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Sol 1014

Sol 1014

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10-16 A simple ideal Rankine cycle with water as the working fluid operates between the specified pressure limits

. The maximum thermal efficiency of the cycle for a given quality at the turbine exit is to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis For maximum thermal efficiency, the quality at state 4 would be at its minimum of 85% (most closely approaches the Carnot cycle), and the properties at state 4 would be (Table A-5)

P4 x4 P3 s3

30 kPa 0.85

h4 s4

hf sf

x4 h fg x4 s fg

289.27 (0.85)(2335.3) 2274.3 kJ/kg 0.9441 (0.85)(6.8234) 6.7440 kJ/kg K

Since the expansion in the turbine is isentropic,

3000 kPa s 4 6.7440 kJ/kg K


3115.5 kJ/kg

T 3 3 MPa 2 qin 30 kPa 1 qout 4 s

Other properties are obtained as follows (Tables A-4, A-5, and A-6),

h f @ 30 kP a 289.27 kJ/kg

v 1 v f @ 30kP a 0.001022 m 3 /kg

v 1 (P2 P1 )


1 kJ (0.001022 m 3 /kg)(3000 30)kPa 1 kPa m 3 3.04 kJ/kg h1 wp,in 289.27 3.04 292.31 kJ/kg

qin qout

h3 h2 h4 h1
qout qin

3115.5 292.31 2823.2 kJ/kg 2274.3 289.27 1985.0 kJ/kg
1985.0 2823.2

and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is




13262 0. h1 h f @ 1 psia 69.72 769.72 7.in 69.01614 ft 3 /lbm)(2500 1)psia 5. The mass flow rate.84495 h f x4s h fg 69.0 839.13)Btu/lbm  mqin (2.8 Btu/lbm) 2549 Btu/s 1 kJ 0.in v 1 (P2 P1 ) 1 Btu (0. the rate of heat addition.94782 Btu 1016 kW and the thermal efficiency of the cycle is th  Wnet  Qin 1000 kJ/s 0.4116 Btu/lbm R s4 s f P4 1 psia s 4 s3 T 1.4116 0.39 Btu/lbm  Wnet wnet 1000 kJ/s 0.081 lbm/s)(1224.7) 787.3718 .72 Btu/lbm T 2500 psia v 1 v f @ 6 psia 0. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.6932)(1035.081lbm/s The power output from the turbine and the rate of heat addition are  WT .404 psia ft 3 7.39 Btu/lbm 1 kJ The mass flow rate of steam in the cycle is determined from  mwnet  m 2.41 455.13 kJ/kg Thus.70) 839.01614 ft 3 /lbm wp.0 Btu/lbm s3 1.70 Btu/lbm h4 h3 T (h3 h3 h4 h3 h4s h4s ) 1302.8 Btu/lbm h4 h1 839. qin qout wnet  Wnet h3 h2 1302.10-21E A simple steam Rankine cycle operates between the specified pressure limits.18 1224.0 77.13 69.46 Btu/lbm h1 wp.72 (0. and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.081 lbm/s)(1302.18 Btu/lbm 2 3 qin 1 psia 1 qout 4s 4 s h2 P3 T3 2500 psia 800 F x 4s h4s h3 1302.90)(1302. the power produced by the turbine.out  Qin  m(h3 h4 ) (2.0 (0. and A-6E).6932 s fg 1.94782 Btu 2549 Btu/s 1 kJ 0.8 769. A-5E.41 Btu/lbm qin qout 1224.94782 Btu 455. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.0 787. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4E.46 77.

in 88.34 kJ/kg 186.40 kJ/kg 1 kJ 1 kPa m 3 2 1 1.33230 0.9105 0.21 262.9839 0.82 0.1% (b)   Wnet mwnet 3 kg/s 13.in v 1 P2 P1 0.72 kJ/kg 7. and A-13).38 13.82 0.7 MPa qout 3 P3 1. h1 h f @ 0.9105 kJ/kg K sat.10-24 A solar-pond power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered.58763 88.20 kJ/kg x4 h fg qin h3 h2 276.58 89. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.12 kJ/kg s3 s g @ 1.0008331 m 3 /kg w p.0008331 m 3 /kg 1400 700 kPa 0.4 MP a 0.4 MPa h3 hg @ 1. The thermal efficiency of the cycle and the power output of the plant are to be determined.82 173.34 kJ/kg and th wnet qin 13. Analysis (a) From the refrigerant tables (Tables A-11.20 88. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.9839 176.82 kJ/kg T v 1 v f @ 0.34 kJ/kg 40.4 MPa qin R-134a 0.72 173. 4 s s4 hf sf s fg 0.40 186.vapor P4 0.4 MP a 276.58 kJ/kg h2 h1 w p.02kW .7 MP a 88.38 kJ/kg wnet qin qout 186.7 MPa x4 s 4 s3 h4 Thus .12 89. A-12.7 MP a 0.72 kJ/kg qout h4 h1 262.

7266 kJ/kg K 3105.3 kJ/kg 38.2 kJ/kg 7.5 259. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.42 kJ/kg v1 v f @ 20 kP a 0.2 1366.54 kJ/kg 3399.001017 m3/kg wp.12 1358.42 8.9% 1358.12 kJ/kg h2 h1 wp.2 3105.in wnet qin 1366. h1 h f @ 20 kP a 251.in P 3 T3 P4 s4 P 5 T5 P6 s6 8 MPa h3 500 C s3 3 MPa h4 s3 3 MPa h5 500 C s5 20 kPa x6 s5 h6 h3 h4 h3 h2 T 3 5 1 kJ 1 kPa m3 2 8 MPa 4 251.5 2385.5 kJ/kg 6. and A-6).2 2385.out w p.54 3457.out and h5 h6 h5 h4 3399.4 kJ/kg 3399. th wT .8320 7.001017 m3/kg 8000 20 kPa 8.42 0. A-5.9051 20 kPa 1 6 s 0.1 kJ/kg 3457.5 kJ/kg . The turbine work output and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.1 3492. Analysis From the steam tables (Tables A-4.0 kJ/kg qin wnet Thus.2359 kJ/kg K s6 s f s fg hf x6h fg 7.10-34 A steam power plant that operates on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle is considered.12 259.2359 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.3 kJ/kg 3492.in v1 P2 P 1 0.9051 2357.4 8.1 3457.0752 251.5 3105.2 kJ/kg The turbine work output and the thermal efficiency are determined from wT .

P=P[5]) h[5]=enthalpy(Fluid$.h=h[2]) T[2]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[6]) . the T-s diagram is to be plotted.x=x[1]) W_p_s=v[1]*(P[2]-P[1])"SSSF isentropic pump work assuming constant specific volume" W_p=W_p_s/Eta_p h[2]=h[1]+W_p "SSSF First Law for the pump" v[2]=volume(Fluid$.P=P[4]) Ts[4]=temperature(Fluid$.s=s_s[4]. The problem is to be solved by the diagram window data entry feature of EES by including the effects of the turbine and pump efficiencies and reheat on the steam quality at the low-pressure turbine exit Also.P=P[6]) Ts[6]=temperature(Fluid$.P=P[3]) s_s[4]=s[3] hs[4]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[3]) s[3]=entropy(Fluid$.T=T[3].T=T[3].from diagram window" {P[6] = 20 [kPa] P[3] = 8000 [kPa] T[3] = 500 [C] P[4] = 3000 [kPa] T[5] = 500 [C] Eta_t = 100/100 "Turbine isentropic efficiency" Eta_p = 100/100 "Pump isentropic efficiency"} "Pump analysis" function x6$(x6) "this function returns a string to indicate the state of steam at point 6" x6$='' if (x6>1) then x6$='(superheated)' if (x6<0) then x6$='(subcooled)' end Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' P[1] = P[6] P[2]=P[3] x[1]=0 "Sat'd liquid" h[1]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[4].h=h[2]) "High Pressure Turbine analysis" h[3]=enthalpy(Fluid$.x=x[1]) v[1]=volume(Fluid$. Analysis The problem is solved using EES.s=s_s[6].P=P[4]) v[4]=volume(Fluid$.P=P[2].h=h[4]) s[4]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[2].x=x[1]) s[1]=entropy(Fluid$.P=P[1].10-35 EES Problem 10-34 is reconsidered.T=T[5].P=P[4]) h[3] =W_t_hp+h[4]"SSSF First Law for the high pressure turbine" "Low Pressure Turbine analysis" P[5]=P[4] s[5]=entropy(Fluid$.T=T[5].s=s[4].P=P[5]) s_s[6]=s[5] hs[6]=enthalpy(Fluid$.P=P[1].P=P[1]. "Input Data .P=P[1].T=T[3]. and the solution is given below.h=h[2]) s[2]=entropy(Fluid$.s=s_s[4].s=s_s[6].P=P[4]) Eta_t=(h[3]-h[4])/(h[3]-hs[4])"Definition of turbine efficiency" T[4]=temperature(Fluid$.x=x[1]) T[1]=temperature(Fluid$.T=T[4].P=P[2].P=P[3]) v[3]=volume(Fluid$.

P=P[6]) Eta_t=(h[5]-h[6])/(h[5]-hs[6])"Definition of turbine efficiency" h[5]=W_t_lp+h[6]"SSSF First Law for the low pressure turbine" x[6]=QUALITY(Fluid$.001017 [m^3/kg] v[4]=0.8 [kJ/kg] x[1]=0 .4 [C] T[5]=500 [C] Ts[6]=60.06 [C] v[3]=0.117 [kJ/kg] W_t_lp=1072 [kJ/kg] x[6]=0.9051 Eta_p=1 h[1]=251.832 [kJ/kg-K] s[4]=6.2 [C] Ts[4]=345.389 Fluid$='Steam_IAPWS' h[3]=3400 [kJ/kg] h[6]=2385 [kJ/kg] P[1]=20 [kPa] P[4]=3000 [kPa] Q_in=3493 [kJ/kg] s[2]=0.8321 [kJ/kg-K] s[5]=7.5 [kJ/kg] h[5]=3457 [kJ/kg] hs[6]=2385 [kJ/kg] P[3]=8000 [kPa] P[6]=20 [kPa] s[1]=0.4 [kJ/kg] h[4]=3105 [kJ/kg] hs[4]=3105 [kJ/kg] P[2]=8000 [kPa] P[5]=3000 [kPa] Q_out=2134 [kJ/kg] s[3]=6.06 [C] v[1]=0.P=P[6]) "Boiler analysis" Q_in + h[2]+h[4]=h[3]+h[5]"SSSF First Law for the Boiler" "Condenser analysis" h[6]=Q_out+h[1]"SSSF First Law for the Condenser" T[6]=temperature(Fluid$.236 [kJ/kg-K] T[3]=500 [C] T[6]=60.2 [C] v[2]=0.P=P[6]) x6s$=x6$(x[6]) "Cycle Statistics" W_net=W_t_hp+W_t_lp-W_p Eff=W_net/Q_in SOLUTION Eff=0.h=h[6].s=s_s[6].236 [kJ/kg-K] s_s[6]=7.P=P[6]) s[6]=entropy(Fluid$.117 [kJ/kg] x6s$='' Eta_t=1 h[2]=259.727 [kJ/kg-K] s[6]=7.727 [kJ/kg-K] T[2]=60.06 [C] T[4]=345.vs[6]=volume(Fluid$.h=h[6].727 [kJ/kg-K] s_s[4]=6.001014 [m^3/kg] vs[6]=6.h=h[6].922 [m^3/kg] W_p_s=8.04177 [m^3/kg] W_net=1359 [kJ/kg] W_t_hp=294.08968 [m^3/kg] W_p=8.236 [kJ/kg-K] T[1]=60.

N2.435 5 kg O2 8 kg N2 10 kg CO2 (b) To find the mole fractions.0 and 44.4 kg/kmol 0.227 kmol Nm and NO2 N O2 Nm N N2 Nm N CO2 Nm N N2 NCO2 0. the average molar mass.286 kmol 0.286 kmol 0. and CO2 are 32.348 0.4kg/kmol Rm 8.233 0.0.699 kmol 0.314 kJ/kmol K 34.669 kmol 0.339 (c) The average molar mass and gas constant of the mixture are determined from their definitions: Mm and mm Nm Ru Mm 23 kg 0.156 kmol 0.217 0.669 kmol y O2 y N2 y CO2 0. the mole fractions.156 kmol 0.669 kmol 34.0 kg/kmol. N O2 N N2 N CO2 Thus.428 0.669 kmol 0.227 kmol 0. we need to determine the mole numbers of each component first.242kJ/kg K . and gas constant are to be determined. respectively (Table A-1) Analysis (a) The total mass of the mixture is mm mO2 mN2 mCO2 5 kg 23 kg 8 kg 23 kg 10 kg 23 kg 5 kg 8 kg 10 kg 23 kg Then the mass fraction of each component becomes mf O2 mf N2 mf CO2 mO2 mm mN2 mm mCO2 mm mO2 M O2 mN2 M N2 mCO2 M CO2 0.227 kmol 0.286 kmol 0. 5 kg 32 kg/kmol 8 kg 28 kg/kmol 10 kg 44 kg/kmol 0. 28.13-12 The masses of the constituents of a gas mixture are given. Properties The molar masses of O2.156 kmol 0. The mass fractions.

13-35E A mixture is obtained by mixing two gases at constant pressure and temperature. Analysis The volume of constituent gas A is VA mA A 1 lbm 0.002 lbm/ft 3 1000 ft 3 1 lbm gas A and the volume of constituent gas B is VB mB B 1000 ft 3 2 lbm gas B Hence.7 ft 3 /lbm . the volume of the mixture is V V A V B 1000 1000 2000 ft 3 The specific volume of the mixture will then be v V m 2000 ft 3 (1 2) lbm 666. Properties The densities of two gases are given in the problem statement.001 lbm/ft 3 2 lbm 0. The volume and specific volume of the mixture are to be determined.

1429 lbmol 5.3840)(5 ft 3 ) 1.5804 lbmol 2.84 ft 3 (0.1429 lbmol 28 lbm/lbmol 30 lbm 0. The mole numbers of each component are N N2 N O2 N He mN2 M N2 mO2 M O2 mHe M He 60 lbm 2.4480)(5 ft 3 ) 2.4480 Noting that volume fractions are equal to mole fractions.5804 lbmol Then the mass of this ideal gas mixture is m PVM m Ru T N N2 Nm N O2 Nm N He Nm (300 psia)(5 ft 3 )(17.5804 lbmol 0. The mass of 5 ft 3 of this mixture and the partial volumes of the components are to be determined.1680 0.5804 lbmol The apparent molecular weight of the mixture is Mm 100 lbm 17. the partial volumes are determined from V N2 V O2 V He y N2V m yO2V m y HeV m (0.727 lbm The mole fractions are y N2 y O2 y He 0.92 lbm/lbmol 5.5 5. and 4. 32.92 lbm/lbmol) (10. Properties The molar masses of N2. Analysis We consider 100 lbm of this mixture for calculating the molar mass of the mixture.73 psia ft 3 /lbmol R)(530 R) 2.13-40E The mass fractions of components of a gas mixture are given.24 ft 3 .5 lbmol 4 lbm/lbmol 5 ft3 60% N2 30% O2 10% He (by mass) The mole number of the mixture is Nm N N2 NO2 NHe mm Nm 2.5804 lbmol 4.9375 2.9375 lbmol 5.3840 0.0 lbm/lbmol.0. and He are 28.0.92 ft 3 (0. O2. respectively (Table A-1E).5 lbmol 5.9375 lbmol 32 lbm/lbmol 10 lbm 2.1680)(5 ft 3 ) 0.1429 0.

3 kg H2O vapor 30 C 100 kPa (b) The saturation pressure of water at 30 C is Pg Psat @30 C 4.2469 kPa) = 2. mv ma 0. the relative humidity.0143)(4.755 kPa m R T (21 kg)(0.2469 kPa) Then the relative humidity can be determined from (c) The volume of the tank can be determined from the ideal gas relation for the dry air.7m 3 Pa 97.245 kPa P Pv 100 2.0143kg H 2O/kgdry air 21 kg dry air 0.622 )Pg (0. Analysis (a) The specific humidity can be determined form its definition.755 kPa .622 0.2469 kPa P (0.9% (0. Assumptions The air and the water vapor are ideal gases.529)(4. The specific humidity.245 97.14-16 A tank contains dry air and water vapor at specified conditions. Pv Pa Pg (0.3 kg 21 kg 0. and the volume of the tank are to be determined.287 kJ/kg K)(303K) V = a a 18.0143)(100 kPa) 52.

temperature. Using the psychrometric chart. A-31) we read (a) (b) h (c) Twb (d) Tdp (e) v 0. the relative humidity.50745 psia) 0. 14-41 The pressure. and its value can be determined from 50% RH Pv Pg @80 F (0. Analysis From the psychrometric chart (Fig.7 C. the dew-point temperature. Since the canned drink is at a lower temperature than the dew-point temperature. the dew-point temperature.7 F (from EES) Cola 40 F That is.254psia 59.50)(0. A-31 or using EES psychrometric functions we obtain (a) 0.618 61. the specific humidity.0181 kg H2 O / kg dry air 78.5 C 23.4 kJ / kg dry air 25. Analysis The vapor pressure Pv of the air in the house is uniform 80 F throughout. Using the psychrometric chart. temperature.254 psia The dew-point temperature of the air in the house is Tdp Tsat @ Pv Tsat @0. and the specific volume of the air are to be determined.780 kPa) = 2. and wet-bulb temperature of air are specified.8 kJ/kg dry air (d) Twb (e) Pv Pg Psat @ 28 C (0. specific humidity.0148 kg H2O / kg dry air 22.890 m3 / kg dry air 14-49 The pressure. the enthalpy. Assumptions The air and the water vapor are ideal gases. the enthalpy. Analysis From the psychrometric chart in Fig. the wet-bulb temperature. and relative humidity of air in a room are specified. and the water vapor pressure are to be determined.14-31E A woman drinks a cool canned soda in a room at a specified temperature and relative humidity.4 C (c) h 65.34 kPa Air 1 atm 28 C Tdp=20 C . the moisture in the house air will start condensing when the air temperature drops below 59.618)(3. some moisture will condense on the can.3 C 0. It is to be determined whether the can will sweat. and thus it will sweat.8% (b) 0.

c p (T2 T1 ) 1 hg1 h f 2 (1. 14-14 in the text.4) 2 h fg 2 hf 2 h fg 2 Substituting. Also. sensible 500 (70 W) 35. we obtained Eq.9 kJ/kg (Table A-4) As a first estimate. the contribution of people to the heating of the building is   Qpeople.0148).8 kJ/kg (Table A .000 W 119. and 70 W of it is in sensible form and 35 W in latent form.28 0. 14-66E There are a specified number of people in a movie theater in winter.9 92.005)(22 28) (0. and children in the classroom. let us take T2 =22 C (the inlet wet-bulb temperature).8) 2551.420 since 1 W = 3.000 Btu/h from the building.14-50 The pressure.28 kJ/kg (Table A . Btu/h sensible (No. the adiabatic saturation temperature is T2 22 C Discussion This result is not surprising since the wet-bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures are approximately equal to each other for air-water mixtures at atmospheric pressure. the relative humidity is 100% ( 2 1 ) and the pressure is 1 atm. A-31) hg1 hg @ 28 C 2551. Therefore.412 Btu/h. T2. Assumptions There is a mix of men. Other properties at the exit state are 2 0. It is to be determined if the theater needs to be heated or cooled.0142 kg H 2 O / kg dry air which is sufficiently close to the inlet specific humidity (0. Analysis Noting that only the sensible heat from a person contributes to the heating load of a building. temperature. women. Properties The average rate of heat generation from people in a movie theater is 105 W.4) 2448. c p (T2 T1 ) 1 2 h fg 2 hg1 h f 2 1 atm 28 C Tdp=20 C AIR Water Humidifier 100% This requires a trial-error solution for the adiabatic saturation temperature.of people) Qperson. and wet-bulb temperature of air are specified. Analysis For an adiabatic saturation process. .0167)(2448.0167 kg H2 O / kg dry air h f @ 22 C h fg @ 22 C 92. The building needs to be heated since the heat gain from people is less than the rate of heat loss of 130. at the exit. The adiabatic saturation temperature is to be determined. The inlet state properties are 1 0.0148 kg H2 O / kg dry air (Fig.

Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process and thus the mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the    entire process (ma1 ma2 ma ) .856 (18 m/s) 17. velocity.856 m3 / kg dry air v2  ma1 V2 (c) The exit velocity is determined from the conservation of mass of dry air.42 /4 m 2 ) 1 (18 m/s)( (0. temperature. The inlet state of the air is completely specified.0 kJ/kg dry air 0. The properties of the air at the inlet state are determined from the psychrometric chart (Figure A-31) to be h1 1 55. The exit temperature. 3 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.877 m3 / kg) 2. and the total pressure is 1 atm.58 kg/s From the energy balance on air in the cooling section.58 kg / s)( h2 550) kJ / kg . 2 Dry air and water vapor are ideal gases.877 m / kg dry air 3 2) v1 1200 kJ/min 32 C 30% 18 m/s The mass flow rate of dry air through the cooling section is  ma 1 1 2 1 atm AIR v1 V1 A1 0.0089 kg H 2 O/kg dry air ( 0. and the exit velocity are to be determined.6% 0. h2 47.2 kJ / kg dry air The exit state of the air is fixed now since we know both h2 and read 2.4 C 46. From the psychrometric chart at this state we T2 (b) 2 24.877 . Analysis (a) The amount of moisture in the air remains constant ( 1 = 2) as it flows through the cooling section since the process involves no humidification or dehumidification.6m/s 0.  ma2 V1 v1 V2 v2 V1 A V2 A v1 v2 v2 V v1 1 0. and relative humidity.   Qout ma ( h2 h1 ) 1200 / 60 kJ / s = (2. the exit relative humidity of the air.14-71 Air enters a cooling section at a specified pressure.

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