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Halo Effect

Halo Effect

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Published by: niharika51423 on Nov 16, 2010
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The Halo Effect

Definition and Background
What exactly is the Halo Effect? A psychology textbook provides a "simplistic" definition of the Halo effect as a subjective bias about a person's one outstanding trait extending to influence the total judgment of that person. E. L. Thorndike's 1920 paper titled "A Constant Error on Psychological Rating", published in Journal of Applied Psychology first documented this perception error (wahrnehmungsfehler) with regard to rating employees. This has also been followed up by Phil Rosenzweig's book on the same topic called The Halo Effect... and Eight Other Business Delusions That Deceive Managers. Thorndike therein defined the halo effect as "a problem that arises in data collection when there is carry-over from one judgment to another." He further expanded that it is "...an extension of an overall impression of a person (or one particular outstanding trait) to influence the total judgment of that person. The effect is to evaluate an individual high on many traits because of a belief that the individual is high on one trait. Similar to this is the 'devil effect,' whereby a person evaluates another as low on many traits because of a belief that the individual is low on one trait which is assumed to be critical." So, to clarify, if possible, when an individual is found to possess one desirable trait, then that individual is automatically assumed to have many other desirable traits as well. A kind of an "angelic halo" surrounds the person, in the eyes of the beholder, and they can do no wrong. If a person is bestowed with good physical beauty, then this person is also presumed to possess a host of other positive attributes as well, such as social competence, intellectual competence, and personal adjustment. The inverse phenomenon called the "Devil Effect," and sometimes the "Horn Effect", doesn't seem to get as much attention, even though its impact is just as prevalent in society. Here, if a person seems particularly deficient in a critical trait, then that person is automatically assumed to be deficient in many other traits as well, related or otherwise. For example, an employee who is constantly "late" to work (perhaps due to other non-work responsibilities in the morning) is assumed to be negligent in their work-related duties, not committed to the job/company/project, and perhaps even lazy overall. Ultimately, these faulty biases may prove to become factual due to the Pygmalion effect, or "self-fulfilling prophecy ", further reinforcing future errors in perception due to bias and predisposition by the observer. The person working long hours (perhaps compensating for technical incompetence), assumed to be a good worker is given greater opportunity and thus attains greater, albeit undue, career advancement (cf: The Peter Principle). Conversely, the worker who dresses shabbily is assumed to care little about their job, and therefore bypassed for greater opportunity when the situation arises, regardless of suitability or capacity otherwise. Essentially, is phenomenon is a psycho-social application of the Law of Proximity, whereby certain unrelated observations, found in the comparable

no such correlation exists. certain desirable characteristics are noticeably absent. simply because of the context of the evaluation. it's very easy to misinterpret the actions of those who would otherwise be deemed at least average performers as poor performers. when there is a superstar in a group. in fact. are assumed to have a high correlation. social bias.subjects in a narrow sample set. From this picture we draw conclusions about them which have no bearing in reality. We do not see the distinctions between people of this group and instead simply see: Teacher Congressperson Frenchman Negro Blue Collar Worker Inner City Dweller y Flawed Logic Noticing only one or two characteristics. unrelated conclusions are drawn based upon personal experience. or group norming. Blondes are unintelligent. People who smile are honest. when. instead we see a certain picture. the person targeted by the halo effect (or devil effect) will be perceived as "just like" all others who have held a similar role. For example. . Application There are a number of different ways in which the psychology of the halo effect may manifest: y Superficial Misperception Instead of seeing the observable behaviors of a person. y Demographic Bias If we know the societal role or other demographic information. y Social Bias A person who is highly connected or good friends with those deemed to possess positive traits is erroneously assumed to possess those same good traits in "birds of a feather flock together" fashion. y Contrast Sensitivity Within a person and/or a person's group.

the halo effect. All other characteristics are ignored. While similar (no pun intended) to the Social Bias listed above. simply being aware of the halo effekt and how it works may afford one the opportunity more objective judgment and to be able to see if its harmful effects are at work. the fact that he reminds you of your shiftless. or a phenomenon to specifically be alert to when relating to and evaluating situations and people. in order to form a certain characteristic of a person a "yard" and derive from it spreading acceptance. instead this person possesses actual traits which are noticeably similar to those who have created a strong bias in the observer. Another means to traverse the hazards of the haloeffect is completely assess the performance on one performance factor before moving on to the next factor. much like many psychology concepts.y Similarity Sensitivity With a person or group. characteristics are noticed which are very similar to our own or those we respect greatly. until a very strong and distinct impression is made to alter the existing path. A well dressed lady also as wealthy and more educated than the same lady in a Jogging suit. Making Friends with the Halo Effect . So. instead of having a desirable social standing. The effect describes the tendency. The halo effect is also demonstrated when an overall global impression influences ratings. brother-in-law. no good. Finally. The first impression is a psychology concept similar to that of inertia or momentum in the physical sciences. Consequences Ultimately. can let the strong rating of one critical factor influence the ratings for all other factors exhibit the halo effect. can be used as a tool for motivating others to a desired end. Having clear and specific ratings standards can help avoid the halo effekt. simply because the candidate exhibited others which were desirable. the halo effect can negatively impact all areas of management. y Yard Effect (or Hof Effekt) The perception of a person orients itself at few conspicuous characteristics. impacts further observations. Managers responsible for employee ratings. while the person is obviously a distinct and unique individual. Interviewers can wrongly infer that a candidate has a slew of required characteristics or attributes. This problem occurs with employees who are friendly (or unfriendly) toward you or especially strong (or weak) in one skill. Left alone. y Lasting First Impressions The very first impression left with the observer overrides all subsequent impressions.

catering to them can allow one to slingshot from existing biases and harness their power to attain a more desirable decision from another party. Conclusion Just as with any powerful tool such as a gun. "You only have one chance to make a good first impression. and even incompetence can be overlooked. axe. singularly negative events and even strings of events can be completely sidestepped having delivered well initially. but how does one harness the power of the HaloEffect? NLP rapport building techniques such as pacing exponentially increase the perception that the pacer is very similar to the observer. Familiarity with such tools does not guarantee that your proficiency will not cause harm to another. So.But just as selective perception is an adversary of logical judgement. On the other hand. For example. Others are judging you. all depends on your skill with that tool and whether its in your hand or that of an aggressor. So the power of the Halo Effekt is certainly enticing in these areas. whether the tool is good or bad. and talent -. if the first thing you or your company does for a new client is tremendous. And the list goes on. service. aside from the self improving psycho-social benefits." While this tidbit is not so forthcoming as the previous. Leveraging well known social biases can also be an effective means of securing favor. people who wear glasses are frequently perceived as more intelligent. Citing prior successes as a benchmark. this adage tells us. hammer." This nugget of wisdom just comes right out and says it. Doctors with white lab coats and stethoscopes are perceived as more capable. a lack of familiarity with these concepts will result in your more readily succumbing to their effects. "You are known by the company you keep. Stereotypes Explanations > Theories > Stereotypes Description | Example | So What? | See also | References . and exhibits overwhelming dedication. knife. Since both of these professions leverage the use of "street psychology". and one of the factors they consider is your peer group. on can readily infer from it that a first impression can have a powerful and lasting impact. others will view us favorable or unfavorably based on this one known factor. By maintaining a peer group of high performers. issues with quality or workmanship. so is it an ally of a strong negotiator or marketing professional. any weapon to be found that can be used to ones advantage is fair game. This can cause the observer of these pacing tactics to view a halo around the pacer and more readily act in the manner desired by the NLP practitioner.all subsequent actions will be viewed within this hlao. Rather than fighting these socialized norms. Someone who is "dressed for success" cares more about doing a good job. A few well known pieces of advice are actually invitations to leverage the haol effekt. useful or damaging. Delays.

We usually need quite a lot of repeated information for each incremental change. 'Ugandan military'. with additional characteristics added. particularly when we can draw a boundary around the subclass. When we do change the stereotypes. In certain societies this is intensified as the stereotyping of women pushes them together more and they create men as more of an out-group. y y We often store stereotypes in two parts. police and women are so easily stereotyped. Thus if we have a stereotype for Americans. Example . etc. To this we may add exemplars to prove the case. Stereotyping often happens not so much because of aggressive or unkind thoughts. 'Ugandans'. a visit to New York may result in us having a µNew Yorkers are different¶ sub-type. where it subtly biases our decisions and actions. such as 'the policeman next door'. Individual evidence is taken as the exception that proves the rule. which in origin seems to be more like 'European/non-European'). with each lower order inheriting the characteristics of the higher order. even in people who consciously do not want to be biased. we incrementally adjust the stereotype to adapt to the new information. we do so in one of three ways: y Bookkeeping model: As we learn new contradictory information. such as when various nationalities are stereotyped as friendly or unfriendly. People from stereotyped groups can find this very disturbing as they experience an apprehension (stereotype threat) of being treated unfairly. we often cling to our obviously-wrong beliefs. It is more often a simplification to speed conversation on what is not considered to be an important topic. such as 'black people'. Men stereotype women and women stereotype men. It is easier to create stereotypes when there is a clearly visible and consistent attribute that can easily be recognized. This is why people of color. First there is the generalized descriptions and attributes. Stereotyping can be subconscious. Conversion model: We throw away the old stereotype and start again. Even in the face of disconfirming evidence.Description Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people whereby we attribute a defined set of characteristics to this group. Stereotyping can go around in circles. such as 'white/black' (an artificial system of opposites. We may also store them hierarchically. 'Africans'. The same thing happens with different racial groups. We change our stereotypes infrequently.. These classifications can be positive or negative. Subtyping model: We create a new stereotype that is a sub-classification of the existing stereotype. This is often used when there is significant disconfirming evidence.

Defending To change a person¶s view of your stereotype. So what? Using it Find how others stereotype you (if possible. Geographical Indications are aimed towards identifying the source of the product and is considered as the valuable business tool. The global trade has made it crucial of harmonizing the various approaches and methods which the governments use for registering the GIs in their respective territories. The Article 22 of the TRIPS Agreement emphasis on the obligations of the government for providing legal opportunities within their territories for safeguarding the GI use . Such case is prominent for food and beverage which more commonly use the geographic terms. so you can do these and they will often ignore it. where the reputation or other attributes of the goods is essentially related to the geographic origin of the place. Stereotyping can be reduced by bringing people together.Stereotyping goes way beyond race and gender. Beware of your own stereotyping blinding you to the true nature of other individuals. Thus GI grants the rights to its holder which acts as the certification mark and shows that the specified product consists of the some qualities and is enjoying good reputation due to its origin from the specified geographical location. When they discover the other people are not as the stereotype. Geographical Indication Geographical Indication (GI) signifies to the name or sign. region or nation. you can do moderately unkind things which may be ignored. getting them to stereotype you positively). another department in your company. supporters of other football teams. The first initiative was taken in the year 1883 as the Paris Convention on trademarks which was followed by the more elaborative provisions of the Lisbon Agreement in the year 1958 for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their Registration. used in reference to the products which are corresponding to the particular geographical area or somewhat related to the origin like town. Consider conversations you have had about people from the next town. Thus if you are stereotyped as a µkind old man¶. In the year 1994 during the conclusion of the negotiations on the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights all WTO members were decided to lay down certain standards for the GIs protection in their respective countries. The Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement has defined the 'geographical indications rights' as the exclusionary rights for the indicator which identify the goods originated within the member nations territories. be consistently different from it. the immediate evidence creates dissonance that leads to improved thoughts about the other group. They will have a blind spot to non-stereotyped behaviors. Geographical indications are the part of the intellectual property law therefore like any other law the regulation and govern conditions of GI also varies from one country to another as high differences have been found out in the use of generic terms across the world. or area or region of that territory. and so on.

To register the geographical indication. geographical indication is used for identifying the goods from a particular geographical location and its origin. The registrar will sent the copy of the opposition to the applicant who in turns is required to counter the statement within 2 months of the receipt of the opposition copy. The submitted application may either be accepted fully or conditionally. Kanjeepuram Sarees.and curbing its misappropriate use. quality of soil. . which occurs within the said geographical area. encompasses of the natural qualities and human factors. the registrar will provide a chance to both parties for the oral hearing and after that the matter will be settled down through the quasi-judicial manner.g. an individual cannot register geographical indication on his/her name. The body prepares the Register of Geographical Indications which is prepared in two parts. natural goods and is extended up to the manufacture goods also. However registering of the GI is not compulsory in the India as the owner of the unregistered GI can also enforce the actions with the help of passing off against the infringer but it is recommendable to register the GI as the registration certificate acts as the prima facie evidence in the court at the time of arising of any dispute and no additional evidence is required to proof the validity. After the application acceptance it will be publicized in the Geographical Indication Journal and within the 3 months of its publication. climate. The applicant is needed to give the geographical map of the area in which the goods have been produced along with the descriptory methods of the geographical indicators appearance of the goods. the submitted application should detail down the address of the services which are situated in the India. The applicant can file the single application for varied classes of goods but separate fees is required to be paid for each class of goods. any organization or association of people or the statutory authority can apply for the registration. While Part A consists of the important attributes of the goods along with the name of the registered owner whereas Part B details down the various rules which are related to the geographical indicator authorized users registration. But if the applicant fails to comply with the specified time duration then the application would have been considered rejected. In the Indian act. They need to file the application which should consists of the statement that how the geographical indications are related to the quality and with other characteristic features which are the result of the geographical environment. Examples of some of the popular geographical indicators are. It encircles the agriculture goods. The Indian Geographical Indication Act has established the Geographical Indication Registry. After the furnishing of the evidence by the applicant. the statutory body. processing methods etc. unique methods of production. In order to register the geographical indication. processing and preparation. for completing the geographical indication registration. 2002. It is required that the class of goods which have been chosen should be covered under the registration.Part A and Part B.Basmati Rice. 1999 and the Geographical Indication of Goods (Regulation and Protection) Rules. However for the registration of foreign indications. Normally the geographical indicators signify to the rights of community or a group therefore. If the application has been rejected or has been accepted partially then the registrar is required to record in writing the reasons of rejection or conditionally acceptance. Darjiling Tea. any person who oppose against the application and can request for the opposition proceedings. Geographical Indication Act in India In India the geographical indications regime is regulated by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act. for e. the goods should possess the unique characteristic. reputation with other qualities attributed to its geographical origin.

000 fine.Civil remedies which cover the injunction damages.00.000 fine and maximum to Rs. However the criminal remedies may include of the punishment to the offender minimum to 6 months which can extended maximum to 3 years with the minimum Rs. which in turns include the delivery of the infringed goods for the destructive purpose and forfeiting of the goods which bear upon the fake representation of the original geographical indication. The initial registration of the geographical indication holds its validness for 10 years. . The Indian act has given gracing period of 2 years for restoring back the registration of those geographical indications which have been canceled due to the failure of paying the renewal fees. At the time of the geographical indications infringement there are two types of remedies which have been clearly specified in the act.2.In case of the foreign entities who are interested in lodging the opposition.50.000. are needed to submit the security for costs.2.00. If the same offense is repeated in the future again then the minimum sentence becomes of 1 year with minimum Rs.

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