Lieutenant

du J5e Regiment
J I

GONDRY
de campagne
d'

d'Artillerie

Professeur de I'Enseignement second aire charg6 \de cours <' I'Kcolc d Artilleric fe / mtainebleau

Anglais

French and English

Artillery Technical

Vocabulary
SPECIALLY DESIGNED

for the use of French Artillery instructors in the U. S.

Army and

British,

American and French Artillery officers or interpreters

IC-NRLF

PARIS
HENRI

CHARLES-LA VAUZELLE
diteur militaire

124, Boulevard Saint-Germain,
H&MB
MAJ.SO.X

124

A LIMOQK3

-1S18

Artillery Technical

Vocabulary

Lieutenant
da 75e Regiment

QONDRY
de campagne

d'Artillerie

ofesseur de I'Enseignement secondaire charge de cours d' Anglais

a VEcole d'Artillerie de Fontainebleau

French and English

Artillery Technical

Vocabulary
SPECIALLY DESIGNED for the use of

French Artillery instructors

in the U. S.

Army and

British,

American and French Artillery

officers or interpreters

PARIS
HENRI

CHARLES-LAVAUZELLE
Editeur militaire

124, Boulevard Saint-Germain,
MAIBON A HilOGKS

124

PREFACE.

This book
of

is

specially designed to

meet the requirements
to

French

artillery oflicers

who have

undertake the tech-

American brigades. Of course, as soon as they join the American army, the instructors get plenty of opportunities of improving their language and learning the technical equivalents which they
nical instruction of

a fair

need for their teaching. But, unless they have beforehand knowledge of the fundamental artillery vocabulary,
they experience great difficulty in expressing themselves at least to begin with, and besides they lay on

fluently,

their audience unnecessary strain to the great prejudice of the quality and results of their teaching.

Hence the necessity

of a

tion, both as regards the instruction

good preliminary technical formaproperly said and the

when

language in which it has to be conveyed. We think that they have gone through the different chapters of this

book,

when

they

to translate

properly, when they are able without hesitation the exercises it contains,

know them

when

tried to treat

they have thought about the lessons it suggests and them in English, then, and not until then, they will be ready to assume their task with competency. they go deeper into their studies, no doubt they will

When

find that the first indications given

imperfect, that they presented

them were somewhat which we some omissions
but yet

shall always be very grateful to have pointed out they will realize that the work as it is has allowed

them

to

-

6

-

have a good start and improve quickly, therefore it has not been written in vain, and this acknowledgement alone will pay the author for the pains he has taken in compiling these
pages for them. But we have not been thinking only of the officers already

forming the French staff of American instructors; we also wanted to be helpful to those who are still at the front with the French army and who know that sooner or later they will be needed in their turn to go on with the work undertaken and help in the cooperation of the two armies. Most of them have a good practical knowledge ot the English language; they have studied English before the

war; they have been in England or in the States; they are able to understand English very well and also to make the mselves easily understood. They are only anxious to resume
their studies with a

teaching of
is

view to their particular aim, namely the our military methods to Americans; the trouble they cannot find anywhere a really useful book suited to

their purpose.

We
we

trust the present

work

is

just the thing
its

they want and rance.
It

feel

sure they will joyfully greet

appea-

may

also be found useful
of the three allied

and soldiers

by all armies

officers,

who

interpreters are interested in

both languages and want to read military reviews, books, newspaper-articles, etc..., and to converse about those subjects

with sufficient fluency and accuracy. They will find in appended to our book the explanation of abbreviaof current use, the indication of the insignise of rank tions
the notes

for the British

weights and measures, etc... For the sake of clearness, we have separated in each chapter the nouns, the adjectives and the verbs and phrases
:

and American armies, the systems

of

these

we have designated by means

of the letters A,

B,

G

respectively.

Corrections and additions, will be thankfully received by
the author and included in subsequent editions.

Lieutenant GONDRY.
Fontainebleau, April 1918.

8

-

NOTE.

The texts marked F. A. 7'. are taken from ((Field art-ill fry training (1914) published by His majesty's stationery office. London. Those marked P. D. S. /?. are taken from the xProrisional drill and service regulations for field artillery, horse and ligltt (191G), '4 vols. Government printing office, Washington (U. S. A.). The French texts are taken from the Reglement de mawm-re de
Vartilleriff de

campagnev. Whenever a quotation is borrowed from any other hook,
is

the

ref>

rence

given in a foot-note.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Pages.

TABLE DES MATIERES.
Pages.

Preface

5
.
.

Preface
i\ote

5

Nole Table of contents INTRODUCTION. llegulalions.
TART.
I.

8 9
11

8

Table des malieres

&
11

INTRODUCTION.
r"
I

Reg lenient 8.

Dismounted
Dismounted

drill.

PARTIE.

Manwuwe

a pied.

Ch.

I.

drill

Ch.
12

without arms

Ch.

II.

Dismounted

drill

Manoeuvre a pied I. sans arnies Manoeuvre a pied Ch. II.
en
e

12
15>

with arms
PART.
II.

15

armes

Mounted

drill.

Il

PARTIE.
I.

Manoeuvre a cheval.
Le cheral Le harnacheinent.
19 24
28.

Ch. Ch.

I.

II.

--

The horse. The horse-equipHiding

10

Ch.

Ch
24

II.

ment
Ch. III. Ch. IV.
ning
PART.

-

28 34

The

driver's trai-

Ch. III. Ch. IV.

L 'equitation Uecole da canonnier conclude ur
. .

34

III.

Description of materiel.

and care

IIl c

el

PARTIE. entretien

Description

du materiel.
38-

Ch. Ch. Ch.

I.

II.

The 75% field-gun.. The 155% S. howit-

38
50

Ch. Ch.

zer
III.

Ammunition..

54

Le canon de 75 Le canon de 155 C Schneider Le* munitions ... Ch. III.
I.

II.

50
54

PART. IV.

Artillery training.

IV" PARTIR. Instruction d'arlillerie.

Ch. Ch.

I.

Troop regulations..
Firing instruction.
1.

58 63 63 64 67 73
76

II.

Ch. Ch.
tir

I.

II.
1.

Locale de la troupe. Instruction sur le
Definitions

58

Sect.

Definitions
.

Sect. 2. Preparation of fire Sect. 3. Execution of fire. ..
Sect.
fir.

Conduct of

fire

ART. ART. ART. ART.

2.
3.

4.

Preparation du ttr. Execution du tir Conduit i d feu ...
.
.

63 63 64 67

i>

73
7G

Ch.

III.

Topography

Ch.

III.

Topographic

10

Pages.

Ch. IV.
Ch. V. Ch. VI.
aircraft

Pages. Field fortification. 81

Ch. IV.

Communications..
Cooperation
of

87
90

La fortification campagne Ch. V. La liaison
Ch. VI.

de
81

87 90

with artillery

L'avion et le ballon en liaison aveo t'artillerie.

PART. V.

Artillery in the field.

V e PARTIE.
en campagne
et

L'artillerie

dans

le

combat.

Ch.

I.

Organization of
-

artil-

Ch.
93

I.

Organisation de
93

lery

I'arlillerie

Ch.

II.

Employment

of
.

Ch.

artillery.
ces.'

[Concealment. Judicious utilization of forProtection.
InterArtil-

II. Emploi de I'artillerie. (Defilement. Utilisa-

communications.
lery in attack. in defence.]

Artillery

tion judicieuse des forces. Se curite. Liaisons. Vartillerie dans Inoffensive. Vartillerie dans la de:

97

fensive.}

97

Ch.

III. Artillery on the battlefield. [Reconnaissance.
-

Ch.

Leading.

Occupation

of the position.

position. casualties.

Change of Replacement of Supply from ammunition-columns.l

102

Ch. IV.

Movements and
-

Vartillerie sur le champ de balaille. [ReconJalonnement. naissance. Occupation dt laposition. Changement de position. Remplacemenl du perRasonnel el du materiel. vitaillemenl en munitions,'}. Mouvements de Ch. IV.
III.

102

Transquarters. [Marches. port by rail and water. Billets, bivouacs and camps.

Supply and requisitions.].

107

troupes el cantonnements. Les trans[Les marches. ports en chemin de fer et en bateau. Cantonnements, bivouacs et camps. Ravitaillement et requisitions.}.

107

Appendix
kit.
.
.

I.

Clothes and
112

Appendice
ments
et

I.

Les vete112
114

requipement
II.

Appendix
of

II.

The badges
114

rank
III.

Appendice
Appendice
117

Les insi-

gnes des grades
III.

Appendix
in sciences

Weights

Poids

et

and measures

mesures

117

Appendix IV.

Terms used
121

Appendice IV.

La

termi121

Appendix V.
lations

Abbrevia125

tions used in artillery regu-

Appendice V.

nologie des sciences Abreviations employees dans glemenls d'artiUerie
les re*

125

Appendix VI.

alphabetical list of irregular verbs.

An

Appendice VI.
128

Liste alphabetique des verbes irre-

guliers

128

11

~
Vocabulary

Artillery Technical

INTRODUCTION.

REGULATIONS.

REGLEMENTS,

Field artillery training F. A. Drill regulations).

(or

Reglement de manoeuvre de Varlillerie de campagne.
Service inlerieur.

Army

regulations.
of

Handbook

physical training.

Manuel

Field service regulations.

Army

medical

field service.

Supply and transport regulations.

d* education physique. Service des armees en campagne. Le service de sante en campagne. Reglement sur le service de

Vapprovisionnement.
Legislation militaire.

Military law. Army accounts.

Comptabilite militaire.

Topographical surveying. Quartermaster department.

Manuel de topographie.
Intendance Fabrication
et

administration.

Ordnance department.
Court martial.

d'artillerie.

Conseil de guerre.

PART I. DISMOUNTED DRILL.
CHAPTER
Dismounted
drill
I.

Ire

PARTIE.

INSTRUCTION A PIED.
CHAPITRE

I".

without

arms.

Manosuvre a pied sans armes,

The cautionary order. The executive order.
Saluting.

Uordre preparaloire. L'ordre d'execution.
Le
salul.

Time.

Wheeling.

La cadence. Changement de
bataille.

direction

en

The rank. The file.

Le rang. La file.

Fall in!

Attention!

Rassemblement! Garde a vous!
!

Stand

at case
!

(when motionHepos!

less).

Stand easy (when limbs, head and body are allowed to be moved). Eyes right dress!
Fall out!

A

droite, aligne merit!

Sorter da rang!
Fixe!

Eyes front! Right turn!
Left incli'ne!

A droite, droite! Demi a gauche, gauche!
!

About turn! As you were Forward, march! march!

or

Quick,

Demi-tour a droite, droite! Au temps! En avant, marche!

i;:

Squad, ball!
Double, marcb
!

Section,

halte-!

Quick, march! Mark time!
step! Tell oil by fours
!

Pas gymnastiquc, marchc! Pas cadence, marche!

Change

!

March at ease Form fours To call the rolls. To practise corporals in giving words of command To take up one's dressing in line. Heels together and in line.
!
!

Marquez le pas! Changez le pas! Comptez-vous quatre! Pas de route!

A

droite par quatre, droite!

Faire Vappel. Exercer les brigadiers au coin-

mandement.

S 'aligner.
Les talons rapproches
la

el

sur

meme

ligne.

Knees straight. Body erect.
Shoulders
back.

Les genoux tendus.

Le corps d'aplotnb.
Les epaules effacees.

down and moderately
naturally.

Arms hanging down

Palms of the hand slightly turned outwards. Small finger behind the seam of
the trousers.

Les bras pendant naturellement. La paume de la main legerement tournee en dehors.

Le

Head
ly

erect and balanced evenon the neck.

Eyes looking their

own

height
to

and straight to the fronl. Cut away the arm smartly
the side.

petit doigt en arrierc de la couture du pantalon. La tele haute el droite sans etre genee. Les yeux fixes droit devanl
so/.
la

Rentrez

main dans

le

rang.

To stand at attention. To halt three paces from an
ficer.

Se mettre an garde-a-vous.
of-

S'arreter a trois pas d'un
cier.

of/i-

Uncased colours. To put a squad to motion.

L'etendard deploye. Mettre une section en mouvement.

To carry the
the front.

left foot

straight to

Porter
avant.

le

pied
jatnbc
pas.

gauche
droite

en en

To swing the right
To march
in time.

leg forwards.

Porter
avant.

la

Marcher an

Technical vocabulary.

2

14

Prendre le pas gymnastique. Numerotez-vous!

To march

at the double.

Number
Dismiss

!

!

To break

off.

Rompez Rompre
EXERCISE
1.

les
les

rangs!
rangs.

Translate into French

:

Before the squad is put in motion, the instructor will lake care that the men are square individually and in correct line with each other. Each soldier must be taught to move straight to his front by fixing his eye upon some object on the ground directly in front of him and then observing some nearer point in the same straight line, such as a stone or a tuft of grass. The two objects

must be kept in line when he advances. The legs should be sw ung forward freely and naturally from the hip joints, each leg as it swings forward being bent sufficiently at the knee to enable the foot to clear the ground. The foot should be carried straight to the front and, without being drawn Jback, placed firmly upon the ground with the knee straight, but
r

so as not to jerk the body. (F. A. T., ch.

II,

16.)

EXERCISE
Translate into English
:

Position du canonnier a pied. Les talons sur la meme ligne et rapproches aulant que la conformation de 1'homme le permet, les pieds un peu moins ouverts que 1'equerre et egalement tournes en dehors, les genoux tendus, le corps d'aplomb sur les hanches, les cpaules eflacees-, les bras pendant raturellement, la paume de la main un peu tournee en dehors, le petit doigt en arrierede la couture du pantalon, la tete haute et droite sans etre genee, les yeux fixes droit devant soi. (Titre II, ch. I, art. 1", 9.)

<

EXERCISE
What have
the recruits to do at the

3.

command

:

Right, dress?

CHAPTER
Dismounted
drill
II.

15

CI1APITRE

II.

with arms.

Manoeuvre a pied en armes.

THE SMALL ARMS.

LKS

ARMES PORTATIVES.
Le mousqueton.

The
The The The The The The The The The The
The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The

rifle (or carbine;

stock (or butt). butt- end.
toe of the butt.

La crosse. La plaque de couche.
Le bee de crosse. Le talon de la crosse.

heel of the butt.

small of the butt.
swivel-piece. hollow.

La poignee de
L'evidement.

la

crosse.

Le battant de crosse.
Le cran de mire. Le guidon. Le fut. Le canon.

back sight.
front-sight. barrel-Led.

Th'e barrel.

ramrod.
sling.

La baguette. La bretelle.
L'embouchoir.
L'extremite du canon.

muzzle-ring. muzzle.
barrel-band.
breech-receiver.

La grenadiere. La bolte de culasse.
Le
r en fort.

Ireech -ring.
trigger.

tumbler.
trigger-guard.
sleeve.
bolt.

La La

detente.

gdchette.

Le pontet. Le manchon. Le cylindre.

movable head.
knob.
extractor.

La
Le

tete mobile.

levier

du cylindre.

L'extracteur.

chamber.
bore.
rifling.

La chambre.
L'dme. Les rayures.

The hammer (nr cock). The striker (or firing-pin). The bayonet-catch.

1G

Le chien. Le perciiteur. Le tenon (du
nette).

sabre-baion-

The bayonet.
The The The The
handle.
ring.

La baionnette.

La poignee. La douille.
Le foiirrean. Le bouton-poassoir.
(or sword).

scabbard.
bolt-spring.

The sabre

(1)

Le sabre.

The blade. The hilt. The edge. The pommel. The sword-knot.

La La Le La La
(or pistol).

lame.

garde. tranchant.
calotte.
,

dragonne.
Le revolver.

The revolver

The stofek (or butt-end). The safety-lock. The revolver-case (or holster),

La crosse. La baguette de
L" etui-revolver.
1

silrete.

To be under arms. The rifle at the order. Slope arms Order arms
!
!

tre

en armes.
droile.

Uarme au pied. Uarme sur Vcpaule,
fteposez, arme.

with the Americans. Let us mention here (1) Generally spelt u saber once for all that the American way of spelling is often affected by pronunciation and mostly tends towards greater simplification. Thus, we find
:

Saber, center, meter, instead of sabre, centre, metre Honor, color, favor, instead of honour, colour, favour; Draft instead of draught; Maneuver instead of manoeuvre; Site instead of sight; One consonant instead of two, as in signaling, baloon, asume, for signalling, balloon, assume. We shall adopt the English spelling hero. but want to warn the reader against slight differences of the above kind.
; :

17

Present cz, arme! Ba'ionnette an canon!

Present arms

!

Fix bayonets Unfix bayonets!
!

Remettez

la

ba'fonmtte!
faisceaux!

arms Unpile arms
Pile
!

Formez
!

les les

Rompez
!

For inspection, port arms
Sling arms Secure arms
!

Presentcz
tion!

Varme
la

faisceaux! a Vinspec-

L'arme a
!

Varme
Croisez

sous
la

grenadierej le bras droit!

On guard
Point
!

!

balonnette!

Point ez!
!

Right parry Charge Charge magazine Unload! To ease springs.
!

A
!

droite, parez!

Chargez! Approvisionnez! Dechargez! Mettre le chien a Vabattu.
Viser.

To take aim.
To
lire.
!

Draw swords

Carry swords Return sxvords Raise revolver (or pistol)
!
!

Faire feu (tirer}. Sabre, main! Porlez, sabre! .Remettez, sabre!
!

Return

pistol

!

Haut le revolver! Remettez le revolver!

EXERCISE

4.

Translate into French

:

To raise the
ol the holster

pistol.

Atthe

command

:

Raise,

and grasp the handle with the

un button the flap last three fingers of
:

the right hand, back of the hand to the right. At the command Pistol, lift the pistol straight up, closing the thumb on the stock as the forefinger outside of the it clears the holster, and extend the pistol forward and upward to a posiCarry trigger guard. tion six inches in front of the point of the right shoulder, barrel to the rear and inclined forward about 30 degrees. (P. D. S. R.,
vol.
I.

ch. Ill,

116.)

-

18

EXERCISE

5.

Translate into English

:

Pour remettre la ba'ionnette., le canonnier place I'arme comme il a ete dit pour meltre la bai'onnette au canon; il enleve le sabrebaionnette avec la main gauche en appuyant avec le pouce de la main droite stir le bouton-poussoir et le ren verse la pointe en bas; il saisit la lame a dix centimetres de la croisiere avec le pouce et les deux premiers doigts de la main droite, renverse la main gauche et remel le sabre-baionnette au fourreau; puis il reprend la position du canonnier repose sur I'arme. (litre II, ch. I, art. II,
34.)

EXERCISE
Give a description you mention.
of a rifle

6.

and explain the use

of each part

PART

II.

1I

PARTIE.

MOUNTED DRILL
CHAPTER
The
I.

MANOEUVRE A CHEVAL,
CHAPITRE
I".
.

horse.

Le cheval

THE POINTS OF THK HORSE.
Tlio

LES PARTIES

l)U

CHEVAL.

fore-hand

The body. The rear-hand.

Uavanl-main. Le corps.
L'arriere-main.

The head.
The The The The The The The The The The The The The
ears.
poll.

La

tete.

forelock.

forehead.
eyes.

hollow
cheeks.

pits.

nostrils.

Les oreilles. La nuque. Le toupet. Le front. Les yeux. Les salieres. Les joues. Les naseaux.

mouth.
teeth.

La

bouclie.

tusks.
bars.

chin.
*

Les dents. Les crochets. Les barres. Le menlon.

The chin gropve. The throat.
The neck. The ma.-je.

La barbe. La gorge.
Uencolure.

La cr inter e.
fore-legs.

The

Les

membres

anterieurs.

The shoulder. The shoulder blade.

Uepaule.
L'omoplate.

20

-

21

-

_
The veterinary surgeon
The horse-shoor.
(Engl.) the veterinarian (Amer.).

22

Le veterinaire. Le marechal ferrant.

Colours (of coat).
'

Les robes.

White.
Sorrel (or chesnut). Black.

Blanc.

,

Ale z an. Noir.
Cafe au
Bai.
Isabelle.
lait.

Light brown.

Bay.

Light bay. Mouse-coloured.

Sour is.
Gris.

Grey. Dappled grey.
Fleabilten grey. Yellow -dun.

Gris pommele.

Aubcre.
Louvet.

Roan.
Piebald.

Rouan.
Pie.

Rubican.

Rubican.

To groom. To curry. To shoe. To trim the

Panser
Etriller.

(faire

du pansage}.

Ferrer.
hoof.

Parer

le

pied.

EXERCISE

7.
:

Translate into French

legs, then the the rest of the

To groom the horse, proceed as follows. First clean the front hind legs. They will thus have time to dry while grooming is being done. Next, on the near side (l) r
See ch.
II!

(1)

(A), p. 28.

-

23

-

willi the currycomb in the riglit hand, lingers over back of comb and the brush in Ihe left hand, begin brushing at the upper part of the neck, the mane being thrown to the other side out of the way; thence proceed to the chest, shoulders, back, belly, Hanks, loins and rump. In using the brush, the man should stand well way from the horse, keep his arm stifl, and throw the weight of the body against the brush. The principal work .of the brush should follow the direction of the hair, but in places difficult to clean it may be necessary to brush against it, finishing by leaving, the hair smooth. After every few strokes, clean the brush from dust with the currycomb. [P. D. S. R., vol. II, ch. II, sect. I, 604.]
it

EXERCISE

8.

Translate into English

:

Pour lever le pied (1) gauche de devant, se placer en face dedu meme cote en regardant le cheval, poser la main droite au garrot et glisser la main gauche le long du membre; arrive au paturon, le tirer a soi en exergant une poussee centre 1'epaule,. de maniere a rejeler le poids du corps sur le membre oppose. Le pied leve, prendre par un demi-tour a droite la place qu'on doit occuper pour tenir le pied. Pour tenir le pied, appuyer le genou du cheval sur la cuisse gauche, porter la jambe droite en arriere, puis reunir les deux mains sous le paturon. (Titre III*
I'epaule
ch. IV,
7.)

EXERCISE
In

9.

what way should the operation

of

grooming

a horse be car-

ried out?

(1)

See eh.

Ill (C j?

p. 28.

24

CHAPITRE
II.

CHAPTER

II.

The horse-equipment.

Le harnachement.

The

saddle.

La

selle.

The bare tree. The front arch. The front arch points. The seat. The side bars. The fans. The numnah pannels. The pommel. The can tie. The wallets. The connecting-piece. The staple. The keeper. The sword-frog. The flap. The stirrup-leather (or The stirrup. The girth. The blanket. The buckle. The tab.

U argon. U arcade..
Les pointes d'arcacle. Le siege (le fond de Les bandes d'arcon. Les pointes d'arcon.
la selle).

La matelassure. Le pommeau. Le troussequin.
Les sacoches. Le chapelet. Le crampon.

La mortaise. Le porte-sabre. Le quartier.
strap).

Uetriviere.
L'etrier.

La sangle. La couverture. La boucle.
Le contre-sanglon.
La
bride.

The

bridle.

The headstall. The browband. The crownpiece. The noseband. The throat-lash. The bit. The bridle-bit. The universal bit.

La

tetiere.

Le frontal. Le dessus dc La muserole. Le mors. Le mors de Le mors de

tele.

La sous-gorge.
bride.
filet.

The The The The The The The The The The The The

m
port.

curb.

curb-hook.
bridle-rein

check rein. bridoon (or cavesson.
head-rope.

snafllc).

U embouchure. La liberte de langue. La gourmette. Le crochet de gourmeite. La rene de bride. La rene de filet. Le bridon. Le cavegon. La longe en corde.
f

heel-rope. breast- piece.

L'entraue.

martingale.

La longe-poitrail. La martingale.
La bricole
(le

The harness.
The breast-collar. The pole-bar support lag strap. The loin strap. The breeching. The neck-piece. The neck-strap (of breast collar The crupper. The coupling rein (or side-rein) The traces. The trace-bearers. The o saddle.
The pole-chains. The whip. The driving whip. The stock. The thong. The lash. The swingle-tree.
Harness-lilting.

harnais).

Le corps de

bricole.

La courroie
Le surdos.
L'avaloire.

d'agra/e.

).

Le colleron. Le dessus de cou.

La croupiere. La longe d* decouple.
Les traits. Les conrroies porte-trails.

La

sellette.

x
Les chaines de bout de timon.

Le La Le La La Le

foiiet.

chambriere.

manche de
laniere.

foiiet.

mcche.
palonnier.
-

L'ajustage du harnachement.

To punch a hole. To lit a saddle.

Percer un iron.
Ajnster
line selle.

To To To To To

lighten the girth. loosen (or slacken) the girth.

Sangler (serrer la sangle}. Desserrer la sangle.
Desangler.

ungirth. secure the traces.
in.

secure a horse. This saddle has been ridden

Trousser les traits. Attacker un cheval.
Cette selle a deja serui.

EXERCISE

10.
:

Translate inlo French

In fitting a saddle, the bare tree should first be placed on the back, the front arch resting in the hollow behind the shoulder* The arch and seat should be clear of the spine. This is not always possible with horses possessing high withers, but it is desirable in order to ascertain the fit of the side bars. The front arch must be wide enough to admit the hand on either side of the withers, and its points must clear the ribs. The side bars must not be too lorg and must bear evenly on the back, or as nearly so as possible. Care must be taken that their edges do not press the withers or ribs. The numnah pannels should then be fitted on and the tree replaced on the back, but without a blanket. F. A. T., ch. ill.,
29.2.]

EXERCISE

11.
:

Translate inlo English

<que

Pour seller un cheval, relever sur le siege la saugle de la sello, Ton maintient de la main gauche prendre la selle de cette main a 1'arcade et de la main droite sous le troussequin; s'approcher du cote gauche (1) du cheval; poser doucement la selle sur le dos du cheval en la passant par-dessus la croupe, et la placer la parlie anterieure un pen en arriere des epaules. S'assurer quo la soulever avec la main sur le la couverturc ne forme aucun pli
; ; ;

garrot et sur le rognon et degager les crins abaltre la sangle, serivr la sangle avec moderation etsans brusquerie. Passer a droile (2) du cheval, achever de serrer la sangle; abattre les etriers.'-

(1)
.(2)

Near

si.de, see ch. HI, p. 28. Off side, see ch. Ill, p. 28.

EXERCISE
What
care should be taken

12.

when bridling

a horse

:

Size of bit; Length of headstall;

Adjustment of curb and throatlash; Length of reins, etc.

-28
CHAPTER
Riding.
III.

CHAPITRE

III,

Equitation.

The riding-school. The aids. Walk.
Trot.

Le manege.
Les aides. Le pas.

Gallop.

Canter.

Le trot. Le galop. Le petit galop.
(or gait).

The pace
Balance.

L'allure.

L'equilibre.

The knee-grip. The near-side (of
The od-side
Vaulting.
(of a

La pression du genou.
a horse),

Le cote montoir
cheval). La droite

(la

gauche du

horse).

du cheval.

La

voltige.

Steady. Disunited.

Balanced.
Collected.

Light mouthed (horse).

Calme. Desuni. Bien equilibre (mis}. Rassemble. Oui a la louche sensible.

To have a strong

seat.

Eire solide a cheval, avoir de
rassiette.

To have good hands. To apply the aids correctly.
To cover
a

Avoir du doigte.

Employer
meni.

les

aides

correcte-

long

distance

on

Fournir
cheval.

line

longue

etape

a

horseback.

To be lit for dismissal. An unbroken horse.

Avoir termine son instruction. Un cheval non dresse.

9

Un
cheual mal

Tliis

A badly trained horse. horse is a quiet ride.

To obey the leg. A good jumper. Heady to face water. To slap (or hand rub) the back
of a horse.

Ce cheual est facile a mnnter. Obeir a la iambe. Un bon sauteur. N'a pas peur de Veau.
Frirtionner
le

dos du cheual.

To pick up a horse's foot. To run a horse in hand.

To walk the horse the

first

mile.

Prendre le pied d'un cheual. Faire trotter un cheual en main. A Her au pas pendant le premier mi lie.
Trauailler a main droile.

To be on the right rein,
to the right

to

work

hand.

To To To To To

gallop rise in one's stirrups. sit down to the trot.
ride at a trot.

false.

Galoper a faux. Faire du trot enleve. Faire du trot assis. Marcher au trot.
Croiser
lure.
les

cross the stirrups.
Position of the soldier

etriers sur renco-

mounted.

Position du canonnier a cheval.
of atten-

To assume the position
tion.

Prendre
a-uous.

la

position du garde-

To be well down in the saddle. To be on o: e's fork. The inside of the knee pressed
against the saddle.

Eire assis. Eire sur Venfourchure. Le pli des genoux liant.
Coller
le

To keep the knee firm
saddle.

to

the

genou

a

la selle.

The

legs should

hang

free.

Les

jambes doiuent naturellement.

tomber
cavalier.

The build of the rider. The feet pushed right home. To adjust the reins. To gather (or collect) the horse.
To
start the horse off at

La conformation du

Les etriers chausses a fond. Ajusler les renes. Rassernbler le cheual.
Porter
le

a walk.

cheval en avant.

To ease the reins slightly. To press the horse forward with
the legs.
Technical vocabulary.

Rendre Fermer

la

main.

les

jambes par degres.

Yon should not cling with the
back
of

30

//

ne taut pas serrer du mollet.

the

calf.

Suppling exercises.

Exercices d'assouplissement.

Bend

to the right (left).

Flexion
(or

du
la

corps

a

droite

(gauche}.

Stroke the haunch).

right

flank

Caressez

hanche droitej

Lean back.
haunch. Left hand stroke right haunch.
left

Right hand stroke

Rotate right arm vertically. Rotate left arm horizontally.

Turn head right and left. Bend head forward and backward.
Rotate right thigh. Raise both thighs.

Flexion du corps en arriere. Rotation du corps a droite. Rotation du corps a gauche. Rotation du bras droit. Extension du bras gauche. Rotation de la tete. Flexion de la tete.

Rotation de la cuisse droite. Elevation des cuisses.

Flex right (or left) knee. Flex right (or left) ankle.

Flexion des jambes. Rotation des pieds.

Words
Stand
to

of

command.
!

Commandements.

your horses
to

A
!

vos cheuaux!
le

In front of your horses

Pour presenter
val!

cheval!

Prepare

mount

!

Preparez-vous a monter a che-'

Mount

!

A
A.
!

cheval!
terre!

Dismount! Mount and dismount Forward, march!
Halt!

A

terre et a cheval!

Marchez!
Arretez!

Rein back! (or Backward march!) Turn on the forehand Turn on the haunches Bend!
!
!

Reculez!

Trot,

march

!

Gallop, march Take the track to the right hand Across the centre, double!
!

!

Demi-tour sur les epaules! Demi-tour sur les handles! Tournez! Marchez au trot! Marchez au galop! Prenez la piste a main droite! Doublez!

Across the centre, change hands!
Volt!

31

Changez de main!
Volte!

Countermarch

!

Demi-volte!

On

the circle!
circles
!

En
!

cercle!
le

Change

Changez

cercle!
le

Enlarge the circle

Elargissez

cercle!

Go large!
Post on the right diagonal!

Marchez

large!

Change the diagonal Haunches in Haunches out
!

in posting!

!

Trottez a main droite! (sur le pied droit}. Changez de pied en trottanl! La croupe en dedans! La croupe en dehors!

Work by

three

!

Par

trois!
\

Jumping. To jump on the longe. To refuse (or swerve round). Accord of the aids. The horse takes off (or rises). The horse lands (or alights). To keep in unison with one's
horse.

Le saut. Sauter a la longe. Derober. L'accord des aides.

Le cheual Le cheval

s'enleve. se recoil.

Eire d'accord avec son cheval.
L'obstacle.

The obstacle. The bar. To lose one's balance. To take the jump.
To jump up. To jump out. To make much

La

barre.

Perdre Vequilibre.

Aborder

of the horse.

{'obstacle, prendre son elan. Sauter en hauteur. Sauter en longueur. Caresser (flatter] le cheval.

Work on
To To To To To

varied ground.

Travail en terrain vane.

ascend a steep slope. descend a steep slope.
ride across a ditch.

swim
let

across a river.

the reins slip through the

Gravir une pente raide. Descendre une pente raide. Passer un fosse. Passer une riviere a la nage. Rendre la main.

hand.

To march boot to boot. To allow horses to recover
wind.

Marcher
their

botte a botte.
les

Laisser souffler

chevaux.

32

13.
:

EXERCISE

Translate into French

Position of the soldier mounted. The position described below should be considered a standard toward which all riders should gradually approximate. The buttocks bearing equally upon the saddle and as far forward as possible. The thighs turned without constraint upon their flat side, clasping the horse evenly and stretched only by their own weight and that of the lower legs. The knees bent and flexible. -- The lower legs falling naturally, the calves in contact with the horse without pressure; the toes dropThe back ping naturally when the rider is without stirrups. -- The supple and never hollowed. upper part of the body easy, The arms free, and erect. The shoulders thrown back evenly. - The head erect without stifffree, the elbows falling naturally. ness. The reins held as Eyes alert and sweeping the horizon. heretofore prescribed. -- This position may be modified by the instructor to suit varying conditions and unusual conformations.
(P. D. S. R., vol.
I,

part. Ill, ch.

I,

2jG.)

EXERCISE

14.
:

Translate into English
:

Pour sauler a cheval se placer face a lepaule gauche du cheval, glisser en meme temps la main droite le long do la rene gauche et a uster les renes dans la main gauche, la rene droite an besoin un
j

rene gauche, leur extremitc sortant du cote avec cette main une poignee de crins vers le haut de 1'encolure, leur extremite sortant egalement du cote du petit doigt. Placer la main droite sur le pommeau, s'elancer vivement en s'enlcvant sur les poignets, rester im instant dans celte position et se metlre legerement en selle. Prendre une rene de bridon dans chaque main, les doigts ferrnes, les mains basses sans toucher le pommeau, separees & dix centimetres 1'une de 1'aulre, les doigts se faisant face, I'extremite superieure des rones sortant

pen plus courte que

la

du

petit doigt; saisir

dircote du ponce. (Tilre

III,

ch.

I.

art.

I,

6.)

What are the suppling exercises which should be most profitable to combat general contraction and stiffness in the loins"?

-

33

16.
:

FAERCISE

Translate into French

In the iirst jumping lessons, the recruits may be allowed to hold the mane, head rope, or front of the saddle in one hand and the reins loosely in the other. As the horse takes off, the pupil should be instructed to lean forward and to tighten his leg grip; if he is successful in this, his body will soon swing in harmony with the horse. The movements of the body from the hips upwards when riding over a jump vary so much with different horses and different fences, that it is impossible to lay down any rule. It is a matter of the rider balancing his body assisted by a leg-grip. The horse should be eased

up gently after a jump: on no account should his pace suddenly be checked. (F. A. T., ch. Ill, 42.)

EXERCISE

17.
:

Translate into English

Pour preparer les canonniers aux sauls d'obslacles, mettre de bonne heure une barre en travers de la piste, en la laissant d'abord reposer a lerre, souvent pendant toute la duree du travail, puis en la relevant un peu en lin de seance, quand les canonniers out
acquis suflisamment d'assietle. L'instructcur prend, au debut, toutes les dispositions utiles pour leur enlever, au moment ou ils abordent I'obstacle, toute preoccupation relative a la conduite du cheval. Les premieres lecons sont donnees avecle cheval tenu a la longe. Le canonnier tient les reues longues, au debut reunies dans une seule main, et s'en sert seulement pour suivre le mouvement de la lete du cheval. II apprend ainsi a se Her a sa monture sans la gencr au moment du saut. C'est setilement alors qu'il est exerce progressivement a conduire son cheval sur I'obstacle. (litre III, ch. I, art. II, o2.)

EXERCISE
In

18.

to establishing a correct

what particular manner should you train recruits with a view and iirm seat independent of the reins?

CHAPTER
The
IV.

34

CHAPITRK
IV.

driver's training.

Ecole du canonnier conducteur.

The The The The The The The The The

team

(or pair).

L'attelage.

near-horse (or nigh-horse).
ofl-horse (or hand-horse).
lead-pair.

Le porteur. Le sous-verge.
Uattelage de deuant.
L'atlelage de milieu.

swing-pair.

wheel-pair.
lead-driver, etc.

Uattelage de derriere. Le conducteur de devant,

etc.
etc.

off-wheeler, etc. caisson (or ammunition

Le sous-verge de derriere, Le caisson.

wagon).

The

caisson-corporal (Amer.),. or wagon-corporal (Engl.).

Le brigadier de

piece.

The The The The The The The The The The

gun-body. gun-limber.

Uarriere-train dc canon.
L'av ant-train de canon.

wagon wagon

(or caisson) -body.
(or caisson) -limber.

Uarriere-irain de caisson.

Uav ant-train
Le La La La Le
forge. bdche.

de caisson.

battery- wagon.

chariot de batterie.

battery- forge.
tarpaulin. travelling field-kitchen.
store- wagon.
cart.

cuisine roulanie.

fourgon.
(ou

La prolonge
pare}.

chariot

de

The hay-cart. The tiring-battery. The first supply wagons.

Le chariot-fourragere. La batterie de tir. Les caissons de premier
taillement.

ravi-

The The The The The

wagon-line.

Uechclon.

combat

train.

regimental train.

ammunition-column.
park.

Le train de combat. Le train regime ntaire. La section de munitions. Le pare.

35

Le cheval de
trait.

The draught-horse. The extra-pair.

L'attelage de renfort.

To put a horse into draught. To turn out with the horses.
To hook
[to

Mettre un cheval a Vattelage. Amener les cheuaux sur le terrain.

in (or put to) (Engl.), [to

[En &;!.],

Atteler.

hitch (Amer.)].

To unhook
(Amer.)].

unhitch

Deleter.

To To To To

couple.

Accoupler.

unlimber. unlatch the pintle. limber up. To hold in the near horse.

Separer

les

trains.

Degager

la lunette.

Accrocher

les trains.

To keep up the

oft"

-horse.

Faire reculer le porteur. Maintenir le sous-verge immobile.

The

traces are taut.
to the trail-eye.

To pass close

Les traits sont tendus. Raser la crosse (la lunette de
cheville-ouvriere).

To To To To To

ease the traces.

square the limber.
jib.

Detendre les traits. Redresser Vavant-train.
Refuser de tirer. Faire frein. Faire demi-tour dans un che-

apply the brake. reverse in a narrow road.

min
To drive from the box. To use the whip sparingly.
Section column!

etroit.

Conduire en guides.

Employer
ration.

le

fouet auec mode-

En
En

colonne par piece!
bataille!

Double section

!

Par piece doublez!

Form

line

!

Close intervals!

Extend intervals! To the right (or left) wheel! To the right (or left) wheel about!
Action front!

A A

interualles serres!
interualles ouuerts!
'.

Action rear! Action right!
Action
left!

Tournez a droite (a- gauche Demi-tour a droite (a gaucJiey. Face en avant, \ Face eft arriere, f en batterie! V Face a droite, Face a gauche, )

Limber, drive on Front \
!

36

Pret!
Face, en auant,

Rear
Right
Left

f

limber up!

(
;
!

Face en cirriere. Face a droite, Face a gauche,

amenez
les

avant-lrains.

Form park
Halt!

Fonnez
Halte!

le

pare!

EXERCISE

19.
:

Translate into French

and unhooking should be done as in action, that is teams with drivers mounted, and by the same men who perform the duty in action. If possible, the team should come up on the left of the carriage., as it is easier for the wheel-driver to get his horses into position from the near than from the ofl-side. Traces should be fastened and unfastened at the swingle-trees. The two highest available numbers at the gun and wagon respectively hook in and unhook the teams of their own carriage. All numbers work on their own side. (F. A. T., ch. Ill, 58.)

Hooking

in

in complete

EXERCISE

10.
:

Translate into English

L'avant-lrain etant place dans une direction quelconque par rapport a Farriere-train, an commandement ((Face en arriere, amenez I'avant-train Marche! 1'avant-lrain part au trot en prenant sa direction sur 1'arriere-train. Des qu'il arrive a 20 metres environ, il se dirige de maniere a venir raser la crosse avec sa roue droite dans une direction sensiblement perpendiculaire a la fli'che. Lorsque cette roue a depasse la crosse de 75 centimetres, le conducleur de derriere s'arrete et redrcsse I'avant-train en le faisant pivoter autour de la roue droite, de maniere que la cheville-ouvriere soit pres de la lunette. A cet eflet, il fixe les yeux sur la roue droite
:

et fait
traits

appuyer ses chevaux a gauche en maintenant tendus les du sous-verge et en faisanl reculer le porteur. Les conductcurs de devant et du milieu s'arretent en meme temps que le conducteur de derriere et font detendre leurs trails; ils se redressent ensuite et ne font tendre leurs traits de nouveau que
lorsque
le

mouvement

esl termine. (Titre III, ch. II,

111.)

-

37

21.

EXERCISE
when

Describe the dillerent movements of a battery from the moment it leaves the park for a manoeuvre until the moment of its return (marching forward; different forchange of directions; action front, or rear, or to a flank; mations; forming double
section line after limbering; formation of the park).

coming back

in

column

of route;

PART

III.

DESCRIPTION, AND CARE

OF MATERIEL.
CHAPTER
I.

PARTIE. DESCRIPTION ET ENTRETIEN DU MATERIEL.
IIP

CHAPITRE

I".

The 75%

field-gun.

Le canon de

75%;

The The The The

spare parts.
supplies of vehicles.
repair squad.

Les rechanges.

sergeant mechanic.

Le chargement des voilures. L'equipe de reparations. Le marechal des logis mecanicien.

Solid grease.

La

graisse consistante.

Tallow.

Mineral

oil.

Ox

foot oil.

Kerosene.

Le suif. Uhuile oleonaphle. Uhuile de pied de bceuf. Le petrole (lampant}.

The wedge. The jack. The wooden crutch.
Wabbling.

La

cale.

The The The The The The

daily care.

summary examination.
self-oiling box. greased cloth.

Le eric. Le chandelier en bois. Les ballottements. Uenlrelien journalier. La visile sommaire. Le manchon graisseur.

special oiler (or lubricator).

La piece grasse. Le graisseur special.
Les fuites. Les chiffons. Le Iron graisseur.

leakage.

Waste. The oil-hole. The split pin.

The felloe. The quadrant. Wadding. The tin solder.

La goupille f endue. La janle de circonstance. Le niveau de poinlage.
L'ouate.

La soudure

d'etain.

The The The The The The The
burrs.

39

Les bavures. Les matages. Les erosions.

hammer-marks.
erosions.
fissure.

La

fissure.

metal-fouling.
swelling.

premature. Breech preponderance. Muzzle preponderance.

Uencuivrage. Le gonflement. V delate me nt premature. La preponderance de culasse. La preponderance de bouche.
Le tube.

The
The The The The The The The The The The The The The
chamber.
calibre.

tube.

La chambre.
Le
calibre.

bore.
rifling (or grooves).

Vame.
Les rayures. Les cloisons. Le pas des rayures.

lands.

twist of the rifling.

right-handed twist. left-handed twist.
conical part of chamber.

locking hoop.
jacket.

muzzle-face.

Le Le Le La La La

pas a main droite. pas a main gauche. cone de raccordement. frette de calage.
jaquette.

rear face of the jacket.
chase.
seat of the quadrant.

La

tranche de bouche. tranche posterieure

du

The The The The The

manchon. La volee. Le plan ales

facettes

du niveau.

muzzle.
breech.

swell of the muzzle.

La bouche. La culasse. La frette de bouche.
Le couvre-bouche. Le couvre-culasse. Les galets de la bouche. Le couvre-galets.
Les galets
jaquette.

Tlie muzzle-cover.

The breech-cover.

The muzzle-friction rollers. The roller-protector. The rear-rollers of the jacket.
The dust-guard. The clips.

posterieurs

de

la

Le couure-glissiere. Les guides de recui

The rear open sight. The front-sight.

40

Uceilleton.

Le guidon.
(and parts

The breechblock
belonging

lo il).

La culasse (et les organes portes par la culasse).

The screw.
The threads The handle.
(of

La
screw).

uis-culasse.
filets (de la vis}.

Les

The The

crank.
latch.

The latch-pin. The spur. The recess (of spur). The groove. The bushing (or breech-recess). The block-stop. The extractor-tang. The extractor-arms. The safety-piece. The firing pin (or striker). The raw leather protecting ring. The safety-bolt. The safety-bolt milled head.
The hammer. The hammer-spindle. The lug. The toothed arc (of hammer). The lanyard. The eyebolt (of lanyard). The loop. The raek. The breast-spindle. The plunger. The push-piece (of plunger). The nose (of plunger). The pawl. The pawl-pin.

La poignee (de culasse). La manivelle (de la vis). Le loquet. La goupille du loquet.
L'ergot.

Le degagement
L'echancrure.

(de Vergot),

L'ecrou (de culasse).

La butee. Le talon d'extracteur.
Les branches d'extracteur.

La piece de silrete. Le percuteur. La rondelle en buf/le du
culeur.

per-

Le bonhomme d'arret. La tete quadrillee du bonhom-

me

d'arret.

Le marteau. L'axe du marteau. Le tenon. Le secteur dente (du marteau). Le cordon tire-feu. Le piton (du tire-feu). La ganse.

La cremaillere. La tige d'appui. La masselotte. Le poussoir (de la

masselotte).

Le bee (de la masselotte). Le linguet. La goupille du linguet.

The rod (of pawl-pin). The checkered cocking-piece.
The pawl-bolt. The counter pawl. The nose (of counter-pawl).

La La
Le Le Le Le

tige (de la goupille). Crete quadrillee de la gou-

pille.

pene du linguet.
contre-linguet.

The shoulder-piece
pawl).

(of

counter-

bee (du contre-linguet}. talon (du contre-linguet}.

The pawl- seat. The dismounling-hole The pawl-spring. The arms of the spring. The indent (of V of spring). The wedge.

Le logement du linguet. Le trou de demontage. Le ressort du linguet. Les branches du ressort. Uentaille (du V du ressort}.

La

cale de manoeuvre.

The
The The The The The

buffer (or recoil-apparatus).

Le frein

(hydro-pneumatique),

couplings (of buffer). return cylinder.

Les joints (du frein}. Le recuperateur.

gauge.
ajutage. tilling hole plug.

La jauge.
L'a jut age.

Le bouchon
plissage.

d'orifice de

rem-

The fore-plug. The slides (or guide-rails). The roller- paths.
The inclined planes.
The rib
of the slide.

Le bouchon d'avant. Les glissieres. Les chemins de roulement. Les plans inclines.

The The The The The The The

rod (piston-rod).
throttling bar.

key.
keybclt. trunnions.

La neruure de la glissiere. La tige du frein. La contre-tige. La clavette. Le verrou de clavette.
Les tourillons. Les sus-bandes.

cap-squares.
friclion-plale (or sweeper-

Le

frotteur.

piece).

The sliding-piece. The butler fore-mark. The buller rear-mark. The elevating system.

Le coulisseau. Le trait de repere anterieur, Le trait de repere posterieur. La hausse.

42

Le

The graduated range-drum.

tambour

gradue

de

la

hausse.

The fixed plate. The elevating crank. The elevating crank handle.
The pinion.

Le plateau fixe. La manivelle de hausse.

La poignee de manivelle
hausse.

de

Le pignon.
cradle.
(or sides).

The
The The The The The The

Le berceau.

cradle-wings
toothed arc
lugs
(of

(of cradle).

toothed arc). semi circular bushings.
elevating screw.

Les ailes du berceau. Le secteur dente du berceau. Les oreilles (du secteur dente). Les demi-bagues.

screw pin.

La Le

vis

tourillon

de pointage. de vis de poin-

tage.

The

carriage.

L'affiit.

The carriage-axle. The trail. The trail-cheeks. The split-trail. The float. The trail- end. The trail-handles. The spade. The driven spade. The pintle-ring lunette
eye).

Uessieu

d'affut.

La

fleche.

Les flasques.

La fleche ouvrante. La plaque de dessus de La crosse.

crosse.

Les poignees de crosse.

(trail

La beche. La beche coulissante (Deport). La lunette de cheville-ou~
vriere.

The cushion The clip.

(or bed).

The wheel-brake. The controlling mechanism
wheel brake).

(of

Le -coussin. La grille du support pompe. Le frein de roues. La commande de frein
roues.

de

de

The pivoting-lever. The rack.

The slide-block hook. The slide-block hook lever.

Le levier pivotant. La cremaillere. Le crochet du coulisseau. Le levier du crochet du coulisseau.

The connecting lever
lever).

(or catch-

Le

leuier d'accrochayc.

The connecting-lever
The The The The

pin.

La La

chcuillctle

da

leuier

d'ac-

crochage.

brake traverse bar. brake rod.
brake-stanchion.

brake-shoe.

The seat. The knee -guard.
The friction-plate. The fork. The axle. The axle-end (the axletree-arm). The cap-shaped washer. The washer (and trimmings). The traversing- wheel.

traverse du frein de roues. Le tirant de frein de roues. Le montant. Le patin de frein. Le siege. Le pare-genou.

La plaque de frottement. La fourche.
L'essieu.

La fusee de bout d'essieu. Le manchon a co.upelle. La rondelle (et garnitures}. Le volant de pointage en
rection.

di-

The ring

of elevating-shaft.

La bague d'arbre de pointage
en hauteur.
.

The elevating-wheel.
The bolt-knob. The rammer. The locking chain.

Le volant de pointage en hauteur.

Le manneton du verrou. Le refouloir. La chainette-arretoir du
fouloir.
of

re-

The cup-shaped end The sponge-rod. The sight-bracket. The
sight-bracket hood).
shield

rammer.

La

tete euidee dti refouloir.

Uecouvillon.

Le support d'appareil de pointage.

cover

(or

Le couvre-support.

The shield. The hinged
shield).

(or

apron

Le bouclier. Le bouclier articule.

The shield-key.

La

clavette de bouclier.

The sighting apparatus.
The column
(or sight-shank).

L'appareil de pointage.

La

colonne

(d'appareil

de

pointage\.

The collimator
of

44

Le collimateur de pointage.
Les lignes de
teur.
foi

(or

rotating head

The
The The The The The The The The The

ihe sight.) axis lines (or cross-hairs.)
sight-cover. collimator for relaying.

du collima-

column-base. socket of column-base.
stud.

index.
plateau.

La visiere (du collimateur}. Le collimateur de reperage. Le pied de colonne. La douille du pied de colonne. Le tenon d'emboitement. Le trait de repere.
Le plateau. Le frein du tambour. Le tambour des derives.

tambour-brake. deflection-drum

(or

tam-

bour).

The valve (closing the aperture
of

Le clapet (fermant

I'a/utage

an oiling hole).
air-level.

The The The The The The The The The The The The

d'un trou graisseur}. Le niveau a bulle d'air.

hinge. bulb.
level-cover.

La charniere. La fiole.
Le couure-fiole. La bulle. Les reperes (de la bulle}. Le talon du niveau. Le chien. La queue du chien. Le disque des angles de site. La vis de commande. La tele a oreille de la vis de

bubble.

marks.
level-toe.

dog.

end

of the

dog.

angle

of sight disc.

controlling screw.
(of

projecting-head ling-screw).

control-

commande.
Le sac aux armements. La rallonge d'appareil
pointage. La gaine de rallonge.

The equipment-bag. The sight extension The The The The The The
sheath
(of

bar.

de

extension bar).

mortise.

La
spring-bolt.

mortals, e.

T shaped
eye

of the bolt.

fastening hooks.

suspension rings.

Le T du verrou a ressort. L'&il du verrou. Les crochets d'attache. Les anneaux de suspension.

The wheels.
The navo. The rim. The spoke. The tyro.

Les roues.

Le moyeii.

La Le Le
limber.

/ante.
rai.

cercle (ou bandage}.
L'avant-train.

The
The The The The The The The The The The The The The
chest.

chest-handles.

back.

knapsack -rack.
board.
batten.
bat ten -arms.

Le coffre. Les poignees de coffre. Le dossier. La galerie porte-sacs.

La planchette de fond. La tringle de galerie.
Les fourches de la tringle. Les consoles. Le battant du crochet d'avant.

brackets.
front hook-arm.

calkin-box.
picketing-ropes. canvas bucket.

La

spare trace sheath.

botte a crampons. Les cordes a cheuaux. Le seau en toile. Uetui porte-traits de rechange.

The pole. The spare- pole. The pole yoke arms. The pole-key. The butt. The splinter-bar. The slide ring (of supporting
arm).

Le timon. Le timon de rechange. Les branches de bout de mon.

ti-

La
Le La

clauette de bout -de timon.
tetard.
uolee.

The The

pole-bolt. bolt nuts of the bolt straps.

The mogul-springs. The limber-prop. The kit-holders.

coulant de branche de support. * La cheuillette-cle de timon. Les ecrous de boulons de brides de fourchette. Les ressorts de traction.

Uanneau

La

seruante.

Les. cases

d'armons.
Le caisson.

The caisson

o;

wagon) body.
.

The trail (or perch The bucket.

La fleche. Le seau d'abreuuoir.

Technical vocabulary.

The connecting axis. The toggle of the small chain
connecting axis. The connecting axis lever. The bolt of the grain chest.
of

46

Uaxe cTaccrochage. Le T de la chainette
d'accrochage.
d'axe

The bolt-bracket. The caisson rests (or supporting
brackets).

Le leuier d'axe d'accrochage. Le verrou du coffre a avoine. Le support de verrou.
Les butees de renversement.

The waterproof The The The The The The The The The

tissue kit.
for cans.

La trousse en
ble.

toile

impermea-

compartment
cap-removers. brake-wheel.
trail-hook.

Le easier a bidons. Les decapsuleurs,

grain-chest (or oats- chest). chest-covers (or lids).

Le volant de frein. Le crochet de fleche. Le coffre a avoine.
Les couuercles des coffres. Le tourniquet. Le leuier d'espagnolette. La poignee du levier d'espagnolette.

turnbuckle.
chest fastening support. fastening support handle.

The flange-plate. The drawers. The chest-padlock. The empty sandbag.

La plaque

a collerette.

Les tiroirs. Le cadenas de coffre. Le sac a terre (des
voyeurs).

pour-

The

fuze-setter (or fuze- punch).

Le debouchoir.

The fuze-punch holder.

L'axe d'accrochage du debouchoir.

The shoulder-pieces of the holder. The socket The lid. The clasp. The scraper. The spare blades. The ogival-cups. The stud-groove. The corrector. The tightening nut (or wing
nut).

Les epaulements de Vaxe.

La

douille d'accrochage.

Le coLiuercle (du debouchoir}. Le fermoir.

La

curette.

Les lames de rechange. Les bottes d'ogives. Le logement du tenon. Le correcteur.
Uoreille de serrage.

The The The The The The The
dial.

47

Le cadran.

crank.

crank- handle. hand-lever.
blade-holder.
blade.

La maniuelle. La poignee de

la

manivelle.

Le leuier de manoeuvre. Le porte-lame.

La lame.
Le ressort du
butoir.

spring-catch.
Tools.

Outils.

The axe. The hatchet. The pick-axe. The shovel. The spade. The cold chisel. The screw driver. The shifting spanner. The monkey wrench. The bill hook. The pin setter. The engraving tool. The punch. The hammer. The nippers (or hand-shears), The jointed saw.

La La La La La Le Le La La La Le Le

hache.
hachette.

pioche.
pelle.

beche.
ciseau a frold. tourneuis.
cle anglaise.

cle uniuerselle.

serpe.

chasse-goupille. burin.

L'emporle-piece. Le marteau.

Les places coupantes.

La

scie articulee.

To adjust (or test) the sights. To lubricate. To bring down the latch. To free. To push home. To dismount (or take to pieces). To assemble. To mount in place. To arm (or engage or cock) the
pawl. To disarm.

Regler

les lignes

de mire.

Graisser.

Rabattre

le

loquet.

Degager (liber er}. Repousser bien a fond. Demonter.
Remonter.
Mettre en place.

Armer

le

linguet.

Desarmer.

To rearm.

48

Hearmer.
Fixer.

To secure To hold the hammer back by means of the lanyard.
To release (the hammer). To bring the hammer down. To engage the first thread.
To introduce... ahead
most).
(or fore-

Maintenir
riere

le

martean en
Vaccrochanl
(le

ar-

en

an

moijcn dn tire-feu.

Abandonner
Mettre
le

marteau}.
a labattu.

martean
le

Engager

premier

tour

(d'une vis}. Introduire... le premier.

To To To To To

unfasten the fuze-setter.
lay
it

Decrocher

le

debouchoir.

down
it.

vertically.

L'aballre bien d'aplomb.

connect

Uaccrocher.

untie a thong. unfasten the toggle of the chain.

Denouer une lanicre. Degager le T de la chalnette..
Renverser
le

To upset the caisson. To put the caisson in battery. To scotch a wheel. To lay edgewise. To remove the key. To replace (or set) the key. The key of the gun is in place. To equip the recoil apparatus. To recuperate sufficiently. To ooze. To unmesh. To let down the wheel-brake. To couple the brake. To bear against the shoulder.

caisson.

Mettre le caisson en batterie. Caler une roue. Placer de champ.
Declaveter.
Reclaveter.

Le canon est clavele. Parer le frein. Rentrer en batterie.
Suinter,

Debrayer. Abattre le jrein de roues.

Accrocher

(le

frein}.
la

Porter contre

butee.

EXERCISE

22.
:

Translate into French
It is of

great importance that the materiel be kept properly lubrithat is meant the constant maintenance of a thin film of the proper lubricant between all working and bearing surfaces and the surfaces on which they work or bear. This film of lubricant is
cated.

By

required in order that the parts

may

function easily and without

at various places where the surfaces to be lubricated are not directly accessible. These holes should be cleaned out frequently. Except durirg oiling, they should be fully closed by the means provided. Before oiling at an oil hole, wipe of! carefully any dirt or grit near the opening that might be carried down into it by the oil. Before applying fresh lubricant, the old should, if practicable, be wiped from the surfaces and the surfaces should be clean and free from grit. While applying lubricating oil, the mechanism is operated or the part is moved to insure the formation of a complete oil film between the surfaces, and care must be taken, especially when lubricating through an oil hole in cold weather, to see that sufficient oil actually reaches the proper surfaces. When oiling, cotton waste should be at hand and any oil that spills or runs upon surfaces where it is not required should be wiped up at once in order to prevent the accumulation of dust and dirt. (P. D. S. R., vol. II, 662.)

unnecessary wear. Oil holes are provided

EXERCISE

23.
:

Translate into English
:

Pour remonter la culasse Remettre en place Textracteur et son axe, ce dernier fixe commo il a ete dit pour le demontage. Se placer dans- 1'axe du canon, a cheval sur 1'afliit, la culasse dans les deux mains comme a la fin du devissage, la poignee sous le manchon; la main gauche souticnt
la vis et 1'appuie centre 1'ecrou, tandis qtie la main droite la presente bien d'aplomb. Visser completement la culasse en ayant soin de repousser les branches de 1'extracteur pendant 1'avant-dernier

tour.

Remettre

le

talon d'extracteur af)res avoir degage 1'axe de la

q nan lite necessaire; replacer cet axe et le fixer au moyen du loquet et de sa goupille. On ne doit avoir aucun effort a faire pour replacer le loquet quand la poignee de 1'axe d'extracteur est remontee bien a fond, et la goupille du loquet doit retomber librement dans

son logement. (Titrc IV, annexe

I,

ch. II, art.

II,

10.)

EXERCISE
In

24.
of

what does the summary examination

the

75% materiel con-

sist?

CHAPTER
II.

50

CHAPITRE
II.

The 155J&

S.

howitzer.

Le canon de 155

C. Schneider.

The The The The The The The The The

counter-weight. breech fixed ring.

hand lever
breech-guard.
goniometer.
loading-tray. chassis.
front door of the chassis.

Le contre-poids. L'anneau fixe de culasse. Le leuier de manoeuvre. Le pare-culasse. Le goniometre.

connecting

lever

(of

the

La civiere de chargement. Le chassis. La porte avant du chassis. Le levier d'accrochage (de
porte).

la

door).

The front door hinge.
The sledge. The lever controlling the
clamping the carriage on
axle.

La

charniere

de

la

porte

avant.

bolt the

Le traineau. Le levier de
verroii

commande

du

The

roller-box.

d'immobilisateur de Vaffiit sur Vessieu. La boite des galets de rouleinent.

The pinion acting
toothed arc.

straight on
of elevating

The support-guides
arc.

Le pignon agissant directement sur Varc dente. Les des supports-coulisses
secteurs hauteur.

de

pointage

en

The clamping The crossbars

bolt of the sledge
of

Le

on the chassis.
traversing arc.

du verroii d'accrochage traineau sur le chassis. Les entretoises des secteurs de pointage en hauteur.

The trail-chest. The trail-handspike. The handspike-clip. The security chain
holdfast.

Le Le La

coffret de fleche. levier de pointage.

griffe de retenue du levier de pointage. La patte d'attache de la chaine de sur etc.

The
trail

51

handspike

rotation

axis.

The

trail block.

L'axe de rotation du levier de pointage. La piece d'appui de la fleche sur Variant-train.

The oscillating spade. The lever-handle of oscillating
trail

La beche oscillante. La poignee du levier de Vaxe
d'accrochage
oscillante.

spade connecting axis.

de

la

beche

The hoop-jacket. The threads joining the howitzer
to the sledge.

La frette-manchon.
Les filets Vobusier
d'assemblage
et

de

du traineau.
d'atte-

The The

level seat.

coupling-pintle.

La La La

facette a niueau. cheville-ouvriere

lage.

The neck-yoke. The ratchetgear
breech.

volee de bout de timon.

of

handle and
clip.

The striker push holding The
striker

Uencliquetage de la poignee et du volet. Le talon du poussoir du percuteur.

hammer

controlling

shaft.

The shutter. The extractor disengaging guide. The fastening lug of breechblock.

Uarbre de commande du marteau du percuteur. Le volet. La rampe de Vextracteur. Le tenon d'accrochage de la
culasse.

The unscrewing rack. The operating rod. The counter spring. The firing hand gear. The cradle front transom shutter.
The slide-nut moving on endless
screw.

La cremaillere de deuirage. La tringle de commande. Le ressort de rappel. La manette de mise de feu.
Le volet de Ventretoise avant du berceau. Le chariot coulissant sur la
vis

sans

fin.

The recuperator-tank. The ring (sighting apparatus).
The limb.
The arcs and tambour
o( sight.
of

Le reservoir du recuperateur. La bague (appareil de pointage}.

angles

Le limbe. Le secteur

et

tambour des

The charge preparing table. The shell holding tray.

angles de site. La table de chargement.

La plaque

a collerette.

The shell tongs. The wooden roller. The plastic obturator.

Les gri/fes de chary erne nt. Le rouleau en bois. Uobturatcur plastique.

EXERCISE

25.
:

Translate into French

The gun being Summary examination of ihe 155% howitzer. in the travelling position Work the breechblock mechanism make sure that the lirir g hammer is in good working order, set the firing rod in motion and see that the rod counter-spring works
:

;

Work the safety-bolt against hang-fire, which should play freely in its seat (bolt the hammer again). Verify the working of the wheel-brake and disengage it completely. Make sure that the
freely.

properly bolted on the chassis, and the chassis on the Open the front door, see that the transom works well, make sure that the packings of the buffer and recuperator do not leak. Close the front door which should close easily and replace the
sledge
is

carriage.

Work the handspike. See that the cable for bringing the into battery, and its block are well fastened. Make sure that the axle catching bolt of the carriage grasps well. Make sure that the
thong.

gun

recoil filling hole plug is properly stopped. If it were not, a drop should be seen leaking at the filling hole. Make sure that the rammers and sponge are in place and may be

easily removed from their brackets. Remove the sight bracket cover, see that the elevating and traversing wheels work well and the levels are covered. Make sure that the trail-spade is well caught. (Translated from Annexe du reglement d'artillerie de cam-

pagne, materiel 155 Schneider. Description et entretien du materiel,
ch.
II, art. II,

36.)

EXERCISE

26.
:

Translate into English

Pour approvisionner le canon avec un projectile et une douilleLa piece elant en batterie, le coffre du caisson ouvert, une douille et un projectile sont prepares sur la table de chargement. Un pourvoyeiiF et un auxiliaire (on les deux pourvoyeurs a defaut
:

d'auxiliaires) se tiennent a leurs postes au caisson, debout, face

-

-i.3

-

en avant, a un metre en arriere de la table de chargement, le pour voyeur devant, tous deux proteges par le caisson. L'auxiliaire prend la douille sous son bras droit, 1'ouverture en
haul; les deux servants soulevent le projectile, 1'auxiliaire s'appliquant a la branche simple de la gride, et se portant a la crosse dti canon du cote gauche. Le projectile est depose sur la civiere de

chargement,

duit, 1'auxiliaire

pourvoyeur emporte la grille. Le projectile introremet la douille au chargeur et rentre a son poste. (Annexe du reglement d'artillerie de campagne, materiel 155
et le
I,

Schneider, ch.

art.

I,

4.)

EXERCISE
What

27.

are the duties of the loader in the

155%

S.

howitzer?

CHAPTER

rri.

CHAPITRE

III.

Ammunition.

Les munitions.

The projectile. The cannon-ball. The bomb.

Le projectile. Le boulet. La bombe.
L'obus.

The
The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The
shrapnel. time-shell.

shell.

percussion-shell.

high explosive

shell.

segment

shell with bullets.

illuminating shell.
star-shell.

tracer-shell.

incendiary shell.
tear-shell.

gas-shell.

elongated shell.
canister-case.
cartridge.

L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus L'obus

a balles.

fusant.

percutant.
explosif. a mitraille.

eclairant.

a etoiles.
traceur.

incendiaire.

lacrymogene.
a gaz.
allonge.

brass cartridge-case.

La boite a mitraille. La cartouche. La douille (de laiton).
Les cartouches completes. La gerbe (de Vobus a balles}. La zone battue. La zone dangereuse.

Fixed ammunition. The cone of dispersion.

The The The The The The The

pattern.

danger-space. fougasse (or blind shell).

ogive sheaf.
lateral (or side) sheaf.

base sheaf.

La La La La

/ougasse.

shock and explosion
axe-stroke.

eflects.

gerbe d'ogive. gerbe laterale. gerbe de culot. Les effets de choc
sion.

et d'explo-

The

The rim.

Le coup de hache. Le bourrelet de la

douille.

The The The The The The The The The The The The The The

powder-charge.
primer.

La charge de poudre.
L'amorce.

body

(of

the shell).

Le corps d'obus.

driving (or rotating) band. ogive (or point).
base.

La

ceintnre.

L'ogive.

shoulder.
eye-hole.
cup. central lube.

Le culot. Le renflement.
L'ceil.

opening washer.
bullets.

(in

central tube).

La chambre a poudre. Le tube central. La tulipe. Le diaphragme.
Les
balles.

seating in of the shell.

Le sertissage du

projectile.

The
The
fuze.

fuze.

La fusee.

projectile equipped with a

Le
Le La La La La La

projectile

muni de
la

fusee.

The fuze-stud. The point- fuze. The base-fuze. The percussion-fuze. The time-fuze. The time and percussion
(or combination fuze).

tenon de

fusee.

fusee cVogive. fusee de culot. fusee percutante. fusee fusante. fusee a double effet.

fuze

The The The The The The The The The

delayed action fuze. non- delayed action fuze. instantaneous fuze.
cap.

La fusee a retard. La fusee sans retard. La fusee instantanee.
Le Le Le Le Le Le
chapeau.

needle-plug. needle.

bouchon rugueux.
rugueux.

time-needle.

percussion -needle. detonator-holder (or deto-

rugueux de concuteur. rugueux de percuteur.
porte-amorce.

nator-pellet).

The detonator. The lime-detonator. The ferrule. The safety-spring.

Uamorce.

Uamorce de

concuteur.

La masselotte.
Le ressort de surete.

The The The The The

arming spring.
stirrup spring.

Lc ressort 'Tarmcmeni. L'agrafe d'armement.

compressed powder.
fusing composition. base -plug.

La poudre comprimee. La composition fusante. Le bouchon 'de queue.

X
The The The The The The The The The The The
gaine (or exploder).
disc (or plaquette).

X
La La
gaine-relai.

plaquette.
0. E.}.

plug.

cartridge in bag.
tube.
friction tube.

Le tampon (pour La gargousse.

Uetoupillc. Uetoupille a friction.
L'etoupille electrique. Uetoupille obturatrice.

electric tube.

vent-sealing tube. stock of shells (or powder). touch-hole.

match.

Le lot d'obus La lumiere. La meche.

(ou de poudre}.

EXERCISE

38.
:

Translate into French

Action of time and percussion fuze n 64, (quick firing 4'7 inch gun).
.

mark

II

free to fall into its recess in the stem of the fuze, clear of the detonator pellet. On shock of discharge, the time detonator pellet sets back, straightening the arms of the stirrup spring carrying the detonator on to the needle. The flash from the detonator passes to the composition in the top ring, which burns round until it comes to the communicating hole in the bot torn ring, the composition of which burns back in the opposite direction until it reaches the communicating hole in the flange ol the fuze, whence the flash passes to the base plug and into the
is

Time arrangement. drawn, the safety pillar

The time safety pin having been with-

shell.

Percussion arrangement. The withdrawal of the percussion safety pin leaves the ferrule free to set back on shock of discharge, straightening the arms of the stirrup spring and withdrawing itself from the slot in the retaining bolt. The latter spins

-

57

-

out when the shell rotates, leaving only the spring to prevent the percussion pellet creeping forward. On graze or impact, the pellet moves forward on to the needle, compressing the creep spring, and fires the detonator and powder in the pellet and base-plug, the Hash then passing into the shell. (Handbook of the Q. F., 4*7 inch # guns on travelling carriages. Land service, 1916, p. 47.)

EXERCISE

29.
:

Translate into English

L'obus a balles a charge arriere est coristitue comme il suit Le corps d'obus est en acier embouti; le tube de communication de feu, en acier doux elire, est muni a sa partie superieure d'une tulipe en laiton qui recoit la queue de la fusee. Les balles, an nombre de 630, pescnt 12 grammes. Les interstices des balles soul remplis avec un melange de resine et de cire jaune qui assure une bonne fixite de chargemenl. Le chargement des balles s'appuie, a la partie inferieure, sur
:

un diaphragme qui separe la chambre a balles de la chambre' a poudre. Un autre diaphragme, en forme de cuvette, dont les parois laterales s'appuient sur le joint du corps d'obus et de 1'ogive, surmonte le chargement en balles.
L'ogive reste vide. (Cours de VEcole militaire de Var tiller ie, 1917 : Munitions, ch. Ill, p. 65.)
axr-il

EXERCISE

30.

fire to

Give a description of the diderent kinds of tubes used the powder-charge of cartridges in bags.

to set

58

IV

PART IV. ARTILLERY TRAINING.
CHAPTEK
I.

PARTIE.

INSTRUCTION

D'ARTILLERIE
CHAPITRE
1".

Troop regulations.

L'ecole de la troupe,

Gunners'
Battery

drill.

Section drill.
drill.

Ecole du canonnier servant. Ecole de la piece. Ecole de batterie.

The platoon commander.

The

section leader.

The gun-numbers. The layer. The firer. The loader. The fuze-puncher. The first ammunition number. The second ammunition number. The gun-crew (or gun -squad).

Le chef de sectoin. Le chef de piece. Les servants. Le pointeur. Le tireur. Le chargeur. Le deboucheur. Le premier pouruoyeur. Le second pourvoyeur. Le peloton de piece.

A

miss-fire.
deflection.

Un

rate.

The The

deflection correction.

La derive. La correction de

derive.

The aiming point. The auxiliary aiming point (or marking point). The reference point. The stake. The dummy cartridge of wood. The arrangements for combat.
Direct laying.

Le point de pointage. Le point de reperage.

Le repere (le point de repere}. Le piquet de reperage. La fausse cartouche en bois. Les dispositions de combat.
Pointage direct (ou mise en
direction a vue).

Indirect laying.

59

Pointage indirect (ou mise en direction au moyen d'un point de pointage).

A masked position. The sheaf. The directing piece. The reciprocal sighting. The salvo. The volley. The fire for adjustment. The fire for effect.
Fire control.

Une
Le La Le La La Le Le La

position masquee.

faisceau. piece directrice.

pointage reciproque.
salve.
rafale.
tir

de reglage.

tir d'efficacite.

conduite du feu.

The gun is in battery. To man the piece. Without a break. The stud falls into its groove.
To disengage. To press smartly

Le canon est en batterie. Manosuurer la piece. Sans arret. Le tenon (de la fusee] tombe dans son logement.
Desengrener.

all

the

down

way
the

Appuyer

.

To shove the cartridge

all

le levier de madu debouchoir] brusquement et a fond. Lancer la cartouche a fond.

(sur

nosuvre

way

in.

To straddle the right seat. There is perfect team-work between the gun-numbers.

Enfourcher
II

le siege de droite. y a entente parfaite entre les servants.

To give the range. To clamp in... To put on deflection. To take the axis lines. To give the angle of sight. To have the trail shifted. The gunner is bothered by the
wheels.

Donner

la

hausse.

S'embolter dans... Metlre la derive.

Prendre

les lignes

de

foi.

Donner Vangle de
Faire deplacer

site.

la crosse.

Le pointeur
roues.

est

gene par

les

To steady the gun. The piece is in abatage. The piece is seated. The locking takes place.

Abattre.

La piece La piece

est abattue. est assise.

L'enclanchement se produit.

60

Les dents du crochet sont engagees dans celles de la cremaillere.

The teeth of ged those

the hook have engaof the rack.

To survey the horizon. To register the deflection. To lay for elevation. To lay for direction (to traverse). To center the bubble (to bring it between its marks). To form in double rank. To break into double time (or to take up double time). To make the buller bear on the
bed.

Faire un tour d'horizon.

Reperer. Pointer en hauteur. Pointer en direction.

Amener
peres.

la bulle

entre ses re-

Se former sur deux rangs. Prendre le pas gymnastique.
Mettre
sin.
le

frein sur son cous-

To lock the elevating wheel. To bring the piece into action. To measure minimum elevation.

Cater le volant de pointage en hauteur. Mettre la piece en batterie.

The rear-sight is sticking. The lieutenant helps in getting To hold one's
the battery in position. self in readiness to replace the captain.

Mesurer (ou prendre} la hausse minima. La hausse est coincee. Le lieutenant collabore a la
mise en batterie-. Se lenir pret a remplacer
capital ne.
le

Words
Fall in
!

of

command.

Commandements.
Rassemblement!

To your posts
!

!

Layer, on me Plateau 0, tambour 100, lay Register deflection
!

!

A vos postes! Pointeur, sur moi! Plateau 0, tambour 100, pointez!

Reperez!
!

Mark

deflection (or record)

Inscrivez
!

la

derive!

Basis deflection (or zero line) Increase by 10 mils!

En

surveillance!

Diminish by 10 mils
se)
!

(or decrea-

Augmentez de 10! Diminuez de 10!
Echelonnez de
5!

Open the sheaf by 5! Distribute by 5 move

!

Augmentez Vechelonnement de

Close
the
sheaf.

61

Concentrate

LJiminuez Vechelonncment de
5!

by 5!
\\ithoutabatage With abatage! Prepare for abatage
!

Sans abattre!
Abattez!
!

Pour
Pret!

abattre!

Ready

!

Make

last...

down

!

Abattez... ferme!
!

Ten turns on the right With the sight!
Lift

A droite 10 tours! Au collimateur!
Pour
A
Lattet

brakes

!

re lever!

Lift!

Relevez!
!

Down
ries

err el

Right by Three thousand. Three two hurdred. Three two fifty. Three two seventy live. Nineteen fifty. Stand clear
!

Corrector 18

Correcteur 18

Par

la droite.

Par
3.200. 3.250.

batterie

3.000.

3.275.
1.950.

Pour
Feu!
II alt e

le

premier coup!

Kire!

Halt! (stop firing!)

au feu!

Resume

firing

!

Cease firing! Three rounds Three rounds Sweeping Three rounds Double sweeping Progressive fire!
! !
!

Continuez le feu! Cessez le jeu!

Par Par
Par

trois!

trois trois

Fauchez!

Fauchez double!
Fauchez!

Progressive and sweeping
target Fire at will!

lire!

Moving

!

Tir progressif! Tir progressif But mobile!

A
!

volonte!
la

Under cover

!

Abritez-vous!

Right by piece

Par

droite par piece!

EXERCISE
To insert the round puncher (or fuze punch
punch.
Technical vocabulary.

31.
:

Translate into French

Having accurately set the fuze, the fu/.e number) withdraws the rourdfrom the fuze3

%

-

62

Al the same time, he slips his left hand toward the point of the projectile u^til it is about at the center of gravity of the round. As soon as the fuze is clear of the body of the fuze-punch, he passes
the cartridge to the loader who, approaching the gun, raises the point of the projectile slightly ahove the base and allows the weight of the round to be supported by the left hand. The lingers of the right hand are rigidly extended, the palm of the hand being kept firmly pressed against the -base of the cartridge case. Taking position to the left and rear of the breech, the front of his body being parallel to the axis of the bore, eyes on the breech recess, the loader inserts the nose of the projectile in the chamber and shoves it forward, the extended right hand being brought sharply against the face of the breech. The closing of the breech insures the proper seating of the projectile. (P. D. S. R., vol. Ill,
ch.
II,

915.)

EXEBfCISE

32.
:

Translate into English

Le procede du pointage reciproque permet de rendre les plans de des trois autres pieces paralleles a celui de la piece directrice 1" Mettre pour toutes les pieces Tangle de site a zero et la bulle eiilre ses reperes, placer les rallo.sges d'appareil de pointage; 2 Placer a vue les autres pieces paralleles a la piece directrice 3 Reperer successivement la piece directrice sur les colonnes d'appareil de pointage des autres pieces, en commencant par la plus eloignee, et annoncer. au fur et a mesure, les derives de reperage; 4 Donner a chacune des aulres pieces celle de ces derives qui lui correspond, et la pointer sur la colonne d'appareil de pointage de la piece directrice, en la faisant tourner autant que possible autour de la verticalede sa colonise d'appareil de pointage. Si Ton a des doutes sur le faisceau obtenu, il peut etre avantageux de recommencer les operations 3 el 4 une deuxieme fois, et en pointant an moyen du volant de pointage en direction seul.
tir
:

;

(TitrelV, ch.

Ill, art. II,

120.

EXERCISE What

33.

are the duties of the six gunners of the

75% lield-gun?

CHAPTER
II.

63

CHAPITRE
II.

Firing instruction.

Instruction sur le

tir.

SECTION

I.

Definitions.

ARTICLE

I.

Definitions.

The horizontal plane. The plane of sight. The plane of lire. The line of sight. The line of fire. The line of departure. The range. The map-range. The gun-range. The trajectory. The m tximum ordinate. The angle of sight. The angle of elevation. The j'imp. The quadrant elevation. The quadrantangleof departure. The angle of departure. The a gleof fall (or descent). The angle of incidence. The angle of impact. The height of burst. The distance of burst (or burst
ra ge).

e

plan horizontal.
site.
tir.

Le plan de Le plan de

La ligne de site. La ligne de tir. La ligne de projection. La portee. La distance topographique, La hausse. La tra/ectoire. La fleche.
Uangle de site. Uangle de hausse. Uangle de relevement. Uangle au niveau. Dangle de projection. Uangle de depart. Uangle d'arrivie. Uangle de chute. Uangle ^incidence. La hauteur d eclat ement. La distance d'eclatement.
1

The terval of burst. The tandard height. The guiar distance
i
i

Uintervalle d'eclatement.

La hauteur-type.
(or dis-

Uecart angulaire.

The The The

inflection.
i.

rift.
il.

La La

derive.

derivation.

i

Le millieme.

The muzzle velocity. The remaining velocity. The striking (or terminal)
city.

64

velo-

La La La

vitesse initiale. vitesse en

un point donne:

vitesse restante.

The time of flight. The rate of burning. The point of fall (or impact).
The plane of defilement. The trial angle. The direction angle. The base angle.

La diiree de trajet. La diiree de combustion. Lc point de chute (ou d'itnpact}.

Le plan de defilement.
L'angle d'essai.
L" angle de direction.

Uangle de
ARTICLE

surveillance.

SUCTION

II<

Preparation of
fire.

II.

Preparation dio
tir.

Selecting the emplacement for the battery.

Choix de ('emplacement' de batterie.

The defilade (or concealment). The dismounted defilade.
The mounted
defilade.

Le defilement. Le defilement de Ihomme
pied.

oi

Le defilement de Vhomme a
cheval.

The materiel (or sight) defilade. The flash defilade. The semi-covered position.
The position with rising ground
behind
slope).

Le defilement du materiel. Le defilement des lueurs. La position d'un defilement
inferieur a celui des lueurs^

La position a contre-pente.
Les voies d'acces. Le masque. Le couvert.

(or

on

a

counter-

The approaches. The mask. The cover.

A gun remote from the To locate the flashes.

crest.

Un canon
Situer
les

eloigne de
lueurs.

la

crele~

65

Meitre en batterie. Eire
defile

To

bring (or move) into position.

a ballery
hostile

To evade observation by
aircraft.

aux

lues

des

avions.

To be under cover. To carry out a reconnaissance. To have a natural eye for country.

Occuper une position defilee. Executer une reconnaissance. Avoir du coup d'ceil (sur le
terrain}.

To bring

fire to

bear over an

Tirer sur une zone ctendue.

extensive area.

To pass a point. To seek out.
To run up the guns
to the cresl.

Passer par un point. Rechercher.
Poitsser les pieces a bras ,en auant jusqu'au somrnet de la
crete.

Forming and orienting the sheaf
of the planes of fire.

Formation

et orientation
tir.

du faisceau des plans de Le jronl a
battre.

The frontage to be swept. The aiming. The battery telescope (or
telescope). The B. G. ruler.

B.

C.

La La

visee.

lunette de batterie.

The hand breadth. The Galilean telescope. The transit. The compass-goniometer. The range-Under. The panoramic sketch. The parallax.

The convergence

difference.

La reglette. Le travers de main. La lunette de Galilee. Le theodolite. Le goniometre-boussole. Le telemetre. Le croquis panoramique. Le parallaxe. La correction de convergence.

A

sheaf of a given span.

Un

faisceau d'ouverture dona
la la

nee.

To measure by hand. To measure by field-glasses. To lay by eyesight.

Me surer

main.

Mesurer a

jumelle. Mettre en direction a vue.

To lay by staking.
To
find the range.
is

66

Mettre en direction par jalonnement.

Apprecier
trer).

la

distance (telemeest

The battery

in observation.
of

La

batterie lance.
terrain.

en

surveil-

The conspicuous features
field.

the

Les points remarquables

du

EXERCISE
The
1)

34.
:

Translate into French

selection of suitable aiming points for indirect laying calls for special attention. The best aiming points are
:

Continuously visible through the sighting-apparatus

of

each

gun;
designated and identified; At a considerable distance from the guns 4) Of narrow width and sharp definition; 5) Near the normal to the line of guns or near the line guns prolonged.
2) Easily
3)
;

of the

The use of the same aiming point by all the guns of a lire unit simplifies both lire direction and conduct of fire. When time is available before the guns come up, it is best to go to the point where each gun is to be placed and make sure that the aimirg point will be visible through the sight from that point. But a common aiming point is not indispensable. Although refinements in calculation of parallax are uncalled for, errors in its computation should be minimized by the selection of distant aiming points. Usually, points more than 2000 yards distant will be found most
suitable. (P. D. S. R., vol. Ill, sect. VIII,

1159-1163.)

EXERCISE

35.
:

Translate into English

Determination de V emplacement de batterie. Du sommet du couvert, ou du pied du masque, mesurer Tangle de site du but. L'ajouter algebriquement a Tangle de tir pour la distance du couvert ou du masque au but. Tons les points du terrain d'oii un observateur, etant a la position du tireura genoux, voit le sommet de la masse couvrante sous un angle de site an plus egal a cette somme algebrique, peuvent etre occupes.

-

67

-

Du point le plus pros du roiiverl ou TO.I voit le Autrt' procc'de. but, reperer dans le paysage ou dans le ciol le point H qui se trouve au-dessus du but a une distance angulairr. egale a Tangle de tir. Tous Iqs points du terrain d'oii tin observateur, a la position
du tireur a genoux, apergoit le point repere au-dessus du ras de la crete ou du sommet du masque, petivenl etre occupes. (Til re IV,
11

partie, ch. IV,

147.)

EXERCISE

36.

The battery lias been brought into position. The captain has not yet completed his reconnaissance. You just know the approximate direction of the target. Explain how you form the sheaf of the planes of lire.
SECTION.
Ill
fire.

Execution of

ARTICLE

III.

Execution du
tir.

Handling

of the planes of fire.

Maniement des plans de
Ouvrir le feu. Etendre son front.

tir.

To To To To

open lire. extend one's front.

change targets.
divide the
the

Changer
of

d'objeciif.
le

command
command.

the

Diuiser

commandernent de
le

battery.

la batterie.

To resume

Heprendre

comman dement.

A broken-up sheaf. A modification by o;.e
To con cent rale
1

Un
mil.

faisceau disloque. Une modification d'un millie-

me.
\

so

many

mils.

Diminuer nement

I"ec1ielon,

To distribute
The

\

Augmented

I

eche-

,

de tant.

difficulties of control.

lonnement Les difjicnltes de commandement.

Observation.

Observation.

The prismatic The binocular

telescope. (or iield glass).

La lunette prismatique La fume lie.

68

La jumelle
a ciseaux.
la

The The The The The The The The The

scissor telescope. graticules of the field glass.

power
field of

(or

magnification).

view.

Les graduations de Le grossissement. Le champ.

jumelle.

focussing.
lens.

La mise an La lentille.
Le foyer de

point.
la lentille.

focus.

illumination.

La

clarte.

adjustment

for interpupil-

Le reglage a Vecartemeni des
ijeux.

lary distance.

The object-glass. The eye-piece. The over round (or over). The short round (or short). The doubtful round. The bracketing (or mixed) salvo. The bracket (or fork). The error in direction. The error in range.

L'objectif.

L'oculaire.

Le coup long. Le coup court. Le coup douteux.

La La

salve encadrantee.

fourchette. Uecart en direction.

L'ecart en portee.

A A A A A

burst in

air.

burst on graze.

high burst. low burst.

normal burst.

Un Un Un Un Un

coup fusant. coup percutant.

The normal height.

coup fusant haut. coup fusant bas. coup a bonne hauteur. La bonne hauteur (hauteurtijpe}.

The range-jumps.
Axial observation.
Single line observation (or unilateral observation). Double-line observation (or bilateral observation).

Les bonds en portee.

L 'observation

axiale.

L'observalion unilateral.
L'observation bilaterale.
L'observaloire.
L'objeclif
(le

The observing station
vation post).

(or obser

The target. The angle of observation.

but).

L'angle

d''observation.

The
an observing

60

Le choix d'un obseruatoire.
Abriter.

selection

of

station.

To allord cover.

A

transient cloud.
(or pattern) of the bullets (of a lime-shell).

Un nuage
La

fugitif.

The splash

trace des balles (d'un fusant}.

obus

Failing smoke...

A
of...

To make a point

defaut de fumee... S'astreindre a...

Fire for adjustment.

Tir de reglage.

The firing-data. The data-book. The base-line. The auxiliary target. The witness target. The calibration. The meteorological report. The atmospheric pressure. The velocity of the wind. The head wind. The following wind. The cross wind. The ballistic wind. The longitudinal component. The transversal component. The temperature. The coefficient of adjustment
after stripping (K ). The theoretical range cleared of corrections.

Les elements d'un

tir,

Le La Le Le Le Le La La Le Le Le Le

carnet de

tir.

base-repere. but auxiliaire. but temoin.

regimage. sondage. pression atmospherique.
vitesse

du

vent.

vent retardateur. vent propulseur. vent lateral. vent balistique.

La composante longiludinale. La composante transversale. La temperature.
coefficient de reglage apres depoiiillemenl (A' ). La distance theorique ramenee a zero.

Le

The theoretical change

of deflection cleared of corrections.

L'ecart zero.

theorique

ramene a

The error of the day. The control (or verifying) salvo. The principles (or rules) of fire. The fire for registration.

Les corrections du moment.

La
Le

salve de controle.
tir.

Les regies de
tir

de reperage.

70

To calibrate the gun. The corrections for... The projectile ranges shorter. The control salvo is meant
check the data
effect.

Regimer

la piece.

Les corrections dues a... Le projectile va moins loin.
to

La

of the lire for

salve de controle a pour but de verifier les elements
tir d'efficacite.

du

To

entail fresh ranging.

Entrainer
glage.

un

nouveau

re-

Fire for effect.

Tir d'efficacite.

The The The The The

single range

lire.
lire.

searching salvo
progressive
lire.

searching volley

lire.

progressive and sweeping

Le Le Le Le Le

tir

tir tir

sur hausse unique. par salves echelonnees.

par rafales echelonnees.
progressif.

tir
tir

progressif

avec

fau-

fire.

chage.

The rate of lire. The warmer (shot).

La cadence du feu. Le coup de flambage.

A

switch.

Un
lire.

The The The The The The

barrage

encircling barrage.

counter-preparation
reprisal
lire.

lire.

concentration lire. destruction lire.
lire.

Le Le Le Le Le Le

tir

transport de tir. de barrage.

tir
tir tir

tir

tir

d'encagement. de contre-preparation. de represailles. de concentration. de destruction (ou de

The harassing The breach.

demolition}. Le tir de harcelement. La breche.

The captain
fire.

calls

for

sweeping

Le capitaine

fait

fauchcr.

The target does not warrant a heavy consumption of ammunition.

Le but ne comports pas une
grande

consommumni

de

Ammunition-saving. Sqme guns may remain

munitions. Econome de munitions.
Certaines pieces pas tirer.

idle.

peuvent

ne

To open a quick rate
eilect.

of lire for

Executer un
cacite.

tir

rapide

d'ef/i-

To range on theobjective rapidly.

Regler rapidement
jectif.

sur

I'ob-

To narrow down the bracket. To add or drop so many metres to or from the range. To gain cover. The fire slackens. The battery-fire is mastered (or
silenced).

Resserrer la fourchette. Ajouter ou retrancher tant de metres a la porlee. Chercher (ou gagner] un abri.

Le feu (le tir} se ralentit. La batterie est reduite au
lence.

si-

To cripple a battery. To bring infantry to a To prevent
advance.
it

standstill.
its

Paralyser une batterie. Arreter la progression de linfanterie.

from resuming

L'empecher de reprendre
progression. Se dispenser d nn procede. Verifier une hausse.
j

sa

To dispense with a process. To ascertain a range. The whereabouts of a machinegun.
to resort to...

La

approximative position d'une mitrailleuse. Avoir recours a...
Livrer Vassaut. Etablir un barrage. Atteindre le but cherche.
37.
:

To deliver an assault. To set up a belt of fire. To achieve the object in view..

EXERCISE

Translate into French

In determining the data for indirect laying, the following is a of the operations which may be carried out when an oLserving-station on the flank of the guns must be taken and a suitable one can be found within 400 or 300 yards of the guns

summary

:

1) Select an observing-station from which a good view of the target and its surroundings may be obtained which is as close to the guns as the conditions permit and which is as nearly as possible on

the prolongation of their front; 2) Select an aiming point which is surely visible from all the guns, whose direction is as nearly normal to the front as possible and whose distance from them is preferably not less than 2000 yards; 3) Measure the angle from aiming point to target, the angle of sight, and the front of the target in mils;

_

72

-

4) Measure or estimate the distance to aiming point and to target and compute the parallax of each o) Determine the convergence difference, estimate or measure the distance to the directing piece and apply the rule for the deter;

mination of the deflection 6) Determine the deflection difference;
;

7)

Correct the angle of sight,

if

necessary, for difference of level

between observing-station and guns, adopt the corrector which previous fire has shown to he the most suitable, and lake the Tange as measured or estimated. (P. D. S. H., vol. Ill, ch. VI,
sect. VIII,

1226

)

EXERCISE

38.
:

Translate into English

On appelle salve de controle une salve tiree, lorsque le reglage est termine, avec toules les pieces qui doivent participer an tir d'efficacite. Elle a pour but de verifier les elements du tir d'efficacite et, en outre, dans le tircontre obstacle, d'ameliorer la hausse,
y a lieu. La salve de controle est tiree en coups fusants has ou en coups percutants., suivant que le tir d'efficacite doit etre fusant on percutant, et sur la hausse de depart de ce tir. La salve de contr61e peut etre renouvelee lorsqu'elle a entraine des modifications importantes dans la direction ou la hauteur. Dans le tir contre les troupes, la salve de controle ne doit etre executee ni contre un but rapproche, ni lorsque la derniere salve -de reglage, ayant etc tiree sur la limite courte de la fourchette, a permis de constater que la hauteur et la direction sont reglees.
s'il

(Titre IV,

II

8

partie, ch. V,

183.)

EXERCISE
Speak
of the different

39.

methods

of

observation of

fire

both in

range and direction.

SECTION IV.

73

ARTICLE
IV.

Conduct of

fire.

I

Conduile du feu.

Accuracy of
impact).

fire

and
(or

dispersion.

Efficacite et dispersion,

The mean point

center of

Le point moyen.
L'ecart moyen. L'ecart probable

The mean error. The probable error
in

:

:

range;
.

in direction;
in height;

in height of burst.

En En En En

portee; direction; hauteur; hauteur d'eclatement.

The 50 "/ (fifty par cent) zone. The strip containing 7 of

%

Deux ecaris probables. La bande conlenani 7
coups.

%

des

the shots.

The The The The The The The The

event.

L'evenement.

desired outcome.
possible outcome.
certainty.

Le cas favorable. Le cas possible.

moral certainty.
total probability.

compound
law
of the

probability.

lorg run.

La La La La La

certitude.

certitude morale.

probabilite totale.
loi

probabilite composee. des grands nombres.

How

to engage the different targets of the battlefield.

Maniere de combattre les differents objec.ifs du champ de
bataiile.

The sheltered personnel. The personnel of an artillery
provided with shields. Infantry, prone without pack.
.

Le personnel abrite. Le personnel d'une
a boucliers.

artillerie

couchee In/anterie rang sans sacs.
...

sur

un

.

.

.

.

.with pack on back. with pack in front of head.

...

sac au dos. sac deuant la tete.

Starts.

Aircraft.

Earthworks.

The timeliness

of the fire.

Les etals-mafors. Les objectifs aeriens. Les terrassements. Ua-propos du tir.

-

74

-

To

avail one's self of the time

lost

by the adversary.
.

Under pains of. To set on fire.
This difficulty with.

.

In the thick of fight.
is

Mettre a profit le temps perdu par Vadversaire. Sous peine de... Incendier. Au plus fort du combat.
Cette difficult^ est supprimee.
II

done

away
for

Provision should be the case in which.

made

faut preuoir

le

cas

oil,..

To answer requisites. To meet an emergency. The objectives have not yet put
in an appearance. This has but the value
of a hint.

Repondre a des desiderata.
Parer a un incident. Les objecti/s n'ont pas encore
que la valeur d'un renseignement. S'abriter dans un bo/s.
paru. Cela n'a

To take cover
.
.

in a

wood.

.under

fire.

...during lulls. The climax grows near.
Coolness

Sous le feu. Pendant les accalmies. Le denouement deuient imminent.

Le sang-froid.

Acute tactical sense. At top speed.

Un

sens tactique aiguisd.
la

Avec

rapidite

maximum.

EXERCISE

40.
:

Translate into French

Many obstacles may be destroyed by light artillery, but always at the price of a large expenditure of ammunition; they are attacked by high-explosive shell or percussion shrapnel. Defenders behind stone-walls may best be reached by demolishing the walls. Earthworks can only be damaged. The
fire directed on them should be destined only for the defenders who are sheltered by them; percussion shrapnel or high-explosive shell will be used. Localities are attacked with a view of indicting losses on the troop that are believed to be assembled there, or to render them untenable by the demolition of buildings, to which incendiary effect

may sometimes
of

73

-

be added. They are attacked by the percussion fire high-explosive projectiles or by low bursting time-shrapnel. While light artillery shell permits the accomplishment of the result sought, the shell of heavy artillery containing more explosive can produce a greater disorganization of high substantial buildings and of compact group. (P. D. S. R., vol. Ill, ch. VI, sect. XIV
1399-1400.)

EXERCISE

41.
:

Translate into English

n'est possible

La determination des elements du tir dans des limites etroites que dans des conditions d'observation suffisamment

favorables; elle prend du temps; enfin, les limites etroites sont plus sujettes a erreurque les limites larges. Mais elle pennet d'avoir plus de rendement avec moins de projectiles, sur un objectif dont la vulnerabilite ne change pas avec le

temps. Suivant 1'urgence du resultat, la duree de 1'occasion, les conditions de 1'observation, le commandant de batterie cherchera 1'efficacite estimee necessaire soit par urie consommation plus grande, inais plus rapidement faite, sur un espace plus etendu, soit par une consommation moindre, mais prenant plus de temps, sur un espace 197.) plus etroit. (Titre IV, IP partie, ch. VI, art. I,

EXERCISE

42.

How
1)

to

engage

artillery targets. Fire against

:

Reconnaissance parties;

2)

3) Artillery in

Batteries getting into position; battery whose guns are seen; 4) An unseen battery behind a crest;

Conclusion.

CHAPTER
III.

76

CIIAP1TRE

m.

Topography or survey.

Topographie.

Topographical instruments for
the battery.

Instruments topographiques de batterie.

The plane-table. The Iripod. The boll. The adjusting nut. The fastening screws. The declinator. The magnetic needle. The Peigne box compass. The levelling alidade (or alidade
slope rule).

La planchette. Le pied de planchette. Le boulon de planchette.
L'ecrou.

Les

Le

vis de serrage. declinatoire.

L'aiguille magnetique.

La boussole Peigne.
L' alidade nivelatrice.

The air-level. The glass phial. The mounting. The hinged standards. The boxwood ruler. The eye-holes. The eccentrics. The steel tape decameter. The levelling staff (or picket). The rod- man. The plumb-line. The zinc square. The protractor. The ruler.
f

Le niueau. La fiole da niueau. La monture. Les pinnules.

La

regie en buis.

Les ceilletons. Les excentriques. Le decametre a ruban. Le /a/o/2. Vaide. Le I'll a plomb.
L'equerre graduee. Le rapporteur.

La

regie plate.

Topographical surveying.

Precedes topographiques.

Traversing. Resection.
Intersection.

Le cheminement. Le relevement.

L 'intersection.
Les coles du cheminement.

The

legs of the traverse.

The rising gradient. The falling gradient. A landmark. The argument.

La pente ascendante. La pente descenduiile. Un point du terrain. La discussion (d''un problem^}.
La declinaison.

The
The chart
tion.

declination.

of

magnetic declina-

La

carte de la dcchnaison

ma-

gnetiqiie.

The yearly variation. The daily variation. The polar star. The little Dipper.
Thebiir Dipper.

La La

variation seculaire, variation diurne.

Uetoile polaire. La Petite Ourse. La Grande Onrse.

True north.
Magnetic north.
Relief of the ground.

Le nord geographiqne. Le nord magnetiqiic.
Relief

du

so!.

The contours. The hatching.
Hill shading.

Les coiirbes de niveau. Les Jiachures.
Relief represente par des hachares.

The The The The The The The

basin.

neck
hill.

(or saddle)

knoll.
hillock.

plateau (or table-land).
spur.

Le bassin (ou encuuement). Le col (ou ensellemenl}. La colline. Le tertre. Le mamelon. Le plateau.
L'eperon.

The,valley.

The'pass.

The The The The The The The

crest.
defile.

La vallee. La gorge. La cr&te.
Le
defile.

,

military crest. fold oi the ground.

counter- slope.
reverse slope.

forward slope.

La crete militaire. Le repli de terrain. La contre-pente. La pente ascendante. La pente descendanle
Vennemi}.

(vers

Technical vocabulary.

The plan
directeur.

78

Le plan directeur.

The map (or charO. The scale. The coordinates. The ordinate. The abscissa.

La

carte.

Uechelle.

Les coordonnees. L'ordonnee.
L'abscisse.

To tack a sheet
plane.

of

paper on the
is

Fixer sur

une
la

feuille

de
le

papier
point.

planchette.
est

The
It is
It is

plane-table

over

the

La planchette

sur

station-point.

horizontal (or levelled). oriented.
declinated.

Elle est horizontale. Elle est orientee.

It is

Elle est declinee.

To

on the plane-table a point known by its coordinaset off
tes.

Reporter sur
^

To draw diagonals. To check an operation. To bring the bubble between

la planchette un point defini par ses coordonnees. Tracer des diagonales.

its

Amener
Serrer

marks. To make fast the screws. To sight a point. To check (or verify) the alignment. To reduce a distance to scale.

Verifier une operation. la bulle entre ses reperes.
les
vis.

Viser un point. Verifier Valignement.

Reduire
Vechelle.

une

distance

a

A

sensitive declinator.

Un

declinatoire sensible.

To lay of! a direction. To run a traverse. To measure gradients.

Tracer une direction. Faire un cheminement.

Mesurer des pentes.

A

horsehair is stretched across the front standard.

Un
la

crin est tendu le long de pinnule anterieure.

To stick a fine needle. To bring the edge of the alidade

To

against the needle. draw a ray towards
point.

the

To measure a distance by pacing.

Piquer une aiguille fine. Appliquer le biseau de V alidade contre Vaiguille. Tracer la visee correspondant au point. Mesurer une distance au double pas.

To compute
To
di (Terences of level.

79

C nl culer
ve.au. les

differences de nila

locate a point on the plane-

Situer un point sur
chellc.

plan-

table.

The bearirg of a direction. To slake out a direction on the
ground.

Uorientation d'une direction. Jalonner nne direction sur le
terrain.

To place the plane-table
tion over

in staevery second tur-

Stationner a un sommet sur deux.
11

ning-point.

This cause

of

error should be

guarded against.

jaut veiller dCerreur.

a

cette

cause

EXERCISE

43.
:

Translate into French

Levelling the plane -table

:

used for this purpose. Two points of The the tripod are driven fast into the ground, the adjusting screws being first loosened. The alidade is placed on the table along a parallel direction to the straight line joining the two points of the tripod. The instrument-man facing the level lifts the third leg of the tripod just clear and moves it laterally to the right or to the left so as to bring the bubble between its marks. The third leg is then gently let down. The alidade is placed along a direction roughly perpendicular to its previous position and the third leg is moved forwards or backwards in this new direction so as to brini; the bubble between its marks when the point is driven into the ground. The operation Js checked by placing- the level in its first
level of the alidade is

position.

The plane-table once levelled, make fasj the screws of the three legs of the tripod. (Gours de 1'Ecolemilitaire de 1'artillerie. Topographical surveying, sept. 1917, p. 5.)

EXERCISE

44.
:

Translate into English

L'alidade nivelatrice se compose d'une regie enbuisde 20 a 23 centimetres portant un petit niveau a bulle d'air, et de deux pinnules dressees perpendiculairement aux exlremites de la regie; 1'une des

-

80

-

pinnules est percee de trois oeilletons, 1'autre presente une fente a 40 en parties egales, avec un crin et porte des graduations de
des deux c6tes de la fente; du cote droit, la graduation va en monducote gauche, en descendant. L'oeilleton du milieu etle crin fournissent un plan.de visee pour le trace des directions. Enfin deux excentriques permettent de relever les extremites de la regie pour caler exactement la bulle du niveau entre ses reperes au moment de chaque lecture de pente. (Gours de 1'Ecole militaire de
tant;
1'artillerie.
-

Topographic

,

Janvier 1917,

p. 9.)

EXERCISE
Give a description explain their uses.
of the different

43.

topographical instruments, and

81

r.HAPTEK

IV.

CIIAPITRE

IV.

Field fortification.

La

fortification

de campagne.

A
The cover. The observing stations. The communications.

Le convert.
Les vues (les observatoires}. Les communications. La tranchee.

The
The The The The The The The The The The The
parados.
loop-hole.

trench.

parapet. elbow-rest.

Le parados. Le creneau. Le parapet.
Uappui-coude. La banquette de
fir.

shooting-bank. hurdle.
blockhouse.

La
1

claie.

Le blockhaus.

embrasure.
listening post.

watching

post.

connecting (or communica-

L embrasure. Le poste d'ecoute. Le poste de guetieur. Le boyau.
La rigole. La tranchee de premiere
gne.
li-

tion) trench.

The draining gutter. The first line trench.
The doubling trench. The support trench. The intermediate trench. The outpost trench. The reduit. The place d'armes. The telephone-ditch The rack-tracing. The redan-tracing The zigzag-tracing. The winding tracing. The traverse.

La La La La
Le La Le Le Le Le Le La

tranchee tranchee tranchee tranchde
reduit.

de doublement. de soutien.

intermediate.
d'avant-poste.

place d'armes.

caniveau telephonique.
trace a cremaillere.
trace a redans.

trace en zigzag.
trace,

sinueux.

traverse (ou chicane}.

The The The The The The The The The The
dug-out.

shelter.

L'abri.

slight shelter.

L'abri enterre. L'abri leger.
L'abri renforce. L'abri a Vepreuve.

strengthened shelter.
proof dug-out. opened excavation.

deep dug-out.
sap.

bursting surface.
lines of joined stakes.
(or

La fouille decouverte. La fouille en sape profonde. La sape. La couche d'eclatement.
Les

palanques

de

rondins

jointifs.

The transom
top-beam).

longitudinal

Le chapeau.

The The The The The The The The The

upright. frame.
stake.
sole.

plank.
post.

wooden

case.

bracing. angle brace.
lath.

Lc Le Le La La Le Le Le La

montanl (ou support}.
chassis.

piquet. semelle.

planche.
poteau. cadre en bois.

contreventement.
contre-fiche.

The diagonal

The cross-beam. The cross-piece.
The water-tight roofing. The concrete flag. The dragbar (for assembling
flags).

L'echarpe. La traverse (de toiture}.
L'entretoise.

La La

toiture

impermeable.
Vassemblage

dalle de beton.

The armature.
The
materials.

Uetrier (pour des dalles}. L'armature.

Les materiaux.

The The The The The The

cross beam.
fascine.

brushwood-hurdle.
gabion.

sandbag. plane sheet of iron.

La poutrelle metallique. La fascine. La claie de broussaille. Le gabion. Le sac a terre. La tole plate.

The plane element
sheet-iron.
of

83

La
La
idle idle

corrugated
of

ondulee plate.
ondulee cintree.

The curved element
ted sheet-iron.

corruga-

The waves
Concrete.

(of

a sheet).

Reinforced concrete.

Les ondes (d'une idle}. Le beton de ciment. Le beton arme.

The armour The timber
pit-prop).

plating.
(or

round

log)
felt).

(or

Le blindage melallique. Le rondin. Le carton bitume. Le chene.
Uacacia.

Tar-paper (or asphaltic

The oak. The acacia. The ash. The elm.

Le frene.

Vorme.
obstacle.
L'obstacle.

The

The shell crater. The wire entanglement. Barbed wire. The abatis. The fougasse. The chevaux de frise The hedgehog.

Le iron d'obus. Le reseau de fil de fer. Le fil de fer barbele.
L'abatis.

La fougasse.
Les chevaux de Le her is son.
Le defilement
frise.

The concealment and camouflage.

et le

camouflage.
les

The patches (made by earthwork).

Les laches (formees par

travaux de terrassement}.

the Draping of the ground. The flashes. The glint from the tyres. The blast from the guns. The screen of painted canvas. The strip of sacking.
The tarpaulin. The chicken wire. The net.

Le decapage du sol. Les lueurs. Ueclat des bandages de roues. Le souffle des pieces.

La

toile

camouflee.
toile

Le masque en
lage.

d'embal*-

La bdche. Le grillage. Le filet.

The meshes
Raffia.
(of a

84

Les mailles (d'un
lage}. Le r aphia.
filet

net or wire.)

ou

gril-

The blind alley. The loop. The false (or dummy) The lire cracker. The dull colour. The finger-post.

Le cul-de-sac. Le point de rebroussement.
battery.

La fausse batterie. Le marron a lueurs. La couleur mate. La pancarte.
La construction d'une
batterie.

The construction
The The The The The The
scheme

of a battery,

of construction.

protection to be scheduled.
terre-plein.

platform.

Le projet de construction. La protection a prevoir. Le terre-plein. La plate-forme.
Uepaulement. em placement

epaulment.
gun-pit

U

de

piece

en-

lerre.

The casemate. The proof-dug-out. The commanding post. The first-aid medical station. The embrasure shutter. The splinter proof epaulment. The back-fragment screen. The ammunition shelter. Thoammunitionhhelf (or recess). The niche for shells. The niche for charges. The track. The narrow gauge railway.

*. La casemate. L'abri de bombar dement.

Le Le Le Le Le

poste de cornmandement. poste de secours.
volet d'embrasure.

pare-eclats.

pare-eclats arriere. L'abri a munitions. Le easier a munitions.

La niche La niche La piste.
Le
etroite.

a obus. a gargousses.

chemin

de

fer

a

voie

To lit up natural obstacles. To dig a sap. To conceal a battery. To baffle the enemy's observers.

Utiliser les obstacles nalurels.

Creuser une sape. Dissimuler une batterie. Derouter les observateurs cnnemis.

To scarp

the reverse crest of a

Creuser
le

steep ridge.

line plate-jormc dans versant d'une crete escar-

pee.

To peg down sacking over the ground. To prop up the walls. To support Hie roof. To prevent the walls from slipping. To stake out the emplacement for a battery.

Fixer de la sur le sol.

toile

d'emballage

Etayer les parois. Sontenir la toiture.

Empecher
Piqueter
I"

les

eboulements.

emplacement d'une

batterie.

To impede the advance
assailant.

of

the

Ent raver
lant.

la

marche de
choc.

I'assail-

To stand the brunt

of

an assault.

Soutenir
46.
:

le

EXERCISE
Translate
iiilo

French

Experience shows that anything that breaks the view close in front of distant objects greatly increases the difliculty of seeing

them. Such material as nets or bamboo trellis with bits of the surrounding vegetation, stuck into them may be used for this purpose. If guns have to be placed on a sky-line, a strip of sacking stretched in front of them may serve as a false sky-line when viewed from the enemy's position. Similarly brushwood hurdles placed behind guns to act as a background will often conceal them for the time being. To prevent guns from being located by the dust thrown up on discharge, the ground should be watered for some yards in front ot the muzzles, or such material as raw hides, and sacking, pegged down over it. For a similar reason the movements of guns and individuals must be restricted as much as possible when there is any likelihood of the enemy being able to observe them. (F. A. T.,
ch. XI,

238

-5.)

EXERCISE

47.
:

Translate into English

La securite de toute construction reposant sur ses fondations, on donner a celles-ci une surface d'appui sufiisante pour eviter leur enfoncement, et prendre des dispositions centre
doit s'attacher a

leur glissement.

-

86

-

Les potcaux verlicaux d'une charpente ne doivent jamais reposer directement sur le sol. II est necessaire de les placer sur des semelles encastrees dans la terre, convenablement bourrees a leur partie inferieure et, si Ton craint le glissement, arretees par des
piquets.
les

Toule cliarpente, pour etre indeformable, doit comporler, outre poleaux verticaux destines a supporter la charge, un contreventement serieux. Des contrefiches et des echarpes doivent former une veritable triangulation de 1'ensemble. (Gours de 1'Ecole
militaire de Tartillerie.
Fortification de

campagne

,

p

56.)

EXERCISE
Speak
of the

48.

battery position (7o%

construction of ammunition-shelters for a given field gun).

CHAPTER
V.

87

CHAPITRE
V.

Communications.

La

liaison.

Signalling (semaphore
ling).

signal-

La

signalisation.

The The

flag.

Le fan ion.
Les signaleurs. Les relais a voix.

signallers.

Voice relay.

The megaphone. The couriers. The whistle.
Optical (or v.isual) signalling.

Coloured lights (or signal lights).

The projectors. , r The dot Morse The dash
/

s,gn.ls.

j

Le megaphone. Les coureurs. Le sifflet. Les signaux optiques. Les fusees. Les profecteurs. Le point. ). Sl nau * Le trait. \( 9
.

Wireless telegraphy (or radiotelegraphy).

La telegraphic sans

fil

The telephone.
The The electro-magnet. The coil. The microphone. The switch. The receiver. The mouthpiece (or transmitter). The bell. \ The buzzer. The terminal. The plug. The earth-plate. The primary circuit. The secondary circuit. The short circuit.
cell.

Le telephone.

La

pile.

L'electro-aimant.

La bobine de
L'interrupteur L'ecouteur.

la

magneto.
combine]
..

Le microphone.
(du

Le parleur.

La sonnerie. Le vibreur. La borne. La fiche. La fiche de terre. Le circuit primaire. Le circuit secondaire. Le court-circuit.

The wire. The line. The electric current. The electric cable. The switch-board.

xs

Le

fil.

La

ligne.

Le courant electrique. Le cable de campagne. Le tableau (annonciateur}.

A

line-breakdown.

The telephone- wagon.

Une rupture de ligne. La voiture telephonique.

To connect the cells. To shake the microphone. To earth the line. The line makes partial earth
somewhere. To disconnect.

Ftelier les piles.

Secouer
Mettre a
II

le

microphone.

la terre.

u a line perte a la terre.

A

congested

line.

t

Debrancher. Une lifjne encombree.

With the naked eye. To be within earshot
tery.

A
of the bat-

Vceil nu.
la

Eire a portee de voix de
batterie.

EXERCISE

49.
:

Translate into French

In speaking into the transmitter, the head should be held in a natural position, the lips about an inch from the transmitter. The transmitter should be held with its face vertical and should be protected from the wind. In a high wind, good results may be obtained by pressing the transmitter against the throat on either side of the windpipe. Use a moderate tone of voice and speak slowly and distinctly, being careful not to slur the words or syllables, but to enunciate clearly each sound. Never shout or raise the pitch of the voice. Never use the letter for zero when so used, it is often mistaken for afour. The digit 9 being often difficult to understand, the word niner may be substituted therefor. (P. D. S. R.,
;

vol. Ill, ch. VI, sect. VII,

1124.)

so

EXERCISE

50.
:

Translate into English
Verification
les

On reunit par un fil du circuit microphomque. deux homes de ligne, on saisit 1'appareil par la poignee et on
1'oreille.

appuie 1'ecouteur a
a)
la

que Ton (ait des contacts avec le commutateur de Chaque poignee du combine, on entend dans 1'ecouteur un petit crafois

quement;
/>) On appuie d'une fac,on continue sur le commutateur de poigneepour etablir les contacts de pile. En agitant le microphone, ou en passant les doigts sur la plaque du microphone, on doit entendre dans 1'ecouteur un bruissement caracteristique. Dans le cas oil ce resultat ne serai pas oblenu, il faut verifier les fits de la pile, s'assurer qu'ils sont bien serres sous les bornes et qu'aucune vis exterieure n'est desserree sur le combine. Cette verification faite, on detache un des fils de la pile et, avec l'exlr*emite de ce fil, on fait des contacts sur la borne a laquelle il etait fixe, en continuant a appuyer sur le commutateur. Ces contacts doivent etre entendus dans 1'ecouteur. (Cours de 1'Ecole militaire de 1'artillerie. Telephonic p. 46.)
t
,

EXERCISE

51.

In what different manners can a battery commander communicate with his battery? Examine and criticize the various means of

communication he may have

at his disposal.

CHAPTER
with
VI.

90

CHAPITRE
VI.

Cooperation of aircraft
artillery.

L'avion et le ballon en liaison avec 1'artillerie.

The
The

aerial observation.

L 'observation

aerienne.

Aircraft.

balloon.

The kite. The airship (or dirigible). The aeroplane (or airplane). The scout battle-plane.

Les appareils aeriens. Le ballon. Le ballon captif. Le dirigeable.
L' avion.

The bombing-plane.
The wireless. The transmitting sets. The receiving sets.
Weighted message block. The panels (or strips). The shutter-panels. The call. The wave-length. The antenna. The radio service. The air-squadron.

L'avion de chasse. L'avion de bombardement.

La

T. S. F. L'appareil transmetleur.

L'appareil recepteur.

Le message

leste.

Les panneaux. Les panneaux
L'indicatif.

a.

persiennes.

La longueur

d'onde.

Uantenne. Le service radiotelegraphique.
L'escadrille.
L'of/icier d'antenne.

The receiving officer. The sheaf of light! The relief of the aeroplane. The landing ground.
The The The The The The The The
flight.

Le faisceau lumineux.

La

releve de Favion.
terrain]
d'alter-

Le point (ou
rissage.

Le

vol.

observer.
pilot.

L'observateur.

Le Le Le Le Le

pilote.

propeller.

L'helice.

rudder.
fuselage.

gouvernail.
fuselage. chariot d'atterrissage.

landing carriage.
shed.

hangar.

91

La panne. La nacelle [da Le filet. La soupape. Le cordage.
Uancre.
ballon}.

The breakdown. The basket (of the The netting. The valve. The rope. The anchor. The parachute.

balloon).

Le parachute.

To display one's panels. To remove the panels. The panels are tacked on wooden
battens. Lost!

Mettre les panneaux. Enleuer les panneaux. Les panneaux sont clones sur des tringles en bois.

Non

vu!
vent.

To operate in a high wind. To turn turtle.

Operer par grand
Capoter. Mettre en marche. Mettre Vallumage.

To

To To switch o(l. To bring down an aeroplane. To inflate. To deflate (or to empty).

start the engine. switch on.

Couper Vallumage. Descendre un avion.
Gonfler (un ballon}. Degonfler.
52.
:

EXERCISE

Translate into French

Both during the period of tactical reconnaissance which precedes the battle, and in the battle itself, the employment of aircraft may assist the artillery. If it is possible before a battle to ascertain the general position and number of the hostile batteries by reconnaissances from aircraft, a valuable clue to the probable grouping of the hostile artillery may be obtained and the allotment of tasks to his artillery by
the divisional commander facilitated. During the battle, aircraft can assist artillery as follows
1)
:

By the indication of concealed targets; 2) By observation of fire. Aeroplanes may be used for both these objects, but kites are of value chiefly for observation of lire. The latter, however, can only

operate in a wind of from 20 to 40 miles an hour. They can lift an observer to a height of 1.500 to 2.000 feet and can keep in telephonic communication with the ground. They cannot easily be damaged by fire. (F. A. T., ch. VII, 150.)

EXERCISE

53.
:

Translate into English

L'observation aerienne permet

la

reconnaissance des objectifs,

1'evaluation des ecarts en direction et en portee, 1'observation des rafales ou salves lirees simullanement et revaluation de leurs

ecarts moyens.

Les inconvenients de ce mode d'observation sont le mode de le temps restreint de 1'observation; le mouvement rapide de 1'aeroplane; les difficultes provenant des conditions atmospheriques, de la neige, du vent, de la pluie, des nuages; 1'etendue de terrain each ee par les ailes et les moyens limites qu'oflre la liaison par T. S. P. Toutes ces difficultes rendent parfois 1'observation aerienne intermittente. Son succes depend, en outre, d'une entente parfaite entre 1'observateur et le commandant de batterie, de 1'emploi de moyens simples de communication, et de la suppression radicale de toute conversation inutile. (From the Instruction for the employment of
:

communication precaire;

aerial observation,

annex

I,

part

I,

1.)

EXERCISE

54.

What are the different means of communication from aircraft. State their respective advantages and drawbacks.

PART
V.

93

V' PARTIE.
L' ARTILLERIE

ARTCLLERIE IN THE
FIELD.

EN

CAMPAGNE
ET DANS LE COMBAT.

CHAPTER

I.

CHAPIT11E

I".

Organization of artillery.

Organisation de

I'artillerie.

Liij-ht

Held artillery.
artillery.

Artillerie de
tee).

campagne (mon-

Horse

Artillerie a cheval.
Artillerie de

Mountain

artillery.

montagne.
de

Heavy

field artillery.

Artillerie

lourde

campa-

gne.

High-powered heavy

artillery.

Artillerie

Heavy

artillery on railroad cars (or railroad artillery).

a lonrde grande puissance (A. L. G. P.). Artillerie lourde aur voie fer-

ree (A. L.

V. F.}.

Coast artillery

Arlillerie de cole. Artillerie de siege. Artillerie a pied. Artillerie de forleresse.
Artillerie de tranchee.

Siege artillery Foot artillery.

Garrison artillery.

Trench artillery.
Divisional artillery.

Artillerie

divisionnaire.

Corps artillery.

The artillery command. The sub-command. The group (or field-artillery
talion in the U.

Artillerie de corps. Le groiipement d'urtillerie^

bat-

Le sous-groupement. Le groupe.
--=3

= 3 batteries.
The group
quarters.

S. service).

batteries.

(or battalion) head-

L'etat-mafor de groupe.

The battery. The platoon. The section.
Technical vocabulary.

La
La

batterie.

L'i section.

piece.

94

The gun. The howitzer. The mortar. The trench- mortar. The bomb-throver. The anti-aircraft gun. The light calibre gun. Open warfare.
Position (or trench) warfare.

Le canon.

Uo busier.
Le Le Le Le Le
mortier.

canon de tranchee.

lance-bombes. canon contre avion. canon de petit calibre. La guerre de monvement. La guerre de position.

A

flat

trajectory.

A A

concealed position. position in the open.
in

Troops

movement.

Stationary troops. Personnel in entranchments.

position vue (en campagne}. Les troupes en marche. Les troupes en station.

Une Une Une

trafectoire tendue.

position defilee.
rase

The wheeled

traffic.

Pack-animals.

The

field (of fire).
fire.

Long-range
Frontal
Enfilade
fire.

fire.

Le personnel retranche. Le transport sur roues. Les animaux de bat. Le champ (de tir}. Le tir a longue portee. Le tir de jront. Le tir d'enfilade ou d'echarpe).

Oblique
Direct

fire.

fire.

High angle fire. Plunging fire. Curved lire. The four-wheel drive
The caterpillar rim

tractor.

Le tir oblique. Le tir de plein fouet. Le tir a grand angle. Le tir plongeant. Le tir courbe. Le tracteur (a quatre roues matrices a adherence totale}.
Les ceintures de roues (cingolis}.

(or girdle).

The motor-truck
Gasoline.

(or lorry).

Le camion-auto.
Uessence.

To deliver effective fire on. To incur great risk. To be exposed on one's flank.

Ouurir un feu efficace sur... Courir de grands risques. Eire decouvert sur le flanc.

95

EXERCISE

;i:>.

Translate into French

:

Characteristics of mountain artillery. In country where wheeis impracticable, light guns carried on pack animals are the only substitute for field artillery, but the use of mountain artillery is not restricted to such country. Infantry requires effective support throughout the attack, and as pack animals can go practically anywhere that an infantry soldier can go without using his hands, batteries of mountain artillery are peculiarly suited to work with infantry in difficult country of any kind. Hills, woods, and broken or enclosed country, which might be impassable to wheeled
led traffic
artillery present little difficulty to pack animals, and, as cover, which will conceal a man standing upright is sufficient for them also, batteries of mountain artillery will often be able to work their

the

way forward on a battlefield without attracting attention, where movement of w heeled artillery could not escape detection.
r

Moreover, the utility of mountain artillery is not confined to supporting the infantry in the various forms an attack may assume, for in the defence of woods, in temporary forward positions occupied by the defence, and in rearguard action, its mobility and easy concealment will often enable it to render valuable service. In short, mountain batteries are capable of being of great value on many occasions when circumstances are unfavourable to the use of wheeled artillery, with which however, they compare unfa144.) vourably in respect of shell pover, (F. A. T., ch. VII,

EXERCISE

56.
:

Translate into English

Grace a la puissance de ses eflets localises, 1'artillerie lourde peut elre utilisee pour agir contre des constructions tres resistantes et difficilement inllammables, contre des ouvrages de fortification. Elle permet de produire a un moment donne, et dans une zone restreinte, rable.

un

eifet

d'ecrasement materiel

et

surtout moral conside-

Grace a son tir courbe, elle est susceptible d'utiliser les masques d'une fac,on plus complete que 1'artillerie de campagne, et surtout d'atteindre des espaces qui seraient en angle mort pour celle-ci. Pour la destruction des buts vivants non en angle mort ou des

1'artillerie

96

-

obstacles habituels, elle est d'un rendement inferieur a celui de

de campagne qui emploie des projectiles plus petits mais plus nom]>reux et mis en ceuvre bien plus rapidement. (Titre V,
ch.
1,

art. II,

18.)

EXERCISE
What
heavy

57.

are the characteristics of field guns, field howitzers and

artillery, respectively?

CHAPTER
II.

97

CHAPITRE
Emploi de
II.

Employment

of artillery.

1'artillerie.

Concealment.

Defilement.

To move
road.

in

column

of route

on a

Marcher en colonne sur
route.

line

To court disaster. To move deployed.
To be on tlie look-out. To be under fire. To be subjected to hostile

Aller au-deuant cTun desastre. Marcher en formation deployee.

fire.

Eire aux aguets. Eire sous le feu. Eire soumis an feu de nemi.

Ven-

Judicious utilization of forces.
In position of readiness. * To remain in observation.

Utilisation judicieuse des forces-

En

position d'attente.

A contemplated operation. An encounter with the enemy.
The frontage
To decide on something. that can be conveniently covered. The extent of the objective

Rester en surveillance, line, operation en vue. line rencontre avec Cennemi. Decider de quelque chose.

Le front qui peut etre ment battu. U et endue de iobjectif.

aisc-

To keep a reserve of fire power in hand to meet the requirements that may arise. To obtain results commensurate
with...

Tenir en reserve des batteries

To allot the tasks. To be in a position to deal

with...

pour faire face aux evenements. Obtenir des resultats en rapport avec... Repartir les missions. Etre en etat de s'occuper de...
Les cas imprevus.
Retirer line batterie

Unforeseen contingencies. To withdraw a battery from
action.

-

98

-

Protection (or security).

Securite.

The The The The The The The The

advanced guard.
bulk.

L avant-garde.
1

Le gros de

la

colonne,

rearguard.

Uarn'ere- garde.
La
flanc-garde.

Hank-guard.
sentries.

Les scntinelles.

piquet.

support.
outposts.

Le petit poste. La grand'garde.
Les avant-postes.

On

the march.

Stationary.

En marche. En station.
patrols.

To rely on one's own

Compter sur
tro nilles.

ses propres pa-

To avoid delay. To absolve from all care. The lire of the guns can be
brought
to

Gagner du temps.
Dispenser de tout soin. Le feu des canons peut etrc dirige sur cette zone en cas
de besoin. S'entendre auec le dant de Vescorte.

bear on that zone

in case of need.

To consult with the commander
of the escort.

comman-

Intercommunications.

Liaisons.

The

receipt

of

timely

infor-

La

reception

des

renseigne-

mation.
In open country. In close for intricate, or broken)

ments en temps voulu.

En En

terrain decouvert.
terrain convert.

country.

The mounted orderly. To keep in touch with. To maintain direct communica.
.

L' agent de liaison a cheval.

Reslcr en liaison avec...

Avoir
avec...

Line

liaison

directe

tion with.

.

.

To open communication with. To trust entirely to this means.
.

.

Etablir une liaison avec...

S'en tenir a ce moyen.

To supplement a method.
To disclose a position. To obtain valuable clues.

99

Doubler (renforcer] une
thode.

me-

Devoiler une position. Obtenir de precieux rensei-

gnements.

To report. With a view to. To make sure that. To take steps to. Advanced observation
.

Rendre compte.

.

A

Veffet de...

.

.

.

.

post.

S'assurer que... Prendre des mesures pour... Poste d'observation avance.
Cttte

That responsibility rests with him.
Artillery in attack.

responsabilite

lui

in-

combe.
L'artillerie

dans

('offensive.

The counter-battery.

La

contre-batterie.

To locate. To be in strength. To hold the ground gained.
To repel an attack. To break up the lines. To subdue the fire of
batteries.

Reperer. Eire en force. Maintenir (garder] le terrain conquis. Repousser une attaque.

Enfoncer
hostile

les lignes. les batteries

Faire taire mies.

enne-

The look out men's

reports.

Les comptes rendus des observateurs.

To impede the advance. To husband ammunition. To close with the enemy.
..

Empecher Vavance.
Economiser les munitions. Venir au contact de Vennemi.
...favorable a la defense.

.suitable to defence.

To gain ground. To increase the range. To exhaust the enemy's power.

Progresser.

Allonger le tir. Epuiser Vennemi.

Artillery in defence.

L'artillerie

dans

la defensive.

The offensive stroke. The intricacies of the ground.

Le retour offensif. Les difficultes du terrain.

The counter-attack. The retirement. The retreat.

100

La
j
|

contre-attaquc.
repli.

Le La

retraite.

To recapture To To To To To

a lost locality.
.

Reprendre
due.

unc

localite

per-

take part in. move by rushes.
.

Prendre part a... Avancer par bonds.
Rester colle an
Veiller
sol.

keep glued to the ground. keep a careful watch for. launch a counter-attack.

soigneusement a... Declancher line contre-attaquc.

To debouch.

Deboucher.

EXERCISE

58.
:

Translate into French

The advanced guard aflords protection to the main body and obtains information; either function may compel it to light. When the enemy is encountered, and offensive action is intended, the advanced guard should drive back the enemy's advanced troops till the dispositions of his main body are disclosed, after which the advanced guard will usually be compelled to limit its action to holding the ground gained until the commander has formed his plan and deployed his force. It follows that the action of the advanced guard may alternate between the offensive and the defensive. The action of the artillery must conform. The commander of the artillery of the advanced guard will accompany the advanced guard commander on the march, so that he may receive early instructions as to his action. The artillery will be allotted positions that will enable it to co-operate with the rest of the advanced guard in carrying out the plan of action that the advanced guard commander may decide to adopt. The occupation of concealed positions, a wide dispersion of the arailable guns and a liberal expenditure of ammunition will then assist to deceive the enemy as to the strength of the force opposed to him, and may so contribute materially to the success of the operation. (F. A. T.,ch. VII, 154.)

101

KXERCISE

;>9.

Translate into English

:

L'artilleric agit sur 1'ennemi par ses eflets de destruction. Mais les eflels de destruction, toujours a rechercher si cette recherche ne doit pas entrainer line depense exageree de munitions, seront

souvent difficiles a obtenir parce que I'ennemi s'edorcera d'y echapper par des precautions et par la cessation momentanee, plus ou moins complete, de son activite. Cette cessation ou diminution
d'activite imposee a i'ennemi constitue la neutralisation. Des elTets de neutralisation, produits a propos par 1'envoi d'un nombre relativement faible de projectiles, peuvent suffire dans

certains cas, mais

its

sont loin de donner les

memes
ils

demoralisation que
poraires.
significatif L'artillerie

les ellets

de destruction, et

resultats de ne sont que tem-

donne encore, en surcroit, pat le bruit apprecie et de sa voix et par la vue des obus frappant 1'adversaire, 1'appui moral dont 1'infanterie amie a besoin pour souteair son impulsion en avant ou sa resistance sur place. Enfin, comme tout combattant qui s'ajoute a d'autres, chaque canon nouveau produira un effet de diversion qui forcera 1'ennemi a diviser son attention et
ses coups. (Titre V, ch.
II, art. I,

21.)

EXERCISE
What

60.

are the functions of light Meld artillery in

modern position
combat. -

warfare? Its employment in the various phases Kinds of lire it has to deliver, etc.

of the

CHAPTER
Artillery on the
III.

102

CHAPITRE
L'artillerie sur le bataille.

III.

battlefield.

champ de

Reconnaissance.

Reconnaissance.

The battalion orienting officer, The reconnoitring party. The The The The The The The
telephone detachment.
scouts.

U off icier orient eur.
Le detachement de reconnaissance.

Uequipe telephonique.
Les eclair eur s.

horseholder.
patrol.

observation-wagon.
sketch.

Le garde-chevaux (le planton}. La patrouille. La voiture-observatoire. Le croquis.
Le falonneur.

route-marker.

To reconnoitre. To detail an officer. To carry out a reconnaissance. To take ranges. The trajectory clears the crest. To make a sketch. To letter a point.
Leading.

Reconnaitre.

Detacher (ou designer] un
f icier.

of-

Faire une reconnaissance.
Telemetrer.

La

trajectoire passe

par-des-

sus la crete. Faire un croquis.

Designer un voint var une
ire.

let-

Jalonnement.

The ground-scouts. The approach-march.

Les eclair eur s de terrain.

La marche d'approche.

To lead the column. To lead up the battery. To move by a certain route.

Guider

la la

colonne.
batterie.
ilineraire.

Amener

Prendre un certain

To To To To To

103

Jalonner Vitineraire, Faire un detour. Assurer le defilement.

mark make

the route.
a detour.

ensure concealment.
risk detection.

move over

a sky-line.
of

Risquer d'etre vu. Passer une crete qui
che sur
le

se deta-

del.

To take advantage
conditions.

certain

Profiler de
tions.

certaines

condi-

To To To To To To

keep an eye on. expose one's self
be out of sight of

Avoir
to

Vceil a...

view.

make

for a point.

give warning of prepare for action.
liring battery lirsl-line wagons.

S'exposer aux vues. Eire hors de vue de... Se diriger sur un point. Avertir de...

Prendre les dispositions combat.
Separer Vechelon.
Embouteiller une route.
Occupation de
la

de

To separate the
from the

To block

a road.

Occupation of the position.

position.

The reference

point.
\

A

site for a battery.

Le point de repere. Un emplacement de

batterie.

C
To point out the position. To check the pace (or gait). To deaden the noise of wheels and jingling of harness.
Indiquer

Moderer Amortir
le

la position. V allure.

le bruit des roues el cliquetis des chaines (des harnais).

To To To To To To To To

dismount.
drop back.
reverse.

Mettre pied a terre. Hester en arriere. Faire demi-tour.
Deleter.

unhook the teams. man-handle a gun. commit a battery to action. watch an area. send word of one's intention
response
to

Manceuvrer une piece a bras. Engager une batterie. Surveiller une zone.
Avertir quelqu'un de son
tention.
in-

;

to.
1

Ready

superior
allotted

L execution

orders.

To depart from one's
task.

immediate des ot~ dres superieurs. S'ecarter de sa mission.

_
Change
of position.

104

-

Changement de
Faire amener

position.

To order the limbers up.
In position of assembly.

les avani-trains.

En

position

de

rassemble-

merit.

To contemplate a retirement. To keep some rounds in reserve.

Enuisager un repli. Garder quelques coups en
serve.

re-

On the move. The caisson will catch up.

En mouvement.
Le caisson rejoindra.

Replacement of casualties.

Remplacement du personnel et du materiel.

The coal-box (or crump). The casualty.
The casualties. The casualty to the personnel.
The casualty
to the

La

<

marmite

.

L'accident (survenu soit dans le personnel, soit an materiel).

Les pertes.
L'accident suruenu dans le personnel. L'accidenl (ou deterioration]

equipment

The dressing-station. The first-aid medical outtit. The men killed in action. The field ambulance. The clearing-station The wounded. The dead. The missing men. The stretcher. The stretcher-bearer. The surgeon.

an materiel. Le poste de secours. Le paquet de pansement. Les hommes tues au combat. L'ambulance.
L'hopital
a" evacuation.
1

Les blesses. Les marts. Les disparus. Le brancard. Le brancardier. Le chirurgien.

Thebattery-commander becomes
a casually.

Le

commandant de

batterie

disparait.

That man

is

reported missing.
losses
to the
in

Get homme est signale disparu.

comme

To make
battery.

ijood

the

Remplacer
non.

les

hornmes man-

A casualty occurs

gun.

quants de la batteric. Un accident survient au ca-

To make good the damage from the wagon.

Reparer
gee en
caisson.

la la

parlie

endommale

prelevant sur

The caisson
The wagon
is

(or

wagon)

was

ignited by a hostile projectile.

blown up.

Le caisson a ete incendie par un projectile ennemi. Le caisson saute.

Supply from ammunitioncolumns.

Ravitaillement en munitions.

The

dillerent types of ordnance.

Les differents genres de bouches a feu.

The unexpended rounds. The ammunition column. The refilling point. The ammunition dump.

Les munitions non employees. La section de munitions.

Le centre de ravitaillement. Le depot de munitions.

The captain

is

maintaining

ammunition
battery.

responsible for the supply of in the firinginto the

Le capitaine est responsable du ravitaillement en munitions de la batterie de
tir.

The teams hook
wagons.

empty

Les attelages attellent
sons
vicles.

les cais-

The

issues

made by

the column.
to

Les distributions faites par
section.

li

To push up the ammunition
the lighting-troops.
..

Pousser qu'aux
tes.
...

les

munitions fustroupes combattande...

to

within reach

of...

jusqiCa proximite
61.
:

EXERCISE
The
is to

Translate into French
first

a position under cover reconnaissance, be occupied, should be the selection and occupation of the

object of the

if

106
observing-station, the concealment of which from the enemy is of great importance. The battery-commander must then decide on the approximate position of the guns, ascertain that the trajectory will clear the crest, settle how the position is to be occupied and mark the line of fire, unless he delegates this duty to the section commander, who may have accompanied him. He must also decide whether he will use his observation-wagon or not, and must give orders as to the placing of the wagon, with a view to its concealment, as far as possible, from all portions of the enemy's position. In estimating the amount of cover that will be necessary, regard must be paid to the general tactical situation. Defilade from the immediate objective is not sufficient. All ground in occupation of the enemy from which fire may be observed and controlled should receive consideration. (F. A. T., ch. IX, 192.)

EXERCISE

62.
:

Translate into English

Toute troupe dont le chef se porteen avant doit pouvoir le suivre sans hesitation.. Dans ce but, lorsque le commandant d'une fraction quelconque d'arlillerie part en reconnaissance, il indique a rollicier qui le remplace la vitesse de marche et lui donne tous les renseignements qu'il possede sur la direction initiale qu'il compte suivre, ainsi que sur la distance du point oil il compte se porter. Si cette distance n'est pas Ires srande et si le pays n'est ni trop coupe ni trop boise, il suffira generalement que 1'officier reste en tete de la troupe fasse filer celui qui s'eloigne au moyen de quelques cavaliers alertes et sachant bien ce qu'on leur demande, pris dans sa troupe, et qu'il lancera successivement sur la piste. Si la distance est grande, le pays coupe ou boise, 1'officier qui part previent qu'il fait jalonner. Le chef des eclaireurs qu'il emmene laisse successivement des jalonneurs pour guider la troupe sur les parties du chemin ou il peut y avoir doute sur 1'itineraire a suivre. II prend les dispositions qu'il juge les meilleures pour assurer le jalonnement eii economisant, autant que possible, le personnel sous ses ordres. (Titre V, ch. Ill, art. IV, 73.)

EXERCISE

63.

Examine the successive operations carried out by a battery-commander when going to reconnoitre a position for his battery.

CHAPTER
Movements and
IV.

107

CHAPITRE
et
IV.

quarters.

Mouvements de troupes
cantonnements.

Marches.

Les marches.

The column of route. The halt. The cross-roads. The night-march. The forced march. The day's march.

La La Le La La

colonne de route.
halte.

carre four.

marche de nuit. marche forcee.

L'etape (distance}.

Cross-roads should be

left clear.

//

To At To To

march

off.

faut degager les carrefours. Se mettre en marche.

a walk.

Au

pas.
la

bring up the rear.
feed the horses.

Fermer Donner
vaux.

marche.

a

manger aux
a boire.

che-

To water them. To close up.

Leur donner
Serrer (sur
cede}.
of a
la

voiture qui pre-

The opening out To go astray.

column.

L'allongement d'une colonne.
S'egarer.

Transport by

rail

and water.
(or

Transports en chemin de fer et en bateau.

The railway carriage

com-

Le wagon (pour

les

hommes}.
chevaux}.
materiel}.

partment). The horse (or cattle) truck.

The wagon-truck. The engine. The pair of wheels. The bufler.

Le wagon (pour Le wagon (pour

les
le

La machine.
L'essieu
fictif.

Le tampon.

The The The The The The The The The The The
The The The The The The The The The The The The
portable ramp.
platform.
rail.

108

La rampe mobile. Le quai. Le longeron.

sleeper.

La
Le

traverse.
surfaix.

surcingle.

entraining station. detraining station.
sentry. tunnel.

La gare d'embarquement. La gare de debarquement. La sentinelle. Le tunnel.
Le viaduc. Le passage superieur
(pont)

viaduct.

hridge (or overhead-crossing).
level-crossing.

subway-crossing.

embankment.
excavated line.
switches.
track (or line).
junction.

armoured
rack.

train.

compartment.
station master.

railway

transport

officer

Le passage a niveau. Le passage souterrain. Le remblai. Le deblai. Les aiguilles. Le voie. L'embranchement. Le train blinde. Le compartiment. Le filet. Le chef de gare. Le commissaire militaire.

(R. T. 0.)

The motor-lorry.

Le camion automobile.

The ship. The harbour. The quay (or wharf) The gangway. The boat. The deck. The main deck. The lower deck. Between the decks. The bow. The sler.i.

Le uaisseau. Le port. Le quai.

La pass ere lie. Uembarcation

(le

canot).

Le pont. Le pont superieur. Le pont inferieur. Uentrepont. Vavant.
Uarriere.

J09

The The The The The

fore-deck.

quarter-deck. crane.

winch.
block.

Le Le La Le La

gaillard d'avant.

gaillard d'arriere.

grue.
treuil.

poulie.

To entrain (by rail). To embark (by water). To detrain (by rail). to disembark (by water). To make fast. To lash the wagons (on truck).

Embarquer.
Debarquer.

Amarrer. Attacher les voitures (ensemble et au truck}.

Billets,

bivouacs and camps.

Cantonnements, bivouacs et camps.

The halting-place. The billets. The billeting area. The billeting party. The quartermaster-sergeant. The billeting order. The rendez-vous. The gun-park. The guard-room. The sick inspection room. The rough plan. The bivouac. The kitchen. The latrines. The camp. The camping-ground. The lent. The tent-canvas. The peg. The ten l- pole. The tent-trench.
Technical vocabulary.

Uetape (le lieu}. Le cantonnement. La zone de cantonnement. Le campement. Le fourrier. Le billet de logement. Le point de rassemblement. Le pare. Le poste de police. La salle de visite. Le croquis. Le bivouac. La cuisine.
Les feuillees. Le camp.

U emplacement
La La
tente.
toile de Le piquet.

d'un camp.

tente.

Le mat. La rigole.

110

-

To To To To To To To

be billeted on Mr. X.
inspect the billets. allot a zone.

Eire loge chez M. X. Reconnaitre les logements. Attribuer une zone,

camp

(or

encamp).

lay ont a camp. pitch one's tent.

break up the camp.

Camper. Tracer un camp. Dresser sa tente. Lever le camp.

Supply and requisitions.
Parks and convoys. The supply-column.

Ravitaillement et requisitions.

Les pares et convois. Le convoi administratif.

The supply-train. The iron-rations. The train-supplies. The The The The The
requisition.

Le train regimentaire. Les vivres de reserve. Les vivres du train regimentaire.

La

requisition.

requisition order. purchase by contract.

assessment of claims. claims commission.

L'ordre de requisition. Uachat de gre a gre. La fixation des indemnites. La commission des requisitions.

The refilling station. The regulating station.

La gare de ravitaillement. La gare regulatrice.

EXERCISE

64.
:

Translate into French

The entrainment and detrainment
as follows
:

of

horses will be carried out

of

trucks used for the conveyance of horses should, if inches thick. Cinders, sand or gravel should be sprinkled on them to prevent the horses slipping; on no account should shaw or any inflammable material be used for this
of

The floors wood, be

at least 1 1/2

purpose.

A man

leading a horse into a truck should walk freely in with

Ill

though leading it into a stall. He should not stare in the animal's face. Much time may be lost in dealing timorously with a jibbing horse, two men should be ready to clasp hands above its hocks and hustle it into the truck. If possible, on long journeys, horses should be taken out of a train at least once every 24 hours, walked about, and allowed to roll on sand or grass. (F. A. T., ch. XIII, 252.)
a loose head-rope, as

EXERCISE

65.
:

Translate into English

Dans chaque localite, on peut Preparation du cantonnement. la superficie couverle; toutefois, les habitants ne sont jamais deloges de la chambre et du lit dans lesquels ils ont Thabitude de coucher. En arrivant dans la localite, le campement se rend directement a la mairie. L'officier qui le commande fait, de concert avec le maire, et en consultant les plans de la localite, une repartition rapide de
utiliser toute
la commune entre les diflerents corps; il indique an commandant du campemenl de chaque corps ou service le quartier qui lui est assigne. II communique, s'il y a lieu, a la municipalite, les ordres concernant les requisitions et ceux relatifs a la nourriture de la troupe par 1'habitant. II s'informe du prix des denrees et le fixe de concert avec les autorites locales. II fait executer, par les homines dont il dispose ou par les habitants, les travaux necessaires pour amena-

ger les abreuvoirs et les lavoirs.

Le commandant du campement de 1'artillerie fixe 1'emplacement du pare et de la garde de police; il divise le quartier en parties
proportionnelles a 1'eflectif des unites qui doivent y cantonner, et affecte autant que possible, a chacune d'elles, les deux cotes d'une rue. (litre VII, ch. Ill, art. II, 33.)

EXERCISE
What
march and

66.

precautions should be take"n to ensure the regularity of a the preservation of materiel and horses?

APPENDIX
I.

112

APPEiNDICE

I.

Clothes and kit.

Lea vetements

et

Pequipement.

The head-gear.

La

coiffure.

The iield-cap. The cap (or kepi). The forage cap.

Le bonnet de police. Le kepi. La casquette plate (armee anglaise}.

The

hat.

Le

chapeau

(armee

ameri-

caine}.

The hat-cord. The chin-strap. The havelock. The helmet.

La cordeliere. La jugulaire. Le couvre-nuqae.
Le casque.
Les chaussures.

The
The The The The The The The The

foot-gear.

ammunition -boots.
top-boots (or riding boots).
gaiters.

leggings.
puttees.

spurs.

spur -straps. Jackson spurs.

Les Les Les Les Les Les Les Les

brodeqnins.
bottes.

guetres.

fambieres.

bandes molletieres.
cperons. brides d'eperons. eperons a la cheualiere.
L'uniforme.

The uniform.
The service dress
The The The The The The The The
tunic. jacket.

La La La La Le La Le Le

vareus-e

(tenue de campa-

gne}.

tunique.
patte d'epaule.
culotte.

shoulder-strap. breeches.
cloak.

round cape
overcoat.

(of cloak).

manteau. rotonde (du manteau}.
pardessus (ou capote}. caoutchouc.

waterproof.
slicker.

L' impermeable (Amer.}.

113

The undergarnents. The shirt. The drawers. The sweater. The socks.

Les sous-vetements.

La chemise.
Les calecons.

Le

maillot.

Les chaussettes.
kit.

The

L'equipement.

The haversac. The knapsack. The belt. Sam Browne belt. The blanket. The canteen (or mess-tin). To cooking-pot. The water-bottle. The tin-cup. The cartridge-pouch. The soldier's book. The identity disc.

La musette. Le sac.
Le ceinturon.

La La La La Le Le La Le La

ceinture d'officier.

couverture.
gamelle.

marmite.
bidon.
quart. cartouchiere.
livret indiuiduel.

plaque d'identitc.

114

APPENDIX

II.

APPENDIGE

II.

The badges

of rank.

Les insignes des grades,

I.

BRITISH ARMY.
)

Officers.

Field-marshal.
I

Crossed batons inside a laurel-

wreath

(1).

General
Lieutenant-general.

Crossed baton and sword with a

crown and
crown
-Major-general
Brigadier-general. Colonel
.

star at the lop.

Crossed baton and sword with a
at the lop.

Crossed baton and sword with a
star at the top.

Lieutenant-colonel.

Major
Captain
First lieutenant...
.

Crossed baton and sword. A crown above two stars. A crown above one star. A crown. Three stars.

Two
One
Non-commissioned

stars.
star.

Second lieutenant

.

fe)

officers.

Sergeant-major Quartermaster-sergeant Colour-sergeant
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance-corporal...

A crown at bottom of sleeve. Four stripes at bottom of sleeve. Three stripes, V. shaped, and a crown at top of sleeve. Three stripes, V. shaped, at top
of sleeve.

Two
One

stripes, V. shaped, at top of sleeve.

stripe, V. shaped, at top of sleeve.

(1)

Nota.

straps,

Those distinguishing marks are placed on the shouldersometimes also at the bottom of the sleeves.

- M
II.

;>

UNITED STATES ARMY.
a)

Hat-cord.

General officers Superior and subaltern

Gold.
officers.

Black and gold.

Troops
Infantry

(1>.

Blue.

Cavalry
Artillery

Yellow.
Scarlet.

Medical corps
Quartermaster's corps

Maroon.
Buff.

Ordnance
Signal corps

Black piped with scarlet. Orange piped with white.
Scarlet piped with white. Black piped with white.

Engineers

Army

tield-clerks

Shoulder-straps.

General
Lieutenant-general
.

Two

silver stars with an eagle.
stars.

Three silver

Major-general Brigadier-general.
Colonel.

Two
.

silver stars.
silver star.

One

Lieutenant-colonel..

silver eagle. One silver maple leaf.

A

Major
Captain
First lieutenant.
.
.
.

One gold maple lea!. Two silver bars. One silver bar.
Nothing
c)

Second lieutenant..

.

(2).

Stripes (on sleeves).

Officers.

For

all officer's

stripe,

same colour
at

ranks, a single as the
of sleeve.

garment,
(1)

bottom

The colour

of the hat-cord reveals the
to a

branch of the army

in

which

the

man

serves.

(2)

One gold bar now, according

new enactment

of congress.

Non-commissioned
First sergeant.
officers.

116

A

lozenge surmounted by three chevrons.

Sergeant Corporal Lance-corporal

Three chevrons.

Two

chevrons.
f

One chevron
d]

Leggings.

An

officer's

leggings are

of leather,

an enlisted man's

of

canvas.

c)

Collar.

U. S
U. S. R...

Regular army.
Reserve.
N.

U.
G.
I.

S.

A

A
N.

D

National army. National guard (initials of the states having recruited the army).
Artillery.

Two crossed guns Two crossed rifles A castle Two crossed swords
Wheel surmounted by an eagle with crossed sword and key.
Grossed flags

Infantry.

Engineers. Cavalry. Quartermaster's corps.
Signal corps. Army service corps. Medical corps.

Grenade
Gaduceus...

APPENDIX
III.

117

APPENDICE
Poids
et
III.

Weights and measures.
1

mesures.

MEASURES OF LENGTH.
i

1

MESURES DE LONGULUR.
or roughly:
.
)>

The inch unit) 12 inches (or in.) The foot The yard = 3 feet (or ft.) The fathom = 2 yards The pole 5,5 yards (or yds.) The chain =66 t = 4 poles 40 poles (or p.) The furlong

=

= 2cm ,539 = 30cm ,48 = m ,914

2^,5. O m ,30.
0",90.
l ,80.
m

=

f

.

The mile

The nautical mile = 6080 The league = 3 miles
2

U
(

=8

= 20 ,116 = 201 m ,16
m

1",82S m 5 ,027

5".
20'".

iOO".
1.600".

furlongs 1760 yards

==1.609",31
ft.

= 1.853-,15 = 4.827,9
2

1.850-.

5 k '.

MEASURES OF SURFACE.

MESURES DE SURFACE.
45.

The square inch (unit) The square foot 144 sq. in. The square yard = 9 sq. ft. The square pole = 30,25 sq. yds. The rood 40 sq. p. The acre 4 roods = 4840 sq yds. The square mile = 640 acres

= 6cm S

= =

25mfi,29.

.

=10ares, 12centiares. 40 ares, 50 centiares. 259 hectares, 20 ares.
,

1.012 m

3

MEASURES OF

SOLIDITY.

3 16

n

MESURES DE VOLUME.
,386.

The The The The
4

cubic inch (unit) cubic foot 1728 cu. in.
ton

cffic

cubic yard 21 cu. 100 cu. ft.

=

ft.

=

Omc ,028dmc ,315 cm '\ O mc ,765 dlBC 2 mc ,830 dm< %
.

MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
a)

4'

MESURES DE CAPACITE.
Pour
ies

For liquids

:

a)
1

liquides

:

The gill The pint = 4 gills The quart = 2 pints

,142.

The gallon = 4 qts. The peck = 2 gallons The barrel = 32 gallons
b)

118
4' ,54.

9

!

,03.

145', 40.
6)

For grain

:

Pour

le

grain

:

The bushel = 8 gallons The sack - 3 bushels The quarter = 8 bushels
5
a)

^,40.
109 litres.

290
5
a)

litres.

MEASURES OF WEIGHT.
Ordinary measures.

MESURES DE

POIDS.

Mesures ordinaires.

The The The The The

dram
ounce

pound
stone
Ibs.

= 16 drams = 16 oz (ounces)
14 Ibs. (pounds)

l gr ,772.

28^,35.
k
,454'.

hundredweight (orcwt.)

=

6 k ,356.

50 k ,800.
1.016 kilogrammes.

112

The tonn=20 cwt.
b)

Apothecaries

weights.

b)

Poids pharmaceutiques.

The grain (gr.) The scruple = 20 grains The drachm = 3 scruples 8 drachms The ounce The pound = 12 ounces
6"

0^,0648.
1^,30.

3^,88.
31
k

grammes.
,372.

MEASURES OF MONEY.
)

6"

MESURES DE MOXKAJE.
a)

English system.

Systeme anglais.

Copper money.

Monnaie de bronze.
Ir.

The farthing The half-penny The penny (d.)

025.
05.

= 2 farthings = 4 farthings
d.

fr.

0fr. 10.

Silver money.

Monnaie
fr.

d' argent.

The six penny piece = 6 The shilling = 12 d. The florin = 2/ The half-crown 2/6 d. The crown = 5/

60.

1 fr. 25.

2fr. 50.
3
6
fr.
fr.

10.

25.

Gold money.

119

Monnaie
10/
1)

d'or.

The half sovereign The sovereign (worlh
Bank-notes.

-

12

f

r.

50.

=
3

j i ()

= 25

francs (livre anglaise).
Billets

de banque.

The five pound note = The ten pound note = The fifty pound note =
etc.
.,

= 125
1

francs.

10

= 250 francs.
230 francs.
1.000

50
100

The hundred pound note =
up
to

= 2.500 francs.
etc...

1.000

,jusqu'a

= 25.000

fr.

b)

United States system.

6)

Systeme des Etats-Unis.

Copper money.

Monnaie de bronze.

One cent

= un son =
viron.

fr.

03
fr.

= 1/2 d.
10

en-

Two

cents

= deux sous =
=:cinq

= 1 d.

Nickel money.

Monnaie de

nickel.

Five cents
Silver

sousmO
Monnaie

fr.

25

= (21/2d.)

money.

d'argent.

Ten cents
Twenty-five cents
Fifty cents

The dollar
cents

($)

=

one hundred

= 23 (=!/.). = 2fr. 50 (=2/.). = 5 francs (=
1 fr.

-0

fr.

50=

(3d.).

4/.).

Gold money.

Monnaie

d'or.

$ 2.50 $ 5= five dollars

$ 10
$

= ten dollars 20 = twenty dollars
Bittf.

= 100
100

= 12fr. 50 (-.10/.). = 25 francs (= = 50 francs (= 2).
(=
4).

i).

9

Billets de banque.

$12-510-20-30

= 5 francs, 10 francs, 25
30

francs, francs, 100 francs, 250 francs, 300 francs.

120

7"

VARIOUS SCALES FOR THERMOMETKRS.
Echelles diverses des thermomttres.

7

In the centigrade system, the freezing point is and the boiling point 100. In the Fahrenheit system, the freezing point is 32 and the boiling point 212. In the Reaumur system, the freezing point is and the boiling point 80. Therefore, the following formula? allow us to pass from one scale to another let C, F, R, represent the temperature in degrees in the centigrade, Fahrenheit and Reaumur systems respectively.
:

We

have

:

C being known

'

R
r

=r
_

:

c.

o

F being known

^

4 (F

32)

^c
R being known

=5-

-F^lRo-3*.

APPENDIX
IV.

131

APPENDICE

IV.

Terms used

in sciences.

Terminologie des sciences.

The The The The The The The The The The The
.

units.
tens.

hundreds.
thousands.
tenths.

hundredths. thousandths. 1" (first).
2 nd (second). 3 r(I (third).
4 th (fourth).
.

Les Les Les Les Les Les Les

unites.

dizaines.

centaines.

mi lie.
dixiemes.

centiemes.
milliemes.

TheW
.

Le 1^. Le 2e Le 3. Le 4*. Le 72 e
. .

1 (point one).

0,1 (zero

.

31 (point three one). 432 (point four three two).

virgule un}. 0,31 (zero virgule trente et un).
0,432 (zero virgule quatre cent trente-deux).
3,2 (trois virgule deux).

3'2 (three point two).

594-20
70

70 (fifty plus twenty equals seventy).

=

Cinquante plus vingt egalent
soixante-dix.

2X36
6:2 =
32

50 (seventy minus " twenty equals fifty). (two multiplied hy three equals six). Twice six are twelve.
20
3 (six divided by two
.

=

Soixante-dix moins vingt egalent cinquante.

Deux
Deux

multiplies par trois egafois six font douze.

lent six.

Six divises par deux egalent
trois.

equals three).
33
35

=

9 (three square equals n in e) 27 (three cube equals

Trois au carre egalent neuf. Trois au cube egalent vingtsept.

twenty -seven).

power equals two hundred and forty
three).

=243

(three to the fifth

Trois eleves a la cinquieme puissance egalent deux cent
quarante-trois.

3" (three to the
\-iJ

u th power). 3 (square root of nine

is

Trois puissances n. La racine carree de neuf est
trois.

three).

v/27

=

3 (cubic root of twentyis three).

La ratine cubique de
sept est trois.

vingt-

5

v/243

_=3

seven

(fifth

root of two hunis

La ratine cinquieme de deux
cent quarante-trois est trois.

dred and forty three
n
Of...)

three).

Ratine n e

de...

^ =r 3 (six over two equals three).
^

Six sur deux egalent

trois.

co (n over nought equals
infinity).

n sur zero egale Vinfini.

h

= ~^
2

(h

equals

,

square

h egale
a indice

V
2.

carre sur deux g.

over two
(a two).
(a w.).

0).

an a

+

[(b

-

a indice n.
c) (d

+

<?)

(f

-

0).
:

a plus, between brackets

b

c between parenthesis, multiplied by d plus <?... a p v (Greek alphabet).

minus

a p/us, entre crochets:}) centre parentheses, multiplie

par

(d

+ e)(f-g)...

S

=
r.

K

R2

[S equals

T:

Rtwo

(or

(Sans changement. S= T: R2 (deux ou au carre).
a prime.

R

square)].
etc.

a' (a

prime).

a" (a second),

a seconde,

etc...

x
Arithmetic.

The The The The

arithmetical mean.

L'arithmetique. La moyenne arithmetique.

geometrical mean.

even number. odd number.

La moyenne geomelrique. Le nombre pair. Le nombre impair.
Rapports Ualgebre.
et

Ratios and proportions.

proportions.

Algebra.

The equation of the first degree. The unknown quantity. The member of an equation.
Trigonometry.

equation du premier degre. L'inconnue. Le membre d'une equation.
1

L

The sine. The cosine.

La trigonometric. Le sinus.
Le cosinus.

The tangent. The cotangent.
Mechanics.

Dynamics.
Cinematics.

The force. The component. The resultant.
Physics. Gravity. Heat.
Optics. Acoustics.
Electricity.

La La La La La La La La La La La

tangente.

cotangente.

mecanique. dynamique.
cinematique.
force.

composante.
rdsultante.

physique.
pesanteur. chaleur.

L'optique.

Uaconstique.
Uelectricite.

Chemistry. Geometry.

La chimie. La geometric.
L'angle.

The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The

angle. bissextrix.
triangle.

La Le

bissectrice.
triangle. droit.

right angle.

U angle

acute angle. obtuse angle.
right-angled triangle.
height.

median line. measure of an angle. apex of an angle. apex angle.
circle.

circumference.
radius.

inscribed polygon.

Uangle aigu. Uangle obtus. Le triangle rectangle. La hauteur. La mediane. La mesure d'un angle. Le sommet d'un angle. Uangle au sommet. Le cercle. La circonference. Le rayon (da cercle}. Le polygone inscrit.

To prove. To state. To solve. To add.

Demontrer.
Poser, affirmer.

Resoudre. Additionner.

124

To To To To To To

subtract.

Soustraire
Multiplier. Diviser.

multiply.
divide.

reduce.
simplify. do a sum.

Reduire.
Simplifier.

Faire un problems d'arithme
tique.

To carry (a tigure). To put down (a figure).

Retenir (un chiffre}.

Poser (un

chiffre}.

Two from five leaves Let R be the range.

three.

Deux
Soit

dtes de cinq reste trois.
la

R

portee.

APPENDIX
V.

125

APPENDIGE
V.

Abbreviations used in
artillery regulations.

Abreviations employees dans les reglements d'artillerie.

Art
A. and S. A. S. C...
Bait
B.

Artillery.

Ammunition and

store.

Army

service corps.

Battery.

G

Battery commander.

Bde. comdr.
B.
B.

L

M

Brigade commander. Breech-loading (gun). Brigade major.
Battalion.

Bn
B.

Brigade order.
Brigadier-general.

Brig. gen...
C. C. D..
C. in. G.

Commander Commander
field.

of coast defence.

in chief.

C. G. S..

Chief of the general staff in the
Colonel.

Gol

Coin
C.

Column.

Commanding
Corporal.

officer.

Cpl C. B.
C. S.

A andT.

Commanding
0.

royal artillery.

Chief

supply

and

transport

officer.

Del
Dep't
Divl.

Detachment.
Department.

comdr.

Divisional

commander.

D.

Divisional order.

D. B.
D. S

T

Director of railway transport. Director of supplies. Director of sea transport.

D. S. T...
F.

Amb
Technical vocabulary.

Field ambulance.

1

F.

G

il

RAMG

...

128

APPENDIX

VI.

APPENDICE

VI.

An

alphabetical list of irregular verbs.

Liste alphabetique des

verbes irreguliers.

Infinilhe.

imiuilivp.

Meaning.

Infinitive.

130

131

-

Infinitive.

132

Infinitive.

Infinitive.

133

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