,_....... +.- =: U 0),[

tJ:r,2 ()y;2 .. ~ . . - ,{jI'E'2' 8,''2. . .

I. We reco,gnlzre,'be 'equations ~n 3,71 as form IQf Laplace' .: equaion. Any fumct.EO:O, ,rp Il)r ¢J that satisfies Laplmace's~ eq'U,~t:ion J:'Iepl',esent:i a possible t'~m-d.wmel1i8\io[ud •. laeem-

- -

pressible, mo'tationa] BO'\ll field.

'We sllu"uld rem,ember that ))lhySilCaDy a a'mid "Bow maty ib:Uow ,8 str,aI~:ht (re1ctilin[ear) path eraa U'bii:tr,ary , urvilineu' patb. 1m. ,eii.tL1E!'1 case', t.lIite.l.ow may be" ftUIW. DU'if. deHnitiioDt, 'Yoiil:ati!1l<naJ.'" ,01(' ~i'l'1:otat:iotl,al! "" Om dQi6nitiou o.f c l"o'tationa1i,ty' im.pties tlJa.t the. anIle 'between. two init:€'l',sed:mug' lirues· mil! a fluid ,e~ie'metnt, oomltin,u"eEi tOo ,ch~e' as: 8l r.E!'SliRlt 0([ tangen.tia[ stl\eSS1~S. TaDg)Bll!tiai streslS€ls arme' as a 1'1eSiWlt of ''!Viscosity., The:r,e:f(ll1"~~ viscous B'Illi'ild mertion is ulJ'iOn tatio'D~ , whetber the maUo[D is j3,t.Ir'ai,ght Dill" Dot. On t:b,e o't'.berhand in:visdd (f,l ;;;; 0) low In!y be '(·irT.jJtati,gnam,1~ or 't",f\OIt,8!tio,naI". 'T.hB fortationaJi.ty may be

•. i., .I de .. ' t ···d ,n!··1L J. _:1 k .. ,., (e_ ._11

m'Iii[',Quute' mOr an UI'V)SCI[' uDW IIJry 'i1!!'X.,erD:iU war,I, mtetacti:o:o.iu,tCtllu VOir-tex

01' rilgi'd body rotation) 01' heat trans:fer., A ti:ee~ 'vortex (sw'irJlmg motion ,of tb~ wat,er 0113 it dr'6lns frOom a hath ·tull) is: il'ooitatio:naJ! a~eept attbe orig'in or center. Thus. fOF an iil'rotationallowaU the' it:h~ee:' frldion. '8Xte:!rlllai w,(l[',k input and heat trans'fer should be absent, T.hils .ist;ae' ,cil"'.i:tel'lo:n.

In a 2-D flow.j ~lo'li!g a giv,en. ,siir[reMlUmlle~1 be sllrealU flilUlctioo fJ is a. constan t.llierdonl't d'W':= D., Thffis meaes


(3,"12) (373) (314)

I:t~ -_ """""""'"I'"" *'0

On the 10 herhand along a. line of' COD!s&arn:L rP" at/> == 0.. This, means,

d'r; - C¥[d:J; + fJrP ay == 0 (375)

Ox 1ftJ

{udx + 1Jdy _ II) (3"16;)

dy u (~'7'.7'.'

-, dz 16-=<(: - v (slape ,of poteBUill Row line) '" }

Th.ln"t~;fore'l fl'Om, 3,14. and 371" linea 'of ,eOuB,tamt tP and t/J ,UC Dr ,ho,genal BIt :lIny ghmo powmt. 'T.brum hnes .Corm an ortbogp!lloll~ ne1two:.rk. \iVbe~ :s.[tcm, a ne:two;d~ i.s:fonnoo', fr,ortil , he' spaci.rog olf Ithe' W ,D.d ~ lines ,~ehocities CM) be ,complIlI: sd, pressure may ben be de,termin@d Loom Bamnulll's 6Q]1U'lti.on. Since theoo is: :no flow Ithl'Olllgb ''QY of ~be st~eamlines" slLlch M 1J;1 or ¢2~, ,aUf one .of' them could &15'0 be cOJilsfudefied to he a possIble solWd boundary. This felltnn~bel'ps in the grapldcaW an.a:t!;yse8, [of ilrao'ea iODal now fields.


Gir:clIllacion in fluid meehenies is defined .<illS: the lina iD't~gral o,:f ',b-tang ~ Ica;1 ve]Qit ecmponent of ,[I, mum flow abou.t a closed' curve ' IDS fixed in thee flow, For ,examp[e in ,a 2-D Dow fi.eld! it may benoted that each s:t~r,ea:lD1ine '!I,m nrtersleet a elosed curve lix,ed. In .' he' £Io\v at some ang]e eli, and thus t,b.c~ tOcDXPOUe:!!lI,t of 'velocity wong: the closed curve at the poan of mtier3ectffion ts!VI cos '0:= 11' cos cat :tangentia]. ecmponent of vl1lioci y. Tbeal, we define an element of cimm]atiO]IJi ,dr and cireulatlen r by;

d.f == V· dS ~. lrcos~ r IV.dB

f indicai' estha 'the in egrai ~s b) btal~u once around the dosed c urve and 'om direction cOOiInrclltlon is eounterclockwlse, Ctea,rly cah'! ion cOf circula, i.on around an arbi.bar_y curve in a :How field. i g~uerally a cedious st p-lf'y-~'ep mtegra- ion bu for circles and BqUJU':cetj it ~s iIilasy. For exftmp]e, consider t;he closed I urve which Jis: a _,' 3 shown. To, calculate, proceed flOID A COILlD:rt:m', 'loclii:w:ls .

'N-' 10-''''' OJ - rr .'. - n. + 8fJ1; ... ..,. ",j - n' + 8u A ... + alr,,;\ 1'1

'. ·'.t. ,u" _.... ""B. - u; 0i~""1"0 - V· c (j:J;L;J;"r. lJ@u,u,

'" _ u +' 81J. 11.''11' ... _ ". "'1' - ,'''+ {h; A ....

aD -" ;ijiQ,:,.- ")1. -"'1 ulfJ - ,,. , 8i1.A"',

'Oc;;;;; 11 + g: aX + :; l::l:tli tin ~ 'f} + :; 8.y .. Therefore,

( Bv C/j,u, )., .

dr '= '-.. - '-.. .... aX. a."',

8 8y ,!J


dr (fJv ,au)

8x 11'11 = .. ,l)x - ,By ..



- ~

, ~
k & .k
,rJ ~. ~
a, A _lit
PX 'a', 7)2
ILl, V' ,W df (., ,(Jv Ott)" -

. " J~,,', = I,~ -:1\,"., = (%: == 'f;, ~ oomponent of Vorticity (.

:;.!IJ;u.lI . li.:li '" iI' .'.


The:[\~r()r·el""fI!· 'IXiJic[iIld'B tbatV!ol'tic:i 'y eomp'anemt d,ellotles thee dnfe.rle1nlt:iiall circulatioD. per umi:t area emclQSied", So",¥Or'ticity·.is same :m.e9J5W'€J ,o:fthe rota:~ tional aspects of tHe: lIIuid. elem.em.M as tb.eymove: throll.l!gh, the fidel oti'fllow., H' VQ'l"tici~ is, .absent" ·the fi,o,w is UTO· a Wbel'e ·tb,e AI).\1I j,g irrotationaW.* tile c.irc:Ulatiio:ru is: zel"O u weU., Now .. , an 'ImitiM ft,o·w neM netld rult be 'eit, • .ler rotat.:mGliIal 01" .kfloitado\Dal. A,chtaJl'\y I'Dwleldsmay JP nssess !Fl@p'M'ait!e: zones ,olf bo,tlil 1!'ota,tiO:llai. ,and. ir,rotatwRal f!lIOWS.. T,his lmslt fe~dlWe is ~D 1mjpa!l."tamrt fe'l'ture enabling tJite dev,elopm,en:t 'o'.flbo1!m,da:ry' l~,yertheolFY·

• A UmifOrm Bow

III a mri.rorm flow lfiieM.· the magoltude .and dllHltiiol'!. or ' he v~]ocity ''!,~'CK:' 01." are co 1r!H:lllli th:roQgholiJr~ th fie.]d. Oo.ns~der a. '!U1ifo'Im 10'\"11' p.arallel. to ,WB:e x axis in ~be posirthre ,~di.ll13ctruola. This fI~ :\iwtll!!,lies Ute cO!1th(uit~' e~ua'M<on u:d tE~e i:rl'otaUCIl!lldi y. l· ill = U~ and 1'1=0. 'Iherelore 'l); = U.y aDd ¢J = U[l; ..

For ,1jI, 'Uniform RO'l'li' of COlU;tlbnt m.{lIpi.~udeV, l~ld~n€cl ,itt tll'l angI,e, 'to tl~e x a"f'is. ~' = (V <cos aly - (V 1!Dn (}').z and ,;= (1 'OO~Hli)l~ + (~I sin a)y .. I' = 0 .HOUDd any G~OOled


JI ~ ~'n: .. '~

I ~ t ,III 1.1. . ~ (l

I ! ~ .,.

I .-

~""'I""II --':-1---+1 ~~ I~ :;: .... c~

+=k, 't: fI ~~ =k,'1

~ "
11 ,4

=- . \ . ,,+=t,

~. ~t'==t~

.d; ,~~~;p='~


A simp.~e 50UliC,€; is afl!ow paUieI'1il In the :t:yptane in. whiuhthe J10w ]S l"adia!lly,;m:I from the z ~is (odgm) and s1mm'Btri,caJ in all d~:~fJtiomi. If !he flow moves mdi,iilly inward, tbe paJtertl . .is called a sink, SDIilbI0€5 and ,sjfJ:k~. can be used Co a:ppr,oocimate seene aspects of !.reW flows: atp oints .aw.ay from the ol'·igin. Due 10 'the tadial geo,metory. WI sb.a.U use c,rnhwddcaJ I;)ohrr cocu~.diDates to, .anaJy~e h'<CtlLl'Ce and ~inkno:ws:. 'T~rue angle f} is m,eMlll{cd.posittve in ·theaaticlockwmse dil1ec'tilon. We have x ~ 1"(lOO 8, Y = T'sin. 'I ,fl.:nd 2:2 + y'2 = r1l:_ Fir-s~ tIOmi~de:r 'tbe souree.

Let:rn be thev.ohIme rille,\;( ,(lite. emana in.&, from '~Ei~ Une (z-axis) p r uni depth. Tbis iscalled 'the strength o[ 'be sourea. At MI)' radius, '1'1 from Itb@ source, sh-mcethe DOIljl,' ]8 purely ra(nalj 't'heta:..nlen wd v(!l.ocity Un is ~e.ri)i·and· Un! radial vel' l'tYl t'r is . lime \'\olumc' flio,w ra.te pe:r unH deptb~ tn, dLivid ad Ib, tbe :Bow &n~a p er UJl'~·~ ctep,Lh, (2'rrr) (J) ::::::: 21i'r. Tbe:re:Fo.l\c ror a seuree,






t/J- -JAr 2:;r


Tb - CQ.ui]:HJOOnt.i.aIi lines. 1(6, = OOiliU;rtaJ!l!'t) are rtbere:ft[i_ ccncentrtc circles centered at the orlgln, If m is p'ooithte~tbe .HO'Wrus r.iiIldially on c;\vard and we ha\'Je a seuzce .IIO'w, [f m is negattve, I he How is toward.he origin; and we ha:ve a sink J1!O\:\!. 'rhe 5t:I.'l:~~UI1 rUQction f()r '~b - source III a:y I:)(~ 0 htahril d fl'Om


The s'lt'erun1~ne."'i ('I); = coastan )I~re· radial Iines, A' tl!!.e origim" r = O~ . he "Ile10c~ty becomes inOwte! and this ~s, physically meaningle-ss. The reasoa For tLds is ·I:!.ll'-\'i'e bay assumed tha:t 3) pbysica] :UD,\\\' wHb.\fO~u ~e ft,QW rate m w emau~te from a line of u:nit depth .aloag, the z - ilXiB ¥le ':lOIIJSi:d r be ~h~el:l. I: e or.~:n . ,s a IIII, llIH~lnatic··1 silngnlu.iity .in I be now ,A.,cld. A fURction 4J er 'I/J is not ,~~ntiQUOu~ ,a,t ~ singul'ar po~nt and 1 h cifl(: Ja,jODIiII ,g ,path crossing the originc nne 1:1' valuated, However, for ,ill. path l) or drcuRlventiug the origin the clrculat iol'l! is zer ,si.u,· '0 = 0, .and the .f)IIl'Ij,I is i rotati!oIUtl,evE!:rY"!,oj1:e.r:e but tb oTilgJIn.

Recallt.hat both rP and T/J sa: isfy Laplaals equation [or ::How that is bo hIncompeessil Ie and i:rrota.tiQ]]at Since La,pWaae1e I!qua:tio! is a linear, homogeeeous partial d.ffi:WeDwd;ffiaJ equatiea, solueions may be S~,1P'm:'p'DSed I(added ·oget1!ted 00' dcve!op more compli~ amd ~'Il'tte[llest1ng pa,t'tem:s o,f6ow,

Oo:~~s~delr the ;suiPe~posi,tion 0'1 ,a, ~o!:!!rce ,and, a t:u'iri1nrr.m low as, ~I~~o,wn in ,the "fi.gure.

VJ' - ~J + l/J~(Ju.

Wi - Ur sin (J + -0'1 2'lf

. m

~ ,u l' ees ,f}' + 2Ti' In r

(3,'90) (gg!)


A. some POLut on the m(.!:gRtl.'!II'ill' x lX'is, ,say" at a distance b fromthe source, the vekH::ity due to tllie source 'will jimfit eaneel Ull&'~ d.ue ~IO I~~e wl~form nOll' and ~ ~'fi:agnation p,oilIt wllJ be ereaeed, A.'~ distanee lJ onthenegatives ,axi:5.~the 'Ui' due to source is Ve". = i: = 2:l11 " Therefore, a;t t~.e~olea'tion b away,

u -

m 2'l'rb,

and, b -


(39',3) (39il)

The coordinates fOil" the stagbaili]OiJIli pcin are seen to be r - b; (}' ~l1ii<!JslIiIOllthll!l = ~~\ Therefore from 3'94, ,ajj; ~be .sta.g;~atio:n ])o1.OJl",

m .r.u· 'fn I.U -;;- = If'v , or 2 = tI· •

.r. _'N'


FrOfi 391 and 395 tbe qua: ion ~r . be ~treamliDe p.~ing ~. = bl I} = Tu iSl

.. I, m J.·u U ,..tI m (J' U . II "UI'III

¥'~I,agnaihm = ? = lll"!I == if'S] n IJ' + -...., =.:r ,sm [J + ,l'Ji, D' •

. ", 2'il

.01:", the r:l,fIlUcu bll!t\!;!(l1f!:n r" ilnd 0 ((!It ~,~~i'!'i; line ]S"



- Uf's'in {} + bUl)

b(ii ~ 9) 0 ~ 0 S ~. sill 19'

(3~J7) (39)



We ean plotthi~ s;tuamtin0 (see,; fipl'[IIe). Since :~her:e' is no rnow~croBs a st[i3a.mline~ we' can ,['Ggd tkJs is'tmamli:ne IS a ,suUd bemnd:aty. TllJJu 'the ;oamibma:tion IOf a tlIdf"Cil1!n .D'DW and a SUUI-ce CaIQ be usedtc descdJbet:lbte potential. :liIow' O\i\er' a st~eandmed body plawd in 't.1le flow. 'Th€: body is opem at tb:e ,dowutr,c' end and thus is called a, HaIl:..bocij~., We ean plot o:lber l~r,eamUnes lathe low :fi:ald,b, g;i viDlg, different values 'to, ,p and Idot,ting the rnsldting equation,.

• Doublet

,s,.inililar to ft, d.~pole in €lootro-statiC'.:B, Ul\e :6u~d inecbwmill. dJoubl'et is: a comlbin,atioto of a sol!lme aad ,8 slnk of ,equal strength j and. spaced a swaU distauoe apart. In the FSgu]]e, tbe source a;~ (-0., 0) and UUl' sink at (,a_~ O)~, ,eaCh o,r st.rengith mr an: ~oca.ed on UI x-axis O,D ,@1tber s~d.e of 'the origin., Physi,oolly. 'fub~low lea:1lfLn,Iltbe ,souL:rc€"rmimtt@S on . he sink. A po~n P(x~ iI) In tile flow field has polar eoordinates (rl19), and is al~ a. dilisauoo r2 'um the source aud f't fIDom the sin.k., Thus, v ~ocwty poten:tia] ,for bot,1l1 a ,1' is!

The ~fO' dimensional double- is defined M the Limil-ing C3.S:e as 3, source and sink of equal stlugtib approach each Qtth@l\ (a ~ O)I~, sucb that he produc of Jh st-,reEigEh andthe dis:tanc betwD 'Lhe'l]:~ ,[run-ins, a OOllst~m:t. SO 'OUI!: objective DOl'V' is ee evaluae eas (a --;; 0)1 a. Loot at the flgtUDe. F\~om geo,:mf!f,ry~

•• -z

• 2 :.I '1

11'2 +,a;2 - :2arC08,O = rf2 [1 + (;r~ - 2;'05°11 'l"i .- ,2 + a,"i" + 2a.r cos-f) = ",,2 [1 + (~)2 + 2~ C()lS 0.]1

.' J. . f'

.11 _. :;litl. (011 (}

-.~ lrl+il5)


1 ~:rtilioosQ'

- '(r'ilirllJ2)

2 r a. ,-os,f~

ume, ll': '¢:: 1 {r2 + '1!l2} 1



a: =


(40ctt) ( 105] (~I()61

- ] + 2'ct. neg]e'ting higher order erm

1 (. \

~ ;; 1u'1 + 2' '~


Since the distance bet"lIveen 'the source and 'the ,sink a ~ Oil' we ~lave, 2! Q ,« I, and

l~ In ;: - H2Ct _4~ + s;" - .. .) (4117)

lim '011 7' .. ,

In _! - Q (40)

Ii-i,j _ 1'1

I,:iimll.,. T2~ _ 2(r?'B CWi2·),fj'

~ ., (~r

,11-",0 ,rlr'- + a' )

Thevefol'e, thelelodty~ pote:ntm,al for bo b a Pas (L -+ 0, is:!

71'1 1'',2 m 2 l' a ICOS· 6'

f ~ -. ~:rn ~ = ---;-::~~

. 2'if" 7') 2w.- (J'~ + (2)

Thellefbr,e, can l:u~glect a'J.. Ttl.UlI,!, f()ir a doublet I ~ _ m a,cosB'


1i" l'



is called the Ertr ngb or the dou Mel., T11H! vruue ,of I{ is ulam:t ained 6:w:te b~ w,ID"C'!llsing m 'to in:fi,ni'te vaiu!'! in th,e mimi_ Q. is reduced 'lila, zero. Nex'l by relating tP and 'tP ''''Ie ,C,O;O e:il8UY SbOCIl\f 1,11 &'t be stream function rOt the doublet .ms giveD by

¢= If sin (J' (413)


6,.4.5 B:er.n,olulU's 'eq\ult,ion for ,a, ste,ady" incompl'esrlSib.~e inviBdd, :inota:tional Bow

reduces Ito


(V, V"')V" - ,P -L f'

1 ": ,~--I',



COmiider writing the body for,elf! due t,o gm;a~Vi,ty as f= -",'k = -fj'Vrr.. Then, 415 .U1~y be \vti:U:crq as,

(V. 'V) 'V = ~ Vp - !IV."!. (416)


.Retogni~e~ t.his 218 .!lUIS and. the Euler"s: ~qI!lJa.Uo:J][tlla;e we develop!ed beJior:e usinlg streamline cODlrdinat'es., From Vector algebra,

(V., V) V = ~ V(V . V) - V x (V' )t'V) 94


(V:' V" ) 'V' IV(V"~ v 'J' 1''1'''.\'(1 2)

I ~,: I .', _ I :3 2: ,'-:. .. . ,', I' ~'. ::: 2 'v'. :


Nowl dul'ing be ]11 ervw, dt,a fluid pertiele ]'[!,OV'6S mO.m th we D.-posit.lou .["to th,t! posmtioJill. r + dr: ,thc,cHsp'bweme'IIII:t dr is aa ~I'b:iitary in6ni,e.~i,m~~ displaoement iIII ,my'tiJDI. "d~ the dOl' ]lIIQid.uc:t of dr =, ,jd9;' -1- ,jdy + kdzl\vi h each 'of the termsin 419.


l.VIT 12) d 1 '1'7', ,~111'_ ' T'l! 'd-

2' ,', \ If' I" r '= _"-vp' W -!}' 'vZ· I ]!"

,:.. p

Tl.~~ ,.

ms gives,

dp d 1 d(':112)

- - - g- % ~, ~I_; ,w ".

P' ;2


Siru:e dl' was an arbUr,ru:y disprn,aeemen:t, then~ for a ,steadYI' in.comp.ressihl inlvi.sdd flow tba:~~s also irrcl'~a:t]()Da], ·421 is ,'almd bet\~een alD.]' tV~fOI points inite: Bow fleWd..




iftl,Dur'Gi ,fiI!ilil~n(j bgd1es 'l\l\llt.. "'iI"vlnjJJ

~!I'~nk d!u:;,~e.

~y ~i!iIllll>iWDg :11. n,lIimkr of' I01!r[l~ u:d sinks '\v$tb 1.I1i:dfom'i IIDCrl't.w(i ean 'oblaJin :11: wi!~'Y ,of 'bOlU~ with dilfcl!cn'i: :shi1!!pcs. Ho'we~€r" in order Ito ,obfairn a ,dosed 'oody".e mm 'or~be ~(liUttc 5tMngdJ~ ll!!!IIst ,cqjuam thc~umo·f lbc :siin'k stmnIQ!1hs.'llll!IS rllr 1\l,@ h!a,ve diiS~''I;!~d on',. 'two4ilnrtmiSio~a1poiot SOl!lfCCcS ,:I'lob. f!Oir tbcPUqiiIlSie (lit g-e:n:::mti:lil dj«~R'IlI( Ili~di~!, we ooruhl ,alio, U~~ :OOII.!1[,OOS and sinb dis:tnlnrl,ed IO'1!lQr liII ,SiliUfaoo 'Of evep , !ill, v~dll!lme. Whc-ilii. oombim~dw]tb l!lrill'orm :Dow', a &nh~r 'Y'3:na,ti.on m 'dt~· bl!ld:y sbfJ,~ ,()biWI'tll~b:1e ICSl!!lts:. bam,flf1efi of dUfij;lent 'b~' shap~s ;are .iiihown ln :Figuf¢

w~~ sevual 'rwo-<lJiim~llsion:~] S0U~ Bild Idlllik d_isll",ibu~io:n!s 1imIvc: 'been conlllliirned wi[h 3 urnifoil'm '5:tf'~m..



n~Qif.ued, h:tIUIQI;!Y e'b!ii!tnall '~~ml 111"ill ~,I,'M.II'CC -orl1nCiirtlv ~1II11:raru.~ ~LlII!fllnlli pilrmMli:l '1,(I$iff~m

Su~ml :1it.>C- bod:,!, ~tlli!!!ed, rrom ,,'o:i'!d ~o.'lIU'Ci(l;,alild lam:c ini: ,on rn;aJII, tlll 1ll1l11~


FiI.!lNI'OSi:d bod)' ob~ilined grll1!m CillllI~!,:l1l1 II'iI~ WMJ!'GC' norm 'II hJ l!1I~OOIll I[lld r,l'!il!IHI sillik

S,I~lid 'r<n&lOll ~1re;alDli R<~ boYd'll 01'1,;1111;/," 1r'nn """oj -. IIInlt '~LH'-'t.! J.11i1l 'Sink uf lifl!{.Iii:1), II'!:! .t:'.lml.l! 1'11[( 1ilrJ!1 b



liJ'I1l~liIml now u

,From the figure ,and. tm,e pl',,us de"¥le~opmJeDt~ 'tbep oen:ti.a'~ fw~'cUon WId 'the stream fUDction for tbis oombrnnaUon are:

tP, -
,. - 1(4:22) (423)

(421) (425)


To locate he stagna ion points in be flow hi Irl'i.II.',- have to look fQr polnts wh l'flt and 'IJ \-1:81, lms:h. \I\'e see ' ha:t 'U = 0 a~ 11 = 0" Ulat is al,ong ~hc ,-. ,·txLs,.'Thns \lte have 0< IiIlleXI 1.OIIJWc for 'm= 0 flU 11 = o. That is,

'I.lrbicb gaLes U13" he d"S:a:l1ice' 'nr 'b s:t3!g-mt~iGn poin S' (Lhre ar' two En tbis llO\i\'Me') n.·elm tile coordlnase ,c1dgim is a rune'ti,on of' Ule source (siink) 51 ,ref g' h, mapltWld ro Df he


uuiforUlfto,¥ velocitYt and. ~he dlstanee bet\\reelll 'the source and. tb- sink, The value of I' he stl"tl'3'Ml functlon at ' be s't~gna, ionp1oin. s, smee 11 = 101 is


!4'~lI-'fiUDn = 0 - m tan--] 2: - 'J: = 0

""Q~'~ a:...: - Q;-


Th qUiJl,li,on ,of 'he body s"r,eamlm ,sbmv.D in the ftgu.r,e UlJ!ererOil~e becomes

,~I 2'ay

o =' U1J - m tan ' --:--~_......-=- - ,- ,-, ,- -' ,$'2' + y2 _ 02,





'. COinlbined, Vortex Flo,w: ':tolrnado Problem

~nr a solid body rota:IJ.ion, we kDowthal VB =: ,Wl' and this: l~e:pre-sents: a for-ced \'01" ex beeausa e!\rter[l~~ wor,k: or hea t'[~n:srer or. a cembina [iO[B is ~pf\ueD'. ,. T.helm[t~,city is' 2W. TOo U'l'llde:llstand ~ 'Diee vorte::~~ co.ns:idor 'the S\ftirU:n.g: rnotion. Of'V8:' er ,as i.t drai ns fl:o[m ,R ba h tub. Fm- {r,om tibe drain ,the walier 5wb.lSJ aroandthe drain m almost circular stl'lemn1il!u!S with Viery ~.~ttle m()'tlol1 t£:rwa.r:d the draln, T.l~,e s\virli UI ve~o,ci 'ty iQ[cf1eases asth~f1o:"v 'mOYBS ' award. the [center. The drcu.rnferulli ial 've.llocity is such tha -"1)'0' = Co:nr:;[tao: = C. TM'e' odgilillisa, :siin,glJa~~ pein . Tile streamlin . are concendc circles, The V'ort~cizy ,Oil e, :fflQS vortex is:

(,-201, H~~)-r(;)

~ ! 1('.'. fir. ~!). I - ~ 0

r- , (Jr. .,'


t(~i3S) (i13:6)

The .flow fj,[eM in a sta iOBilal).r tornado ,cal be 'mpl'esenb~dl by a, 'Solid bod,Y ,rotaticmaJ Uow. ~I fm'Ced VOl .arl" in core (€ye); while the fIIcrwfield ,ou.sid be eye is an irsoea Ional j~rl-ee~j ";,,rDr['~e:x. Let ,R be: tb'e radlus .g,£, ,the eye. Thusl feN' a tornado,

In the core, 7" S R, UD' ~ wr

C OUl'tgide tJl'6,covel Vf -


Alt I,r ~ R'i'V(J = W7' = C => C _ wR'l :r

(tI37) (438)



The maxlmum wind v[elocity occurs at tile ed,; of the core, W[ = ,".. Outside tbe COl) I' 'tll.e ,B.[cw is l)olhcU' ;iall. and l'Y'f! 'CWl apply .Ber,D.'Cl!l~n'S eqIlil3l'~ion., In tbe [comiwe hta:l'lle to u· e Eub!l"g equation. lIvlinilnumpl."f:1tSure eecura at r = 10" th center of,: he tomade and will be ueg~ive, For a maximumwlnd velocil;y of 5:OmI6'~ 1('" U2'rnpk) I[ the pr'r3.';l31l1r[e at be cieD~erVilin be ,"'"' -,3 .. Q;63kPa, Recall l,mtm = lOI.3kPa.

(4:39) ('14.0:)