Introduction to Psychology

Part II
A TEXTBOOK
.OR

CLASS XII

AUTHORS
GIRISHWAR MISRA K.D. BROOTA AJIT K. DALAL ANAND PRAKASH Y.S. VAGRECHA ASHOK K. SRIVASTAVA ANJUM SIBIA

EDITOR
GIRISHWAR MISRA

.

each chapter has ‘Recapitulation’ at the end of each major section. The material presented in BOXES is NOT for evaluation. The Glossary given at the end would help to acquaint students with psychology’s technical language which is important in any introductory text. and the Indian view point. Activities are experiential in nature which would help to translate concepts in practical and behavioural terms. including topics of current interest to students. Illustrations and figures are some other aids which would help in transaction of the contents and make the text appealing to the students. Chapter Summary would help in revising the main ideas of each chapter. Review questions in the form of ‘Learning Checks’ are interspersed throughout the chapters to help students check their understanding of each section’s main ideas immediately after finishing the section instead of waiting until the end of the chapter. The content is participatory. but it should not be imposed on every student. Enrichment material given in Boxes have information on higher level concepts. interest and their involvement. Students may be encouraged to read the matter presented in boxes. These descriptions may go beyond the contents of the syllabus.A NOTE . newer developments in the field.OR THE TEACHERS The total organisation of the text and its contents are intended to be responsive to major developments in the field and show sensitivity to the interests and needs of students. drawing examples from everyday life. and contain new developments in the field. . The aim is to engage students. To help students organise and remember important ideas.

Some illustrations provide examples of complicated concepts. The chapter Summary at the end of the chapter provides a summary of the chapter’s main ideas to help you review the materials read in the chapter. The Glossary given at the end of the textbook should assist you in this learning process. Learning Checks interspersed throughout the chapter are self check exercises. Key Terms are important vocabulary terms and are listed at the end of the chapter. challenging to think and easy to learn.OR THE STUDENTS This textbook contains information and learning aids to help you in understanding the contents. tables and figures will also help you understand the material discussed in the text. The content outline at the beginning of each chapter provides an overview of the topics covered in the chapter. Recapitulation given at the end of major sections. are interim summaries that would permit you to check your understanding of section’s main ideas immediately after finishing the section. The learning outcomes would enable you to know how you would gain after reading the chapter. These are.A NOTE . . In preparing this textbook efforts have been made to make the presentation of the contents interesting to read. Enrichment materials presented in the BOXES throughout the chapter are to acquaint you with newer developments in the field. however supplementary reading materials which are not for evaluation. Experiential exercises are given under activities which are for self growth. This would help you know the organisation of the chapter.

CONTENTS A Note for the Teachers A Note for the Students Chapter 1 Intelligence Chapter 2 Self and Personality Chapter 3 Social Influence and Group Processes Chapter 4 Attitude and Social Cognition Chapter 5 Coping with Life Challenges Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Chapter 7 Therapeutic Approaches Chapter 8 Environment and Behaviour Chapter 9 Psychology in Organisational Setting Chapter 10 Psychology and Social Problems Chapter 11 Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist Chapter 12 Statistics in Psychology Practicals in Psychology Glossary Suggested Readings vii viii 1 29 62 82 106 126 147 165 180 197 220 239 263 267 274 .

.

4) Intelligence Testing in India Variations in the Level of Intelligence Giftedness: Nature and Identification Identification of Talent in the Indian Context (Box 1. and Ä describe the concept of aptitude and its measurement procedure. Ä understand some emerging notions of intelligence. Ä discuss cultural differences in conceptualising intelligence. Ä explain the nature of intellectual deficiency and giftedness. Ä explain the multiple facets of intelligence. and Spiritual Intelligences (BOX 1.6) Special Abilities or Aptitudes: Nature and Measurement Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks Ä Nature of intelligence and approaches to its understanding Ä Culture and conceptualisation of intelligence Ä Methods of assessing intelligence Ä Range and variations in intelligence Ä Nature and measurement of aptitude BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä describe the concept of intelligence. Ä acquaint yourself with different methods of assessing intelligence.1) Definitions of Intelligence Intelligence: The Interplay of Nature and Nurture Intelligence: Some Classical Approaches (Box1.5) Intellectual Deficiency: Nature and Types New Directions: Emotional.3) Creativity and Intelligence Culture and Intelligence Intelligence in Non-Western Traditions Intelligence in the Indian Context Assessment of Intelligence Distribution of IQ Scores Types of Intelligence Test Alternatives to IQ Testing (Box 1. . Practical.2) Contemporary Approaches to Intelligence Theory of Multiple Intelligences Triarchic Theory of Intelligence PASS Model of Intelligence Samples of PASS Measures (Box 1.1 THIS INTELLIGENCE CHAPTER COVERS CONTENTS Introduction What is Intelligence? Beginnings of Intelligence Testing (Box 1.

We often make judgements about the intellectual competence of people on the basis of these and related characteristics and label them as being more intelligent or less intelligent. domain. and to overcome obstacles. you must have noticed individual differences in this highly valued trait. may it be in school. The expression of intelligence is not limited to any particular activity. understanding about the nature of intelligence has changed drastically. and the nature of special abilities or aptitudes. or context. and so on. The emphasis on one or the other aspects of intelligence varies across cultures. however. placement. However. range and variations in the intellectual competencies of people. Every parent wishes his/her child to be intelligent. industry. it is manifested in every human activity. changing definitions of intelligence. For long. The notion of intelligence has expanded to encompass affective.2 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION Intelligence is probably one of the most popular psychological terms used in everyday life. People differ from each other in their ability to understand complex ideas. You too must have encountered people showing different levels of intelligence. rather has multiple dimensions or facets. It is now believed that intelligence is not a single entity or unidimensional. to learn from experience. the study of intelligence was confined to the cognitive domain. during social interaction. to adapt effectively to environment. at work. rather. training. defence organisations. cultural differences in its conceptualisation. bureaucratic set-ups and so on. and social domains also. And it is rightly so. . These tests are useful in selection. and providing educational and vocational guidance and counselling to the students. to engage in various forms of reasoning. its assessment. In this chapter you will study the nature of intelligence. because it is due to the intellectual development that humans have been able to transcend the physical frailties and gain dominance over the more powerful and numerous animals. In recent years. You must have heard about tests that are used to measure intelligence in different settings including school.

In the Indian context. breathing capacity. The words such as capacity. in 1838. are used for intelligence. reaction time. in 1904. is considered to be the father of mental tests. However. Simon developed the first test of intelligence in 1905. For example. J. visual acuity. the work of a Frenchman. to BEGINNINGS OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING The first systematic attempt to develop a test of intelligence was made by Alfred Binet. Medha. shrewdness. The test consisted of 30 items ranging from the ability to touch one’s nose or ear when asked. are used as synonyms of intelligence. and motor processes. Psychologists have proposed a number of definitions of intelligence. On the basis of the analysis of synonyms make three or four statements about the nature of intelligence. education. and judgement. comprehension. and perceive.M. quickness in learning. and memory for visual forms. Cattell is credited with introducing the term mental test. talent. Chaturya.. the following terms have been listed as the meaning of intelligence: ability to understand. The works of Galton and Cattell together paved the way for further studies on intelligence. BOX 1. Binet and Simon in 1905 defined intelligence as “the ability to judge well. imagery. Unlike Galton who reduced intelligence to sensory. and motor responses were key aspects of intelligence. Discuss your observations with your classmates and teacher. The development of the concept of intelligence in modern psychology is closely related to the efforts in the direction of assessing intelligence. The term ‘intelligence’ has not only been used more popularly in daily life.Intelligence 3 WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? ACTIVITY 1. Dhi. A perusal of dictionaries will reveal that the term intelligence has been taken in a broad sense. intelligence is a capacity to profit from experience and to go beyond the given. it has also received maximum attention of the researchers in the fields of psychology. . an Englishman. Galton attempted to measure intelligence by administering a battery of tests which measured such characteristics as head size. to the ability to draw designs from Binet memory and define abstract concepts. aptitude.1 DEFINITIONS OF INTELLIGENCE Broadly speaking. At the request of the French Ministry of Education. etc. acumen. etc. reason. and child development. Prajna.1 Understanding the Concept of Intelligence Find out the synonyms of intelligence and analyse the similarities and differences among them. perceptual. perceptual. mental alertness. discrimination. Binet with his student T. Binet argued that the core of intelligence consists of more complex mental processes such as memory. Historically. strength of hand grip. ability to grasp relationships etc. In 1884. a Frenchman. Binet attempted to devise a method to identify children who did not benefit from regular classroom teaching and needed to be placed in special schools. Galton Alfred believed that simple sensory. J. words such as Buddhi Pratibha. Esquirol. Sir Francis Galton. on mental disorders is considered to be the beginning of modern mental testing.

some of these monozygotic (identical) twins were reared apart. This definition goes beyond the adaptive nature of intelligence. he/she may try to bring changes in the environmental context (shaping) according to his or her own likings. Studies have shown high level of similarity between the intelligence levels of such monozygotic twins. bringing out change in the environmental context may not always be possible due to various reasons. He defined it as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully. shaping. More recently Robert Sternberg (1997). Thus. has defined intelligence as follows: Intelligence comprises the mental abilities necessary for adaptation to. ACTIVITY 1. intelligence is “the ability or skill to solve problems or to fashion products which are valued within one or more cultural settings”. (3) Comprehension or ability to have a basic understanding of exactly what the problem is. and (4) Self evaluation or person’s idea of whether he or she has been able to solve the problem correctly. (2) Adaptability or ability to make the necessary adjustments to solve a problem. According to Howard Gardner (1986). Thus. is that the landscape of an environmental context changes over time. The evidence for the innateness comes from studies on twins.4 Introduction to Psychology understand well. and adaptation. according to Sternberg. intelligence is not just reacting (in the form of adaptation) to the demands of the environment. first of all you try to behave according to their expectations. rather the use of these abilities in real life situations is important. In that case an intelligent person tries to find another suitable environment (selection). On rare occasions. you may go to another relative’s house or go back to your home. Therefore. l Thinking abstractly using symbols and concepts. and is notable for the dogmatic nature of the opinions. when you visit a relative on holidays. you begin to suggest them changes according to your taste. such as death or illness of the mother. Discuss these examples with classmates and teacher. The second important point. l Learning or profiting optimally from experience or training. to think rationally. and to reason well”. The definition proposed by Wechsler in 1939 has been very popular. it may be assumed that their intelligence (genetic) level should be similar and any difference would be due to non-genetic (environmental) factors. As you know monozygotic twins result from the fertilisation of a single ovum by a single sperm and they are genetically identical. and selection involve a process of life-long learning. When a person is not able to adapt to an environment. INTELLIGENCE: THE INTERPLAY NATURE AND NURTURE OF There is no end to the debate as to whether intelligence is innate or acquired. There were four elements that were believed to be important for intelligence: (1) Direction or ability to set up a goal and work towards it. one that starts during infancy and continues throughout the life span. It has also been reported in some studies that identical twins separated very early in life share considerable degree of . It should be noted that intelligence does not simply mean possessing certain abilities per se. The controversy has aroused fierce passions. any environmental context. selection. and to deal effectively with the environment”. An analysis of the above and other definitions indicates that intelligence consists of three general classes of skills or abilities: l Adapting to new situations and changing task demands. become politicised. Slowly. However. For example. as well as shaping and selection of. but also involves actively shaping and selecting the environment. when you find it difficult to adapt or bring about changes in the relative’s house. a pioneer in the field of intelligence research.2 Processes Involved in Intelligence Find two examples each from everyday activities that relate to shaping. adequate adaptation. For example.

contemporary view of intelligence goes beyond adaptation skills—where adaptation is not possible. l Raymond Cattell (1971) proposed that there are two ‘g’ factors. personality.Intelligence 5 similarity in intelligence. within which the actual development depends upon the support from environmental conditions. and abstract thinking. Generally. Inductive Reasoning. Adoption studies lend support to the nurture side of the debate. Since then many definitions of intelligence have been proposed. learning from past experiences. each being strictly specific to a single activity Fig 1. The limitation of these studies is that the samples have been generally very small. Some studies have reported that IQ of the adopted children tends to move toward that of their adopting parents. ‘gf’ (for fluid g SI S2 S3 Fig. In these studies children’s intelligence levels were compared with their biological and adopting mothers. This theory maintained that all intellectual activities share a single common factor. intelligence is defined in terms of adaptation to new situations. are found to be related to IQ scores.. Probably. called ‘g’. . the maximum limit is drawn by the genetic factors.2 INTELLIGENCE: SOME CLASSICAL APPROACHES l l Charles Spearman (1927) proposed a “Two Factor theory” of intelligence. and quality of schooling.1 Relationship between ‘g’ and ‘s’ conceptualised by Spearman contd. intelligence consists of General (‘g’) and Specific (‘s’) factors. such as nutrition. In all these definitions. The most accepted view today is that intelligence is a product of a complex interaction of genetic factors and environmental conditions. Verbal Fluency. each of which is relatively independent of the others.. 1. Number. Recapitulation The systematic attempt to define and assess intelligence in modern period began with the work of Binet in 1904. A range of environmental factors. the presence of adoptive parents of higher IQ level raises a disadvantaged child’s IQ. Other studies have shown greater closeness with the IQ of biological mothers.1 shows this pattern. and Perceptual Speed. There is evidence to show that deprived environments may result in lowering of IQ scores. Characterised as mental energy. Spatial Visualisation. family background. and mannerisms when they were identified later. According to him. However. Memory. Positive correlations between any two factors were attributed to ‘g’ factor. this theory also postulates a number of specific factors ‘s’. ‘g’ is considered responsible for relationships between different human activities. Louis Thurstone (1938) advanced the “Theory of Primary Mental Abilities” which states that intelligence consists of seven major factors. BOX 1. an intelligent person either attempts to shape and bring changes in the environment. or carve out another environment of his/her liking. In addition to ‘g’. These factors are: Verbal Comprehension.

6

Introduction to Psychology

intelligence) and ‘gc’ (for crystallised intelligence). Fluid intelligence includes the ability to think creatively, to reason abstractly, to make inferences from data, and to understand relationships. It can be measured by analogy and classification problems. It is strongly influenced by heredity. In contrast, crystallised intelligence includes what a person learns and retains from experience; so, it is strongly influenced by environment. Tests of vocabulary and general information can be used to measure crystallised intelligence. It has been found that fluid intelligence tends to decline at an early age than crystallised intelligence though both show rapid decline starting in the late seventies.
l

stimulus input prior to the outcome or response. Level II refers to a general class of abilities involving effective transformation or manipulation of stimuli, as evinced in higher order learning, such as reasoning and problem-solving.
l

Arthur Jensen has advanced a theory of two levels of intelligence: Level I and Level II. Level I denotes associative learning (e.g. rote learning and memory). These activities involve minimal mental transformation of the

On the basis of more than two decades of factor analytic research, J. P. Guilford proposed a box-like model, which is known as Structure-of-Intellect Model. This theory organises intellectual traits along three dimensions: Operations—what the respondent does, Contents—the nature of the materials or information on which operations are performed, and Products— the form in which information is processed by the respondents. Guilford’s classification includes 6 x 5 x 5 categories, resulting into 150 cells in the model. In each cell at least one factor or ability is expected; some cells may contain more than one factor. The model is shown in Fig.1.2.

Operations Co nv er Di ge ve Ev nt alu rg pr en at od tp ion uc ro tio du n Me ct ion m Co or y gn itio n

Vis

ua

l Au o dit ry bo lic ma nti

Contents

Sym Se

c h io av ura l

Be

Units Classes Products Relations Systems Transformation Implications

Fig. 1.2 Guilford’s Structure of Intellect

Intelligence

7

LEARNING CHECKS I

1. The speed with which one accomplishes a task refers to one’s intellectual capacity. T/F 2. Binet developed a test of intelligence to discriminate amongst normal students of a class. T/F 3. Learning from past experiences is a characteristic of an intelligent person. T/F 4. Selection strictly refers to leaving a task, which cannot be accomplished, and selecting a task, which is easy to perform. T/F

CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO INTELLIGENCE The classical notion of intelligence, which defined it in terms of a single index of cognitive abilities, has undergone major changes. It is now believed that intelligence is not one or unitary ability, rather there are many intelligences, which people display while solving problems in everyday life. In this section you will study about three such theories. THEORY
OF

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

Howard Gardner (1983) proposed this theory. It is based on three principles. First, intelligence is not a single entity; rather, there exist multiple intelligences, each distinct from others. Second, these intelligences are independent of each other. In other words, if a person is good in one type of intelligence, it does not give any indication about how good or bad the person may be on Howard Gardner other types of intelligences. Third, different types of intelligences interact. That is, different intelligences work together to provide a solution of a problem. Gardner has so far proposed eight intelligences. However, all the individuals do not possess them in equal proportion. The particular situation or the context decides the

prominence of one type of intelligence over the others. The eight intelligences are as follows: l Linguistic : This is related to reading, writing, listening, talking, understanding, etc. Poets exhibit this ability better than others. l Logical-mathematical : This type of intelligence deals with abstract reasoning and manipulation of symbols involved in numerical problems. It is exhibited in scientific work. l Spatial : Intelligence of this kind is used while navigating in space, forming, transforming, and using mental images. Sailors, engineers, surgeons, pilots, car drivers, sculptors, and painters have highly developed spatial intelligence. l Musical :Persons with musical intelligence show sensitivity to pitch and tone required for singing, playing an instrument, composing and appreciating music, etc. l Bodily-kinesthetic : It requires the skills and dexterity for fine coordinated motor movements, such as those required for dancing, athletics, surgery, craft making, and the like. l Interpersonal : It requires understanding motives, feelings, and behaviours of other people. Sales people, politicians, teachers, clinicians, and religious leaders have high degree of interpersonal intelligence. l Intrapersonal : It is related to understanding one’s self and developing a sense of identity. l Naturalistic : It is related to recognising the flora and fauna and making a distinction in the natural world. It is more possessed by hunters, farmers, tourists, students of biological sciences, and the like.
ACTIVITY 1.3 Application of the View of Multiple Intelligences Prepare a list of about 20 vocations. Analyse these vocations in terms of the type of intelligence required for success in those vocations. Discuss the results of your analysis with your teacher.

8

Introduction to Psychology

TRIARCHIC THEORY

OF

INTELLIGENCE

Robert J. Sternberg (1985) proposed this theory. It attempts to understand the cognitive processes involved in solving problems. According to this theory, there are three l subtheories of intelligence: Componential, Experiential, and Contextual as shown in Fig. 1.3. Robert J. Sternberg l Componential Sub theory: It consists of internal mental mechanisms that are responsible for intelligent behaviour. The components of intelligence serve three different functions. Metacomponents are the executive processes that are involved in planning strategies, monitoring progress, and allocating internal and external resources to problem solving. Performance components ACTIVITY 1.4 are the processes that are used to perform a Application of Triarchic Theory task or solve a problem. This component Read the following problem statements and is the one that is measured best by identify the type of intelligence that would be existing intelligence tests. Knowledge required to solve those problems: acquisition components are the processes l You see a novel word embedded in a used in learning. paragraph and have to infer its meaning l Experiential Subtheory : It focuses on from the context. the relationship between the person’s l You have to solve everyday problems inner, mental world and the outer, faced by an adolescent. external world. This aspect is concerned (For answers see Learning Checks on p.11) with the effect of intelligence on one’s experiences as well as the effect of Contextual person’s interaction Subtheory with the environment Metacomponents Specifies the Control, monitor, and evaluate on intelligence. This behaviours cognitive processing considered intelligent view adds creativity in a particular (or novelty and culture Performance Components originality) to the Execute strategies assembled Experiential overall conception by metacomponents Componential Subtheory of intelligence. A Subtheory Specifies how Knowledge-acquisition creat-ively intelligent Specifies the experiences affect Components cognitive processes person may not intelligence and how Encode, combine, and that underlie all particularly perform intelligence affects a compare information intelligent behavior person’s experiences well on a test of intelligence but is Fig. 1.3 Elements of Triarchic Theory of Intelligence able to combine

different experiences in uniquely original ways. A second aspect of experiential intelligence is the ability to automatise or “make routine” tasks that are encountered repeatedly. An example of automatising is reading, which is carried out largely without conscious thought. Playing music is another example of this type of activity. Contextual Subtheory : It deals with the ways people effectively shape their environments, adapt to different contexts, and make the most of their available resources. Contextual intelligence refers to “street smarts” or “situationally smart”. It is the effective management of self and the practical management of the business of everyday life. People high on contextual remain practical or down-to-earth in life. Such people remain involved in activities such as implementing, using, applying, and seeking relevance.

Intelligence

9

PASS MODEL

OF

INTELLIGENCE

Serial

Concurrent

Serial

Concurrent

Extending the information processing approach, J.P. Das, Naglieri, and Kirby (1994) proposed this theory. The basic statement of the model is that intelligence can be understood as a result of interdependent functioning of three neurological systems: those responsible for arousal (and attention), coding (or processing), and planning. The two coding processes are simultaneous and successive. Thus the theory is known as PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive) Theory. The three components of PASS theory are shown in Fig. 1.4. l Arousal and Attention: Suppose a young lady goes to market with her 3-year-old child. After some time the child becomes restless and also occasionally cries. This arouses J.P. Das the mother to attend to the child’s needs. Arousal is basic for initiating an activity. It forces one to focus attention in a particular direction. You have read earlier that attention is selective: You do not pay attention to each and everything that comes on your way; rather, you attend to a few selected objects/events/persons which may be helpful in achieving the desired goal or are related to the motivational state. l Simultaneous and Successive Processing : The mother realises that her child is hungry and decides to take her to a restaurant. She looks at the shops around her. The shops have displayed different types of signboards. The mother attends to those signboards to find out a restaurant and tries to grasp their meaning. Here she uses simultaneous and successive processes to grasp the meaning out of the signboards. Simultaneous processes help you in grasping the meaning out of the pictures. This involves the integration of different stimuli at a time in groups and is holistic

KNOWLEDGE BASE
First Functional Unit AROUSAL/ ATTENTION Third Functional Unit PLANNING

KNOWLEDGE BASE

KNOWLEDGE BASE

Conceptual

Conceptual

Perceptual

Brain Stem

Frontal

Second Functional Unit

Occipital, Parietal and Temporal (Posterior) Memory Conceptual Perceptual

SIMULTANEOUS AND SUCCESSIVE KNOWLEDGE BASE

Fig. 1.4. The PASS Model of Ability

l

in nature. On the other hand, the mother reads the letters and words one after another written on the boards, integrating the stimuli in series. In this case she is using successive processing to grasp the meaning. Learning of digits and alphabets is another example of successive processing. Simultaneous and successive processes can be applied to the tasks of various modalities (auditory, visual, kinesthetic etc.) involving different kinds of stimuli (verbal or non–verbal), and may take place during direct perception, retention of information, and at higher cognitive levels. Planning : After the attention and processing of information, you decide that this is a restaurant where you can get something to eat. If there are more than one, you select one of your choice. Thus, planning refers to generation of plans or

Perceptual

Memory

Memory

10

Introduction to Psychology

problems as well as to goal setting, strategy selection, and performance monitoring. Planning is responsible for activities such as asking questions, problem solving, and the capacity for self-monitoring. Based on the PASS theory, Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) was developed. The system employs verbal and non-verbal tests presented through visual and auditory sensory channels. It is appropriate for use with individuals between ages 5 to 11, and has been specially designed for use with intervention purposes. Some measures are given in Box 1.3. The system is considered an appropriate and innovative tool for the assessment of cognitive status.

Creativity and Intelligence Highly intelligent people may or may not be creative but highly creative persons are without doubt highly intelligent. Sternberg talks about three types of intelligence: Analytic, Creative , and Practical. Creativity is a process that requires the balance and application of various aspects of intelligence. The creative intelligence is the ability to go beyond the given data to generate novel and interesting ideas. A creative person is a good synthetic thinker, sees the connections and relationships others don’t see. In addition, creative people also have the ability to analyse and evaluate ideas. The practical intelligence is the third aspect of creativity, which refers to the ability to translate theory into practice and transfer abstract ideas

BOX 1.3

SAMPLES OF PASS MEASURES

Planned Connections ( for Planning): It requires children to develop some effective way of connecting sequential stimuli (e.g., the numbers 1-2-3-4-5), which appears in a diverse manner on a page. For the first five trials a child is required to connect the series of numbers in their proper numerical sequence (1 to 2, 2 to 3, etc.). On the last two trials the child is required to alternatively connect numbers and letters in their proper sequence (1 to A, A to 2, 2 to B, B to 3, and so on). The test score is the time in seconds taken by the child in each trial separately as well as on all the trials. Expressive Attention ( for Attention):It consists of three pages, although only the last page is used as a measure of attention. The first and second pages contain the words Red, Blue, and Green written in the respective colours (page 1) or coloured rectangle of these colours in varying orders (page 2) arranged in eight rows and five columns. The task before the child is to read all the words on page 1 or say the names of the colours on page 2 as fast as possible. The selective attention component of this task is apparent on page 3 through the use of an interference paradigm. Page 3 contains the words red, blue, and green printed in

colours different than the words (e.g. word GREEN printed in red colour). The child’s task is to name the colour used to print the word, rather than read the word, as fast as possible. Time needed to complete is recorded. Raven’s Progressive Matrices ( for Simultaneous Processes): These matrices are used to assess the simultaneous processes. In this test, the task involves the completion of figural analogies using a progressive matrix format. The child is required to choose one of the six options that best completes the abstract analogy. The requirement that each component of the matrix must be interrelated to the others makes this task congruent with the simultaneous paradigm. The scores for this test are the total number of correct choices and the time taken by the child to complete the task. Digit Span (for Successive Processes): You present, for example, the following series of digits to the child 4-7-9 2-5-8-9 3-5-6-9-11 After each presentation the child is required to recall the digits. The total number of digits recalled (maximum) is the digit span.

a creative person is high on all three aspects of intelligence – analytic. T/F 3. Cultural groups differ in their notions of what constitutes intelligence. Gardner proposed eight types of intelligences: Linguistic. Thus. speed. In certain places. In the PASS model. Solving logical puzzles requires bodilykinesthetic intelligence. intelligence tests developed in the West look for these qualities among people. T/F 4. and successive processes (PASS model). Thus. and analogies. which is shared by majority of the persons in the group. Musical.Intelligence 11 into practical accomplishments. T/F 8. Interpersonal. T/F 6. Logical-mathematical. observation. respectively. Intrapersonal. Such an understanding depends upon people’s experiences. T/F 5. and higher achievement in school. for example. 1. Since successful adaptation to one’s own socio-cultural environment is considered a sign of intelligence. experiential. characterised by attention. is passed on from one generation to the next in written or oral form. Thus. meaningful and valuable. a composite of many intelligences. it is reasonable to assume that different behaviours may represent intelligence in different cultures. Spatial. while an intelligent person is high only on analytical intelligence. many Asian and African cultures consider a person . and something of one’s own (a preference for originality or creativity). Intelligence in Non-Western Traditions In contrast to technological intelligence. Sternberg proposed componential. a creative person is high on all the three aspects. the skills needed to be an excellent farmer are far more important than the skills needed to be a lawyer. It emphasises the development of following factors in children: l generalisation (or going beyond the information given). Experiential and contextual intelligences add creativity and practicality. LEARNING CHECKS II CULTURE AND INTELLIGENCE It is increasingly recognised that intellectual processes and skills are determined by the socio-cultural context in which people live and grow. minimal moves (the best performance calls for reaching the solution in fewest steps).P. intelligence is considered a cultural genre or product of culture. T/F 2. creative and practical. Gardner has proposed seven kinds of interrelated intelligences. Componential intelligence covers the aspects of intelligence measured by standard intelligence tests. You require componential intelligence when you see a novel word embedded in a paragraph and have to infer its meaning from the context. insight. no hands (a preference for mental rather than physical manipulations). and contextual subtheories of intelligence. and Naturalistic intelligences. Recapitulation In this section you read about the three important contemporary theories of intelligence. to the understanding of intelligence. high use of technology and schooling. J. Componential intelligence is concerned with the components of mental functioning involved in cognitive tasks that underlie vocabulary. Sailors are high on spatial intelligence. These theories assume that intelligence is not one or a unitary ability rather. attention. l l speed (faster performance is superior). the most basic aspect is coding of information. called technological intelligence. An Intelligent person is high on analytical intelligence. T/F l l This type of culture gives rise to a kind of intelligence. Bodily-kinesthetic. Das considered intelligence in terms of planning. and is imposed upon each of us without our conscious intent. T/F 7. as one would observe variations in what a particular society views as worthwhile. knowledge. Street-smart persons are high on experiential intelligence. The salient features of Western culture are urbanisation. simultaneous. Contextual intelligence is required to solve everyday problems faced by an adolescent.

comprehension. discrimination. l Reason. goaldirected behaviour). understanding the problem in the proper perspective and constructive intelligence. unlike the IQ notion of intelligence.P. Service to the family and community. and also beyond all these. mind. conscience. the word often used to translate the word intelligence. and (e) reading and writing. politeness and respect for elders. (c) task efficiency. the universe. apprehension. service to elders. politeness. helping the needy. vigilance. an intelligent person shows the following four competencies: l Cognitive Competence (such as sensitivity to context. (d) originality. and effective communication). honesty. l Entrepreneurial Competence (such as hard work.12 Introduction to Psychology intelligent on the basis of social and emotional attributes as well as his or her ability to perform a task. in general. The Indian concept is more inclusive. and l Emotional Competence (such as control of emotions. and admitting mistakes. comprehension. and skill. Slow. (a) Sociable. it encompasses the social and emotional domains. will and desire. According to the Indian view. (b) ability to take another’s point of view. and comprehending.1 summarises the salient features of intelligence emphasised in some non-western cultures. ready wit. l Social Competence (such as following social norms. Knowledge of one’s own self. ‘Buddhi ’. society. recognising. and their integration. More listening than talking. refer to the followings: l The mental vigour or power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions. The terms that are used for buddhi in Sanskrit. Table 1. and social responsibility (such as cooperativeness and obedience). The notion of buddhi not only includes cognitive but also affective and motivational aspects of life. intellect. humorous. which emphasises on the connectivity with the social and work Table 1. commitment. According to J. good conduct). l l l Perception. Rather. and effective speaker. Thus. Intelligence in the Indian Context The Indian thought has shown deep concern for human potential and explored its nature in the context of self. discernment. Ability to judge and perform tasks that are required to be done at homestead. noticing. as well as task performance. showing concern for the environment). and speaking well in public. and judgment. obedience. Buddhi refers to waking up. Presence of mind.1 Characterisation of Intelligence in Different Cultures Africa Baoule China Japan Capability in specific situations. discrimination. and even feelings and opinions in addition to such intellectual processes as knowledge. careful and active. understanding. The Indian view is holistic and emphasises mental abilities. the Indian view is not limited to the cognitive domain alone. and decision-making. both in the cognitive and non-cognitive domains. problem-solving. Das. and understanding. Kenya Uganda Yoruba . mental effort. has been used in a broader sense as compared to the scope of intelligence in modern western psychology. It includes such things as determination. realistic self-appraisal. Non-verbal reasoning (or silent thinking).

The term Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was devised in 1912 by William Stern. then the IQ is more than 100. and social worlds. T/F 3. etc. which is characterised by generalisation.Intelligence 13 environment. ASSESSMENT OF INTELLIGENCE Recapitulation The western concept of intelligence is not valid in all the societies. On the other hand. For example. a person is considered intelligent more on the basis of social and emotional qualities than on the cognitive attributes alone. respectful. This type of intelligence is termed as “integral intelligence”. T/F 4. Calculate the IQ of a 12-year old child whose mental age is 9 years. Discuss the similarities and differences in their definitions with other students and the teachers. the emphasis is on technological intelligence. In these societies. . Indian view of intelligence encompasses social and emotional components together with the cognitive and activity related components. He also gave the concept of Mental Age (MA). then the individual’s IQ is 100 (normal). it may not be appropriate to label people as intelligent or not intelligent in these cultures on the basis of intelligence tests developed in Western countries. (8/6 x 100) whereas a 6-year old child with a mental age of 5 ( 5/6 x 100) would have an IQ of 83. achievement. and multiplied by 100: MA IQ = —— x 100 CA If the mental age is the same as the Chronological age. but good at non-veral reasoning abilities. Willingness to cooperate with group members is considered intelligent in the African societies. poor in verbal abilities LEARNING CHECKS III 1.5 Understanding Laypersons’ conception of intelligence Interview children of different age groups as well as some adults. if mental age is less than the CA. A preference for mental manipulation rather than physical manipulation is the characteristics of intelligent behaviour in non-Western societies. Among Japanese. a 6-year old child with a mental age of 8 would have an IQ of 133. which refers to an individual’s level of mental development relative to the environment in which he/she lives. T/F You have read earlier that the first attempt to measure intelligence was made by Binet. if mental age is above CA. Culturespecific definitions of intelligence need to be explored and appropriate measures need to be developed. He/she may be slow but careful. In the West. such as Asian and African. ACTIVITY 1. T/F 2. ACTIVITY 1.6 Computing the IQ l l Find out the mental age of a 16-year old student who has an IQ of 125. and willing to share responsibilities. a dull child has an MA below CA. speed of work. emotional. in non-western societies. cooperates with group members. He compared MA with Chronological Age (CA) or the biological age or age from birth. T/F 5. IQ refers to a child’s mental age divided by chronological age. Different behaviours in different cultures are characterised as intelligent. Binet argued that a mentally retarded child would perform like a normal child of a younger age. an intelligent person may not work at a high speed. Thus. then the IQ is less than 100. admitting mistakes is not considered an intelligent behaviour. The notion of integral intelligence emphasises interconnectivity between cognitive. across various sections of society and find “what they think are the characteristics of an intelligent person”? Try to understand the concept of intelligence of these groups. A bright child has an MA above CA.

3 conta ins sample items from WAIS. How many would it take to do it in 3 days? An automobile goes 25 miles in 45 minutes. a Professor at the University of Stanford. the individual’s responses in four content areas. Table 1. The fourth and latest revision of Stanford-Binet test was published in 1986. 5. the other most widely used individual intelligence tests are the Wechsler Scales. 2. These are known as: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Year 15 l Repeat 7 digits l Find 3 rhymes for a given word in 1 minute l Repeat a sentence of 26 syllables l Interpret a set of given facts Table 1. nose. The Wechsler Scales Besides the Stanford-Binet Test. 4 Repeat the following digits in reverse order: 5. which is known as Stanford-Binet Test. In addition to providing an overall IQ score. introduced Binet’s test in the United States of America. separate scores for 11 subscales (6 of which are verbal and 5 non-verbals) are also obtained. namely verbal reasoning. and short-term memory are also obtained. and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) for use with children from the ages of 4 to 6 ½ years. quantitative reasoning. the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) for use with children between the ages of 6 and 16. and mouth l Repeat 2 digits l Identify objects in a picture l Repeat a sequence of 6 syllables Year 7 Show right hand and left ear l Describe a picture l Carryout 3 commands given simultaneously l Count the value of 6 coins l revision appeared in 1916. 8. 6 In what way are a circle and a triangle alike? In what way are an egg and a seed alike? What is a hippopotamus? What does ‘resemble’ mean? Digit Repetition: Similarities: Vocabulary: . This was further revised in 1936 and 1961. in addition to a composite score. Table 1. Year 3 l Point to eyes. In the last revision.3 Sample items from Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Verbal Scale Information: Comprehension: Arithmetic: What is steam made of? What is pepper? Why is copper often used in electric wires? Why do some people save sales receipts? It takes 3 people 9 days to paint a house. 4. How far would it go in 20 minutes? Repeat the following numbers in order: 1. only a general composite score was computed to reflect one’s IQ.2 contains some items included in 1911 Binet’s test. 9. Lewis Terman. 3. developed by David Wechsler. In the earlier revisions.14 Introduction to Psychology Stanford Binet Test The intelligence test developed by Binet in 1905 was revised in 1909 and 1911. The first Table 1. 7. where the test underwent many revisions. abstract/visual reasoning. 2.2 Some Items from Binet’s Test of Intelligence (1911 Version) at Three Different Age Levels.

Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) is one such test. above 120 “superior ” and below 70 as evidence of “mental retardation” or “mentally challenged (see Table 1. such tests can only be administered to literates.0 16. The collection of data using individual tests from a larger sample is time consuming. The individual tests are administered to one person at a time.7 2.7 16. Finally. Descriptive Label Very Superior Superior Bright normal Average Dull normal Borderline Mentally Challenged Percent of Population 2. Verbal. They may either be administered to one person at a time (Individual Test) or to a number of persons simultaneously (Group Test). You can select an appropriate type of test depending upon the purpose of its use. 1. it is difficult to express spatial relationships between objects through written communication. and the latter is more commonly used for mass screening. Therefore. Some of the types of tests available are described below. As regards administration. examiner plays a minimal role that is restricted to reading the instructions of the test and getting the test completed within the stipulated time limit.1 6. and Performance Tests: A Verbal test demands understanding of written words.1 50. . The former helps in the diagnosis and remediation of individual learning difficulties. However. individual tests allow the test administrators to establish proper rapport and give personal attention to testees. There is further difference between an individual and a group test. Table 1. Stanford-Binet and Wechsler scales are individually administered tests. Individual or Group Tests : These tests may be classified into different types depending upon their mode of administration and content.5 for an example). It may. Also. Testees have to find. one incomplete pattern is given. while the individual tests are standardised on relatively small samples.2 TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE TEST Intelligence tests are available in different forms. In RPM. A group test is not defined by the number of examinees but by the mode of administration.2 6.4). Separate answer sheets are provided to write the answers. For example. which will complete the pattern (see Fig. the group tests are standardised on ultra large samples. putting testees at ease and maintaining their interest is generally found to be difficult. a group test can also be administered to a single individual. A trained psychologist generally administers such tests to one student or one client at a time. one out of six available alternative figures. Group tests generally employ a multiplechoice format: A question that is followed by four alternatives and a person has to answer There is only a negligible opportunity for oneto-one interaction between the tester and the testee. Individual tests allow people to answer orally or in written form and performance tasks require manipulation of objects or forms. Non-Verbal tests use pictures or illustrations as items.Intelligence 15 Distribution of IQ Scores The IQ scores between 90 and 110 are labelled as “normal”. Non-Verbal.4 Descriptive Labels for IQ Scores IQ Score Above 130 120-130 110-119 90-109 80-89 70-79 Below 70 the correct alternative. Though group tests are easy to administer. and also maintain their interest by providing necessary help when needed. however be noted that.

in accordance with the pattern card. The first doctorate on Test Construction was awarded to K. Bhatia 4. 1. The testees task is to arrange these blocks. middle class. Majority of early tests favoured urban. RPM. Jabalpur.5 Some Tests Developed in India Verbal 1. for the development of a group test of intelligence in Gujarati. However.M. They sample items from the experience of a particular culture. For instance in Koh’s Block Design Test.G. in an order within a given time period. Test of General Mental Ability by M.K. the work on Binet’s test was done at Chennai. Jalota 3. Mahalanobis attempted to standardise Binet’s test of intelligence in Bengali. M. Intelligence Testing in India The development of intelligence tests in India has for long remained one of the popular academic pursuits. Adaptation of Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale by R. white European and American people. particularly Asian and African cultures. Kohs’ Block Design Test. it has been noticed that these tests too show cultural bias. CIE Non-Verbal Test . Kulshrestha 4. To overcome these problems. and Lahore. The items were written Table 1. Group Test of Intelligence by Prayag Mehta 2. C. At about the same time. Cube Construction. Rice in Urdu and Punjabi in 1930s. Indian Adaptation of Binet-Simon Scale by S. It was only since 1950s that published evidence points towards the development of Indian tests.M. Culture-biased vs. Alexander’s Passalong. Ramalingaswamy 2. Culture-fair Tests : Many intelligence tests show a bias towards the culture in which they are developed.C. Minnesota Paper Forms Board. NonVerbal and performance tests have been developed. small boxes containing a number of wooden blocks of different sizes and shapes are given. Up to 1950.5. The Bihar Test of Intelligence by S. These tests are considered culturefair tests because people of any culture could take them. Bhatia developed a performance test of intelligence. The norms for these tests were almost entirely based upon these cultural groups.5 An item from Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) Performance tests are made up of certain concrete tasks. Group Test of Mental Ability by S. Draw-A-Man Test by Pramila Phatak 3. Some tests developed in India are given in Table 1. Desai in 1954. which is popularly known as Bhatia Battery. 4 5 6 Fig. Joshi 5. The first systematic attempt to standardise a test of intelligence (Binet’s test) was made by Dr. Dacca.16 Introduction to Psychology 1 2 3 with these cultures in view and the intent or activities in many of these items do not find place in other cultures. Work was also done on the development of Indian norms for some other foreign tests like the WAIS. rather it consists of a series of five performance tests. and others. It is called battery because it is not just one test. Performance Test of Intelligence by C. Subsequently a number of intelligence tests were either developed originally or were adaptations of tests developed in the West. Mohsin Performance 1.

Test contents that show bias toward a particular culture are called Culturally Biased Tests. In the second phase. You have learnt (in chapter 12. WISC. and multiplied by 100. etc. in which the child is given the tasks or the test to solve them. Similarly. Since then. The time gap between onset of the green light and your movement is a measure of RT. when traffic light is red. many intelligence tests have been developed. Inspection time is another measure of intelligence. class XI) about Vygotsky’s notion of Zone of Potential Development (ZPD). There you have read about seriation.Intelligence 17 Recapitulation Intelligence is measured in terms of IQ. called Culture-Fair Tests. ZPD refers to the difference between the actual development and the developmental level which a child can attain after proper guidance. The shorter the inspection time. Non-Verbal. presumably. motivates them. dynamic testing. Piagetian Tasks: Recall Piaget’s theory of development (Chapter 12. It is based on the assumption that being intelligent involves being able to process information quickly. The dynamic testing is based upon the principle of ZPD. you take some time to start moving. pendulum tasks. conservation. an adult (usually a teacher or a parent) familiarises the child with the tasks. (also called interaction phase). It is done in two phases. Some tests have been developed on the assumption that they can be administered in any culture and. It reflects the minimum amount of time a particular stimulus must be exposed . VARIATIONS IN THE LEVEL OF INTELLIGENCE You have observed in Table 1.4 loosing their popularity for several reasons and alternative measures such as reaction time. These individuals are different from the average population for the reason that their performance is at variance from what is expected from people of their age and circumstances. In the first phase. thus. & WPPSI) are the other widely used scales. Dynamic Testing : As you have read. Intelligence tests come in three categories: Verbal. In recent years some alternative ways of assessing intelligence have emerged. Reaction Time (RT) is considered a more valid measure of intelligence. The first group is termed as the intellectually gifted and the later as mentally retarded or challenged. individuals with mental retardation have slower and less consistent reaction times than normal people. you stop and wait for the green light.4 that about 2 per cent of the population possess IQ scores above 130 and a similar percentage possess IQ scores below 70. The speed and consistency with which people perform on reaction time tasks discriminate between groups of individuals expected to differ in their intellective functions. IQ tests. frequency of presentation. and Performance. etc. which has undergone several modifications and has been used extensively. For example. are gaining popularity. gifted individuals have faster and more consistent reaction time than average persons. the actual testing takes place. Binet developed the first test of intelligence. the available intelligence tests measure developed abilities of the individuals. after 1950. the faster will be. etc. Reaction time refers to the time gap (in seconds) between presentation of a stimulus and the beginning of a response by the individual. These tasks are also used for the assessment of intelligence. gives them hints about how they could be solved. the person’s cognitive (mental) operations. and also makes some modifications in the tasks (such as changing the order of presentation. class XI). It could be in visual or auditory mode. In India.) depending upon the child’s developmental level. have in recent years been BOX 1. which refers to a child’s mental age divided by chronological age. After the light turns green. some of which can be administered to a group while others can be administered individually. Wechsler scales (WAIS. Some of these are: Biological Measures of Intelligence: Among the biological measures. providing a single index of intelligence. For example. ALTERNATIVES TO IQ TESTING to an individual to make a judgement about it that meets some pre-established criteria of accuracy. a number of tests for assessment of intelligence have been developed.

Table 1. The nature. Identifying the Gifted The tests of intelligence and achievement have been most frequently employed for the identification of the gifted children. and has strong social elements including an ethical dimension. Many .. direction. across all economic strata. It is evident from the above definition that: l Gifted individuals exhibit high levels of performance in comparison to their peers living in the same socio-cultural background. T/F 5. and early onset of language. emotional. giftedness was defined as high general intelligence as measured by high score on a test of intelligence. giftedness is defined as a superior ability in any worthwhile line of human endeavour including moral. it is the nature and organisation of abilities (i.6 Aspects of Giftedness Characteristics of Gifted Children : Gifted children show early signs of being exceptional.18 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. specific talents. in 1925. Joseph Renzulli proposes that giftedness depends on the interaction of three factors : high intelligence. preference for novelty. and speed of this process depends partly upon cognitive factors. Culture-fair tests can only be administered to the persons of a particular culture. The study of such gifted persons began with the work of Lewis Terman. and in all areas of human endeavours. T/F 4. self-concept. and motivation that predisposes the gifted person to learn. During infancy such children show large attention span. You can also know one’s intelligence on the basis of his/her reaction time.6 contains some of the salient characteristics of such children.6. Thus. social.e. and high motivation as shown Fig. Maximum number of individuals possess an average IQ. T/F combination of general ability. In recent years. however. exceptionally talented or intelligent’. such as sports and leadership. or aesthetic life of the humanity. who developed intelligence tests for screening populations to identify individuals of superior cognitive ability. T/F 6. Therefore. it is a High Intelligence High Creativity High Motivation Fig. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups. l It is not limited to school related activities alone but also involves areas. Professor Stanford adapted Binet’s tests. l Mere possession of cognitive abilities is not regarded as giftedness. processes) that constitute giftedness. 1. 1. and an important communication aspect. which refers to a person ‘endowed with one gift or many gifts. ranging between 90 to 110. Mental age is obtained on the basis of the individual’s performance on a test of intelligence. Wechsler scales of intelligence have both verbal and performance subtests. good recognition memory. Giftedness GIFTEDNESS : NATURE AND INDENTIFICATION The term ‘gifted’ is an adjective. but is strongly influenced by personality and motivation. these tests are called Stanford-Binet tests. l Giftedness is not restricted to performance on a test of intelligence. high creativity. intellectual. Rather. physical. to achieve. over-reactivity to sensations. and to strive for excellence. T/F 2. T/F 3. Rather.

Transferring skills to new problems and solving problems insightfully.Intelligence 19 Table 1. For promoting cultural talent. Awards are declared on the basis of the national level written tests and interviews. The scholarship is awarded on the basis of examination conducted in two phases: State and National Level examinations. The Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas. drama as well as painting. Some are gifted in just one area. facilities are provided to outstanding young children in the age group of 10-14 years studying either in recognised schools or belonging to the families of practicing traditional performing or other arts for developing their talent in various cultural fields such as traditional form of music. High on self-efficacy and internal locus of control. BOX 1. or achievement at about the 95th percentile. which consists of Mental Ability. while others show l . sculpture and crafts. Language Proficiency and Arithmetic Ability. while others are very unusual to the extent of being extremely rare. The students recommended by the States appear in the national level written examination. and having a high self-esteem about their intellectual capacities. The candidates selected at the national level are called for interview. High incidence of social and emotional problems. however. laying emphasis on rare forms. which consists of Mental Ability and Scholastic Aptitude Tests. The admission to these vidyalayas are made through an objective type test. The scholarship is available for studies up to the doctorate level in the basic and social sciences and up to seconddegree level in engineering and medicine. Some gifted youngsters are just slightly above average. Possibility of showing giftedness in one area and poor learning in another. The National Talent Search Scheme is run by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) in which 1000 scholarships are awarded each year to the students studying in Grade 10. the Cultural Talent Search Programme is run by the Centre for Cultural Resources and Training. or 160. dance. derive pleasure from work. Independent thinking and non-conformism.6 Characteristics of Gifted Children l l l l l l l l A Higher order in thinking process. which are in the process of becoming extinct. another prominent scheme of the Government special programmes for gifted children have rather used rigid cut off points such as IQ’s of 130. 150. Giftedness is a multi-dimensional term. Under this scheme. attention is given to the following types of data as indicator of giftedness: l Performance on group intelligence test l Teacher judgment l School record. it is more pronounced at the secondary school level. In recent times. 135. peer and self-nominations also do help in identification of the gifted child in certain cases. The state level examination is conducted by the State Governments. Preference for being solitary and introverted. including achievement test scores and teacher grades l Performance on individual intelligence test l Appraisal of social and emotional maturity and adjustment Parent interviews l Pupil ambition and drive In addition. Though.5 IDENTIFICATION OF TALENT IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT of India caters to the gifted children in rural areas and in the weaker sections of the society. differences in gifted and talented students may be observed at all levels. Intrinsically motivated to achieve mastery. problem solving and decision-making.

expressive. coupled with the inability to manage their everyday activities like a normal person.7 contains the characteristics of different types of mentally challenged persons. needs help during stress Has difficulties and requires training but can learn adequate self-help skills Receptive and expressive. can learn to adjust quickly Can hold a job. The decision about the level of mental retardation is based upon the skills to perform in daily life. INTELLECTUAL DEFICIENCY: NATURE AND TYPES There are defined diagnostic schemes. gifted children differ in terms of motivation or interest. third to sixth grade Has friends. understands communication Optimal learning environment. always dependent on others Vocational Adjustment Adult Living .7 Characteristics of the Mentally Challenged Level of Mental Retardation Area of Functioning Mild (IQ range = 50-70) Moderate (IQ range = 35-49) Severe (IQ range = 20-34) and Profound (IQ = below 20) No skills to partial skills. Rather. low performance on a test may also be due to defects in vision. usually needs consistent supervision Usually does not marry or have children. competitive to semicompetitive. which Table 1. are classified as intellectually deficient or mentally challenged. primarily unskilled work Usually marries. dependent Speech and Communication Academics Social Skills Not capable of having real friends. According to these criteria. first or second grade is maximal Capable of making friends but has difficulty in many social situations Sheltered work environment. and American Psychiatric Association (1994). First.6. as shown in Table 1. Two points here are worth noting. has speech problems Very few academic skills. hearing. persons having IQ below 70. as given by the American Association on Mental Retardation (1992). Table 1. are not viewed rigidly. language is adequate.20 Introduction to Psychology it in many areas. No social interactions Generally no employment. It may be noted that the IQ ranges. Also. but some can care for personal needs on limited basis Receptive language is limited to good. mental retardation (or mentally challenged) is currently defined as intelligence test performance two or more standard deviations below the mean. a person’s ability to function in everyday life is important. usually needs constant care No marriage or children. has children. According to this definition. language is limited to poor No academic skills Self-help Skills Feeds and dresses self and cares for own toilet needs Receptive and expressive. accompanied by limitations in adaptive functioning such as failure to cope with the common tasks of daily living appropriate to one’s age and situation. for judging the presence and degree of mental retardation. language is adequate. and health.

There are three characteristic features of tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is procedural in nature and intimately linked to action. It helps in attaining one’s goals.Intelligence 21 BOX 1. appraisal. It takes the form of “knowing how” to do something rather than “knowing that” subject.6 NEW DIRECTIONS: EMOTIONAL. but is essential for success. and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. religious framework or the universe itself. richer. These include: l The capacity to be flexible (actively and spontaneously adaptive). SQ has no necessary connection with religion. practical intelligence seems to be of more use in concrete situations than academic . It is acquired without direct help from others – on one’s own. under-emphasised. and expression of emotion l Emotional facilitation of cognitive activities l Understanding and analysing emotional information and employing l Regulation of emotion Practical Intelligence: It refers to the kind of thinking people do in solving their dayto-day problems. Also called Tacit Knowledge or Procedural Knowledge. A capacity to face and transcend pain. EI is generally defined as a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions. A capacity to use and face suffering. it is the ability to learn and then apply information that is never explicitly taught to workers nor is rarely verbalised. in social settings. it enables the workers to meet the often unwritten or unspoken demands of their job. or at work. We have a longing to see our lives in some larger meaning-giving context. to discriminate among them. the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider. l Perception. The quality of being inspired by value and vision. It may be viewed as “mind in action” or the thinking that is embedded in the larger scale purposive activities of life. A tendency to see the connections between diverse things (being ‘holistic’). SQ operates out of the brain’s centre and integrates all our intelligences. It takes us beyond the present moment and ourselves. It is the knowledge that is unspoken. emotional and spiritual creatures that we are. In occupational settings. It serves to achieve the goals of everyday activities of daily life. AND SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCES intelligence. A marked tendency to ask ‘why?’ or ‘what if?’ questions and to seek ‘fundamental’ answers. meaning-given context. be it family. A capacity to inspire others. to change the rules and to alter situations by extending the boundaries. Spiritual intelligence allows human beings to be creative. SQ makes us the fully intellectual. l l l Thus. Spiritual Intelligence (SQ): It is the intelligence with which humans address and solve problems of meaning and value. the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of action or one life-path is more meaningful than the other. A reluctance to cause unnecessary harm. PRACTICAL. as measured by the tests of intelligence. Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall in their book “Spiritual Intelligence: The Ultimate Intelligence” (2000) have reported the indicators of a highly developed SQ. it consists of the following four dimensions. or poorly conveyed relative to its importance for practical success. Briefly. the work. whether at home. l A high degree of self-awareness. It gained popularity by the publication of the best selling popular book ‘Emotional Intelligence’ by Goleman in 1995. the community. l l l l l l l l Emotional Intelligence (EI): Salovey and Mayer first formally defined the concept of EI in 1990. Being what psychologists call ‘fieldindependent’—possessing a facility for working against convention. which emphasises blending cognition with emotions. It is considered to be the Ultimate Intelligence.

Giftedness refers to the high levels of accomplishments in comparison to one’s age. T/F 4. Children should be classified as retarded only if they exhibit both a low IQ and deficiencies in everyday skills. school record. or skill. Down Syndrome is associated with mild to severe retardation. LEARNING CHECKS V 1. T/F 3. A variety of unfavourable environmental factors also cause mental retardation. Recapitulation There are two major types of extreme variations in intellectual ability–the giftedness and the mental retardation (or mentally challenged). Phenylketonuria is a metabolic disorder (due to an inherited enzyme deficiency) that can lead to retardation if it is not caught and treated in infancy. Many organic conditions can cause mental retardation. academics. and environment and also with respect to the norms. and only if linguistic or cultural barriers. For example. teacher judgement. hearing. and lower quality schooling – many of these factors contribute to children’s poor intellectual development. where a host of factors – such as greater marital instability. etc. and early onset of language. social and emotional maturity. emotional disturbances. mentally retarded children score two or more standard deviations below the mean on a test of intelligence. physical handicaps. Scientists have been able to unravel more of the genetic bases for various kinds of mental disorders. stubby limbs. a metabolic disorder. The performance of gifted people is superior to the performance of all other individuals irrespective of their age and background. after training. Persons suffering with this syndrome show distinctive physical characteristics. the person’s linguistic and cultural backgrounds must also be taken into consideration. and adult living.22 Introduction to Psychology may erroneously lead to categorising a person as mentally challenged. T/F 2. Moderately retarded persons can learn ‘self-help skills’ by appropriate training. On the other hand. Gifted children show long attention spans. vocational adjustments. over reactivity to sensations. Phenylketonuria. social skills. Multiple methods such as test. experience. good recognition memory. You need to be certain that vision. Also. speech and communication. or ill health cannot explain those problems. Down syndrome is caused by the possession of an extra chromosome. Second. can lead to retardation. are used to identify these children. For example. T/F 5. Hydrocephaly or excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull destroys brain tissues and causes retardation. Causes of Mental Retardation Many organic conditions can cause mental retardation. preference for novelty. such as slanted eyes. It simply states that you need to . A vast majority of mildly retarded children come from the lower socioeconomic classes. Down Syndrome is associated with mild to severe retardation. parental neglect. One can be gifted in the moral and aesthetic aspects of life as well. and general health conditions of the person likely to be categorised as mentally challenged are functioning normally. Similarly. High incidence of social and emotional problems is observed in the gifted people. inadequate nutrition and medical care. T/F SPECIAL ABILITIES OR APTITUDES: NAURE AND MEASUREMENT An aptitude is a combination of characteristics that indicates an individual’s capacity to acquire some specific knowledge. they show poor performance in comparison to the normal children in areas like self-help. and thin hair. The verbal expression of a severely retarded person is similar to that of a normal person. You can’t expect someone to perform a task appropriately if he/she has not performed similar tasks in past or is not a part of his/her everyday activities.

the tests measuring different aptitudes are grouped together in the form of a Test battery. It consists of eight independent sub-tests: l Verbal Reasoning (VR) l Numerical Ability (NA) Abstract Reasoning (AR) l Clerical Speed and Accuracy (CSA) l Mechanical Reasoning (MR) l Space Relations (SR) l Spelling (S) l Language Use (LU) J. There are salient differences between intelligence. Ojha has developed an Indian adaptation of the DAT. Prominent aptitude test batteries are: The Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). 1. to do some mechanical work. and other aspects of musical sensitivity.g. teaching. A typical test item is shown below in Fig. Generally. Intelligence refers to the ability of a person to do certain thing at a given time. are used for prediction. such as discrimination between pitch.7. homogenous aptitude areas.Intelligence 23 possess various qualities in different proportions to learn or become something. engineering. which generally consists of a combination of abilities. a number of aptitude tests have been developed in India for measuring scientific. tone. speed test because such a job require speed with which one works. In addition. Each of these tests usually contains a number of sub-tests. The DAT was first developed to provide a basis for the educational and vocational guidance of students for grades 8 through 12. etc. such as to acquire ability to speak a language. These qualities can be harnessed by appropriate training. the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). musical aptitude. refrigerators.M. typing aptitude. This is a timed. such as clerical aptitude. have been developed to predict success in specific professions. and the like. scholastic. It is assumed that a person who scores poorly in this area will not do well in occupations requiring a great deal of reading and writing. Several multiple aptitude test batteries have been developed. will gear y move : (a) clockwise or (b) counter clockwise? l Y X Fig. Let us understand the nature of some of the tests. The battery of tests is administered to the client for counselling. If gear x is moving in the direction of the arrow. which are used for aptitude testing. Subsequently. Salient characteristics of one of the batteries most often used in educational settings are described here. medical. and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). It has two gears. he/she would not be a musician. In a Multiple Aptitude Test Battery the examinee is tested in several separate. mathematics) with which you have been made familiar. and achievement. it has been found useful for vocational counselling of young adults out of school and in the selection of employees. Clerical Speed and Accuracy : It attempts to measure some of the skills necessary in clerical and office jobs. Mechanical Reasoning : This test attempts to predict success in fields involving repair of autos. if a person does not have the special abilities required to become a musician. . to become a musician. air-conditioners equipments. even after sufficient training.7 An Item of Mechanical Aptitude Test Verbal Skills : This test measures a person’s interest in and knowledge about words. Achievement involves performance at any given point of time in a particular subject (e. aptitude. etc. clerical. because they are concerned with the potential of doing something. literary and other aptitudes. and so on. mechanical aptitude. Aptitude tests. 1. Many aptitude tests. In other words. Aptitude refers to the potential ability of the individual to perform a task. rhythm.

c) The load will be equal on both sides. 11. The point on the outer side of the wheel. In this manner complete the test without spending too much time. Both will move at an equal pace. If the plank is lifted by two persons then: a) Person on side A will have the heavier load. Both are equally likely to break. 5. If one table fan has three blades and the other five. The inner rail. Stool with five legs. b) c) One in which it doesn’t get submerged. If a car turns towards the right. If a heavy weight is to be lifted with the help of a rope. In a moving car the left hand break of the front wheel somehow gets locked. which fan needs a more powerful motor: a) The fan with 3 blades.24 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 1.b or c) that you think is correct.. 4. c) Both will need equally powerful motors. c) The effort will be the same in both the cases. 2. b) The larger wheel. 6. 8. man sitting inside will move towards: a) b) c) Right. Stool with four legs. which side of the rails will be higher: a) b) c) The outer rail. b) Person on side B will have the heavier load. contd. a) The person who pulls the rope through a single pulley. c) It will just stop. 3. Twenty items are given below. b) The person who pulls the rope through a double pulley. Which stool will be steadier: a) b) c) Stool with three legs. If hot liquid is poured into a glass tumbler which is likely to break: a) b) c) The tumbler with thick walls. 1. Which liquid is heavier: a) One in which a piece of wood gets totally sub-merged. 9. b) The fan with 5 blades. a) The smaller wheel.. In a moving wheel. The tumbler with thin walls. Won’t move at all. resulting in stopping the wheel. Left. Both would be equal. 10. . 7. which wheel will turn faster.7 Test Your Mechanical Engineering Aptitude This is a test of applied science and mechanics. If a bicycle has two unequal wheels. c) Both will be equal. read each item carefully and mark (ü) one answer (a. If a moving train turns towards the right direction. Which side will the car turn : a) Towards the right. Both are equal. A heavy weight is kept on a wooden plank in such a way that the weight is closer to side A and away from side B. b) Towards the left. which person will have to pull it harder. which point moves faster a) b) c) The point on the inner side of the wheel.

a. If the water in the building is coming from an overhead roof-top-tank. b) Pendulum with longer length. The apparent weight of a man in a moving lift is less than his real weight when it is moving down with: a) An acceleration. b) The tumbler with the wooden spoon.D. b) First floor. which floor will get the greatest pressure in the taps: a) Second floor. b. c) Theoretically correct mixture. b) A lean mixture. 16. 6. Three different weights fall from a certain height under a vacuum condition. There are two pendulums. 2. Which pendulum will oscillate faster: a) Pendulum with shorter length. 12. Medium Poor . 19. c) Both will oscillate with equal movement. b INTERPRETATION Scores 15-20 10-14 Scores below 10 Level of Aptitude High. a. 13. 14. a. 1. c) Retardation. b) Time will be proportional to the weight. 16. Fins over engine cylinder in scooter are provided for: a) Strengthening the cylinder. They should not be used for evaluation and diagnosis. one has short length and the other long. b.Intelligence 25 12. 11. 9. 17. 20.a. They will reach the earth: a) At the same time. add all the scores.a. b. a. 13. If we keep a silver spoon in one glass tumbler and a wooden spoon in the other.BROOTA Note: These are sample items.b. which tumbler is more likely to break. in which direction must the rudder be turned: a) Left. 20. In a head-on collision the driver is thrown: a) Forward. 5. 7. 18. 17. 15. 18. 19. a. c. c) Both are equally likely. 4. b. a. b) Uniform speed. 10. 14. b. b) Better cooling. b) Right.a. c) None of the above. c) Ground floor. © K. a. when boiling water is poured into it: a) The tumbler with the silver spoon. 15. 8. c) Good appearance. 3. KEY Give a Score of 1 if you have marked the following answers and finally. c) Restrained by the safety belt. The car engine idling or in low speed operation requires: a) A rich mixture. b) Backwards. c) No need to turn the rudder. a. b. If the flying plane is to be turned in the left direction.

(b). COMPLETING THE SQUARE Right Answers : 1a. 5-7 Medium and Scores below 5: Poor.8 Test Your Abstract Reasoning Out of the four figures (a). COMPLETING THE SQUARE QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d © K.26 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 1. 2b. (A) I. choose and mark the figure that is different from the other three. ODDMAN OUT Right Answers : 1b. I. 3d. ODD MAN OUT (B) II. 5b . three are similar in some way. 2d. Assign a score of 1 for correct answers. 5d.D.4d. 4c. (c) & (d) given in each problem. Broota Attention : These are sample items. Add all the scores in I and II II. 3b. They should not be used for evaluation or diagnosis KEY INTERPRETATION Scores and Abstract Reasoning 8-10 High.

non-Western cultures view intelligence in terms of social and emotional competence such as obedience. Mentally retarded children. Aptitude. Non-verbal Tests. Das conceptualised intelligence in terms of Planning. intrinsically motivated. and profound. The gifted children can also be identified on the basis of teachers’ judgement. are nonconforming. Musical. school record. cooperation. Intelligence. The recent views of intelligence recognise active role of an intelligent person in terms of shaping and selecting an environment according to his/her choice. on the other hand. In contrast. rather it assumes that there are many type of intelligences. and task performance. Technological Intelligence. An aptitude refers to the potential of an individual to performa a task. Intelligence Tests. social and emotional maturity. The first attempt to assess intelligence was made by Alfred Binet in 1905. dressing. The PASS model of J. The score on an intelligence test may be converted into IQ. which is obtained by dividing mental age (MA) by chronological age (CA). which has undergone several revisions. These persons show higher order thinking. an experiential aspect. and multiplying by 100. . Such mentally challenged people have difficulty in feeding. Shaping. Sternberg’s theory distinguishes three aspects of intelligence–a componential aspect. In India. A number of aptitude tests are available for use in different areas.P. Performance Tests. Emotional Intelligence. Intrapersonal. Interpersonal. and parental opinion. Culture-fair-test. Linguistic Intelligence. prefer to remain solitary. Mental Retardation. Logical-mathematical Intelligence. Aptitude Test. intelligence was defined in terms of ability to do abstract reasoning. the conceptualisation is more integral as it includes cognitive. emotional. PASS Theory. and are vocationally maladjusted. severe. and also show high incidence of social and emotional problems. and communicating. moderate. Group Tests. In the West it is more conceptualised in terms of cognitive abilities and the speed with which cognitive functions are performed. Mental Age. ability to learn. Integral Intelligence. Practical Intelligence. fulfilling role-related obligations.Intelligence 27 Key Terms Adaptation. and Successive Processing. and a contextual aspect. a battery of tests is administered to identify the potential areas. Traditionally. Studies about the nature of intelligence in different cultures have shown that it is culturally variable. The more recent approach to understand intelligence does not see it as a unitary ability. Mental retardation can be of four types: mild. Attention. and may be culturally biased or culturally fair. IQ between 90-110 is considered average in intelligence. score two or more standard deviations below the mean on a test of intelligence. and giving weightage to group goals than individual goals. high on self efficacy. can be verbal or performance types. Intelligence is assessed with the help of a specially designed test which gives an indication about the mental age of a person. Intelligence Quotient. and Naturalistic. Gardner proposed eight different types of intelligences: Linguistic. Generally. Simultaneous. social. lack social skills. Spatial. Individual Test. Multiple Intelligences. Bodily-kinesthetic. and ability to adapt in novel situations. They are called “gifted”. It is used for prediction purposes. SUMMARY l l l l l l Intelligence is one of the highly popular psychological concepts. Intelligence tests can be administered in groups as well as individually. easily transfer skills to new problems and solve problems insightfully. A small proportion of the population is found to possess very high level of intelligence. Logical-mathematical.

3. T. 2. 2. T. 5. 4. 6. 5. 1. and selection? What are the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner? How is Sternberg’s theory different from that of Gardner? What is experiential intelligence? What are the components of PASS model of intelligence? What is IQ? How can you differentiate between verbal and performance tests of intelligence? What is giftedness? How can gifted children be identified? What is mental retardation? What are the salient characteristics of a mentally retarded person? What is aptitude? How is it measured? Is concept of intelligence similar across cultures? What are the different types of intelligence test? ANSWERS I II : : 1. T.28 Introduction to Psychology Review Questions 1. 2. T T.. 10. F. 7. 1. T. T. 11. F. 2. 6. 5. T 1. 3. T. 6. shaping. 8. 3. 9. 5. F. 4. 7. T. 4. T . F. 4. F. T. F. 4. F. 3.F T. T. 2. 5.F. 1. TO LEARNING CHECKS III : IV : V : T. 8. F. 3. 3. F F. T. 4. How can you relate intelligence to adaptation. 2.

5) Consistency of Traits (Box 2. .7) Psychodynamic Approach Behaviourist Approach Humanistic Approach Who is a Healthy Person (Box 2. and Ä describe some important tools for personality assessment. and Type C Personalities (Box 2.3) Approaches to the Study of Personality Types and Traits : Development of Taxonomy Formation of Indian Identity (Box 2.2) Self-Regulation What is Personality? Distinguishing Personality Related Terms (Box 2. Type B. Ä explain the Indian notion of self.6) New Advances: Five-Factor Model (Box 2. Ä understand meaning and some of the methods of regulating self. Ä differentiate between various psychological approaches to the study of personality.1) Culture and Self : Some Indigenous Ideas about Self-Thought (Box 2.10) Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks Ä Concepts of self and personality Ä The Indian notion of self Ä Different approaches to the study of personality Ä Assessment of personality BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä describe the concept of self.4) Colonialism and Self: The Indian Experience (Box 2.9) Concept of Gunas Assessment of Personality Observer Reports Projective Techniques Self-Report Measures Personality Assessment in India (Box 2.8) Type A. Ä describe the concept of personality.2 THIS SELF CHAPTER COVERS AND PERSONALITY CONTENTS Introduction Concepts of Self and Personality What is Self? Self as Subject and Object Self in the Indian Tradition Facets of Self (Box 2.

These occupy a central place in our lives. Sometimes. The mind should be known as (merely) the reins. On the basis of the study of personality they also try to predict the behaviour of people. we direct ourselves to undertake various activities. evaluating and predicting the behaviours of others.30 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION If you stop for a moment and reflect on what is that which draws maximum attention from all of us then you will find nothing but the people – others and yourself.. You must have noticed that a considerable portion of our time during waking hours is spent in talking about our own self and others. It will introduce the Indian concept of self and the concept of Gunas. Also. Understanding the notions of self and personality has been the concern of thinkers for a long time. his sense organs go beyond the control of the intellect (the charioteer) as vicious horses go beyond the control of charioteer. – Kathopanishad . which is the body. You will find in this chapter that the psychologists who specialise in this area try to measure personality. we look within ourselves and try to analyse our own qualities. This Chapter is intended to help you understand the concepts of self and personality. The major theoretical approaches to personality and the various methods of its assessment shall also be briefly described. The intellect you should know as the charioteer.e. This has led to the development of different theoretical perspectives. The interest in knowing others and self appears to be a part of common human inquisitiveness. we try to make sense of a person’s behaviour. who is devoid of proper knowledge and wisdom. All of us are engaged in knowing. describe individual differences in personality. Know the Atman as the Lord and the Master of the chariot. While focusing on self and personality we step into a very interesting area of psychology that deals with the totality of a person’s existence. The one whose mind is not harnessed properly. It helps us to understand the uniqueness and commonality found within and across individuals. and assess the extent of these differences. It is hoped that learning all this will help you understand yourself and others in a better way. These activities almost always involve the notions of self and personality. i.

..... it may be said that self refers to the totality of an individual’s thoughts and feelings having reference to himself or herself as an object. activities................... Thus......... the self-schema influences a person’s behaviour in important ways... In the beginning they learn about own self from parents....1 Understanding The Self Please complete the following sentences beginning with “I am”....... it is based on the integration of the information from several sources............ It is indeed the centre of all human activities................ The characteristic patterns of behaviour constitute ‘personality’ for a given person......... is open to modification in the light of our experience in the world..... characteristics.... It has been observed that children start showing some idea of ‘self’ around two years of age.................1 you will realise that while undertaking the activity you approached your own self as an object............ I am ............ I and Me.... While completing this activity you were referring to yourself.......... You have to describe yourself....................................... It must be noted that self-concept is not a mirror like reflection.. I am ............ Taking these into consideration............. and teachers........ Interestingly enough....e.. a pen........ WHAT IS SELF? Self is one of those central concepts that are frequently used in everyday life........... We are preoccupied with the feelings.. In order to know these ideas you may like to complete the Activity 2....... and real or imagined ideas about ourselves.......... therefore................... perceptions................. I am .. and a conscious experience that one has separate existence..1 (commonly known as Who Am I Test) to a large number of people and analyse the responses obtained.. It is a common observation that people differ in the patterns of behaviour..g...... etc.. I am ..... a book........ The personalities are accessible to others as they are manifested in behaviours shown by a person.... I am . Self as Subject and Object While talking about self we often use two expressions.. I am .................. The social interaction with them provides the basis of the experience of self...... Once formed.... I am . I am ...... “I was thinking about me or myself ”.... beliefs. You will agree that we spend a lot of time pondering over our own selves...... thought processes....................Self and Personality 31 CONCEPTS OF SELF AND PERSONALITY ACTIVITY 2.......... social identity...... You can say........ Instead...... i............... These differences are supposed to be quite stable for that person...... I am .................1.... ‘I’ is approaching ‘Me’. I am ........ You too must have nurtured some ideas about your own self.. The structure of self....................... you will end up with a long list of qualities................ The term “personality” is an attempt to grasp and make sense of the totality of the expressed part of our existence............. we are not born with the notion of our own ‘self’ as distinct from others’ ‘self’.......... If you analyse carefully the way you responded in Activity 2........ The concepts of self and personality refer to the characteristics of our existence as experienced by us and the way they are externally manifested.............. interests...... You were aware of yourself in the same way as you are aware of certain objects (e...... Each one of us has a unique personality which can be assessed by others..... Different persons may have different personalities... etc................... a person standing before you) in your waking life....... If you give the Activity 2....................... ....... friends.................. Thus self involves the mental representations of personal experiences and includes a physical body........ We may consider self as an organised cognitive structure based on the experience of our being...................... How did you like the activity? You must have realised that it was not very simple. which people express in different situations.....

5).1 marked both by tradition and modernity. we hold ideas about some kind of ideal self. Thus. For instance. If the real self shows high degree of discrepancy from the ideal self. technology and western education has also influenced the Indian mind.1). rituals and characters from epics still reverberate in the consciousness of the people. Self-disclosure is another aspect of self-functioning. The Indian cultural context has elements of continuity and change. if a person believes that he or she can successfully execute the behaviour required by a particular situation. While behaving we are not always self-conscious. It is BOX 2. This is also called as empirical self. social. the low selfmonitoring people are guided by internal cues and awareness. then the person may experience adjustment problems. The Indian notion of self encompasses the physical. There is also a notion of self-monitoring. They are endowed with self-confidence. In the contemporary period the impact of science. Another aspect of self-concept is that of selfconsciousness. We construct a set of concepts about the self.2 to acquaint with indigenous ideas). It represents what a person believes he or she can do with the skills under certain circumstances.32 Introduction to Psychology Self appears to have been taken in two ways namely as a subject and as an object. Our judgment about our own worth is called self-esteem. The contacts between various groups such as Arya. while others have difficulty in talking about themselves. (see Box 2. Some people talk freely about themselves without any problem or inhibition. Similarly. The duality of jiva (experiential self) and Brahman (the absolute) is there but it is also emphasised that the individual soul or Atman is a part of the absolute or Brahman. In addition. Self in the Indian Traditions The notion of self develops in a cultural context. We always think about self and try to mentally represent what we might become or should become. we develop a whole conceptualisation or a theory of self. In the course of studies many aspects of self have been uncovered. The impressions and evaluations of others about us play important role in determining our self-esteem. It has been found that people with high self-esteem are active. as well as spiritual aspects of human existence (see Box 2. The self as an object is said to be represented by ‘Me’ which is observed and known. we pay attention to self. In other words. successful. It refers to people’s perceptions about their capabilities to produce the desired effects by their own actions. The ‘I’. the Dravida. People also learn techniques for positive self-presentation so that they may relate to others. which we aspire to achieve. the Muslim. and optimistic. FACETS OF SELF the person is considered to have self-efficacy. the Shaka. perform various activities and gain favours from others. When we are conscious of self. From the very beginning we come across Atman and Ahamkara like concepts. Those who have low selfesteem are often found depressed and feel discouraged. mental. nonmaterial realisation of a real self and the Ahamkar refers to the inflated sense of personal worth which is a consequence of ignorance (avidya) of one’s true being. we hold ideas about a possible self. The Vedic hymns. the Huna. They are known as high selfmonitoring people. We are self-focused. This I is an active observer.4 and 2. The Atman represents the independent. In everyday life self is usually understood in terms of the meanings attached to self as an object. we not only hold a self-concept but also value ourselves. It has been found that some people take cues from the external environment and change their behaviour accordingly. It refers to our ability to monitor our self. It actively processes our experiences. The sense of identity is the perception of one’s self as distinct from other people and other things as related to one’s self or alien to one’s self. In contrast. A related aspect of self-concept is that of selfefficacy. and the Western people have contributed to blending of diverse cultural traditions. there are many other aspects of self (see Box 2. then . The study of self has attracted the attention of a number of psychologists. who knows is representing the self as knower or subject. Thus. On other occasions we are engaged in focusing on others. The former are high on self-disclosure and the latter have low self-disclosure.

CULTURE AND SELF : SOME INDIGENOUS IDEAS ABOUT SELF–THOUGHT with the gross (sthool) and progressing to subtle (sukshma). Tripathi has drawn attention to the following features: 1. which involves the sense organs. The self is viewed as a witness and non-participant. 4. In the western mind. which are constantly shifting.2 but at the next moment it completely withdraws itself from it. As can be seen the conceptualisation of kosas maintains a hierarchy of factors beginning Annamaya Pranamaya Manomaya Vigyanmaya Anandamaya Atman . the western view considers the dichotomies between self and other. Fig. is governed by boundaries. that are employed in knowing the world. constructs etc. The self then gets related to the own group by forming links with the group. This sheath is supposed to be the seat of ego striving and manifests itself in the form of personal involvements. the fact that the self is included within the group does not imply that the Indian mind differs from the western mind in terms of individualistic versus collective orientations. In an interesting analysis R. It is like the concentric sheaths of an onion.1. 3. The self does not relate to the own group but is included in it. It is not the ego. Thus. In the case of the Indians. The change and development are not linear. In the West. The gross physical body is said to be the product of food (Annamaya kosa). man and nature. It may be noted that it is through sensing that one seeks the objects of desire. Nested in one another as shown in Figure 2. subjective and objective. the self and own group are seen as having variable boundaries. Given in Taittiriyopanishad it states that the Jiva is a multilayered entity.1 Panchkosas : The Multilayered Hierarchy of Selves. the self sometimes expands to fuse with the cosmos BOX 2. It involves breathing and other metabolic processes that activate the organs and keep them functioning. The self may be more or less inclusive on different occasions. It involves ideas. contd. It participates in a unity with all things. Figure 2. ve gniti sheath Co s shea th al sheath Ment Jo y ou Food Life Self as a Multilayered Hierarchy: The description of self shall remain incomplete unless we refer to the hierarchy of selves. The universe is viewed as possessing the same properties of life as human beings including consciousness. each with its own fixed boundaries. 2. in the case of Indians.2 illustrates the way relationships between self and own group are formed. C. Within it is the self that consists of the life (Pranmaya kosa). Indians show coexistence of both the tendencies. Self operates within the context of greater degree of dependence. This implies that the line demarcating self and non-self is not a fixed one. the self and own group are taken as two different entities. The Indian self. However. Self is not separate.. In contrast. The innermost layer is called joyous sheath (Anandamaya kosa) as it reflects the bliss which is the basic characteristic of the true self. This is not true for the Indians who do not endorse such clear dichotomies. Also there is essential continuity between the self and non-self.. however. as complete. The most important distinction between the Indian and the western views on self is the way the boundary is drawn between self and environment. 2. 5. There are five layers of Jiva consisting of five kosas or sheaths. the boundaries appear to be relatively fixed.Self and Personality 33 The notion of selfhood in Indian context can be appreciated in terms of the model of human being. The next layer is that of cognitive sheath (Vigyanamaya kosa). The third layer is called the mental sheath (Manomaya kosa).

The notions of jitendriya (a person who has control over his receptors and effectors) and aparigrah (keeping limited things that can satisfy the minimum needs) also draw attention to it. or as some say we were cast from paradise. harmonious lives. This leads to change in the self-concept. The control of internal states is possible with the help of biofeedback. modify or strengthen certain aspects of self. It is loyalty to life and cosmic laws. time and space. We can choose to delay or defer the gratification of our needs. auto–suggestion etc. Since then we have been seeking a new union. meditation. Some of the techniques used in promoting self-regulation are given below. They often reward the pleasant ones and increase their probability. and harmonisation with true nature. Sufism is a process of regaining one’s naturalness. Learning to defer gratification is self-control. Western Perspective Some Techniques for Self-Regulation : Self-control can be enhanced using the following psychological techniques. Self-reinforcement : People often find certain behaviours pleasant or unpleasant. Roza. It teaches that egoism and the inevitably ensuing strife are folly and that the essence of this universe is spiritual. and austerity have been emphasised. We can intentionally control or interrupt our behaviour.34 Introduction to Psychology The Sufi View : Sufism is the mystical or inward aspect of Islam. 4. The term Sufi is like yogi and refers to some one who has reached the goal. 2. the ideal ego. the so-called beloved. upvas . 3. Self-Regulation Meeting the diverse needs and challenges of life often demands that we are able to resist situational pressures and show control over ourselves. It views human beings as religio-psychological beings who began life in the unconscious union with nature. Stimulus control : This involves attempt to learn to do a set of activities under the presence of certain stimuli and not to perform certain activities in the presence of other stimuli. The role of human will or volition is very crucial in this regard. These details may furnish the necessary information to change. It is held that when I becomes Thou. This has been systematically used in changing one’s ideas about self and behaviour pattern. Sufism teaches people to live simple. Self-instruction : We often talk to ourselves. zen. yoga. 1. In the process of evolutions humans separated from nature.2 Self and Group Boundaries in Indian and Western Cultural Perspectives . It is an inner experience that leads to identification with one’s object of desire. the duality turns into unity. It emphasises the purity of heart and intention. By giving instructions to Indian Perspective Individual Group Individual I : Individual G : Group Group Figure 2. experienced pain. We do it in view of attaining the long-term distant goals. In Indian context vrata. Observation of own behaviour : One can organise understanding of self by systematically noting down the details about own behaviour.

T/F 4.3]. We need to distinguish personality from other related terms which are often used interchangeably or synonymously (see Box 2. The notion of self changes in the course of one’s life. T/F 5. thought.the mask used in make-up by actors in the Roman theatre. The Self is often viewed as a structure consisting of an organised collection. Self as the knower refers to Me and self as the known refers to I.Self and Personality 35 oneself one asserts and moves to behave in that direction. the self is a dialogue between the self as an object (Me) and the self as a subject (I). niyam. Self refers to the totality of beliefs and feelings about oneself. yam. The Indian self includes the ideas of familial self and spiritual self. underlying the behaviour of each individual. In that setting the mask led the audience to expect a consistent pattern of behaviour from the person enacting a particular role. an honest person remains honest for a longer period of time and in different situations. Values: Goals that are considered worthwhile. DISTINGUISHING PERSONALITY RELATED TERMS Disposition: Tendency in the person to react to a given situation in a characteristic way. Also. Interestingly enough the literal meaning of the term personality is derived from the term persona. Type: Distinct category to which people with a pattern of traits are assigned. LEARNING CHECKS I WHAT IS PERSONALITY? 1. there seems to be some coherence. Stimulus control is not related to self-regulation. yoga. In everyday life we devote a lot of time to understand self and other persons. It is a common observation that different people respond to the same situation in different ways. BOX 2. For instance. The psychological techniques include: systematic observation of behaviour. upwas. zen. persistent and specific way of behaving. We try to regulate our self through various mechanisms like vrata. As a process. People often show consistency in behaviour. selfreinforcement. stimulus control. Thus. T/F 6. T/F 7. Trait: Constant. when we see someone and find him or her “attractive” we say that the person has charming or impressive personality. Temperament: Biologically based characteristic way of reacting. Character: Total pattern of regularly occurring behaviour.3 In everyday life we use the term “personality” to refer to physical or outward appearance of a person encountered in some situation. and emotion across situations and across time periods. Understanding uniqueness and commonality within and across individuals is a great challenge for psychologists. The Indian notion of self is contextsensitive. Habit: Learned mode of behaving. Delay of gratification is an example of self-control. “Personality” is used to characterise these aspects of an individual. The notion of self is learned in the course of social interaction with significant others. order and consistency. T/F 3. . or using the biofeedback. and self-instruction. a schema. This kind of common sense view of personality is impressionistic and often found erroneous. In western cultures people often hold an interdependent notion of self. T/F 2. T/F Recapitulation The study of self and personality tries to understand human beings in totality. In psychology personality refers to a person’s unique and relatively stable qualities that characterise behaviour patterns across different situations and over a period of time. of beliefs and feelings about oneself.

vata. it is almost certain that you will say that he or she is good natured. people are grouped according to their personality types. loyal. The behavioural differences between the individuals and the consistency within each individual is the main concern of personality theories. The pitta is slightly unctuous. In contrast. they join you in dealing with common curiosities such as : When some people encounter the same situation. cold. They refer to certain basic types in which people are classified. Each of them throws light on some aspects of personality but not all aspects. You do not know that person but there is a possibility that you are going to meet and work with him or her in future.36 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 2. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PERSONALITY The psychologists studying personality try to answer certain questions about the nature and origins of individual differences in personality. cold. as you will notice these theories subscribe to different models of human being. sociable etc. They are exclusive and do not overlap. The endomorphs are fat. These theories categorise human personality by systematised observed behaviour in terms of a pattern. They are relaxed and sociable by temperament. The types are categories. light. The mesomorphs have strong musculature.e. mobile. calm. while kapha is produced by the joint action of jala ( water ) and prithvi (earth). watching television or playing cards? Are these differences stable throughout one’s life? The study of personality is an effort to understand. Personality Types The personality types are used to communicate certain expected behaviours based on similarities. and poignant. Vata is produced by an interaction of akasha (ether) and vayu (air). Within psychology the works of Sheldon and Krestschmer are famous. soft and round. while others like to spend time reading. and Ectomorphic categories. clear and rough.. Thus. stable and viscid. In terms of properties the vata is dry. Charak Samhita of Ayurveda or the Indian science of medicine. He or she wants to know about you. Those with black bile are called melancholic. sweet. In this approach people are put in categories on the basis of certain similarities. They are discontinuous dimensions Thus. Mesomorphic. dependable. the term trait refers to. pitta emerges out of an interaction of Vayu and agni (fire). Those with the dominance of phlegm are called phlegmatic. Those with yellow bile are called choleric. Using body build as the main basis Sheldon proposed the Endomorphic. why do they react differently? Why some people like to enjoy dangerous activities. fluid. the original treatise classifies people on the basis of three elements called doshas i. The kapha is heavy. hot. Each of these refers to a type of temperament referred to as prakriti (nature) of the person. the dominance of blood leads to sanguine temperament. pitta and kapha. unctuous. TYPES AND TRAITS: DEVELOPMENT OF TAXONOMY Using labels and classifying personality characteristics help us to organise the diversity noticed in human behaviour. which are charged with some intrinsic forces. are rectangular and strong in body build. In psychological literature we come across many trait and type theories of personality. They are irritable and excitable. The Greek physician Hippocrates also proposed a typology based on fluid or humour. Such efforts have been made since ancient times. Since personality theories are so many we will examine only the major approaches and theories. Such a person is cheerful and active. They are biophysical components. acute. explain and predict the similarities and differences in the totality of a person’s behaviour. Stated simply. You are using traits to describe your friend. acid. specific dimension along which individuals differ in consistent and stable ways. soft. If you are asked to describe your closest friend. subtle. However.2 Introduce Yourself Write a letter about yourself to a total stranger. They are energetic .

Self and Personality

37

and courageous. The ectomorphs are thin, long, and fragile in body build. They are brainy, artistic, and introverts. These typologies were simple but could not help in predicting behaviour of individuals. They are more like stereotypes about people and it is very difficult to categorise people clearly in different categories. As a result they are not used in contemporary personality research. Jung grouped all people into introverts or extroverts. According to this typology, the introverts withdraw into themselves, particularly when encountering emotional conflicts, prefer to be alone, tend to avoid others, and are shy. The extroverts, on the other hand, react to stress by trying to lose themselves among people and social activity. They are drawn to occupations that allow dealing directly with many people and are apt to be conventional, sociable, and outgoing. Typologies are simple and appealing. However, human behaviour is complex and quite variable. It is, therefore, very difficult to assign people to a particular type. People usually defy such simple categorisations.
Trait Theories

as a combination of a smaller number of personality traits. Trait approach is quite similar to what you experience in everyday life. For instance when you know that a particular person is dependable you tend to assume that he/she will be cooperative, friendly, and engage in a predictable pattern of behaviour. This kind of thinking has made identifying primary characteristics of people as the major goal of trait theories. A trait is considered as a relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. Traits are attributes that function as generalised action tendencies. They suggest ranges of possible behaviours that are activated within a range according to the demands of situation. The traits are: (a) relatively stable over time, (b) consistent over situations, and (c) variation in the strength and combination of traits leading to individual differences in personality. The use of traits for the description and analysis of personality has been very popular and a number of theories have been proposed. Let us learn about some of the major trait theories of personality.
Allport : Characterising the Attributes

These theories are concerned with the basic components of personality. They try to answer the question: what are the building blocks of personality? It is held that while human beings display a very wide range of variation in personality, yet it is possible to see them
BOX 2.4

Gordon Allport is considered as the champion of trait approach. He proposed that traits exist within the person and constitute the ultimate reality of psychological organisation. They are more generalised than habits. They are dynamic and determine the behaviour causing that person to approach

FORMATION OF INDIAN IDENTITY

The primary themes of Indian identity, condemning aggression and idealising Kakar argues, emerge from the infant’s non-violence. Bankim Chandra ambivalent relationship with his mother. Chatterjee’s Anandmath that This relationship is shaped and coloured contributed to the growth of Indian by the Hindu world image. In Hindu nationalism during its early phases cosmology, mother-goddesses are concentres around the ideas of sons sidered as the reservoir of both construcfailing, defying or fighting for the tive and destructive energy. The very triad of mother, cosmic mother and word for energy is “Shakti”, the name motherland. As for the motherfo r the supreme mother goddess. daughter relationship, Kakar Second, there is a continuous attempt observers that despite having cultural to handle deep ambivalence towards the and social preference for sons over Sudhir Kakar various symbols of motherhood and daughters, there is special maternal femininity in the culture. The moral anxiety and affection reserved for daughters. Perhaps, in fears of retribution generated by the aggressive her daughter, the mother can re-experience elements in his ambivalence are countered by herself as a cared-for girl.

38

Introduction to Psychology

different situations with similar goals or plans. The traits integrate what would otherwise appear as dissimilar stimuli and responses. Allport thought that the words people use to describe themselves and others provide a window on the human personality. He analysed the words in English language and found that when people are asked to describe a person these words fall into certain general categories (e.g., honest, gregarious, independent). Allport distinguished between cardinal, central and secondary traits. All these traits form a hierarchy. The cardinal traits are highly generalised dispositions. For instance, if a person’s whole life seems to be organised around the goal of achievement, it becomes a
BOX 2.5

cardinal trait of his or her personality. Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolence, Mother Teressa’s humanitarianism and Hitler’s hatred are examples of cardinal traits. Less pervasive in effect but still quite generalised dispoGordon Allport sitions are central traits. Finally, more specific and narrow traits are called secondary traits. While Allport acknowledged that situations do influence the behaviour, he also posited that the way a person reacts in situations depends

COLONIALISM AND SELF : THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE

attributed the former’s superiority to these Analysing self under the colonial period in India, Ashis Nandy remarks that colonialism, differences. Throughout their lives they kept on apart from being many other things, is also a exhorting Hindus to emulate the westerners. Nandy considers it as the defeat of Indian psychological state rooted in earlier forms of social consciousness in both the colonisers and selfhood in the hands of the West and the the colonised. This implies that colonialism is a result of this defeat is the loss of ‘Indian’ self. Mahatma Gandhi, on the other hand, tried shared culture which may not always begin with the establishment of the alien rule in a to organise people as Indians not as Hindus. society and end with the departure of the alien He also granted Hinduism the right to maintain its character as an unorganised, anarchic, openfrom the colony. It includes codes which both the rulers and the ruled can share. The main ended faith. Interestingly, he unhesitatingly function of these codes is to alter the declared that the Britishers were worse victims of its colonial policy than the original cultural priorities on both sides. As a consequence of this, the Indians. In this sense Gandhi wanted to previously recessive or subordinate liberate the British as much as he wanted to liberate the Indians. He sub-cultures are brought to the centre of the two confronting cultures. In a rejected the ideas spread by colonialism way, colonialism as a state of mind is that masculine power is superior to femininity. He emphasised that naritva an indigenous process released by the external forces. The second feature of (the essence of femininity) is superior to Ashis Nandy colonialism is that it perpetuates itself purusatva (the essence of masculinity). Further, he rejected history and affirmed the by creating a culture in which the ruled are constantly tempted to fight against their rulers primacy of myths over historical chronicles. within the psychological limits set by the latter. Gandhi ji believed that uniqueness of Indian culture lies not so much in having faith in Both the features of colonialism influence the self definition of the colonised. unique ideology but in the society’s Colonialism tried to consolidate its position traditional ability to live cultural ambiguities and to use them to build defence against by glorifying certain cultural beliefs. These were superiority of masculinity, adulthood, sense of cultural invasion. Probably, the culture itself historicity, rationality over femininity, childhood, demands that a certain permeability of boundaries be maintained in one’s self image mythic consciousness, and non–rationality. In response to this many Indian social reformers and self should not be defined too tightly or such as Madhusudan Dutt, Raja Rammohan separated mechanically from the non-self. Nandy thinks that under the leadership of Roy, Bankim Chandra Chaterjee, Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekanand etc. tried to ‘list’ Gandhi ji Indians could recover their selves the differences between the West and India and which had been lost under colonial culture.

Self and Personality

39

on his or her traits. However, people sharing the same trait may express it in different ways. Allport proposed that one’s pattern of traits determines one’s behaviour. The traits were like intervening variables. In this way they mediated between the stimulus situation and response of the person. If trait varies the response of the person to the situation also varies. The traits operate in unique ways in each person. This view is reflected in Allport’s famous definition of personality as a “dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought”. Cattell : Factorial Analysis of Personality Raymond B. Cattell believed that there is a common structure across personalities, which must be determined empirically. In order to identify the basic or primary traits that underlie the huge array of descriptive adjectives found in language, Cattell applied factor analysis (a statistical technique) to subjective peer ratings. Cattell, on the basis of factor analysis, concluded that personality consists of 16 primary or source traits. The source traits are building blocks of personality. There are also a number of surface traits that are caused by the Raymond Cattell interaction of source traits. They are obvious aspects of personality. The source traits are stable. Cattell described the source traits in terms of opposing tendencies. He could identify 16 source traits and developed the Sixteen-Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) for the assessment of personality. Eysenck : The Dimensions of Personality H. J. Eysenck proposed that personality could be reduced to two dimensions. These dimensions are presumed to be biologically and genetically based. These dimensions subsume numerous specific traits (See Fig. 2.3). These dimensions are briefly described below: (1) Neuroticism VS. emotional stability : It refers to the degree to which people have control over their

feelings. At one extreme of this dimension we find people who are highly neurotic. They are anxious, moody, touchy, restless, and quickly loose control. People who are calm, even-tempered, reliable, and remain under control occupy the other extreme. (2) Extraversion VS. introversion : It refers to the extent to which people are socially outgoing or socially withdrawn. At one extreme are those who are active, gregarious, impulsive, and thrill-seeking, and at the other extreme are people who are passive, quiet, cautious, and reserved. In his subsequent work Eysenck has proposed a third dimension, namely, Psychotism, which he believes interacts with the above mentioned two dimensions. A person who scores high on psychotism dimension tend to be hostile, egocentric, and anti-social. Others often treat him or her as peculiar. Eysenck is also considered a type theorist. He has argued that while people do show a large number of traits, their traits are clustered into two main personality types i.e., extravert and introvert. The extroverts are outgoing, active, sociable and impulsive. They are tough-minded people.
Unstable Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Melancholic Choleric Phlegmatic Sanguine Active Extravert Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easy-going Lively Carefree Calm Leadership Stable

Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Introvert Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable

Even-tempered

Fig. 2.3 Eysenck’s Structure of Persnality

40

Introduction to Psychology

The introverts are withdrawn, cautious, reflective and passive. They are tenderminded. The extroverts are found to be more alert and have more attention-seeking tendency. They learn better when aroused. They have higher level of brain chemical dopamine. They are more suggestible. The introvert students prefer to study in quiet places, with few interruptions, and are cautious. They do better in schools. They learn faster under low arousal. They have low threshold for pain. The trait approach is very popular and many interesting questions have been raised. Many advances are taking place, which are beyond the scope of your present studies. Some glimpses of these developments are given in the boxes that follow. The consistency of traits (Box 2.6) have been investigated and a new formulation has been advanced that provides a new way to organise the traits (Box 2.7). Recapitulation The typological approach to personality provides description of personality in terms

of types and traits and relating them to behaviours. Early attempts in India, and in the western world provide examples of typology that were used in the context of medicine. Sheldon used body build as the basis of personality types and tried to link these types with temperament and behaviour. These approaches are simplistic and have lost their appeal. The trait approaches put forward by Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck use traits of various kinds as attributes or dispositions which function as generalised action tendencies. The traits are supposed to be responsible for individual differences and uniqueness observed in the behaviour of the people. They function as building blocks of personality. Following empirical approach Cattell and Eysenck have developed measures for the assessment of personality. The relationship between trait scores and behaviours are found low and cross-situational consistency is not very high. Behaviour appears to be specific to the demands of specific situation.

BOX 2.6

CONSISTENCY OF TRAITS characteristics of the person. Thus, what we do or what role we play depends not on who we are, but the situation in which we find ourselves. However, there are observations that support the influence of traits on behaviour. It is mentioned that even if there is little personal consistency across situations, there is impressive consistency in the behaviour of people over time. Many psychologists think that explaining behaviour on the basis of either traits or situations is inadequate. Rather, it is the interaction of the two that is of importance. The interactional approach to personality assumes that it is the inseparable complex interplay of situation and person factors, which determines the behaviour. The actual behaviour is a function of a continuous multidirectional interaction between the individual and the situation. The individual is an intentional and active agent in the interaction process. Also, the psychological meaning of the situation is more important.

Walter Mischel has drawn attention to the fact that consistency in trait-related behaviours varies across situations. Thus, people are not equally honest, or domineering in all the situations. All of us want to predict behaviour on the basis of traits but one cannot tell what a particular person will do in a particular situation. At best they may indicate only an average tendency to behave in certain ways over several situations. Thus, the traits of a person do not tell the whole story. Situational characteristics also play an important role in determining our behaviour. Thus, people are dependent or independent not because of their internal personality trait but because of external rewards or threats in the situation. The cross-situational consistency with respect to traits is found to be quite low. The power of situations can be seen by looking at the behaviour of people in market, courtroom and a place of worship. The view known as situationism asserts that human behaviour is largely determined by the characteristics of situation itself rather than the

Self and Personality

41

BOX 2.7

NEW ADVANCES : FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY fearful, distressed, irritable, hypertensive. Its opposite is well adjusted. 5. Conscientiousness: Those who display high degree of this factor are achievement-oriented, dependable, responsible, prudent, hardworking, self-controlled. Its opposite is impulsive. This model has been considered as an important theoretical development. It is also found useful in understanding the personality profile of people in many cultures. Also, it is consistent with the analysis of personality traits found in different languages and supported by the studies of personality through different methods. It is now considered to be the most promising empirical approach to the study of personality. The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) was developed by Costa and McCrae. It provides scores on the five factors of personality. It has been developed on the basis of extensive research that uses lexical data describing personality in various languages in different parts of the world.

In recent years the controversy regarding the number of basic personality traits has taken an interesting turn. The new picture that emerges consists of five-factors. Paul Costa and Robert MacCrae have done extensive research on all the possible personality traits. They found that all the findings indicate a set of five-factors. They are often called Big Five. These factors are described below. 1. Openness to experience: Those who score high on this factor are imaginative, curious, open to new ideas and interested in cultural pursuits. In contrast, the low scoring people are rigid. 2. Extroversion: It characterises people who are socially active, assertive, outgoing, talkative, and fun loving. It is opposite of shy. 3. Agreeableness: This factor represents the traits of people who are helpful, cooperative, friendly, caring, and nurturing. It is the opposite of hostile and being self-centered. 4. Neuroticism: People scoring high on this factor are emotionally unstable, anxious, worried,

LEARNING CHECKS II

PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH This is one of the most popular approaches to personality. It focuses on change, development and conflicts in people’s lives. As you have learned earlier, this view owes largely to the contributions of Sigmund Freud. It is undoubtedly one of the most popular theories that have influenced equally the minds of common men as well as scholars from other disciplines. Freud was a physician and he developed the theory in the course of his clinical practice. Freud is famous for his innovative use of free association (a method in which a person is asked to openly share all the thoughts, feeling and ideas that come to his/her mind), dream analysis and analysis of errors to decipher the internal functioning of mind. The theory visualises human mind in terms of different levels of consciousness. Thus, we are aware of the current thoughts, which are in the consciousness. Beyond the conscious is the preconscious, which is immediately not accessible but can be accessed. Beyond the preconscious lies the unconscious, of which we are not aware. It contains the repressed desires and impulses.

1. Endomorphic people are relaxed and sociable. T/F 2. Allport proposed that traits are generalised behavioural tendencies.T/F 3. Cardinal traits are those dispositions around which life is organised. T/F 4. Introverts are more suggestible. T/F

5. Extroverts learn better when more aroused. T/F 6. The definition of personality is related to the theory of personality. T/F 7. Surface traits are caused by the interaction of behaviours. T/F 8. Personality refers to enduring dispositions that ensure consistency in behaviour. T/F 9. Personality traits are discrete and personality types are continuous. T/F 10. Trait theorists are interested in knowing how people differ and to what extent they differ. T/F

Reflexes and primary processes are its mechanisms of functioning. Conscious External Reality External Reality Superego Ego Preconscious Unconscious Id Fig. dreams. etc. The newborn baby is completely dependent on others for the satisfaction of all needs. Phallic stage : In this stage the child observes the difference between male and female and experiences what Freud called the Oedipus . and aggressive impulses. It is totally unconscious.42 Introduction to Psychology Freud believed that the unconscious was a reservoir of instinctive drives. and biting in the course of feeding. During this stage body pleasure is centered on the mouth. Thus. During the first five years of life pleasure is successively focused on three zones of the body as the oral. Id: Desire : It is that part of personality that deals with immediate gratification of primitive needs. therefore. anal and phallic stages unfold.4). mispronunciations. sexual desires. Also. if a person is subjected to very harsh. Stages of Personality Development : Freud gave emphasis on the childhood traumas as key to neurotic disorder during adulthood. It is reflected by a concern with the retention and expulsion of faeces. Thus. perhaps. Oral stage : It is observed during the first year of life. 2. it stores all the ideas and wishes that are concealed from conscious awareness. It follows the pleasure principle. He believed that people normally progress through five stages of psychosexual development. Id. They however. Super Ego: Conscience : It deals with the ideals. should not be treated like three distinct entities. Freud was able to infer these forces from the ways people behave (see Fig. eating. making jokes. Thus. forgetfulness. it may make the person in his adult life preoccupied with cleanliness. It tries to maximise pleasure and minimise the pain. A brief description of these stages is given below. Personality Structure: The personality consists of three structures i. It follows the secondary processes. The baby gets satisfaction from sucking. Problems encountered at any stage may retard or arrest–development and have long term effect on the life of a person. may influence later personal qualities and conflicts experienced by the person. This is why Freud felt that it is during toilet training a child has the first experience with externally imposed control. because they cause psychological conflicts. Ego: Reason : It develops out of Id. repressive kind of training during this period. Ego.. The pattern of toilet training. (Refer to Chapter VII on Therapeutic Approaches). The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to bring repressed unconscious material to consciousness and to thereby aid us in living our lives in a more self aware and integrated manner. It represents the societal demands and ideals. and Superego. They are used as strong psychological forces and not physical locations in the brain. It is characterised by a shift in body pleasure to the anus. Finally there is a genital stage that occurs after puberty. Let us understand these terms in some detail.4 Structure of Personality in Freudian Theory Anal stage : It is found in the second year of life. Need gratification in any manner is its main concern. We are constantly engaged in the struggle to either find some socially acceptable way to express unconscious impulses or in effort to keep those impulses from being expressed. provide a way to approach the unconscious. It works on reality principle. It also creates the feelings of guilt and punishes the person if he or she falls short of the societal norms and ideals. Then comes a quiet period of latency. This occurs about five or six years of age.e. the Id seeks one thing only and that is the discharge of tension arising out of biological drives. 2.

Genital stage : During this stage the person attains maturity in psychosexual development. The defences transform the wishes of Id into an acceptable form. Defence Mechanisms : Freud thought that there is some kind of psychic energy. the only possible alternative may be to deny it. it may cause fixation to an earlier stage of development. many feminist psychoanalysts have argued that Freud’s ideas on the development of girls reflect a male-oriented perspective. boys give up sexual feelings for their mothers and begin to see their father’s as models rather than as rivals. King Oedipus unknowingly killed his father and then married his mother and Electra induced her brother to kill their mother. The psychodynamic theories emphasise that if an external danger leads to anxiety then people try to cope with it realistically and when realistic methods fail or are not available unrealistic defence mechanisms may be tried unconsciously. deprivation or overindulgence at a given stage or inconsistent alterations between indulgence and deprivation may lead to fixation. Regression occurs when someone goes back or reverts to an earlier stage. tension and worry take place. Also. Freud proposed that children develop a desire for the opposite sex parent and a wish to displace the same sex parent. This energy called libido is attached (cathected) to aspects of external and internal environment. Any forces that were building up required discharge. In other words. When Id’s impulses are very strong unpleasant feelings of nervousness. For him denial becomes less plausible. People take recourse to a variety of defences.Self and Personality 43 Complex. He or she may relate to others in a heterosexual fashion. There are three types of anxiety: Neurotic anxiety which is due to the Id – ego conflict.1 summarises the main features of the five stages of psychosexual development. the instinctive impulses could be displaced from one another. Fixation refers to a situation when a sexual impulse is arrested at an early stage. respectively. They use denial when the person can neither escape nor attack the threat. If the panic is very high. of memories of threat. Fixation and Regression : These concepts are important in understanding psychosexual development. When such regression takes place people display a behaviour which it typical of that less mature stage of development. and the total mind (or psyche) was a closed system directed towards maintaining equilibrium. In other words it involves inhibition . Table 2. some of them have framed theories that chart the emotional growth of young girls across a model of continuity as opposed to rivalry with the mother. there is very little explicit or overt concern with sexuality. if journey towards this stage is marked by excessive stress or overindulgence. which is transformed in different ways. Ego may use defence mechanisms to manage them. Repression is forgetting or rejection from consciousness. girls give up their sexual desires for their father and identify with their mother. Since the time of Freud. which is due to real external threat. This occurs at about five years of age. which he termed as Oedipus and Electra Complexes in boys and girls. Using a hydraulic model it was thought that Id is a kind of dynamo. It has been found that fixation occurs when conflict at any stage of psychosexual development is very high. and objective anxiety. The child represses his or her memories of infantile sexuality and forbidden sexual activity. This is often replaced by repression. The person becomes capable of genuine love for other people and can achieve adult sexual satisfaction. subsequent stress may lead to regression to that earlier stage. These defences serve as disguises through which people hide their motives and conflicts from themselves as well as from others. Instead. The discharge may be indirect also. When a person’s resolution of problems at any stage of psychosexual development is less than adequate. However. Latency stage : This stage follows the phallic stage. The fear of punishment brings about resolution of the complexes and identification with the same sex parent. Thus. moral anxiety which is due to the conflict of id and super ego. When defences fail neurotic anxiety takes place. This kind of attraction leads to serious conflict. A young child often does that but a mature person cannot deny objective facts. These complexes were named after two Greek characters.

10. 9. bath means birth. The person’s own unacceptable impulses are inhibited and the source of the anxiety is attributed to another person. The dream represents a wish fulfillment and is a censored version of the dream that lies underneath. and work as guardians of sleep. They have manifest content–the dream that we remember– and latent content – the hidden meaning that can be deciphered from the manifest content. They work as wish fulfilment device. the theory is not testable. 4. This defence mechanism has been central to the theory propounded by Freud. 3. the techniques have low reliability and validity. It is said that its concepts are vaguely defined. Dreams serve three purposes. The conscious ego operates according to principle.1 Stages of Sexual Development according to Freud Stage Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Approximate Age in Years) 0 to 1 1 to 3 3to 6 6to 12 12 to adult Erogenous Zone Mouth Anus Genitals None Genitals Developmental Task Weaning Toilet Training Overcoming Oedipal or Electra Complex Expanding interests Establishing intimate relationships of a threatening impulse or event by rendering it unconscious. Dream : Dreams are considered as the royal road to unconscious. clothes means nakedness. wishes. In the person interprets some of his own feelings or actions in more acceptable terms. The traditional psychoanalytic approach is criticised on many grounds. . etc.44 Introduction to Psychology Table 2. 6. and beginning a journey means death. This reduces disappointment and saves the person. release of unconscious tension. Various forbidden acts become associated with as the child is scolded or disciplined for performing them. it is called . In Rationalisation people make excuses. logical distinctions are not made. desire that lie beyond a person’s normal awareness constitute the part of personality. the anxiety provoking impulse is replaced in consciousness by its opposite. When repressed urges tend to find new and often disguised outlets. motives. Sublimation is used to displace or redirect the impulses from an object that is sexual. Projection is helpful because it reduces anxiety. 5. The blocking of unacceptable impulses to keep them from awareness is . Another important defence mechanism is Projection. and the efficacy of psychoanalytic therapy is questionable. In reaction formation. The sexual attachment of a boy to his mother and his desire to replace his father is termed as 2. The part of personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality is . impulses. to one that is social in character. desires. For instance viewing a house has reference to one’s body. The thoughts. According to Freud symbols in dreams represent different things. People often create false reasons to manage an interpersonal interaction in trouble. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. 8. The sexual attachment of a girl to his father and her desire to replace her mother is . the case studies are biased. 7.

They are found in myths. According to him achieving unity and wholeness a person must become increasingly aware of the wisdom available in one’s personal and collective unconscious and must learn to live in harmony with it. and realising potentials are Erich Fromm outcomes of a desire for freedom and a striving for justice and truth. a general perspective is presented. and the young potent hero. He thought that everyone of us has the capacity to choose and . He devoted much of the time to the study of such expressions in various traditions. Diverse emphasis have appeared and it is not possible to present all the perspectives. Jung held that self strives for unity and oneness. feeling. the dominant character traits of the people in a society become forces shaping the social process and the culture itself. They can be understood in terms of their relationship with others. assertive element (the animus). In fact. These theories present a definite shift in focus. Thus. His work recognises the value of positive qualities such as tenderness and love. So. He claimed that there is collective unconscious also. Fromm argued that psychological qualities of the people such as growth.Self and Personality 45 POST FREUDIAN DEVELOPMENT Subsequent theorists called Neo-Freudians have given attention to social determinants. In contrast to Freud’s biological orientation. The trend is towards an ego-psychology. culture is moulded by the mode of existence of a given society. Fromm had a social orientation. The unconscious of every male includes a feminine. With a view to develop familiarity with post-Freudian developments in psychodynamic perspective some of the major theories are briefly described here: Carl Jung : Understanding the Collective Unconscious Jung was an early admirer of Freud but later developed his own theory known as analytical psychology. passive element (the anima). One of the Carl Jung expressions of the striving for wholeness includes the mandala. intuition. For him character traits develop from experiences with other individuals. They are due to heredity. Alfred Adler : Life style and Social Interest In his theory known as individual psychology Adler believed that behaviour is purposeful and goal directed. individuals of each sex must recognise and integrate these opposite sex elements within themselves. competence and problem-solving abilities are emphasised. The human qualities of creativity. justice. Its contents are archetypes or primordial images. Jung is also famous for his distinction of extraversionintroversion. In turn. Some examples of archetypes include God. psychoanalytic thought has grown in many directions. They are characterised by less prominent roles to sexual and aggressive tendencies of Id. The ideals of truth. Jung describes four ways of contact or experience of the world. They include sensing. freedom. etc. can be genuine strivings and not merely rationalisations. It is an archetype that is expressed in many ways. An individual’s personal growth involves an unfolding of this shadow and its gradual integration with the rest of the personality into a meaningful coherent life pattern. the Earth Mother. dreams and art of all mankind. Erich Fromm: The Human Concerns Fromm viewed human beings as basically social beings. To be constructively masculine or feminine. that is unconscious. The unconscious of every female includes a masculine. and conscious reality. Jung proposed that the human psyche includes conscious as well as a covert or shadow aspect. He also visited India in 1930s. and expansion of the concept of ego. and thinking. They are not individually acquired.

The theories are largely based on case studies and no rigorous scientific basis is available.e. and erratic. The originality and comprehensiveness of his theory is remarkable. He calls attention to the problems of social adaptation. tends to be so constituted as to meet and invite this succession of potentialities for interaction and attempts to safeguard and to encourage the proper rate and the proper sequence of their enfolding. The goals that provide security and help to overcome inferiority are very important. Erikson believed that “human personality in principle develops according to steps pre-determined in the growing person’s readiness to be driven toward. These patterns lead to unhappiness. The psychological disorders were not caused by the fixation of psychic energy but from disturbed interpersonal relationship during childhood. He thought that everyone suffers from an inferiority complex or feelings of inadequacy that arise from childhood. by showing indifference). not because of any innate inferiority among the females. to be aware of. When parents’ behaviour toward a child is indifferent. the child feels insecure–a feeling termed by Horney as basic anxiety. Recapitulation The psychodynamic perspective is rooted in Freud’s psychoanalysis. The parents generate feelings of isolation and helplessness in their children that interfere with healthy development by being too dominant. a widening social radius”. The theoretical developments in psychoanalysis are still taking place. He also viewed development as a life-long process. The concepts are not defined properly and it is difficult to submit them to scientific testing. or by providing too much approval and admiration or too little. the society “in principle. On the other hand.. moving against people (others are hostile). Erik Erikson: In Search of Identity Erikson developed a theory of personality development with a focus on social adaptation. Erikson is also famous for his psycho-history of Gandhi ji. however. Psychodynamic theories face strong criticism from many quarters.” Thus young people must generate for themselves some central perspective and direction that gives them a meaningful sense of unity and purpose. His theory was discussed in your textbook for Class XI. With advancing age we face a wider range of human relationships. has profound impact on literature and social success. and . He overlooked female experiences and perspectives and implied that females should strive to be like males. These styles are described as moving toward people (affection and acceptance from others). Id. Deep resentment toward parents or basic hostility occurs due to basic anxiety. Here it may be mentioned that he considered each stage involving a crisis. Freud. In this process ego identity is central. According to her each sex has attributes admired by the other and neither should be viewed as superior or inferior. His concept of identity crisis of adolescent has drawn considerable attention. and moving away from people (striving for independence). The solution of problems faced during the eight psycho-social stages determines adult development. ego. Only by overcoming them through appropriate therapy the person can recover. The use of small and atypical individuals as samples for generalisation is another limitation of this approach. Subsequent theoretical developments have expanded the scope of psychodynamic theory by incorporating aspects of ego functioning and reality. He has used males as the prototype of all human personality development. disparaging. which was published as Gandhi’s Truth. and to interact with. Freud is also accused of gender discrimination. He distinguished three systems of personality i.46 Introduction to Psychology create. Our goals are the sources of motivation. His emphasis on social and cultural forces is crucial as it distinguishes him from Freud. Karen Horney : Social Foundations of Personality She argued that the differences between females and males were largely the results of social factors. The accounts prepared by the therapists are subject to various kinds of distortions.

and genital stages. Freud believed that unconscious conflicts are located in the psychosexual development. As you know a neutral stimulus and a potent stimulus (UCS).. planning. Learning is based on certain observable manipulations of stimuli and responses. A defence mechanism is a mental strategy that blocks the harmful Id impulse while reducing anxiety. T/F BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH The behaviourists did not give importance to the internal causes of behaviour. Reaction formation is the attribution of one’s own objectionable impulses to others. These stages have different erogenous zones through which gratification is obtained. The superego is roughly equivalent to conscience. T/F 8. Id strives towards biological satisfaction following pleasure principle. The ego makes effort to reconcile–Id with the actualities of world. The classical conditioning of Pavlov emphasised learning as a product of the pairing of responses with stimuli. T/F contd. T/F 3. phallic. It follows the reality principle. latency. social. paid less attention to Id and more to the ego. Horney and Erikson.. According to Jung unconscious holds only the individual’s repressed urges or desires and not the collective memories of the entire human race. People experience internal conflicts due to anxiety that becomes associated with forbidden thoughts and wishes. rationalisation. and cultural forces and the contemporary circumstances of the person. The ego is the seat of creativity. T/F 4. They shifted the focus towards interpersonal. The behaviour is considered to be a product of complex stimulus–response combinations. and selfish. should be the chief concern. This approach is criticised for its limited database and the ambiguity of concepts. The person represses these and sends them to the unconscious. Fromm. Psychodynamic theories are based on scientific evidences. For them the only thing that matters is the external conditions that determine the pattern of reinforcement. T/F 7. The superego is the representation of the internalised rules of the society and punishes the deviations by feelings of guilt. anal. To cope with them people take recourse to various defence mechanisms such as displacement. The Neo-Freudians disputed many of the views of Freud. Operant conditioning is a process of learning in which behaviour that leads to satisfying consequences or rewards is likely to be repeated. which is stored in human brain in the form of S-R connections. T/F 2. repressed materials generally surface again. Freud considered dreams as wish fulfilment. T/F 9. T/F 10. and projection etc. The Id is like a child who is demanding. Id. However. if paired together change the situation in such a manner that the previously neutral event (now CS) alone evokes the same response that was produced by the potent stimulus. Theorists like Carl Jung. According to psychodynamic view the events that we no longer consciously remember may still influence our behaviour. and the formation of self-fulfilling goals. Ego operates according to pleasure principle.Self and Personality 47 superego. During the phallic stage the male child develops Oedipus complex. impulsive. Adler. reaction formation. He proposed that children pass through the stages of oral. . Skinner refused to accept internal motivational forces or traits. Unconscious is the main motivating force behind human behaviour. which focuses on responses and reinforcements. and superego can be located in human brain. Analysis of stimulus conditions controlling 1. ego. Skinner emphasised on the operant conditioning. They advocate that the complex learning. This approach has been extended to explain and treat many abnormal behaviours including irrational fears. LEARNING CHECKS IV 5. T/F 6.

The emphasis is on what people are doing in the current situation rather than motives. It is clear. This kind of learning is also called modeling or observational learning. It is simplistic and neglects the subjective and psychodynamic processes that are important in human life. punishment and environmental cues. It is held that human beings are largely responsible for what happens to them. 2. drives or conflicts in one’s personal history. When life experiences are inconsistent with our ideas about us we experience anxiety. A gap between selfconcept and reality is the main cause of maladjustment. however. HUMANISTIC APPROACH This approach puts forward a positive and optimistic view of human nature. Rogers Self Theory The most important idea proposed by Rogers is that of fully functioning person. this view provides an analysis of behaviour.5). Such a condition is created in client-centered therapy. Incongruence Congruence Self-concept Experience Self-concept Experience Well-adjusted individual Poorly adjusted individual Fig. 2. Their actions become increasingly constructive. This situation needs creation of an atmosphere of unconditional positive regard. Recapitulation The behaviourist view is opposed to any internal or subjective entity as a determinant of behaviour. we learn that significant others will approve of us only when we behave in certain ways and express certain feelings. Using the process of learning and environmental factors such as reward. It uses the conditions of learning and the cues in the situation for determining the pattern of behaviour. Thus. which show that observational learning can account for the learning of many novel responses. Rogers believed that one’s mental health is related to the degree of congruence or match between our selfconcept and life experiences. People want to become such persons and move in this direction. that everybody does not get success. Out of many such theories we shall discuss the theories of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. In this way the approach does not find a need to have a strong concept of personality. we ourselves will be congruent and we will be well adjusted. The theories following this approach recognise the role of personal responsibility and growth and emphasise on the present rather than the past. People also learn by observing others. The opposite is true when there is little or no overlap between the two (See Fig. They always remain in touch with their own values and feelings and experience life more deeply. Much of our social learning is based on observation without any direct reward or reinforcement administered to the learner. The causes of behaviour are located in the current conditions that control present behaviour. Social learning approach of Bandura does not propose traits or dispositions. If our selfconcept is consistent with actual life experiences. You may recall the pioneering studies by Bandura. Thus a person is accepted irrespective of what they say or do. The incentives and reinforcers are important in determining what a person does in a particular situation.5 Pattern of Adjustment and Self-Concept . but do not allow society’s standards to shape their feelings or actions to an excessive degree. Such persons are sensitive to the needs and rights of Carl Rogers others.48 Introduction to Psychology behaviour is crucial for explaining behavioural phenomena.

4. were spontaneous. goodness. Self actualisation is like a than a .8 western societies people are trained to focus on material satisfaction of needs. They see the world more accurately because objects are seen in relation to themselves.8). and their limits. are not trapped 3. the focus on subjective experience and the importance of individual choice. They become aware of themselves. While fully self-actualised persons are rare. WHO IS A HEALTHY PERSON? own responsibility. From the humanistic perspective people are . their feelings. order. apathy. 5. According to them the healthy people share the following characteristics. It involves a quest to know oneself deeply and to be true to one’s own feelings without disguise. Among the humanistic theorists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are the most significant. Maslow used the term Meta needs for higher order needs (e. In the BOX 2. 3. Peak experiences are and moments in a person’s life. They experience the “here-and-now”.e. 6. joy. 2. have “the courage to be”. 4. unity). and cynicism. The humanistic approach emphasises the significance of positive aspects of life (see Box 2. Positive behaviour shown to a person with no contingencies attached is . 7. Maslow has given a detailed account of psychologically healthy people who have attained self-actualisation – a state in which people have reached their own fullest potential. and creative work. to be oneself in the here and now. and what they make of their lives as their . LEARNING CHECKS V 1. is the inborn drive to develop one’s talents and capacities. not as a means of fulfilling a deficiency. had fresh appreciation of people and events. Maslow studied a number of self actualised people and found that they were more open to experiences. They do not live in the past or dwell in the future through anxious expectations and distorted defences. Healthy humans want to feel free to and their own lives. Thus.g. 1. The lower order needs are considered more important than higher order needs. resisted conformity. Maslow had an optimistic and positive view of man who has the potentials for love. beauty.Self and Personality 49 Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualisation You have already read about the need hierarchy of Maslow in the chapter on motivation in your textbook of XI grade. The frustration of meta needs results in alienation. people do experience moments of selfactualisation (peak experiences) when a feeling of richness and bliss is found. have autonomy and are not trapped by their own self-concepts or the expectations of others and the society. justice. The satisfaction of needs is also influenced by cultural factors. autonomous. were in tune with their inner world. devoted to goals. dedicated to some cause outside themselves. 2. accept themselves. Human beings are considered free to shape their lives and to self-actualise. On the hierarchy of needs a preoccupation with meeting lower order needs may lead to a deficiency orientation. Such persons are bothered about meeting the needs for the material things they do not have. They realise their potentialities. How do you think about yourself? The humanistic theorists have indicated that healthy personality lies in not merely adjustment to society. Recapitulation The Humanistic approach is rooted in two assumptions i. independent.. They are likely to behave in disordered ways. personality is a person’s perceptual orientation and the level of needs on which he or she focuses attention and energy. According to Rogers parents must create a setting in which children are .

empathy. are good problem solvers. and uncooperative in everyday interactions. These persons were followed up for eight and a half years. The blocking of emotions releases certain neuropeptides in the brain. Abraham Maslow approached human behaviour in terms of needs that motivate people. In scientific terms the humanistic theories need further development and analysis. competitive workaholics who seemed unable to slow down and relax. The self healing emotionally–balanced people are alert. and momentary.50 Introduction to Psychology BOX 2. CONCEPT OF GUNAS In prevalent Indian thought the notion of personality as an entity or totality of dispositions is not .e. When these two are similar the situation is congruent and a person is fully functioning.. The humanistic approach is unique in its scope to attend to the role of meaning and spirituality in human life. They develop a sense of humour that is philosophical than hostile. It is found in people who are aggressively involved in a chronic. Some researchers have tried to correlate this personality type with the severity of the disease. Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman noticed that many of their patients possessed similar personality traits. In an interesting research two cardiologists. Friedman has now identified a selfhealing personality. They were found to be highpowered. The results of researchers are not conclusive. Type B personality is defined as absence of Type A traits. ambitious. Such an individual is cooperative. It may be noted that personality characteristics can influence the person directly by altering the immune system or indirectly by affecting the healthy-related behaviours. particularly lung cancer. irritable. The needs encompass a wide spectrum–from basic needs to selfactualisation. Rogers developed a theoretical model which emphasised on the relationship between what we feel we are (the real self) and what we feel we should be (the ideal self). It refers to an action-emotion complex. intense. incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time. and creative. More recent research has shown that the critical factor that predisposes Type A personality to health risks is hostility or a tendency to become angry. have close relationships with other people. His ideas have been influential in counselling and therapy. However. This type of person suppresses his or her negative emotion (e. and/or a tendency to be antagonistic. depends on the availability of people who provide the conditions for growth i.9 TYPE A. hostility). responsive. and energetic. It was found that Type A people were twice as likely to as Type B to develop some form of coronary heart disease (CHD). Based on a survey these researchers identified people who were type A and those who were type B. He is the founder of client-centered therapy. They are spontaneous. which happens to be the goal of development.g. surly. Morris has termed it as Type C ( Cancer prone) personality. and have a playful sense of humour. Being congruent. rude. Rogers was very optimistic about human nature. high cholesterol levels. or smoking. anger. they tell us what personality should be rather than what it is. This kind of personality was termed Type A personality. Self-actualisation is the need to grow. Maslow believed that self-actualisation is experienced in peak experiences that are deep. People with Type C personality are more likely to suffer cancer. It can be described in terms of enthusiasm. unassertive and patient. openness and unconditional positive regard. It has been found that the risks of Type A personality were equal to or greater than the risks of high blood pressure. This disrupts the homeostatic mechanism and weaken the body’s capacity to defend itself from cancer cells. and resentful in response to everyday frustrations. The person complies with those in authority. TYPE B AND TYPE C PERSONALITIES Studies have suggested a type of personality which is prone to cancer. although they may be calm and conscientious.

Interview : Interviewing and observing are frequently used to know the personality of individuals. laziness. In our personal life we use expectations based on past experience. sharp intelligence. The formal efforts to analyse and measure personalities are termed as personality assessment. dutifulness. however. envy for others. finding relationships among variables. desire for sense gratification. It may be noted that all the three gunas are present in each and every person in different degrees. Projective Techniques. These are: Observer Report. they are rooted in different theoretical orientations. Let us try to learn about these assessment approaches. and Self Report Measures. You will agree that in order to meaningfully interact with people we need to understand them and to predict what they will do. observation. Interview. mood.Self and Personality 51 popular. studying developmental changes. etc. It tries to study the typical responses or what the person most often does in a situation. Perhaps the balance of the gunas is the right state of being. arrogance. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy. detachment. ACTIVITY 2. It is used for a variety of purposes. are influenced by hearsay. OBSERVER REPORTS Observation of behaviour is helpful in appraising personality of a person in a variety of settings. observation. All of us frequently talk to others and watch their behaviours. and Tamas. discipline. anger. the higher your degree of Type A behaviour. counselling etc. dissatisfaction with one’s position. mental equilibrium. The person is considered as made of dynamic and context sensitive qualities.3 Are you a Type A person? Answer the following questions yes or no. According to one of the major perspectives of Indian thought namely Samkhya Yoga all material elements are infused with the modes of nature or three Gunas namely Sattva. truthfulness. Rajas. diagnosis. The dominance of one or the other guna may lead to a particular type of behaviour. and a materialistic mentality. and little interest in spiritual elevation. rating. and nomination are some frequently used techniques that utilise observational data for personality assessment. stereotypes. sense control. The Attributes of Rajas include intensive activity. They.) . Tamas guna characterises mental imbalance. and walk rapidly? Do you overemphasise some of your words and add dramatic gestures while speaking? Do you become very annoyed when you have to wait in line? Do you constantly schedule more activities than time allows? Do you feel a sense of guilt if you try to relax? Do you try to move the topic of conversation to your own interests? Do you believe that your success is due to the fast pace that you maintain? Getting to know and understand people and describe them is a task in which everybody is involved. information from other persons etc. Also. and staunch determination. As you have read l l l l l (Note: The more items answered yes. speak. and a feeling of helplessness. conversation. Bhagvadgita states that Sattva guna includes the following attributes: cleanliness. needs. l l l l ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY Do you give yourself harder than most of the people you know? Do you tend to complete sentences for people who speak too slowly? Do you eat. Let us examine them in some detail. procrastination. personal biases. Assessment refers to the procedures to evaluate or differentiate people on the basis of certain characteristics. gravity. It must be noted that these assessment approaches throw light on different aspects of personality as they have access to different aspects of personality. placement. depression. There are various ways in which personality has been assessed by psychologists. respect for superiors. It is used in the study of diversity in the people.

Everybody watches people and form impressions about personality. Nomination : It is frequently used in obtaining peer assessment. The ratings suffer from several kinds of errors. a clinical psychologist may like to observe his client’s interactions with family members and visitors to his or her home. In using nomination each group member is asked to choose one or more group members with whom he or she would like to work. study. Using carefully designed observation the clinical psychologist may understand and gain insight into the personality of the client. to place persons in the middle of the scale and avoid extreme positions. Use this set of rating scales in observing children of a primary school in playground. For instance. For instance the person may be asked to perform some task with the help of two persons who are obstructive or . using observation for personality assessment is more than just observation and is a sophisticated procedure. It requires certain degree of maturity on the part of a psychologist to be able to obtain valid data through these techniques. Discuss your observations with classmates and your teacher. raters are found to be unduly influenced by a single favourable or unfavourable trait. It is used with a group of persons who know each other very well through long-term interaction. Rating scales are also used to standardise the evaluations. Observation : Behavioural observation is also used to assess personality. Psychologists call this halo effect.52 Introduction to Psychology in class XI textbook. The rating procedure can be improved by training the raters. For instance. A commonly used test of this kind is situational stress test. The kind of professional training required for obtaining useful data through these methods is quite demanding and time consuming. Also. It has been found that rather than using numbers or general descriptive adjectives that may convey different meanings to different raters a trait may be more clearly identified in terms of carefully stated behavioural anchors. which colours their judgment of other traits. Most of the interviews are usually unstructured. A very detailed guideline is prepared to see examples of specific behaviours for identifying personality traits under consideration. In order to use ratings effectively the traits should be clearly defined in specific terms. interviews may be structured or unstructured. It provides sample of the behaviour of a person under stressful situations. The nominations received by a person can be analysed in many ways to understand personality and behavioural qualities of the person. Despite these limitations interviews are frequently used as personality test for employment purposes. It is obvious that while the use of interview and observation is useful they do have several limitations. The biggest problem is that the presence of observer may vitiate the results since mere presence of a stranger may influence the observation process and the behaviour of the person being observed. Situational Tests : A variety of situational tests have been devised to provide assessment of personality. play or undertake any other significant activity. Ratings : Ratings are frequently used in educational and industrial settings. raters have a tendency ACTIVITY 2. The structured interviews have specific questions and follow a set procedure. In the unstructured mode of interviewing interviewers get impressions and use their hunches or let the person expand on the information that has potential to unravel the personality of the interviewee. However.4 Using Ratings While Observing Children Discuss in small groups of classmates and identify a set of adjectives describing certain attributes prevalent in children. You must have seen people going for interview for job. admission to schools or while solving problems. A nomination technique has been found to be one of the most dependable techniques but it can also be affected by personal biases. This is done to obtain objective comparison of the persons being interviewed.

In observation the presence of may vitiate the results. Some involve the writing of stories around pictures e. 9.g. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with ———— and ————. Each response is considered to reveal a true and significant aspect of personality.g. Other techniques require the person to complete sentences (e. 7. Role-playing is an example of a ———. TAT. The scoring and interpretation in projective assessment are lengthy and subjective. In other kinds of techniques one may be required to express himself or herself through drawings (e. LEARNING CHECKS VI PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES You have learned while studying psychoanalytic theory that behaviour is also determined by unconscious forces. 2. Some of them require the examinee to make associations to stimuli such as words or inkblots (e. 4. Role-playing may be used. desires. rating. In unstructured interviewing interviewers get —————— and use their ——————. and situational tests. They cannot be scored in any objective manner. Psychologists have developed a number of approaches and procedures.g. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy. During ———— each group member is asked to choose one group member with whom he or she would like to undertake any significant activity. 3. The person is informed that there are no right or wrong responses. Draw-A-Man-test). In interview the person or candidate has chance to explain his or her qualities in his or her ———————. which colours the judgment of other traits. —————— effect refers to undue influence of a single favourable or unfavourable trait. The person is clearly and explicitly instructed to play a part. Personal interviews may be ————— —————— toward certain applicants. Rorschach ink blot test). 8. 6. (situations which are open to different interpretations). 4. While stimulus material and nature of responses elicited vary. In some other techniques the person may be asked to choose among a variety of stimuli indicating those they like best and least. In the present section three main approaches are described. They are: observer reports. and need which can be interpreted by experts. and self-report measures. Recapitulation Personality assessment refers to the procedures to evaluate or differentiate people on the basis of certain characteristics. 5. 1. Researchers have developed a variety of projective techniques using various kinds of stimulus materials and responses for assessing personality. all of them share the following features. The person being assessed is usually not told the purpose and the method of scoring and interpretation. Also. . The stimulus material is relatively or fully unstructured and poorly defined. The projective techniques were developed to assess unconscious motives and feelings. These techniques are based on the assumption that weakening the stimulus structure will allow the individual to project his/her feelings. obse rvation. indirect methods of assessment are required.Self and Personality 53 non-cooperative.g. —————————— is the name of the formal procedure used to analyse and measure personalities. 3. Observer reports include techniques such as interview. The projective techniques are different from the psychometric tests in many ways. nomination. 5. either reporting verbally or overtly what he or she is asked to do. 2. sentence completion test). Therefore. projective techniques. because of motivational involvement and social desirability reasons people do not like to share about themselves in direct ways. Instead they are based on 1. The situation may be presented realistically or through videotape etc.

The blots were originally made by dropping ink on a piece of paper and then folding the paper in half. Using frustration and aggression as the main focus it presents a series of cartoons in which one person frustrates another or calls attention to a frustrating condition.g. The person being tested gives the responses. They are obstacle dominance (emphasis on the frustrating object).7. Twenty cards are appropriate for every subject. The use and interpretation of this technique requires training.6). Starting with the first card the person is reminded about the response and is required to tell where and how the response was seen by him or her. The blots are printed and centered on pieces of white cardboard of about 7”x10” size.7 An illustration showing the drawing of a card of TAT Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study (The P-F Study) : This test was developed by Rosenzweig. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) : This test was developed by Morgan and Murray in 1935. In the first phase the person is instructed as follows: “I am going to show you a number of inkblots. The Rorschach Inkblots test consists of 10 symmetrical inkblots (see Fig. The analysis of responses is based on type and direction of aggression. ego defence (emphasis on . and then give the outcome”. Five of them are black and white and five have same color. An example of the Rorschach type Inkblots cards is over the inquiry phase begins. adult females (F). or some combination (e. what the characters are feeling and thinking. 6. It consists of a series of 30 pictures and one blank card. They are generally qualitative in nature and require rigorous training in interpreting the different kinds of responses. 2. 2. The cards are presented one at a time. There are two phases of administration: performance proper and inquiry. It is expected that people will interpret an ambiguous stimulus according to their individual readiness to perceive in a certain way. The Rorschach Inkblots : A Swiss psychiatrist named Hermann Rorschach developed this technique. Let us try to understand the nature and use of some of the well-known projective techniques. Once the responding to all the 10 boys (B).54 Introduction to Psychology assumptions of the dynamic theories. lesser number of cards (even five) have been successfully used. Researchers have developed special scoring keys for use with the TAT. An example of a TAT card is given in Fig. However. which are recorded. and want you to tell me what you see in each of them”. The person is encouraged to imagine and say whatever comes to mind. 2. Fig. describe what is happening at the moment. In India many adaptations of this test have been done. 2. Some cards are used for adult males (M). girls (G). Fig. The cards are usually administered to a person individually. The themes that recur in these imaginative productions are thought to have significance. If you take this test you will be instructed as follows: “Tell what has led up to the event shown in the picture. BM).

conflicts. desires and needs. unclear. The best thing about my mother was —— ————————————————. Try to find out the similarities and differences in the obtained responses. impulses. construction. Each response is scored for location. or incomplete stimulus. the examinee is required to make up a story about the person as if he or she were a character in a novel or play. The task is to provide an ending. disproportionably large head means organic brain disease. They are very interesting and provide a variety of materials. In their use the interscorer agreement (scorer reliability) is considered more important. Some of the interpretations included the following: omission of facial features means that person is evasive about highly conflictual interpersonal relationship. Try to figure out the differences. Sentence Completion Test: In this test a number of stems consisting of a few words are presented.6 Using Draw-A-Person Test Ask a boy and a girl of 10 years to draw two human figures – a male and a female. the responses will be projections or reflections of his or her feelings. This kind of illusory validation partly explains the popularity of projective techniques. I am proud of ————————————— ——————————————————. The direction of aggression may be towards the environment (extragressive) or toward oneself (intraggressive) or inaggressive or tuned off in an attempt to gloss over or evade the situation. and pre-occupation with headaches. Finally. and need persistence (emphasis on the constructive solution of the problem). Thus the examinee has many opportunities to reveal underlying motivations about each topic. She used the psychodynamic approach to analyse the drawings. Some of the frequently used projective tests are Rorschach Inkblot Test consists of 10 inkblot cards: five of them are black and white and five have the same color. arrangement. Their reliability and validity in traditional sense is low. It is held that the type of ending used reflects the motivation. The scores help to understand personality functioning. The examinee has to respond to the question “what this might be?” The part of the blot is clarified. 3. completion. Discuss the results with your teacher. 1. The interpretation of the responses or products is a skilled job for which specialised training is required. Uday Pareek and Rosenzweig have adapted this test for Indian population. A sample of items used in sentence completion test is given below. They are based on the assumption that when a person is forced to impose meaning on relatively structured. He or she is asked to draw a person. graphic emphasis of the neck means disturbance about the lack of control over ACTIVITY 2. The analysis of personality with the help of projective techniques is rooted in one or the other kind of psychodynamic theory. The Draw-A-Person Test: It is a simple test in which the examinee is presented with a blank sheet of paper and a pencil and an eraser. My father——————————————--. Recapitulation Projective techniques appraise personality in an indirect manner. These techniques present a paradox. The Holtzman Inkblots Test has ACTIVITY 2. and attitudes of the person. and expression with drawings. 2. While validity of the findings using these techniques is considerably low the practitioners are very fond of using it. Perhaps we cling to certain stereotypes even when the findings or observations are contradictory. These tests may demand association. selection. Discuss your findings with your teacher. My greatest fear is ——————————. . movement.5 Using A Sentence Completion Test With the help of your teacher prepare a set of sentence blanks. When the drawing is complete the examinee is normally asked to draw the figure of another person of the opposite sex. form. content etc. Machover has used it for personality assessment. People often tend to note the confirming instances and ignore the contradictory data. Use it on five persons. etc. 4.Self and Personality 55 protection of the frustrated person).

The Rorschach scoring criteria include location. Schizophrenia. and antisocial. determinant. and a tendency to defy the social conventions. It has been used in many diverse types of populations. In TAT stories produced by the examinee the hero is —————————————. They are interpreted on the basis of norms developed by the author of the test. The examinee has to provide a verbal response to that situation. 6. Psychopathic Deviate. Depression. Masculinity-femininity. Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study presents a series of cartoons in which one person ———————— another. A person scoring high on this dimension tends to be hostile. Hysteria. and Social Intervention. The scores on these measures are quantitative. In the sentence completion test a number of stems consisting of a few words are given. —————— and ——————————. Paranoia. 5. On the whole. The mode of reaction is analysed. The type of ending used by the examinee reflects his or her motivation. They are called self–report because the examinee has to respond objectively to the items of the measure and his or her reports are accepted as they are. LEARNING CHECKS VII SELF–REPORT MEASURES These are structured measures in which the examinee is required to give verbal responses on some kind of rating scale. 4. Mania. Sixteen Factors Personality Inventory (16 PF) : This test was developed by Cattell 1. Psychesthenia. In subsequent work he also identified a third dimension named psychotism. These dimensions subsume 32 personality traits. the projective tests try to understand the dynamic and unconscious aspects of personality. The examinee is asked to write a story for each card referring to the past. In India an effort has been made by Mallick and Joshi as they developed a test similar to MMPI the test is known as Jodhpur Multiphasic Personality Inventory (JMPI). Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) : This test was developed by Eysenck to assess two basic dimensions of personality namely introverted-extroverted and emotionally stable–emotionally unstable. Projective assessment is based on the assumption that personal —————— of ——————— stimuli reflect the unconscious contents. The revised test known as MMPI– 2 was published in 1989. Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study has 24 cartoon drawings depicting two persons in frustrating situations. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):Hathaway and McKinley. 3. conceived this test in 1940. The Draw-APerson test has also been used for the assessment of personality. The details of various features are analysed and interpreted in the light of certain assumptions of the psychodynamic theory. The theme of the story thus produced is analysed. Projective tests assume that ambiguous stimulus is viewed by an examinee according to his or her ———————— ———— in a certain way. The MMPI-2 provides scores for 10 subscales: Hypochondriasis.56 Introduction to Psychology 45 cards and one response is required for each. as an aid in the process of psychiatric diagnosis. egocentric. present and the future of the main characters. In a sentence completion test an examinee has many opportunities to reveal ——————————— about each topic. In subsequent research this test has been found very effective in detecting psycho-pathology. . The TAT has 30 pictures and one blank card. It refers to psychopathology and represents a lack of feeling for others. It has 567 items in the form of affirmative statements to which the test taker gives the responses: true or false. The examinee is required to draw male and female figures. They are not treated as projections to be interpreted by the investigator. This test has been found to be more reliable and overcome the limitations of Rorschach test. The examinee has to complete the sentence. 2. a tough manner of interacting with people.

you would like to have a cup of tea and sit in some secluded corner enjoying the tea alone. b & c). That makes you feel more secure. He used the technique of factor analysis to identify the basic personality structure. 5. Key . This test is frequently used in career guidance. 8. i. You are a thinking type. You like to meet friends and relatives. you are capable of keeping yourself occupied. you do not like to stay at home. and occupational testing. b. ACTIVITY 2. You hesitate to talk to strangers. Factor analyses is a statistical technique in which correlations among the items are used to find out the clusters of items that are correlated or go together. On holidays. 9. You do not like to share your experiences with others. You like more of those people who are sociable and mixing type. It is used for high school students to adults. or c ) that is close to your experience/thinking/or way of life. 2. You do not get bored when alone.e. listening music and reading. the scoring is in reversed order. 3. and 8. Add all the scores across 10 statements and that is your score on the test. 10. you like to be to yourself. 3 for ‘a’. For these three statements. vocational exploration.Self and Personality 57 on the basis of a large set of empirical data about personality descriptions. If given opportunity. Apart from the above-mentioned measures there is a huge number of measures that assess specific personality dimensions and needs. (a) agree 1. like seclusion. 3. you would like to have a large circle of friends. 6. In addition to 16 basic scales there are 4 second order indices of personality.. On holidays. — — — — — — — — — — (b) undecided — — — — — — — — — — (c) disagree — — — — — — — — — — Interpretation Scores between 10-14: Introvert Scores between 15-25: Ambivert Scores between 26-30: Extravert © K. In parties. meeting people and attending parties is a waste of time. 4. you like a very personal life. The test is currently available in 5 separate forms and in one form of the test there are 105 items. After marking all the 10 statements give a score of 1 each to all statements marked ‘a’ 2 each to ‘b’ and 3 each to ‘c’ except statements 1.7 Where do you stand on the dimension of Introversion-Extraversion? Ten statements are given below. and enjoy the company of nature. 2 for ‘b’ and 1 for ‘c’.D. each followed by 3 alternative responses (a. even on phone. Broota. Read each statement carefully and mark the alternative (encircle the corresponding letter a. The test has declarative statements and the examinee has to respond to a specific situation by choosing from among given alternatives. 7. Attention: These are sample items and should not be used for clinical evaluation or for diagnosis. You think.

Difference.10 PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT IN INDIA 50 minutes to complete the testing. The self-report measures suffer from response sets. Tripathi. optimism. fatalist. Affiliation. There are 50 items and Yes or No are the response categories. need achievement. This work has been undertaken in different Indian languages as well as in English. The test has 50 items. locus of control. this test measures personality variables. Endurance. This is the tendency to agree with items/questions regardless of their contents. lack of internal control. hope. Examples of these sets are social desirability. They are also called structured measures because they are standardised according to psychometric criteria. i. Abasement. Some of the frequently used measures are as follows. Each item has pair of statements and the student has to choose one alternative. It has been used in many diverse types of populations. this schedule is a multi–trait scale of 15 personality variables with a control of social desirability. Dominance. The cards most descriptive of the person are put at one end and the least descriptive at the opposite end. Autonomy. MMPI 2 has 10 sub scales. There are 225 items. i. neuroticism. Hathaway and McKinley developed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for the purpose of psychiatric diagnosis. and conformity. the greater is the degree of dependence proneness. A dependence prone person is anxious. Now it is also used in other settings for counselling and employment purposes. affiliation motive. The scores could range between 20 to 100. It takes about They are used for assessing specific attributes. approval motive. Nurturance. dogmatism. nishkama karma and so on. Muthayya. A brief description of the sample Indian personality tests is given below: Tripathi Personal Preference Schedule (TPPS) : Developed by R. Heterosexuality and Aggression.e. In particular it is used to provide self description and description of relationships. Many of these tests are published in journals and some of them are commercially available. Its revised version. In subsequent research this test has been found very effective in detecting psychopathology. evading responsibility. the larger the score. It can be used for a variety of purposes. It is for adults. Another is yessaying or acquiescence. like authoritarianism. Succoraver. dominance. The examinee is asked to sort hundred or so statements into nine piles. empathy. Exhibition. traditional and resists change. Dependence Proneness Scale (DPS) : Developed by J. competence. It involves four components. this test measures dependency as a response disposition.e. and undecided around the middle. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) assesses two basic dimensions of personality: introverted-extroverted and .58 Introduction to Psychology BOX 2. The response sets make it difficult for true assessment of personality. putting a prescribed number of cards into each. The responses are considered. Change. Sinha. affection – affiliation. introversion. Q Sort is a measure to study a person’s traits through rating scales. Interception.C. Recapitulation Self-report measures of personality involve verbal items of different types. self-confidence. unpractical. Order. Multivariable Personality Inventory (MPI): Developed by B.. Percentile norms and scores for male and female college students are provided. ego-ideal and pessimism. The Indian psychologists have taken interest in the adptatation of foreign tests as the well as development of new tests to assess various traits and dimensions of personality..B. The responses are given on a response sheet. It is a tendency on the part of the respondent to endorse socially desirable.P. The personality variables include Achievement. as they are to provide a quantitative index of the trait being measured. R. The responses are given on a 5 point scale ranging from ‘quite true’ (5) to ‘not at all true’ (1) with undecided (3) in the middle.

Regression. biofeedback. These dimensions subsume 32 personality traits. and self-instruction. 2. In addition to 16 basic scales that measure source traits of personality there are four second order indices. Warmth. stimulus control. The psychological techniques include systematic observation of behaviour. Id. Latency Period. Projection. The personality test 16 PF is an ————————— based on factor analysis. gregariousness. Central Traits. upwas (fasting). assertiveness. following the rules of conduct ( yam and niyam). Yoga etc. Phlegmatic. Defence Mechanisms. In subsequent work Eysenck also identified a third dimension named Psychotism. It is used from high school students to adults. Identification. CPI is used on —————————————————————————————. The responses of examinee on self-report measures are ————————— to be interpreted.. 8. It refers to psychopathology. Displacement. Rationalisation. 6. Archetypes. MMPI was initially developed for ————————————————————. Impulses. excitement-seeking. Contemporary empirical studies of Indian self tend to suggest that it is context . Phallic Stage. Typology. Zen. Surface Traits. 3. Libido. 4. 5. Cattell’s 16 Factors Personality Inventory (16 PF) is another very popular tool. Ego Identity. Neuroticism. The studies show that while the people in western cultural settings emphasise on the uniqueness and the separateness of the self. the self represents a dialogue between an object (Me) and a subject (I). the people in many non-western cultures including India. SUMMARY l l l The study of the self and the personality is an effort to appraise the totality of a persons existence. activity. Unconscious. Personal Constructs. Key Terms Anal Stage. and a tendency to defy the social conventions. The test is frequently used in career guidance. We try to regulate the self by using a variety of strategies such as vrata. Client centered Therapy. conceptualise the self in a relational manner with shifting boundaries between the self and the non-self. The three dimensions of EPQ are introverted-extroverted—————————etc. It involves a lack of feeling for others. Intellectualisation. As a process. Ego Psychology. The Self and culture are mutually related. self-reinforcement. Lie score in MMPI provides ———————————————————————. Cardinal Traits. Self-report measures provide —————— and —————————— assessment of personality. Biofeedback. Psychodynamic Approach. positive emotions constitute ———————————. and occupational testing. a tough manner of interacting with people. 9. and ——— —————. LEARNING CHECKS VIII 1. vocational exploration. Q Sort procedures involve ——————————of ———————statements in different piles. 7. Human beings acquire the notion of the self during social interaction with significant others.Self and Personality 59 emotionally stable-emotionally unstable. Sanguine. Sublimation. It is a forced choice test in which the examinee has to respond to a specific situation by choosing from among given alternatives. Introversion Extroversion. Repression. As a structure the self represents an organised collection or a schema of beliefs and the feelings about oneself. Collective Unconscious.

and situational tests.60 Introduction to Psychology l l l l l l l l l sensitive. and the formation of self-fulfilling goals. Id strives towards biological satisfaction following pleasure principle. Three main approaches to personality assessment are: observer reports. nomination. maintains individuality and autonomy – a situation that depicts coexistence of opposites. To cope with them people take recourse to various defence mechanisms such as displacement. and what we feel we should be (the ideal self). collectivist. counselling. however. The Post-Freudians disputed many of the views of Freud. which happens to be the goal of development. The state of being congruent. focus on subjective experience and importance of individual’s choice.. Allport. The ego is viewed as the seat of creativity. It however. depends on availability of people who provide empathy. The superego is the representation of internalised rules of the society. The ego makes effort to reconcile the needs of Id with the actualities of world following reality principle. ego. Theorists like Carl Jung. He proposed that children pass through the stages of oral. humanistic. It punishes the deviations by creating the feelings of guilt. Freud considered dreams as wish fulfillment and utilise symbolism. The typological approach aims at describing personality in terms of types and traits and relating them to behaviours. People experience internal conflicts due to the anxiety that becomes associated with forbidden thoughts and wishes. Personality refers to characteristics of a person that are stable across situations and over time and make him or her unique. Personality assessment refers to the procedures to evaluate people on the basis of certain characteristics. Among the humanistic theorists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are the most significant. and cognitive are prominent. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy. and self-report measures. Fromm. The relationship between trait scores and behaviours. rating. training. and projection etc. openness and unconditional positive regard. The needs encompass a wide spectrum–from the basic needs to selfactualisation. rationalisation. The person represses them and sends to the unconscious. Observer reports include techniques such as interview. Abraham Maslow approached human behaviour in terms of needs that motivate people. Adler. He identified three systems of personality i. observation. The erogenous zones through which gratification is obtained characterise these stages. The traits as generalised behavioural tendencies are assumed to be responsible for individual differences and uniqueness observed in behaviour of the people. These approaches are very simplistic and have lost their appeal. Personality has been studied through many approaches in which typological. They shifted the focus towards interpersonal forces and the contemporary circumstances of life of the person. selection. reaction formation. planning. Cattell and Eysenck have developed trait theories that offer unified view of person. Id. projective techniques. psychodynamic.e. latency. The psychodynamic perspective originated from Freud’s psychoanalysis. and placement. Sheldon used body build as the basis of personality types and related them to temperament and behaviour. Horney and Erikson paid less attention to Id and more to the ego and social forces. Early attempts illustrate the use of typology in the context of medicine. the repressed materials generally surface again. and genital stages. Freud believed that unconscious conflicts are located in the process of psychosexual development.e. anal. is low and cross-situational consistency is not very high. phallic.. Rogers emphasised on the relationship between what we feel we are (the real self). During the phallic stage the male child develops the Oedipus complex and the female child experiences Electra complex. When these two are similar. It provides dependable information about other individuals needed for a variety of purposes including research. . and interdependent. The Freudian concepts are criticised for lack of scientific support. The Humanistic approach is rooted in two assumptions i. Thus dhatus and humours present in the body are linked to temperament and behaviour. and superego. the situation is congruent and a person is fully functioning. However.

The projections are located in the association. halo effect. F. 2. T. own words. choose. frustrates. What is the trait approach to personality? 5. F. situational test 1. How do the Post-Freudians differ from Freud? 7. F. 8. hunches. T. 4. 7. construction. desires. T. 3. 10. 7. 3. content. the responses will be the projections or reflections of his or her feelings. minimum error and maximum accuracy. 10.T. determine. Personality assessment. 3. 2. The frequently used projective test include Rorschach Inkblots. positive self regard. validity check . What are the main observational ways to assess personality? 9. reality. Cattell’s Sixteen Factors Personality Inventory (16 PF) is a forced choice test in which the examinee has to respond to a specific situation by choosing from among given alternatives. T. accepted. 4. underlying motivations. Electra complex. 7. 6. T. 4. 8. T. In addition to the 16 basic scales that measure the source traits of personality. 6. observer. 9. 7. 4. Oedipus complex. 10. 1. empirically developed test III : IV : V : VI : VII : VIII: . Self-actualisation. F. T. It has versions suitable for samples from high school students to adults. unconscious. goal 5. 5. 6. anxiety. 8. They are of various types and use different format of verbal items. 6. emotionally unstable. 6. 2. self related. basically good. impressions. journey. extraversion. original. 7. displacement. arrangement. 3. latent. Sentence Completion Test. interpretation. 9. unfairly biased. Hathaway and McKinley developed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for the purpose of psychiatric diagnosis in 1030s. 9. What are the structured personality tests? What are the two most widely used tests? 10. quantitative. popular vs. F. T. 4. Its recent revision MMPI– 2 has 10 sub-scales. readiness to perceive. vocational exploration.. 1. 4. It is popular in career guidance. F. clinical diagnosis. and occupational testing. What is the humanistic approach to personality? What did Maslow mean by self-actualisation? 8. deeply felt 1. selection. 6. 4. and Draw-a-Person Test. not the projections. 2. needs etc. 5. What is personality? What are the main approaches for its study? 4. 5. F. They provide objective and quantitative assessment of personality.T. 1. 2. 4. 6. ambiguous. F . 5. 6. 2. Psychotism. In subsequent research this test has proved useful in detecting psychopathology. What is Freud’s threefold conception of personality? What functions do they serve? 6. 1. 8. super-ego. Thematic Apperception Test. normal people. F. repression. The structured measures of personality include a number of self-report measures that are developed psychometrically. Review Questions 1. 3. 7. 2. profound. 1. T. T. Roenzwieg’s Picture Frustration test. What is delay of gratification? Why the ability to cope with it is important for adult development? 3. the protagonist. 8. Most of them are based on specific theories of personality. 3. 5. emotionally stable. and expression made by the examinee. 3. 3. 9.Self and Personality l 61 l l l Projective techniques are based on the assumption that when a person is forced to impose meaning on an ambiguous stimulus. 2. T. 5. What is self? What is the Indian notion of self? 2. rationalisation. T. 5. completion.T. T. manifest. sorting. 9. objective. T. there are four second order indices. What are the two projective tests that are famous? How are they administered and interpreted? ANSWERS I II : : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. nomination. 7. F.

and Risk Taking Conformity. Social Loafing. Ä understand the functions. types. and formation of groups Ä Influence of groups on individual’s behaviours Ä Processes of conformity. and Ä define leadership and explain its styles and functions. compliance. Ä know how individual behaviours are shaped by group influences. Compliance and Obedience Experimental Demonstration of Conformity (Box 3.5) Cooperation and Competition Leadership: Nature and Functions What makes a Leader? The Functions of Leaders. Leadership Styles: How Leaders Operate Ä Nature.2) Types of Group Primary-Secondary Groups.1) Groupthink : Adverse Effects of Cohesiveness (Box 3. and styles of leadership BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä appreciate the nature and importance of groups.4) Obedience: Milgram’s Experiment (Box 3. Ä differentiate between various types of groups. and obedience Ä Nature. In group-Out group Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour Social Facilitation. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .62 Introduction to Psychology 3 THIS SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND GROUP PROCESSES CHAPTER COVERS CONTENTS Introduction Nature and Formation of Groups What is a Group? Functions of a Group Factors Facilitating Group Formation Understanding Group Structure through Sociometry (Box 3. Formal-Informal Groups. and formation of groups. functions.3) Minority Influence (Box 3.

– Tom Peters . and in your classroom. such as: two friends talking to each other. and behave in groups. a shopkeeper talking to a customer. therefore. If you closely analyse these situations. with your parents. why certain individuals become leaders. Interaction with the group members can be of different kinds. and how leaders influence the behaviours of group members. you will find wide differences in your own behaviours in these settings. are shaped by the various kinds of groups with whom we interact. or a group of people attending a lecture. Such interactions. Also. A newborn baby needs the care and warmth of its mother and in its subsequent development too. also called social interaction. a teacher talking to a class of students. provide us support by shaping and strengthening our ideas and views. Leaders don’t create followers. a political leader addressing a gathering of people. how our performance is influenced by working with others or by the mere presence of others. In this chapter you will read about the nature of group. groups are necessary for survival and development of human beings. and also by serving as a source of information. therefore. It is. it is important to understand the nature of groups: what they are and how they influence the individual behaviour. influence one-another. our behaviour will be affected to a great extent by the nature of the group.Social Influence and Group Processes 63 INTRODUCTION Imagine yourself present in three situations: in the company of your friends in the market. The group serves as a framework against which one can compare one’s own behaviour and thought. To a large extent we. the support from the family and other groups continue to play an important role. In all these group situations. You will notice that your thoughts and behaviours are to a large extent shaped by the interaction and contacts with other persons. they create more leaders. how group can affect decision-making. important to know how people deal with others. To understand human behaviour with respect to the social surroundings.

music). l Individuals adhere to the group norms. ACTIVITY 3. This brings us to the question: why do we join groups? As mentioned earlier. Thus. and perceive that they are Functions of a Group You must have realised that every person belongs to a number of groups at any given time. the main characteristics of a group are as follows: l Individuals must interact with each other. as in the case of husband and wife. l The members of a group have common motives and goals. All members work towards the same goal. which we cannot do alone. and giving and receiving attention and affection. clubs (theatre. and has a set of norms that regulate their behaviours. l Groups fulfil our need for security and safety. has a structured set of role relationships among its members.1 Understanding The Nature of a Group Identify the groups of which you are a member. l Interactions among the individuals in a group must be structured in some manner. either working towards a given goal or away from certain threats. Thus. This means that the functions performed by each member are same every time the group meets. A two-person group is called a dyad. but can only be called a physical assembly of people or a mere collection of people. role. All of these . Thus. how many individuals are required for the emergence of a group? Even two individuals may develop an organised mode of relationship. being a part or member of a group may help an individual in the following ways: l Groups satisfy important psychological or social needs of individuals such as attaining a sense of belongingness. The expected modes of behaviour guide the functions of a group and its members. l Group membership helps to establish a positive social identity and self-concept. While all these conditions are necessary for describing a group. Thus. physical proximity alone does not make a group. and expectation towards each other. A group is an organised system of two or more persons who are interrelated to perform a function. The roles to be carried out by each member of the group are specified in advance. a group consists of two or more interacting persons who share common goals.64 Introduction to Psychology NATURE AND FORMATION OF GROUPS What is a Group? part of a group. l Groups help in achieving such goals which cannot be attained individually. According to the definition. and informal groups consisting of neighbours or others. which influence the formation of groups. religious groups. cricket or football team. a young boy or a girl may be a member of student associations. In such situations people are together but do not have defined status. l Group membership provides us knowledge and information and broadens our view. l Individuals must be interdependent – what one is doing must have some consequence for the other. Group functions as a unitary system. Being with people gives a sense of protection from real or imagined enemy. Do people standing in a queue waiting to catch a bus or watching a cricket match in the stadium constitute a group? These people may share certain common characteristics. or from other potential hazards. These norms tell how individuals should behave in relation to others in the group and in other matters of importance. Factors Facilitating Group Formation There are a number of factors. We are often able to do certain jobs with the help of others. How do the above–mentioned conditions apply to your group? What are the salient features of these groups? How are they different from other groups? Discuss your observations with classmates. it is important to know that groups vary depending on the time spent together by the member. art. either directly or indirectly. are interdependent. Being a member of prestigious groups enhances the individual’s self-concept.

which may facilitate goal attainment. commuters in trains may form a group. Gradually. 2. which influence the formation of groups. repeated encounters with the same set of individuals give a chance to discover similarity in their interest. accessories or symbols (flags) to show a group’s distinctiveness from others. by wearing similar clothes (school uniform).1 people prefer consistency and like the relationships that are consistent and balanced. as they become familiar with the new situation. For instance. teams. A sociogram representing the sociometric choices of the people in a group is shown in Fig.Social Influence and Group Processes 65 assume that interaction is basic to group formation. Thus. F-H). Common Goals : When a number of people have common objectives or goals. 3. Proximity : Individuals with similar background. Therefore. It is always reassuring and rewarding to know that people agree with you or have similar values. For instance. 3. each member of a group may be asked to tell about “A person with whom he or she would like to work”. 1. E and G and (2) I. One possible explanation is that BOX 3. All the group members nominate some group member in response to it. J Sociometry (social measurement) was introduced by J. group structure can be studied with the help of a sociogram. values and opinions.e. it seems sensible to like that person. Another reason why we like similar persons is that they reinforce and validate our opinions and values. if we are very similar to another person. Similarity : It has been observed that more the similarity in the attitudes of two persons. Usually. These are important determiners of liking for other persons. Such goals may be externally set leading to the creation or formation of groups with specified people. ways of behaving etc. they tend to get together and form a group. F. they become more positively disposed toward each other. J. dislikes. There are many ways to analyse sociometric data. For example. C. He has the highest popularity status followed by C and F.L. which can work towards facilitating their travel in the trains. There is a cleavage in a group resulting in two subgroups. F-J. Your best friend or the persons you like to sit with in the class would have quite similar ideas. Being exposed to someone or something several times may lead towards the development of greater liking for that person which increases the likelihood of spending more time together or the need to be together. It is used to understand the liking of group members for each other. Such similarities are highlighted at times. living in the same complex and going to the same school may form groups on the basis of proximity. H. there is a feeling of strangeness and they may initially react indifferently or negatively. when people are put in new situations or conditions. For example.. Moreno in early 1930s.1 A Sociogram based on the choices made by hypothetical group of ten persons . He has received maximum number of choices.3. There are no choice lines connecting these two sets of individuals. This similarity leads to the formation of groups. likes. B. D. A and I are isolates. (1) A. Three members i. D.1 G C F E B A D H I Fig. Let us analyse the conditions. UNDERSTANDING GROUP STRUCTURE THROUGH SOCIOMETRY You can see that person G is a star. The responses thus obtained are used to prepare a sociogram. there is greater likelihood that they would form a group. We also find mutual choices (B-C.

Members of a group have common motives and goals. (b) attraction of the individual members towards the activities and functions of the group. if you make efforts to become a member of a school team. In a group. It works as a source of motivation and morale of the group. The factors influencing cohesiveness are as follows: l Attractiveness : It includes dimensions of individual attraction to a group. higher would be attraction of members towards the group. Usually group cohesiveness increases by the attractions that a group provides and decreases by the costs a group imposes. At times. war. At times. violence. More the effort made for joining the group. this leads to inadequate decisions. Natural calamities such as earthquake. l Group Belongingness : It implies the emotional attachment among the group members. However. a structure defining the role and status. floods. the chances are that you would continue to remain in the team rather than leave it. Students taking the Board Examinations in Delhi would be referred to as a group. etc. particularly when people find that no alternative sources for rewards are present. People sharing same opinions and values are likely to form groups. The study of group structure is usually done with the help of sociometry (see for details Box 3. such as (a) attraction of the members to each other. The term ‘group’ refers to an organised system of two or more individuals. they prefer to remain associated with the group. Groups have common goals of its members. Cohesive groups are difficult to enter and leave than non-cohesive groups. There can be a strong bondage among the members or weak relationship. and certain norms and LEARNING CHECKS I 1. Being part of the group enhances prestige of the person and provides rewards.66 Introduction to Psychology task forces. T/F . T/F 3. The costs involved in group membership are small. Group cohesiveness leads to uniformity in the attitude of group members. The interpersonal ties between group members lead to cohesiveness. Recapitulation Social interaction helps us understand others and ourselves. Cohesiveness tells the ‘affect structure’ of a group. T/F 2. quizzes.. Norms guide the behaviour of group members. T/F 4. T/F 5. Cohesive groups have rigid structures. l Amount of Effort : It is seen that the amount of effort required to gain entry into the group influences group cohesiveness. the costs of being in a group may enhance cohesiveness if a member is committed to the group. Group Cohesiveness : Cohesiveness characterises the degree of “we” feeling present in a group. For example. in which one group is compared to another creates a ‘we’ feeling among the team members and develops high level of cohesiveness. Such a situation is found in the phenomenon of group think described in Box 3.1).2. it is important to know how individuals participate in groups. 4. This reduces the chances of leaving the group and increases cohesiveness. etc. l External Threats and Severe Competition: It has been observed that group cohesiveness increases in face of threats from outside the group such as loss of privileges. a group becomes more cohesive when its members like each other. or (c) the extent to which the individual is attracted to the group as a means of satisfying his/her own needs. T/F 6. To understand human behaviour. In brief. some people are much liked while some are disliked. if the group members have incurred high costs and now find that they cannot get out of it. Proximity is a necessary condition for group formation. political leaders do use the threat of war to generate national cohesiveness. committees and work groups are sometimes formed to meet specific objectives. It is observed that greater the cohesiveness of a group. also bring people together. clearer is its boundaries and sharper the distinction between members and nonmembers. Even competition with others such as in sports. Finally.

cohesive groups that are isolated from outsiders. Groups may differ in terms of the functions performed or the manner in which they are organised. TYPES OF GROUP As we have seen. No one expresses dissenting opinions because each person believes it would undermine the cohesion of the group and would be unpopular. amount of effort. the groups are categorised in the following types: 1. coastal. Family. Broadly. 2. Primary groups are more central to individual’s functioning . Formal and Informal Groups. and tends to ignore or minimise cues from the real world that suggest danger to its plan. Each member believes that all members agree upon a particular decision or policy. that have no tradition of considering alternatives. etc. son and his cricket team. Social groups can be characterised in many ways based on different dimensions such as: (i) size (group of two persons (dyad) to millions of citizens of a country). etc. (iii) geographical distribution (plains. Studies have values. which guide the activities of its members. and common goals. You have read earlier that individuals may enter into groups for different purposes. In other words. husband and his co-workers. which are usually given to the individual. which an individual joins by choice. The affiliation to different types of groups may be transitory or permanent. tribal. Some ways to counteract or prevent group think are: encouraging and rewarding critical thinking and even disagreement among group members. In order to preserve the group’s internal harmony and collective wellbeing. an individual may belong to different kinds of groups. 3. a group may emerge whenever two or more persons are involved in a common activity and there is interaction among the individuals. and belongingness. Thus. However. Primary groups are characterised by intimate. family is a primary group whereas a political party is a secondary group.2 GROUPTHINK : ADVERSE EFFECTS OF COHESIVENESS shown that such a group has an exaggerated sense of its own power to control events. similarity. Primary and Secondary Groups. A group. in which a cohesive group allows its concerns for unanimity “override the motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action”. Cohesiveness depends on attractiveness. (ii) permanence (lasting for few minutes to a relatively longer duration). For example. teamwork in groups leads to beneficial results. cultural interests. and that face a decision with high costs or failure. Generally. playmates. face-to-face interaction. such as a family. A brief description of these groups is given below: Primary and Secondary Groups Primary groups are pre-existing formations. The groups we belong to changes or may take various forms during the course of their existence. hills. wife and her colleagues. inviting outside experts to evaluate the group’s decision and encouraging members to seek feedback from trusted others. It is the tendency of decision-makers to make irrational and uncritical decisions. Janis discovered a process named groupthink. and neighbours are examples of primary groups.) and (iv) determinants (blood relationships. Irving Janis suggests that cohesion can interfere with effective leadership and can lead to disastrous decisions. group should be encouraged to present alternative courses of action.In-group and Out-group. Some of the factors facilitating group formation are: proximity. external threats. it becomes increasingly out of touch with reality. and so on. Consequently. whereas secondary groups are the ones. daughter and her basket-ball team. Its members have close physical proximity and share warm emotional bonds. Groupthink is characterised by the appearance of consensus or unanimous agreement within a group.Social Influence and Group Processes 67 BOX 3. Groupthink is likely to occur in socially homogenous. the number of alternatives considered by the group goes down.). may further be subdivided into other groups for various purposes and its members may be part of other groups as well. Group cohesiveness ensures continued functioning and effectiveness of the groups. husband-wife.

and admirable traits. formal LEARNING CHECKS II 1. T/F . occupation. although in many formal groups (such as military or bureaucracy) informal decision making processes may exist as parallel mechanisms. It is observed that large groups by nature are ordinarily secondary groups. usually.g. Formal and Informal groups differ in terms of the relationship among the members. Dividing people into “us” and “them” creates contrasting feelings and beliefs for members of one’s ingroup and members of other outgroups. they are instrumental in forming the social nature. lunch) than through the formal channels of communications. Formal groups are generally secondary groups.68 Introduction to Psychology and. having desirable behaviour. and the personality of individuals. Primary groups like family are informal groups. and a group of scientists to be Out-group. while only small groups tend to have the properties of primary groups. may be an Outgroup in another. T/F 2. As individuals identify with a specific group. less frequent. However. an artist will consider a group of artists to be In-group. T/F 4. The students belonging to a particular school (In-group) perceive students of other schools (Out-group) differently. With changes in size and type of relationship. However. Such distinctions are based on race. In contrast. Social organisations have distinctive symbols. whereas for a scientist. age. Perceptions of in-group and out-group affect our feelings and behaviours.. In-group and Out-group People generally think of the social world in terms of categories such as – they and we. T/F 3. changes in the society have resulted in wider acceptance of diversity including ethnic and cultural variations and have blurred the In-group and Out-group demarcations in many areas of our social functioning. The members of the outgroups are often perceived negatively compared to the ingroup members. Formal and Informal Groups These groups differ in the degree to which the functions of the group are stated explicitly and formally. Such perceptions contribute to the self-esteem of the person and may lead to biases. or social work club. as in an office organisation. values and ideals of the individuals during early stages of development. or removed in space or time (e. what may be In-group in one culture or subculture. They have rigidly stated functions and the roles of the members are well defined or imposed. Perception of In-groups and Outgroups affects social life. Each one feels somewhat superior to the other. and prejudices against Out-group members. Members of primary groups usually feel more comfortable to take decisions in informal settings (like tea time. The functions of a formal group are explicitly stated. Groups differ with regard to their function and organisation. Persons in the ingroup are generally viewed favourably. Formal groups have a chain of command for decision-making. T/F 5. dress or signs. political party or one’s nation). religion. indirect. secondary groups are those where relations among members are more impersonal. artists would constitute an Out-group and scientists an Ingroup. They view other persons as belonging either to their own group (usually called the ingroup) or to another group (the outgroup). The roles to be performed by group members are stated in explicit and formal manner (as in a job or in military service). groups need to have rigidly defined roles and status difference. Recapitulation Groups have been classified in many ways like: primary and secondary groups. and many other features. Primary groups have close intimate interaction. a hobby group. feelings of loyalty and commitment to one’s own group makes them perceive their group as superior to other groups. The members usually come together for a common goal and work according to the agreed rules. For example.

Social Facilitation Think of the situations when you are running alone trying to compete with your own standard. Floyd H. and then makes more mistakes. We all are affected in different ways by other people. over learned behaviours. However.Social Influence and Group Processes 69 and informal groups. automatic. People sometimes tend to make greater number of errors in the presence of others. Were you more tense or excited? In general. or when you are running a race competing with others. this is not true in all cases neither for all individuals. which enhances performance. Social Loafing Suppose you and your class-fellows were asked to shift a heavy table to the next room. Try to recall how you had felt when you were on stage in front of the school assembly or audience. All of you try to push the table. Various types of groups influence behaviour and shape the pattern of interaction of individuals and society. In one study. Our behaviours are affected by the nature of groups and by our perception of such groups. This positive effect on performance due to the presence of others is known as Social-Facilitation. for example. while some others would only appear to be helping. On complex tasks. when a performer makes mistakes and assumes a negative reaction. INFLUENCE OF GROUP ON INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR You must have noticed that people perform a large number of tasks with the co-operation of others or at least in their presence. the social facilitation stems from evaluation apprehension–concerns over being judged by others (which is often arousing).. In general. especially on simple tasks. What impact does the presence of others has on our performance? We will discuss in this section the manner in which working with others affects our performance. Do you know that even the mere presence of the other person affects our behaviour? It is a common observation that we tend to eat more when in a group than when we are alone. (iii) Another reason contributing to social facilitation is the concern over self-presentation–looking or performing well in front of others. and not only due to the mere presence of others. Facilitation effect is found in case of simple. A few persons will be putting in all their efforts. or pretending to do more than they really are. such as running. The fear of negative evaluation can arouse people to do well. Individual behaviour is ‘facilitated’ in several ways while performing in the presence of others. Stutterers. Do you think all the people will be putting equal effort? May be or may not be. and when they were doing the same in the presence of others. it is observed that performance is facilitated in the presence of others. (ii) The second reason for social facilitation is apprehension of evaluation or concern of being judged by others. people’s performance is adversely affected by others’ presence. and In-groups and Outgroups. and is not observed for complex tasks. Allport conducted a series of studies in which the performance of individuals was compared on a variety of tasks when they performed alone. or from concerns over self-presentation–looking good in front of others. In which situation will you run faster? Probably you will run faster when you are competing with others. the participants were asked to write down on paper as many associations for the given words as they could think of. stutter more when reading a passage aloud in front of an audience than when they do the same alone. Why does the presence of others sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs performance? There are different reasons for this type of behaviour. etc. copying text. Sometimes. The participants were allowed to work alone and in the presence of two other persons. Such adverse effects on performance due to others’ presence are called “Social Inhibition”. This pattern is commonly observed when a group is required . The results showed that participants produced more associations when working in the presence of other people than when working alone. (i) The presence of others seems to energise people or generate feelings of increased arousal. she/he gets flustered. which is often arousing.

Studies have revealed that social loafing may occur due to several reasons: (i) group members may feel less responsible for the task being performed and exert less effort. that someone in the group would have the skills to solve the problem and thereby reach better decisions than the individuals. Later these were discussed in a group after which the group gave its decision. and (iii) when they find the task monotonous particularly in such situations where they work with people whom they do not know well or do not respect. four or six. doing less than their share. Similarly. as a class you might have done it several times. The groups lead to polarisation of the position taken in decisionmaking. (ii) motivation of members may decrease because they realise that their contributions cannot be evaluated on individual basis – so why work hard. Is this true? Do groups actually approach and solve problems more effectively and accurately than individuals making decisions alone? Contrary to the popular belief. It is generally believed that groups. The standard method for studying this effect consists of two steps. However. some persons work hard while the others pretend to be working. Decisions like choosing sports team. and are required to discuss and make group decisions on the same problems. political actions. It was observed that the magnitude of the sound made by each person decreased sharply as the group size increased. government policies. . decisionmaking involves combining and integrating the available information in order to choose one course of action out of the several available ones. enforcing laws. In an experiment. by pooling the knowledge and expertise of their members. This shows that groups make decisions that are more risky (or non risky) than the individuals do. Such effects are referred to as social loafing – reductions in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively in a group compared to when they work individually. It has been observed that after discussing the alternatives with other group members. They are then placed in a group situation. and (v) by strengthening group cohesiveness which increases the concern for group outcomes. A number of studies have demonstrated that groups have a tendency to take greater risks than individuals do. participants were asked to read a series of problems and make choices among the recommendations that differed in the degree of the risk of failure they carried. students in a group may take the risk of bunking classes. In other words. (iv) making people feel that their contribution to the task is unique. either alone or in groups of two. In an interesting experiment. research has shown that groups are actually more likely to adopt extreme positions than individuals making decisions alone. In case of complicated problems. Latane and his associates asked groups of male students to clap or cheer as loudly as possible at specific times. the chance is greater. each participant put less effort as the group size increased. How many times you alone have gathered courage to ask the teacher for a free period? Maybe never. On such tasks. (ii) by increasing group members’ commitment to successful task performance (pressures towards working hard). Risk Taking Groups perform a variety of tasks including decision-making. As you know. Social loafing is a quite common phenomenon. the group decisions were more polarised than the decision of the individual group members before the discussion. (iii) increasing the apparent importance or value of a task. Initially the participants made decisions on their own. and making educational and career choices are some examples. and less than what they might do if they were working alone.70 Introduction to Psychology to make efforts together for completing a task. which normally as individuals they may not. Social loafing can be reduced by: (i) making the effort of each person identifiable. Today most of the decisions are taken by groups. A group of participants is first asked to make individual decisions on a series of problems in which it is possible to take greater or lesser risk. provide opportunities for sharing different viewpoints.

who are the best source of information about many social conventions. people conform because deviation from the group may lead to rejection or at least. This creates a conflict within the group (see Box 3. Attempts at social influence are efforts made by others to change our attitudes. Thus. and friends. People conform in several ways: adhering to traffic conventions while driving. Conformity essentially involves yielding to group pressures. following a time schedule. This section describes three important group processes such as conformity. Thus. a person may refuse to help another person because the group members have declared him or her as an undesirable person. Such processes of influence go on throughout our social life. On other occasions. and the information dependence leads to conformity. Thus. i. which otherwise we might not have done. For example. In reality. but in certain conditions. you will realise that social influence is a part of our life. The pressure for conformity may also lead to prevention of action.Social Influence and Group Processes 71 CONFORMITY. Others may try to influence you by flattery or by threats also. we look for the opinions and behaviours of people who are similar to us before deciding what to do. Conformity takes place because of informational influence (influence that results from accepting evidence rather than reality). performing a ritualistic act on entering a place of worship. teachers. frequently create one or the other kind of social influence. we look around at other people to see what to do and follow ..4). COMPLIANCE AND OBEDIENCE You have read earlier about social facilitation (and inhibition) which is the simplest form of social influence. to make you think. magazines. requests from parents. You have read earlier that social influence plays a key role in group decision making. are all ways of conforming. advertisements in newspapers. People provide information about the world. thereby creating a doubt on the correctness of the majority’s viewpoint. feel and act in ways they want. nonacceptance of some form of punishment. or making attempts towards going along with society’s expectations about how one should behave in various situations are all examples of conformity. New group members learn about its customs by observing the actions of other group members. we defy their influence and may even influence them to adopt our viewpoints.e. This occurs when the minority takes a firm and uncompromising stand. a student may join his/her classmates to watch a cricket match.3. Throughout the day you may encounter a number of incidents when others have tried to influence you in different ways. We learn by observing people. Second. An experimental study demonstrating conformity is given in Box 3. The pressures from the group may be explicit or implicit. perceptions or behaviours. In fact. conformity is a type of social influence in which individuals change their behaviour or belief to correspond more closely to the behaviour of others in the group. Try to think of the ways in which different people try to influence you from morning till night. and obedience. This kind of rational conformity can be thought of as learning about the world from the actions of others. One is that people conform when they are not sure of themselves and because they feel that. In such cases. Conformity may also occur because of normative influence (influence based on a person’s desire to be accepted or admired by others). the conformity response under group pressure may take the form of overt behaviour. In some forms of social influence what others do matter a lot and we do things of being influenced by others. Conformity Going to the school in uniform. beliefs. compliance. A number of explanations have been given for conformity behaviour. when attending a wedding (of a different community) where rituals are unfamiliar. in ambiguous situations where we do not know what is “right”. the information provided by others is the “right and most important information”. adhering to the rules of the game in playground. or following school norms. The radio and television commercials. It is generally observed that the group majority determines the final decision. a minority may be more influential.

In addition. This also serves as a basis for gaining compliance. people who do not conform at times become the target of social disapproval.g.2 Task Utilised in Conformity Study Asch asked the participants to respond to a series of simple perceptual problems such as the one shown in Fig 3. conform. Some of these are briefly described below. results in greater compliance. For example. The participants had to indicate which of the three comparison lines matched the standard line in length. the accomplices gave wrong answers. Compliance is a form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another. eye contact. therefore. rare or difficult are generally viewed as more valuable than those. A number of experiments in laboratory setting have demonstrated that individuals can be influenced by the group members to conform.e.. i. Also. Scarcity : Things that are viewed as scarce. A B C D Fig.3. doing favours. You have also read that people tend to conform to the judgements of others even though there is no external pressure to do so. To avoid the possibility of social ridicule. using positive non-verbal cues (e. Commitment/Consistency : Once we commit to an action or take a stand we tend to comply with requests for behaviours that are consistent with that stand. only one of which was of the same length as the standard line. This demonstrates the influence of group behaviour on the behaviour of an individual. people do not deviate from consensus and. l Friendship/liking : We willingly comply to requests from friends or from people l l we like than those we do not like or those who are strangers. This shows that unspoken pressure has powerful influence on the behaviour of people.2. known as the critical trials (twelve out of the eighteen problems). they stated their answers before the participant responded. Third. door salesmen often use this strategy making people comply by answering a small non-committal question (like naming the brand used by them) and then making them accept a greater demand (such as buying a new brand or accepting special offer on a particular brand).72 Introduction to Psychology BOX 3. all were accomplices of the experimenter. This tactic is often used by employers – . It has been found that increasing others’ liking for us by improving one’s appearance. It was observed that most of the participants in Asch’s study conformed to the wrong judgements given by the majority. Several other persons (usually six to eight) were also present during the session. etc.3 EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF CONFORMITY line ‘A’ and three other lines of different length. The Control group while judging alone made no errors. On certain occasions. There are many techniques. the target person was in a situation on critical trials where the correct answer would be the opposite of that given by the majority. which are readily available. agreeing with significant people. people meet their needs to be liked and accepted by others. It consisted of one standard them. by “going along” with people or by behaving like others. etc. they all chose the wrong line as a match for the standard line. but unknown to the real participant.. A classic experiment by Solomon Asch has shown that group pressure can induce conformity of judgement in an individual. giving gifts. Compliance Have you ever thought how people make you do certain things they want to be done by you? Alternatively how do you make people do things for you? Each one of us must be using different techniques for gaining compliance – for inducing others to say ‘yes’ to your requests. which are used for gaining compliance. Thus. smiling. showing interest in them.).

If a person has the power over another. are consistent in opposing the majority opinions 2. Obedience occurs when people obey commands or orders from others to do something.). this is not always the case. A number of social movements began with small numbers of people who challenged the existing assumptions of the majority. This is an effective way of gaining compliance.g. There are examples of people who were in minority but have influenced the majority. In school. Therefore. authority commands for destructive obedience are gradually increased from lesser to greater levels of violence and initial obedience binds . Further. (See Box 3. Obedience The tendency to agree to requests from persons who have authority. How do you feel now about your act? Discuss in class with the teacher. uniforms.2 Understanding Obedience to Authority Think of one situation when obedience to an authority figure had made you follow harsh directions. are consistent with the l l by not readily agreeing (hard to get) to give the job and thereby increasing their worth to the potential employee. You might have helped your classmates keeping in mind that they too had helped you in the time of need. He experimentally demonstrated that when the minority is consistent it causes the participants to change their overt responses as well as the way they look at the stimulus situation. demotions. obedience can be demanded. to harm an innocent person if ordered by someone in authority. you often agree to the requests from head boy or head girl. They remain in minority and protest the decisions taken by the group to which they belong. a French social psychologist has shown that under certain circumstances the minority exerts greater influences. titles) which people find difficult to resist. also underlies the most direct and explicit social influence called obedience. We often come across people who dissent from the views held by the group to which they belong.5 for an interesting experiment by Stanley Milgram). negative sanctions.4 MINORITY INFLUENCE current social context. It is important to know why do such cases of destructive obedience occur. Milgram’s studies seem to suggest that the ordinary people are willing. Influence of the minority occur when people in the minority 1. The majority may disregard their views. It has been found that obedience to authority relieves the individual of responsibility for his/her action. Reciprocity : We generally comply more with a request from someone who has previously provided a favour than from someone who has not. The obedience phenomenon demonstrated by Milgram can be viewed as an instance of the more general human tendency to conform to the group norms when under social pressure. the willingness of The Chinese troops to fire on the unarmed civilians during Tiananmen Square in 1989). Obligation to return others’ favour makes us comply. may be with some reluctance. such a person usually has the means to enforce his/her orders (e. Social psychological experiments provide evidence for occurrence of such effects. Serge Mosocovici. teachers and principal. obedience to the commands of the person who has authority can be expected but often persons lacking in such power can also induce submissiveness in others. Authority : People usually comply with requests from someone who is an authority figure – or looks like one. This also shows how in real life the group influence can lead to acts of violence against innocent people (for example. Authority usually is enforced with symbols of status (e.Social Influence and Group Processes 73 BOX 3. do not appear as rigid and dogmatic. fines.g. 3. Obedience is obtained through power that an authority figure possesses. However. What makes people yield to this powerful form of social influence? ACTIVITY 3.

g. The learner had to learn a list of associations and the teacher was to present the stimuli. In another instance. characterise cooperative goals (e. implies I am the expert and I know that the learner will not be harmed so the shocks can be administered. Finally. police may first be ordered to arrest. The way shared goals are defined is important for the structure of the group. when the experimenter left the place of experiment and another participant ordered the subjects to continue giving the shocks. Every time the shock was given to the learner. It was found that 90 percent of the teachers joined this group and refused to obey the experimenter. that the people obeying orders have little time for reflection. if you ask them to demonstrate how quickly the corks can be pulled out of the bottle. If you ask them to compete.74 Introduction to Psychology BOX 3. During the experiment. it was observed. relay race).. However. They were grouped into pairs and one was the “teacher” and the other the “learner”. If this person himself/herself tried to administer the shock. Usually situations where team effort is needed. not all members many commit to the same extent. l Saying. they will probably organise themselves and pull the corks one by one in quick succession. Technically the behaviour that yields maximal joint profit for all the parties involved is called cooperation. In reality. record answers and administer shocks of increasing intensity to the learner for every incorrect response. sometimes events involving destructive obedience move so quickly. no shock was given to the learners. There is interdependence in goal attainment. which are defined in such a way that each individual can attain his goal if other members also attain their goals. (In reality. acting their role).5 OBEDIENCE : MILGRAM’S EXPERIMENT shocks. he or she shouted to stop giving him/her the shocks. l When there is a convincing rationale for giving shock on another person. the learner was in a cubicle and the communication between the learner and the teacher was over the intercom. “Please continue” the teacher would continue giving the shocks. that they generally refused. Milgram conducted an experiment on obedience in which participants from varied socio-economic and educational levels participated. you will find that they will all try to pull the five corks simultaneously and get all of them jammed at the neck of the bottle. The competitive goals involve situations where all members of the group aspire. Milgram brought the teachers physically closer to the learners receiving the the followers to commitment. However. but the goals are defined in such a manner that each member can attain his or . In contrast. The teachers believed that they were administering shock to the ‘learners’. Ask your five friends to hold each of the strings. This shows the role of cooperation and competition within a group. COOPERATION AND COMPETITION Tie five small corks to five long strings and lower each of the corks down the neck of a bottle. threaten the demonstrators and gradually they maybe asked to beat. “Please continue”. no shock was administered since all learners were confederates. Such implied assurance was an important determinant of the subject’s attempts to continue giving the shocks. The goals may be cooperative or competitive. In reality. About 65% of Milgram’s participants continued to obey the experimenter. so as to be the first one to pull the cork out. torture or even shoot at the unarmed people. even when the teacher was asked to forcibly push the learner’s hand on the shock device – 35 per cent did so. the other teacher tried to stop him. In order to reduce the likelihood that the participants would deliver the shock. Thus cooperative goal are those. the learners were experimental confederates. The teacher would turn to the experimenter for instruction and if the experimenter said. While shared goals are usually adopted by the members of a group. the behaviour that yielded maximal relative gain is labelled competition. For example. the subjects continued to participate in spite of the other person being in pain. Later these participants were paired with two other pairs who did not obey the experimenter and had discontinued to deliver the shocks. The findings of Milgram’s experiment reveal that– l The Presence of authority alone is not as critical as the presence of expert authority.

honesty . Normative influence is based on the desire to be ____________ by others. competition between two or more groups tends to increase cohesiveness within a group. There is only one winner and the others will have to remain unsatisfied. They may become more (or less) risky than as individuals. Social facilitation makes people perform better in the presence of other people than when alone. Although competition among individual members within a group. It allows substituting activities for each other. It involves yielding to orders from another person usually with power and authority. commitment/consistency. In a cooperative situation. assumes that leadership is a general attitude that gives an individual the ability to lead in all situations. you will notice that leaders differ from ordinary people in various aspects. Social loafing refers to the reduction in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively in a group compared to a situation when they work individually. 4. 2. Cooperative goals. individuals are more willing to accept each other’s views and ideas since each individual is considered as helping the other. Groups have shown to influence the decisions of individual members. which are associated with the tendency to lead. 5. Influence that results from accepting group behaviour as correct behaviour is ________________________________. reciprocity. Jawaharlal Nehru. Social facilitation effect refers to improvement in performance occurring due to the ____________ of people. Compliance involves efforts to change the behaviour of others. since each contributes to the other’s progress toward the goal. scarcity. LEADERSHIP: NATURE AND FUNCTIONS What Makes a Leader? If you study the life history of great leaders such as Alexander the Great. since the activity of each member is seen as contributing towards fulfilling the group goals. Conformity occurs when people change their attitudes and behaviour to comply with expectations about how they should behave in various social situations. Mahatma Gandhi. Finally. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. we have seen how cooperation and competition affect group members. self-confidence. Subhash Chandra Bose and many others. The basic principles underlying compliance are: friendship/liking. It may be noted that organised groups. therefore. called Trait Theory. Recapitulation We have seen that the mere presence of people affects our behaviour. Obedience is the most direct form of social behaviour.Social Influence and Group Processes 75 her goal only if others do not attain the goal. which adopt super ordinate cooperative goals may tolerate certain degree of competition without destroying the overall organisation of the group. Such observations lead to formulation of a view of leadership known as the Great Man Theory. It assumes that leaders are unique or have unique background that makes them different from followers. flexibility. contribute directly to the emergence of mutually interrelated roles. such as: drive. Abraham Lincoln. creativity. 3. Power accrues to persons from various sources so that they can make other people behave or do things. Leaders have certain traits. ____________ is change in behaviour or belief to correspond more closely to the behaviour of others in the group. tends to produce disharmony of conflict that threatens the organisation of the group. self-confidence. which they may not otherwise do. Conformity that results from external rewards or punishments is ______________________. Studies have shown that cooperative goals increase interpersonal relations among the members of a group. The second approach. We tend to conform because of two basic social motives: need to be liked by others whose approval we desire (normative social influence) and the need to be right in our judgements or action (informational social influence). It has been observed that groups make decisions that are polarised. and authority.

when some students assign work to others or those who volunteer for some work and others who do as they are asked to. Development of such a hierarchy involves spreading or delegation of leadership. influences the activities of other members. We therefore may define leaders as those members of the group who influence the activities of the group. to some degree. which an individual exerts on his/her fellow beings. influences the leader. some people take a more active role than others do. ACTIVITY 3. The first type of person is known as leader and others as followers. or when it acquires more functions. a hierarchy of leadership emerges. since every member. At the top of the hierarchy are Primary leaders. Group Complexity : As the group becomes larger. ideology.. leadership is concerned with influence – who is able to influence whom in different groups. In this section. However. Which appealed to you the most? Defining and Identifying the Leader The criterion important in identifying leaders is influence. in turn. and tasks of the group. command more respect and dominate others. and so on. List down the characteristics in him/her because of which she/he was able to influence you. In other words. the trait theory does not fully explain the relationship between traits and leadership. then Secondary and Tertiary leaders. Some of the factors influencing the emergence of leadership are briefly described in the following section. you would read about the nature and functions of leadership and the styles of leadership. Leaders by virtue of their central position in the group. You may have observed this in school activities such as Annual Day Celebrations. official leaders are actual leaders. They are also more preferred by others. not all formal. rather than being spread evenly among all members of the group. Leadership emerges as a function of the organisation. and thus the quality of relationships in the group varies. l There is a need to differentiate between the leader as an individual who has significant influence and the official head of a group who may have very little influence. the influence in a group tends to become lodged in one or relatively few persons. However. Leadership defines a particular type of relationship between people. This role will vary in different groups. leadership works in two ways: the leader influences the follower and the follower. Leadership is a process through which one member of a group (the leader) influences other group members toward the attainment of specific group goals. 2. and in different situations. as well as exert influence over their followers. Leaders are influenced by. organisation and activities of the group members. an individual in the group is perceived by its members . Since leaders operate in a social context. 1. Different tasks and problems require different types of leaders and leadership. In fact depending on the situation you maybe a leader or a follower. The members who influence the group largely may be termed as ‘leaders’. Sports Day etc. It is reciprocal in nature.3 Understanding Leadership Think of your teachers in school. In general.76 Introduction to Psychology and integrity. According to this definition: l All members of a group (at least to some degree) are leaders. Leadership is a social process: it depends on fulfilling a certain role in a pattern of relationships in a group of people. Think of one teacher who exercised most influence on you. No one is always a leader or a follower. l Like all forms of interaction. Crisis : In certain situations a group may suffer a set back towards achieving its goal or there may be some threat to its security. You may have observed that whenever two or more people gather together to form a group. At the bottom of the hierarchy are followers. situation. In other words. leadership can be best understood in terms of complex interactions between social situations and individual characteristics. play important roles in shaping and directing the group goals. the amount of leadership vested in different persons varies. To handle such situations.

The members are apprised of the different aspects of the plan-often not the entire plan. Personal Needs : Leaders besides seeking fulfilment of group goals also desire power. 5. the guide may play the role of the group leader because of his/her familiarity and knowledge about the area. 4. In case the group has ACTIVITY 3. skill. History has shown that dictatorship arises in crises. prestige etc.4 Identifying The Leader of a Group Write down separately the names of those students of your class who help in taking decisions. such situations give rise to the emergence of informal leaders. Inadequate Leadership : When the formal leader of a group or official head is unable to perform the role and functions of leadership. are liked by you and by the teacher. External or internal threat. both offer opportunities for the emergence of leadership. Sometimes the leader is not able to delegate responsibility and authority and feels necessity to be personally involved in each group activity. Expert : Leaders are generally viewed as sources of readily available information and skills or expertise. and are chosen by the teachers for assigning work. 3. some student had taken the lead role to solve the problem in your class. The leader assumes the role of representative of the group in its external relations. Such situation may prevent members from taking or sharing responsibility. You may recollect instances when Governments are thrown out of power because of weak or non-performing leaders. Group Instability : When group members hold divergent views about the goals or activities of the group or the ways for achieving them. often the person demonstrating greatest technical knowledge and skills becomes the leader. Group Representative : In case of large groups it is not possible for all members to directly deal with other groups. She/he plans for the entire work. Executive : A leader in his/her executive capacity does not carry out work or activities but assigns it to other group members.Social Influence and Group Processes 77 as someone who because of his/her personal characteristics (e. knowledge. self-confidence) is potentially more capable in handling the problem. Leaders perform several functions. affecting their involvement in the work of the group. In many informal groups. If there are no such members. expertise. 1. This person is likely to emerge as a leader. Collate the information of the class discuss the pattern of preferences and its implications with your teacher. which require sudden changes in the government. the immediate steps to be taken and the long range planning for future steps. All communications–outgoing and incoming–are channelled through the leader. Therefore. 3.g. 2.. Purveyor of Rewards and Punishments: Group members perceive the leader as having power to apply rewards and .5 Observing Leadership Behaviour Think of a situation when in crisis. 5. ACTIVITY 3. a leader will emerge only if a group has members who have such needs in sufficient degree. no leader will emerge and the group may disintegrate. volunteer to undertake responsibilities. He becomes the official representative for the group. more of such members leadership role may be shared by two or more individuals. This may not be the case in groups where members agree upon the group goals and means to achieve them. THE FUNCTIONS OF LEADERS 4. new leaders are likely to emerge. Let us examine briefly the main functions performed by the leader. For example during camping or trekking. Planner : A leader decides the ways and means by which the group shall achieve its goals.

Father Figure : The leader may also play the emotional role of father figure for the individual members of the group. On the other hand. Discuss the observations with your teacher. or simply assign work without any consideration for personal likes and dislikes. l Task orientation. likewise. giving special honours. which made them different from others. This enables the leader to exercise control over group members. 2. Nurturant leaders value nurturing the members through a personal relationship. but differs greatly in the way power is used. Authoritarian/Autocratic Leadership: An authoritarian leader tends to yield absolute power. He serves as the source of the beliefs. They differ in terms of personal style or approach to leadership. It refers to the leader’s interest in creating friendly relations and satisfying group members. Leaders can be high or low on any of these dimensions. it depends on the specific circumstances. ACTIVITY 3. LEADERSHIP STYLES: HOW LEADERS OPERATE? Leaders do not function in the same way. The democratic leader encourages greater involvement and participation of group members in the activities and in setting up of group goals. Sometimes the leader provides the ideology of the group. no single style is the best. l Relational dimension. It refers to the extent to which the leader focuses on getting the work done and gives primacy to task achievement. and providing a focus for positive feelings. The authoritarian leader deliberately develops these absolute functions and resists changes in them. 6. Exemplar : In certain groups the leader may serve as a role model to the group members. encourages and reinforces interpersonal relations among the group . Individual members are often discouraged to set personal goals. Let us have a look at some of the major styles of leadership. Such a leader tries to establish a structure where intercommunication among the members is minimum.78 Introduction to Psychology punishments.5 Identifying Leaders Write the names of leaders whom you admire. The goals are imposed on them. a religious leader should exemplify all the moral virtues he would expect the disciples to imbibe. The Commanding Officer in the Armed Forces who leads his troops into a battle serves as an Exemplar. You too must have observed that there are people in school who take all the decisions. or taking away the responsibility assigned or lowering of the status. dictates activities of group members and determines the pattern of relationship among them. Some of the major dimensions along which leaders differ in terms of their style are as follows. 1. The distinction between different ‘styles’ of leadership is largely in terms of the kind of relationship that exists between the leader and the group members and the degree of emphasis on task accomplishment. It is obvious that these two types of leaders have contrasting styles of functioning. The autocratic leader guarantees that his guidance is indispensable for proper functioning of the group. is through the leader or is under his supervision. The leader is the ideal object for identification. Rewards and punishments may relate to being promoted to a higher position. However. Such a leader alone takes decisions for the group. Democratic Leadership : A democratic leader may have the same amount of power as an autocratic leader. The leader seeks the distribution of responsibility. 7. makes major plans. there would also be people who allow the class to arrive at a decision. and participate in activities. This role may form the basis of power of a leader in certain circumstances. and have a democratic way of handling situation. and norms of the individual members. for transferring feelings. values. give orders. Identify the qualities.

task achievement participate in group activities. affection. structured and task-relevant. Roosevelt. It is John F. committed to their growth. and many such leaders have draws on the cultural values such as shaped the course of world events. Nurturant Task Leadership : The is performed diligently as a part of a snehauthoritarian style is self-centred shardha (affection-deference) and is oriented towards status relationship between a dependent/ maintenance. An authoritarian leader is the keystone of the group. takes a personal interest tension. In Indian organisations. rigidity. They are often termed proposed by Jai B. Charismatic Leader : Personalities like styles. The whom the group may collapse whereas. guides and directs Besides possessing certain traits. vary in suggests (“laissez-faire” in French the extent of their emphasis on mean “let the people do what they task achievement and their chose”) such a leader does not Jai B. charismatic leaders (charisma means Nurturant task leadership has two main gift in Greek). What personal components: concern for task and characteristics make certain leaders nurturant orientation.P. while the subordinates who prefer to maintain democratic leader acts as the “facilitator” dependency and personalised relationship of group activities. whereas in many nonfunctioning. reduces intergroup conflict and shows affection.P. Sinha. is the nurturant task style. etc. trusting. Laissez-faire : As the name Leaders. freedom and autonomy to work. He also assumes more significance in group does not intervene in any way in the group functioning. He cares for his subordinates. without with him and accept his authority. personal clearly so that communications strengths and motives of individuals are explicit. make some people charismatic leaders. his subordinates to work hard. towards sharing. Gandhi. His role is of a passive western cultures a nurturant relationship observer or provider of information if of the leader with group members is required by some group member. is hierarchical group structure. has to leadership is that the authoritarian leader be nurturant and task oriented to the tends to be the group “dictator”. Indira expectations from the subordinates. Kennedy. In between the two 5. having structured Mahatma Gandhi. He thus creates a climate of words. 4. and prevents development of a in their well-being and above all. democratic or participative style is nurturant task leadership is found to people oriented and directed be effective. He initiates. Franklin D. however. The major difference in the two styles of A leader. and thereby want him. members. has the mix of leaders. Churchill.Social Influence and Group Processes 79 nurturance. there seem to be certain types purposiveness and goal orientation. in order to be effective. dependency. charismatic leadership involves a Responsibilities are pinpointed and areas special type of relationship between the of decision-making are synchronised with leaders and their followers. task oriented. considered important. His of personalities who become charismatic task orientation. Sinha relationship with members. same leader gradually adopts participative the success of a democratic leader lies in style as the subordinates gain expertise how well the group can function without and experience. and the need for There is something special about these personalised relationships. It has been leaders. The work 3. and subordinate and his nurturant domineering posture whereas the superior. In other them. In actively guide the group and may not western cultures. Such a leader charismatic? According to the “great defines his and his subordinates’ role man theory” certain traits. The situation must also be . as we have seen.

T/F 8. Laissez-faire. Traits of leaders are different from those of the followers. Primary Group. Informational influence. Democratic leaders do not yield as much power as do the autocratic leaders. They describe in clear. experts. they are very capable in impression management that enhances their appeal to others. Minority influence. Charismatic. T/F 7. . 6. Charismatic leadership involves a special kind of leader-follower relationship in which the leader inspires the followers to make personal sacrifices in their devotion to causes. (c) external and internal threats faced by the group. there is no single leadership style. The emergence of leaders is facilitated by: (a) an increase in the size and complexity of the group. The contexts of group functioning also vary. T/F 5. Some of history’s most successful leaders had varied their leadership style to fit the circumstances. There are individual differences in leadership styles. A goal leader has a fixed style which does not change over time. Leadership. In sum. Cohesiveness. Leaders serve several functions. external group representatives etc. loyalty and reverence towards the leader. policy makers. T/F Key Terms Conformity. Obedience. and (d) failure of the official head and availability of ‘potential’ leaders in the group. planners. SocialFacilitation effect. T/F 4. so that the followers readily accept the leadership of a person who possesses those particular traits. Transformational and Nurturant-task leadership are some typical styles of leadership. Also. Risk Taking. Normative Influence. Transformational Leadership: These leaders exert considerable influence over the followers by proposing an inspiring vision. T/F 2. emotionprovoking manner. Authoritarian leader encourages hierarchy among the group members. Groupthink. Compliance.80 Introduction to Psychology appropriate. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. Social Loafing. Proximity. Leadership involves exercising influence by one group member over the other members. to varying degrees. Recapitulation The leaders of a group are those members who exert relatively greater influence on the group. They work as executives. Leadership always emerges at a result of situational factors. T/F 3. (2) willingness to sacrifice their personal interests for the group goals. Transformational leader motivates the followers to accomplish more than they originally expect. high degree of concern for the followers. Out-group. In-group. The effectiveness of any style of leadership is contingent on the demands of the situation. Also. (b) blockage to the achievement of group goals. Democratic. excellent communication skills. they provide a route for attaining the vision. Authoritarian. (1) Charismatic leaders are capable of evoking high levels of devotion. A rigid leadership style is not always the best. They are able to communicate emotion and get emotional responses from their followers. and (3) performance beyond the expected level. Charismatic leaders prefer to maintain direct personal contact with the group members. an image of what the group can become. The optimal leadership style is the one that suits the situation. Laissez-faire leadership promotes healthy inter-personal relationship among the group members. Evaluation Apprehension. They have a high level of confidence. They are leaders of mass movements. which is effective in all situations. T/F 6.

There is no single leadership style which is most effective in all situations. 8. (6) F (1) T. Laissez-faire. (1) T. (3) accepted. Leaders appear to differ from their followers in terms of several traits. Social influence or efforts by one or more persons to change the attitudes. (4) T. A number of dimensions are used to characterise various types of groups: primary and secondary groups. similarity. l l l l l l l Review Questions 1. exemplars and father figures. Charismatic and Nurturant-task Leadership. They adopt very different ‘styles’. (4) F. Individuals join groups to satisfy their social needs: to enjoy recognition and affection. (5) T (1) presence. (2) F. cohesiveness. compliance and obedience are important examples of social influence. experts. Factors such as group complexity. 6. to feel secure and safe and to bolster their self-esteem. (3) T. Democratic. have common goals. (5) compliance. inadequate leadership. . to acquire information. Leadership involves exercising of influence by one group member over the other members. (6) F. formal and informal groups. (7) F. (5) T. (2) T. group instability. as: executives. What is a group? State its functions? Which factors facilitate the formation of a group? Describe the different types of groups with examples? What is social facilitation effect? Explain with the help of examples? What is conformity? Why do people conform? How do people obtain obedience? Who are leaders? What factors lead to the emergence of leadership? What are the different styles of leadership? What is compliance? How does it differ from social loafing? ANSWERS I II III : : : TO LEARNING CHECKS IV : (1) F. or perceptions of others is a very common form of social behaviour. (2) conformity. Transformational. belongingness. 4. 3. (3) T. share a stable relationship. group representatives. behaviours. planners. perform expected behaviours and recognise that they belong to a group. (2) T. Some of the leadership styles are: Authoritarian/Autocratic. in-group and out-groups. (3) T.Social Influence and Group Processes 81 SUMMARY l Group refers to two or more persons who interact with each other. which are distinct in terms of the kind of relationship that exists between the leader and the group members. (8) F. 7. Groups differ in terms of their function and organisation. 9. 5. (5) T. but not all leaders are alike. influence the emergence of leadership. purveyors of rewards and punishments. (4) F. personal qualities etc. crises. etc. Group formation is facilitated by factors such as: proximity. Leaders perform different functions. Conformity. 2. The optimum leadership style is the one that suits the situation. (4) informational influence.

3) Prejudice and Discrimination Sources of Prejudice Intergroup Conflicts Strategies to Overcome Prejudices Beliefs and their Functions Social Cognition Causal Attributions Pro-social Behaviour : Nature and Determinants Bystander Behaviour. and Ä understand the concept of pro-social behaviour and what factors promote it Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . maintenance and change of attitudes Ä The factors influencing intergroup relations Ä The nature and function of beliefs Ä The nature of pro-social behaviour and its determinants BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand what is attitude and how it can be measured.4) Aggression and Violence: Its Causes and Remedies (Box 4. formation. Ä understand the difference between prejudice and discrimination and to acquaint with some measures to overcome them. Ä learn about the nature of beliefs and their functions including causal beliefs.82 Introduction to Psychology 4 THIS ATTITUDE CHAPTER COVERS AND SOCIAL COGNITION CONTENTS Introduction Nature and Components of Attitudes What is an Attitude? Components of Attitude Measurement of Attitudes Methods of Attitude Scaling (Box 4. Altruism and Empathy (Box 4. Ä learn what are the determinants of maintenance. and change in attitudes. Maintenance and Change of Attitudes A Two-step Concept of Attitude Change (Box 4.5) Ä The concept and measurement of attitude Ä The formation.1) Formation.2) Attitude and Behaviour Attitude-Behaviour Consistency: A Classic Study (Box 4.

Think about your attitude towards your close friend. but at times we notice intergroup conflicts that may result in social disturbances. whereas it is likely to be positive in the case of a close friend. we cognise and try to make sense of the different aspects of our social world. This chapter will help you to understand the meaning and components of attitudes. or about the objects seen. Confidence comes not from always being right but from not fearing to be wrong. You would think that your friend is trustworthy. political leaders. when we are angry. One has attitudes about friends. You will also learn about the ways we cognise the social world and how attributions and beliefs work and shape our behaviour. – Peter T. and would be ready to spend time together. One has attitudes even about the strangers one meets casually. Expressions of anger and conflict are also found at group level. helpful and intelligent. terrorism or even war. The study of these efforts is social cognition. you will learn about attitudes toward groups. We not only help others and cooperate with. parents. Finally. or about the places visited. prejudices and the strategies to reduce them. The relations between groups may be cordial. The roots of all these are found in our attitudes and cognitions. and organisations.Attitude and Social Cognition 83 INTRODUCTION Attitudes refer to the way one thinks. Your attitude about a bully is probably negative. Did you realise that these attitudes largely determine the way you deal with these people in everyday life? Attitudes influence your daily behaviour in a much more significant manner than you generally realise. Did you know that you have attitudes about almost everything that matters to you? As human beings. We try to find the causes of various events. feel and act differently toward a bully in your class. You would also realise that you think. would feel positively about him or her. feels and acts toward others in any social situation. We also relate to other persons present in our environment in different ways. you will learn about the nature and factors underlying a pro-social behaviour. You will learn about many other questions such as: How can the attitudes be measured? How attitudes are formed and maintained? What leads to the changes in attitudes? What is the relationship of attitude with behaviour? Also. but also try to harm others. Mc Intyre MULTIPLE IDENTITIES OF A CHILD .

Attitudes guide thinking and behaviour : Attitudes are important elements of people’s cognition. The influences of attitudes are found on many aspects of social behaviour. so too are attitudes central elements in people’s notion of themselves.84 Introduction to Psychology NATURE AND COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES What is an Attitude? In social psychology the term attitude is defined as a predisposition involving beliefs. 3. doctor. affective (feeling) and behavioural . In extreme cases. feelings and actions that people hold on relatively long-term basis. 2. we have more communal conflicts in the society. for example. Attitudes help to establish our identities : Attitudes provide self-definition. Functions of Attitudes Attitudes serve four important functions as given below: 1. It. attitudes have a tendency to persist over time and across situations. we may even harm or damage the interests of those who are categorised as ‘others’. and compare it with a situation when some of your friends have positive and others have a negative attitude towards the same. Once formed. occupation. The second situation creates tension and conflict. are often guided by the kind of attitudes we have about them. if the attitudes about other religious groups are positive. Attitudes refer to the set of thoughts. Attitudes provide basis for defining social groups : Members of a group often share similar attitudes and this binds them together. They are stable and dispositional. and lead to less friendly interaction with others. Evaluations are related in complex ways to beliefs. You may imitate or model such people. and dispositions to act towards some object. Attitudes are dispositional. By dispositional we mean that the attitudes are the characteristics of an individual and people differ in their strength from one another depending on their socialisation and social interaction. feelings. Thus attitudes are simply evaluations of (attitude) objects. is all that holds a proenvironmental organisation together. The choices of friends. The shared attitude towards environmental protection. On the other hand. In the same way. On the contrary. negative attitudes create interpersonal distance. Your mother may get angry with you for coming home late but it is not indicative of her attitude. however. In this way attitudes are central in maintaining a group. 1. feelings. cognitive (thinking). school. The object may be anything – a person. 2. Who were Vivekananda and Mahatma Gandhi without their attitudes toward India? Who is Sunderlal Bahuguna without his attitudes toward environment and ecology? What we think about ourselves is shaped by our attitudes. In recent years psychologists are moving toward a conception of attitude as evaluation. They do change in the light of new experiences and informations. an idea or an object. They guide the way people think. does not mean that attitudes do not change. etc. Temporary mood states and one-time actions cannot be considered as an attitude. feel. Attitudes play an important role at the societal level : Think of a situation when all your friends have the same attitude about your school. 4. The positive attitudes toward others may bring you closer to them and you may be favourably disposed to comply with their requests. The attitudes have two main characteristics. Attitudes are relatively stable. and act. Similarly. there is peace and harmony in the society. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE As indicated earlier an attitude comprises of three components namely. if people have negative attitudes about those who belong to another religion. it is the shared attitude towards secularism and social tolerance that binds the Indian people. a group. Just as a crucial element of some social groups is a set of attitudes. and actions.

in a large number of cases it may not hold true. . for example. interacts or communicates with any person. and behavioural. You also know that swimming is an excellent exercise and a great way to stay in shape. there is no greater fun than swimming. Our attitudes prompt us to do or say something. one may have a pleasant or an unpleasant feeling. defends it before others. One approves the behaviour. affective. The second component is that of affect. These feelings highlight the affective component. Then what is the point in talking about these three components of attitude? Those who propose that an attitude is a consistent system of beliefs. When all components of attitude are in the same direction the attitude will be more resistant to change. The knowledge about the activity constitutes the cognitive component of an attitude. and jumping into the pool brings a smile to your face. feel and act in a particular manner. The cognitive component represents the belief that one has about an attitude object. Let us take an example. This may be understood when we analyse attitude towards something. argue that inconsistency among the three components may cause tension and anxiety and the person would try to bring changes in these components in such a manner that consistency or balance is restored. l Compare these two attitudes. This evaluation could be positive or negative. It deals with the way one feels about the attitudinal object. It is a product of interaction and experience. i. at the same time. For example. one may think that the ideology of a particular political party is good (or not good) for the country. object or place. may not like him or her as a person and would like to keep a distance because of his or her antics. you may not like someone but may want to help him anyway. The Relationship among the Components of Attitude You may be ready to dispute by now that why do you have to think. It comprises of three components namely cognitive. where the three components are inconsistent than in the cases where they are consistent. feel and behave positively when you have a positive attitude about a person. Suppose you love swimming. they are in the same direction. Attitude is not a single entity. You change into a costume and jump into the swimming pool.Attitude and Social Cognition 85 (action). and helps and supports them. Finally. When one thinks about. l Share your observations with your teacher and classmates. You understand the health benefits that swimming can bring. You love swimming.e. feels. Recapitulation Attitudes refer to the way one thinks. People try to maintain consistency across these three components. You have a positive attitude about swimming. The above description of swimming illustrates the three components of an attitude: affect. If one has a positive attitude about someone his or her actual behaviour would be favourable. attitudes have a behavioural component. it is possible to change those attitudes.1 Understanding the Nature of Attitudes l Describe your best friend and a person whom you don’t like in terms of the three components of attitude. It is defined as a relatively stable disposition of human beings to think. Our liking or disliking for some person refers to the affective component of an attitude. The third component of attitude refers to the actual behaviour. It is possible that you may evaluate someone positively (for example. However. For you. In fact. very intelligent) but. On the other hand. cognition and behaviour. ACTIVITY 4. Normally it is seen that if you have a very strong attitude.. implying thereby how we evaluate the characteristics of a person. and acts toward objects in any social situation. It is a great fun. You are not wrong. The three components are interlinked. all the three components of attitude are closely related. emotions and actions.

Yes/No 4. A respondent shows his or her attitude by answering a series of questions. Consequently. Yes/No 2. Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree Neutral Agree 2 3 4 Strongly Agree 5 MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES Likert’s technique is called a summated rating scale. Do not know. Did not like the classmate for his her insincerity. usually sufficiently large in number and an aggregate score is than obtained. The statements selected for an attitude measure are carefully chosen to meet certain criteria. Thinks very highly about Sachin Tendulkar. most of the questions on an attitude surveys in vogue are close ended. Rating Scales : In these scales respondents indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with a statement. Yes. social psychologists use certain techniques to measure people’s attitudes. No. Takes bath before going to school every morning. First. however. The items in this kind of scale ask the person to agree or disagree with attitude statements on a 5-point scale as shown below : I believe children should not be punished. For this reason. such as reservation. we can’t directly know what a person’s attitudes are just by looking at her or him. Maybe. which are given to each person on whom the attitude measure is administered. 1. forces the respondents into making limited number of choices. These questions may be open or close ended. These criteria ensure that the statements do in fact assess the favourable or unfavourable views held by the person in relation to the attitude object. all items are based on self-reports of the respondent. A brief description of these techniques is given below. Openended questions allow the respondent to provide an answer in his/her own words. Feeling depressed about failing in the examination. Third.2 shows only one kind of attitude measure and there are many other types of measures. the answers can be difficult to analyse. the investigators provide a questionnaire or ask a series of questions on the telephone. There are several Understanding people’s attitude towards a particular issue. whereas others are indirect. Yes/No 3. attitude is not measured directly. The attitudes are private. Yes/No to be the Chief Minister of a State? The answer may be given by using one of the four categories. a respondent might be asked: “What qualifications do you think are necessary for the Prime Minister of India? Although this type of question yields in-depth information. or by asking a single question. One of the frequently used scales is Likert Scale. For instance.86 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS I Read the following statements and indicate whether they refer to an attitude or not. It is the aggregate score from which the favourability of one’s attitude is assessed. The Attitude Survey : This is the most commonly used technique for measuring attitudes. Likes to be praised by others. Some of these techniques use direct responses.e. Yes/No 7. In an attitude survey. Never skips the psychology classes. Yes/No 6. The presumption is that people know their preferences and they can show them by following the instructions and choosing a response alternative. But on examining this measure many other features of attitude measures would become clear. Uses only Colgate toothpaste. because individuals are given an attitude score based on the sum of their responses on all the items of the scale. Yes/No 5. There is always more than one statement. all these measures use standard instructions. one may ask: Are women qualified . This type of question. Activity 4. Second. i. For example. or capital punishment or women’s rights is important for many purposes..

observation of overt behaviour becomes the basis of measuring someone’s attitude. T/F 2. 6. Keeping this limitation in mind. For example. Unobstrusive measures assess attitudes of people without making them aware of it. Behavioural Measures: The self-report measures rely on respondents’ verbal reports of their attitudes. she might not get honest answers on a questionnaire.Attitude and Social Cognition 87 ACTIVITY 4. 3. Recapitulation Attitude survey is one of the most common ways to assess attitudes. Rating scales measure the extent to which the respondent agrees or disagrees with the statement. 5. 8. foreigners. Unobtrusive Measures: These measures assess attitudes by indirect means. — — — — — — — — — Neither Agree Nor Disagree — — — — — — — Strongly Disagree — — — — — — — ways of preparing and arranging appropriate statements. The envelopes that turn up are counted and compared with names sounding foreign with those names that don’t. Coaching institutes should be banned. with whom people interact in public places is a good index of their attitude toward other ethnic groups. She puts a stamp on the envelope and then drops it on a crowded street near the post office so that it can be easily found and mailed. Circle the appropriate number given before each statement to indicate your views. say. Rating scales require the person to respond to certain statements in a standard format and an aggregate score is obtained by calculating the person’s responses. It involves asking questions. The procedure is repeated to collect a sample. But. Coaching institutes are only for money making. — 2.2 Attitude about Coaching Institutes Please read each statement carefully and answer by choosing one of the three alternatives: Agree. Services provided by coaching institutes should be appreciated. T/F 4. T/F 3. This reflects the attitude towards foreigners. 7. Coaching is a must in present times. Often there is no way to verify the correctness of such reports. The lost-letter technique is a good example of this technique. Coaching is of no good for bright students. The people whose attitudes are being measured are not aware of it. Coaching institutes prepare you for competition. if she has some stamps and envelopes. 4. she drops a stamped envelope addressed to someone whose name does not sound foreign. This is what the researcher does: She addresses an envelope to someone with a foreign-sounding name at a local address. Coaching institutes make false promises. Some of the popular scaling methods are described in Box 4. Strongly Agree 1. Likert’s technique is called summated rating scale.1. Attitudes are closed ended questionnaires. somewhat agree and disagree. there are behavioural and unobtrusive measures that are used to assess attitudes. T/F . If a researcher wants to measure a community’s attitude towards. Apart from the Self-report method. These are known as the Attitude Scaling Methods. Coaching institutes provide better education. she can try the lost-letter technique. As her baseline control. LEARNING CHECKS II 1.

Child marriage should be a cognisable offence. and strongly disagree. Child marriage should be seen as one of the many social ills. People responsible for child marriage should be put behind the bars.1 METHODS OF ATTITUDE SCALING Likert Method : This was developed by Rensis Likert in 1932.4 3. in that order. 4. in terms of how much social distance people wish to maintain between themselves and various ethnic groups. Bogardus developed this measure to find the attitude. which are then presented to the participant who are asked to indicate the statements with which they agree. Attitude toward Child Marriage Scale Value 1. To develop a Likert Scale. Thurstone viewed attitudes as varying along an evaluative continuum ranging from favourable to unfavourable. To prepare a Thurstone scale. The mean of the ratings of all judges is taken as the scale value of that item. Thurstone. These items are prepared in such a manner that the person given this measure would be able to use the following five categories: strongly agree. 8. 3.. . if the statement is put in category 6. If the statement is put in the first category. For example. For example. Judges are then given these statements to categorise them in 11 categories – ranging from showing very unfavourable attitude to very favourable attitudes.3 4. and so on. These numbers are assigned in this manner so that a high score indicates a favourable attitude and a low score indicates an unfavourable attitude.8 Bogardus Method : Another attempt to develop an attitude measure was made by Emory Bogardus. it implies that the judge considers that statement as showing very unfavourable attitude toward child marriage. These categories are assigned scores from 5 to 1. A score of 7 is given to the respondent who wants the members of other ethnic groups entirely excluded from their social life. Bogardus’ Social Distance Measure first names an ethnic group and then asks the respondent to check which one of the seven relationships they would be willing to engage in with members of this group. strongly agree (5) and strongly disagree (1). a score of 1 would be assigned. These statements or items should be as diverse as possible covering all aspects of the attitude object.2 1. if one wants to measure the attitude towards coaching institutes. 2. The Sum total of the scale values of those selected items is the attitude score of that participant. if a respondent is willing to accept a person into the closest relationship (by marriage). was the first one to suggest that attitudes can be measured by finding the view that a person holds about attitude objects. disagree. Each statement is evaluated by many judges in terms of the degree of negativity of the view expressed. Many times child marriages do not work. i.e. which people have toward different ethnic groups. undecided. a researcher first collects a large number of opinion statements expressing favourable or unfavourable attitudes about the attitude object.88 Introduction to Psychology BOX 4. Also known as the Social Distance scale. indeed. 5. agree. a score of 2 would be given if the respondent is ready to admit the members of other ethnic groups in their fold. The aggregate score is obtained by adding the numerical values of the categories checked by a respondent. The person whose attitude we want to measure responds to each statement by choosing one of the five categories. it would mean that the statement is considered showing neither favourable nor unfavourable attitude about child marriage. the researcher first prepares a large number of statements that are relevant to the attitude object. or degree of favourableness (about child marriage) of the statement. There is nothing wrong in child marriage. as shown below.2 9. Thurstone Method : This method was named after Louis Thurstone who developed it in 1928. the statements should cover all aspects – from teaching techniques to learning environment to monetary matters. A set of items is then selected from the pool of such statements.

approval to offering monetary rewards. which is repeatedly associated with a stimuli capable of evoking positive or negative feelings. Family : Parents have an all-encompassing influence on the way their children come to form attitudes. the relevance of learning process in relation to attitude formation is only briefly indicated. These groups constitute the reference groups for children. We can also ask a question. The different aspects of environment shape the development of attitudes. They come in contact with teachers. For example. Instrumental conditioning : It applies to the situations when people learn attitudes which are systematically rewarded by significant others. Only when it grows little older than a child it learns to fear and avoid a snake. it will have no problem in playing with a snake. MAINTENANCE CHANGE OF ATTITUDES Formation of Attitudes AND As mentioned earlier. The three basic learning procedures involved in the acquisition of attitudes are as follows. They acquire initial knowledge about the people and places from their parents and very often imbibe their values and observations. we are not born with attitudes. The children learn a great deal from these reference groups. neighbours. A newborn baby has no attitude towards a snake. and more importantly with peers. Children are keen observers and learn a whole lot of things from their parents and other family members. which their children pick up to form attitudes. You have already studied about the basic processes of learning in Class XI. Therefore. Imagine how much young children learn about the world from the stories told by their grand parents! Reference Groups : As the children grow older the diversity of influences on their lives increases. jobs and positions. such as parents. Players often develop a strong liking for the bat by which they made good runs. policemen. Children get their first exposure to the social world through their parents and other family members. Classical conditioning : As you know this kind of learning shows how a neutral object gets associated with an already established stimulus-response connection.Attitude and Social Cognition 89 FORMATION. Lets examine what factors contribute to the formation of attitudes. They form attitudes about other social and religious groups on the basis of such categories defined by their parents. Any attitude object. vendors. Children often learn to categorise other children as good or bad based on the categories supplied by their parents. It has been observed that people quickly come to express specific point of views when they are rewarded for their expression. will acquire the ability to evoke a similar response. Factors Influencing Formation of Attitudes The formation of attitudes takes place in our social environment. you may develop a positive attitude about a person who was present whenever you won a match. affection. Parents provide categories. Observational learning : It suggests that human beings are capable of acquiring new responses simply by observing the actions and their outcomes. ‘how do people acquire an attitude toward the Chinese food’? Can we acquire an attitude about something we are not exposed to? Why do people have different attitudes? The term attitude formation refers to the movement we make from having no attitude toward an attitude object to having a positive or negative attitude. They imbibe attitudes about . They learn many of their attitudes about other ethnic groups. While the specific form of such rewards may vary greatly. The young children learn by observing and imitating their elders in the family. ranging from praise. teachers or friends. If not stopped by elders. children are taught certain attitudes and behaviours by controlling reward and punishment and systematically reinforcing certain kinds of attitudes. families constitute the primary source of information for children. The attitudes are acquired through different types of learning. relevant to the formation of attitudes are described below. Some of the important aspects of environment. They form opinion about many more people and objects. and ideologies simply by observing the behaviours of adults. Thus. In fact.

If the membership of the reference group is important to the person. If they are confronted with information.V. If their reference group is biased about some religious group.V. MAINTENANCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC lSocial Group Affiliations lStructure of Population lGenetic Inheritance lChanging Social Trends ECONOMIC ATTITUDES Fig. Maintaining a particular attitude may be beneficial for the person. Several studies have reported that high-school children rate the mass media as their most important source of information.V. Think how many hours you and your friends watch the T. your attitude may not be favourable toward all army men. or believe that it is coming from a dubious source. The reference group resists any change and people succumb to the group pressure. If he was very kind and helpful to you. he became a believer and went on to address the World Religions’ Congress and became a legend as Swami Vivekananda.1 Influences on Attitude Formation Direct Personal Experience : How do you form an attitude about an army personnel? It largely depends on your personal encounter with such a man in the past. People like to have consistency in their attitudes and they do this in many ways. It is understandable that those who are born in extreme poverty conditions and have had many bitter experiences. Our reference group may be exerting influence to maintain the attitude. national leaders. One can thus ignore such information. The victims of criminal assault and social discrimination can hardly Once formed. and the distribution of reward and punishment. attitudes persist. They help to maintain attitudes. probability is high that the child will also show similar kind of bias.V screen. We discount the contradictory information. 3. they either consider that information as not very relevant or important. Apart from day-to-day life experiences. if someone is very helpful to you in achieving your goals. Since children are more impressionable. etc.90 Introduction to Psychology occupations. which are endorsed by such reference groups. their attitudes about others are not likely to be positive. which significantly shape our attitudes in a particular direction. for at least 4-5 hours and this exposure has become a potent way to learn about the world. If an army man has roughed you up for trespassing. The social environment including people. which is against their present attitude.4. From a skeptic.V commercials tell us which products we should buy. he or she is more likely to retain his/her former attitude even in the face of contradictory information. consumer products. urban middle school children watch T. Meeting Ramkrishna Paramhans changed Narendra and his whole attitude toward life and people. . We tend to generalise. they tend to believe what they see on the T.1 presents the range of factors that may influence attitude formation. which is important for the smooth functioning of the group. even if you come to know about his negative qualities you justify his actions and maintain your existing attitude.. T. We all have such turning points. For instance. ETHNIC lCaste and Social lAttitudes of family l Patterns of Socialisation MULTIPLE IDENTITIES OF A CHILD lInteractions with Peer Group lRules traditionally defined lInequality in status lSocialisation GENDER be positive in their judgement of the groups to which the perpetrators belong. They rarely question what they see on the T. remains stable to a large extent. On an average. Media Exposure : Today’s life media has assumed a prominent place. Figure 4. 1. you tend to have a favourable attitude towards the army men. 2. there are other unique significant life events and situations. the pattern of interaction. social and religious groups.

S. In contrast. the agent himself has to be inspired by a genuinely positive regard for the target. the incongruent change is a change in the reverse direction. Changing attitudes would. Mohsin . It amounts to investing the agent with the potential to release agreeable thoughts and pleasurable feelings in the target with regard to the agent. it becomes very difficult to change that. New and innovative techniques are constantly devised to catch the attention of people and bring about the desired change in attitudes. To achieve this. if someone has participated in a protest march against the reservation policy. and seniors keep telling us what is good and what we should do. well-wishers. Go to any public place and you cannot escape seeing the hoardings inviting you to join a particular coaching. Attitudes can change in the positive or negative direction. while others are more amenable to change. one of the pioneers of scientific psychology in India. Patna. Once we make a public commitment. Some attitudes are more resistant to change. which contribute to the changes in attitudes. depends on several factors. This change in attitude can be congruent or incongruent. Mohsin. One’s identity is largely determined by the attitude one holds about people. or take a position. The congruent change is the direction in which your present attitude is.2 advertising industry all over the world keeps telling people what product they should buy. A five thousand crore BOX 4. To foster a positive attitude towards the target. the incongruent change in attitude is difficult to achieve. You switch on your television and your auditory and visual senses are bombarded with all kinds of advertisements. and objects that matter. it will be very difficult to take a favourable position about it. friends. For example the advertisers try to change our attitudes all the time. Our family. issues. therefore.M. ATTITUDE CHANGE Once formed. Later. the second step calls upon the agent to enact the attitude relevant behaviour. Patna University. This will set the reciprocated attraction process S. 5. attitudes are difficult to change. He proposed a twostep concept of attitude change. The two-step concept of attitude change is grounded on a synthesis of the view point of Bandura’s social learning theory and the principles of inter-personal attraction. If one changes one’s attitude in such a situation. whether our attitude will change or not. the agent has to undergo a process of self-correction through sincere heart searching.M. These shifts in attitudes are not very sudden or dramatic but are usually so gradual that we fail to take notice of them. Yet. For example. he or she may find it difficult to justify it. Let us now examine these factors : A TWO–STEP CONCEPT OF ATTITUDE CHANGE into motion – the agent being attracted to the target will attract target to himself. Here we will discuss some important factors. or buy some particular brand of a product. people do undergo substantial changes in their attitudes during their lifetime. Political parties want you to change your attitude in their favour. amount to changing one’s notion of self and identity. Identification implies generation in the target a liking for agent.Attitude and Social Cognition 91 4. Generally. After having been through the first step without faltering. this behaviour will serve as a model for its imitation by the target person. Attitudes greatly shape our identity. was a Professor and the Head of the Psychology Department. These factors can be broadly put into two categories (i) characteristics of attitude (ii) communication factors. Of course. The first step is the identification of the target of attitude change with the agent or source of change.

you would like to maintain a positive attitude about that club. Suppose you are given a task to change the attitude of your classmates in favour of peer learning. if the group is very large and you are not sure of your persuasive and attend regularly. are less likely to change. these attitudes become more stable. l Attitude toward parents who are strict disciplinarians. possible to engage in face-to-face communication. 4.3 Understanding the Dynamic Nature of Attitudes Following is a list of attitudes. Strength : Attitudes. a researcher or educationist.92 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 4. it is supposed to have a greater appeal. Discuss your answers with the teacher. Characteristics of Attitude The following characteristics of attitude play important role in the change of attitude. You have to present that information in an effective manner. because changing such attitudes will change many other aspects of our lives. In general. l Attitude toward a group whose membership was very restricted and hard to get. which is contrary to your attitude. In this context. Complexity : It refers to multiple factors. 3. these attitudes mutually reinforce each other. 2. his/her classes very l Attitude toward a friend whom you consider very good at studies but do not like his/her work habits. how will you go about doing it? What will persuade them to change their attitude? The task is not as easy as it may appear to many people. if you have a strong opinion that India should make nuclear bombs. Please read them carefully and indicate which attitude is difficult to change and why? l Attitude toward a teacher whom you like 5. Interconnectedness : If the attitude is closely connected with several other attitudes and if they are in a state of balance. This enables you to modify your argument to fit the motive and characteristics of the student you want to persuade. face-to-face communication is found to be more effective than indirect communication. .g. Sometimes attractiveness or likeableness of the communicator makes a difference. For example. If something is said by an expert or a trustworthy person. 1. Functionality : If the attitude serves a useful function for the individual. You must have noticed that if your favourite actor comes in the advertisement of a particular product. l Attitude toward a profession. he is less likely to change it. l Attitude toward a writer whose novels your friends have read. which constitute an attitude. Communication Factors You have read about the basic ideas of communications process in Class XI. it is more persuasive. e. the attitude toward parents is much more complex than attitude toward a particular brand of soap. not always. though. based on available information you have to build a very forceful argument in favour of peer learning. which are extreme in nature. Simply telling them good things about peer learning may not work. you are less likely to pay attention to the information. The first thing you may need is to have convincing ground for the position that you want to advance.. Thus. the source of information plays an important role. If the information comes from some very credible source. For example. It is. Even then some people will change and others will not. Importance : If an attitude is the basis of our relationship with friends or life goals. if the membership of a particular club enhances your self-esteem. For example. it is likely to be more effective. The way or mode in which a message or information is presented to the students. which you want to take up as a career. Let us see when and how people change their attitudes in the light of a new information. whose attitude you want to change will also be important.

mass media has emerged as the most important factor in affecting opinions and attitudes. etc. Operant conditioning and Social learning. Imagine a situation in which a new student joins your class. However. One acts under many social pressures.Attitude and Social Cognition 93 skills. For many decades psychologists kept studying attitudes to predict behaviour. significant life events. T/F 2. Thus. You find him very casual in his studies and you do not think very positively about him. When in conversation with friends. Church attendance on the basis of attitude toward the church. though this change may be slow and unnoticeable. persons with a positive attitude toward nuclear bomb. When external influences are minimal : Attitudes influence actual behaviour when external pressures to behave in a particular manner are minimal. Reference groups. as no clear and consistent relationship between attitude and behaviour has been found. However. 1. Personal experiences. behave in accordance with our attitudes? Early researchers assumed that a close link did exist between attitude and behaviour. Personal experience. On the contrary. Learning helps to acquire attitudes. and do other things to show their approval. T/F 5. Attitudes can be easily changed by explaining and talking. What will you do? The chances are very high that you may refuse to lend your notes. for example. they celebrate this idea. those who have a negative attitude about nuclear bomb will protest in some or the other way. at best. This may not happen in the case of a student whom you like and consider very studious. T/F We often believe that if we know something about a person’s attitude we should be able to predict his or her behaviour. The factors affecting attitude formation include Family. which may have greater influence on behaviour than the attitudes. attitudes can be changed. Attitudes shape our identity. They undertook investigations to predict actual cheating on the basis of attitude toward cheating. advertisements? Suggest a strategy and discuss it with your friends and teachers. attitudes are quite resistant to change. When such pressures are . ACTIVITY 4. The various reference groups as teachers. The main reason why attitudes became a popular area of research was that. In recent times.4 Understanding the Dynamics of Attitude Change How can you resist the influence of T. Whether or not attitude and behaviour will be associated in the same direction (congruent) is influenced by several conditions discussed below. affect our attitudes toward occupations. Do we. The factors that lead to attitude change are related to the characteristics of attitude and communication process. Recapitulation Attitudes are acquired through the processes of Classical conditioning. attitudes were seen as determinants of behaviour. Racial discrimination on the basis of attitude toward race. One day he approaches you to borrow your class notes. T/F 3. in fact. Effective communication plays a significant role in changing attitudes. People more often use print and visual media to reach the larger audience. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR LEARNING CHECKS III 1. Family has a major influence in the formation of attitudes. policemen. social and religious groups.V. vendors etc. a review of attitude – behaviour research shows that attitudes. and Media exposure. are only weak predictors of behaviour. and situations also contribute towards attitude formation. Reward and punishment meted by the family and the community play important role in reinforcing the acquisition of attitudes. The findings were not very encouraging. People like to be consistent in their attitudes. shall praise the government for its decision to become a nuclear power. Once formed. T/F 4.

Lapiere sent copies of a questionnaire to all those places where they stayed and ate. and are more likely to be reflected in behaviour. regardless of their unique traits and characteristics. An early study conducted by LaPiere in 1934 suggested that the relation between attitudes and behaviour is weak. we can have an attitude about psychology in general and about this paper in particular. he/she is more likely to be conscious of his/her attitude. It refers to stereotypes. group. a tendency to evaluate them negatively. a person may have a negative attitude toward exercise. such persons are evaluated in a negative manner. 2. higher education. often negative attitude. family planning. implies that. But peer group pressure may compel the person to exercise. or in terms of behaviour related to this course. nationality or race. When one is conscious or aware of an attitude. They were refused service only once. Six months after their return. In the same vein. to say that an individual is prejudiced against the members of some group. In this sense prejudices represent a general rejection or dislike. For example. “Will you accept members of the Chinese race as a guest in your establishment?” Of the 81 restaurants and 47 hotels that replied. formed about a group of people. not on the basis of their individual characteristics or behaviours. It seems logical to assume that attitude and behaviour are closely related. 92% said that they would not accept Chinese customers. After LaPiere’s controversial study. the chances are high that attitude and behaviour will be closely linked. Clearly. When one is conscious of one’s attitude : If the attitude is strongly held.3 PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION Prejudice refers to a biased. The questionnaire asked. but simply because they belong to a particular group. depends upon circumstances”. We can also understand prejudice in terms of the three components of attitudes mentioned earlier. if the attitude is weak and not so important to the person.94 Introduction to Psychology minimal. 3. the attitude and behaviour may have been more consistently related with each other. It is a pre-judged opinion about others. by a person. On the other hand. they tend to behave as others might expect them to. Thus. When behaviour is observed by others : When people are placed in situations where their behaviour is under close observation. if we have measured the attitude about this course only then it may yield a good correspondence with the behaviour related to this course. For example. LaPiere travelled twice with a Chinese couple across the United States of America – a total of 10 thousand miles and stayed in 66 hotels and tourist homes and ate in 184 restaurants. or if person is unclear or ambiguous. People express prejudice about some person. It relates to the way we think about others. This question has been raised from time to time that how accurately can attitude predict the behaviour. the attitude is less likely to be tied to behaviour. Stereotypes are clusters of preconceived notions regarding various groups. in terms of specific aspects of an attitude. The cognitive component of prejudice refers to generalised beliefs and expectations regarding members of a group. When attitude is strongly held : When attitudes are strong they are more accessible. The findings are mixed. 4. it is also easily accessible and so there is greater tendency to behave consistently with attitude. This controversy has not yet subsided in psychology. The behaviours might not reflect their actual attitudes. All members of a particular group are perceived very much in the same manner. and the remainder checked “uncertain. many studies were conducted to test the correspondence between attitude and behaviour in the areas of voting behaviour. It is . BOX 4. etc. behaviour can also be examined in terms of psychology in general. Attitude and behaviour are found to relate most when researchers define them similarly. Had the external influence not been so strong. Stereotyping is frequently ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOUR CONSISTENCY : A CLASSIC STUDY clear that these written replies did not correspond with the actual behaviour of the respondents.

Often those who are underprivileged.Attitude and Social Cognition 95 automatic and saves on the time and effort required to evaluate people individually. There is no country or society in the world where there is no prejudice and discrimination. and “lacking ambitions” – as having those traits. Ingroup-bias : Often people are divided into ‘we’ (in-group) and ‘they’ (out-group) categories and treated accordingly. It has been argued that the root of prejudice is the fact that our memories are fallible and therefore we are prey to beliefs about groups of people that are not in accord with our experience with them. to have a positive self-esteem. class. Then. “irresponsible”. or in extreme cases engage in violence against them. The affective component of prejudice refers to negative emotional state and dislike towards the members of a particular race. The probability is very high that they will mention their own school. It simplifies our social world. They perceive the world as a fair and predictable place in which good behaviour is rewarded and bad behaviour is punished. paying them low wages. An individual may have prejudiced notions about a group – such as people suffering from AIDS – yet not overtly discriminate against members of that group. People feel that they have been victimised because they belong to a particular group. region or community. It is a common experience that people who fail to qualify for a job attribute it to caste. Sources of Prejudice Prejudice is an experience common to all the societies. religion. as well as. caste. race. may imply denying them jobs because of their gender. and denying them public facilities. The behavioural component refers to the specific practices toward that group. if someone is underprivileged in the society. decide things. they are different and can be independent of one another. The researchers have identified many factors. who may accept such negative traits as true and see themselves as inferior to the privileged. Considering our own group better than the other one is important to maintain a sense of belonging. giving them a status of secondary citizens. Cognitive Sources Prejudice is also considered as a matter of beliefs about people. Ask children which school is better . It justifies the economic and social superiority of those who have wealth and power. Such discriminations have some effect on the victims. People keep a distance. or religious factors and harbour negative attitudes for people associated with them. and one’s own privileged status. there are situational factors that contribute to the prejudices which one has. are viewed as “lazy”. These emotions are based on some preconceived beliefs and unpleasant personal experiences. which go against that group. which work as motivational and cognitive sources of prejudice. Belief in a just world : It is a belief that people get what they deserve. Motivational Sources Self-serving biases that justify one’s own status by downgrading others. People get what they deserve. It ignores the diversity within social groups and fosters inaccurate perceptions of people. In some or the other disguise . underprivileged people may conform to the expectations of the rich and thus a prejudiced view is maintained. which justify their status. people have a tendency to find someone to blame. And just because a person does not discriminate. people often tend to attribute negative characteristics to them to justify their status in the society. The more strongly one identifies with own group the greater is the strength of negative stereotypes about the other group or groups. it does not necessarily mean that he or she is not prejudiced. For example. The expression of prejudice in overt behaviour is called discrimination. 2. This is known as scapegoating.their own or the other one in the town. for example. When people are frustrated and there is no clear cause for it. 1. Discrimination against women. Discrimination can emerge from institutional policies that have nothing to do with hatred of members belonging to a particular group. It may be noted that while concepts of prejudice and discrimination are closely tied. and other things. Thus.

Conflict of interest occurs when groups are in competition with each other over valued commodities or opportunities. such as gender. We develop stereotypes for the members of each category. many of which. between religious groups and Identifying with group A and thinks it is the best Intergroup Conflict-prejudices A person join group B to enhance self-esteem Identifying with group B and thinks it is the best Fig. intergroup conflicts. and religion operate as organising principles in society. Social Categorisation : We are all members of a variety of social groups or categories. Individual group conflict occurs when the individual’s needs are different from the group’s needs. 4. Fig. Emphasis on category membership underestimates the differences within a category and overestimates the differences across categories. which has so much diversity in terms of religion. The relations between ethnic groups. It is a feeling that the other group is unjustifiably more A person join group A to enhance self-esteem privileged than their own group. It can stimulate new ideas. There is no escape from category memberships. custom. profession. languages.1 shows the linkages of self esteem identity and intergroup conflict. In each and every society diverse groups exist. increase friendly competition and increase team effectiveness. Interestingly enough moderate conflict may enhance group performance. Many people. In the worst circumstances they take the form of war. region etc. They consider their own group as better than the out-group with which they are competing. and ethnicity and where all groups are competing for scarce resources. Intergroup Conflicts People join groups for various reasons and when they work together. there is always the potential for conflict. and social tensions have become major challenges. think that men are aggressive and women are sensitive. language. In a country like India. Intergroup conflict refers to the situation of conflict between two groups. nationality. Another consequence of group comparison is a sense of relative deprivation. Search for Positive Identity : Henry Tajfel has proposed that people in the process of forming positive social identity make favourable group comparison. some of which are more important and others are less important in our lives. The prejudices which people harbour for other significant groups (minority or majority groups) are primarily responsible for intergroup conflicts. The conflicts among such groups often occurs to maintain the identity of the groups different and stronger than other groups. The groups are often organised around religion. The stronger these social identities are greater will be the intensity of intergroup conflicts.2 Relationship of self-esteem and identity with conflict . goals or norms. for example.96 Introduction to Psychology they operate in societies and shape intergroup relationships in all societies. This results in intergroup tension and violence because competing groups consider each other as rivals.4. It has been found that conflicts have negative effect but it does not mean that conflict is always bad. caste. This sense of deprivation makes the underprivileged group hostile toward the privileged group. Such conflict can take place between a group and an individual or it can occur between two or more groups. Unfortunately in today’s world the number of the conflicts is increasing.

Use of negotiations and bargaining. ethnic prejudices are still rupturing the fabric of Indian society. it is utopian to think that there can be a society free of any kind of prejudice. creed. Since groups are bound to exist. or at least device the ways to reduce prejudices in the society. It was a strong religious prejudice. race and nationality. In a group of adolescents. It is essential that increased contact takes place under the conditions of equal social and economic status. they tend to cooperate. the less powerful group may resent or feel threatened. Only when these conditions are met. Children who are . Muzafer Sherif did an interesting experiment. Jointly arriving at a solution. This neutral third party can use arbitration or mediation to settle the matter. The racial prejudice against the Jews in the Second World War resulted in the killing of 60. He found that when individuals interact with one another toward some common goals. 3. Inviting a third party to intervene.000 Jews by the Nazis. STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME PREJUDICE A question. Reorganising Learning in the Family and School : Early socialisation plays a major role in developing prejudices. each of them is found useful in specific situations. communication will be difficult between groups. 7.Attitude and Social Cognition 97 between groups following different ideologies often appear strenuous and indicate different degrees of conflict. For psychologists it is a big challenge to work for that kind of a society. Unless this happens. Even after 50 years of Independence. 2. However. The main modes of conflict resolution are as follows : 1. and mistrust and suspicion may enhance intergroup prejudices. social contacts between competing groups will lessen the prejudices.00. is. on the emergence of group conflict. which was responsible for communal violence and the killing of several lakhs of Hindus and Muslims during the partition. when these groups interact with one another toward super-ordinate goals. Many of them are discussed in the context of prejudice. In today’s world groups cannot exist in isolation. Intergroup conflicts occur when two or more groups come in contact in competitive and frustrating situations. he examined the process of the development of intergroup relations. 6. 4. 5. irrespective of caste. Withdrawal from the situation. Persuading the other party with the help of evidence. Here we may briefly refer to some of the strategies of conflict resolution. ‘how to reduce prejudice and discrimination in any society’. where everyone will be treated equally. It is also necessary that when two groups come in contact they should equally share power. a mutually agreeable solution is sought. which is of great significance. Studies of intergroup relations indicate various factors. the third party listens to both the groups’ arguments and then makes the decision. Racial prejudice has played great havoc and caused major tragedies in the history of mankind. which shape the course of such relationships. simply increased contact will not decrease intergroup relations. That means each group should have equal opportunity to influence the rewards of the other group. gradually a group structure emerges. Some possible interventions in this regard are as follows : Providing Intergroup Contact : An important technique to reduce intergroup conflict is to provide greater opportunities to different groups to come in direct contact with each other. The group develops norms to regulate the activities within the group. They develop negative attitudes and stereotypes toward one another. In mediation. When one group has more power than the other group. While some of them are more effective than others. Use of smoothing and conciliation. In arbitration. When people have to work together it is very difficult to maintain negative stereotypes about each other. However. The interdependence among groups makes intergroup relations an important topic. Winning at all costs.

changing in-group affiliations. anger. to reflect faith. events. Beliefs summarise previous experiences and make future interactions with the world more predictable and meaningful. group discussions. events and groups. Cognitive Interventions : Stereotypes may be reduced promoting attribute driven thinking instead of category driven processing. Beliefs simplify and organise what one sees. and role-play. Sometimes this word has been used to convey opinion. prejudices may not take their toll. and fear. have become powerful tools in the pubic education and opinion formation. This may reduce prejudice. face-to-face persuasion. internally consistent and exerts profound influence on our behaviour. Television etc. the beliefs we hold are not verifiable: For example. beliefs provide a context for experience and. having prejudice is not healthy. about the world we live in. people. it is essential that we define the term “belief” before proceeding to study the relevance of belief in human behaviour. are not verifiable through legitimate scientific procedures. Nevertheless. free and balanced reporting can reduce social tension and help in maintaining communal and ethnic harmony. and groups of people. The prejudiced people often suffer from anxiety. feeling. Beliefs are relatively stable cognitive structures that represent what exists for an individual in a domain beyond the direct perception or logical inference from the observed facts. all our success and failure depends on luck. other times. Without beliefs. Further.. People may be encouraged to pay attention to the characteristics of people rather than to their membership of various groups. Fair. Another factor that may play a crucial role in reducing prejudice is Mass media. one’s thinks one knows what to expect from certain objects. social diversity is increasing and we do need greater tolerance for people from different groups. and see them as persons. sureness. The favourable attitudes promote positive contact that reduces intergroup bias. groups and events? To take a concrete example. In other words. soul. Therefore.98 Introduction to Psychology brought up in an authoritarian style are found to be more prejudiced than those who are brought up in a liberal atmosphere. about the other world. Since the parents and teachers want to enhance the well-being of their children they should discourage transmitting prejudiced views to them. to some extent. Once a belief is formed. why do you believe that Indians are religious people? Or that. and how to interpret and make sense of what one sees. Here one can ask a more general question: Why do people have beliefs? Why does one have to have beliefs about objects. If parents and teachers deemphasise social categories in dealing with the members of other groups. spirits. enforcing behavioural modifications. and at conviction and so on. Radio. one forms ideas about the general properties of objects. It is not necessary that whatever one believes in. Recategorisation : It has been found that when people hailing from different groups view themselves as members of one single social identity. or has experienced. their attitudes toward the former outgroup members’ change. etc. but one’s actions are predominantly guided by these beliefs. determine what information one will seek out. which help in reduction in prejudices focus on learning appropriate positive attitudes. On the basis of what one has been told. The study of human history leaves little doubt about the importance of beliefs in the . about the causes of various happenings. The term ‘belief’ has been used in different ways by people. our beliefs in God. The Newspaper. our belief structure is enduring. In today’s work. This makes life less enjoyable. Children often internalise the attitudes and stereotypes of their parents and the other family members. Developing Positive Attitudes : Some strategies. Thus the weakening of group boundaries by recategorisation helps to reduce prejudice. This can be achieved through a variety of activities such as exposure to additional information. Also. etc. all of us would be overwhelmed by the complexity of our environment. BELIEFS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS We have beliefs about our ‘selves’. is true.

The certain beliefs are universally shared (e. life after death. You and your friends must have talked about the causes of good or poor performance. superstitious. (d) Group : Beliefs serve to enhance group solidarity by providing people with common identify.Attitude and Social Cognition 99 affairs of human species. Individuals subscribe to such and other beliefs. chance. the belief in life after death and the indestructibility of the soul helps in reducing death anxiety. fate. which are internally consistent. Let us try to understand it in detail. there is a large and complex universe of human belief systems e. It should be remembered that the perceived causes of success and failure are not necessarily the actual causes of success and failure. (a) Emotional : Beliefs serve to manage emotions such as fear. etc.g. For example. Beacause they are functional in nature. For example. the religious beliefs. some form of religion. In fact the field of social cognition deals with the ways in which we interpret.). holy spirits. they serve a very important role in human life and behaviour and fulfil certain needs. We normally tend to believe that nothing happens in this world without a cause. The mental processes involved are often automatic and occur without conscious awareness or intention. or that they did not study hard. Social Cognition The study of social cognition deals with the mental process by which we make sense of our social world comprising of people and social situations. religious beliefs mark the boundaries between right and wrong actions. uncertainty. frustration. in-group. (You have already read about it in the chapter on Motivation and Emotion in Class XI). Beliefs are norms shared by the members of a society (e. as you did in the case of examination results. luck. human beings hold strong beliefs about the supernatural forces that maintain and sustain life and nature in this universe.. soul. In modern life too. Or in other words. The process of thinking and perceiving the causes of your own or others’ success and failure is an example of causal attribution. You will remember that people evaluate others and social objects spontaneously.g. For example.. Some would have said that they did poorly because the examination papers were tough. (c) Moral : Beliefs function to regulate the allocation of moral responsibility between the self and others. ‘Karma’ among the Hindus). belief about God. The search for causes is an ongoing mental activity.g. anything that happens must have a cause. We try to explain the motives and traits of others. We use heuristics or rules to make social judgements quickly and with reduced effort. Causal attribution in this sense is an integral part of our everyday thinking.. beliefs exert profound influence on the personal and social lives of individuals and groups. analyse. hence enhance group solidarity. etc. angels. One of the most important processes of social cognition is causal attribution. etc. For example. anger. magic. All of us are interested in understanding the causes of all those events or outcomes that affect us. Causal Attributions Do you remember the day when your examination result was declared last time? Some of your friends had done well and others had not done so well. Those who had done well might have thought that they were lucky or had a high ability. between virtues (Punaya) and sin (Paap). (b) Cognitive : Beliefs provide cognitive structures and help in understanding the “why” of the life events. The Functionality of Beliefs Beliefs do exist and influence our behaviour immensely. Pepitone has proposed four functions performed by beliefs: Let us examine these four functions briefly. All of us are naïve scientists in this respect. Similarly. or had failed. Besides. For example. you may think that your poor examination performance was because . retain and utilise information about the various aspects of our social world. particularly when something unexpected happens. feelings among members can be based on religious beliefs. trying to establish cause and effect relationships.

Likelihood of future success: (4) The prior failure occurred because of bad luck (unlucky guessing. Likelihood of future success: 2 3 4 Intermediate 5 6 7 Very high — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . and you think the failure was due to a certain factor. for example. art.). The other situation is where someone has a habit of stealing. we attribute responsibility to a person when we think that he or she had both the ability and the intention to attain the outcome. etc. if someone stole. For example. who is credited as the founder of attribution theory. Likelihood of future success: (2) The prior failure occurred because you did not study enough. Indicate your subjective expectation of succeeding at the next exam. etc. Here the blame will go to the person. and the chance and the question paper are external causes.5 Understanding Causal Attribution-I Suppose you have just failed in an exam. The internal causes include people’s attributes while external causes include anything outside a person. You will recollect from the chapter on Motivation and Emotion in Class XI that Weiner added another dimension to causal attribution. Many psychologists have tried to categorise the causes as internal and external. happened to study the wrong material. In the situation of success and failure in the examination. You expect to take a similar exam in the near future. or intentional. 1 Very low (1) The prior failure occurred because you do not have the ability in the subject matter (for example.). Research work has shown that people attribute their success more to internal factors and failure more to external factors than vice versa. Causal attribution plays an important role in regulating our social life. Heider categorised all causes into two categories: internal and external. people will not blame the person for stealing. suggested that human beings function as naïve scientists. As such we try to think in terms of causes and effects.100 Introduction to Psychology the marking was not done properly. The responsible cause will be indicated below. the person will receive far more reward from others than would be the case if he or she had been paid to do the deed. because he had no money to pay someone’s fee. Not only does the blame depends on the perception of causality. the ability and the effort are internal causes. We blame or give credit to the people depending on the perception of their intentions and abilities. but rewards too. If the person is paid the causal responsibility lies outside the person. whereas the fact may be that you had no interest in the subject and did not put in much effort. If a person does a good deed and the action seems to be voluntary. you think you are poor at math. We try to find out the causes of all personal and social events. Fritz Heider. For example. Likelihood of future success: (3) The prior failure occurred because this teacher makes up difficult exams and the class is very difficult for you. known as ACTIVITY 4.

On the basis of these data try to establish the linkages between causal attributions and the feelings associated with them. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. which represent a general rejection or dislike toward the attitude object. whether we are making attribution for our own behaviour (actor). communal riots. Stereotypes are clusters of these preconceived notions regarding various groups.Attitude and Social Cognition 101 stability. Think when it happened to you in the past. answer the following questions. Studies have shown that such an attributional error is also seen in perceiving the causes of poverty. 3.6 Understanding Attribution-II Take a paper and a pencil. Now let us presume that the same thing happens to you. unemployment. The blame is often placed on the people who are the sufferers. It refers to whether the cause is stable – it does not change over a long period (memory. You would put the blame on the condition of the road. To what causes would you attribute your poor result? What were your feelings at that time? Conduct the same experiment on your friends and list the causes and feelings they have mentioned. family). When the result was declared you found that you did very poorly. luck). _____________ can serve as an important tool to reduce prejudice and intergroup conflict. Do you remember how many times you were blamed for misplacing or loosing things. or forgetting an appointment? You might have felt hurt because you thought it was not your mistake. You can easily find the evidence of fundamental attributional error from personal experience. cyclone. Think of the situation when you hear that one of your acquaintances met an accident. Another dimension along which our causal attributions differ is actor-observer dimension. or poor maintenance of the vehicle. You may tend to think that he must be walking carelessly and attribute the responsibility for injury to him. To take some examples: ability is both internal and stable. chance is both external and unstable. sit in a quiet corner and visualise the following scenario : You had taken an important examination and expected to do well. Many studies have supported these predictions. People blame the person because it is assuring for them that if they are more vigilant they will not meet such an accident. 2. This phenomenon is known as blaming the victim. _____________________ is a behavioural manifestation of prejudice. etc. effort is internal and unstable (you may not make efforts tomorrow). Even in the cases of natural disasters. poor traffic sense. Also. attributing success to stable factors gives you high expectations of success in future. Recapitulation Prejudices are negative attitudes. Discrimination is the behavioural manifestation of prejudice. That is. Preconceived notions regarding various groups are called ________________. and on the basis of that experience. floods. there is a pervasive belief that it is because of the sins. or for the behaviour of others (observer). such as earthquake. 4. Weiner suggested that when you attribute your success to internal factors you have a sense of pride. There may be many instances when you did the same to your friends or family members. The tendency to blame external factors for our own behaviour and internal factors for other’s behaviour is known as the fundamental attributional error. _________________ are biased negative attitudes formed about a group or people. ACTIVITY 4. ______________influence our behaviour by making our interactions more meaningful and predictable. A general tendency is to blame the injured person – his or her careless driving. or is unstable – it may change over a short time (interest. or on another person or some other external factor. The various sources of prejudice are . 5. that you were careless. Think of a situation when one of your classmates tripped and fell and got injured. which people have committed.

The behaviour should be considered socially desirable by the other members of the society. What will you do? Will you ask the old man to vacate your seat or will you try to accommodate him? There could be another example.102 Introduction to Psychology motivational. Obviously. Any-prosocial act. however. Some of the important techniques to reduce prejudices and intergroup conflicts are greater contact between different groups. We cannot live and grow unless there is support from others. which would include all the activities for the interest of individual. of course a much broader category. 1. which depends on time and place. You have just got your report card and are feeling great . There is a big crowd and confusion in the coach and you find that a very old man is sitting on your reserved seat. early socialisation and using mass media as an important tool. does not merit to be called prosocial. it cannot be termed as pro-social. What will you do? Will you run after the thief and try to catch him. Pro-social behaviour can be defined as a behaviour that is positively valued by society and is generally beneficial to other people and the society at large. but most often we don’t. much better than what you had expected. The Feeling State : Suppose you have done very well in the examination. You may offer to drop your friend to the station. or would you just ignore the event and go on your way? If you leave your seat for the old man or set out to chase the thief. The intentions and the consequent positive behaviour are more important considerations of pro-social behaviour than the actual benefits. helping others. 2. For any behaviour to be prosocial it should fulfil the following conditions. Suppose you are walking on a busy street and are in a rush to meet your friend for some important work. helping a thief in stealing is not a prosocial behaviour. Determinants of Pro-social Behaviour The pro-social behaviour depends on many factors. There are others who always go out of their way to help others even if there is a risk involved. One thing should be clear that though prosocial behaviour is intended to benefit others. which are used interchangeably with pro-social behaviour. it is not necessary that it should actually be so. PRO-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR : NATURE AND DETERMINANTS Humans are social beings. Should your behaviour be still considered pro-social? The answer is ‘yes’. you are engaging in prosocial behaviour. For example. a violent act against the informers of an enemy country may be considered pro-social behaviour. which one accomplishes by compulsion or as a requirement of a job. emotional and cognitive. The other terms. Sometimes we help. society. but because of the breakdown of your vehicle your friend misses the train. 3. If an act intended to benefit others is also expected to benefit the helper. Prejudices which people harbour for other significant groups as minority or caste group are responsible for intergroup conflicts. 1. All charitable. This definition emphasises that pro-social behaviour involves social judgement. Many are just watching and shouting but nobody is doing anything. Most of their activities are organised with the help of others. Pro-social behaviours are. Helping others is only one. We often engage in helping others. philanthropic activities. There has to be an intention to benefit the other person. Most of us experience such situations in our everyday life. but the most important kind of altruistic behaviour. Such efforts are considered as pro-social behaviours. The literal meaning of altruism is doing things or acting for the interest of others. Suppose you are boarding a train to visit a relative in the summer vacation. come under the category of altruistic behaviour. humanitarian. The most common pro-social behaviour is. Some people sacrifice their own interests while engaging in prosocial behaviour. Suddenly you find that someone has snatched the purse of an old lady and is running away. without any ulterior motive. is altruism and helping. and humanity. which people do without any selfinterest.

you are likely to donate more than in the situation where you had failed and were in a bad mood. Empathy is considered as an important component of altruistic personality. Empathy refers to the tendency of responding to another person’s mental state. If there were more participants sitting and waiting in the lobby. 3. Then they heard somebody moaning and calling for help. As a result. The most plausible one is what researchers call ‘diffusion of responsibility’. as we observe in a real life situation. which the experimenters tried to investigate. It allows us to feel his or her joys and sorrows as if they were our own. the tendency of a person to be less likely to help in the presence of others than when alone. Some researchers have used empathy to refer to taking the perspective of the other person. particularly the emotional state with feelings resembling the emotions of the other person. which they think are doing good work. Nevertheless. the findings were the same. People like to make donations only to those charitable organisations. While waiting to be called in for the experiment. If there was only one participant in the lobby. no body actually fell. to imagine ourselves in another person’s place. The findings were very clear. there are always more passive watchers than active help providers. For example. Whether it is a case of eveteasing or purse snatching. that is. Perceived Deservingness : You will not lend your class notes to someone who is very casual about his/her studies. It is a source of altruistic motivation involving an other-oriented emotional reaction while seeing another person in need. all are likely to feel less responsible than they would if they were alone. Of course. it took longer for them to provide help. Each person believes that the responsibility for helping is spread (diffused) equally among all bystanders. The passers-by stop out of curiosity and go on their way. If at that time someone approaches you for donation for earthquake victims. No help comes forward for long. Empathy becomes a source of moral motivation by inducing altruistic acts to make someone else feel better. This phenomenon is known as about it. People are far less likely to jump in a river and save someone’s life at the risk of their own lives. people are less likely to lend money when the amount is big than in a situation where the amount is small.4 BYSTANDER BEHAVIOUR. The tendency to empathise is more like in care of people who are considered to be similar to one self. The Cost : People are less likely to help when the cost of helping is too much. . it took him or her the minimal time to rush inside to help. Why are people not forthcoming in providing help in such crisis situations? Some laboratory experiments were conducted to answer this question. which is more involved in pro-social behaviour. The perceived welfare of the other person is quite important. as it was an experimental manipulation only. What would the subjects waiting in the lobby do? Will they help the person who is calling for help? If yes. the participants heard a crashing sound. students were invited to the psychology lab to participate in a study. According to this hypothesis. people feel inhibited to help in the presence of others because they fail to see themselves as being personally responsible for helping. It enhances the human capacity to care by allowing us to experience what other people are feeling. How often have you come across a road accident where someone got injured by a speeding vehicle and was lying in a pool of blood on the roadside? A big crowd must have gathered around and must be anxiously watching the injured man moaning for medical help. On arrival they were told that arranging the experiment would take a few minutes more and they were requested to wait in the lobby. as if somebody had fallen from a height. From the lobby they could hear sounds of furniture being moved for the experiment in the connecting room. 2. In one such study. Studies have shown that feeling empathy for a person in need leads to increased helping toward that person.Attitude and Social Cognition 103 BOX 4. how long would they take in reaching out to help? These were some of the questions. ALTRUISM AND EMPATHY bystanders’ effect. Why does the presence of more people result in delayed help? On the basis of further inquiry from the participants many plausible explanations were obtained. Such instances are plenty. People in a positive mood are more likely to help others than those who are in a bad mood.

it will reduce aggression and violence in the society. liberal. etc. No country. or society is free from incidences of violence. Diffusion of Responsibility : People do not jump to help others in crisis in every time. Of course. and less competitive. whenever people experience frustration. which is defined as blocking of their goals. verbal and mental violence. A third viewpoint is suggested by two American psychologists – Dollard and Miller. Recategorisation.5 5. If everyone close to you chooses to do voluntary service for the earthquake victims. will have fewer instances of violence. they may not help. Stereotypes. The universality of aggressive behaviour gives credence to the proposition that there is a biological basis of aggression and that it is essential for the survival. political and economic context. Aggression. It is quite possible that the behaviour which the aggressor does not consider harmful may be considered harmful by the other person or persons. Empathy. That is. Scapegoating. Modelling : This effect is important in learning pro-social behaviour. Outgroup. everyday. BOX 4. Cognition. Diffusion of responsibility. The children copy such behaviours and learn to be aggressive. anger or dislike). It is contended that a society. In psychology. Unintended harm or injury to other person is not termed as aggression. This view holds that nothing can be done to prevent human aggression and that we are biologically programmed to be destructive. terrorism. . Aggression and violence has always been there. Social Attribution. Why there is so much aggression and violence all over the world. They argue that aggression persists because it pays. In-group bias. many situational factors will not only modify the expression of aggression but also results in the displacement of the aggression.104 Introduction to Psychology 4. and in a way history is a record of wars and killings. Prejudice. Fundamental attributional error. which is open. Reference group. riots. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE : ITS CAUSES AND REMEDIES disposition that we share with all living beings. Social identity. Altruism.4. Discrimination. rape. The critics argued that aggression and violence are outcomes of complex personal and social conditions and need to be understood in a broader cultural. It should also be noted that feeling may or may not be associated with aggression. intention is an essential aspect of aggression. social. Violence against women. aggression will be a certain outcome. This hypothesis states that a feeling of frustration always leads to some form of aggression. Dollard and Miller’s hypothesis was criticised by many other psychologists as too simplistic. We always desired a society in which there is no place for any kind of physical. children and other weaker sections has become a cause of concern for everyone. or when they think that someone else is supposed to provide help. It is further argued that if the reward system of the society can be appropriately changed. Pick up any newspaper and you will find some news of murder. In an ambiguous situation where people are not clear about their own role. the same way as they learn to be moral. Learning psychologists do not agree with this view and argue that people learn to be aggressive. but in the case of war and organised crime feeling is not an essential component. an inborn Key Terms Attitude. Children observe their parents acting pro-socially and learn such behaviour from them. Belief. you are more likely to do the same. Ingroup. It should also be understood that this definition of aggression is from the aggressor’s point of view. In personal and direct aggression people may have negative feelings (of hate. Many psychologists consider aggression as instinctive. Pro-social behaviour. The reward system of the society is such that people who are aggressive are directly or indirectly rewarded by the society. This point is discussed in more detail in Box 4. kidnapping. Self-serving biases. aggression is defined as a behaviour that is designed to deliver negative outcomes (pain and suffering) to another person. Intergroup conflict. who proposed frustration-aggression hypothesis.

T 1. Yes. All of us try to understand success and failure in terms of the factors. cost of helping. Rating scales and behavioural measures. F. When all the three components of attitude are in the same direction. No. affective (feeling) and behavioural (expression). T. consistent. which caused them. 4. feel and act in a particular manner. 4. Attitudes are not innate but people learn them in the process of socialisation. Many factors contribute to the formation of these attitudes. Yes. What is an attitude? What functions do attitudes perform? Which are the components of attitudes? What are techniques of measuring attitudes? How are attitudes acquired? Which environmental influences affect the formation of attitudes? Which factors play an important role in the change of attitude? Differentiate between prejudice and stereotypes? What are the sources of prejudices? Discuss the strategies. It has been discovered that more are the number of people present. No. Family. T. Discrimination 5. No. reference groups and media can play important role in reducing prejudice and discrimination. 4. 9. T. 2. They are the products of a person’s life experiences. 3. Prejudices are attitudes. Mass media . 3. They are most frequently used. self-serving biases. 5.Attitude and Social Cognition 105 SUMMARY l l l l l l Attitudes are relatively stable dispositions to think. Causal attributions constitute an important part of social cognition. Stereotypes 2. 1. Unobtrusive measures are also used. Review Questions 1. 6. 7. T. Yes. This tendency is known as fundamental attributional error. They deal with the way people give causes to explain important social events. Prejudice 3. social learning. and deservingness of the help seeker and behaviour of others in similar situation. media exposure and personal experiences. 1. medium and message are important factors in attitude change. 2. in-group bias. Important among them are family influences. tendency to blame the victim. the less is the help provided. attitudes. There is an extensive research to show that source. which are biased toward a person or group. 7. Such behaviour depends on positive mood state. which refers to a generalised response towards the target. which help in overcoming prejudices? What are beliefs and their functions? ANSWERS I : TO LEARNING CHECKS II : III : IV : 1. operant learning and social learning. 3. Measurement of attitudes is done with the help of survey (questionnaire). which are extreme. such an attitude is more stable and difficult to change. 5. T. and useful. Attitudes have three components – cognitive (evaluative). etc. T. 4. It has been found that people give internal causes for the behaviour of others and give external causes for the behaviour of own-self. F. are resistant to change. 2. 6. Pro-social behaviour is essentially one which is intended to benefit others. 5. Yes. Beliefs 4. 3. Generally. These prejudices are primarily because of social categorisation. 8. The rating scales are based on different types of items and response alternatives. Attitudes are formed through classical conditioning. 2.

106 Introduction to Psychology 5 THIS Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä COPING CHAPTER COVERS WITH LIFE CHALLENGES CONTENTS Introduction What is adjustment? Who is Socially Adjusted? (Box 5. Ä appreciate how people deal with life stress. sources. and Ä understand what factors promote positive health and well-being.3) Health Impairing Behaviours (Box 5. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . Ä understand the type of stresses one experiences in life.5) Learned Helplessness and Learned Resourcefulness (Box 5. and types of stress Different ways of coping Explanation of healthy lifestyle The factors contributing to health and well-being BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä know how people adjust with major life challenges.1) Nature and Sources of Stress Concept of Stress Sources of Stress Types of Stress A Measure of Stressful Life-Events (Box 5.2) Coping with Stress Stress and Health Life Style and Health Some Stress Management Techniques (Box 5.4) Positive Health and Well-Being Positive Health through Positive Attitude (Box 5.6) Optimism and Thriving (Box 5.7) The concept of adjustment The nature. Ä know what kinds of behaviours help people to stay fit and healthy.

There could be conflicts between what you want and what your parents want you to do. This chapter would help you to understand the nature of adjustment. but she did not know where to go. You may be worried about your future. All these are considered normal life stresses with which one has to deal within everyday life. Sunita. It took her some time to gather courage to approach a school employee and inquire about Class XI.Coping with Life Challenges 107 INTRODUCTION For Sunita it was her first day at the new school. like the death of a near and dear one. She felt lost in the teeming crowd of strangers. mistook her as the teacher and addressed her as ‘sir’. no stage of life is free from struggles and crises. they result in successful adjustment. a serious injury or illness. There was no familiar face in the class and she could feel many eyes staring at her and making faces. Every one faces similar situations. After a few wrong turns. At times having more choices is also problematic. in her nervousness. Success is going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm. It is not only the negative events. In fact. Her heartbeat went up when a girl who had just entered the room asked for her name. which cause tension. a break in relationship or a financial loss which are not only very stressful but demand major readjustment in one’s life. When the situations are not very demanding or beyond the capabilities of an individual. loosing a job. which are challenging and difficult to deal with. The effects of chronic stress on mental and physical health will also be discussed. and you may go out of the way to prove yourself. The various internal and external changes demand modification of behaviour that will enable people to adapt to that situation. Human beings are constantly trying to adapt themselves to the changing environmental situations both internal as well as external. The whole class laughed. be it admission in some important course. she could finally find her class. You may feel tense when someone questions your abilities or intentions. This could be a familiar experience for many. You could be experiencing failures in some competitive situation. or making friends. You will also come to know about how people cope with stress. When situations are difficult and demanding the situation is termed stressful and requires the person to utilise various coping mechanisms to adjust to the situation. or about loosing those who are close to you. Her brother dropped her at the school gate. as she fumbled for words. – Winston Churchill . At times there are more serious problems. and the nature of stress and its manifestations. where one feels the pressure to make a judicious decision. and everyone has to deal with such situations. but at times positive events also throw up many challenges before us. securing good marks in the examination.

l Adjustment with diverse groups : Since a person has to work or interact with . and you know that many of your acts are directed at meeting such demands. problems of maladjustment are seen. the life functioning depends on a balance or harmony between the demands made on the organism by the environment and the organism’s functioning to deal with such demands. heat waves. feelings. personal failure. and external demands. marriage. such as school. we mobilise our resources for achieving adjustment.108 Introduction to Psychology WHAT IS ADJUSTMENT? Human beings are born and grow in a sociophysical environment.1 WHO IS SOCIALLY ADJUSTED? different groups. they are expected to be both adjusted to the demands of social life and behave in accordance with the social expectation for their age levels. we also engage in similar activities or processes to deal with the demands from the external reality or from within ourselves. and guidance. plans. schools. As children grow older. Thus. Many of your behaviours. Normally. motivation. physical. Extreme conditions in our physical environment such as cyclones. Hence. along with adjustment. and work places without much problem. at least temporarily. For example. your parents expect you to perform at a certain level in your studies. and motivations are perhaps modified as you strive to meet such expectations. sweating functions to maintain a balance. and behaviour in group setting. work organisations etc. social participation. thoughts. we call the person adjusted. The level of social adjustment shown by children depends on the quality of family environment. which create demands from within. As we know. Researchers have developed tools to assess adjustment in different areas or aspects of life. we make efforts to deal with the environmental-biological. They have positive thinking about others. Social adjustment refers to a condition when we are able to adjust with other persons in general and the group in particular to which we belong. the ability to acknowledge one’s difference and to strive in a creative manner is also the indicator of positive mental health. At a psychological level. It disturbs our balance or harmony with the environment and/or within ourselves. While each of the above is true. l Personal happiness : When we are adjusted well we feel satisfied and happy about our role performance. a person who adjusts well with different groups is regarded as well adjusted. Socially adjusted persons are skilled in social relations. and frustrations threaten our BOX 5. The degree of social adjustment attained by a person can be judged on the basis of the following criteria. social. If it is hot outside. we must also remember that happiness and health as well depend on our ability to find innovative and creative paths in life. These tools explore or predict the relative presence or absence of problems faced by the people. Temporary or more enduring failure of adjustment is maladjustment. For example. We all have experienced situations in our lives. internal. You also have your own goals. which have posed challenges for us. l Behaviour : When a person’s behaviour or overt performance comes up to the expectation of the members of the group to which one belongs. problems in our social and psychological environment such as death of a near one. l Positive thinking about groups and people : We need to have a positive view about people. We are considered well adjusted when we deal successfully with our situations such as in home. Many a times such paths may be different from the rules and norms of our group. as atmospheric temperature changes the balance is disturbed and our body functions in a way to restore the balance between the body temperature and the atmospheric temperature. Adjustment is the outcome of such efforts. or earthquakes. When our resources are limited or when we fail to properly harness such resources to meet effectively the environmental demands.

problems. at least. and difficult circumstances put us to stress. loneliness. Crowding. it is found that high levels of stress lead to greater strain. noise pollution. it gives an impression that there is no escape from stresses. the characteristics of the person and the resources available at the disposal of the person. It improves our adaptive system and we are better able to deal with such situations in future.. It depends on the nature of stressor. In the contemporary analysis the stress is considered as a process that depends on what events a person notice and the way it is appraised or comprehended. There are also people who thrive on stress and show greater efficiency in handling crises. stress is a basic ingredient of life. reduce the negative effects of the same on our well-being. Stress is an integral part of our lives. Generally. competition. However. Stress can be described as the pattern of responses an organism makes to stimulus event that disturbs the equilibrium and exceeds a person’s ability to cope. While stress is considered a major cause of mental and physical health problems. you are likely to make a secondary appraisal. These resources may be mental.Coping with Life Challenges 109 well-being. One is also subjected to prejudice. and exploitation because of one’s belongingness to a particular social class. personal. and drought. When all these are taken into consideration.stress being the external event or stimulus and strain being the resultant effect. or mental disorder.1. social insecurity. Primary appraisal is an initial evaluation of whether an event is relevant. When you view an event as threatening or stressful. The result of this force is strain. its effect is not always undesirable. A certain level of stress is necessary to perform better in examinations. physical. which refers to a change produced in the structure of the object. floods. etc. unemployment. Your response to a stressful situation largely depends upon what events you notice and how you interpret or appraise them. All the challenges. Our biological system is equipped with some stress alarms that are essential for survival and allows one to function effectively in many situations. whether it is personally threatening or not. However. are all accompaniments of modern living. The stress process is described in Figure 5. Nature also inflicts certain crises in the form of earthquakes. Lazarus has distinguished between two types of appraisals : primary and secondary. To an engineer it means any external force directed at some physical object. Faced with any challenge. The stimulus events include a large variety of external and internal conditions called stressors if they are perceived to threaten one’s well-being and demand some kind of adaptive response. abnormal behaviour. those who have not experienced any stress in their lives have a poor adaptive mechanism and may succumb to even mild forms of stress. it also resulted in many new crises. there can be no constructive and creative activity. Responding to stress in such helpful ways is coping. which are welcome. Without undergoing stress. and if relevant. science and technology bring improvement in the quality of human life in many ways. this is not always true. or region. They create distress. Many psychologists adopted this definition . we put in additional efforts and mobilise all our resources and the support system to meet the challenge. Some of these ways are helpful to us in dealing with the situation so that we are able to bring things under control or tolerate the situation or. Events that are stressful for one person may be a matter of routine for the other person. The term ‘stress’ has its origin in the field of engineering. religion. It occurs when we have positive experiences or uplifts. It can be said that adjustment is an outcome of coping. THE NATURE AND SOURCES OF STRESS The Concept of Stress However. We also experience positive stress or U stress. discrimination. which is an evaluation of your own resources and options available for dealing with the stress. violence. We respond to stresses in many ways. In fact. But such situations do not always lead to maladjustment. mostly in terms of health consequences. . Stress quite often increases our efficiency and makes us search for new coping resources.

One who thinks that he or she has the positive attitude. stress.. social (e. they are less threatening. etc.g. pressure shock). This leads to physiological changes seen in fight-or-flight response. Personal Skills Coping style Social Support Networks Professional Help PERSON CHARACTERISTICS Physiological Physical Health Constitutional Vulnerabilities Psychological Mental Health Temperament Self-Concept Cultural Cultural Definitions and Meanings Expected Response Style STRESS APPRAISAL Physiological response Behavioural response Emotional response Cognitive response Fig. such as environmental (e.110 Introduction to Psychology or social. emotional. Another factor is. break in relationship).. You will recollect from your study of nervous system in Class XI that the adrenal gland releases large amount of catecholamines into the blood stream. and cognitive. Thus. The first pathway involves autonomic nervous system.g. includes all those environmental and personal events. A person.. 5. skills. conflict. the experience and the outcome of a stressor may vary from individual to individual. One such factor is the past experience of dealing with such a stressful condition. Often such appraisals are very subjective and will depend on many factors. guilt frustration. Hypothalamus initiates action along two pathways. and social support to deal with the crises will feel less stressed. whether the stressful event is perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. or its adverse consequences. arousal plays a key role in stress-related behaviours. At the physiological level. If one has handled similar situations very successfully in the past. air pollution). in a broad sense. which threaten or challenge the well-being of a person. Very often. will experience less amount of stress than those who have no such sense of personal control. behavioural. these stressors result in a variety of stress reactions. who believes that he/she can control the onset of a negative situation. noise. As indicated earlier. loneliness.g. which may be physiological. health. The stressors can be external. or psychological (e. The second pathway involves pituitary gland which secretes the corticosteroid which provides STRESSORS Types Environmental Psychological Social Dimensions Intensity Duration Complexity Predictability RESOURCES Physical Money Medical Care.1 A Theoretical Model of the Stress Process .

be noted that this division is for analytical purpose and all . complexity (less complex vs. trouble with one’s boss) and financial matters (e. Some victims also report nightmares. work (e. Find out how much ability. (short-term vs.g. change in residence. duration. These kinds of traumatic events. witnessing a gory crime. The exact effect of such events is not known but it is certain that they do contribute to stress in different degrees. sadness. etc. environmental. less complex and expected stresses. and self-concept are also relevant to the experience of stress. Hassles : These involve the happenings in everyday life. being a hostage. The outcome of stress depends on the position of particular stressful experience along these dimensions. Thus. ACTIVITY 5. These resources can be physical like money. care of family and attending to various emergencies are daily hassles. may be months after the traumatic event has occurred. mortgage. Recent Life Events : It has been found that the effects of life changes cumulate and contribute to stress. more complex) and predictability (unexpected vs. major change in financial condition) generate stress. the stress experience will be determined by the resources of the person.g. and unanticipated stresses have more negative consequences than less intense. experienced by a housewife. are rare. In fact. Events in family (e. skill.Coping with Life Challenges 111 energy. TYPES OF STRESS Looking at the range of stressful experiences that are faced by people one may divide the stresses with reference to their domain. Finally. many health professionals recognise that the concept of a single cause for an illness is no longer suitable. i. Such stresses make life full of desperation. A victim may start feeling depressed or have flashbacks and relive the horror of the earlier experiences. All these factors determine the appraisal of a given stressful situation. long term). however.g. List these stressful events and select those that are common for all three of your friends. The stresses which people experience also vary in terms of intensity (low intensity vs. Many different sources of stress are known to precipitate illness like heart disease. medical facilities. retirement. Psychological characteristics like mental health. The emotional arousal may interfere our dealings with stresses. complex. personal injury). Examine the differences in the stress experienced by your friends in the light of their coping resources. change in eating habits. looking after their home work.1 Appraising Stressful Events Identify the stressful events.. Thus preparing children for schools. Traumatic Events : These include a variety of extreme situations such as fire. Usually more intense. In this way. the effects of such events may occur after the lapse of some time. marriage). These stresses may not be known to an outsider. high intensity).g. prolonged (or chronic). temperament.. The behavioural and cognitive responses involve coping or active effort to master. Discuss these results with your teacher. The emotional reactions to the experience of stress include fear. Sources of Stress Studies in medical science are increasingly showing the role of stress in various disorders. In fact. social. people with poor physical health and weak constitution would be more vulnerable than those who enjoy good health and strong constitution. and family support your friends have to deal with each of those stresses. It may.. reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress. we find three major types of stresses. A person’s experiences of stress depend importantly on the physiological strength of the person. shortterm.. and personal like social skills and the particular style of coping used by people to deal with stress. divorce. death of a spouse.. and anger. There are jobs in which such daily hassles are very frequent. predictable). which your three friends have experienced in the past one year. however. and psychological. personal life (e. The cultural context in which people live determines the meaning of any event and defines the nature of response that is expected under various conditions. Some of the important sources of stress are given below.e.

which affect individuals at various times in their lives. which impinge on all people uniformly. or avoidance-avoidance type. and tension. causing tension when one has to decide. For an adolescent who wants to attend a college party. is social and other types of pressures.112 Introduction to Psychology these types of stress are interrelated. These events may affect a large number of people at the same time and require a great deal of effort for effective coping. which can lead to frustration. and typically centres on our aspirations and life goals. over-restrictive parents would be a source of frustration. but there are large individual differences in the way people react to them. You may be in conflict with the other people. Pressure : The third source of stress. called ‘daily hassles’. but not necessarily by others. Frustration : It results from the blocking of needs and motives by something that prevents or hinders us from achieving a desired goal. The conflicts could be of approach-avoidance. divorce. and the like. as a member of a social group one may experience a sense of insecurity and deprivation. There could be a wide range of environmental obstacles. etc. there could be social discrimination and barriers impeding the efforts of the weaker sections of the society. A second group of environmental stressors could be events. while lack of water would be a source of frustration for someone living in the desert. You may be in conflict regarding whether to study psychology or music. and are more or less universal in terms of initial response. These events or conditions are perceived as stressful by the individual experiencing them. which occur in the course of everyday life. which have known and predictable health impairing consequences. There could be value conflicts when you are forced to take action that is against the values held by you. When these continue to persist daily over a long period in a person’s life and he/she can in no way avoid them. Many of us drive ourselves ruthlessly towards achieving goals. Some of these stressors involve minor irritating events. like death and illness in the family. then these hassles take their toll. strained relationships. Conflict : Stress may originate from a conflict between interests and motives (see Chapter 11 of Class XI textbook). pressure may stem from inner and outer sources. these life events could be one-time happenings. These could be environmental pollution. These include accidents. You will read more about environmental stressors in Chapter 8 on Environment and Human Behaviour. Furthermore. flood. For others. Social Stress Social events or conditions. Many of these are major life stresses. Psychological Stress These are personal and unique to the person experiencing them and are considered as internal sources of stress. Some of the important ones are: frustration. etc. which we experience in everyday life. and hostile neighbours are some of the examples of social stressors. Frustration may be minor and inconsequential. or may be a serious threat to our well-being and survival. approach-approach. Let us try to understand the nature of these stressors. interpersonal hurt. death of the loved ones. separation. industrial noise. crowding. The internal sources of stress are many. People vary widely in their life experiences. Let us try to learn about these different types of stresses. and try to live up to unrealistically high . You may want to take up a job offered to you and at the same time may want to continue your studies. like earthquake. conflict. inside or outside the family network for material and non-material rewards. Like frustration. Environmental Stress These stresses could be of very high intensity. For example.. fire. that are sudden and have a powerful impact. Some go through more hardships and personal tragedies than others do. Some suffer from a chronic health problem and have to think in terms of long-term adjustment. There could be conflicts because of your membership of a particular group. These are known as catastrophic events or disasters.

that stress need not be very severe BOX 5.Coping with Life Challenges 113 standards. Read them carefully and analyse their nature. The respondent is asked to check how many of these life changes they have experienced in the recent past (a year or so). The stress score of that person is the This measure developed by Holmes and Rahe became very popular and more than 400 similar measures were developed in later years. Both positive and negative events are taken. In the rapidly changing world of today. or change in life circumstances. such measures which can tell us about the stress level of a person. but more importantly on the coping resources available to the person. Akhil has cleared a course in communication and has joined a company. It should also be made clear in this context. personal illness or injury 53 life-change units. In today’s competitive world. which a person may have experienced. They developed a self-rating questionnaire made up of forty-three life changes. The world in which we live today is flooded with opportunities and choices. This data can be used to predict the work efficiency and mental health problems of a person. They developed a life-events measure of stress. Manisha feels that she will not be happy unless she stands first in the Annual Examination. it can be at times more damaging for health. Daily hassles. Poverty. believing that both kinds of changes cause stress. unemployment. ACTIVITY 5. strained relationships. Even if a stress is of the low intensity but continues over a longer period (chronic stress). . pressure. Try to find out what is the nature of underlying psychological stress. and one is constantly under pressure to optimise the gains. An attempt was made in this direction by two psychologists named Holmes and Rahe. and arthritis are some causes of chronic stress. Some of the sample items of their measure are: Life Events Death of close family members Marriage Change in health of family member Change in responsibility at work Trouble with the Boss Change in sleeping habits Vacation Value 100 63 44 29 20 16 13 The question. unfriendly co-workers. It may be conflict. everyone is under pressure to produce more and work for extra hours. like missing A MEASURE OF STRESSFUL LIFE-EVENTS weighted sum of all the items checked. Research has shown that everyday hassles may have significant harmful effects on the mental and physical health of a person. is: how to find out the level of stress which people are experiencing – like the body temperature. It may be noted that mental health does not depend merely on the stress level experienced.2 to affect physical health. it is also not always true that minor stresses will result in minor strain. Discuss your interpretations with teacher. For example.2 Understanding Various Types of Stress Following is a list of certain situations that are encountered in our life. which is of much significance in stress research. the death of one’s spouse is assigned 100. These often cause many emotional and interpersonal upheavals. Each of these life changes is assigned a numerical value in terms of their severity. one is constantly under pressure to adapt to the newer reality and challenges. Again. It was found to be of great practical use to be able to find out the stress level of a person. divorce 73. Gurmeet has lost his job and needs to find another. blood pressure? Is it possible to know the stress level by using an appropriate psychological measure? For quite some time psychologists have been trying to develop. l l l l Laxman is late for an appointment but is stuck in traffic. frustration.

various personality dimensions like optimism. We find that stress is very common in our daily life. Some of these built-in reactions are physiological and psychological changes to restore the state of equilibrium. The role of appraisal in this process is very important because the way we appraise the situation changes the pattern of our responses. T/F 2. and psychological. All stressful events have negative effects on health. Some of the coping reactions come into operation automatically rather than as a result of deliberate effort of the individual. emotional. T/F 7. the first task is to define it and evaluate the degree of threat. Those outcomes. and constructive course of action. logical. emotion focused and ego-defensive. hardiness and detachment. The relationship between stress and physical health is not direct. noise at night may be minor irritants but their cumulative effect is found to have more harmful consequences than the major stressful events. someone not acknowledging or returning your greetings. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. and exceed your ability to cope. Coping reactions can be broadly divided into three broad categories: task-oriented. The type of response made by the person depends on the nature of stress. an important purpose of relieving tension and hurt. and cognitive. is not always possible. In addition. however. duration and in frequency of their occurrence. To cope effectively with the stresses people continually scan their environment – both external and internal. when we become aware of a new demand. T/F 6. They tend to be based on an objective assessment of the stress situation and on a deliberate. The responses to stress are physiological. or in the . People cope with the stress that they experience in everyday life in a number of ways. A brief description of the reactions in these categories is given below. Having defined the problem and its degree of threat. Recapitulation In order to survive and grow we need to adjust with the demands of our environment. Some other such mechanisms are falling asleep in the face of highly traumatic events. It refers to the pattern of responses you make to stimuli that disturb your physiological and psychological equilibrium. How do people react to all those stresses that they experience in everyday life? It is surprising that despite all the stresses one goes through. the next step is to decide what to do about it. Not all stressors have long-term consequences. moderate the responses to stress. Three major types of stressors are: environmental. These stressors vary in intensity. It is important that one makes a realistic evaluation of the problem. This involves formulating new courses of action that might solve the problem by identifying the best alternative. T/F 5. Task-oriented Coping : These reactions aim at realistically coping with the adjustive demands. This. As you can guess. Stressors are stimulus situations that cause stress. one generally does not succumb or shows signs of breakdown. Though more common in children. of high and low severity. social. Generally. which people can control. T/F 4. T/F COPING WITH STRESS Coping refers to the process of dealing with the stress experienced by an individual. It is useful in relieving emotional tension and pain. crying is not uncommon in adults and may serve. These actions may entail making changes in one’s self. which come into action whenever there is a threat to survival. behavioural. Tragic events are more injurious than everyday life hassles. the response to a given stress may vary across persons. are less stressful. One such built-in mechanism is crying. characteristics of the person and the availability of resources. They are a part of the survival mechanism and can be termed as built-in reactions. to see what opportunities or dangers may be present and learn new skills to adapt to the changes. Moderate stress is necessary for good performance.114 Introduction to Psychology the school bus. T/F 3. Those who know why they are suffering are less miserable.

l Finding fault with the teacher for doing poorly in the examination. or finding a workable compromise. and accordingly. or the source of the problem. or watch TV when feeling distressed. In substitution. Dealing with the problem headlong may amount to appraising the threat emanating from the stress. l Making efforts to anticipate when the problem will recur. as in improving one’s study habits. For example. l Feeling sorry for failing in the examination. Of course. Many people whistle or laugh when they are afraid or over eat when anxious. we may handle a monotonous and unrewarding job by changing to more suitable one. Such behaviour is often shown by students who avoid taking courses that they think are very difficult.3 Understanding Problem – Focused Coping Which of these are problem-centred coping behaviours? And why? l Trying to find out environmental stressors for poor health. Often people think about the potentially harmful consequences of stressful events in order to make anticipatory preparations. It is a remedial rather than a problem-solving approach. a better option could be to escape or withdraw from a stressful situation that we cannot handle or prefer not to deal with. the man who is consistently denied a job may finally accept one. Compromise involves bringing change in us and is resorted to when the stress situation cannot be changed. The emotion focused coping aims at relieving the emotional impact of stress to make one feel better. the problem does not seem to be working. The action may be overt.Coping with Life Challenges 115 surrounding. People use the strategies of distancing or disengagement by going to a party or movie.. l Hiding poor examination performance from parents. we may try to anticipate and avoid many situations that we view as potentially dangerous or threatening. People seek social support and use planful problem solving. l Reading literature to find out negative consequences of stress. even when the threatening stressor is present. We often have to live as best we can with what cannot be changed. as in lowering one’s level of aspiration. It is like accepting whatever is available in the given situation. Emotion-focused Coping : The emphasis here is on self-control and emotion regulation. controlling anxiety. i. anger. trying to remove the obstacles. and other emotional reactions. Such emotion-focused coping may not solve the problem. In that situation. depending upon the situation. but helps people in managing the adverse outcomes. as in the case of a breakdown in a love relationship in which one is deeply involved. people may take alcohol or tranquilisers – which may provide temporary relief. Reappraisal of the stressful situation and accepting the responsibility also help to cope with the stresses. l Trying to remember what one did in a similar crisis last time. appraising one’s coping resources. Discuss the answers with your teacher. or changing one’s attitude. or both. When confronting. In other instances. Such coping behaviour when appropriate to the individual’s resources and the stress situation is often found effective in dealing with the stress.e. we tend to reduce the stress by accepting whatever goals we can meet. the situation may be much more complicated. l Discussing his/her problem with a friend. Two common compromise reactions are substitution and accommodation. which is less attractive. Accommodation here refers to a kind of compromise in which we settle for a part of what we wanted. we either escape or avoid facing the problem. the person primarily tries to protect oneself ACTIVITY 5. For example. withdrawing from it. . frustration. Ego-defensive Coping : In this kind of coping. The action may involve confronting the problem. or trying to change these emotions. or covert. l Eating a lot during the examinations. and engage in daydreaming when they feel helpless. l Going for an eye test after hitting a pole while driving a scooter. To relieve tension.

In general. repair emotional hurt. Hans Selye proposed General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) to explain the bodily consequences of stress. c. Because of the close connection between the mind and the body. As examinations approach. it affects the physical health. Thus. Research in this area has also established that tragic life events. 3. these mechanisms are learned responses. like natural disasters (flood. Recapitulation People use three different types of coping strategies. cramps. uncertain. or neurologically ill or challenged member(s) too frequently express the feelings of extreme exhaustion or burnout. which refers to examining the problem objectively and then working on strategies to remove it. etc.g. This state of physical and psychological exhaustion is technically called burnout. and when all efforts to change such a situation fail. reduce anxiety. Chronic stress takes its toll on one’s ability to think and perform effectively even in one’s routine activities. but they tend to operate on habitual and unconscious levels. etc. b. Fantasy. and impairs the psychological functioning as well. Denial of reality. and being in a blind alley. these people frequently suffer from stomach upsets. projection. helplessness. Over compensations STRESS AND HEALTH Did you ever realise that many of your friends (if not you) fall sick during the examination time. to protect the ego against the impending dangers of hurt and self-devaluations. You have read about various defence mechanisms in Chapter 2 on Self and Personality. in the sense of realistically coping with the stress situation. caretakers in families which have physically. When people have to live in an undesirable. A chain smoker draws the conclusion that the evidence of linking cigarette use to illness is worthless on scientific grounds. Here a person prepares to resist the stressor. when the stress is prolonged. The mental exhaustion includes irritability and the feelings of hopelessness.116 Introduction to Psychology psychologically from emotional hurt and selfdevaluation. make people more vulnerable to all kinds of mental. weakness. They (e. An incompetent person imagines himself chosen by an organisation as a manager. unemployment. The GAS is a three-stage model of reactions to stress. An overweight boy indulges in binging when he feels neglected by his classmates. These are: confronting the problem or task orientated coping. It is chiefly caused by intense and prolonged work–related stress. failure in examinations.). which aims at controlling and managing emotions. fantasy. Similarly. repression. mentally. looking after a severely ill family member may as well lead to an experience of burnout. body aches.. and psychosomatic diseases. The adrenal activity and cardiovascular and respiratory functions are . The physical exhaustion includes chronic fatigue. The primary aim of most of the ego-defencive responses is to cushion failure. death in the family. People experience exhaustion and attitudinal problems when demands at the work place are very high. LEARNING CHECKS II Match the defence mechanism in the following examples. for instance. physical. rationalisation. 2. denial of reality) have the component of self-deception and reality distortion. or the presence of a noxious stimulus. and low energy. It may also be caused by many other life experiences. and maintain feelings of adequacy and worth. You might have also observed that people who are unhappy in their personal lives fall sick more often than those who are happy and enjoy life. First is the alarm reaction. displacement. and the like. the consequences are bad for physical and mental health. and threatening situation for a long period of time. 1. The other is emotion focused copying. they are not adaptive. a. It is the experience of a stressor. fever. Why does this happen? Various explanations are provided to answer this question. earthquake. The third is ego-defence mechanism.

Stages of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Stage Alarm Description In response to a stressor. as you get emotionally aroused on seeing danger. the body enters a stage in which a variety of illnesses or even death may occur. The sympathetic nervous system is activated. lead to bodily activation in which stored energy is converted into usable resources. epinephrine. which produce their own antigens to mobilise the body’s defence system to kill the invading microorganisms in the blood stream. rendering the person vulnerable to a host of diseases.1. an individual becomes susceptible Table 5. the person may be at the risk of irreversible physiological damage. 5. virus. there is relatively constant resistance to the stressor. There is also increasing evidence that stress related negative emotions (such as grief. sympathetic nervous system gets aroused. fungi. Only when the immune system is suppressed and weakened. This is the reason why prolonged stress consumes all bodily energy and impairs the efficiency of different systems. the secretion of endocrine glands also increases to manage bodily activities. the body maintains a moderate level of physiological arousal.2 The General Adaptation Syndrome heart beat increases. Long-term depletion of such stored energy inhibits growth and repair functions. Imagine an acute stress situation of seeing a snake crossing your path. The second stage is that of resistance. This is the stage when body’s reserves are ready to deal with the stressor and typically achieve suitable adaptation. such as anger. Emotions. With added stressors or depletion of the ability to continue resisting. Level of Normal Resistance Alarm Reaction Stage of Resistance Stage of Exhaustion Figure 5. The cells that perform these functions are produced in the lymph organs and bone marrow. They are known as lymphocytes. Your body mobilises all its resources. norepinephrine) are released in greater amounts. sadness. the body prepares for immediate physical action. and NK-cells).1. fear. and parasites. detecting and identifying antigens. This is the third stage of exhaustion.Coping with Life Challenges 117 heightened as the body makes its preparation to face the threat. All this prepares you to defend yourself from the danger. Resistance Exhaustion . At this stage. and its details are given in Table 5. The effectiveness of the immune system is called immuno–competence. depression) affect the body’s immune system. This is the stage when the body’s entire reserves are exhausted and the person is no longer in a position to resist the stressor. The GAS Model is shown in Fig. neutralising them and removing them from the body. In stress situations. and in many cases. or when they are prolonged because of recurring problems. For example. when you are preparing for an exam you fail to pay attention to what is happening around you. If the stressor continues. B-cells. The basic functions of the immune system are. which brought about the alarm reaction. These are special white blood cells (medically called T-cells. and stress hormones (cortisol. and breathing becomes faster. When these reactions are repeated many times. The organism has increased its ability to withstand the original stressor. The immune system protects the body from foreign invaders (known as antigens) – bacteria.2. This could lead to the onset of physical symptoms. but a decrease in response to other stimuli. a major illness may occur. What happens? Your blood pressure goes up. The ongoing stress experience causes many bodily changes and over secretion of glandular chemicals.

It was found that people high on hardiness are less prone to illnesses. which are uncontrollable. To list a few. You may like to study these techniques. some characteristics of personality moderate the impact of stressful events. It is associated with strong stress resistance. Keeping these effects of stress in view. . the link between stress and personal health is very strong. stress has direct implications for our health. one would not experience stress. It is found that lung cancer and heart diseases kill the largest number of smokers. Unless one perceives a situation as threatening. most of the people who engage in such harmful habits have a tendency to underestimate the risk of damaging their health. much depends upon how an individual evaluates a stressor.3. Many of these drugs can also damage one’s ability to think logically and coherently. challenge. Hardiness is a personality disposition that is marked by commitment. Curiously. The stressors. Some of the stress – management techniques are given in Box 5. However. One is optimism. As mentioned earlier. Social and emotional support also makes a major difference. respiratory system. high blood pressure. In comparison. and other diseases. The other personality characteristic known as hardiness also buffers the adverse impact of stress. Many people are their own enemies and do precisely those things that are bad for their health. some people drink heavily. depressed people are found to be more susceptible to infectious diseases and show a slower recovery rate once they fall sick. The increased prevalence of diseases among smokers may not be due to their smoking alone. which determine how stress would affect the body’s immune functioning. one wonders why some individuals live life for more than hundreds years. A growing body of evidence suggests that people may be able to extend their lives significantly by adhering to a lifestyle that includes balanced. and control.118 Introduction to Psychology to all kinds of diseases. according to medical experts. low fat diet. intestine and can cause neurological and infectious diseases as secondary complications. stress has been implicated in the occurrence of heart disease. family stability and personality characteristics play an important role in longevity and good health. It is a mindset in which a person does not emotionally respond to stressful events but rather maintains equanimity. as Lazarus pointed out. experience less strain. LIFE STYLE AND HEALTH As we have seen. These habits can kill people directly and immediately when taken in an overdose. many of which are health impairing. Studies have shown that people who are not outcome-oriented (detached). regular exercise. The addiction to alcohol and narcotics damage the liver. this is one of the most exciting fields of research to establish the linkages between stress and illness. pessimists are more likely to deal with stress by giving up or engaging in denial. and continued activity during later years. and less mental and physical health problems. Those people who have friends and relatives to care in case of an illness take less time in recovering. Optimists are more likely to engage in actionoriented and problem-focused coping. The modern lifestyle has led to violation of many basic principles of health and paid little attention to what do we eat. but smokers are prone to other habits injurious to health. Others eat all wrong food. Alcohol and drug abuse are very common health-impairing habits. It is a general tendency to expect good or positive outcomes. The third personality dimension is anaskti or detachment. Smoking is another health impairing habit. They are more willing to seek social support and more likely to emphasise the positive aspects of any stressful event. which are controllable. Management of stress is receiving considerable attention in different walks of life. In fact. where do we live and how do we think. Factors like diet. This is a kind of mental attitude of not being overly concerned about the outcomes. regular exercise. cause more adverse effects than those stressors. even when they know that they are damaging their liver. Again. People develop different styles and habits. They exercise less and eat more. For example. There are many other factors. genetic influences. At present.

Garlic. iron. asanas. they learn time management. Exercise helps to improve endurance. training. Such self-destructive behaviours are many. People tend to ignore the risk that lie in future and also underestimate the risk. noon.3 SOME STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Biofeedback : It is a procedure to monitor and control the physiological aspects of stress. positive self-talk. and communities are taking interest in evolving stress management techniques. use of relaxation techniques. Vegetarian food is considered safe and healthy for the body. and cool-down phases. Heart disease. HEALTH IMPAIRING BEHAVIOURS l l People do not take ‘health’ as a serious matter until they fall ill. a person is trained to recognise and control it. Cognitive Behavioural Techniques : These techniques try to inoculate people against stress. and very small quantity of spices and oils. Thus by reducing muscle tension the feelings of stress and anxiety can be reduced. Some of these techniques are as follows. and skipping help to reduce stress. running. (routine) and Vichara (thinking).4 onion. The above listed health-impairing behaviours develop gradually and are often accompanied by pleasant experiences. education. ‘Dincharya’. and stress tolerance. The fundamental principles of life style described in Ayurveda are Ahara (food). and diabetes are closely related to stress. Affirmative eating can keep the body free from diseases and can delay the ageing process. enough fibre content. Usually relaxation starts from the lower body. BOX 5. One must practice these exercises at least three times a week for at least fifteen minutes at a time. Most of the programmes involving these techniques have three stages. In the education stage. tomatoes. dancing. betacarotene and fibre. setting realistic goals. walking. In view of increasing incidence of stress. Some of these are: l l l l Smoking Use of tobacco Poor nutritional habit Lack of exercise Alcohol and drug use Behaviours involving risk of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Person-to-person contact involving the exchange of bodily fluids. and progresses up to the facial muscles and the whole body is relaxed. and practice. These are briefly discussed here: Ahara (food) is the most important of all the four basic principles for a healthy and happy life.Coping with Life Challenges 119 BOX 5. They do things that are injurious to health. antioxidants. In training. This mechanism helps to reduce stress. swimming. minerals. Exercise : Aerobic. citrus fruits.. exercise. Controlled breathing is another technique in which deep long breaths are used. . Relaxation Techniques : The state of relaxation is opposed to stress. primarily semen and blood. cycling. and ‘Ratricharya’.e. carrots and almonds provide vitamins. Ritu (season) charya means to eat and act according to the six seasons of a year. Din (day) charya (routine) and Ratri (night) charya means to eat and act according to the time of day (morning. offices. ulcers. cardiovascular fitness. Achara (routine) comprises of ‘Ritucharya’. i. Stress is called a silent killer. the participants come to know the nature and effects of stress. and are helped in recognising stress – symptoms. It has been estimated that stress plays some role in 50 to 70 per cent of the total of physical illness. flexibility. Food should contain fresh fruits. According to the principles of ‘din charya’ one should wake up early in the morning and exercise. the participants rehearse the skills learned in real life situation. schools. social skills. By providing feedback about body’s functioning. Vihara (Recreation) Achara. In the practice stage. spinach. evening and night). salty meal. Each session must have warm-up. high blood pressure. and rewarding goal achievement.

You can compute the BMI for yourself using the following formula: Body weight (kg) BMI = —————————— [height (m)]2 You can interpret the score according to the following chart: BMI RANGE 20 – 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 –40 Above 40 Obesity/Health Risk Not obese. and does not do justice to psychological health. It is now realised that health is more than a medical problem and that medical doctors alone cannot deal with all kinds of health problems. People can have good health by adhering to a life style. which needs some treatment.4 Are you in Good Physical Health? A simple way to determine physical health is to find out the Body/Mass/Index (BMI). Here virus or organic malfunctioning is considered the main cause of illness. Another view posits that stress lowers the body’s immunity and secretion of harmful chemicals in the body. alcohol. Vichara refers to mental or psychological aspects. and realistic goals are important for healthy life. nor can they be entirely responsible for maintaining good health. General Adaptation Syndrome as proposed by Selye explains how the ongoing stress causes depletion of the bodily resources and results in physical illness. Burnout is a state of physical exhaustion T/F 3. then that person is . optimism. diarrhoea. This is a definition of positive health. Such a broad concept of health is now well accepted in all health care programmes of the government and other health organisations. T/F 2. Vihara. According to this definition health is the state of complete physical. A person’s life style is unrelated to his health and longevity T/F 5. or heart disease. which includes balanced diet and regular exercise. Recapitulation This section dealt with the interrelationships between stress and physical health. Vihara (recreation) refers partially to psycho -physiological and partially to physical aspects. How can health be defined in a broader sense? In recent times. very restricted. Prolonged stress affects a person physically as well as psychologically. however. If one is not suffering from any disease or other bodily affliction. which is widely acceptable and sufficiently broad. social and spiritual well-being. no risk Low risk Moderate risk High risk Very high risk 1. and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. Certain styles and habits such as smoking. Optimism is tendency to expect good or positive outcomes T/F POSITIVE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING Health is often defined as the absence of physical illness. Good health is more than just good physical health and includes social and mental health also. impulse control. this is a well-accepted definition of health. Positive thinking. drugs. The fundamental principles of Life Style described in Ayurveda are Ahara.120 Introduction to Psychology The Ratri charya advises to take dinner 2-3 hours before sleep. wrong foods can be injurious to health. Stress affects the body’s immune system T/F 4. proper medication is believed to bring the person back to good health. rather than on ACTIVITY 5. LEARNING CHECKS III considered healthy. mental. Achara and Vichara. Social support and positive aspects of personality like hardiness. one definition of health. the focus being on maintaining good health. In medical practices. which is as important as physical health. and detachment reduce the harmful impacts of stressors. This definition of health is. If one is suffering from fever. It goes beyond the mere absence of a disease. has been proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

the WHO definition of health is very close to the concept of health as given in Ayurveda. is a state of imbalance. Factors Facilitating Positive Health and Well-being Diet : Diet can affect health independently or may enhance or modify the effects of stress in combination with other factors. intellectual and moral standards. This definition views health as a multidimensional concept: the four dimensions and components of health being physical.’ It defines health in terms of balance and harmony of the body. Ill health is a part of health. the Indian medicinal system. Illness. Being overweight is not only a health risk factor but is also socially stigmatised. The socially maladjusted can still have good health. mental. How much nutrition one needs depends on one’s activity level. and spiritual health. which interact with genetic and metabolic characteristics. Positive health is accompanied by a general feeling of wellness. a much larger section of the society. freedom from anxieties. social. happy. According to Ayurveda. Ayurveda literally means ‘the science of life and longevity. In some cases. People can depart from social norms and still be healthy. The literal meaning of swasthya is the ‘state of being located in itself’. Good health is a matter of self-perception. ‘comfort foods’ or foods that make them feel better. . It lays emphasis on the cultivation of certain positive attitudes. conversely.Coping with Life Challenges 121 treatment of different diseases. suffer from malnutrition. the mind. in a state of harmony. Those who have not visited a doctor can be considered as having sound health. there is no one diet. as the total well-being and happiness of a person. meaning that stress may increase consumption of less healthy foods. Most of these foods are relatively high in fat and salt or sugar. People who are self-centred and egoist cannot have sound health status. increased metabolic demand during stress may increase the consumption of food without necessarily affecting weight. and health history. and the soul (swasthya).5 Identifying the Indicators of Positive Health Which of the following should not be included in the definition of positive health? l l l l l l l l l l personality characteristics. What people eat and how much they weigh involve behavioural processes. Stress is supposed to affect diet and weight in many ways. Such people gain weight and loose stamina to fight stress. Some people are able to maintain a healthy diet and normal weight.all considered as essential conditions for maintaining good health. Discuss your answers with your teacher. climate. Obesity is very much dependent on psychological factors. appears to contribute to disease. in all situations. in this sense. They seek. Whereas obesity and weight gain is a problem for a section of the society. Faith and trust are essential ingredients of positive health. genetic structure. Weight management and nutritional risk management have become part of the health promotion programmes of modern societies. inner conflicts and truthfulness . but the maintenance of good nutrition is based on motivation and social practices. In fact. which is ideal for everyone. and well-adjusted person can attain the state of well-being. A healthy diet appears to directly reduce the risk of disease. People who are under stress or in a negative mood are often seen eating more. Ayurveda deals with both internal and external causes of illness and views health in a very wide sense. which is below the poverty line. A sound and logical mind is essential for positive health. Poor diet. only a healthy. and others become obese. ACTIVITY 5.’ This system of medicine was developed and practiced for thousands of years in India and other neighbouring countries and is given in the ‘Charak Samhita’ and ‘Sushrut Samhita. Culture decides what we should call ‘good health’. Interestingly.

and pregnant women. Restraint.7 Coping with Stress People use different techniques for coping with stress and being healthy: Active coping.6 Try Relaxation l l l regular physical exercise play an important role in managing weight. Whereas stretching exercises have a calming effect. say the word “one”. These two kinds of exercises have opposite effects. Behavioural disengagement. and increases mortality. They relax muscles and bring about a decrease in their activity level. such as jogging. and the muscles. Deeply relax all your muscles. It retards physical growth and leads to functional impairment. stress. Positive reframing. Similarly meditation. The low dietary intake and maternal malnutrition is a major cause of low birth-weight children. Do not practice this within two hours after any meal. as well as. lungs. in keeping oneself physically and mentally fit. Breathe easily and naturally. Two kinds of physical exercises essential for good health are stretching exercises. sit quietly for several minutes. Denial. and Self-distraction. Ignore the distracting thoughts.to energize the heart. and population growth. purchasing power of the people. and aerobic exercises. Talk to two different persons. Yogic asanas provide systematic stretching to all the muscles and joints of the body and massages the glands and other body organs. In conditions of poverty.122 Introduction to Psychology While good nutrition enables one to lead a socially and economically active life. and the other who is often relaxed. Start from your feet and progress up to your face. and diminished productivity. alcohol. Use of humour. Sleeping is very essential for any living organism. Exercise : Exercise. Find out which of the two uses the above means of coping with stress. Malnutrition of the mothers again causes child mortality and mental retardation. deep breathing. disability. The problem of malnutrition is a resultant of unavailability of food. drugs. infants. one whom you consider stressful. they are equally essential for healthy living. Do not stand up for a few minutes. Although these two types of exercises produce different effects. Religion like faith in God. such as yogic asanas . women are the one’s who are most malnourished. aerobic exercises increase the arousal level of the body. The Low status of women in the society and social practices are greatly responsible for this sorry state of affairs. pre-school children. l l l Recapitulation Healthy lifestyle reduces the risk of falling sick. Aerobic exercises have activating and stimulating functions . Use of social support. Planning. Acceptance. malnutrition has an adverse impact on health and life expectancy. TM (transcendental meditation) and Zen are considered helpful in resolving stress or enhancing an individual’s stress tolerance levels. As you breathe out. Sit quietly in a comfortable position. Maintain a passive attitude. Breathe through the nose. swimming. Continue for 10 to 20 minutes. Moderate and ACTIVITY 5. Smoking. Women are discriminated in terms of both quantity and quality of food available to them. Close your eyes. and reduce the cholesterol level. at first with your eyes closed. Studies have shown that in India diets of female children and women are inadequate due to discriminatory practices. Suppression of competing activities. When you finish the relaxation exercise. Persons who have good sleep habits are able to resolve stress better. Keep them relaxed. These exercises increase the heart rate and the breathing. and reduces resistance to diseases. is directly related to promoting positive health. and faulty food . Try to become aware of your breath. People who are most vulnerable to malnutrition are those below the poverty line. and cycling. ACTIVITY 5.

depression. pessimists anticipate disasters. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. Optimism has a positive effect on the . Pessimism often leads to self-defeating patterns. and only bad things can happens to them. l having a sense of purpose in life and being problem-centred.6 LEARNED HELPLESSNESS AND LEARNED RESOURCEFULNESS and behaviours by which a person can effectively manage internal responses to stressful situations. activities. Stress does not affect an individual’s diet and health T/F 3. tolerating and understanding different points of view. and taking credit for success. to alleviate learned helplessness. Positive health includes physical. Such a definition of health is given by the WHO and is found consistent with the Ayurvedic understanding of health... Such people show resilience and adapt better to life-changes. People who experience learned helplessness show the symptoms of performance impairment. or who come from the lower strata of the society. do not make efforts even in the situations where their efforts can succeed.Coping with Life Challenges 123 are generally accompanied with other healthimpairing habits. Stress may cause obesity in some individuals T/F 4. It is also found in the research that people who have gone through a lot of hardships in life. They are better able to self-regulate and selfmonitor their own thoughts. Proper diet and exercise help to maintain good health. It has been found that people differ in the manner and the degree of success while coping with adversity. having a good sense of humour. humour. They are less affected by life-stresses and display better coping with the adversities of life. where they had to struggle hard to survive. Learned resourcefulness refers to acquired skills BOX 5. Thus while optimists tend to assume that adversity can be handled successfully in one fashion or another. l having a sense of responsibility. to be able to laugh at oneself and absurdities of life helps to see things in their proper perspective. Most of us acquire such skills without any formal training.5 POSITIVE HEALTH THROUGH POSITIVE ATTITUDE blame for failures. Positive health and well being can be realised by: perceiving the reality fairly accurately. social psychological and spiritual well-being. Some of its items are as follows: l In uncertain times. The state of Health includes physical. accepting l l l l BOX 5. I usually expect the best. who repeatedly meet failure in spite of all the efforts they make. especially for children. Meditation cannot enhance stress tolerance T/F BOX 5. Optimists use more problem focused coping strategies. Many training programmes are developed. mental and social health T/F 2. or ways of doing things. being open to new ideas. It is also observed in real life situation that people. It has been found that persons who were exposed to uncontrollable outcomes show the symptoms of learned helplessness. contd. Optimists are those who are hopeful and confident in life and pessimists are those who think that all things tend to evil. and lack of efforts. The concept of learned resourcefulness is in a way opposite to that of learned helplessness. feelings. This is often seen in the case of unemployed youths who have seen their efforts failing in the past. and positive reframing. they use acceptance. If that does not work. Scheier and his colleagues have developed a measure to assess optimism. The person who has acquired these skills of self-management develops a sense of learned resourcefulness. These people always have adequate internal resources to deal with any crisis. and behaviour. show learned resourcefulness.7 OPTIMISM AND THRIVING psychological well-being of people as well as caregivers.

and cognitive. Changing environment (internal as well as external) demands adaptation. and meditation. Coping. Alarm. It is all around in our environment. or compromises with the stressful situation. and other emotional outbursts. The responses are to be given on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to ‘strongly agree’. anger. and Social. Stress should be coped with positive and healthy approaches and one must avoid escape routes like drugs. It is essential to have healthy life styles for stress tolerance and coping. l l l l l l . alcohol. Thriving is the process of “going beyond survival and recovery from a stress or illness” by an individual or a community. An optimistic approach in thinking is also useful for counteracting stress. behavioural. Positive health and well-being come through a healthy attitude of the mind. and other socially unacceptable behaviours. In Task oriented reactions an individual confronts. I expect more good things to happen to me than bad. Optimism. Overall. Resistance.. The effect of stress depends on personal characteristics. Personal. in the form of coping with illness and thriving. Burnout. They show a higher level of thriving. Emotion focused and Defensive. SUMMARY l l l Stress is considered as a disease of existence. Key Terms Homeostasis. An individual can promote health through exercises. and Exhaustion. and characteristics of the stresses. Detachment. e. resources. Adjustment involves individual’s adaptive response to the demands of the environment and maintaining a harmonious relationship with it. Stress. Coping with stress is more of an individual and culture based mechanism. There are three major types of stresses: Environmental. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).124 Introduction to Psychology l l l l If something can go wrong for me. emotional. The response to stress may be physiological. frustration. aerobics. I am always optimistic about my future. recent life events.g. The sources of stress include traumatic events. yoga. There is also need for spiritual health and the overall harmonious conditions in the society. There is an increasing interest in the positive aspects of health behaviour. Health. In emotion focused coping the individual shows symptoms of anxiety. escapes. The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) model of stress has three stages of stress. Alarm Reaction. I rarely count on good things happening to me. Defensive reactions involve the use of various defence mechanisms. Exhaustion. There are some everyday hassles in our environment. which arise from routines of life and lead to stress. and hassles. Research has shown that people with high internality (internal locus of control) manifest more health-related activity and cope better with illness than those with external locus of control. There are three main types of coping: Task-Oriented. it will.

6. T. 5. a. 3. 3. (4) F.Coping with Life Challenges 125 Review Questions 1. (2) F. T. T. 7. . c. T. b. 8. (2) F. 2. 6. IV : (1) T. F. (5) T. 4. What What What What What What What What is adjustment? is stress? State the factors that determine the effect of stress? is GAS model? is the relationship between stress and health? are the various sources of stress? are the ways of coping with stress? is meant by healthy lifestyle? is meant by positive mental health? How can it be facilitated? ANSWERS TO LEARNING CHECKS I : 1. II : 1. (3) T. T. (4) F. 2. III : (1) T. 2. (3) T. 7. 4. 3. 5. F.

3) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Box 6. Ä appreciate the factors which cause abnormal behaviour.2) Causal Factors Related to Abnormal Behaviour Biological.5) HIV-AIDS (Box 6.126 Psychological Disorders 6 THIS Psychological Disorders CHAPTER COVERS CONTENTS Introduction Evolution of Understanding about Abnormal Behaviour What is Abnormal Behaviour? Concepts of Normality and Abnormality Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour Classification of Psychological Disorders Perspectives on Abnormal Behaviour (Box 6. and Ä familiarise with major forms of psychological disorders.1) DSM IV Classification System (Box 6. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .6) Mental Health Regulations (Box 6.4) Mood Disorders Schizophrenic and Delusional Disorders Substance Related Disorders Behavioural Disorders Personality Disorders Types of Personality Disorder (Box 6. Psychological and Socio-cultural Factors Major Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders Epidemiology of Mental Illness in India (Box 6.7) Ä Basic understanding of abnormal behaviour Ä An overview of different types of disorders Ä Causal determinants of abnormal behaviour Ä Symptoms and causes of anxiety and mood disorders Ä Factors responsible for schizophrenic and personality disorders Ä Problems and remedies of drug abuse BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the meaning and classification of abnormal behaviour.

We may find some people over-reacting to simple statements and situations. many of us have problems. Then the concepts and criteria for abnormal behaviour are described. Various forms of psychological problems are becoming common in India. . Due to rapid social and technological changes. There is also increasing awareness and understanding of such disorders. some often find fault with their family members and colleagues and feel threatened.Psychological Disorders 127 INTRODUCTION In our everyday life. These distressed people do have certain psychological disorders but are not necessarily the way they are perceived. Abnormal behaviour and various other forms of psychological disorders are on the rise. We perceive or comprehend that they have some kind of psychological problem and use terms like ‘mad’ and ‘eccentric’ for such persons. It will begin with a brief overview of the evolution of human understanding about abnormal behaviour. there is wide prevalence of psychological problems involving anxiety and depression and most of the afflicted people do not seek professional assistance. This chapter shall help you to understand certain basic concepts related to these disorders. This is followed by the classification and description of various psychological disorders. which are psychological in nature. For example some have difficulty in relating to other people. others seem to experience hallucinations and delusions. It is hoped that the study of this chapter shall broaden your perspective on the nature of human behaviour and enable you to appreciate the problems that people suffer.

prayer. It describes three physical gunas as vata. drum beating. The Greek physician Hippocrates (460-377 BC) considered to be the father of modern medicine. floods. Henri VIII officially made the monastery of St. the unconscious mind. Sullivan (1892-1949) and many others viewed unsatisfactory . Johan Weyer (1525-1588). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) established clearly that psychological factors. incantation and administering purgatives and various forms of torture. One can find reference to psychological disorders in Atharva-Veda. social and cultural factors causing mental disorders. which were hither to incomprehensible as the work of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ spirits. played an important role in the causation of mental disorders. Mental patients were considered to be possessed by such spirits. measures to reform mental hospitals were initiated in Europe and America. Twentieth century was instrumental in establishing the mental hygiene movement for the cause of mentally ill. earthquakes. It was also the beginning of understanding of psychological. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) believed that abnormal behaviour was caused by organic disturbances. These practices are not only prevalent in non-literate cultures. this belief gradually declined.. Skinner (1904-1994) and many others. Such a movement resulted in improving the conditions and the establishment of some 32 mental hospitals in USA. He classified mental disorders into three general categories. Grahi (fit or seizure). (800 BC) disturbed or abnormal behaviour was interpreted as punishment for offences against Gods. epidemics and many such phenomena. It was natural for them to extend such logic to mental disorders also. Excessive indulgence and predominance of Tamas guna over Sattva and Rajas gunas is manifested in psychological disorders. namely. which was meant to drive the evil spirit out of the body of the afflicted person. In 1547. advocated that maladaptive behaviour is caused by faulty learning or failure to learn appropriate behaviour. The treatment for possession was exorcism. According to Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) and Carl Rogers (1902-1987). These practices still prevail in many parts of the world including India. Lumbini Park hospital in the state of West Bengal was established in 1920 for the treatment of mentally ill. denied the role of deities and demons in the development of mental disorders. rajas and tamas. mostly by the bad ones. a German physician. Such hospitals or ‘asylums’ were gradually established in other countries also.e. Bhaya (fear). However. In India. Sudhir Kakar has provided a detailed psychoanalytic description of some of the shamanistic practices that still prevail in India. Canada and Europe. Manastap (anxiety) etc. sattva. This led to the development of various behaviour modification techniques. He also gave classification of mental disorders. especially that. fires. which is dated around 2000 BC. thunderstorms. Apasmar. melancholia (depression) and phrenitis (brain fever). scientific methods came to replace faith and dogma as ways of understanding the natural world. sickness. but are also found in industrialised societies and often exist alongwith the modern approaches of treatment. pitta and kaph and three mental gunas i. Later. mania (intense unfounded excitement).128 Psychological Disorders EVOLUTION OF UNDERSTANDING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR ABOUT The pre-historic man used to explain lightning. In ancient Greece. by the late 18th century. emphasised psychological conflicts and disturbed interpersonal relationships as causes of mental disorders. psychopathology is a blockage or failure to develop the tremendous potentials inherent in human beings. In the 17th and 18th centuries. Later. Watson (1878-1958). Techniques employed for such purposes were magic. Mary of Bethlehem at London into a mental hospital. Some of these have been named in Atharva–Veda as Unmad. Shamans or witch-doctors practiced exorcism. He emphasised that they are caused by brain dysfunctions. There is an elaborate description of the symptoms and methods of treatment of these disorders.

normality and abnormality are only relative concepts. A very high level of intelligence of a genius is a quantitative or statistical deviation from the ‘normal’ level of intelligence in the society but we rarely speak of a genius as ‘abnormal’ or psychologically disordered. In any society. and mental gunas: sattva. T/F 4. Shamans practiced exorcism. cultures differ in the conception of acceptable and normal behaviour. the human heart has a normal range of beats per minute and any departure from this range may indicate abnormal physical condition. T/F 2. have very different lifestyles. especially with parents during childhood as the root cause of maladaptive behaviour. the demarcation between ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ is not clear. in this book. nor because it lies at the low end of the range of distribution of intelligence in a population. The normal body temperature of human beings is around 970 F (or 370 C) and a gross deviation from the same may be safely taken as a symptom of some physical illness. In 18th and 19th century. earlier on homosexuality was considered quite abnormal in most societies. Around 1950’s Ruth Benedict.Psychological Disorders 129 interpersonal relationships. As such. Mental hospitals or asylums were established during the 17th and 18th centuries. Atharva-Veda has the oldest written documentation about mental disorders. The behaviour of Jarwas could be considered abnormal in settings other than their own. As we have seen in several other chapters. mental patients were treated with kindness and compassion. particularly when we think of abnormalities involved in psychological disorders. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. pitta and kaph. For instance. mental patients were considered to be possessed by evil spirits. and consider wearing clothes as abnormal. In Middle age. Sigmund Freud was the first to tell that psychological disorders are caused by psychological reasons. is considered abnormal but not simply due to its low frequency in a population. there is no universal or objective standard of normality. revolutionary reforms were made for the care of mental patients. T/F 5. social values and practices change over a period of time making ‘normality’ a changing concept. In case of physical illnesses. the Jarwas in Andaman live in a different habitat. Further. Kardiner and Margaret Mead established through their crosscultural investigation that there was greater need for understanding of socio-cultural influences on psychopathology. rajas and tamas. certain forms of behaviour or a range of such behaviours is considered acceptable. T/F 6. several societies have now changed to accept it as a normal sexual preference of some people in the society. But today. Pre–historic men attributed mental illness to possession by bad spirits. Psychological disorders find a place in Artharva-Veda (2000 BC) as physical gunas: vata. However. Hippocrates emphasised that mental disorders are caused by brain dysfunctions. Nevertheless. Abnormality cannot always be characterised as a quantitative or statistical extreme of the range of normality or simply as a statistically infrequent phenomenon. Recapitulation During pre-historic period. and functional (or non-problematic) for . Exorcism is the modern technique of psychological treatment. T/F 3. adaptive. abnormality means deviation from normality. For instance. the nature of our biological system presupposes a level or a range of normal functioning in reference to which abnormality or conditions of illness can be identified. Sigmund Freud was the first to establish that psychological factors play an important role in causing mental disorders. A very low level of intelligence-characteristic of mental retardation. T/F WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR? Concepts of Normality and Abnormality Literally. in respect to human behaviour and psychological functioning. Similarly.

assessment. It is difficult for persons with abnormal behaviour to adapt or to function smoothly in society. as states of mind. delusions or hallucinations. aggressiveness. most of the behavioural symptoms of clinically diagnosed mental disorders are not unique to the mental patients. Some scenes in such films evoke fear and anxiety in people and often. The Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour Since the distinction between ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviours is not easy to make. most human beings experience them. Accordingly..130 Psychological Disorders the individual in his/her relationship with others in specific contexts or situations. Nevertheless.1 Views about Abnormal Behaviours Talk to people. Such a condition may be considered ‘abnormal’ from a psychological point of view. if it is both persistent and in serious degree contrary to the continued wellbeing of the individual and/or that of the human community of which the individual is a member”. they lie on a continuum and in different phases of life. particularly under difficult circumstances. depression. abnormal behaviour is to be viewed in terms of cultural inappropriateness and the problems (dysfunctions) they cause for the individual or his/her group or community or the society. The American Psychiatric Association has specified some standards for defining and classifying mental disorders. Instead of only labelling ourselves and others ‘abnormal’. normal people also engage in similar behaviours. 2. every person can behave abnormally and show symptoms for mental disorder. As Carson. Thus. There must be some criteria for including some behaviour within the category of abnormal based on which we can identify people suffering from mental disorders in order to help them. Butcher and Mineka have stated “…… behaviour is abnormal. etc. However. anyone could face many inner fears and anxieties. both-general public as well as families who have a member suffering from any psychological disorder and get their ideas about the basis for designating a particular act or behaviour as abnormal. if you express similar levels of fear and scream often in relatively nonthreatening situations. we should know that behaviours or psychological states such as anxiety. Match it with what is given in your book. abnormal behaviour is a maladaptive behaviour. Thus. ACTIVITY 6. The behaviour(s) must not be considered culturally sanctioned or culturally appropriate. sometimes and in some situations. many in the audience scream out of fear. During such periods. abnormality has an adverse effect on a person’s well-being as well as the well-being of the society. At other times. we must have some criteria for defining ‘abnormality’ for proper identification. abnormality is a matter of the degree to which a set of behaviours of an individual are considered inappropriate as against accepted norms of the society and which are problematic for the person in his social functioning and adjustment. Instead. which are widely accepted. your behaviour can be considered abnormal. mental disorders are defined in terms of the following two broad criteria : 1. may hinder a person’s adjustment or his/her ability to function. You may have seen a very scary movie in a cinema hall. Thus. In fact. Such behaviour is accepted as normal. a gross departure from the acceptable range of behaviour in usual contexts or from the social norms. There must be clinically significant behaviour or set of behaviours or symptoms resulting in dysfunction (associated with distress/disability/ increase risk) of the individual. are found with ‘normal’ people as well as with those identified as suffering from mental disorders. almost everyone of us feels low and sad. a manifestation of mental disorder. we may find it extremely difficult to carry on with life. Hence. At some stage of our life. we should understand that normality and abnormality are not very rigid concepts. From this point of view. . Stated simply. treatment and prevention of abnormal behaviours associated with mental disorders.

Eclectic Perspective : Rather than accepting any one of the different viewpoints discussed above. depression etc. biochemical and glandular systems and advances in the area of Neuro psychology provide sufficient evidence for the role of biological factors. b) Behavioural : Maladaptive behaviour is the result of failure to learn necessary adaptive behaviours and learning the ineffective responses. delusions. T/F 3.. According to the American Psychiatric Association. The various perspectives on psychological disorders are not mutually exclusive. a) Psychodynamic : Abnormal behaviour is a function of intra-psychic conflicts and experiences. the criteria for defining and classifying mental disorders are (i) clinically significant set of behaviours resulting in dysfunction and (ii) the LEARNING CHECKS II 1. Certain behaviours considered abnormal are sometimes shown by normal people. T/F 5. often the richest insight about the cause of a disorder arise from a combination of several viewpoints. are found in ‘normal’ people as well as those with mental disorders. e) I n t e r p e r s o n a l : Unsatisfactory interpersonal relationship in the past or in the present is the primary causal factor of many maladaptive behaviour. T/F . E. IV. d) Cognitive : People are disturbed not by things and situations but by the interpretations they make. catastrophes. anxiety. Psycho-Social Perspective : It includes many perspectives.Psychological Disorders 131 BOX 6.1 PERSPECTIVES ON ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR Abnormal behaviour is the product of a failure to deal constructively with existential despair. Behaviours which cause dysfunction of the person are called abnormal behaviours.g. III. A brief description of these is given below. which are repressed and become part of unconscious. Several perspectives have been proposed to understand abnormal behaviour. some practitioners call for the integration of all the approaches to understand abnormal behaviour. Behaviours or psychological states such as anxiety. Finding of recent advancement in the field of genes and chromosomal studies. Recapitulation The distinction between normal and abnormal is relative. T/F 2. and is partly a failure of the individual’s social support systems. behaviour genetics. what may be normal in one culture may be considered abnormal in other cultures. II. Today many psychologists are trying to develop an integrated model of abnormal behaviour. Socio-Cultural Perspective : Maladaptive behaviour results from the inability to cope effectively with social changes. the major ones are described below in terms of their core assumptions. It is blocking or distortion of the individual’s natural tendencies toward health and personal growth. Abnormal behaviour is considered culturally appropriate. I. c) Humanistic–Existential : Abnormality is a failure to develop the potentials of human being. and frustration. Thus. These conflicts cause abnormal behaviour. The interpretations and views are based on the kind of underlying ‘schemas’ and experiences they have learnt to operate with. ‘All Sadhus and Pirs are learned religious people’. abnormality is a matter of degree to which certain behaviours are considered inappropriate in a society and problematic in his social functioning and adjustment. Biological Perspective : ‘Behind every twisted thought there is a twisted molecule’ is an exaggerated statement but signifies the importance of biological factors in the understanding of abnormal behaviour. Concept of normality is changing with the change in social values and practices. aggressiveness. T/F 4. There exist clear-cut boundaries between normal and abnormal behaviour.

which is becoming increasingly popular. moralistic. Investigators in a variety of ways have classified psychological disorders. Biological Factors The biological factors underlying mental disorders are of various kinds. and intolerant of others. self-centred. sensitive and in-depth manner. DSM is a system that aids the psychologist in the diagnosis.) (Axis III). analysing and actively intervening in any given situation. treatment. prognosis and management of the person. chromosomal aberrations. whether he has any medical and physical problems. hypertension etc. defeated and worthless. It covers both physical and mental disorders and is used worldwide. In our day-to-day observation. Thus. sad. is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) devised by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). These are examples of lesser psychological problems and maladjustment. The DSM system classifies disorders based on symptoms i. What are the present stressors? (Axis IV).132 Psychological Disorders behaviours must not be considered culturally appropriate. However. . to work or have meaning in their lives. Any attempt at classifying psychological disorders begins with the patient’s symptoms.e. its fourth version (DSM-IV) is being used (see Box 6. {e. He or she must try to listen to the unique experience of every patient. It helps in understanding. whether he has had any developmental disorders) (Axis II). At the one extreme. Currently. and what is the present level of adaptive functioning (Axis V). needlessly rigid. DSM asks for judgements about individuals on five separate dimentions or “axes”. At the other end. fearful. They include genetic defects. CAUSAL FACTORS RELATED ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR TO The various theoretical viewpoints on abnormal behaviours focus on different factors that contribute to their development. Currently it is in its tenth version (ICD-10 ). The psychologist tries to gather information about different areas of the person’s functioning (such as. same or similar symptoms may be present in different psychological disorders. However.2). Currently.. limited in their ability to love. The main sets of factors that work as causes are as follows. attention seekers. there are grossly disturbed people termed as psychotics. However. it may be noted that the causes of abnormal behaviour are of a diverse nature.g.. A syndrome is a cluster of symptoms that are generally found together (in a psychological disorder). immature. The various forms of abnormal behaviour are analysed from a variety of theoretical perspectives. Diagnosis facilitates communication amongst professionals to decide about the further course of treatment. can the psychologist help the patient in a humane. In between. CLASSIFICATION DISORDERS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL Most psychiatrists (medical specialists dealing with psychological disorders) and clinical psychologists (psychologists dealing with psychological disorders) agree that abnormality is an important aspect of modern life and people exhibiting abnormal behaviours should be diagnosed. the clinical psychologist must go beyond diagnosis. there are people who are unhappy. pattern of thoughts. the emphasis should not be on individual symptoms but on syndromes. impulsive or feel inadequate. However. emotions and behaviours. two systems of classification are in vogue. the classification system. shy. One is known as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) accepted by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Therefore. there are people who are anxious. to relate with others.1). You are encouraged to know more about it (see Box 6. we see disturbed behaviour of all sorts with varying degrees of severity and duration. Only in doing so. It adopts a system of diagnosis that is broad based (multiaxial) and not just symptom based (Axis I).

Childhood. or Adolescence Delirium.2 DSM IV CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Acute Stress Disorder Generalised Anxiety Disorder Somatoform Disorders Somatisation Disorder Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder Conversion Disorder Pain Disorder Hypochondriasis Body Dysmorphic Disorder Factitious Disorders Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder Depersonalisation Disorder Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Sexual Dysfunction Sexual Desire Disorders Sexual Arousal Disorders Orgasmic Disorders Sexual Pain Disorders Paraphilias Gender Identity Disorders Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Sleep Disorders Primary Sleep Disorders: Dyssomnias Parasomnias Impulsecontrol Disorders not elsewhere classified Intermittent Explosive Disorder Kleptomania Pyromania Pathological Gambling Trichotillomania Adjustment Disorders Adjustment Disorder Personality Disorders Paranoid Personality Disorder Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizotypal Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy. Childhood or Adolescence Mental Retardation Learning Disorders Motor Skill Disorder Communication Disorders Pervasive Developmental Disorders Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behaviour Disorders Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early childhood Tic Disorders Elimination Disorders Other Disorders of Infancy. Dementia and Amnestic and other Cognitive Disorders Delirium Dementia Amnestic Disorders Other cognitive disorders Mental Disorders due to General mental condition not elsewhere classified Substance-Related Disorders Alcohol Use Disorders Amphetamine (or Amphetamine-like) Caffeine-Related Disorders Cannabis-Related Cocaine-Related Hallucinogen-Related Inhalant-Related Nicotine-Related Opium-Related Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia Schizophreniform Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Delusional Disorder Brief Psychotic Disorder Shared Psychotic Disorder Mood Disorder Depressive Disorders Bipolar Disorders Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia Agoraphobia without History of Panic Disorder Specific Phobia Social Phobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder .Psychological Disorders 133 BOX 6.

rapid social and technological changes. They determine our primary reaction tendencies towards stress and in turn determine our adaptation to stress. and physical deprivation. there are four types of causes: primary.134 Psychological Disorders endocrine dysfunction. Down’s Syndrome–a kind of severe mental retardation–is due to chromosomal aberrations where one extra chromosome is found in the 21 st pair of chromosomes. A predisposing cause is a condition that comes before and increases the chances of the occurrence of the disorder later. Types of Causes : Primary. You have already read about stress in Chapter 5. If faulty genes are transmitted from parents to progeny. etc. Stress is an experience due to stressors in the environment that disrupts the normal psychological and physiological functioning. Psychological Factors The role of psychological factors in causation of abnormal behaviour is less specific and unpredictable than that of biological factors. and faulty communication and undesirable parental models are found to be significantly related to the development of abnormal behaviour. discrimination. Lastly. It increases the vulnerability of the individual to become a victim of the disorder. constitutional weakness. The Physique and other aspects of body constitution also play an important role. brain dysfunction. Stress is harmful to a person only when the person is relatively unable to cope with stressors. It has been found that certain psychological disorders like schizophrenia and manicdepressive psychosis have strong genetic basis. Inadequate parenting which includes overprotection. Unfortunately. stress is also a stimulus for many and brings new motivation and zeal. maternal and emotional deprivation especially during early childhood. again a form of severe mental retardation in young children is due to lesser production of Thyroxin hormone by Thyroid gland. The effect of these factors is not very predictable. They are less precise and work indirectly in uncertain ways. It is because these factors are difficult to identify and measure. All of them individually or in combination. From this angle. individuals have certain vulnerability for specific . Predisposing. making unrealistic demands from children. Prejudice. thereby causing disturbance in the individual. poverty does not equip growing children with adequate coping resources and makes them more vulnerable to psychological disorders. In other words. may cause the onset of abnormal behaviour. dominance of faulty and unconscious motives. Predisposition towards a given disorder is called diathesis. Likewise. A precipitating cause is an immediate condition that triggers the disorder. work in very subtle and complex ways and contribute to the genesis of psychological disorders.. However. Brain damage and neurotransmitter dysfunction are largely responsible for several types of symptoms and psychological disorders. predisposing. Cretinism. A primary cause is the condition that must exist for the disorder to occur. gender inequality. unemployment. physiological homeostasis is disturbed due to nutritional deficiencies and lack of rest. over-permissiveness and over-indulgence. Precipitating and Reinforcing The causes of mental disorders vary in terms of their relationship with the onset of disorder. For example. and psychic trauma play an important role. They vary from culture to culture. A reinforcing cause is a condition that tends to maintain some already occurred abnormal behaviour. very little is specifically known about these factors. Socio-Cultural Factors These factors also contribute to the genesis of psychological disorders. inconsistent reward and punishments. Stress has usually a negative influence on the mind and the body. Development of distorted identity. Extreme physical deprivation is found to lead to psychological abnormalities. but the disorder may or may not occur depending on other factors. precipitating and reinforcing. they may lead to psychological and physical disorders. Maladaptive peer relationships also contribute to abnormal behaviour.

or reinforcing (condition that tends to maintain already occurred abnormal behaviour). Here the individual is excessively anxious in general or under specific circumstances but still has (or maintains) enough contact with reality and rarely requires hospitalisation. The causes of abnormal behaviour relate to biological factors such as genetic defects. and delusional disorders. In this context. Nutritional deficiencies and lack of rest cause ____________. panic disorder. However. and apprehension more intensely and long lasting than the common people do. the patients (i) frequently experience anxiety. many psychologists described people who were suffering from anxiety disorders as ‘neurotic’. predisposing (condition that comes before and increases the chances of occurrence of the disorder). discrimination. The causes lie within the person. or 1. It is known as the manifestation of psychological disorders. etc. and socio-cultural factors separately. However. In general. mood disorders. The person tries his/her best to do so by mobilising of the resources available to him/her. Psychological factors (deprivation. ANXIETY DISORDERS There are many types of anxiety disorders. only some important classes of disorders are being selected for the present discussion. Recapitulation Psychological disorders have been classified in many ways.Psychological Disorders 135 psychological disorders. Therefore. . and (ii) they try to cope with these feelings through ritualised behaviours. Let us try to understand each of these in term of their main features. a point comes when one is unable to cope with these excessive demands and a breakdown takes place. fear. somatoform disorder. The causes in terms of the onset of disorder may be primary (condition must exist for LEARNING CHECKS III disorder to occur). Mental retardation caused due to chromosomal aberration is __________ ________. etc. psychic trauma. Inability of the person to cope with excessive demands resulting into a break down is known as manifestation of _______________. Earlier on. MAJOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS As you have seen in Box 6. schizophrenic. A cluster of symptoms generally found together are called ______________. somatoform disorders. chromosomal abnormalities. it is the interaction of these which is crucial. substance-related disorders. psychological. Certain stresses or excessive demands compel him/her to make adjustment. They include anxiety disorders. 3. 6. 5. Various types of anxiety disorders involve a wide range of symptom patterns (syndromes). 2. precipitating (immediate condition that triggers the disorder). stress etc. dissociative disorders. 4. The major ones include generalised anxiety disorder. or repetitive thoughts that may reduce anxiety slightly. brain dysfunction. unemployment. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) devised by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is popularly used. A ______________ cause increases the vulnerability of the person to become a victim of the disorder.) have important roles to play in the causation of abnormal behaviour. behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence. either in his/her biological makeup or within the personality. we shall discuss the role of biological. obsessive-compulsive disorder.) and socio-cultural factors (poverty.2. Predisposition towards a disorder is called ______________. the list of disorders is very long and it is not possible for you to understand all of them. and personality disorders. dissociative disorders and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). worry. various forms of phobia. The current scheme of classification uses the clear and overt presence of marked anxiety as the criteria for including the different clusters of symptoms in the group of anxiety disorders.

prevails. It was traditionally described as ‘free floating anxiety’. Generalised anxiety disorder differs from panic disorder in the diffusion of anxiety. and are beyond voluntary control. i. some are afraid of losing their voice when speaking on the stage or talking to strangers. Generalised Anxiety Disorder : It is marked by unrealistic or excessive worry. These attacks generally subside after a while. People with panic disorder may not remain anxious all the time. However. where before and after the release. Examples of obsession are recurring thoughts of killing a loved one or constantly Table 6. This leads to the development of ‘anticipatory anxiety’ and gradual change in the life style of the patient.. It is a common disorder and roughly. dizziness and a sense of helplessness mark the panic attack. These are normal fears. They have fear of specific objects. seem inexplicable. phobias have been named by means of Greek or Latin prefixes that stand for the object of fear. A compulsion is an act or a series of acts a person feels compelled to perform repeatedly despite knowing that it is senseless e. and is not attributed to recent life experiences. The unexpectedness of attack is often extremely disturbing as the patient is unable to relate it to any particular situation or event. overwhelming. which persists for months or longer. Panic disorder is like sudden release of the pressure from the cooker. The most common . The non-social irrational fears are called specific phobias like fear of rats or cats. aggressive. but today they are grouped into a few categories.e. calmness wondering whether the gas stove had been turned off before leaving for work. trembling. Panic Disorder : It is characterised by a sudden attack of unanticipated.1 Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Generalised Anxiety Disorders Psychological Symptoms l l l l l l Physical Symptoms l l l l l l l l l Nervousness Tension Worry and apprehension Sleeplessness Difficulty in concentration Heightened vigilance Feeling tired Dizziness Frequent urination Increased palpitation Feeling faint Breathlessness Sweating Trembling Dryness of throat.g. despite a person’s effort to resist it. For example. and religious in nature and of contamination and doubt. Persons suffering from generalised anxiety disorders manifest the characteristics shown in Table 6. chest discomfort. The most common obsessions are sexual. or situations. Phobic Disorder : Every one of us has fear of one thing or the other. patient avoids going to public places. Traditionally. and this makes their lives difficult. and the avoidance behaviour (agoraphobia) interferes with patients’ work and other activities. Most of the time. which is more focused and intense in the latter than in the former. these fears are realistic and appropriate in view of the danger posed before us.136 Psychological Disorders try to avoid situations that trigger the anxiety. sweating. many people have fears which are out of proportion.. These irrational fears are called social phobias. The disorder results in personal distress and often impairs relations within the family.1. They try to avoid them. There are irrational fears of public places called agoraphobia. Increased palpitation and respiration. and apparently unexplainable terror that reaches its peak within 5-10 minutes. shortness of breath. five percent of population suffers from it at one time or other in their life. repetitive hand washing. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders : An obsession is an unpleasant and unwanted thought that keeps coming to mind. as is the case with generalised anxiety disorder. people.

Thus. it becomes a major problem and requires professional attention. despite contrary evidences and medical reassurances. and exaggerated. These individuals sincerely believe that the symptoms are real and of serious nature. vague. motor. and splitting of the self into multiple self-states. or visceral in nature. no organic basis is found. psychological problems are manifested in sincere complaints of physical dysfunction. The main types of this disorder are listed below : (i) Dissociative Amnesia : It involves selective memory loss. Paralysis. bowel troubles. ordering. may be such disorders. The main types of somatoform disorders are given below. Instead of order. On the contrary. It is not surprising that somatising patients frequently go to doctors. the most common complaints are headaches. Thus. specially working on the jobs where public dealings are a constant requirement. palpitation. They seek frequent medical attention. However. They believe that they are sick. a compulsion need not always be caused by an obsession. and hindrance. (ii) Conversion Disorders : People with these disorders exhibit symptoms of deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function that suggests a medical condition. Dissociative Disorders : Dissociative disorders are not always considered pathological in nature. (iii) Hypochondriasis : It is diagnosed when an individual believes that he has a serious illness. feelings of ‘alienation’. or mentally reciting a series of mantras or numbers.Psychological Disorders 137 forms of compulsive acts are counting. Secondary gain (seeking attention or affection) that he or she might not get otherwise is evident in such patients. they often are skeptical and disbelieving. which cannot be explained on medical basis. If assured by doctors that they do not have any illness. They impress other people by their selfcenteredness. but on medical examination. selective hearing. However. by current knowledge of body functions and believed to be having psychological basis of their occurrence and maintenance. disorganisation. change them and even undergo needless surgery. fatigue. immaturity and overexcitedness. (i) Somatisation Disorder : In this disorder. Symptoms may be sensory. Hypochondriacs monitor their physical condition and look for signs of illness. Psychological factors are judged to be associated with these symptoms as they appear without regard for the actual fact of anatomy and often lead to a stressful life experience. checking. Their complaints are dramatic. Somatoform Disorders : The term ‘soma’ means body and therefore. severe laryngitis or mutism etc. some such behaviours are commonly accepted as cultural–religious experiences in many societies. i. narrate long and detailed history to support it and take lot of medicines. Healthy people with a few obsessivecompulsive tendencies tend to work meticulously. it is on the safer side to rule out any medical reasons before coming to the conclusion.e. Many of them can maintain a high level of achievement. Memory loss can be localised to a particular event or time . efficiently and are able to organise their daily activities. which is not due to any visible indication of organic changes. loss of voice. In fact. They involve large memory gaps. However. about one fourth of the people having these disorders only have obsessive thoughts but do not act on them. Often obsessions and compulsions go together. abdominal pain.. double vision. these disorders refer to physical problems. and vague body pains. they create confusion. These people have an obsessive concern about the disease and preoccupation with body organs. When obsessive thoughts or compulsive acts begin to interfere with the routine of daily life. obsessive thinking leads to compulsive acts. somatoform disorders consist of physical symptoms. cleaning. nausea. They differ from hypochondriacs as the latter focus on the fear of having specific disease while these people remain preoccupied with symptoms. Here an individual complains of a serious physical problem over a long period. obsessive persons prove to be a disaster. They are assets in certain kinds of jobs like cashier of a bank or laboratory technician or machine designer.

96 Rate Per 1000 Population Schizophrenia 1. these are temporary phases.4 POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) ‘coping styles’ of the victim are some of the factors identified for recurrent attacks of PTSD. No. (iii) Multiple Personality : It is the most dramatic disorder. places. 12. and other mood disorders . and depressed. we usually overcome these feelings. Such a person exhibits a disturbance in mood. This is ‘normal depression’ that most of us feel occasionally.10 4.82 1. 18. presence of cues resembling to the traumatic event and poor .25 6. fire. in one person. It is. and guilt about surviving.29 3. persons. Many victims of war.3 Place Bangalore Baroda Calcutta Patiala Year 1983 1983 1983 1983 person would then be described as being ‘emotionally disturbed’. Neither of the personalities has any awareness of the other. Depressive Disorders : Symptoms of depressive disorders are more severe and long EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MENTAL ILLNESS IN INDIA Population All Psychosis 35. They complain of tension. Depressive disorders should be distinguished from depressed mood. After several years. difficulty in concentration. exaggerated startled response.71 3. However. Bipolar disorders are much less common than depressive disorders. losing a job or honour. The three main types of mood disorders are: depressive disorders. sleeplessness.582 36.05 3. Such a person may set up a new life in some distant place. This is often transitory and time bound and often a period of genuine introspection. he or she may ‘wake up’ and feel distressed being in a strange place. bipolar disorders. at one time or the other in our life. etc. and things. 1988) BOX 6.50 10. Mood disorders are disorders of emotion of sufficient intensity and duration which require immediate psychological and medical attention. which represent a short-term response to stress and in due course of time.548 39. MOOD DISORDERS We often hear that someone whom we thought happy and well settled suddenly starts talking about ending his/her life. rape. depression and numbness immediately after or in the following months and some times for years. terrorist attacks. It is considered a delayed stress reaction that reoccur repeatedly even long after the trauma – victims experience emotional numbing in relation to everyday events and feelings of alienation from other people. The magnitude of the trauma. earthquake.30 14.83 1.09 Epilepsy 7. however. These feelings occur during cloudy weather. due to death in the family.28 1. accident or natural calamities like flood.17 All Causes 11.60 8. and difficulty in concentration. Some accident or severe emotional trauma can trigger these amnesias. When we know that the talk of suicide was a result of ‘failure in a business deal’ the BOX 6.138 Psychological Disorders or so generalised that the entire past is forgotten. failure in relationships or major financial loss. go into a state of anxiety.655 34. (ii) Dissociative Fugue : It involves unexpected travel away from home and assumption of a new identity. riots. They get recurrent nightmares in which the trauma is relived. All of us become sad. a rare disorder. It involves the coexistence of two or more largely complete. Some people cannot recall their past while others are unable to recall specific events. They may have symptoms like sleep problems.595 3. grieved.10 (Source: ICMR Bulletin Vol. and usually very different personalities.77 2.

Psychological Disorders

139

lasting. They include dissatisfaction and anxiety, changes in appetite, disturbance of sleep and psychomotor functions, loss of interest and energy, feelings of guilt, thoughts of death, and difficulty in concentration. In major depressive episodes, loss of interest and pleasure in all activities of life is marked. Weight loss or gain, sleep disturbances, agitation or slow-down behaviour, fatigue, inability to think clearly, feeling of worthlessness, and frequent thought of death and suicide are common symptoms. Bipolar Disorder : It includes both, periods of depression as well as periods of elation (Mania). These may be in varying degrees of intensity ranging from mild to severe. Manic has the symptoms of elevated mood, increased psychomotor activities and grandiose ideas. Dysthymic Disorder : It is a mild depression of less incapacitating nature, often lasting for years and sometimes hard to recognise. A person who remains depressed has either poor appetite or overeating tendency. They may have difficulty in sleeping or too much of sleeping. They constantly suffer from the feelings of tiredness, hopelessness, and worthlessness. They have also difficulty in concentration and decision-making. It is chronic disorder and the least amenable to therapy. Genetic factors are often involved in severe depression and the bipolar disorders. The role of neurobiological factors is important in this respect. Biological therapies including Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) and drug therapies are found very effective in treating mood disorders. Social skills training and cognitive therapy are also used for the treatment of depression. You will read about these in Chapter 7. SCHIZOPHRENIC
AND

some point of time in their life. Such persons typically have problems with attention, perception, thinking, social relationships, motivation, and emotion. For example, they ‘hear voices that are not there, speak a language others don’t understand, laugh when there is nothing humorous, and do not have touch with reality’. Schizophrenics are typically known for their thinking disorders. They suffer from delusions or false beliefs, which cannot be shaken inspite of clear contrary evidence. Prominent among delusions are ideas of reference in which patients believe that their thoughts, feelings, or actions are being stolen or controlled by someone else or by some machines. A schizophrenic, seeing his wife talking to a stranger may be convinced that they are in love and hatching a plot to kill him. Such a belief is known as delusion of persecution. A schizophrenic may imagine that he/she is famous, beautiful, wealthy or powerful and he or she may win a noble prize. They have a delusion of grandeur. Schizophrenics also have hallucinations, which are mostly auditory in nature. They hear voices and commands, which are not there in real sense. Many schizophrenics have disorders of attention, motivation and emotion. For hours, they may sit listlessly without any expression in an apathetic manner with expressionless face. At the social level, they generally have very poor relationship with others. There is progressive withdrawl from the world of reality, which paves the way for gradual deterioration. The major types of schizophrenia are described in Table 6.2. SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS Psychoactive drugs including alcohol influence our thoughts, emotions, and activities. Prolonged use of them may cause changes in motivation, attention, concentration, and motor co-ordination in a negative way. Intense craving, increased tolerance of some substance, withdrawal symptoms when substance is stopped, and drug seeking behaviour (e.g., spending lot of time, effort and energy in procuring drugs) are characteristic features of these disorders.

DELUSIONAL DISORDERS

Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic condition. The name is coined after the two Greek words : schizo meaning ‘split’ and phrene meaning ‘mind’. Thus, schizophrenia means, spilt or fragmentation of mind or personality. Some prefer to call it schizophrenias, as they believe that it is not a single disease. Approximately 1 percent of the population suffers from this disorder at

140

Psychological Disorders

Table 6.2 Major Types of Schizophrenia
Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid Catatonic Main Symptoms Delusion of persecution/grandeur, ideas of reference/jealousy, if hallucination, auditory. In excitement phase, psychomotor activities increase up to level of agitation; in stupor phase, person remains standstill for hours or days. Bizarre and silly behaviour, inappropriate emotions Those types that do not fall into any of the above categories. Apathy, social isolation, lack of will.

Disorganised Undifferentiated Residual

Though alcohol is a drug, but for many, the addiction of choice may be ‘gutka’, panmasala, tobacco, opium, marijuana, all of which are natural substances. The synthetic drugs like ‘smack’ and ‘ecstasy’, which have been universally banned, are a combination of chemicals like barbiturates and tranquillisers often attract adolescents. They tend to get drawn into groups that experiment with different kinds of drugs. These ‘thrill seeking’ persons often end up with moderate to severe addictions, requiring de-addiction therapy and individual counselling. They cause extreme distress to parents and teachers and often drift into criminal activities to sustain their addictions. Medical treatment of this disorder, related to particular substance may differ from drug to drug, but the actual process adopted to de-addict a patient have the following common steps : (i) Detoxification : It is a medically supervised process aimed at removing the toxic effects of the substance from the body. (ii) Administration of drugs to ease withdrawl symptoms : Withdrawl symptoms, like tremors, sweating, confusion, increased blood pressure, depression, and agitation do occur due to stoppage of substance intake and detoxification. Therefore, some safe drugs are given to ease the effect of these symptoms. (iii) Aversive conditioning : For treatment, aversive stimulus, such as nausea producing drug along with very small

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

amount of drug or alcohol is given to the patient in several trials. This association produces aversion to addictive substance in the patient. Encouragement for abstinence : The patient is encouraged to remain away from the drugs. Mutual social support : The patient is encouraged to join ex-patient groups. Members of such groups have successful history of overcoming their addiction. Individual and group psychotherapy : The patients are also offered individual/group psychotherapies where their personality, emotions and inter-personal problems, and the possible causes of their indulgence in addiction, are discussed in an attempt to resolve them. Rehabilitation programme : Recreational and occupational therapies are offered to engage patients, mind and to keep them busy. Relapse prevention and follow-up : From time to time it is done so that ex-patient may not return to the earlier addictive stage.

BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS Maladaptive behaviours of the childhood may continue into adolescence and even into adulthood. The major disorders that occur during these stages are given below. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Children may suffer from either or both

Psychological Disorders

141

problems. They may not be able to attend to specific stimuli or may show hyper level of activity. As a consequence, they may show deficiencies in academic and social skills. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder : The child or adolescent behaves in defiant and hostile manner toward parents, teachers or other authority figures. In conduct disorder, the basic rights of others are severely violated. They behave aggressively toward other individuals and cause damage to the person/animal or property. Separation Anxiety Disorder : Children with this disorder have excessive anxiety and even panic if separated from parents especially from mother. They cannot live alone and refuse to go to school. Eating Disorder : Children and adolescents may have Anorexia Nervosa or conscious and
ACTIVITY 6.2 Understanding Drug Addiction Interview individuals who are addicted to drugs/alcohol. Organise classroom discussion on the causative factors (biological, psychological, socio-cultural). Discuss ways in which students can be made aware of addiction.

deliberate refusal of food and preoccupation with weight reduction and related behaviours. Contrarily, they may have Bulimia where large quantities of food are consumed followed by vomiting, purging and excessive exercise. Eating disorders often have cognitiveemotional basis for indulgence in them. Functional Enuresis : This refers to bedwetting or habitual involuntary discharge of urine after the age of five. Faulty learning and disturbed family interactions often appear to be the cause of this disorder. Autism : It is a very disturbing condition in which the young child is unable to relate to people and situations and remains aloof. He or she remains occupied with inanimate objects and disregards, ignores, and shuts out any thing that comes to him/her from outside. They have very poor language acquisition and show peculiarities of speech. The autistic child often engages in orderly,

repetitive and compulsive activity and if disturbed, becomes agitative. The signs of autism are visible from the infancy itself where infant remains unresponsive to the mother’s gestures and cuddle. Approximately 80 per cent of autistic children have I.Q. below 70 indicating the presence of mental retardation, but some have better visuospatial skills. It is a rare condition and difficult to treat. However, operant conditioning and drug treatment have promise to treat at least some autistic children. Mental Retardation : It is a condition of arrested intellectual growth before the age of 18 years, but when it prevails early in life, the severity of condition is marked. You have read about the levels of retardation in some detail in Chapter 1 on Intelligence. You may recollect that the broad categories of retardation are mild, moderate, severe and profound. When I.Q. is below 70, the child is considered to be retarded. There are many causes of mental retardation. Broadly speaking, these are genetic, metabolic, organic and environmental. People need to be aware about the problems and various special education and rehabilitation programmes that are run in India and elsewhere in the world. All these efforts are like a drop in the ocean and much more is required to be done in this direction. Juvenile Delinquency : Many children and adolescents commit minor offences such as stealing, or fighting on streets. However, there are some who persistently behave in a way, which causes offence to other people and their properties. They are people with conduct disorders. It covers a great variety of behaviour patterns such as aggression, defiance, disobedience, verbal hostility, lying, destructiveness, vandalism, theft, promiscuity and early drug and alcohol abuse. Genetic and environmental factors including disturbed family relations play a part in the development of such behaviour. Elder children often come in confrontation with police and law enforcing agencies and if their offences are proved, they are put in Remand Homes and Reformatory Schools. Courts are lenient toward them and they are not severely punished, as is the case with adult offenders. However, the conditions of

142

Psychological Disorders

Reformatory schools and Remand Homes need to be conducive for their rehabilitation and reform. It is difficult to treat them but therapy based on principles of operant conditioning is useful. PERSONALITY DISORDERS Personality disorders are longstanding, maladaptive, and inflexible styles of relating to the environment. They cause problems in interpersonal relationships, on the job or result in personal distress. In your life, you might have come across persons who are over suspicious and distrustful to others or too much orderly and systematic even in trivial matters that puts your patience on trial. You might have seen people who give too much importance to self and have little time for others. They suffer from some sort of personality disorder. An understanding of their behaviours will definitely help you to deal with them in an effective manner. These disorders are grouped into following major clusters : 1. Paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal. 2. Histrionic, narcissistic, anti-social, and borderline. 3. Avoidant, dependent, obsessivecompulsive and passive-aggressive. 4. Self-defeating.
BOX 6.5

These types are described in Box 6.5. However, a detailed description of antisocial type is given below. The Antisocial Person A very important sub-category of the personality disorder is the antisocial person, also known as Psychopath or Sociopath. They require special mention because the damage they cause to their potential victims is, mostly so devastating that it ruins the life of a person, family or of the whole community in one stroke. The characteristic features of these persons are that they constantly engage in anti-social activities and in turn, harm others but have little guilt or remorse for their behaviour. Many of them are charming and intelligent persons who manipulate their victims by giving a false sense of intimacy, love or belonging and then exploit them financially, sexually or otherwise. One may find these persons in all shades and varieties ranging from a petty pickpocket to a fraudulent share broker/banker, a deceitful lover, a firebrand politician, and a flippant cult leader. Psychopaths are pleasure seekers, have short-term objectives, do not learn from experience, and have little regard for others, social norms or law. They are so clever that they seldom come in the clutches of law and order agencies. Charles Shobraj

TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDER at the centre of attention. They are attention seekers, and express their emotion in an exaggerated and dramatic fashion. They may indulge into suicidal threats to manipulate significant others. They generally respond with impressions rather than details. This disorder is more prevalent in women than men. Narcissistic persons are in love with the self and give too much importance to it. They have great expectations of special favours and constant attention from others. They feel that they are very special in brilliance, power, and beauty or in love relationships. They lack empathy and take advantage of others. Borderline persons, more of women than men, are found to have unstable interpersonal relationships. Intense clinging, dependency, and
contd...

Paranoid persons have unwarranted feelings of suspiciousness and mistrust. They are cold, incapable of having warm and close relationship with others. They have hypersensitivity to criticism and have fears of losing independence and power. They rarely have insight into their problems and hardly seek psychological help. Schizoid persons are cold, reserved, reclusive, and lack capacity for close and warm relationships. They lack humour, social skills and remain comfortable in isolated jobs. Schizotypal persons have odd ways of thinking, perceiving, communicating and behaving. They are like schizoid but in addition to it oddities of speech and ideas is visible in them, at times to the extent of bizarreness. Histrionic people always try to keep themselves

Psychological Disorders

143

manipulation are marked in their relationships. They have impulsiveness in areas of sex, crime, substance abuse, and reckless driving and have chronic feelings of emptiness. Avoidant persons avoid relationships and social interactions. They want to enter into relationships, but fear of rejection and doubts about acceptance by others restrain them from doing so. Therefore, they avoid it until they become sure of uncritical acceptance. They seem to be cold, withdrawn and timid but remain hyper vigilant and continuously assess all signs and cues, both positive as well as negative, while interacting with others and cautiously move ahead accordingly. Dependent persons live on others to make all-important decisions of their lives and subordinate their own needs to the needs and demands of the others. They have difficulty

to act independently and feel insecure when left alone. Obsessive-compulsive persons are rigid and unadaptive but feel that things are under their control. They show excessive concern for rules, order, and cleanliness. There is a preoccupation for trivial details and poor allocation of time. Passive-aggressive persons express their hostility and resentment in indirect and non-violent ways such as being stubborn or becoming intentionally inefficient. They do not comply with demands others make on them. It is visible in their behaviour, in their work place, in their social interactions, and in social relations. Self-defeating persons engage in excessive selfsacrifice and avoid pleasurable experiences. Such an individual chooses relationships or situations that lead to failure, in spite of having opportunities or ability to choose rewarding alternatives.

and the famous cheat Mithilesh Kumar Shrivastava alias ‘Natwarlal’ are best illustrations of psychopathic personality. In our day-to-day interactions, we come in contact with ‘normal’ persons but feel distressed after dealing with them. Obviously these so called ‘normal’ persons have problems, of which they themselves are not aware or don’t know where to get help, while others often wonder why these people behave in strange ways. These are the persons suffering from personality disorders. Recapitulation In anxiety disorders, the individual feels excessive anxiety in general or in specific circumstances but maintains contact with reality. The main types of anxiety disorders include generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder etc. Somatoform disorder refers to physical problems having no organic basis. They include somatisation disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis etc. Dissociative disorders are pathological in nature and involve memory gaps, feelings of alienation and splitting of self into multiple-self-states such as dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue and multiple personality.

Mood disorders are disorders of emotion requiring psychological and medical attention. These include depressive disorders, biopolar disorders etc. Schizophrenia means fragmentation of mind or personality. Paranoid, Catatonic, disorganised, undifferentiated, and residual are its major types. There are substance related disorders
LEARNING CHECKS IV

Write the names of the disorders associated with each of the following symptoms : 1. She remains all the time in a state of high alert and apprehension though she does not know the cause of it. 2. He checks and rechecks door lock at least ten times before leaving for work. 3. For some months he remains very happy and for some months very sad. 4. His mother is perturbed, as he is bed wetting even at the age of ten. 5. All the time she does something or other to attract the attention of others. 6. He has duped the public after collecting a large sum of money for years in saving schemes and now his whereabouts are not known .

7 l MENTAL HEALTH REGULATIONS he was in such a mental state where he did not know that he was doing wrong. l Life can be made happy and comfortable during the period an HIV-AIDS patient is alive. tremendous advancement has taken place contd. if at the time of committing such an act. in general. but in 1986. a patient having this infection has to die. McNaghten Rule became the ‘right and wrong’ test of insanity.144 Psychological Disorders BOX 6. Civil or involuntary commitment is carried out by court of law when an insane person is judged dangerous to the self or to the society or has committed a crime and put in mental hospital instead of prison. l It is mostly due to unsafe sexual behaviour or due to some other factors like transfusion of infected blood or body fluid etc. According to WHO estimates more than 9 million cases of HIV infected people exist in India and 36. patients. l There are many myths of HIV-AIDS. he was insane’. In 1843. l l l l Mental health regulations. Indian Lunacy Act of 1912 was the legal document for governance of mental patients. secretary to the Prime Minister of England.6 HIV-AIDS l Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Final authority for discharge from mental hospital in civil commitment rests with court and in case of voluntary commitment with doctors. Voluntary commitment to a mental health treatment facility is carried out by patient himself or by relatives of the patient. l High-risk behaviours can be identified and measures taken to contain the infection. and his relatives. Psychosocial support to the victims and their families can be provided as a community service. BOX 6. a U. However. Mental Health Act replaced it. in India it is not so. In 1954. Assessing potential danger upon : Court may often ask mental health professionals to give their expert advice about a patient regarding danger/risk the patient poses to self or to others. they can help in educating people to change their behaviour so that HIV transmission may decrease.1 million people were living with HIV infection at the end of 2000 in the world. centre around (1) rights of the persons suffering from psychological disorders and (2) right of the public to be protected from people suffering from such disorders. ECT or Electro Convulsive Therapy has been declared illegal and unlawful in many states of the USA. to serve the best interest of all concerned... This is known as Durham Rule. Sooner or later. Insanity defence is the view that ‘a person is not responsible for his criminal acts. Primarily. Psychologists have an increasingly important role to play in combating the HIV-AIDS epidemic. Insanity defence rules are not without controversy and much progress has been made to improve upon these rules. It is becoming a major health problem and awareness about it can prevent susceptibility to it. Admission to mental hospitals or places of treatment is called commitment process. Daniel McNaghten assassinated Edward Drummand.S. help patients and their families to deal with social and interpersonal aspects of the disorder and advising them to adhere to complex treatment programme. judge broadened the scope of insanity defence further and stated that a person is not criminally responsible if he is suffering from irresistible impulse due to mental disease. counselling people to get tested for HIV. They are engaged both in primary and secondary prevention efforts. During the past few decades. They also help people who have HIV infection to live with infection. Procedures and professionals involved in seeking such advice differ from country to country. He was found not guilty because court stated that l l l . l HIV-AIDS is a deadly infection and efforts are being made for its cure. They need to be removed. l Further spread of infection in the population can be controlled by creating community awareness. l People can be educated and awareness can be spread about safe sexual behaviour.

precipitating. Compulsion. Classification of psychological disorders is needed for diagnosis. tobacco etc. dissociative disorders. One should remain aware and cautious about psychopaths. alcohol. predisposing. (addiction to drug. behavioural disorders. love. The bill has used new terminology but maintains old spirit of the antiquated act of 1912. Phobia. Predisposing.Psychological Disorders 145 in the care of the psychologically ill. Currently International Classification of Disorders (ICD) by WHO and Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) by American Psychiatric Association in their recent versions are in vogue. Humour. First. it is culturally inappropriate. Somatoform. DSM classification is popular one. behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence (juvenile delinquency. Social deviance is one of the common but not an absolute sign of psychological disorder. However. l l l l l . Obsession. Dissociation. Delusion. T/F 4. hyperactivity. Phobia. psychological. Psychopathology. Psychopathy.). Enuresis. somatoform disorders.). They may be primary. Autism. Neurotransmitter. ICD. There are two major criteria to identify normal and abnormal behaviours. and play are the sign of a normal person. Paranoid. Syndrome. Diathesis-stress model explain the causation in a better way. Dysthymic. Depersonalisation. anti-social. Schizophrenia. Each of these categories has several subtypes. Amnesia. it is clinically significant dysfunction and second. 1. DSM-IV is gaining popularity for diagnostic purposes. T/F 5. Panic. Excessive stress makes a person healthy and strong. narcissistic. Current trend is multi-professional care. The major psychological disorders including anxiety disorders. autism. the new bill has not taken care of all these. avoidant. community approach. Alienation. Psychological disorders may be caused by biological. Hallucination. work. mood disorders. attention LEARNING CHECKS V deficit. T/F SUMMARY l From prehistoric to the modern period understanding of and practices dealing with abnormal behaviour have changed gradually. autonomy. Schizophrenics predominantly have disturbances of emotions. T/F 2. dependent etc. It needs a further improvement. Narcissistic. T/F 3. and socio-cultural factors. Depressive persons have a suicidal risk. Anorexia Nervosa. and psychosocial therapies. Maladaptiveness. T/F 6. and reinforcing in nature. substance related disorders. Key Terms Exorcism.) and the personality disorders (histrionic. T/F 7. Mental health regulations and psychological aspects of HIV-AIDS need to be part of understanding psychological disorders. schizophrenic and delusional disorders. and personality disorders. etc. Hypochondriasis.

4. psychological disorders. Histrionic Personality. 6. T. 2. 7. 5. 7. 3. IV : 1. 3. T.146 Psychological Disorders Review Questions 1. T. 5. 6. T. 6. predisposing. T. 5. 2. 3. physiological homeostasis. 5. Anxiety Disorder. 2. T. T. III : 1. 2. T. What are the main types of personality disorders? Give example of an antisocial person? ANSWERS I II TO LEARNING CHECKS : 1. F. 2. Mood Disorder. 3. F. 3. F. Psychopathic Disorder. Enuresis. 3. 5. 4. : 1. 4. T. . 6. 5. F. 4. T. T. 4. V : 1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. 4. diathesis. What are the criteria of abnormal behaviour? What are the socio-cultural causes of psychological disorders? What are the biological causes of psychological disorders? What are the main types of anxiety disorders? What are delusions and hallucinations? Give examples. syndromes. 2. F. Down’s Syndrome. What are the behavioural disorders found in children. T. 6. F.

Key Terms Answers to Learning Checks Summary Review Questions . and Ä know that there are indigenous traditions of healing prevalent in India.3) Indigenous Therapies Yoga Meditation Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill Reiki and Pranic Healing (Box 7. meditation and rehabilitation techniques BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the nature of psychological therapies.5) Ä The basic nature of therapies and the therapeutic process Ä Introduction to major therapeutic techniques Ä Client-therapist relationship Ä Yoga.4) Limitations of Therapies (Box 7.Therapeutic Approaches 147 7 THIS THERAPEUTIC CHAPTER COVERS APPROACHES CONTENTS Introduction The Nature and Process of Therapy A General Model of Psychotherapy Types of Therapies Bio-medical Therapies Psychodynamic Therapies Behaviour Therapies Humanistic-Experiential Therapies (Box 7.2) Stress-Inoculation Therapy (Box 7.1) Cognitive Therapies Application of Cognitive Therapy for Depression (Box 7. Ä appreciate that different techniques are suitable for different persons.

g. In this chapter. All of them involve an interpersonal relationship between the therapist and the client. This enables the person to function independently. community or private clinics. Therapy can follow a variety of formats. in thought processes (e. We also have the family therapy approach in which the entire family receives therapeutic help. psychiatrists.g.148 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION In the preceding chapter. At present. but all of whom are interested in resolving personal problems. You must have realised that psychological disorders involve different types of problems. in manics and depressive patients). The treatment of mental disorders is often guided by different theoretical orientations. Finally. delusions and hallucinations in schizophrenics). At times. This will be followed by a description of major types of therapies. Both jointly share the goal of increasing the patient’s adaptive and autonomous functioning. Then. it is found that the involvement of the person’s partner may be helpful and therapy is extended to the couple. all are designed to be corrective and helpful. with activities (e. the others are more action oriented. Therapy is a broad term referring to any attempt by a mental health professional to assist a client to adjust to or overcome certain dysfunctions. While some of them focus on self-understanding. A particular approach may be more suitable for a particular kind of disorder or for a particular type of patient. The treatment may be given to the patient by psychologists. . These problems may be. the therapist emphasises the fact that the problem belongs to the family as a unit. While the therapeutic approaches are diverse. in individual therapy the goal of the treatment is to remedy personal adjustment problems. you will learn about the problems of rehabilitating the mentally ill people. the avoidance behaviour of phobic patients or the ritualistic behaviour of compulsive patients). In such situations. At times. Thus in this chapter you are going to learn about the nature and process of psychotherapy. social workers and other helping professionals in hospitals. or sometimes emotional problems may manifest themselves as physical symptoms (as in anxiety disorders and psychosomatic disorders). you have learned about the major psychological disorders and steps for their treatment which were briefly indicated. in emotions or mood states (e. there is group therapy in which a therapist brings people together who may not know each other. you will study more about the therapist’s efforts to help their patients. The group develops an interpersonal system in which an effort is to improve the level and quality of adjustment of all the group members.g. various therapeutic approaches are available for mental disorders.

consolation from a friend. interpersonal. At other times. the psychotherapeutic process revolves around the unique relationship between the therapist and the patient. therapeutic changes in the patients’ life can occur without psychotherapy. but they differ greatly in concepts. The aim is to remove. In psychotherapy. retard. Earlier. and (iv) the interaction of these two persons – the therapists and the client – results in the consolidation/formation of the therapeutic relationship. This human relationship is central to any sort of psychological therapy and is the vehicle for change. It focuses on both verbal and nonverbal communication. we will consider the generic approach to understand how psychotherapy . yet there are important differences between what they do and psychotherapy. (ix) Becoming aware of one’s choices in life. however. All these acts of people around us contain some elements of psychotherapy. or a clergy person. All psychotherapeutic approaches have the following characteristics : (i) there are systematic application of principles underlying the different theories of therapy. methods. Recently. (iv) Modifying habits. This can be done by a trained person who deliberately establishes a professional relationship with a client (patient). Overall. (iii) the therapeutic situation involves a therapist and a client who seeks and receives help for his/her emotional problems (this person is the focus of attention in the therapeutic processes). which can relieve distress and set the conditions for relearning and personal growth. A General Model of Psychotherapy Goals and Purpose : All psychotherapies aim at a few or all of the following goals.Therapeutic Approaches 149 THE NATURE AND PROCESS OF THERAPY There are various forms of psychological help spontaneously available in every day life to a person who is emotionally disturbed. An untrained person unintentionally may cause more harm than any good. However. All these make some impact towards emotional healing. parents. (vii) Improving interpersonal relations and communication. in turn helping the person to gain insight into the development of his problem. or modify the existing symptoms of maladaptive behaviour. (iii) Unfolding the potential for positive growth. (ii) Lessening emotional pressure. They range from simple advice by a teacher or a wise person. occupational and social adjustment also require that major changes be made in an individual’s personal environment. (x) Relating to one’s social environment in a more creative and self-aware manner. priest. with the developments in the area of cognition. as happens in instances of spontaneous recovery and or sometimes even because of suggestive measures such as placebos (Which influence a person’s behaviour related to his or her expectation of change). (ii) persons who have received practical training under supervision can do psychotherapy and not everybody. (vi) Increasing self-awareness. there has been some reorientation also. (viii) Facilitating decision-making. and dynamic relationship. All psychotherapies aim at removing human distress and fostering effective behaviour. or relatives to a discourse delivered by a saint. there is a systematic attempt to treat a person using psychological means. having problems of an emotional nature. psychotherapy used to be defined as verbal and nonverbal mode of treatment for emotional dysfunctions. (i) Reinforcing patient’s resolve for betterment. to include cognitive aspects of communication in the therapeutic situation. (v) Changing thinking patterns. inadequate marital. This process helps him to select more adaptive and solution oriented behaviours resulting in personal growth and the integration of the self. and techniques. Psychotherapies aim at changing the maladaptive behaviours and decreasing the sense of personal distress and helping the client to adapt better to his environment. Instead of focusing on the differences. This is a confidential.

Thus. Swimming can best be learnt by throwing oneself in the water than by only taking lessons about it. Experiencing : To bring about positive change. 4. 5. 3. One is hopeless and self-defeating. The term therapeutic alliance refers to the process through which the therapist tries to establish a relationship between his healthy self and the rational self in the patient. Most therapeutic processes are inclusive of at least three phases : (1) the Initial Phase. Setting the Goals : The progress and direction of therapy depends upon what one wants to achieve. Psychotherapy Actual : the Middle Phase The actual process of psychotherapy depends upon the type of therapy that one is undergoing. as a process and irrespective of the type of psychotherapy given or taken the following components are always present. emotionally corrective and fulfilling experiences must take place during the process of psychotherapy. The patient must respect the person and property of the therapeutic setting. This is a very important aspect. and the sacrifices of time. and (iv) enhance the client’s resolve to change for better. Thus. The Initial Interview : In the first contact of a patient with the therapist an attempt is made to (i) establish a relationship of trust and hope. 2. 2. Relearning : In accordance with a learning paradigm. At other times. Setting of Limits : The Psychotherapeutic atmosphere must be free and permissive. The discussion between the two helps to arrive at mutually agreeable goals. Psychological problems are different and require highly specialised skills to tackle them. new. a high motivation. fee. realistic and attainable.150 Introduction to Psychology proceeds. (ii) gain information about the patient and his difficulties. As you will study in the next section. it is encouraged at some stage of the therapy. timings and nature of the therapy. the patients may be having unrealistic expectations. various types of therapies differ greatly in this respect. At the surface level they are related to time schedules. The therapist is there only to help him. that therapy requires the voluntary efforts of the patient. efforts and money. He or she is free to express anger or affection. does not mean that a patient can do whatever he likes. However. 3. The Therapeutic Contract : The mutual obligations and understanding between the therapist and the patient is known as therapeutic contract. But at the deeper level. but not free to be aggressive or violent. Psychotherapeutic Relationship : It is a fundamental requisite of effective psychotherapy and differs from other human and professional relationships.g. negotiated and renegotiated. 1. The other is rational. Starting the Therapy : the Initial Phase 1. A psychotherapist fixes his/her fee . so these can be undone through unlearning and relearning. The patient needs an experience. Similar rules are equally applicable for the therapist also. They are openly discussed by both the parties and formed over several sessions. though they may be modified later with mutual consent. The therapists also communicate which goals are worthy. This however. (iii) provide information about formal conditions of therapy e. personally meaningful. neurotic problems develop through faulty learning during early socialisation process. The Therapeutic Alliance : Most therapists come to understand that every patient has two distinctive inner parts. availability during emergencies etc. fee. Physical touch is generally not allowed. not an explanation. setting the goals in therapy are essential. Psychotherapy is a professional relationship between a psychotherapist and a client. At times the patients’ goals are of immediate concern. indeed. and (3) the Phase of Termination. the therapeutic contract is about agreeing to work together with honesty in achieving the therapeutic goals. health-seeking and striving for growth. (2) the Middle Phase. psychotherapy provides opportunity and experiences for new kinds of learning to take place. appointment and its cancellation rules.

motivation. psychotherapy never ends. and follows the clinical contract. In the following sections. lives in the present rather than in the past. and bodily processes. BIO-MEDICAL THERAPIES Medically trained people consider mental illness parallel to physical illness and accordingly treat them on the basis of a medical model. It was introduced for the treatment of schizophrenia. However. confidentially and a non-judgmental attitude. privacy. goal setting. when either the patient or the therapist feels that they are no longer capable of working further and have come to an impasse. activities. The successful ending of therapy demands follow up action on a periodical basis. Drug de-addiction centre. in general there are phases of therapy. as well as hope. Psychotherapies are of various kinds and vary in details. and setting of limits of therapy. It begins with the initial interview. They want to reduce the symptoms associated with psychological disorders. The third phase of the therapy can be termed as the termination phase. we will describe five important types of therapies. This is followed by the middle phase. establishing therapeutic contract. The client is assured of full attention. Insulin Coma Therapy : Today the use of this therapy has markedly declined. The psychotherapist is a trained person who establishes a professional relationship with a patient to change maladaptive symptoms and to help the person to develop insight in his/her problems. TYPES OF THERAPIES All therapeutic approaches aim at producing change for the better in the thought processes. anxiety. emotions. The psychotherapeutic relationship. and progresses towards developing the therapeutic alliance. It involves relearning and experiencing. the patient becomes more adaptive. Whatever learning or understanding is gained by the patient during the therapy is to be transformed into actual life situations. Recapitulation The therapeutic situation involves a therapist and a patient. It is assumed that the psychological disorders are at least partly caused by biological reasons.Therapeutic Approaches 151 properly. Talk to the persons available there and observe the services they are giving. which is the actual therapeutic phase. ACTIVITY 7. Ending the Psychotherapy : the Phase of Termination In the last phase of psychotherapy. Counselling centre. However. He/she does not manipulate the patient to serve his/her own needs. or a voluntary organisation providing some psychosocial services. Psychology clinic.1 First Hand Ideas about Therapies Visit the psychiatric department of a medical college. differences exist about how these changes can be brought about and which is to be changed first. His/ her goal is to see the advance and the well being of the patient by forwarding this unique relationship. In one sense. Yoga centre. It may also be terminated without reaching the goals stated earlier. as there is no limit to personal growth. Rehabilitation centre. The successful ending of therapy often requires a follow up action on a periodical basis. Motivation and Expectations : A patient comes for psychotherapy with doubt. Relate it with what is given in the book. keeps the appointments. 4. He/she has faith in the ‘expert’ who will be able to understand him/her as a person and help him/her in the achievement of personal happiness. Here increasing amounts of insulin (hormone that regulates sugar metabolism in the body) on an every day basis is injected in the body . and expectations play an important role. However. pragmatically it should be terminated when the stated goals are reached. Some of the therapies used for the treatment of psychological disorders by them are as follows. The experiential growth attained in the therapy needs to be transformed into actual life situations. and develops a forward-looking approach.

It causes severe stress on body. Therefore. mania. Psychosurgery : Prefrontal lobotomy introduced by Moniz in 1935. today it is no longer the treatment of choice. T/F . At one time psychosurgery too was a prominent method of treatment. the Nobel Prize in medicine for the year 1949. it was thought that introducing artificial convulsions might cure schizophrenia and other mental disorders. Antidepressant drugs are used for patients having depression and suicidal risk. These are used with major psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. In the beginning.152 Introduction to Psychology of the patient until he or she goes into coma caused by an acute deficiency of sugar in the blood. which may last for several weeks. Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) : It is widely used. However. Psychosurgery is frequently used to treat psychological disorders. They produce a calming effect on the patients and reduce the intensity of psychotic symptoms like delusions and hallucinations. it was done by injecting metrazol and other drugs in mental patients. in some countries its use has been banned or stringently restricted. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. Drug Therapies : Drug treatment has been used mainly with four types of disorders – schizophrenia. though. no lasting loss of memory occurs. in search of an effective treatment for psychosis won him. which in turn improve the behaviour of the patients. Later. T/F 5. T/F 4. cardiovascular and nervous systems and considerable risk is involved. There is amnesia for the whole treatment procedure and after several such treatments. The Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT) is used to create a cortical seizure that has therapeutic value for mood disorders like depression. Recapitulation Biomedical therapies are physiological interventions for psychological disorders. Insulin has been used for the treatment of schizophrenia. and anxiety. These drugs are also called antipsychotic drugs. The rationale of the therapy was that coma causes convulsions of the body and mind. Today such operations are extremely rare and used only as a last resort. T/F 2. this therapy is not preferred any longer. a simple and reliable machine has been developed through which a mild electric current can be applied to the patient’s temple that passes through the brain and produces convulsions in the patient. Major tranquilisers are used as a drug of preference to treat anxiety patients. Antianxiety drugs are known as minor tranquillisers. T/F 3. Its effectiveness is not very high. Convulsive therapy was introduced on the basis of two different observations (1) it was observed for a long-time by mental hospital physicians that patients would suddenly lose their symptoms when they had a spontaneous convulsion. and (2) epilepsy and schizophrenia hardly ever occurred simultaneously in them. ECT is used to prevent future episodes of mania. excited and at times unmanageable. the prolonged use with high dosage produces severe side effects. depression. Due to the damage it may cause to the body and to the emergence of more improved methods of treatment for mental disorders. Drug therapy includes antianxiety drugs to relieve excessive apprehension and antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. Now. For the treatment of psychological disorders medical approach believes in changing the bodily processes. This process is repeated for 50 days or more and closely monitored by doctors. it was recognised that the undesirable side effects of such psychosurgery was devastating. Antimanic drugs are used to treat patient who are highly agitated. Electro Convulsive Therapy is meant for the treatment of convulsions. Socially withdrawn patients become responsive to the environment. T/F 6. there is memory impairment. The drug approach has yet to produce a ‘cure’ for schizophrenia. However. These drugs are referred to as Psychotropic drugs because their main effect is on the psychological behaviour of the patients.

the psychoanalytically oriented. In the following years.Therapeutic Approaches 153 PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES Modern psychotherapy begins with the work of Sigmund Freud in the 1880’s. The different techniques used by the psycho analytically oriented therapist are as follows : 1. interpersonal therapies or Jungian depth oriented psychotherapy. The therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the patients’ dream. This reaction may be in the form of hostility. but always threaten to come into consciousness. and systematic theory of psychoanalysis. dependency or exhibition of overaffection to the therapist. painful. forgetting and so on. It is believed that gaining insight into such repressed material can free individuals from pain and the shame associated with it. the psychodynamic therapy attempts to bring the unconscious material into consciousness and to help the patients develop insight into the genesis of difficult emotional patterns. or therapy. is asked to spontaneously share his/her thoughts and feelings as they come to his/her mind. Thus. Freud’s associates. Recapitulation Psychodynamic therapy is based on the assumption that unresolved conflicts are the main sources of psychological problems. disciples and followers added to the richness of psychoanalysis. Analysis of resistance : During free association. through a reliving of the past during the process of therapy. The underlying assumption of this therapy is that the genesis of psychological problems lies in childhood experiences. Freud developed an elaborated. This is a mixture of present and past wishes which is condensed into a single event. The therapist’s interpretations lead the client towards increased awareness and understanding of one’s unconscious and its relationship to the experienced distress. These are indicated and discussed with the patient in order to provide a better understanding of the unconscious causes of such resistances. and are expressed in symbolic form. Psychodynamic therapy is based on the psychoanalytic perspective. like coming late for sessions. The manifest content of the dream is the dream as it appears to the dreamer. unwillingness to talk about certain things. often with father or mother in their childhood. in a relaxed position. Psycho-analytically oriented psychotherapy remains the treatment of choice for individuals seeking extensive self-reflection or insight into himself or herself. There are various versions of psychodynamic therapies. The patient. 4. revolutionary. Often the child is subjected to psychic traumas or may be in situations where unacceptable impulses are stimulated. The therapist puts together the patient’s verbalisations into a meaningful perspective and helps him/her to gain insight into his/her unconscious. for example. dream analysis. Ego censor is often less vigilant during sleep and repressed ideas from unconscious are more likely to appear in dreams than in waking states. an individual may show resistance. 3. remain so. Free association and dream analysis are used to . 2. Patients spend a lot of psychic energy to maintain the repression and are left with little energy for living more effectively. shameful or irrelevant it may be. The latent content is the hidden and repressed material. These impulses are repressed into the unconscious. Free association : Here the patient is simply asked to say whatever comes into his mind spontaneously without censoring it and regardless of how personal. Transference analysis : Patients react to the therapist as they did with significant others. sudden blocks. It may be manifested in various forms. The ill effects of undesirable early relationships are counteracted in the therapeutic setting. The resolution of transference is the essential element in effective psychodynamic cure. flight into sickness or flight into health. Analysis of dreams : Freud said that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious.

Though the Freudian approach still provides the core features of psychoanalysis. Therefore. 5. Those behaviours become established which lead to reward or avoidance of punishments. Experimental psychologists have joined clinicians in the quest to address the problems of psychological disorders. the ultimate goal is to bring the desired behaviours under the control of the individual concerned. Developed by Wolpe. Systematic Desensitisation : This is the best known and most widely used technique of behavioural therapy used in the treatment of Phobia and other anxiety related disorders.e.B. Similarly. it is based on the simple assumption that one cannot be both relaxed and anxious at the same time. The following four steps are followed as part of the systematic desensitisation procedure : (i) Interview : A few initial interviews are conducted. then disturbed behaviours would disappear. 1. J. . especially on Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning techniques. if increasingly anxiety producing stimuli are presented while the patient is in a deeply relaxed state. This can be done through the application of learning principles and use of reward and punishment schedules. Watson in the United States during the 1920s reported some applications of conditioning methods for curing behaviour disorders. 6. are usually weakened. The science of emotional cognition and adaptation is known as ______________. Techniques of Behaviour Therapy 1. internal states. Disordered observable behaviour is the focal interest of behavioural therapists. the relaxation state overpowers the anxiety state and the patient is desensitised to the anxiety inducing stimuli. yet in modern times. The transference relationship is used to delve into the patient’s past.154 Introduction to Psychology explore the patient’s unconscious. conditions which maintain such observable behaviours and habits matters. Some formal arrangements for contact even after the termination of therapy is known as __________________________.. However. every individual operates on his environment. Behavioural methods as an approach to clinical problems started a little later. many recent developments in the field have led to marked advancements and shifts in analytical method and technique. Many of the psychological disorders are due to faulty learning. 2. Relation between therapist and the rational part of the patient is known as ___________________________. BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES Some prefer to call it Behaviour Modification. the ‘flight into health’ is termed as __________________________. and behaviours that are more functional could be substituted. 3. According to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning. Probing into sensitive areas may be met by resistance on the part of the patient. i. Therapists use different relaxation techniques. It is based upon the learning principles. They focus on the elements in the environment. They do not address themselves to subjective feelings. or unconscious determinants. 4. The mutual obligations and understanding between the therapist and patient is known as ____________. behavioural patterns. It is felt that if these can be modified. their modification requires relearning or new learning. During the course of psychodynamic therapy. which lead to punishment or no reward situations. LEARNING CHECKS II Fill up the blanks with appropriate terms. which trigger specific habitual responses and aim to modify the response by modifying the eliciting stimulus or vice. (ii) Training in relaxation : First few sessions are devoted to train the patient in relaxation. Lindsley and Skinner coined the term ‘behaviour therapy’ in early 1950s in their effort to modify psychotic behaviour. These are followed by the administration of some personality questionnaires to discover the person’s major sources of anxiety. Therefore. ______________ are the royal road to the unconscious.versa.

and (iii) to facilitate socially existing behaviour patterns. The patient is asked to try out new behaviour. role-playing. 3. (ii) to eliminate fears and inhibitions. It consists of 20 to 25 pictures or statements of roughly equal gaps. or social modelling has been used. The technique works well. One cannot be assertive and timorous at the same time. or asked to visualise the least anxiety producing item. . The steps required are. the patient is presented with. For the development of such skills behaviour rehearsal. 2. Aversion Therapy : If a response is followed by pain or punishment. chronic alcoholics have been treated by this technique. but there is a need for caution in the use of this technique. the therapist moves on to the next most disturbing stimulus on the hierarchy and then goes on to the next situation up to the highest level of anxiety producing stimulus. the sight of the drink alone may lead to nausea. For example. Accumulation of certain numbers of tokens can be traded for any one of these. (a) monitoring the physiological response that is to be modified. Bandura has worked extensively on developing the modelling technique. which will elicit positive reinforcement from others. The treatment continues by repeating this process. so that drinking leads to sickness and vomiting. The therapist describes the most frightening event or client is asked to imagine the most anxiety-arousing situation. pushing one. instead of money. In this type of treatment. 4. Modelling can influence behaviour as it serves (i) as a basis for learning new skills. is paid for the work and later the token can be exchanged for the desired objects or activities. The goals of a token programme are to develop desirable behaviours that will lead to social approval from significant others and to develop necessary skills in the individual. and drug and alcohol abuse. A nauseaproducing drug is mixed into an alcoholic drink. Modelling Technique : In children.Therapeutic Approaches 155 (iii) Construction of anxiety hierarchies : On the basis of the initial interviews. (b) converting the information to a visual or auditory signal. A token. Flooding on the other hand involves placing the client in a real life anxiety-arousing situation. sexual perversions. This process is continued until the patient asks to stop due to the overwhelming anxiety producing situation. (iv) Desensitisation sessions : In these sessions. 7. indicating to a subject as rapidly as possible when the desired change is taking place. an important part of learning is based on watching and imitating others. (i) Designate the behaviour felt to be desirable and hence to be reinforced. (c) providing means of a prompt feedback. a hierarchy of anxiety producing situations ranging from the most moderate to the most extreme is prepared. a person is taught to influence his or her own physiological processes. (ii) A medium of exchange is established. ranging from eating behaviour in children to institutionalised psychotic patients. They may be a movie show. Three steps are involved in this technique. 6. In practice. while he/she is in a relaxed state. Assertive Therapy : Another use of the reciprocal inhibition principle is the teaching of assertive responses as conceived by Wolpe. Biofeedback : The importance of the Autonomic Nervous System in the development of abnormal behaviour has been recognised. Token Economy : This technique has been used to establish adaptive behaviours. hierarchical situations may range from the Lizard being seen 20 feet away to just on the head. Roles may be reversed. over a period of time. After some time. some special foods or a picnic. A token may be a card or a clip. for a person afraid of Lizards. its strength should be weakened. 5. After several sessions. (iii) Back up reinforcers are decided. Thus. The person learns that he can control his own environment in a way. heavy smoking. first in a mild way and later in a more intense way. Implosive Therapy and Flooding : In comparison to systematic desensitisation Implosive therapy operates precisely in a reverse manner. The technique has been used to treat a variety of problems like overeating. the patient is generally able to visualise anxiety at the highest level of hierarchy. After a number of such trials. biofeedback is oriented to reducing the reactivity of some organ system innervated by the ANS by bringing it under voluntary control.

Token economy utilises the principles of reinforcement. endeavours to help the client find or create purpose and meaning in his/her life. T/F 5. Aversion uses the principles of learning to get rid of an undesirable behaviour. Systematic desensitisation involves unlearning troublesome anxiety response. they become better-integrated people. Humanistic-experiential therapists feel that human beings have existential problems but they need freedom to make choices. and biofeedback are used to shape behaviours in desired ways. In aversion therapy a pleasant stimulus is paired with an unwanted response. These therapies emerged out of the reactions to psychoanalytic and behaviouristic approaches to therapy. Rogers was rated as one of the most influential psychotherapists and his approach had immensely influenced counselling procedures. Those who had lost all faith in the future fell into depression and were doomed. Gestalt Therapy : It was developed by Fritz Perls to recognise the bodily processes and emotional modalities blocking off from awareness. Modelling cannot be used to develop new skills. feeling and action. clients for the first time explore their real feelings. or make judgements about what the client says. integration of thought. because the therapist does not direct the course of therapy. they become more open to new experience and new outlook. understood. This therapy. The Client-centred Therapy of Carl Rogers : This therapy creates a psychological climate in which a client can feel unconditionally accepted. Frankl observed that prisoners who gave ‘meaning’ to their lives survived anyhow. Behaviour therapy assumes that behaviour is primarily a product of heredity. Systematic desensitisation is used to treat phobias and other forms of specific fears. a person will be able to search his or her own way. In the camps. and counsel the client’s effort. anger and ugly feelings as parts of themselves.156 Introduction to Psychology Recapitulation Behaviour therapies are based on the principles of learning. Gestalt means “whole” and the therapy emphasises upon unity of mind and body. relaxation training. T/F BOX 7. which are authoritarian and mechanical in nature. He or she does not give answers. mother. As their self-concept becomes more harmonious with their actual experiencing. and first wife died in the camps or were sent into the gas chambers. They focus on changing the particular aspects of behaviour. Logo Therapy : It emerged out of Viktor Frankl’s traumatic three years experience in the Nazi concentration camps. Some of them are briefly described below. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. T/F 6. thoughts and accept negative emotions of hate. Assertiveness training. The therapist only acknowledges or restates and encourages the client to look at them and to explore further. There are a number of such therapies. It starts with constructing an anxiety hierarchy. All of them utilise certain principles and procedures of learning. brothers. and step-bystep movement through the hierarchy. His father. The therapist’s job is only to facilitate. Therefore.1 HUMANISTIC-EXPERIENTIAL THERAPIES interpret. guide. therefore. T/F 4. which are based on these assumptions. token economy. According to behaviour therapy neurotic anxiety is a conditional response. paring relaxation with each phobic stimulus. Implosive therapy and flooding involve exposure to the frightening condition. In time. and valued as a person. T/F 2. Logos stands for ‘meaning’. Here. By expanding one’s awareness about the possible avenues and about one’s potentials. These therapies are particularly suited for children and hospitalised patients. T/F 7. T/F 3. Frankl and other like minded tried to forestall suicide by giving meaning to the lives of those who had sunk into depression. . there were many suicides. Deep muscle relaxation is used in systematic desensitisation. modelling. This therapy is also called nondirective therapy.

Depressed people also make a number of errors in logic in their thinking. the world. which has been most widely used in cases of depression. (ii) Personalisation : It refers to attributing the . memory. Cognitive therapists consider that cognitive processes and structures like beliefs. The negative or self-defeating contents or schemata towards the self. The patient sees the world as posing obstacles and finds the future as totally hopeless. In recent years. The depressed patient regards him/her self as helpless. The therapist uses various techniques such as challenging. The reality is that some may love you. emphasises on recognising and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. Cognitive therapy has a comparable success rate in the treatment of depression with some other therapies. Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) : It is one of the most widely used therapies. A psychologically healthy person is one who is rational and in tune with reality. For example. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck were the pioneers in the use of cognitive therapy. specially the cognitive triad. and errors in logic that pervade their thinking and. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck has developed a system of therapy. try out new interpretations. which attempts to change the patient’s basic maladaptive thought processes. These are important components in many forms of mental disorders. These negative thoughts are repetitive in nature and play an important role in the maintenance of the depressive state. learning. disappointments and feel always miserable about themselves. ‘I should always be able to win every one’s approval and be competent in every thing I do’ APPLICATION OF COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR DEPRESSION cause of negative events to the self.2 her/his beliefs and attitudes are. irrational expectations like “I should be loved by everyone” is the main cause of trouble for many. according to Beck. worthless and inadequate. cause them to feel depressed. and the future feared. For example. attitudes. Many people harbour unrealistic beliefs and perfectionist values. and consciousness used in comprehending the world of our experience. Beck’s cognitive therapy has also been successfully applied to panic disorders and other anxiety disorders. the so-called cognitive triad – make the self miserable. If the client realises how unrealistic and self-defeating BOX 7. The cognitive therapy should start with uncovering and challenging the negative and unrealistic beliefs of the depressed patients. and some may hate you in this world. Cognitive therapists help the clients to recognise the negative thoughts. They act accordingly. This is how cognitive therapy works. (iii) Arbitrary inference : It involves drawing conclusions that are not supported by evidence. thought. especially in depression and anxiety. activity raising and graded task assignment for this purpose. there is a significant increase in the use of cognitive therapies due to their efficacy specially in the treatment of depression and anxiety. she/he will then seek to change them. judgement. The term cognition refers to functions like attention.Therapeutic Approaches 157 COGNITIVE THERAPIES In the past two decades. have significant influence on behaviour. biased interpretations. long-term memories etc. The therapist also guides clients to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts. and the future. Altering these processes and structures at realistic levels is the primary goal of cognitive therapy. This include : (i) Selectivity : This involves emphasising the insignificant aspects of an event or situation while ignoring its major aspects. and ultimately apply alternative ways of thinking in their daily lives. some may be indifferent. the environment threatening. Depressed people who are treated with Beck’s approach are found to improve significantly. and invite failures. The objective in cognitive therapy is to change the depressed patient’s distorted and selfdefeating thought patterns and to help him or her to have a more realistic and positive direction. (iv) Magnification : It stands for the trivial negative conclusions drawn about self or others based on very limited facts. Cognitive therapy.

It inevitably leads to the non-realisation of one’s goal. Atharva-Veda. T/F 2. Cognitive preparation : This is the first stage when a client and therapist together. Yoga Yoga. spontaneous. Ashtang Sangrah. an ancient Indian system of thought as well as practice is very pertinent to the treatment and prevention of psychological disorders as well as the maintenance and promotion of physical and psychological well being. ranging from simple disorders to complex ones. . Susrut Samhita. Charak Samhita. the wrong interpretations that lead to depression. Accordingly. and ‘musts’ that are hindering his/her creative. The rational-emotive therapy developed by Ellis also tries to change the patient’s maladaptive thought processes by restructuring his or her self-evaluation and belief system. INDIGENOUS THERAPIES In ancient Indian literature. vast varieties of practices have been mentioned for the cure of psychological disorders. T/F BOX 7. Therapy : in the third phase of therapy. The objective of yoga as given by Patanjali is chittavrittinirodh or restraining the mental modifications. Beck’s therapy is used in panic disorders. an individual gets prepared to face stress in an adaptive manner. The goal of RET is to change maladaptive thought of the patient. frame the self-statements about the problem-situation. inadequacy. some are psychosomatic. The literal meaning of the Sanskrit word yoga is to ‘yoke’. T/F 5. T/F 3. Yoga Sutra. The use of cognitive therapies is growing rapidly. and also Buddhist and Jain literature contain a number of psychotherapeutic practices. Recapitulation The cognitive therapies focus their interventions on explicit cognition and try to alter cognitive processes and structures at a realistic level. Rehearsal : in the second phase of rehearsal.3 STRESS-INOCULATION THERAPY new coping strategies are applied to actual situations. Some of these are purely psychogenic. A few of the latter are described here. ‘oughts’. Most of these need to be rediscovered but some of them have stood the test of time. 2. of faulty expectations from self and others. ineffectiveness. like schizophrenic disorders. and self-defeat. Beck’s therapy helps the patient to recognise the negative thoughts. It aims at increasing the individual’s feelings of self worth and paves the way for self-growth. They also agree on new self-statements which are more adaptive. and 3. He presented the eight-fold path of yoga for the 1. and. The therapist guides the client to challenge LEARNING CHECKS IV these thoughts. According to cognitive therapists the main problem is negative or selfdefeating thoughts. Starting with simple situations the client is gradually placed in difficult situations. RET attempts to restructure the person’s selfvaluation and belief system in the context of irrational ‘shoulds’. Stress-Inoculation therapy is done in three stages : 1. yoga can be defined as a means for uniting the individual spirit with the universal spirit or God. and others are physiological in nature. Thus. Cognitive therapy focuses on unconscious conflicts. Unrealistic and perfectionist thinking creates feeling of self worth. They are being applied in a variety of disorders. Patanjali compiled and refined various aspects of yoga systematically in his famous treatise known as ‘Yoga Sutra’. and emotionally satisfying life. The failure to achieve such a goal evokes emotional responses of worthlessness. new self-statements are learned and practised. These emotional responses of self-devaluation are not necessarily the consequence of ‘reality’ but of one’s thought processes.158 Introduction to Psychology is an unrealistic way of thinking in this world. T/F 4.

(2) Niyama. (6) Dharana. and Samadhi are . Literally. These are five in number i. Yama means restraints in behaviour.e. This means not to tell lie.. (ii) Satya or truthfulness. steps of yoga. 1. It is the unity of mind with some object. 7. Pranayama is the regulation of breath. it is called the state of Samadhi. and (v) Ishwara Pranidhana means surrendering oneself to the Almighty. By practicing various bodily postures. 2. (i) Ahimsa or non-violence. These are : (1) Yama. (7) Dhyana and (8) Samadhi. This is called ‘Ashtanga Yoga’ i. These are five in numbers. (i) Saucha means keeping purity of internal and external body. Dharana.1 Steps of Yoga difficulties like fasting etc. (iii) Asteya means not stealing or misappropriating the things that belong to others. Dharana. A brief description of these components is given below and summarised in Fig. 7. Asanas are special patterns of postures that stabilise the mind and the body. 6. Holding of the breath for a prolonged and comfortable time is an essential technique of pranayama. (ii) stretching. When the awareness of oneness is carried to the extent of even forgetting this act of becoming one with the thing thought of. There are graded techniques from simple to complex. It is useful in psychotherapy for breaking the learned and conditioned responses.. 5. (3) Asana. However. Niyama means observances in behaviours.e. in the initial practice. of practicing pranayama. and (iii) relaxative. (iv) Brahmacharya means celibacy or purity of sexual life and (v) Aparigraha means not to possess beyond the actual needs. (iii) Tapa means conditioning the body to endure Fig.Therapeutic Approaches 159 overall development of human personality. some of the dormant psychophysical systems of the body are activated. the breath–holding phase is avoided and emphasis is put on the controlled inhalation and expiration. Dhyana. it means the pause in the movement of breath. i. there comes the determination of withdrawal of senses from outer and inner stimuli. 7. It is not to harm other living beings in deeds. Pratyahara is purely a psychological technique. Pratyahara facilitates pushing aside all sorts of distractions. 4. In this stage the practitioner keeps his mind empty but steady for longer and longer duration and continues to practice concentrating on any one point. Dhyana and 8. thoughts and language unnecessarily. Samadhi : Dharana means steadiness of mind. Every asana should be performed effortlessly.. The main purpose of pranayama is to gain control over autonomic nervous system and through it influence the mental functions. (5) Pratyahara. The next stage is Dhyana (Meditation). It is the withdrawal of mind from all senses.e. and maintained for a comfortable time. 3. (ii) Santosh means contentment. (4) Pranayama. (iv) Svadhyaya means to study spiritual scriptures to acquire correct knowledge of self and the supreme divinity.1. which comes after the state of mastery over the senses. Asanas may be classified as (i) meditative. The stages and processes of Pratyahara. It is a very advanced method and requires daily practice. By this.

Sudarshana Kriya and Transcendental Meditation are some of the techniques. ACTIVITY 7. Dharana. sense of coherence. LEARNING CHECKS V 1. which have in common a conscious attempt to focus attention in a non-analytical way and attempt not to dwell on discursive. It may be noted that meditation emphasises the development of greater understanding through the systematic cultivation of inquiry and insight. when weary of watching. Meditation Meditation involves a group of techniques. and self-actualisation. and researchers have developed miniature and selective techniques to address specific psychological symptoms and disorders. Asana. l Ranjan wants to please everybody but nobody takes him seriously. Under the broad umbrella of the eight-fold path of yoga. l Ramesh is a good student but lacks concentration. It may provide a comprehensive and integrative approach to healing. however. l Surendra has lot of potentials. various practitioners.e. empathy. Contemplative meditation presupposes skills in concentrative and mindfulness meditation.g. Meditation leads us to wake up to our true nature and offers a road map to reach optimal openness. There is growing evidence that meditation enhances physiological and psychological well-being. Vipasana. It is a way of being that needs to be cultivated. .. The studies. Practice of different asanas can activate certain physiological systems of body. Pranayama. Therefore. Prayahara. have certain methodological limitations. Pratyahara refers to attachment of sense organs to object. l Rashmi always avoids speaking in the class. Contemplative meditation involves opening and surrendering to a larger self (e.2 Therapies Suitable for Various Kinds of Problems You have just read different kinds of therapies used for psychological disorders. and asking. respectively. Yoga means asana. Niyama. Thus. and insight. The specific results include physiological rest. insomnia. observe with equanimity.. the peon in your school is depressed since several months. Yama. T/F Recapitulation Indigenous thought in India provides detailed accounts of healing processes that are useful in therapy. Behavioural observances are called niyama. let go. There are six aspects of yoga. T/F 4. T/F 7. Two of them that have received attention from modern researchers are yoga and meditation. stress hardiness. and. (ii) a focus on specific object within the field (concentrative meditation). Pranayama involves regulation of breath. awareness. It has been found effective in problems of anxiety. ruminating thought. The yogic system of Patanjali delineates eight components of yoga i. he feels let-down. l Ramu Kakka. and borderline hypertension. vipasana requires one to merely notice and label the thought (thinking) and then to merely notice. opening up. increased happiness. T/F 3. guru). T/F 6. Your task is to identify and indicate which therapy or technique will be suitable for the treatment of these disorders. and (iii) a contemplative meditation. T/F 5. T/F 2.160 Introduction to Psychology inseparable and may be considered as gradual stages of meditation. There are three major categories of focusing attention in meditation: (i) a focus on the field (mindfulness meditation). l Raghwan’s thinking appears to be confused. Discuss your answers with your teacher. Yoga involves meditation. Yoga focuses on retraining or educating the mental processes. benevolent other. alcoholism. They involve three process levels: focussing. Now certain disordered behaviours are listed below. God. but is shy to put them in practice. l Your sister is afraid of lizard.

Prana contained in the air is called air prana is absorbed by the lungs through breathing and is also absorbed directly by the energy centres of the bioplasmic body. which can then penetrate and dissolve any block. It is an interesting development in the context of healing. Our aura is that invisible luminous energy body. REIKI AND PRANIC HEALING emotional and spiritual disorders without the use of touch or drugs. It deals with physical. mental. air prana. This is done automatically and unconsciously. touch. Reiki raises the life energy in the body. There are many types of meditation and different kinds of claims. Prana contained in the ground is called ground prana. Taken together. Pranic healing requires much practice and time to achieve a certain degree of proficiency. “After Care” is the responsibility of the community as a whole. and Samadhi. Pranic Healing is the transfer of subtle energy from one person to another. this system provides a way of life that enhances a sense of well being in people. The task of readjusting back into the community. Practicing meditation has been found useful in many kinds of health-related problems. Reiki can release the individual from bondage and allow him to experience health and freedom. sports. and ground prana. Ex-patient Clubs : The primary objective of such clubs is to redevelop social skills in individuals. Walking barefoot increases the amount of ground prana absorbed by the body. REHABILITATION OF THE MENTALLY ILL The purpose of rehabilitation is to help psychologically disturbed people to achieve a high level of adjustment as far as possible on their return to the community following the treatment. It invigorates the whole body and promotes good health. Currently. Universal life force or energy calms the mind and body. a kind of energy medicine. These energy centres are called charkas. The energy is passed through the hands laid on the body in certain positions. following release from a hospital may be very difficult.Therapeutic Approaches 161 Dhyana. as energy is the fundamental nature of the universe. The visible physical body is that part of the human body that we see. the body is actually energy vibrating at a certain frequency. . or anger (blockages) Reiki exposes those thoughts to the much higher vibratory frequency of universal life force energy. Meditation has been used in recent years to help people attain health and cure diseases. This is absorbed through the soles of the feet. which interpenetrates the visible physical body and extends beyond it. Reiki is a Japanese word. Ex-patients engage in a variety of recreational activities such as drama. Negative thoughts are experienced as uncomfortable vibrations. They are markedly reducing the number of relapses. This accelerates the healing process. There are three primary sources of prana : solar prana. “After Care Programmes” are found to be effective in ensuring a somewhat smooth transition from the hospital to community life. and the invisible energy body called the bioplasmic body or aura. informal atmosphere in which socialisation is encouraged through organised group activities and individual relationships. According to the precepts of pranic healing body is actually composed of two parts : The visible physical body. ulcers. Reiki is the fundamental nature of the existence. The success of rehabilitation depends upon the residual capacity as well as the degree of disability of the patient released from the hospital and the BOX 7. and outings.4 environment. They provide a permissive. Some of these programmes are described below. but rather to complement orthodox treatment. Solar prana is prana from sunlight. Our thoughts and emotions are all composed of energy at various frequencies. It refers to a simple hands-on-healing technique. and are most acquainted with. Pranic healing : It is not intended to supplant orthodox medical treatment. By getting the body and mind in touch with universal energy. Such thoughts may turn into headaches. in which the discharged patient will reside. According to it. Pranic Healing is an ancient science and an art of healing that utilised prana (or chilqilki) or life energy and the charkas or energy centres to heal diseased energy levels.

each approach of therapy has some limitations and some advantages. Thus. and Weekend Hospitals may serve as “after care facilities” during the transitional period following hospital discharge. and there is no definite answer to it. Partial Hospitalisation : Day Hospitals. self-confident and earn him or her selfrespect. Humanistic therapies are valuable for persons having potentials but who experience themselves blocked by existential problems. These houses are partially run by the inmates themselves who are attempting to make adjustment in the community after discharging from hospital. Experience reveals that various therapies have their own limitations. Ultimately it is the discretion of the therapist and the client to choose the best available approach or to work with a combination of more than one. they provide opportunities to develop new skills and appropriate work habits.5 LIMITATIONS OF THERAPIES Behaviour therapy is most effective with children and problems of habit disorders. It also helps to prevent a relapse. Psychodynamic therapy is usually effective with reflective persons. Here. the psychologically disturbed people also become restless when they have too much free time on their hands. and efforts on the part of individuals receiving it. To evaluate the success of psychotherapy is difficult. which enhance their sense of belonging and decrease their feelings of alienation. but it has a limited value with others. It is also mechanical and somewhat reductionist. In the later phase. For patients having major residual defects. Night Hospitals. It gi ves him/her a feeling of worthiness and fulfilment. Halfway Houses : These are living facilities for recently released patients who are not yet prepared enough to live a full family life. It enables a person to be economically self-sufficient. valuable mental health resources are saved. which involves moral and social issues. or as an alternative to hospitalisation. Yoga and encounter groups are growth-oriented approaches and help in selfactualisation efforts. In planning occupational therapy an attempt must be made to fit tasks to the needs of every individual patient. and other groups attempting to make an adjustment in the community after hospitalisation. which serve multiple functions. Similar clubs have been formed for ex-alcoholics. Cognitive therapy has proved its efficacy in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. they serve as “way stations” and open the door for regular employment. they may provide a permanent refuge. For others. the general conclusion of various researchers has shown that various treatment approaches are effective to varying degrees. Which type of therapy is more effective with which type of patient and which type of problem is again a difficult question. Partial hospitalisation facilitates transition from hospital to community. In this way. Initially. but today occupational therapy has become a regular treatment of several psychologically disturbed persons.162 Introduction to Psychology BOX 7. Work has a curative effect upon them too. For patients with skill. However. Rehabilitation approaches have proved valuable in integrating mentally ill persons with the society. It is possible to learn how a patient feels about himself and others through the medium of occupational therapy. Mental health professionals generally work as facilitators in half way home. It also demands much time. it is also important to mention the concept of sheltered workshops. and provide space and time to family and community to reintegrate the person who was psychologically troubled. occupational therapy imparts vocational and interpersonal skills required to carryout an earning for living. However. drug addicts. Occupational Therapy : Like normal people. so is the case with patients and their problems. Does psychotherapy encourage conformity to the status quo? Whether it should do this? This is a difficult question. money. it is simple and economical. . activities or work used to be assigned to the withdrawn patients in an attempt to involve them.

Systematic Desensitisation. Group Therapy. 2. Aversion Therapy. half way homes. 7. F. Halfway houses. Cognitive Therapy. Avoidance Behaviour. F. partial hospitalisation. 5. the level of dysfunction. which tries the volitional withdrawal of senses from outer and inner stimuli. F. Technique. Rational-Emotive Therapy. One cannot be both relaxed and anxious at the same time. 6. Relaxation Training. T. a variety of such programmes have been initiated. F. F 3. 5. 4. Therapeutic alliance 3. T. Logo Therapy. T. 4. T. 2. T. 5. 3. Role Play. Follow-up. Arbitrary Inference. Climate in which client can feel unconditionally accepted. F. 4. it involves after care. T. Key Terms Anxiety. T 7. In recent years. 5. 6. 3. Modelling. 2. 2. 3.Therapeutic Approaches 163 Recapitulation Rehabilitation tries to facilitate the process of achieving a higher level of adjustment by a patient after the formal termination of treatment. Cognitive Therapy. The success of rehabilitation depends upon the capacity of the patient. or term with which following statements are associated : 1. Therapeutic contract. occupational therapy. 1. 2. Client centred Therapy. Token Economy. 6. Groups which strive to increase man’s positive potentials. 1. Mood Disorder. 2. F 6. technique. 5. F 4. Prisoners who gave ‘meaning’ to their lives survived anyhow. T. 7. 4. In other words. 4. T. Facilities for recently released patients who are not yet ready to live a full family life. Behavioural Therapy. Gestalt Therapy. 3. F.F. Psychotherapy. Encounter Groups. ANSWERS I II III IV V VI : : : : : : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. 4. Depression. nor do they have an equal degree of success in the rehabilitation of patients. T. . Free Association. Therapy which tries to change expectations like ‘I should be loved by everyone’. 7.T 2. All of them are not available in every community. Systematic Desensitisation. and the support facilities available in his or her environment. T. 3. and rehabilitation centres. T. 5. Implosive Therapy. They include ex-patient clubs. 1. T 5. 1. Pratyahara. LEARNING CHECKS VI Name the applicable therapy. 1. Resistance. T. Meditation. Dreams. 6. 6. Anxiety Disorders. The effectiveness of these methods depends on the patient’s characteristics and that of the environment.

What is the focus in Cognitive Therapy? 6. Implosive Therapy and flooding.164 Introduction to Psychology SUMMARY l l l l l l l l Therapy involves a professional relationship between a trained professional and a patient suffering from psychological difficulties/distress. Aversion Therapy. Some of the therapies used are Insulin Coma therapy. Rehabilitation involves ‘after-care’. What are the four techniques through which unconscious materials are brought to the level of consciousness? 4. the phase of actual therapy and the termination phase. Drug therapies. Electro convulsive therapy (ECT). Bio-medical therapies provide physiological interventions for the treatment of psychological disorder. What are the steps involved in Systematic Desensitisation Technique? 5. the therapeutic process can be divided into three phases – the initial phase. Assertive Therapy and Token Economy and Modelling. Name the facilities used for the rehabilitation of patients released from hospitals? . Psycho dynamic therapies assume that the genesis of psychological problems lie in childhood experiences and unresolved conflicts. and Psycho-Surgery. For the sake of clarification/explanation. Behaviour therapies are based on principles of learning. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy. analysis of resistance and transference analysis are some techniques used by psychoanalysts. Indigenous therapies such as Yoga and Meditation provide a way of life to help people attain health and cure diseases. Which are the different types of psychological disorders for which drug treatment has been used? 3. Review Questions 1. The techniques used in behaviour modification are – Systematic Desensitisation. and Ellis Rational-Emotive Therapy are examples of Cognitive Therapy. Cognitive therapies try to alter the cognitive processes and structures at a realistic level. Free-association. 7. It facilitates a higher level of adjustment after the formal termination of the treatment. analysis of dreams. Name the aspects of Yoga Approach. What are the common features in all psychotherapeutic approaches? 2.

1) Environmental Stresses and their Effects Personal Space and Territoriality (Box 8.4) Impact of Human Behaviour on Environment Recycling and Energy Conservation (Box 8.Environment and Behaviour 165 8 THIS ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER COVERS AND BEHAVIOUR CONTENTS Introduction Man-Environment Relationship The Forest is Father and Mother (Box 8.5) Green House Effect and Nuclear Threat (Box 8.2) Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour Air Pollution Noise Pollution Crowding Natural and Man-made Disasters Tragedy of Commons (Box 8. Ä appreciate the modes of humanenvironment relationship.3) Nuclear Energy and Waste (Box 8. Key terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .6) Promoting Pro-environmental Behaviours Ä Introduction to the study of environmental psychology Ä Perspectives on human-environment relationship Ä Nature and effects of environmental stresses Ä Ways of promoting pro-environmental behaviours BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the scope of environmental psychology. Ä explain the nature of environmental stresses and their consequences. and Ä understand how pro-environmental behaviours can be encouraged.

which is partly an outcome of human behaviours adversely affects our performance. The physical environment has aspects of natural environment such as landscape. etc. homes. The social and cultural environment refers to all aspects of culture such as socialisation processes. and other geographic features. rail. Similarly. is bi-directional. crowding. we have to make efforts to maintain the quality of environment that is supportive and constructive. feelings. etc. representing aggressive behaviour of players.). wilderness. We have to draw extra physical and mental resources to work under noisy conditions. In addition. This chapter will help you to understand the nature of humanenvironment relationship. many things are happening which are creating problems not only for today but for the future also. road. there is built or man-made environment of cities. interacting with people and working under crowded conditions adversely affect our performance. customs and values. Therefore. etc. some critical environmental problems faced today. norms. All this indicates that some environments are more nourishing for us than others. and the strategies to protect and maintain the environment. In such environments. The physical environment influences our behaviour in many ways. offices. human beings are affected by the environment and human beings affect the environment. For example. we tend to get irritated. fatigued. markets. You must have observed that people become more irritable and aggressive when the weather is hot and humid in comparison to cold weather. however. and behaviours. Environmental pollution (air. The cases of “road rage” (you must have read in the newspapers) increase during the hot summer days. Some negative reactions to heat involve more harmful interpersonal behaviour. Temperature level has also been linked to more serious interpersonal aggression like murder and rape. and our reactions become abnormal. noise. That is. Social interactions depend not only on the people.166 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION We live in a world surrounded by physical objects and socio-cultural settings. but also on the environments in which they occur. effects of environmental stresses. The relationship of man and environment. In today’s environment. the greater the mean number of batsman hit by a ball. water. The environment in which we live and work affect our thoughts. it has been found that higher the temperature. .

Understanding of environmentbehaviour relationship involves several concepts as given in Fig. we notice that there are three major views : 1. various social challenges. This field of psychology is dedicated to the study of reciprocal relationships between psychological processes and physical environments. Nature is viewed as threatening. 3. and environmental stresses. Human beings are over and above nature and control the environment. They are in harmonious relationship. thus. Human beings are subjugated to nature and are controlled by the environmental forces. etc. Human beings are an inherent part of nature and the two constitute the whole. 3. Reciprocal or transactional relationship deals with the two-way process in which environment influences human behaviour and human beings affect environment. cities. beliefs. crowding. 1. When we talk about the physical world. etc. 4. perceptions.1. important structures like Taj Mahal. architecture. The psychological processes include thinking. Experiences of privacy. and attitudes of peers. temperature. work of art. etc. and the nutritional value of food we eat and such other objects and things all these constitute the physical world around us. multidisciplinary in the true sense. 8. Our interest in such environmental variables has led to the development of a field known as Environmental Psychology. climate change. Before we do that. Worldviews about human-environment relationship. Environmental Behaviour : It includes the use of environment by people in the course of social interactions (e. Aspects of human-environment interface All the said five aspects of the environment interact and determine the following crucial psychosocial and environmental outcomes. 5. we have five major components as described below : 1. feelings. and other psychological processes. 2. In this context. personal space. attitudes.. 2. personal space). it is important to understand the different views in which human-environment relationship has been conceptualised in various cultures. urban planning. Behaviour (or people’s actions) is a broad term that is a function of our thoughts. Since environment is a theme relevant to many others disciplines such as geography. Social-Cultural Environment : It refers to all aspects of culture such as norms. We shall be discussing some of these aspects in subsequent sections of this chapter. Cognitions and perceptions about environments. rainfall. etc. flora. Environmental Orientations : It refers to the beliefs that people hold about their environment.Environment and Behaviour 167 Man-Environment Relationship We have just noted that physical environment directly or indirectly influences our behaviour. Physical Environment : It includes aspects of natural environment such as climate.g.. it includes both physical reality and social-cultural phenomena which surround us. the temperature. Products of Behaviour : These include the outcomes of people’s actions such as homes. both natural and man-made. dams. In the central part of this figure. learning. 8. etc. territory. 3. perceiving.1. and fauna. which constitute the field of environmental psychology. the quality of air and water. the field is. processes of socialisation. The ambient noise in our physical surroundings. feeling. 2. The social environment around us includes the verbal stimulation received from parents. . Fig. etc. terrain. customs. The cultural environment includes all the material and the non-material man made environment like poetry.

Kurt Lewin differentiated between psychological environment and physical environme nt.3. including physical. l Concern for everything in the universe is perceptible in the Indian thought.2). This environment (E) contains everything outside the person (P). shelters. He has introduced the concept of life space to explain the nature of relation between person and environment. peers and teachers. They view themselves as an intrinsic part of it.E) Fig. l Humans and the rest of creation are partners. nature. Bronfenbrenner has a different view of the environment.” Interestingly. They see the forest as a living thing with which they interact on a personal basis. life space can be described as : B = f (L) = f (P. These contexts includes the person’s family. 8. A pygmy observes : “The forest is father and mother to us. According to Lewin. Indian thinking also shares similar views.168 Introduction to Psychology In the Indian tradition humanenvironment relationship has been of symbiotic type in which humans are part of the total existence. l The emphasis is on relationship and totality of existence. psychological and social aspects. Therefore. life space is the whole psychological reality that determines the behaviour of an individual (B). BOX 8. Worldviews vary across cultures. and like a father and mother it provides everything we need: food. wake it up by singing to it. then it is not part of his psychological reality. Its main features are as follows : l Humans are not considered superior to nature and do not have right to exploit the nature. Africa live in a highly vegetated. if a person is not aware of the weather of his neighbouring countries.2 Life Space The physical environment that does not directly influence behaviour is called “foreign hull”. The forest is good to its children. the Pygmies think that the forest must have been sleeping and was unable to take care of its children. But it is quite possible that the weather of this neighbouring country may influence that of his own country which. For example. He proposed hierarchy of environments and describes it in terms of five systems that are organized in a nested manner (See Fig.) (i) Microsystem : is the setting in which the individual lives. The Pygmies of Zaire. it is not part of his life space. “Then everything will be well and good again. l It presents an integral view of man. They want to awaken the forest happy.1 Mathematically. The Pygmies then go to the forest. l There is considerable emphasis on correspondence between macrocosm and microcosm. l Human life is enveloped by a dynamic cosmic order. in turn. dense forest. l A basic sharing of all the life forms and their interconnectedness is recognised. Lewin calls “the person (P) in the environment (E)” as life space (See Figure 8. and the universe. As such it will constitute foreign hull.” When something goes wrong. peers. and . In this system most direct interactions with social agents – parents. school and neighbourhood. this foreign hull can influence the psychological reality of a person. THE FOREST IS FATHER AND MOTHER affection——. my affect his behaviour. Life Space (L) includes everything present in the environ ment (E) that influences an individual’s behaviour. 8. for example. clothing. warmth. However.

socio historical context. For example family experience of child may affect his interaction with peers or teachers. and all these components influence and affect human behaviour.. Thus. (iii) Exosystem : It is involved when a person’s experience in an close context is affected by his experience in some other not so close setting. environment includes aspects as norms. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. individual in the young age is active and optimistic and as they age they become less active and less optimistic. values myths etc that are shared by majority of the common people. social. to have a healthy and fulfilling life we have to learn to conserve the environment and protect the scarce natural resources like water. however. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES THEIR EFFECTS Fig. From the above analyses it may be concluded that the environment has three major components. According to Lewin Life Space (L) is equal to + . i. are interrelated. 5. We will discuss the environmental stresses and their effects under two separate heads. The present crisis of deforestation. These two. both natural and man-made.Environment and Behaviour 169 (ii) Mesosystem : It is the region in which various Microsystems are related. For example. Culture refers to beliefs system. physical.3 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model We have discussed earlier that the environment influences human behaviour and human actions affect the environment. a person’s experience at work place affects his interaction with his children. Environmental Psychology is the study of reciprocal relationships between psychological processes and physical environment. The term environment has been used to include the physical world and socio-cultural set-up in which we live and interact. 8. Environmental Psychology is the study relationship of between psychological process and physical environment. (i) Environmental effects on human behaviour. . all these influence our behaviour.e. temperature. (iv) Macrosystem : It is the culture in which the person lives. rainfall. Children from broken family may face difficulty in his adjustment with peers. environment includes aspects as terrain. Environmental stresses demonstrate this reciprocal relationship (Refer to Chapter 5). 3. floods. etc. Recapitulation We live in a world surrounded by physical objects and well defined social and cultural settings. We live in a world surrounded by physical objects and well defined and settings..e. For example. (v) Chronosystem : It involves the behaviour patterns that respond to the change in life course. and nuclear waste are some of the serious problems human beings have created by abusing the environment. The views of Lewin and Bronfenbrenner concerning environment have been presented. processes of socialisation etc. and (ii) The impact of human behaviour on the environment. 2. green house effect. and cultural. customs. Human beings affect the environment and environment influences human behaviour. The environment surrounds us and its impact is simultaneously felt on all the sense organs. which are essential for our life. i.

in our social interaction we always keep a physical distance with others. our personal space is roughly 2 feet around us. we shall focus on four: Air pollution. headache. we would not like a stranger to walk into our home without seeking permission. Carbon monoxide prevents the brain. in many Middle Eastern countries.g. The occupants do not have total control over them. people must find ways to cope with these stressors. and both Germans and English are rather ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS HUMAN BEHAVIOUR ON The environment has both nourishing as well as destructive effects on human life. People use different markers and signalling devices to designate the territory. walls. In recent times. sex.. Animals will attack anyone who comes within that space. and social class. It has also been found that all types of psychological problems are on the increase during periods of high levels of air pollution. hut.. eye irritation. It involves ownership and control of environmental areas and objects. and Natural and manmade disasters. worldwide concern about air quality was expressed at the Rio Conference on the global environment in 1992. Due to auto and industrial emissions large quantity of harmful and toxic gases like carbon monoxide. Since environmental threats are physically harmful and stressful.. and if invaded we feel uncomfortable and threatened. Though. cinema hall). Here. tent. are being mixed with the air that we breathe. animal. Studies indicate. e. Scientists believe that about 50 to 90 percent occurrence of cancer in some way or the other are related to pollution. on the average. Human beings may not attack in the same manner as animals do. Personal space refers to the “invisible boundary” or personal area around us that we try to keep from being invaded by others. pollution still poses a serious problem all over the world. Intrusion into it often produces discomfort or tension. but we are also territorial. The primary territories are owned and exclusively used by individuals or groups. bed). fences. people stand very close together in conversation. we feel uncomfortable and we move away to maintain this personal space. For example. the personal space can approach zero for someone we truly love. They are clearly identified as theirs (e. All animals have a sense of territoriality. This can lead to serious health problems. etc. people have been threatened by floods. Throughout human history. and other organs in the body to absorb enough quantity of oxygen from the air. insomnia. etc. earthquakes. and plant life. fatigue. This indicates that the personal space will vary according to the closeness to the other person with whom we are interacting. In other words. The environmental stressors are many. There are more emergency visits to specialists for depression during cloudy and humid days.170 Introduction to Psychology BOX 8. Secondary territories are less central and exclusive. and various respiratory and related diseases. variations are found with age. for strangers. entranceways. Noise pollution. and other natural disasters. If a stranger comes closer. Territories can be grouped into three types: primary. secondary. so vital for the human.. technological advances have brought us new potential threats from the environment. and public.g. Further. Air Pollution: Rapid modernisation and industrialisation have led to the degradation of quality of air. nitrogen dioxide. Public territories have a temporary quality and anyone has access and occupancy rights as long as certain rules are observed (e. For example. Crowding. heart. park. The northern Europeans. attachment to a fixed area set aside for their use.2 PERSONAL SPACE AND TERRITORIALITY “private” people. This space is very personal. However. Within culture. Territoriality is a boundary regulation process. Air pollution leads to reduced visibility. on the other hand seem to maintain more physical distance. Males generally have been found to have a larger personal space than females.g. Germans are more sensitive to spatial intrusion than Americans are. hedges. Data released by the Environmental . which are man-made. Territoriality refers to one’s attachment to a fixed area designated as one’s own and the tendency to defend it against intruders. wide cultural differences exist in the way people maintain the personal space. sulphur dioxide.

Thus. 8. Early . The positive emotions and negative effects of noise friendly behaviour. emission from diesel engines) even music could be noise for in the air we breathe.5 Noise. and performance into the air by industrial plants and the decrement in general. the worst sufferers are children stress. narrowing of attention. it was found polluted air as normal. leads to birds in the morning.g. such as chirping of the opposite effect. the diesel. In reason for a negative general. Noise Pollution : Industrial and technological Crowding : Crowding occurs when a large advancements have led to considerable number of people live in a limited space. Unpredialso involved in our ctability is the other major response to impure air.4 Air Pollution reduction in reading particulate matter is released comprehension. which an individual finds particulate matter (e. For that when participants example. and higher incidence of and mental health. It has been found that daily consider it an important issue and this exposure to sounds of a busy airport causes tendency is dangerous. when exceeds individuals perceive that certain limit. predictable pleasant odorous smell has sound. After some time they do not the noise). Loudness is one major reason that a In addition to particulate matter and given sound is evaluated poisonous gases. odour is as unpleasant. predictability. In adapt more easily to a contrast. get fatigued early because of extra improved to reduce the harmful effects of energy loss in the process. In adverse physiological and India. and elderly people. they performed better and complain about the poor quality of the air. and perceived powered buses have been replaced by CNG control. Recently. any year in the United States by sound. not only has harmful effects on physical hypertension. Noise is defined as Harvard School of Public unwanted sound or sounds that Health indicate that 50. felt less upset – even though most of them but after living for some time they get did not actually press the switch (to turn off used to it. We can negative feelings. bad odours evoke response to sound. who live in surroundings (Compressed Natural Gas) and this has led with high level of noise. also the incidence of psychological effects. are reduced when People who are exposed Fig. Most of the Fig. Those. is considered noise. unpleasant. may lead to various to pollution on a regular they have control over it. newcomers to a were told that they can press a switch and heavily polluted city like Delhi or Kolkata turn off the noise. The some people. fatal strokes. The aversiveness of exhausts of vehicles powered by diesel noise largely depends on its intensity engines. The quality of diesel is also being access. victims are primarily children Sound pollution leads to with respiratory diseases. have to utilise to a reduction of pollution level by about 15 physical and psychological resources in percent. in Delhi.Environment and Behaviour 171 increase in the level of noise Protection Agency and by the pollution. hearing loss. (loudness). it also affects human behaviour negatively. It may such diseases is very high and lead to high level of arousal. The polluted air adults to have memory loss. air that has regular. physiological disturbances in basis learn to accept human body In one study.000 to create a negative effect on 60. diesel engine exhausts.000 deaths are caused each human beings. 8.

Cognitive performance is reduced. what will be the reaction of the people using the commons. there could be two effects to this situation: (1) he will achieve a profit equal to the value of an animal. and (2) he will suffer a loss caused by the declining ability of the commons to support cattle. Crowding is more of a problem at the subjective level (perception of crampedness).” The tragedy of commons is relevant to the difficult problems we are facing in the world today. If someone decides to add an animal to his herd. the restraint on the number of cattle was lifted. will people stop adding cattle before the commons was killed off? It is possible that people may not.. i. The tragedy of the commons is the generalized case of a situation of mixed motives. withdrawal symptoms. each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. studies on crowding on animals showed high incidence of illness and pathology. First the cattle owners and later the town prospered.172 Introduction to Psychology Table 8. However. For centuries. not so wonderful. overpopulation and pollution. Once the cure for the disease was available. an area of pasture on which all of the town people’s cattle are allowed to graze. For some. one in which it is to a person’s advantage both to cooperate and to compete. William Foster Lloyd discussed the following scenario. So the outcome is: “Ruin is the destination towards which all men rush. and the number of cattle overgrew. many researchers are of the opinion that the term “crowding” should be used for the subjective feelings of crampedness. and a disease that had been killing many of the cattle is cured. Every herdsman will realize that by adding an animal to his herd he will increase his wealth substantially while decreasing the total wealth of the community a bit. That is. Legal acceptable noise limit for 8 hrs day. there is a second effect of the new medical treatment. In an obscure pamphlet published in 1833 by an amateur mathematician named. physical density (large number of TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS In such a situation. Freedom in commons brings ruin to all. Blood pressure increases. The immediate effect of discovery is wonderful for the town. away) Noisy restaurant Normal Speech Normal noise at home Soft whisper Breathing Loudness in dB 130 100 95 90 80 70 60 40 30 0 Effect of Noise Brief exposure can result in permanent deafness. Studies with human beings indicate that density not only affects individual behaviour it also affects the quality of social behaviour. Imagine a small town with a town commons. physical presence of a large number of people in a defined physical space can influence interpersonal relations. Imagine that one-day there is a great medical discovery.3 helping behaviour. (reduced). Reaction time affected. the town people have been grazing their cattle on the commons without problem. etc.e. . For example. aggressive acts. In fact. BOX 8. The townspeople had not realised that commons had been able to support their herds because the number of cattle had been held in check by the disease.1 Effects of Noise at different Levels Cause of Noise Jet aircraft take off Textile-weaving plant Food blender City traffic Train (100 ft. Telephone use is difficult.

public concern has not been without any foundation. Nuclear and toxic waste disposal facilities remain problem of major concern all over the world. These accidents provide stress related reactions in the public in a number of countries. have intense and longterm adverse effects on the lives of people. there have been vehement public opposition to various new technologies with possible adverse consequences on public health and environment. etc. under such a situation self is not given importance over others. and Bhopal MIC Disaster (1984). while crowding is the subjective feeling of being too close to each other. The accident of Three Mile Island (TMI) resulted in the release of radioactive material. therefore. For example. density and crowding. the number of immediate fatalities were 31. It is. The experience of crowding and its behavioural effects is mediated by the availability of social support and perception of control. Both natural as well as man-made disasters are catastrophic. In India the relationships are respected and valued. therefore. famine. creating civic and social problems of different kinds. interference. The nearby populations experienced psychological and emotional damages. tornado cyclone. frozen. which disrupt the entire life system. Natural and Man-made Disasters: Natural disasters include earthquake. the experience and consequences of crowding are. buying of radiation measuring equipments for personal use. Although. flood. There are man-made disasters also. etc. and other long-life food. Radioactive waste management is a serious challenge to the governments all over the world.000 delayed fatalities worldwide..Environment and Behaviour 173 people in a defined space) may not create the perception of crowding. The technological disasters such as Three Mile Island (1979). such as those at Three Mile Island (1979) in U. multi-storeyed housing complexes are coming up. disaster more than 3000 people died and over NUCLEAR ENERGY AND WASTE Another major disaster at nuclear facility occurred at Chernobyl in 1986. Another problem of great public concern is the management of nuclear waste from the nuclear facilities like nuclear power house. there had been serious accidents at the nuclear facilities. general physical and mental health. One important outcome of crowding is the loss of personal life and increased social strifes. Goal blockage. Chernobyl (1986). Public has been opposing construction of nuclear and other hazardous facilities. etc. However. windstorm. personality.A and Chernobyl (1986) in erstwhile USSR. For example. A large number of studies carried out in India and abroad reveal that crowding has negative effect on task performance. Most prominent among these has been nuclear energy. panic buying of tinned.4 comparison to the experience of people in the Western Culture. that is. Density at a rock concert may be very high but crowding may be low. Since 1970s. The population explosion and migration of large rural population to big cities are causing increased degree of stress due to crowding. necessary to use two different terms for the condition where large number of people are present. Large number of people around the TMI experienced considerable stress due to perceived psychological and physical threat. Density is the actual number of people per square foot. The other aspect of serious concern of nuclear energy production is the disposal of toxic waste. and mental and physical discomfort are common when people experience crowding. For their inherent risks. In order to accommodate large number of people.S. expected to be different in BOX 8. uptake of potassium iodine. The ill effects of population density are different across cultures. about half of them in the Ukraine and neighbouring states and half in Europe. families are generally large and extended. etc. significant increase in number of abortions. over the next 50 years there may be up to 28. . volcanic eruption. interpersonal relationships. In the Bhopal. The earthquakes at Latoor and Bhuj (2001) and Super Cyclone in Orissa (1999) not only caused extensive damage to property and physical environment but also had long-term effects on the lives of the people.

however. are usually contrary to what is desired. to recycle the waste we have to persuade citizens to be aware and concerned about this serious problem and do . and nightmares.000 were physically affected. Harvesting of rainwater is helpful in augmenting ground water. The rainwater that falls on the roof of our house is sent into a deep pit in the ground that raises the water table. other is not (e.g. withdrawal symptoms depression. In this section. the environment is affected. Perhaps. On our planet. anger. water. There are no easy solutions to the growing problem of waste that we produce everyday. we shall consider how the human activities affect the environment. we indulge in a behaviour that goes against the environment and ultimately threaten our own existence on the earth. etc. all are gifts of this environment to the human kind. Yamuna. Unmindful of the consequences of our activities and actions. food. The most serious long – term threat facing the world is the danger that human actions are producing irreversible and harmful changes Fig. Anything that you do personally may have very little immediate perceptible effect on the quality of environment. This has created severe problem of water pollution. recycled. However. However. Its judicious use. Studies indicate that the survivors of such disasters suffer from anxiety. You must have read in the newspapers about the threatening state of our important rivers like Ganga. almost everything human beings do has small but cumulative effect on the environment in which we live. the most obvious by – product of human activity is waste material we produce. Our actions. Thousands of the gas victims are still suffering from mental and physical health problems. and reused. cooks food. It is a serious problem for municipalities. plastic bags). IMPACT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR ENVIRONMENT ON We defined environmental psychology in terms of interaction between our behaviour and our physical surroundings. and metal can be saved. We are over using the natural resources that we are not replenishing. the total effect will significantly alter (pollute) the environment. Some waste is biodegradable. ranging from sewage to garbage. glass.00. 8.174 Introduction to Psychology 2. someone drives a car.5 Water Pollution in the environment that supports and sustains life on our planet. fuel. imagine that billions of people living on our planet in some way or the other affect the environment. and Governments to manage the sewage and garbage. Similarly. planting trees helps in preventing soil erosion and protecting environmental quality. stress.. Whenever. This alteration adversely influences the life of all of us. Air. plastic. and others. and conservation is necessary for the survival of human beings and plant life on this earth. You are aware that much of our sewage disposal is flushed untreated into the rivers. corporations. It is sad that most of these rivers are now unfit for drawing water for human consumption. uses hair spray. It is a twoway process. there are now at least eighty countries having serious water shortages with a consequent threat to the agriculture. Recycling the waste is one promising approach – paper. For example. we are using water and are unmindful of its conservation. which makes our river water unfit for human consumption. In fact. and our actions affect the environment. Environment is a naturally given capital having certain limits. the environment affects our behaviour. produces garbage.

The threat to the humanity today is due to human population growth. over consumption. the key example is petroleum. have been indulging in anti-environmental behaviours on a large scale. used for soft drinks. The cause of this change in climate (global warming) is known as the green house effect.. melting of ice caps at the North and South Poles that have resulted in raising the sea levels. of the Earth’s commercial energy and uses it only about half efficiently as Japan. global warming is gradually taking place. The oceans are raising about one inch every five years. Similarly. deforestation. Since much of the industrialized world runs on oil.. In the same manner the three main gases released into the atmosphere (carbon dioxide. glass.. Enormous efforts and changes in our lifestyles and cultural practices are required to overcome this grim situation. it is estimated that it will result in an average warming of the earth’s surface air temperature by about 3. methane. Recycling is being adopted as an easier way of ensuring that large amounts of natural resources are used again in productive ways rather than being dumped in landfills. etc. The global warming can be reversed if human behaviour that brought about this problem is changed. rags. burning of fossil fuel (Petrol. of earths’ population. The increase in the levels of these three gases began about the middle of the 1800’s and it still continues. It has been observed that three of the islands of the Republic of Maldives are now under water. particularly energy (e.c.).5 RECYCLING AND ENERGY CONSERVATION is disposed off into the rivers.c. paper.5 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100. planting more trees. However. etc. aerosol cans..g. We are producing irreversible and harmful changes to the environment that supports our life system. often contributing to pollution problems. Human beings. Energy Conservation: One of the main sources of Earth’s Environmental problems is over consumption of natural resources. and Nitrous oxide) trap the sun’s heat that turn the earth into a vast “green house”. and develop plans and strategies to conserve the energy resource for future use and safety of environment. Greenhouse has a glass roof that lets in warming .6 GREEN HOUSE EFFECT AND NUCLEAR THREAT sunlight but prevents warm air from escaping. the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) for refrigeration. for quite some time now. For example. diesel. These effects have been observed in several parts of the world. forest fires. The gradual increase in the temperature of earth’s atmosphere and its oceans brought about partly because of various human activities has far reaching consequences on the ecology and environment. If this problem is not overcome early. Even an average increase of 1 or 2 degrees can change regional climates and disrupt agriculture worldwide. It is extremely important for all the nations of the world to use this and other energy resources very carefully. for refrigeration. like producing waste. If this continues. This trend will cause extensive melting of polar icecaps. the carbon dioxide emissions are reduced. are being recycled. It is estimated that world oil production will begin to decline around 2010. The result of worldwide over consumption of Earth’s resources is that traditional supplies of many materials are being used up rapidly. and ban on the use of CFC. this situation will have dramatic impact on many aspects of life. Further. etc. With only five p. aluminium cans. The city sewage is now being treated and the harmless water after recycling BOX 8. curb over consumption. the United States of America uses 25 p. For example. and lack of resource conservation. Because of this abuse of the environment. The ban on CFC use by fifty nations has brought about some change in the ozone layer. resulting in raised ocean levels and flooding of huge low-lying coastal areas in many countries. Among the consequences are increase in storms and other weather extremes. burning of coal. are melted down and reused in making aluminium products. petroleum products). water is becoming more and more scarce and it is important to conserve it and recycle the enormous amount of water that flows in our sewage system. The extreme example is the United States. there may be no viable world for our descendants to live.Environment and Behaviour 175 BOX 8. contd. metals.

. develop attitudes about recycling and promoting other pro-environmental activities. hearing loss. It is subjective feeling of crampedness resulting from the condition where large number of people are present. personality. and lack of resource conservation. Crowding is another problem that affects the quality of life. LEARNING CHECKS II 1. it has been reported that South Asia (India included) is covered by a three km-deep blanket of pollution. is biodegradable substance. Because. The aversiveness of noise largely depends on its intensity. interpersonal relationships. and general mental and physical health. If this problem is not tackled. produced by automobile and industrial emissions. 4. hypertension. and chemistry will not be sufficient to address the problem. Environment affects actions affect the PROMOTING PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS It is important to realise that the environmental problems are quite complex. Chernobyl. social scientists have a vital role in helping our world to present the ecological disaster. have equally affected the environment and lives of large number of people. animal.g. and plant life. 5. the problem is man-made. earthquakes. over consumption. a non- 3. This threat is caused by human population growth. Rapid modernisation and industrialisation have led to the degradation of quality of air which is so vital for the human. which are man made. and killing lakhs of people by respiratory diseases. Harmful and toxic gases like carbon monoxide. pollution causes narrowing of attention. have led to serious physical and mental health problems. the two are interrelated. sulphur dioxide etc. Man-made disasters. impacting crops. Technological advances have brought us new potential threats. Environment is a naturally given capital to us. the help from disciplines like engineering. and higher incidence of fatal strokes. Recapitulation Environment affects human behaviour and the human actions affect the environment. and other natural disasters have threatened our existence on earth. we must preserve it. the culprits are human beings. and human . prevents the brain and heart to absorb enough oxygen. such as: three Mile Island. Because. early. e. physics.176 Introduction to Psychology the extent of damage to the ozone layer has been so much that it should return to its normal thickness in fifty to one hundred years. which is responsible for changing weather patterns. Noise is any unwanted sound or sounds that an individual finds unpleasant. It has been found that crowding has negative effect on task performance. especially the quality of air and water. therefore. Industrial plants release matter into the air. Throughout human history floods. there may be no viable world for our descendants to inhabit. and Bhopal disaster. The problem is not solely technical in nature. Natural disasters have long-term effect on the lives of people. predictability. In a recent UN report. their share – develop communications that encourage people to help in the process of recycling. 2.and reduce energy use. It should be a very urgent agenda for countries all over the world to get the machinery working on checking automobile emissions. and perceived control. nitrogen dioxide. Social scientists must develop strategies to promote proenvironmental behaviour. social scientists have to play a crucial role in modifying human behaviour. Daily exposure to high intensity sounds causes adults to have memory loss. Industrial and technological advancements have led to considerable increase in the level of noise. the earthquakes at Latoor and Bhuj and super-cyclone in Orissa.

using shower for bathing requires large amount of water and electricity in comparison to the age-old way of using bucket. it requires all nations to share earth’s resources efficiently. To achieve the objective citizens need to perceive the nature and extent of problem we are facing now and change their attitude and behaviour to make it pro-environmental. and avoiding littering are too meagre to have significant impact on the environment. environmental psychologists. recycled products etc. However. This is the essence of Aparigrah. “If you want to be happy in life reduce your needs”.Environment and Behaviour 177 Since 1970s. the first step in the right direction will be to start an awareness programme. Voluntary Simplicity : In India we have the age-old saying. To reduce air pollution car pools or mass transit system should be used. Let us consider some possible motivational approaches to deal with the problem situation. Efforts made in conserving energy. In global perspective. For example. This is what should be voluntarily practiced by everybody. There is no easy solution to the waxed problem of environmental damage that has already been done. It is possible to control the situation if public cooperation is forthcoming. In various studies in India and abroad. and sociologists are trying to find ways to encourage proenvironmental behaviour to save the environment from further degradation. Through international cooperation. it has been found that people are not even aware about the intensity and extensity of the problem. plastic.). Because of loss of much of earth’s protective ozone layer. recycling the waste (e. However. and equitably. ACTIVITY 8. The governmental efforts alone will not be sufficient to tackle this serious . It is important to make the public aware about the seriousness of the problem. peacefully. maintenance of park. It is a way of life that is outwardly simple and uses minimum amount of natural resources and technology. The environmental problems facing the world demand that everyone must move in that direction. harvesting of rain water and sewage system and prepare a report. 2. problem. Encouraging Concrete Actions : People should be encouraged to reduce resourceuse by installing and using energy efficient devices. giving fully of ourselves. Enormous changes in the lifestyles and cultural practices are required to achieve this goal. Motivational Approaches for Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviour 1. reducing the use of detergents. human beings are increasingly experiencing greater risk to skin cancer. meals. cleanliness of roads. The indiscriminate use of CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) for refrigeration has gradually thinned down the ozone layer in the atmosphere that protects us from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation from the sun.1 Understanding The Environment Make observation of the nature and state of facilities for environmental management in your neighbourhood about garbage disposal. Modern way of living requires advanced technology.. etc. It is to live with balance – taking or using no more than we require and at the same time. 50 nations have discontinued the use of CFC. People should be made aware about the problem of resource deficit so that voluntary simplicity is practiced by all. which is heavy on the natural resources. Later the values and attitudes of the people have to be changed to make their behaviour pro-environmental.g. it is not enough to inform the people about the availability of such products and services and their usefulness but need to motivate them to make appropriate behavioural Pro-environmental Behaviour The most important concern for the environmentalist is not only to stop the abuse of the environment but also to reverse the process. the problem is so acute that it is estimated that the ozone layer would take fifty to hundred years return to its normal thickness. Some efforts are being made in this direction. Therefore. social psychologists. paper. To promote pro-environmental behaviour several motivational approaches can be adopted to deal with different types of people.

Ecology.. Providing clear behavioural norms and their strict adherence. Key Terms Environment. industries. Lifestyles. Green house effect. open burning of waste and dead leaves are prohibited. ACTIVITY 8. power houses. compulsory conversion to CNG of Commercial Vehicles. 3.178 Introduction to Psychology actions. Sometimes.. Physical Environment. it is important that people the gravity of the problem. group activism works as a very effective tool in curbing the menace. Organised activism is frequently necessary to reduce and curb environmental damage caused by government agencies (e. Social Environment. Global warming. To effectively reverse the situation. 2. The Supreme Court of India has also initiated action to cleanse the rivers in India.g. The production and use of CFC is being gradually phased out and it is being enforced on a time-based schedule all over the world. transport corporations. are essential to motivate people to act in right direction. Life Space. could be more effective than personal approaches. Such powerful and influential organisations ignore the individual protests and complaints and in such situations. The essence of Aparigrah is: “ If you want to be happy in life reduce your . emission norms. etc. Crowding. Discuss and present the plan in the class and seek support and help from other students in the class to plant the samplings. social scientists have to change the of the people. Noise. . 4. etc. powerful corporations. waste management bodies. mass media are very important in arousing concerns and promoting necessary actions towards the creation of healthy environment. etc. 3. Because. 4. Community participation in programmes for reducing resource use. Government) should bring out more specific environmental regulations and norms to guide and enforce public actions.). it is not being strictly adhered to. Recapitulation To save the environment. recycled products.g. Enforcing agencies should be armed with necessary powers to enforce the norms strictly. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. we have to adopt Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) like electric cars and vehicles powered by fuel cells. etc. efficient use of energy. For example. it is imperative that people perceive the gravity of the situation and develop a pro-environmental attitude. To promote pro-environmental behaviour. the situation is man-made. phasing out of old and inefficient vehicles. Cultural Environment. To promote pro-environmental behaviour social scientists have to develop appropriate approaches.g. Organised Group Activity: Another important approach is to carefully use group activity in monitoring and controlling environmental concerns. sometimes with punitive actions. Personal space. Providing Behavioural Norms : Agencies responsible for enforcing environmental standards (e. Ecological system. The quality of fuel is being constantly improved (e. Though. Environmental psychology. social scientists will have to work hard in devising strategies in creating a pro-environment attitude among the people... For example. Some of the motivational approaches have been discussed to create a pro-environmental behaviour among the people. Similarly. The Supreme Court of India directed Government agencies to strictly adhere to fuel norms. lead free fuel) and the emission norms for the vehicle manufacturer are being made more and more stringent. Public Interest Litigation (PIL) has proved very effective. Gradually. in Delhi the vehicle owners are required to get their vehicles checked for the pollution level and display the “pollution check” certificate. Territoriality.2 Experiencing Pro-Environment Action Develop a plan for plantation of saplings in your community.

needs. particulate 4. To save the environment. 1. behaviour (B) is a function of life space (L). effectively the social scientists should devise methods and strategies of creating pro-environmental attitude among the people. both natural and man-made. 4. Social-cultural 5. How do human beings affect the environment? What is environment and how does it influence human behaviour? What is air pollution and how can it be controlled? What is noise? How does noise affect human behaviour? Is population density and crowding the same thing? What are the effects of crowding on human behaviour? 7. Exosystem. carbon monoxide 5.Environment and Behaviour 179 SUMMARY l l l l l l l l l l l Our behaviour is influenced by the physical objects and well-defined social and cultural settings in which we live. social. The region outside the life space is called “ foreign hull”. II : III : . 3. environment 1. Noise pollution. 6. Discuss the nature and scope of environmental psychology. Review Questions 1. cultural 2. Environmental Psychology is the study of reciprocal relationships between psychological processes and physical environment. perceive. What is pro-environmental behaviour and how can it be promoted? ANSWERS I : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. 4. and Chronosystem. Mesosystem. 3. Human action affects the environment in which we live. What is waste management? Does it pose a serious threat to the health and life of human beings? 8. which is composed of person (P) and environment (E). human behaviour. noise 2. motivational. Motivational approaches could be usefully employed in persuading the people for the adoption of pro-environmental behaviour. P. Crowding and natural and man-made disasters pose serious threats to human life and existence. Macrosystem. According to Lewin. people must perceive the gravity of the situation that we are facing To solve the problem. Bronfenbrenner proposed hierarchy of environments and describes environments in terms of five systems: Microsystem. attitude. Physical 4. first of all. reciprocal 3. E. 5. plastic 3. The most serious long-term threat to human existence is due to the misuse and abuse of natural resources like water and air. 2. Waste management ranging from sewage to garbage is a serious threat to human life and a challenge to the civic authorities. Air pollution. Human actions affect the environment and environment influences human behaviour. 2.

180 Introduction to Psychology 9 THIS PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER COVERS IN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING CONTENTS Introduction What is an Organisation? Structure and Functions of Organisation Key Questions related to Organisational Structure (Box 9. Ä appreciate the different kinds of roles performed by organisational psychologists.3) Personnel Selection Some Methods of Job Analysis (Box 9. and Ä learn to relate advertising and marketing in the context of organisations.1) Delegation of Authority (Box 9.7) Marketing and Advertising Techniques used to Attract the Customers (Box 9.2) Types of Organisational Structure Basic Functions of Managers Mintzberg Managerial Roles (Box 9.8) Ä Introduction to the field of organisational psychology Ä Meaning of organisation Ä Structure of organisation Ä Functions of a manager Ä Role of psychologist in organisational setting Ä Relevance of advertising and marketing BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the nature of organisation and its defining features.4) Interview for Personnel Selection (Box 9. Ä understand the basic functions performed by a manager.5) Work Motivation Reward Management (Box 9.6) Training and Performance Appraisal Human Resource Development (Box 9. Ä know the structure of organisation. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .

Indian Railways. This chapter shall help you to understand some of the basic concepts used in the study of organisations. You will study about the way organisations are structured and the way they function. and industry. in some organisations. college. and performance appraisal. But. Organisations are often identified by their buildings. Hindustan Levers. values. a family owned restaurant. a small departmental store. NGOs. . or a service station. MTNL. Others are smaller. the problems of work motivation and advertising are discussed. and motives. iron. This is followed by a description of the processes of selection. laboratories. the teachers and the support staff. the school cannot function as an organisation. hospitality industries (hotels) etc. attitudes. training. We work for them and consume their products. fertilisers. However.Psychology in Organisational Setting 181 INTRODUCTION An organisation covers a whole gamut of places like bank. food products etc. Finally. A school or a bank also use machines like computers. a school has its buildings. police station. Without a principal. etc. Organisational psychology helps us to understand these aspects of organisation in proper perspective. These constitute ‘service organisations’. We need to understand their behaviours. To understand. locally based such as a school. It involves internally integrative and externally adaptive activities. hospital. State Bank of India etc. TATA. Maruti Udyog Limited. For example. What an organisation does or how it functions. It applies knowledge and the principles of psychology including social psychology to the study of organisations and their functioning. even though these machines do not play a prominent role in their functioning. needs. As an adult.. court of law. religious organisations. etc. we spend more time at jobs than at any other activity (with the possible exception of sleep) in life. which houses classrooms. like-hospitals (health services). the material aspect in these organisations is quite tangible. control and predict the functioning of an organisation we need to understand the psychology of these people. Some of them have been around for a long time. libraries. and what happens within an organisation depends on behaviour of the people in it. Thus. The managerial functions are also described. thinking. Thus. We read about various organisations in newspapers and follow their financial growth and its impact on economy and our day-to-day lives. school. The material part of an organisation is very obvious. textiles. They must have ‘people’ who put the materials and machines to use and make organisations what they are. typewriters. In contrast are some organisations where inputs are mostly intangible and products are the services they offer. Organisations affect our lives in significant ways. do organisations function only through materials and machines? No. factories or by their products. machines and equipments form the backbone and are used to produce goods like-steel.

182

Introduction to Psychology

WHAT

IS AN

ORGANISATION?

Organisations are necessary for achieving certain goals and objectives, which are difficult to achieve by the individuals alone. For example, consider the case of your own education. Can you get education without taking admission in a school or college? Yes, you can, by making necessary arrangements at home, but that education may not be acceptable in the society. It is important to know how work is organised and allocated to various people working for the school or any other organisation. In this context, many questions arise: How to recruit, train, and effectively manage the people to maximise output? How to create conditions which would enable the people to work effectively over a long period of time? How to make people and organisations to adapt the changing environmental conditions and technological innovations? How to cope with competition from other organisations in the some domain? Organisational behaviour, which is also referred to as OB, is a multidisciplinary field of study different from organisational psychology, and investigates the impact of individuals, groups and organisational structures on behaviour within the organisation for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organisation’s effectiveness. As stated above, it is important to recognise that organisations come into existence to accomplish goals– organisational, group and individual, which otherwise will not be possible to achieve by individuals alone. The techo-structural or structural and the human components of organisation need coordination of efforts at different levels. Coordination, infact is backed by authority to be exercised if required. Organisations have people with common goals who coordinate their individual and group efforts. This is done by assigning different kinds of work to different individuals who are entrusted with responsibility, power, and authority. For instance, in your school the teachers, the students, the principal and the administrative staff work towards providing

quality education. You will notice that each individual or group has a specific role and assigned work; and each has some responsibility, some power, and authority. Thus, organisations typically have the following features: Common Goals : Each organisation has goals that are shared by a group of individuals. Organisations have their objectives, which are accepted by the people who constitute the same. The objectives guide the activities of an organisation. Coordination of Efforts : The people in an organisation put in their efforts, help each other, and organise themselves to coordinate their activities so that the organisational objectives can be attained. Division of Labour : In order to achieve the goals of an organisation different functions are required to be performed. The labour or work involved in these functions is assigned to different individuals or groups of individuals. In your school, you will notice a clear division of labour. Teachers, students, clerks, principal, librarian etc. have assigned roles and functions, which may sometimes overlap; but broadly, the division of labour is functional. Based on different skills and capabilities of the people employed, they are trained to perform different functions. Responsibility and Authority : Coordination of efforts and division of labour in organisations imply that each individual has assigned tasks, responsibilities, and duties. Attainment of goals of an organisation depends on the extent to which the task responsibilities are fulfilled. Very often, this is maintained by self-discipline and work ethics of the people assigned with specific tasks. Each person with assigned task has responsibility for the same and has some power and authority in order to control task performance and its outcome. The coordination of efforts towards achievement of organisation’s objectives requires monitoring and control, at different levels. This implies different levels of authority, control, and power. In your school, for instance, students, teachers, staff, as well as the principal have assigned tasks, roles, and responsibilities and some degree of authority to enforce the minimum conditions

Psychology in Organisational Setting

183

for task attainment. The librarian has the task of issuing books to students as per rules. She is responsible for this work and has some authority and power in order to ensure that this task is done. In coordinating the efforts for goal achievement, organisations evolve different levels of authority. They exercise control over others’ activities and task performance. Thus, your principal has a higher level of authority compared to the teachers. Usually, organisations have a hierarchy of authorities so that some have greater control over others. However, this is not always the case; some organisations are less hierarchical than others are. If we put the above-mentioned features in view, following definition of organisation can be given: An organisation is the rational coordination of the individual or group efforts and activities for attainment of some commonly shared or agreed upon objectives and goals, through the division of labour and functions, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility. While describing an organisation, it must be noted that an organisation functions as an organism. It is often thought of as an open system that operates within an environment. Unlike the closed system, an open system is that which has a relatively more flexible structure. Its boundary is open to accommodate the new informations and the changes relevant in environment. In fact, the open system is always in active interaction with the environment in order to make smooth the export of its products (outputs) and to generate additional resources which are necessary for the survival of the system. These resources can then be subsequently used to import various forms of energies (inputs). It should be noted that any living system, be it a human being or an organisation, has a natural tendency of entropy. However, an open system develops a mechanism of re-energising the system which enables it to negate the entrophy. It imports energy and resources (inputs) from the environment (e.g., people, capital, machines etc.) and after processing these inputs produces certain products (e.g., consumable goods, services,

machines etc). It should also be remembered that all organisations involve people who interact with each other and with machines. These interactions are social and psychological. As a result, we find in organisations all the psychological processes in operation. People perceive each other, cooperate, feel motivated, communicate, come in conflict, feel frustrated, stressed, work in teams and try to achieve objectives that are fixed for the organisation.
ACTIVITY 9.1 Understanding the Nature of an Organisation Think of an organisation with which you are familiar. It can be a school, an industry, a hospital, a service station, a departmental store, or an NGO. Attempt to answer the following questions about that organisation.
l What

are the objectives of this organisation? l What connection does it have with the society and environment? l How is it functioning to attain the objectives? After you have written the answers to these questions, discuss them in the class. Try to see how far your answers approximate the definition of organisation that you have studied.

Recapitulation Organisations are increasingly playing important role in contemporary life. Organisational psychology specialises in the study of organisational functioning. Organisations are created when it is realised that individual efforts are not enough to achieve the goals. All organisations share the following characteristics: common goals, coordination of efforts, division of labour, responsibility, and authority. Organisations can be defined in terms of rational coordination of people’s efforts to attain shared goals. They function as an open system which imports energy from environment and after processing sends its products to the environment. Thus, organisations are open systems which are related to the external environment.

184

Introduction to Psychology

LEARNING CHECKS I

1. A work done by machine represents organisation. T/F 2. The attitudes and inter–departmental conflicts in a college can be a problem for organisational psychologist. T/F 3. Organisations are introduced to achieve shared objectives. T/F 4. Division of labour is a characteristic of organisation. T/F 5. Organisations may not require rational coordination of efforts. T/F 6. Organisations work as an open system. T/F

STRUCTURE AND F UNCTIONS OF O RGANISATION It is a well-known fact that human behaviour is affected by the kind of set up one is placed in. An organisation also provides a set up. The organisations vary in terms of their structures, which characterise their set up. Different types of organisational structures influence the behaviour of employees in different ways. Organisational structure tells how jobs are divided and assigned to its employees. For example, in the early part of the last century, Henry Ford built automobiles on an assembly line. Every worker of the Ford company was assigned a specific task: one person would just put on the right front wheel and someone would

install the right front door. Thus, the jobs were divided into smaller units of standardised nature, which could be performed repeatedly. By doing this, Ford was able to produce cars at the rate of one every 10 seconds while using individuals who had limited skills. An organisational structure is defined in terms of how jobs are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. There are six key elements in designing an organisation’s structure. They deal with different concerns of an organisation (Box 9.1). Let us try to understand these elements in some detail. Work Specialisation : It helps in identifying the degree to which tasks in an organisation are sub–divided into separate jobs. The important aspect of work specialisation is that an entire job is not done by one individual, but is broken down into a number of steps. Each step of the job is completed by a different individual or groups of individuals. In essence, individuals specialise in doing part of an activity. In some organisations, work is highly specialised whereas in others, specialisation is minimal and each of the employees is trained for and required to undertake the whole or most of the work to be done. Departmentalisation : Jobs are not only divided into steps and assigned to different individuals; they can also be grouped according to their functions. The basis by

BOX 9.1

KEY QUESTIONS RELATED TO ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

Concerns To what extent tasks are sub–divided into separate jobs? On what basis jobs would be grouped together? To whom do individuals and groups report? How many individuals can a manager efficiently manage? Where does a decision-making authority lie?

Elements of Organisational Structure Work specialisation Departmentalisation Hierarchy (chain of command) Span of control Centralisation Formalisation

What is the extent of rules and regulations to direct the employees?

Psychology in Organisational Setting

185

which jobs are grouped together is called departmentalisation. For example, a hospital might have different departments devoted to research, patient care, administration, accounting, rehabilitation, and so forth. Similarly, a small restaurant may have departments like cooking, service, accounts, customer care, security, and vigilance. The major advantage of this type of grouping is to obtain better coordination and efficiency in work and productivity. Chain of Command : It refers to the line of authority that runs from the top of an organisation to its bottom. In practical terms, it clarifies who reports to whom. It tells the employees whom to approach if they have a problem. The chain of command involves authority and unity of command. These are complementary concepts. Authority refers to the rights inherent in a certain position to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed. It has a definitive place in the chain of command. It is necessary for facilitating the coordination of activities and doing the jobs. The unity of command principle states that a person should have one and only one superior to whom she/he is directly responsible. If the chain or unity of command is broken, the employees may be put to conflicting demands from several superiors. Span of Control : It specifies the number of employees a manager should efficiently and effectively direct. It determines the number of levels of managers an organisation has. If the span is too large, it will affect the employees’ performance because the managers have less time to provide the necessary leadership and support. If the span is too small, it will require more managers to control the employees. It would cost more to the company.
BOX 9.2

Centralisation : In certain organisations, top managers make all the decisions. People down the line carry out top management directives. Such an organisation is highly centralised. Contrary to these are organisations where decision-making powers have been given to all those employees who are closer to action. They take decisions at their levels. Such an organisation is highly decentralised, and the decision-making power is shared. Thus, organisations vary in respect of the degree to which decision, making powers are concentrated or shared. Degree of centralisation/decentralisation affects the speed with which decisions can be taken and implemented. It also determines the level of involvement of employees in their jobs and organisations. It is important to note that in a decentralised setting, the tasks are assigned by delegating. This is also a way of empowering the employees. This can be achieved better if the delegation is supplemented by periodic checks to ensure that the authority guidelines are not being abused, organisation’s policies are being followed, and proper procedures are being met. The key considerations while delegating authority to the subordinates are summarised in Box 9.2. Formalisation : It refers to the degree to which jobs within an organisation are standardised and made formal. In a highly standardised procedure, the employees have the least amount of discretion in performing their specific roles. Every time a job is given, it is to be done by following the same procedure in a uniform manner. Organisations function within a framework of rules and clearly defined procedures. When formalisation is of a lesser degree the

DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
l l l l

Sometimes authority is delegated to subordinates for certain assignments. When managers have to delegate authority they are required to: l clarify the assignment to subordinates, l specify to the subordinate the range of discretion,

allow the subordinate to participate, make him accountable and extend managerial support, inform others that delegation has occurred, and establish the feedback control to regulate and monitor.

186

Introduction to Psychology

job behaviours are relatively nonprogrammed and employees have considerable flexibility and freedom in exercising discretion. Formalisation has advantages as well as disadvantages. The advantages are that employees are not allowed to engage in alternative forms of behaviours. The disadvantage is that employees may feel paralysed if the rules and procedures do not apply to a given situation. TYPES
OF

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

There are several kinds of organisational structure. Some organisations make use of simple structure whereas others use bureaucratic and other complex structures such as matrix type structure. There are tall and flat structures as well. Let us try to understand three types of structures, i.e., simple, bureaucratic, and matrix in some detail. Simple Structures: These are structures with low degree of departmentalisation and a wide

it becomes grossly inadequate as and when the organisation grows in size. You may consider the structure of a departmental store owned by a hypothetical person say, Mr. Hariram Banarasi Das. He is owner–manager. He has employed five sales–persons who directly report to him. This simple structure is shown in Fig. 9.1. Such a simple structure is becoming popular because of its flexibility, responsiveness, and high degree of adaptability to change. Bureaucratic Structure : This structure is characterised by routine operating tasks achieved through specialisation, formal set of rules, and activities organised around functions. The authority is highly centralised. It has a chain of command and narrow span of control. Its strength lies in its ability to perform standardised activities in an efficient manner. The managerial discretion is minimised by wide range of rules and regulations. The operational duties are standardised with high degree of formalisation.

Fig. 9.1 Example of a Simple Organisational Structure.

span of control. The authority is largely centralised in a single person with very little formalisation. It is also called ‘flat structure’. It usually has only two or three vertical levels, a flexible set of employees, and generally one person in whom the power of decision– making is invested. This simple structure is most widely practiced in small business settings where manager and owner happen to be the same person. Its advantage lies in its simplicity. This makes it responsive, fast, accountable, and easy to maintain. However,

The major weakness of bureaucracy is its extreme concern with strict adherence to rules. When cases arise that do not fit the rules, there is no room for modification. Bureaucracy promotes established procedures and programmed decisionmaking. Most of the organisations, however, were designed after bureaucratic structures. Now the dominant trend is to decentralise organisations into smaller units, making them fully autonomous, and having minimum obstacles in decision-making.

T/F 6. chain of command. T/F 4. strict chain of command and little delegation of authority gives freedom to a minimum possible extent. decisionmaking flows toward the lower level of employees. one to their functional department and the other to their product groups. In addition to this. centralisation of power. Recapitulation Organisational structure can be described in terms of specialisation. T/F 2. like academic department of HRD. and Research Methodology and so on. They try to combine different functional groups and the final output i. or span of control.2 Understanding Organisational Structure Find a partner from your class. Matrix structure reduces many problems which typical bureaucratic structure suffers. they may have several courses like. and formalisation.. and find out the organisational structure by asking following questions: l How many people are working here? l What are their roles and duties? l Whom do they report to? l Who writes their confidential reports? l Who is the decision taking person in case of a problem? l How are they held accountable? Discuss the responses obtained with your teacher and try to find out the nature of organisational structure that the organisation has? BASIC FUNCTIONS OF MANAGERS Organisations are blueprints for human activities. consulting firms. PGDBM.Psychology in Organisational Setting 187 The Matrix Structure : This structure integrates two forms of departmentalisation. complex. Research and Development (R&D) organisations. The most central feature of bureaucracy is objectivity and accountability. Decentralisation amounts to power sharing and creating various centres of decision-making. the role of managers is very important. which can be called as products. Its strength lies in putting specialists together that allow pooling and sharing of specialised resources across products. Management Development Programme (MDP). It facilitates efficient allocation of specialists but it can also induce power struggle in organisations. a business school using a matrix design would have several departments. For example. They affect the profit-related activities only. a Professor of HRD teaching MBA course reports to the Director of the Institute as well as to the Chairman of the MDP.. universities. Organisational structures also constrain the behaviour and set the limits. matrix design. For example. centralisation. school office. MBA. an organisation structured around high level of formalisation. Ph. but they do not begin to function unless people come and join them and perform the specific roles. etc. . product. Members in the matrix structure have dual assignment. The strength of matrix lies in its ability to facilitate coordination when the organisation has multiple.e. LEARNING CHECKS II 1. advertising companies. hospitals. The important functions of a manager are described as under. if assigned the course responsibility of teaching a module of HRD. and construction companies use matrix type structures. T/F 3. For instance. In this context. Take a notepad and visit the nearest departmental store. departmentalisation. Formalisation means having a formal dress code and living the life in a traditional mode. Newer forms of structures are also being tried these days. and interdependent activities. departmentalisation. In bureaucratic structures. Generally. T/F ACTIVITY 9. bureaucratic design. Simple structure is good for quick decision-making. Finance. Accounting. Organisational structures have no effect on individual behaviour. Besides. BBA. organisations can have various types of structures such as simple structures. service station.D. T/F 5.

It includes the monitoring. Informational Roles : Managers need to receive and process information regarding various aspects of organisation’s functioning. Such activities represent the informational roles of managers. Organising the organisation is necessary for effective goal attainment. Decisional Roles : Managers have to play the role of decision-maker. the problems of performance appraisal. and people are selected and put to work. Leading : Organisations involve people and it is important that their activities are coordinated to achieve the goals. Organising : It refers to specifying and linking the various roles and responsibilities to be taken up by the people working for the organisation. They have to be in contact with the people inside and outside the organisation. which are highly interrelated. at times. promotion policy. They make choices. training. This is called controlling. They have to provide leadership to their followers. the structural arrangements are worked out. informational and decision related. Providing direction and establishing mechanisms for coordination is called leading. It answers the following question: What tasks are to be performed and by whom? How the tasks are to be grouped? Who will report to whom? Where the decisions are to be made? All these things are to be specified along with the areas of responsibility and accountability. Management Roles All managers are expected to perform certain roles in their respective organisations. A variety of such decisional roles are involved in managerial functions. i. and setting up the ways of handling conflicts. proposing strategies for achieving these goals and developing a comprehensive plan to coordinate the different activities of the people working in the organisation. It involves motivating people. the organisation evolves mechanisms to bring them back on the right track. Interpersonal Roles : Managers have to communicate with other people in order to get the work done.3 if you want to know more about these roles. . They are required to transmit and disseminate information and play the role of spokespersons when interacting with others outside the organisation. The process of selection of right persons for the right kind of job requires analysis of job profile and use of a dependable selection procedure.e. If people in the organisation are not putting and coordinating their efforts to attain the stated goals. directing their activities. and initiate new ideas to improve organisational functioning. comparing. These are interpersonal roles involving relationships between managers and workers. Staffing : Selection and recruitment of the personnel to undertake the various activities is another responsibility of managers. perform the role of selecting. You may consult Box 9. These goals need to be defined and the ways of achieving them are worked out. and correcting the activities of the members of an organisation. They. and outsourcing (using external resources rather than employees) are to be decided. take corrective decisions for solving problems. Controlling : Once the objectives and goals of an organisation are established. The employees also need training for updating their skills. These roles can be divided into three categories. However. appraising.188 Introduction to Psychology Planning : Organisations exist to achieve certain goals. They decide about assignment of duties and what are the resources required. there still remains the task of coordinating and making people deliver the expected level of performance. It can be done by using reward and punishment mechanisms. People in the highest authority represent the organisation and they take on the responsibility of defining these goals. interpersonal. the plans are formulated. Based on a study. establishing the most effective way of communication.. etc. a brief description of these roles is given below. Mintzberg concluded that managers carry out 10 different roles. In older organisations. Planning includes defining an organisation’s goals. and motivating them and maintaining the discipline.

educational qualification. and determined in advance. the level at which an organisation needs people determines the choice of the method for selection. It also helps in identifying the characteristics of a successful jobholder.Psychology in Organisational Setting 189 BOX 9. It also provides interview leads. They require candidates to provide biographical data. a manager is responsible for the motivation and direction of his or her subordinates. The objective of selection is to match individual characteristics with the requirements of a given job.3 MINTZBERG MANAGERIAL ROLES Disseminator : A manager transmits information received from outsiders or from other subordinates to the members of organisation. Interpersonal Roles Figurehead : Manager acts as a symbolic head and represents organisation to inside and outside clients. Interview : Interview is a way of obtaining information about a candidate so as to determine whether the candidate has the ACTIVITY 9. working out the nature of relationship of that job with other jobs and determining the level of skills. They can vary from one organisation to another. There are various methods of doing job analysis. competence. and abilities needed to perform a job. The process of assessing the activities performed within a job is called Job Analysis. attitude and abilities necessary to function in that job. depending upon the specific job requirements. organise thoughts and presenting the facts. skills. . Decisional Roles Entrepreneur : A manager searches opportunities and initiates projects to bring about changes in the organisation. and conditions of employment. It also tests the applicant’s ability to write. PERSONNEL S ELECTION Selection is a deliberate effort to engage a fixed number of persons usually out of a large number of applicants. It identifies the knowledge. Resource Allocator : A manager makes or approves significant organisational decisions.4. and references. you are encouraged to study Box 9. Based on the job analysis. Liaison : A manager maintains a network of outside contacts that provides resources and information. policies. A job description is a written account of job contents. Application blanks are designed in many ways. it is necessary to assess the demands and requirements of the job. Informational Roles Monitor : A manager receives a wide variety of information and serves as the nerve centre for internal and external activities. working environment. Job Analysis It involves developing a detailed description of the tasks involved in performing a job.3 Understanding the selection process Collect five different kinds of advertisements published in a newspaper and describe the main types of job descriptions. Selection Methods A variety of methods are used to select personnel. job experience. If the management is unable to get a proper match. standardised. The blanks are highly structured. If you want to know more about the methods of job analysis. Some of the widely used methods of selecting personnel are described below. Usually. the employee–performance and satisfaction suffer adversely affecting the goals of an organisation. job descriptions are prepared. Application Blank : It is used for obtaining information about the suitability of candidates for a particular job. In order to have the right kind of individual-job fit. In this way. Leader : In this role. he or she serves as an expert. Job description is a crucial document for guiding the selection process. Negotiator :A manager represents organisation during negotiations. Spokesperson : A manager transmits information to external agencies on plans. and results of the organisation.

interest and integrity of the applicants. They are based on job analysis data. and decisionmaking games. Diary: Jobholders record their daily activities in diaries. It is particularly suitable for assessing intelligence level. In work sampling. discussions. It ranges from frequent interruptions to strong criticism of the opinions expressed by the candidate. attitude. four kinds of Interviews are used in personnel selection. Generally. knowledge. They are unbiased and standardised devices and can be easily administered to a large number of people. health.190 Introduction to Psychology BOX 9. . However. interview is made up of four stages. it can be a powerful tool for achieving accurate information and getting access to information. ability.5 Performance Simulation Tests : The use of performance tests has increased significantly in the last two decades. In assessment centres.. which is otherwise unavailable. aptitude.5. Group Interview: It is also a kind of interview but in this case. What is to be asked during the interview is already structured. The former is suited to routine jobs. It is the most frequently used selection device. and interpersonal skills. and ability appropriate for the job in question. They have been found to predict job behaviour effectively. They are cost effective and save time. There are several advantages of using tests. requisite skills. an effort is made to create a replica of the job situation making a candidate perform in a job like setting. exercises. Written Tests : As a selection device. These diaries are analysed to get the details about the job. interests. a large number of employees participate in groups in generating ideas about the job details. If handled properly. motivation. It consists of interaction between an interviewer and the applicant. tests may not accurately predict job success. Individual Interview: Selected employees are interviewed in detail. The candidate confronts them through business games. To learn more about interview see Box 9. It can also be done by Video recording employees’ behaviour and watching it to create a job description. The Interview Process Generally. whereas the latter is relevant to the selection of managerial positions. Information relevant to jobs are analysed based on responses to the questionnaires. INTERVIEW FOR PERSONNEL SELECTION Depth Interview: It covers the life history in detail about work experiences. They are maps of actual behaviours and not hypothetical as the written tests. and hobbies. Stress Interview: Stress is deliberately created to observe how an applicant performs under pressure. these tests are also conducted for evaluating intelligence. Observation: Detailed specifications of activities are prepared directly by observing employees on the job. Patterned Interview: It is a combination of direct and indirect questioning of the applicant. and job analysis is carried out by content analysing the interview protocols. unless they are properly developed and used. trained psychologists run evaluation workshops wherein actual problems are presented through simulated situations. Two best-known approaches to simulation are work-sampling and assessment centres. BOX 9. contd. The effectiveness of assessment centres is very impressive.. suggest specific characteristics of a job by conferencing. Preliminary Interview: The applicant is given job details during the interview to make him think whether the job will suit him or her. Technical Conference: Experts who have extensive knowledge of the job.4 SOME METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS Structured Questionnaire: Structured questions are prepared and employees are given the questionnaire to fill out the relevant details.

e. sports and game preference and must be neatly dressed. The final stage of interview is concerned with wrapping up the event.Psychology in Organisational Setting 191 It starts with preparation. The second stage begins with questions for ice breaking. Managers play a variety of roles i. Proper selection and recruitment of employees is important for organisations. communicating and providing leadership. Planning involves defining the goals and preparing a blue print for goal achievement. Organising means putting things in order by assignment of roles and responsibilities so that the goals can ACTIVITY 9. Managers play an important role in the decision-making processes in the organisation. Discuss the process with data in the class. communicating. processing. Ask the candidate how he/she felt about the interview process. must have good communication skill.. Organisations have different types of selection methods in which application forms. interpersonal. Prepare your questions in advance to tap the required qualities. coordinating. Interpersonal roles involve relating to people. drawing. Leading function involves providing directions. You can announce that the above-mentioned qualities are needed. must possess some artistic talent like singing. Examine the way the board conducted the interview. They are: planning. a candidate is made to enter in rapport in order to make him/her feel relaxed. questions prepared during the preparatory stage are used as a road map. and disseminating information within and outside the organisation. motivating. decision-making and informational roles. followed by opening stage. In the opening stage. Psychologists found that workers’ motivation is determined by various factors. The monitor of the class is expected to have following qualities: Regular in the class. written tests and performance simulation tests are used. and resolving conflicts. incentive systems. Recapitulation Managers have to perform certain basic organisational functions. While preparing the agenda. It is important to cover these and some additional questions arising out of the interview process. Ask members of the class to play the role of candidate one by one (You can have three candidates in one session). the job descriptions and resume of the candidate is reviewed for the position a candidate is being considered. be achieved. staffing. how and why–what questions are expected to be handled by descriptions and information details about the understanding of the candidate? How questions are concerned with explanation and why questions deal with the analysis of issues. Controlling function involves ways of making people achieve the organisational goals by delivering the expected levels of performance. personnel policies.4 Role-play for Monitor or Leader of the Class Create a board of interviewers to conduct an interview for selecting monitor of the class. The third stage is of questioning and discussion. the interviewer should introduce himself or herself. They include relationship with co-worker. Job requirements need to be analysed so that the right individuals can be fitted to the right jobs. Staffing refers to selection and recruitment of the personnel. and intergroup relations that organisation as a total system began to come into focus. The candidate should be informed about the next stage of happening. . then questioning and finally concluding. Then the agenda for the interview is set. friendly. it is important to organise questions in terms of what. Conduct the interview and make judgement about the most suitable candidate. organising. Informational roles involve receiving. W ORK M OTIVATION It is through the studies on worker’s motivation. be sensitive to other’s feelings. leading and controlling. Taking the issues deeper into what the candidate says should also be done. In preparation stage. Evaluation should be done immediately after the candidate has left. interviews. In this stage.

the organisational psychologists play important roles in helping organisations achieve their goals. Prepare a report and discuss with your teacher. efforts have been made to help organisations solve motivational problems of employees. it is likely to be strengthened. Equity Theory : People experience feelings of unfairness or inequity when the ratio between their efforts (work input) and what they receive (outcome) are not similar. decision-making. Helping to adapt to organisational conditions and changing technological circumstances. and the nature of group to which they belong. employee selection. Expectancy Theory : It argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends upon the strength of expectation that the action will be followed by a given outcome and it will be attractive. In brief. Setting specific challenging and plausible goals increases work motivation. Reinforcement Theory : This theory tends to emphasise the role of reinforcement followed by action. Various theories consider needs in a different manner. they work toward realising them. 4. 5. Their most crucial concern is effective utilisation of people’s capacities. their relationship with the boss. For instance. Psychologists have developed many theories and frameworks about motivational problems of the people. TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Psychologists are involved in developing training systems and helping organisations . amount of pay being received by the employees. they will work harder. training. Recruiting and training personnel to perform adequately. perception. punishment. Goal-setting Theory : It emphasises goal-setting as a motivator. which will be rewarded by something they value. and other factors related to working conditions that could impede performance. for Establishing effective reward. and incentive procedures to enable the people to maintain optimal level of functioning. learning. Need Theories : These theories suggest that people will work hard if their needs are met. l l You may visit an organisation near the place where you live and try to understand the problems where a psychologist can contribute. performance appraisal. Helping organisations cope with the internal and external competition and other environmental pressures. their contributions have been expanded to include topics like. In order to motivate people. All these activities are now considered as part of human resource development. Drawing from these motivational theories. when workers believe that their efforts will improve performance. Feelings of inequity reduce work motivation. motivating.5 Role of psychologists in organisations It would be clear to you by now that OB is an applied behavioural science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioural sciences. boredom. personality. Creating working conditions effective and smooth functioning.6 may help you to understand certain related issues. 3.192 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 9. job-design and stress management. job satisfaction. their basic needs or deficiencies must be satisfied. The key motivational theories are summarised below: 1. Early industrial/ organisational (I/O) psychologists concerned themselves with the problems of fatigue. More recently. 2. The details about reward management given in Box 9. It is assumed that if people feel motivated toward certain goals. attitude measurement. leadership effectiveness. Some areas of organisational functioning to which psychologists contribute significantly are given below: l l l l Organising work and allocating them to right worker. If a particular behaviour results in a positive reward.

Business organisations spend crores of rupees every year on advertisements and in developing messages that appeal to customers. etc. performance appraisal. can provide stimulus for improved performance. The rewards can be distributed on an individual or group basis. holiday’s premium and bonus. and radio. like. awards. Performance appraisals are periodic evaluations of employee’s performance in an organisation along with feedback to the employees. These rewards. services. and consumer decision-making. effect of advertisements. Estimates are that the average urban child sees 20. These kinds of rewards are improve their appraisal systems. T/F 5. consumption of products. T/F The study of psychological processes underlying the acquisition. magazines. Performance appraisal should be linked with promotion. Similarly. and disposition of goods. Many of the psychologists are currently playing the role of trainers and consultants to improve the internal processes concerning individual and group functioning. and through Internet. Generally. such appraisal should be objective and relatively free from biases and errors. work design.Psychology in Organisational Setting 193 BOX 9. Advertisements play a crucial role in influencing buying decisions. There are direct as well as indirect compensations. The theories of work motivation provide strategies to improve performance of employees in organisations. job satisfaction. Sometimes an individual receives rewards. training and performance appraisal are other areas of psychological applications. Expectations about attractive outcomes may motivate the employees. They do training needs analysis. T/F 6. Selection helps the process of job analysis to decide the requirements. profit sharing. Recapitulation Principles of psychology are useful in understanding organisational functioning and the behaviour of people in organisations. Feeling of inequity increases the motivation of employees. market appeals are often made through television. Training and testing are undertaken on continuous basis because of the need to learn new skills and acquiring relevant capabilities. Similarly. T/F 2. For example. marketing appeals. development of leadership and motivation. newspaper.000 . develop training programmes. T/F 4. counselling. Psychologists play important role in training. consumption. It is also done through billboards. T/F 3. overtime allowances. Through suitable performance appraisal. and recognitions. These rewards are called extrinsic rewards. Interview technique involves meeting a candidate with a defined agenda. They are required to cope with technological and environmental changes.6 REWARD MANAGEMENT called intrinsic rewards. an employee expects some kind of direct and explicit compensation. basic salary. and assess the impact of training on effectiveness of employees. they do so after looking for payoffs or rewards that an organisation offers. and purchase of stocks or shares. and ideas is done in a related area called consumer psychology. Selection is a mechanism of finding out the best person for a job. T/F 7. MARKETING AND A DVERTISING 1. Performance appraisals can sometimes be affected by certain biases. Consumer psychologists study buying behaviour. performance can be linked to rewards such as promotion. In LEARNING CHECKS III order to be effective. It is a well-known fact that people tend to do what satisfies their needs. Feedback to employees is a necessary aspect of performance appraisal. hoarding. They are internally rewarding. if carefully aligned to individual needs. which enhance the sense of personal worth.

They also confuse children and take advantage of their misunderstanding. job enrichment. the advertiser. the threats of obsolescence are increasing. with rapid technological changes. Training and Development Let us learn more about training and development activities in which psychological input is very crucial. training methods of several kinds are used.. interpersonal and problem solving.7 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD) programmes for computer applications. the advertising agency. namely technical. They deal with different kinds of products such as packaged goods. It is observed that a competent employee does not remain competent forever. The process of looking into human capabilities for its maximum utilisation is known as human resources development (HRD). In order to develop them. It involves lateral transfer that enables one to work at different workstations. A career is a sequence of positions. It also helps develop people to take up future assignments. clerical staff needs to learn how to fully utilise the latest software commercials every year. The advertisers may be at national or regional level. Employees get to learn a wide variety of jobs and gain insight into the interdependency across different jobs. applying motivational strategy. Goal attainment in an organisation depends primarily on the way people working for the organisation are able to utilise their capabilities to an optimal extent and help their organisation achieve its goals. Children under eight years of age are very trusting of commercials. face-to-face resolution of conflict. Thus. and contribute to poor decision-making skills by focusing on irrelevant attributes of the product. One such method is job-rotation. a career development and training programmes are needed. open communication. Development : This function includes on the job training.e. and transfers are included in this function. Career Development : Career development is a way for an organisation to increase its employees’ productivity and preparing them for the changing world scenario. Job rotation and apprenticeship apply to the learning of technical skills. For example. Similarly. consumer . i. People’s skills can become outdated with the passage of time. Skill Development : Skills can be divided into three categories. and pay management. and the media. If an employee is to remain productive. and providing employees with realistic job expectations. they undergo an apprenticeship phase to learn the trades of the job under an experienced person. Moreover. In one or the other way. Adjustment : Discipline. increasing work force diversity. occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime. promotion of teamwork. The two central activities in this respect are skill development and career development. all members of an organisation should be involved in training-related activities. Retention : This comprises of providing fair treatment to the employees. Interpersonal and problem solving skills are acquired more effectively by training that takes place off the job. advertisements shape children’s desire for products irrespective of the merit of the product. and providing feedback to the subordinates. Any work pursued over an extended period can constitute a career. Executives participate in workshops to enhance their effectiveness or to develop strategic plans for their departments. irritation. The key HR activities in organisations are as follows: Staffing : This includes providing data for job analysis and determining minimum qualifications. This ensures that right people will be available for meeting the changing staffing requirements. Training usually takes place on the job.194 Introduction to Psychology BOX 9. discharge. The activity of advertising involves three main institutions. Disappointment. and conflict with parents takes place when children’s television induced desires are not fulfilled. Interviewing candidates and making final decisions at the entry-level is also done. layoffs. Training is the most crucial device for updating human capabilities in order to make them suitable to the changing and current requirements of the organisation.

It involves situation analysis. . Span of Control. etc. and personal campaign. Recapitulation The area of consumer psychology was presented as an example of special application of organisational psychology. radio. Organising. services and concepts to a probable consumer. The T. Human Resource Development. Getting something free creates some feelings at a positive level and you. Low-ball approach : In this approach. An advertising manager has to attend to objective and target selection. Door-in-the-face technique : It is based on the principle ‘you scratch my back and I will scratch yours’. However. it is a commonly used technique. Job Analysis. Authority. They make the client Key Terms Organisation.Psychology in Organisational Setting 195 durables. The advertising agency creates advertisements and makes the media allocation decisions. He or she has to focus on cognitive and affective processes that occur in between exposure to the advertisement and buying or consumer behaviour. Equity theory. Controlling. so that the higher priced product could be sold.V commercials affect children. Its value is increasing with the globalisation of market. Planning. Matrix Structure. Advertisement. There are various ways of advertising including print media. assessment of the consumers/market and the competitive situation of company. This technique works because after complying with the first request. the individual develops the self-perception that it is a proper thing to do and this will give the best deal. message strategy and tactics. The print media. Internet. and radio are used for advertising in a powerful way. Use of media for advertising is becoming an important part of business. Consumer. Le us take a brief look at some of them. a retailer invites the customer to buy some product at a low price but the strings attached to the main products are costly. as the market is globalising. handbills. the retailer does not intend to sell the advertised product. Division of Labour. would like to return the favour by buying a product. The advertising plan is developed keeping in view the company’s total marketing programme. Job satisfaction. They are paid for this. In this approach. in the marketing and selling segments for attracting the customers through advertisements. hoardings. Bait-and-switch : In the personal selling areas. which are practised quite regularly. Career. The advertisement is a way of information dissemination about a particular product. TECHNIQUES USED TO ATTRACT THE CUSTOMERS commit to certain deals and take advantage of it. Examples of this technique are: providing sample of a product to potential buyers and entertaining a client with an expensive lunch. Formalisation. Now. It is based on consumer greed.8 advertisements have to cater to both–global and local needs. electronic media. the advertisements suggest that you can buy two shirts and get a clock free and reduce the cost of shirts and add it to the price of the watch. Training. and media strategy and tactics. It is based on the norms of reciprocity. wall posters. or industrial products. For instance. BOX 9. television. Centralisation. the retailer advertises a product at a very low price in order to get the customer into the shop. There are some techniques. The idea is to lure the customer in. as customer.

span of control.196 Introduction to Psychology SUMMARY l Organisation refers to rational coordination of human effort for the attainment of shared goals. F. 5. T. 3. F. 2. T. and performance on simulation tasks. . F. interview. 4. There are many kinds of organisational structures. F. Marketing and advertising deals with an area called consumer psychology. leading. 2. 6. chain of command. and matrix structure. 6. centralisation. They include interpersonal roles. T. Motivating the employees and achieving the goals is necessary to ensure organisational effectiveness. F. T. F. informational roles. Organisational behaviour (OB) and organisational psychology focus on the application of psychological processes to the study of organisational functioning. 5. written test. Using print as well as electronic media. F. How can you define organisational behaviour? What are the contributions of psychologists towards the development of field of OB? What are the salient features that help you define organisation? What are the roles and functions of a manager in the organisation? What are the characteristics of organisational structures? What are the different types of organisational structure? What role a psychologist can play in making organisations effective? ANSWERS I II TO LEARNING CHECKS : 1. The selection is done with the help of many methods including application blank. 2. 5. and controlling. 6. It is based on job analysis. 3. 3. T. goal setting theory. 2. T. reinforcement theory. The functions performed by managers include planning. T. Selection of employees is an important area of OB. 3. The structure of organisation is constituted by work specialisation. and expectancy theory. T. and decisional roles. 7. Understanding buying behaviours and pattern of consumption needs to be understood to promote some product through advertising. l l l l l l Review Questions 1. and formalisation. T. The management roles are mainly of three kinds. 5. III : 1. 4. 4. 6. equity theory. : 1. advertising is becoming a very important enterprise. 7. The main approaches to work motivation include need theory. Its three main types are: simple structure. organising. F. A number of strategies are used to pursue people to buy a product. departmentalisation. T. bureaucracy. staffing. T. It involves division of labour and functions within a framework of authority and responsibility. 4.

4) Population Explosion Crowding and its Consequences (Box 10. Ä understand the problems related to national integration analyse the nature of gender discrimination in Indian society.3) CHAPTER COVERS Ä Concepts of poverty and social disadvantage Ä The challenge of national integration Ä Discrimination based on gender roles Ä Population explosion Ä Impact of communication revolution and media Ä The problem of urbanisation BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä appreciate the nature and types of social problems existing in India. and Ä understand the nature and consequences of urbanisation.2) Challenges for National Integration Why Does Non-Violence Work? (Box 10.5) Impact of Media and Communication Revolution Urbanisation Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . Ä appreciate the consequences of communication revolution. Ä learn about the main features characterising the conditions of poverty and social disadvantage. Gender Discrimination Discrimination Against the Girl Child (Box 10.Psychology and Social Problems 197 10 THIS PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS CONTENTS Introduction What is a Social Problem? Social Problems in India Poverty and Social Disadvantage The Concept of Poverty (Box 10. Ä understand the problem of population explosion.1) Interventions for Alleviation of Poverty (Box 10.

and prejudices of various kinds are affecting the lives of people in significant ways. the heterogeneity of the population. In the course of societal development the country has been encountering a number of problems. Inequalities. The area of applied social psychology deals with the psychological understanding of social problems. This chapter shall help you to understand some of the problems faced by our country and its people. and agents of change. we have yet not been able to realise the dream of an egalitarian society. . These problems are complex and need inputs from the psychologists for their proper understanding. and the problem of urbanisation. In recent years. Various sections of the society are being influenced by these problems in different ways. The colonial past. it includes poverty and social disadvantage.198 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION After gaining independence the Indian society has been trying to achieve the goal of providing social justice and fulfilling the basic needs of the people. However. A careful attention to these problems will promote a better understanding of the social reality. It is hoped that sensitivity to these problems shall motivate you to know more about these problems. and solution. think about their solutions and prepare you to contribute to their solution. analysis. the psychologists have become increasingly aware of their role in solving social problems as consultants. the scarcity of resources. activists. the impact of communication revolution and media. the political situation in the subcontinent. national integration. population explosion. In particular. advocates. gender discrimination. and the geographic and climatic features have put constraints within which it has to grow. disparities.

be noted that the categorisation of problems is for the purpose of analysis.1: The social problem of poverty and its consequences malnutrition can result in illness. Understanding social problems. Usually such conditions are there and affect a large ACTIVITY 10. which have multiple perceptions. the common people.1 number of people.1 shows that poverty. It may. approached from the following perspectives. mental retardation. Functional: It assumes that there is a point let us consider poverty. detrimental consequences. at a particular point of time. which may be state of balance existing in the society and considered as a primary problem. as a primary problem Secondary Tertiary Primary may lead to several secondary Problems Problems Problems and tertiary problems. The be dealt with continuously and in different experts. Unlike the problem in natural sciences. and environmental solution. Then ask them to rank each problem or values such as dictatorship. which are.Psychology and Social Problems 199 WHAT IS A SOCIAL PROBLEM? Social problems represent social conditions that are regarded by a large segment of population as undesirable. Social problems change with time Discuss the data with your teacher and and are related to the social context present classmates. they need to nature and extent of a social problem. policy makers. and those primary social problems are those critical who are going to be displaced have different social conditions. Apathy they may lead to delinquency. in terms of the urgency required for its overpopulation. directly or indirectly. In ask each of them to list five most important contrast. a latent problem is one that is not social problems faced by the Indian society recognised as a threat to major social norms today. The slums have further problematic Illness Malnutrition Mental retardation consequences. On the other hand. are detrimental to the well-being social problems. The social problems differ on defining. The secondary therefore. secondary. Consider the issue of Sardar of human societies. For instance. however. demands recognition of the sociosocial problems are those harmful conditions cultural and historical factors that shape resulting mainly from more influential social reality. The social problem may be latent or manifest. and apathy. In fact. Sarovar-dam. Fig. 10. and tertiary types. To illustrate this 1. In reality. the environmentalists. the result of more dominant problems. The World Bank. analysing. Perspectives on Social Problems They have to be defined in different ways People often hold divergent views about the during different times. The task of social scientists is primary social problems and in turn to provide different perspectives and suggest generating additional problems. A manifest problem Identifying Social Problems is recognised by the public as a threat to Meet five adults in your neighbourhood and major social values or social norms. It is a project on which the The social problems can be grouped into Government. . The two main secondary problems that are outcomes of poverty are Delinquency Poverty Slums slums and malnutrition. Tertiary different options. the primary. The social problems can be social problems are those harmful conditions. and solving nevertheless. social problems do not become obsolete once they are solved. 10. pollution. all the social problems are interrelated. Fig. and the public often ways each time.

3.1.). when some one lacks material possessions to the point of physical suffering (such as hunger) that condition is characterised as poverty.62 and 26. 4.10 for the country as a whole. Poverty and Social Disadvantage Poverty is an unfortunate aspect of our social reality. The list however. health. unemployment etc. Its culture spans over several thousand years of unbroken continuity. laziness. SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN interdependent in nature. corruption. India ranks 115th out of 162 countries in terms of the UNDP’s Human Development Index. which disrupt this balance are problems. Some think that the lack of material possessions.). caste. housing etc. such as the basic needs (economic. juvenile delinquency.) and other problems (foreign influence. religious dogmatism. The perception and cognition of issues as problematic is necessary. Over a period. If we analyse these problems you will notice that they refer to different aspects of life.1 must have brought you closer to the various social problems faced in India. child marriage. The percentage of poverty in urban area is 23. Doing Activity 10.). you may study Box 10. Subjective : According to this perspective the identification of a problem depends on the perception of individuals. According to the sample survey data on consumer expenditure by the National Sample Survey Organisation (July1999-June 2000) it is estimated that poverty ratio is 27. The people of India are diverse in many ways including language. They have approached the problem of poverty from different perspectives. necessary to meet the basic human needs of health reflect poverty. There are 260 million poor.09 in rural areas. In fact. religion. in India. and deprivation. Poverty is usually defined in terms of economic resources. the condition worsens to such an extent that it cannot be ignored any more. One may further broaden the concept and say that poverty is a lack of material possessions that are necessary to have a decent standard of living. 2. the citizen behaviour (indiscipline. education. communal violence.. They are more focused on the psychological dynamics of poverty and on the psychological approaches of tackling it.200 Introduction to Psychology conditions and events. briefly. The study of poverty and related phenomena has attracted the attention of social scientists from different disciplines. lack of national character etc. the governmental problems (poor economy. Let us consider these concepts. The social problem exists for those individuals whose norms have been violated. any condition that falls at the lower end of the socio-economic scale implies poverty. social disadvantage. Psychologists have been more interested in poverty as a socio-psychological phenomenon and its consequences for the individual and the society. India is rightly considered as an example of unity in diversity. INDIA India is a unique country in many respects. However. emphasis on rights etc. dress. law and order etc. It is obvious that these problems are not isolated but . the social aspects (population. defining poverty in concrete terms has proved to be a difficult task. Thus. problems involve situations in which the norms of the mainstream society are violated. injustice. ethnicity. inadequate exploitation of resources.). security. Objective : This view holds that problems exist when empirical evidence points to certain intolerable conditions that have come about cumulatively. In the present discussion we shall be specifically concerned with three concepts i. could increase. They in fact reinforce each other. The way we define poverty provides different estimates of incidence and prevalence of the “poor”. It’s a country that has assimilated diverse influences from many parts of the world. materialistic attitude. dowry.e. poverty. Let us study some of the important problems that need urgent attention. and customs. Normative : According to this view. Thus. social problems are caused by values and norms to which people subscribe. For more details.

It perpetuates itself from one generation to the other. keeping the poor out of the mainstream of a modern industrial society. A person can mention any number of factors.. In other words. which are viewed by them as responsible for poverty. economic. It is related to the socio-economic hardships that are determined by the social structure. It is a relative lack of or inaccessibility to the resources and or inability to utilise the resources to achieve what is needed or desired. education. clothing. Poverty can be approached from an absolute or a relative perspective. with your The Causes of Poverty and Social Disadvantage Understanding poverty and disadvantage necessarily involves value judgments about the individual and the social order. Various socio-cultural conditions create inequality of opportunities. and physically and emotionally isolated from the community and from one another. A number of criteria are adopted for this purpose including calorie intake.. The Culture of Poverty : According to this view the cultural system prevailing in the community of the poor. A person who is poor may not have the resources or the resources may be present but remain out of his or her reach. It deprives the individual of his/her capability for a desired life. In this context the concept of poverty line has been proposed. It creates a stereotype that poor are fatalistic. Discuss your findings classmates and teachers. sub culture. and per capita consumption. blocks any attempts of society to change the values.1 THE CONCEPT OF POVERTY and health. ACTIVITY 10. Poverty line separates population into two categories namely those who have an adequate level of living and those who do not. . but as social and psychological reality.2 Perceiving the Causes of Poverty Ask six of your neighbours (3 males and 3 females) to enumerate the causes or factors. authoritarian. Deprivation refers to a sense of loss or suffering. nutrition. The study of the causes of poverty and social disadvantage has indicated three sets of factors namely individual. A person is held responsible for his or her condition. (e.g. BOX 10. Social Structure : Both poverty and social disadvantage are not viewed as just economic phenomenon. After collecting all the responses try to see what are the more frequent and less frequent causes stated by people to explain the conditions of poverty.. which produces and perpetuates poverty. food ratio. This kind of explanation ignores the social context. promiscuous. From a psychological point of view individual perception of his/her own condition as poverty vis-à-vis others in a given society is important in understanding poverty as a social problem. norms. If a large section of society’s population is incapable of satisfying the basic needs then this situation is termed as poverty. per capita income. the victim of poverty is blamed for his or her state of affairs. If a group lacks the resources to meet the essential needs like accommodation. then that group is termed poor. These phenomena refer to a complex set of social. The Individual : The emphasis on the individual focuses on the characteristics of the person as the chief determinant of poverty condition. and psychological conditions. beliefs.Psychology and Social Problems 201 Poverty is a comparative economic concept. It is rooted in the notion of inequality. and social structure associated with poverty. Out of these. and lifestyle of the poor. The culture of poverty fosters the typically disparaging behaviours and values associated with poverty. good food) Disadvantage is a condition in which certain groups or communities are constrained or suffer from increased chances of failure because of their social standing or membership to a group or communities. income or consumption level has been frequently contd. It is associated with poverty but it is the individual’s experience or his/her subjective feeling of lack of something desired.

seeking expectations of behaviour being rewarded or favours of superior. It does not reflect the experience of poverty as a psychological and social condition. the change in produces a specific pattern of motivation expectancy was introduced by certain and. low interest in feedback. Pareek proposed that behaviour is a product The low need for achievement results in of the social system in which people live. Human Development Index has been proposed which considers poverty more as denial of opportunities and choices most basic to human development.2 A psychological model of poverty communities. through the relevant processes constitutional provisions to extend economic opportunity. More recently. income or consumption indices used by economists do not appear to be an inclusive criterion. class. low need for extension. As a that changes in motivation can be structural component of the society. An absolute definition of poverty does not help much because people’s needs are conditioned by the society in which they live. the provision of From this perspective. avoidance condition human behaviour by producing behaviour. Child rearing practices. They results in the lack of initiative. and other social institutions stack the deck against the poor. 10. They cause and perpetuate poverty. two persons with same expenditure may experience different levels of well being. This disproportionate risk taking. which put some in an advantaged and others in disadvantaged position. In India. For instance. and other institutions of of cooperation. poverty is both a relevant material conditions is necessary so structure and a product of a system.2 indicates that poverty as a structure produces a three fold motivational pattern characterised by low need for achievement. Thus. removal Low n Achievement of untouchability. poverty sustained. of motivation. over conformity. interest in chance is produced through the intervening process and not in control. This leaves many aspects of poverty untapped. it produces reinforcing of extension results in the lack of regard for mechanisms. They High n Dependence Poverty have facilitated the Conditions development of new expectancies and helped Behaviour (lifestyle or culture of poverty) upward mobility of the underprivileged groups like the scheduled Socialisation Powerlessness castes and scheduled tribes. However. fear of failure. The low need at the societal level. the others. The caste. and punished. the lack of faith or trust. training. on the basis of reinforcing mechanism The above motivational pattern can be influences the feedback to the social system achieved through appropriate programme of and the reinforcing mechanism. The model shown in Fig. High need for dependency socialisation provide such mechanisms. minorities and other backward Fig. and Low n Extension reservation of seats. The focus of researchers from different disciplines has been different. 10. . the expectancy of powerlessness is produced.202 Introduction to Psychology used. of socialisation. He proposes that a social seeking company of friends instead of experts. The expectancy framework built counter dependence. system produces motivational patterns and and lack of activity and initiative. and Poverty: A Psychological Analysis high need for dependence. Each discipline looks at the phenomenon of poverty from its own vantage point. and the lack schooling.

The causes of poverty and social disadvantages have been identified in the individual’s characteristics. Each kind of assessment provides a different way to distinguish between the poor and those who are not. academic achievement. which may result in tertiary problems. It is facing a number of social problems. and academic achievement. which is experienced because of the membership in a group. introversion. income. alienation and withdrawal. functional.g. personality. memory. Consequences of Poverty and Social Disadvantages The Indian researchers have examined the performance of samples differing along caste. These problems change with time. T/F 2. immaturity.e. motivation.. they are quite similar in the early years but as they grow older the gap between them increases. social maladjustment. It refers to lack or inaccessibility to resources or inability to utilise the resources. Children who are undernourished are found to show apathy and withdrawal. It may be latent or manifest itself. l The gap between the level of performance of the advantaged and disadvantaged children increases with advancing age. which influences a large segment of the population. The social problems are viewed from different angles i. A primary problem leads to a few secondary problems. T/F 3. concept formation. The consequences of poverty make a person poorer. and other sub-cultural dimensions representing poverty. l The personality of individuals growing up under adverse socio-economic conditions are characterised by the traits of neuroticism. region. Such individuals are likely to attribute the 1. Poverty is an economic concept. T/F 5. In fact. Pareek LEARNING CHECKS I has linked the poverty condition related to poor motivation and socialisation that leads to powerlessness. While the manifested problem is apparently recognised and the latent problem remains unrecognised by the majority of the people. and subjective. They have a very low level of achievement motivation. objective. The main trends that emerge from these studies are as follows: l Mal and under-nutrition arrest physical growth and adversely affect psychological development. l The children from the conditions of poverty and social disadvantage show a relatively low level of performance on measures of intelligence. The slums are examples of primary social problems. The most crucial problem faced today is the problem of poverty and social disadvantage. Deprivation appears to impair cognitive functioning. normative. The studies have used measures of cognitive and intellectual ability. the deprived and disadvantaged groups are found to show reduced curiosity. T/F . It is a kind of deprivation. perceptual and cognitive abilities (e. attentional deficits. language skills). This may be one reason for high drop-out rate which in some disadvantaged groups is up to as much as 80 per cent by grade 5. and social disadvantage. deprivation. cultural characteristics. health. and social structure. According to functional perspective social problems involve violation of norms of the mainstream. Social problems are interrelated and reinforce each other. T/F 6. India is facing the challenge of ensuring social justice and welfare of the people. A social problem is one. Such cumulative deficits in performance retards academic achievement. and learning problems. etc.. Social problems can be categorised into primary. secondary. and tertiary categories. The psychologists have focused attention on the experience of dispossession and social disadvantages. T/F 4. In general.Psychology and Social Problems 203 Recapitulation As a developing country. The causes of poverty lie within the poor people. socio-economic status (SES). Poverty has been defined and assessed in many ways. Social problems can go unnoticed by the people.

rather than by their own effort or ability. National Social Assistance Programme. if such support is not associated with self-initiatives they are INTERVENTIONS FOR ALLEVIATION OF POVERTY Community based interventions have been taken up by NGO’S. employment generation. A number of governmental and nongovernmental interventions were taken up during the Five Year Plans to help people outgrow the poverty trap. . Food For Work Programme. They are more likely to believe in fate. Annapurna.204 Introduction to Psychology l outcomes of their own behaviours to external factors. They view success as caused by some external conditions. There has been some success in these efforts but we still have to go a long way. have been put together under Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY). You may like to acquaint yourself with them. and economic context. A close analysis of the poverty alleviation programmes reveals that better results may be obtained if the following considerations are kept in view. The anti poverty programmes are of three kinds: land reform. They aim at strengthening and equipping individuals from poverty backgrounds with cognitive. and provisions for support to the members of disadvantaged groups extend opportunities for upward movement. The Government’s initiatives to provide economic support and empowerment are reflected in programmes such as: Training Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). Many researchers and institutions have taken up psychological interventions. jobs. l Indiscrete support may lead to dependency. Poverty Alleviation It is clear that poverty is a great barrier in the process of individual and societal development. ‘Butterflies’ in Delhi deals with children–victims of poverty and abuse and destitutes. BOSCO in Cochin is trying to integrate street children with society. These efforts are of various types.2 and providing basic minimum services as key features. Some studies also suggest that they are more aggressive and low in achievement motivation. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWACRA). The policies of protective discrimination in which seats are reserved in educational institutions. Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana. The negative effects of poverty call for poverty alleviation measures on a priority basis. and productive activity. The adverse effects of poverty and disadvantage are mediated by social. Some are Governmental initiatives while others are by NGOs and other organisations or individuals. Nevertheless. It should be such that people feel competent and responsible for their actions and have the experience of selfefficacy. spiritual awakening. The Bhoodan movement of Vinoba Bhave was a non-governmental movement to help the marginalised. and income and consumption support. they become sustainable. motivational. Indira Awas Yojana. The ninth plan had poverty reduction. Sulabha has taken initiatives to provide clean environment. The Swadhyaya movement under the leadership of Pandrang Shastri Athawale mobilises the poor for community participation. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP). The country has recognised this problem and efforts are being made to reduce poverty and to empower the poor to cope with the problems and join the mainstream. They are founded on the assumption that human development is shaped by the experiential base of the child. Gyan Prabodhini in Pune is extending opportunities for all-round development of the youth in poverty settings. Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozagar Yojana. They should facilitate autonomous growth of the poor. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). 2. Some of the initiatives of this kind are given in Box 10. asset provision. BOX 10. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna. Sampurna Gramieen Rozgar Yojana. The measures should ensure initiative and active participation. and behavioural skills and competencies necessary for effective functioning. For instance. When supports available from poverty alleviation programmes are contingent upon people’s initiative and effort. political. and Shiksha Sahyoga Yojana.

and economic input are needed to operate simultaneously along with inputs at individual level. The studies also indicate that the lack of support from home and school environment plays an important role in arresting the development of poor children. The mal/undernutrition caused by poverty interferes with brain development and physical growth. T/F 5. Therefore. The poor children. enrichment strategies. Ask them about their daily routine. and group levels. T/F 7. While organising interventions of any kind. T/F 4. groups. LEARNING CHECKS II Recapitulation Poverty and social disadvantages have important consequences for the individual as well as the society. T/F 6. In order to be successful. Discuss your observations with your classmates and teacher. measures of cognitive development suggesting cumulative deficit. Usually the disadvantaged children are more motivated to continue in the school than the advantaged. Studies have shown adverse effects of poverty condition on all areas of development. Do state on what (specific) basis you have considered the two participants as poor. A variety of schemes have been launched to empower the poor through land reforms. the interventions need to be addressed to the levels of individuals. it is important to keep in mind that such programmes do not lead to dependency. There are some exceptions of invulnerable children or lotuses of mud who outgrow the adverse circumstances and attain equally or better than the children from the socially advantaged background.3 Observe the Life Under Poverty Meet some people living in poverty. broad structural level changes without changes in the psychological make up of the individual and the community may yield only short-term benefits. social policy. poor motivation.Psychology and Social Problems 205 l l likely to foster psychological dependence. they show a low level of competence. in general. and lack the coping styles needed for growth and development. The changes in school practices. community. Poverty alleviation has received attention from many quarters. The performance of socially disadvantaged children on cognitive and perceptual tasks is usually found lower than that of advantaged. Community involvement in planning developmental programmes creates commitment among the members of the community towards the success of such programmes. have been found to be behind their advantaged counterparts on 1. Community based and some psychological interventions have also been made. T/F 3. The disadvantaged groups show characteristics like introversion and alienation. asset provision. and income and consumption support. T/F 2. and community. The efforts to remove poverty at individual level can be successful only if supported by the changes at the structural level. ACTIVITY 10. In general. broader community level social interventions need to consider the psychological processes at the level of individuals and groups. The disadvantaged people internalise success and externalise failure. Cumulative deficit indicates that the gap in performance between the advantaged and disadvantaged group increases with age. The chance is high that malnourished children shall become more social and cooperative. While a micro perspective focusing on internal psychological processes in conditions of poverty is not sufficient. the problems they face. we need a multi-pronged strategy at the individual. While individual psychological interventions have to be embedded in a wider social context. and the factors responsible for their present condition (as perceived by them): Prepare a description of the life of these people on the basis of answers obtained. T/F . They arrest the optimal growth of poor people and alienate them from the main stream of society.

advances in science and technology. One can trace the roots of this diversity in history. While establishing identity.206 Introduction to Psychology CHALLENGES FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION People belonging to different ethnic and cultural backgrounds inhabited India. the group differentiates own group from other groups. Amir Khusro. 2. when resources and goals are not shareable competitive relationships occur. it is a challenge that requires us to deal with the issue of identity. In contrast. dance. The general cultural orientation in the society. As a result of acculturation. This may lead to inter group conflicts. There is minimum level of trust amongst the groups. Allarakha. religious. The Country’s accomplishments in the areas of food production. Contact with other groups is very important for identity formation. For example. The formation and differentiation of identity depend on the broader societal conditions. social rituals and practices. or religion. However. Ustad Amjad Ali Khan. language. etc. The collaborative relationships prevail if the goals or resources present in the society are shareable. and now A. The groups must perceive that each group has equal power in the society. Pareek has shown that in addition to this. The diversity of the people provides a unique structure or configuration to the social fabric of India. creed. people distinguish one’s own group (in-group) from other groups (out-groups). Rahim. expansion of education. These contacts have influenced and enriched the cultural heritage of our country. Bismillah Khan. cuisine. There is continuous communication. sports and architecture clearly reflect the trends of accommodation and integration. who can think of Indian music without Alauddin Khan. much needs to be done. Thus. the following conditions are required for collaborative relationship to occur. religion. the languages they speak. This helps in developing a general attitude towards other groups in the society and may help in building collaborative relationship. and Raskhan to Hindi poetry? Similarly. literature. Efforts were initiated through the Five-Year Plans and other steps to build a strong nation. Today India is the world’s largest democratic country that embodies the aspirations of a variety of people representing diverse social categories like caste. . a number of innovations have been introduced in the Indian culture. Identity Construction : The Core Issue The diversity and pluralism are intrinsic to the Indian social reality and they are going to stay. if the conditions promote cooperative and collaborative relationships the identity formation will be different from a situation where resources are scarce and frustrations are high. They vary in the religions they profess and practice. The formation of identity provides uniqueness to a group. and the customs they observe. the idea of nationalism helped people to forget the internal differences and dedicate their life to the great cause of the nation’s liberation. The forces of modernisation and urbanisation have helped to reduce the ethnic differences and bridging the social distance. The country had to face the enormous challenge of building an infrastructure for one of the highly populated nations of the world. 1. can any one forget the contributions of Jayasi. A new era began after gaining independence. or subcultural groups and communities together to share national identity and creating the feeling of belongingness has proved to be a big challenge. 4. During the freedom movement. Rahman? All these artists command respect and affection from Indian masses irrespective of their caste. Provision of super ordinate goals may help to achieve collaborative relationship. Thus. and nurturing the democratic institutions have been significant. The inter group relationship may be collaborative or competitive. It has developed contacts with people of different cultures over hundreds of years. It may involve expansion or narrowing of the group boundaries. 3. From a psychological perspective. The past experience shows that bringing the diverse ethnic.R. The Indian music.

Sharing the joys and sorrows together can help to achieve integration. Ensuring equal status : Steps like reservation. Enhancing acceptance of people belonging to various groups and creating opportunities to learn from each other will be relevant. 3. handling the negative forces. and commitment of the people to the goals and objectives enshrined in the Indian constitution. 2. and the national identification constitute the main features. Indian culture has been open to new ideas and trends. They maintain their separate identities and contributions but produce music that creates something new and different from the individual contributions. and presence of prejudices and discriminations. . equality of opportunity. Pareek notes the following psychological factors that are important in this context: 1. Non-involvement and non-commitment : It is the tendency to avoid and not confront the issues. and effective use of legislation and law may help to achieve equality of status. Taken together these factors help to develop prejudices. culture. This situation is like an orchestra in which the various instruments play in harmony with each other. The Challenges of Pluralism The Indian Society is a pluralistic society in which many groups live together. Maintenance of identity : Supporting groups to hold their particular identities and help different groups to have a sense of pride. secularism. National identity refers to the distinctive character of the nation state. The success of pluralism depends on three factors – identity of the various groups. composite character. It involves psychological coherence of the various socio-political and economic institutions. providing equal opportunity. These trends have helped in maintaining certain exploitative relationships among various ethnic groups. over conformism. cooperation and dependency on each other shall help to eliminate the unfounded stereotypes and contribute to greater social tolerance. It is a feeling of belongingness. In a democratic set up. and a tendency to seek favours. The increase in interpersonal contact. 3. particularly the weaker sections. which provides a distinctive character to the country. Casteism : The tendency to have hierarchical relationships amongst various groups makes it difficult to relate to other groups at an equal level. It also leads to a tendency to tolerate and live with such exploitation. achieving this situation shall require us to use the strength of cultural traditions. Dependency : It leads to avoidance. negative forces have also been present that have led to intolerance. which have come to India. Collaborative relationship : It can be achieved when necessary communication and trust is maintained across the groups and a super ordinate goal is made available. Meeting the Challenges : the Task Ahead The idea of ‘one nation’ is a psychological one. In the Indian context. and the relationship among the concerned groups. To achieve this goal the following steps shall be helpful. In the Indian context. However. status of these groups in relation to one another. which transcends over diversities. the Indian society needs to move towards the goal of synergic pluralism. Fatalism : The belief that what is to happen is ordained and that what happens is not within the control of the individuals concerned. In addition. 1. conflict.Psychology and Social Problems 207 The multiethnic condition has a long history in India. excessive fear of failure. and a tendency to exploit certain groups. 4. there has been synthesis of the various influences. This identity derives its relevance from history. Some of the ways in which national identity can be strengthened are given below: l Providing opportunities for greater contact across different subgroups and communities on various occasions can lay a key role in enhancing national integration. 2. and ensuring the different aspects of pluralism. Respect for each group and a search for the contributions of each group to society will be useful.

This may facilitate national integration. The traits that mark a serene and benevolent person are culture relative. At birth. As Allport says. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. therefore. Recapitulation Indian society is multiethnic and consists of diverse groups and communities. This will facilitate developing an attitude of respect for each other. knowledgeable people) about the duties and responsibilities of a human being as followed in these communities. l A sense of involvement of the deprived and underprivileged groups in the development and implementation of policies and programmes may help to increase the sense of empowerment. involving people in programmes. Harmony and cohesiveness are the means for social development T/F 2.3. have to share the burden of helping children to develop positive attitudes toward different groups and the nation as a whole. GENDER DISCRIMINATION At the time of birth. This is possible by creating space for greater l ACTIVITY 10. T/F 5. T/F 3. in the ultimate analysis. the concept of non-violence is relevant. religion. which are socio-culturally determined. The parents..4 Understanding National Integration Choose any two communities and collect information from reliable sources (e. Try to figure out the degree of similarities and differences across the two communities. Increase in inter group contact can facilitate harmony. The existence of diverse groups and communities is a reality that needs to be accepted and respected. Social conflicts and tensions cannot be eliminated from any society. attitudes and feelings. and customs. This is an important step towards the emergence of a true civil society and strengthen the processes of democratic governance. However. T/F 6. Economic disparity and the need for identity are linked with social conflicts.208 Introduction to Psychology Creating the necessary space for inter ethnic dialogue may help to correct their mis-perceptions and reduce the mistrust. promoting interdependence and social mobility. it is only through the particular set of behaviours. Religious tolerance and dialogue is crucial. If you like to know more about Ahimsa and Sathya. The freedom struggle provided a super ordinate goal to unite the entire nation. a neonate has a sex. Non-violence is very pertinent in this connection. l The process of socialisation is crucial for the development of attitudes and value systems. the biological sex can be decided based on physical and anatomical features. parental education to socialise children. The attitudes start taking shape from early childhood. Mutual understanding and cooperation need to be established. which share diversity in language. Lack of people’s involvement and political participation is not a necessary condition for social harmony. you are encouraged to study Box 10. Mahatma Gandhi was a person who preached and practiced this ideal in his life.g. In this context. T/F 4. We need to learn the value of non-violence (ahimsa) and try to practice it in our lives. Discuss your observations with your classmates and teacher. but no gender. Indian society represents a homogenous community. that we define an individual’s . T/F intergroup interaction. there is no solution to the problem of inter group tension excepting the inner growth of serene and benevolent persons who seek their own security and integrity not at the expense of their fellow men but in collaboration with them. increasing the scope of dialogue across different communities.

. when it becomes active within us. For instance food preparation is a task assigned to females in almost all societies. but even an infinitesimal fraction of it. and expectations about genders. and their increasing participation in professional jobs. the behavioural differences between the sexes are products of different socialisation practices that reflect training for different adult activities. I am not a visionary. particularly in jobs that were earlier considered exclusively for men (e. The dignity of man requires obedience to a higher law – to the strength of the spirit. Satyagrah in its essence is nothing but the introduction of truth and gentleness in the political. I claim to be a practical idealist. can work wonders.Psychology and Social Problems 209 BOX 10. Males and females have different sex organs and sex hormones. engineering. Mahatma Gandhi on Non-Violence Non-violence is an active force of the highest order. With satya (truth) combined with ahimsa (non-violence). exploitation and discrimination in work places. This is no sermon on ahimsa but cold reason and the statement of a universal law.3 WHY DOES NON-VIOLENCE WORK? the will not to kill even in retaliation and the courage to face death without revenge. sexual abuse and harassment. It simply requires gender. judiciary.) provides faith in the competence of women. Traditionally the Indians had the notion of ardhanarishwar. is . the incidence of exploitation of and atrocities on women are quite frequent. Non-violence does not require any outside or outward training. The presence of women in public sphere. economic status of the family.e. The mere fact that the sex ratio in the population is unfavourable to women and the literacy rate among the females is low. non-violence cannot seize power. some events and incidents do provide indicators of the status of women in society. At the same time. the status of women has improved from what prevailed in the preindependence India. preventing girls from education. no provocation should prove too great for the exercise of forbearance. However. Similarly. administration. The Domains of Gender Discrimination In contemporary India. That is its beauty. army. However. Gender is a cultural construction on a biological foundation. corporate management etc. It is found that every society has certain clearly defined and commonly accepted gender differences in behaviour. It is the soul-force or the power of Godhead within us. it can effectively control and guide power without capturing the machinery of government. child rearing happens to be the responsibility of females. and infanticide are still not uncommon. The religion of non-violence is not meant for the rishis or saints. Given the unquenchable faith in the law. i. Non-violence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute…. Imperfect man cannot grasp the whole of that Essence–he would not be able to bear its full blaze. The frequency of events such as bride burning (dowry death). and respect that women deserve. national life… By its very nature. Let us examine the broad trends that are visible in the Indian society. However. social class. police service. type of family structure. pilot. However. and the traditions prevailing in various subcultures and communities to which people belong. values. early marriage. unfortunately. a lot still remains to be done to provide equal opportunity to both the sexes and offer a life of dignity. area of residence. any generalisation made will fall short of the description of the totality. Some division of labour is found everywhere. on the basis of culture. The magnitude of sex differences in socialisation is found to be strongly correlated with various features of culture.. education. people frame a whole set of images. a God who is half male and half female. social activism. In other words. nor can that be its goal. The differential socialisation of the two sexes evolved as means for preparing children to assume their sex linked adult roles.g. males sometimes share such responsibilities. The issues related to women’s status in Indian society are linked with caste. However. you can bring the world over your feet. It is meant for the common people as well. Hence. beliefs. domestic violence including wife battering. non-violence can do more.

The world outside the home remained alien to them. Customs : Earlier the social mobility was low and people used to live with kith and kin in a community setting.210 Introduction to Psychology sufficient enough to indicate about the unfavourable conditions of women. stereotypes and prejudices For instance the birth of a girl is generally not celebrated. Orissa. They had to enact the roles of daughter. wife. At mealtimes. Bihar. Women had to be embedded in the web of social relationships. the girl waits until the men of the family have eaten.g. The dependence on the father. Legal provisions for increase in the participation of women (e. Gujarat. BOX 10. women have formed a cooperative society named SEWA and are running it on their own very successfully. Girls usually stay home to help with the household chores or look after the younger siblings while the boys are sent to school. she has to cope with deep-rooted gender. The women in different parts of the country are becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. and West Bengal on a sample of 13. The skills and attitudes needed to struggle with the demands of the outer world need to be emphasised for the upliftment of women. Lack of education : Education happens to be the main instrument of social change. Even after the girl is born.. The Changing Scenario In the recent past. no longer is she allowed to contd. Dependence on males : In the traditional Indian families women had to be dependent on men for almost everything. Some of the important ones closely linked with it are listed below. Their age ranged from 7 to 18 years. At puberty.. and opens up horizons. sister. the girl finds her movements highly restricted.4 shall help you to know more in this context. Delhi. Provision of education accelerates the process of upward social mobility. The roots of gender discrimination are seen in the experiences of a girl child. Tamil Nadu. and creating schemes to facilitate women’s empowerment have been helpful in changing the situation. social occasions. in Gujarat. l l l l . Kerala. Lack of exposure : Due to the lack of exposure women had generally been confined to the roles within the family. and grandmother. The life activities demanded close interaction with ecology and the local people. Causes of Gender Discrimination Gender discrimination in contemporary Indian society is associated with several factors. Studies on amniocentesis have shown that female foeticide is widespread. the husband and finally on their own children constituted the fate of women. and entertainment were organised with family as the basic unit. For instance. setting up institutions to support the cause of women’s welfare. The festivals.200 girls. The intergenerational differences were important.4 DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE GIRL CHILD Figures on female infanticide are also high in several states. Uttar Pradesh. The findings are as follows: l The girl child in India is discriminated even before birth. In one of the pioneering works. The formal education empowers one with the skills necessary in a fast changing world. Panchayati Raj). The trends reported in Box 10. The resulting conflicts in values and norms have required readjustments and development of modern attitudes. Maharashtra. These are helpful in promoting the status of women and enhancing their participation in the mainstream of the society. Rajasthan.. Such support for the cause of women comes from nongovernmental as well as the government agencies. Anandlakshmy (1994) studied the status of girl child in Andhra Pradesh. Punjab. Madhya Pradesh. mother. urbanisation. Karnataka. women’s role has been undergoing important changes due to the impact of western education. and industrialisation. The women’s liberation movements have also led to some changes in the sex roles.

POPULATION EXPLOSION The population in India has grown in an alarming proportion.027 million. The decreasing sex ratio in the population and the high rate of illiteracy clearly exemplify this. The effort to alleviate poverty is also thwarted. Her marriage becomes a priority. social support. or for producing a girl child. T/F l l l l Recapitulation Gender discrimination is a behavioural manifestation of the prejudices against women. They include. the girl is often harassed for bringing an inadequate dowry. Prepare a report on gender discrimination based on the above-mentioned survey of newspapers.4 percent of the world surface area of 135. . the sex ratio is in favour of women.Psychology and Social Problems 211 move about freely.8 crores). the population of India was 238 million (23. The factors. The social stress and tensions are correlated with population growth.5 Understanding Gender Discrimination Take a sample of newspapers for a week. T/F Sex-related stereotypes are found only in India. cleaning 42%. l LEARNING CHECKS IV Gender is socially determined while sex is biologically determined. Some of the findings about it that may interest you are given in Box 10. ACTIVITY 10. malnutrition. fetching water 43%.79 million sq km. a small section of women have been able to move beyond the traditional role boundaries. The girls are part of a social system. Women had been dependent on males in various ways. However. legal provisions.7 million females. l News items showing women’s empowerment.7 per cent of the total world population. T/F Spread of education and urbanisation has led to change in gender role. The study by Anandalakshmy revealed that the celebration of the birth of the girl child was reported by 2% of the respondents. In 1901. and child care 33%. cooking 65%. In order of time spent a girl child is engaged in the following activities: sweeping 72 %. lack of exposure. which exploit and keep the women. l Once she is married. T/F According to current reports of India women are lower in literacy than men. unemployment. (102. for a large segment of women’s population the situation is grim. the country is facing a number of problems. attempts to enhance their status. it is required to support 16. T/F In Indian population. In year 2001.7 crores) 531 million males and 495. include the lack of education. and underemployment. it has reached the figure of 1. With a view to remove gender discrimination a variety of efforts have been initiated. While the country occupies only 2.5. and social customs. subordinate and powerless. Go through the news items and find out the following: l News items which in any manner are gender discriminatory. Today. dependence on males. Overcrowding is growing very fast in large cities. Discuss your report with your classmates and teachers. The gender roles are predominantly social constructions. With the increase in population. and other programmes by the governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The various sources of socialisation promote these constructions. and assuring new roles and responsibilities. which maintain gender discrimination. 78% respondents reported sharing household work with their mothers. Increase in population is associated with increase in the incidence of starvation.

The high density aggravates pollution of air and water. High population density leads to crowding which has negative effect on mental health and pattern of social interaction. a) How urgent is the need to control the population growth? b) What is the possibility that India will be able to successfully control the population growth? c) What steps are needed to control the population explosion? Discuss the findings with your teacher and classmates. T/F 6. When population grows. l Struggle for land and property ownership. l Religious beliefs. The presence of large number of people in limited space leads to the feeling of crowding. health facilities. The use of mass media particularly TV has been found helpful to popularise the message of FP. anxiety. and migration. . and the amount of space available per person. Estimate the population (in approximate term) of : l The World l India l Your State l Your City 2. family planning has proved to be a real challenge. l Lack of health consciousness. stress. l Misconceptions about FP. Population growth adversely affects the quality of life of the people. The adoption of FP methods by the people is a major challenge. Early marriage and illiteracy are negatively related to the adoption of family planning. T/F 3. India has sufficient resources to support its population. ACTIVITY 10. The open space also becomes limited. it grows not only in size but also because of limited and depleted resources it grows in density. The Government has undertaken a number of steps to popularise FP adoption including incentives for adopting small families norms. unemployment.5 CROWDING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES The population explosion has major impacts on the environment and the quality of people’s life. family planning (FP) methods are required.6 People’s Perception of Population Explosion Meet two young and two old persons and ask them to do the following: 1. The population of India has been growing very fast. Answer the following questions. This pressure is creating a variety of problems related to the production of food. l High child mortality. It has been found that FP has been successful in a limited way. These studies showed negative physiological and behavioural effects. T/F BOX 10. and civic amenities. The density has two components: Number of people in a given space. Recapitulation The growth of population depends upon fertility. The initial efforts to study the effect of population density were undertaken in animal laboratories. mortality. The LEARNING CHECKS V 1. The adoption of family planning depends on effective communication. T/F 4. T/F 5. The reasons why it is not popular are many. and the invasion of space. In a traditional society like India. The important ones are as follows: l Low economic security. T/F 2. Studies show that crowding leads to negative feelings.212 Introduction to Psychology Controlling Population Growth through Family Planning In order to control the population growth. High populations density is unrelated to task performance. The challenge is to provide support to a very large population with limited resources.

Let us examine some of its major consequences. The search and retrieval of information from anywhere in the world has become possible through the Internet. The printed words and the life like reality presented by the TV provide information that help people to plan their actions. The information and access to a large variety of products and consumer goods are made . The children are showing greatest impact of the electronic media like TV. compact disk. adults and the aged all are under its impact. Media not only presents the reality to us but also constructs it. audio-visual. Education : The TV has opened the possibility of distance education. and large coverage of information flow across the world has made this world shrink to a global village. The media changes beliefs and shapes our perceptions in many important ways. feelings. Radio. Some Consequences of Communication Revolution The changes in communication technology have wide-ranging consequences for human life.g. The influence of media. News Papers. education. The rapidly shrinking world and shrinking time scale offer a new level of connectivity that was earlier unthinkable. the fast.. has become a very important social issue. lack of economic security. The world of the media is diverse and comes in different modes including print.g. Today TV has become an important and integral part of the life of the people. violence and sex. Today.Psychology and Social Problems 213 Control of population growth requires successful adoption of family planning methods. the more aggressive the child becomes.. IMPACT OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION REVOLUTION The media is considered as a powerful force in the modern life. We monitor our activities in today’s fast moving world and organise them very effectively. The media is providing legitimacy and authenticity to the elements of reality of every day life. The media portrayals evoke imitation in the viewers. India has been able to keep pace with the advances in the media and communication technology. Various methods of persuasion are being used to promote family planning. It is shaping our life in an unprecedented manner. Such measures were not adopted by people whole-heartedly for reasons like: high rate of child mortality. Magazines. The computer aided audio-visual aids (e. The lectures are aired on the TV and are accessible to a very large number of students in different regions. effective. attitudes. the media performs many functions such as information. particularly. The children. and misconceptions about the use of contraceptive methods. which suggest that viewing violence promotes aggressive behaviour. There have been experimental studies. Studies on children indicate that the more violent the content of the child’s TV viewing. and organising everyday activities. Time and space are being redefined by the communication technology. though. power point presentation) make the mode of communication very effective. All these modern achievements of science and technology are fast changing the educational scenario. TV. Viewing others performing an antisocial act can loosen the viewer’s inhibition or restraints. The role of media in educating people formally as well as informally is significant. Redefining Human Motivation : The media has brought about many changes that are taking place in the psyche of the people. and (2) distorts their perception of the reality. and behaviours by selectively emphasising certain aspects of life and making them salient. reality construction. The experiments suggest that prolonged viewing of violence has two effects: (1) It desensitises the people towards cruelty. recreation. and electronic (e. The TV is also used to reach to the villages in remote areas and for educating the people about agriculture and family planning. Internet). Through the cognitive input and offerings of lifelike experiences. representation. the depiction of aggression. All of them are changing our beliefs. the nature of impact varies.

The users of computer are familiar with viruses. the quality of interaction with neighbours and the community has gone down. The bureaucratic structure is changing because the information can be kept in computers and can be accessed. This has produced tremendous impact and regulated the interaction pattern among the people. and leisure activities are being redefined. and awareness about multiple products. Communication technology has enhanced the connectivity across the people. generating new needs. do banking. booking ticket for travel. T/F 4. Human aspirations. Media is substituting the first hand direct experience. Reorganisation of Work : The advances in the communication technology have implications for the structure of organisations. The impact of the media and communication revolution is seen on different aspects of life. Children are most vulnerable to TV and exposure to violence on TV has many negative effects. Creating websites and using them for legal and illegal purposes are not without problems. It has promoted consumerism. the media is increasingly assuming a significant role.214 Introduction to Psychology possible by the media. Reorganisation of Social Life : The developments in communication technology have revolutionised the life of the people. The Internet is used to advertise. read novels. socialising. record keeping. The timings of work. The social reality is now mediated by the media. watch movies. interests.m. and hierarchical structure. do shopping. Increase in Public Awareness : The electronic media has accelerated the process of dissemination of information. patterns of social interactions. LEARNING CHECKS VI 1. The public opinion is mediated by the flow of information from the media. send e-mails. The media exposure is promoting consumerism. They are defining and organising our personal and social experiences. filing and paper work.m. The models. and hacking. cell phone. The migration of people from the villages is the main cause of urbanisation. With the help of Internet. while interaction and connectivity have expanded across the globe. modified. The electronic media is effectively being used to promote the participation of the people in politics. apply for jobs. and attitudes of the younger generation. Recapitulation In contemporary life. transparency. sports and many social issues. Children are not able to discriminate the reality and its representation. and chat with people. Cutthroat competition is another outcome of advertising. people shift from agrarian occupation to industrial and service occupations. perform the office job from home or any place. With urbanisation. Unfortunately. People migrate from villages to cities in search of greater and more attractive . is not free from problems. The laws regulating the use of cyber space are also not well defined. This new technology. Media is changing the meaning of time and space and bringing the world more and more closer. T/F URBANISATION Urbanisation refers to the process of increase in the number of points at which population concentrates and a growth in the size of these concentrations. It has increased the level of awareness of the people. T/F 2. Through the internet people can work from home or any place where they are located. T/F 3. Advertising and the use of models have influenced even the emotional lives of the people. actors. however. confidentiality of information. and actresses in cinema become role models. Communication revolution has increased the distances across the globe. transferred. people may not be required to attend office from 9 a. The advances in communication technology are useful for educational expansion. and used for a variety of purposes with unprecedented speed and accuracy. and have a powerful impact on the life goals. to 5 p. T/F 5. and work experiences are being influenced by the media and the new communication technology.

economic options. Town and urban planning has become a major responsibility of the Government. The studies of various cities in India show that social institutions like marriage. The urban people have an acute sense of time. ________________________ 3. dense. In ancient. The urban centres. caste. they have become the centres of power. While watching the TV note down the following information.Psychology and Social Problems 215 ACTIVITY 10. The interpersonal relationships are becoming formal.7 Electronic Media and its Messages During free time. Today a city represents a relatively large. administration. The life in cities is fast and very demanding. Majority of the people who had migrated from villages now live in the cities as tenants. The village stood for simplicity and accommodated village craftsmen and agriculturists. The cities are growing in size and adjunct rural areas are being acquired and made part of cities. etc. India Panini has referred to them. however. The type of kitchen. The spontaneity is being replaced by sophistication and rationality. the grama and the nagar have a long tradition in India. ________________________ 2. Discuss the findings with your teacher and classmates. As cities happen to be the place for transacting business. 6. religion. Some important features of urban life are as follows. The cities differ from the villages in many respects. transportation. ________________________ Contents of Messages Conveyed _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Target Population ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ After collecting. The urban settlements in India have undergone basic changes over the centuries. medical. for an hour. The face-to-face interaction is being substituted by indirect and mediated interaction.e. 5. present a mixed picture. and general organisation of home provide a different structure of home. watch the TV carefully in the morning or in the evening. They work under tremendous pressure of time and therefore. food habits. activities. contractual. and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals. The friendship circle of the urban people is based more on the professional relationship than kinship. They have elements of continuity as well as change. family. 3. 2. Name of the Programme 1. and calculated. Consumerism and market orientation are the keys of urbanisation. the above data try to find out what are the motivational implications of these messages. A city was populated by traders and industrial workers with adequate amenities of life. The references to two different types of habitations i.. kinship. 4. Problems with Urbanisation Urbanisation has led to many problems that destabilise the life of the people. ________________________ 4. commercial and educational. planned.. politics. Most of the cities in India are facing various kinds of problems. pose various challenges for the inhabitants and for governance. These problems are caused by the continued migration of population from the . work on a fast pace. 1.

It is caused mainly by the migration of population from villages. The streets are choked with traffic. and traffic jam disrupts life of people. huge investment. drinking water. Personal transport is not available to majority of the people. Recapitulation Urbanisation involves increase in the concentration of population and change in the occupational structure.. crime and drug addiction are very common in these slums. social density. ACTIVITY 10. Transportation and Traffic : Public transportation system is a top priority since people have to commute long distances to earn their livelihood. corruption. The life in cities is becoming more impersonal. and technology dependent. Multi-storeyed accommodations are increasing. Crowding and Depersonalisation: Crowding is a difficult problem faced in the cities. safety. The cooperation of people with government machinery is necessary. murders. The mounting social conflicts lead to demonstrations. The high-rise buildings have their own problems. so does the pollution. rallies.) are on the increase in the cities. Maintaining cities and providing the necessary support is becoming a major challenge. immoral trafficking. and institutional structure.8 Psychology and the Advantages of Urban Life Meet three persons who have undergone the experiences of urban life for at least five years. and community facilities (e. Bystander apathy is very common. All these adversely affect the mental and physical health of the people. Urban centres and villages differ in terms of social structure. Discuss your results with the classmates and teacher. transport. This kind of awareness is gradually emerging and new towns and colonies are being established with sufficient planning keeping in view the needs of residents and ecological balance. You often must have read in news where people are murdered while others merely stand by and watch. municipal services. sewage. The pattern of formal social interaction. and political will. Crowding results in competition. Urbanisation has resulted in the growth of slums. Law and Order : Crimes of various types (e. or absence of facilities or amenities. law and order and transportation problems. Most of the Indian cities are showing a rapid growth of slums.g. fast. waste disposal etc) mark the life of the majority of the Indian cities. which endanger the health. To keep pace with the housing needs of the people is a major challenge. Ask them to list the problems and advantages they have experienced.216 Introduction to Psychology villages. The Challenge Maintenance of the cities and arresting their deterioration require long-term planning. crowding. organisation of home environment and use of gadgets distinguish urban life from rural life. Some of the major problems are stated below. It is gratifying that preserving green space and creating community facilities is getting the attention in the new towns. Disease. housing pattern.g. Growing deterioration in public utilities. These will be of little help if the necessary changes in attitude and behaviour do not take place. Maintenance of City : With the burden of growing population the basic infrastructure of many cities is crumbling down. Analyse the answers and prepare an account of urban life. There is mixed and incompatible land use.. . people’s participation. The Growth of Slums : A slum is an area characterised by overcrowding. professional friendship. The number of automobiles multiplies. and the mode of transportation. Housing Problems : Housing in the city is a persistent problem. housing problems. and at times fights that creates a law and order problem. use of drugs etc. the technological changes. and high infant mortality. Some houses are overcrowded. concern for time. and morals of its inhabitants. The city dwellers do not want to get involved. unsanitary conditions.

Crowding. India is experiencing a large number of social problems. and protective reservation have been launched. which are not explicitly considered as problems because people are not aware of them. T/F The behaviour of urban people is less rational and sophisticated than their counterparts. Deprivation. presence of a role model or support. Density. l l l l . Some are primary while others are secondary and tertiary because they emanate from the primary problem. The experience of poverty occur when people lack or do not have access to resources. Non-violence. or the broader social structure. T/F City involves socially homogenous and temporary settlements. As an emerging developing country. It is defined and measured in different ways leading to different numbers of people below poverty line.Psychology and Social Problems 217 LEARNING CHECKS VII l Key Terms Poverty. the culture of poor people. Urbanisation. Identity. The causes of poverty have been identified in the poor. T/F The pace of urban life is becoming more and more stressful. Nation. community based interventions. Comparisons of socially disadvantaged and advantaged groups indicate that the former show low level of performance on learning. there are some problems. T/F l l l l l SUMMARY l Social problems are those conditions which are considered by a large section of population as a problem. Gender. They are latent problems (e. Their motivation and aspiration level is at a lower level. legal protection. However. There are few who against all odds survive and grow. overcrowding. environmental pollution). Psychological researches have indicated that poverty arrests the developmental potential. poverty and related phenomena make people vulnerable. Social Disadvantage. In general. The problem of poverty persists and more vigorous attack on poverty at the individual and the structural levels is required. NGO’s efforts and psychological intervention have been undertaken. Social Problem. In addition. Being a central problem removal of poverty has received priority and a number of programmes in terms of asset provision.g. T/F Consumerism is in greater strength in the urban people.. Such invulnerable people are found because of extra motivation. Sex. T/F Crowding and bystander apathy is low in cities than rural areas. Social disadvantage stands for deprivations linked with membership of specific groups. Poverty may be relative or absolute. Poverty is a primary social problem. perceptual and cognitive tasks. Majority of the urban population is engaged in industrial and service occupation.

and accurate. The media and communication revolution are drastically changing our world. The move from the agrarian or rural mode of life towards the urban mode of life is a major event. and parental education can help to enhance mutual cooperation and national integration. Increasing interdependence and dialogue across groups. The exposure to the media sensitises us in relation to certain kinds of events. the inadequate health and other facilities are to a large extent due to the high rate of population growth. cities are facing a variety of problems such as the growth of slums. Tolerance. crowding and traffic. Thus. and patterns of social interactions in the urban areas are different from what we find in the rural area. and the high rate of child mortality are the major causes for non-adoption of family planning measures. and religion etc. modern cities are the consequence of industrialisation. politics. and shape our choices in related matters. economic insecurity. viewing violence is often linked with the increase in violence in real life. Population growth has become a key issue before the planners and policy makers of India.218 l Introduction to Psychology National integration is emerging as a serious social problem before the Indian society. We know about and interact with our world through the audio visual. Lack of education and exposure. l l l l . institutional support. culture. the experiences in the last five decades indicate increasing degree of social tension in different parts of the country. Discrimination against women presents a major challenge. The life style.. deteriorating law and order. Most of the Indian cities are becoming heterogeneous entities where the people from different regions and social backgrounds live. the degradation of environment and the poor infrastructure to support law and order. A more effective communication and motivational mechanism need to be used to control population growth. Being a country with diversities in language. and social institutions. Their occupations are more important. While freedom struggle articulated a common goal for the whole nation. traditional customs and the dependence on males has hindered their growth. healthy housing. particularly its economy. The media also informs us about values. spatial organisation. The misconceptions about family planning–measures. Housing. The problems of unemployment. it is important to respect and reciprocate the distinct identities. The new gadgets are making interaction and connectivity across the globe very effective. The legal provisions. The gender roles are socially created and sustained. and non-violence need to be stressed in social life. and print media. promoting inter faith communication. customs. While the notions of the village and the city have ancient roots in India. The expansion of urbanisation is changing the shape of our society. transport. including the work habits and leisure time activities are now shaped by the media. Inability to control the growing population impairs the economic growth. The media is shaping the minds and habits of the people by providing selective exposure to certain kinds of information and experiences. The communication revolution has made communication faster. With the growth in the size. life style. and special programmes initiated by the government are trying to uplift the status of women. easier. etc. The domain of women has been restricted to home and dependent on the male members. electronic. dialogue.

F. 4. 7. 2. 5. 4. 6. 6. 3. T : 1. T VI : 1. 2. T. 2. T III : 1. 3. 6. F. F. 2.Psychology and Social Problems 219 Review Questions 1. T. F. 6. T. 6. T. T. 3. 5. 3. 7. 5. 2. F. 5. 6. T. 3. 6. T. 5. F. T. T. 8. 5. T. 2. 2. 4. 4. F. 5. T. How do you define a social problem? What are the psychological consequences of poverty? How does poverty affect the development of the individual and the society? What are the challenges for national integration? What are the causes and manifestations of gender discrimination? What is the impact of media and communication revolution on social life? Explain the various dimensions of population explosion? What are the effects of urbanisation? ANSWERS I II TO LEARNING CHECKS : 1. T. 2. T. 3. F.F V : 1. T. F. F. T. F. 4. 4. F. T. 5. T IV : 1. 4. T. T. T VII : 1. F. T. 4. 3. T. F . F. F. 3.

. psychological testing interviewing and communication. and Ä appreciate basic aspects of the skills of counseling.3).1) Ethics of Counseling Testing Skills: Applying Psychological Tests CHAPTER COVERS Ä Introduction to the domains of psychological applications Ä The challenges in developing as a psychologist Ä Learning about some of the important skills for becoming a psychologist Ä Awareness about counseling. (Empathy and Self Discipline BOX 11. psychological testing.OR AN E. Ä understand the need to develop skills among psychologists Ä describe some major domains in which professional preparation is required.4). interviewing and communication skills BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Guidelines for Test Selection (11. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .2) Communication Skills Interviewing Skills (Organising Rehabilitation Services for Physically.ECTIVE PSYCHOLOGIST CONTENTS Introduction Developing as a Psychologist What is counseling ? The Stages of counseling Process Characteristics and Skills of an Effective Counselor Case Study (BOX 11.220 Introduction to Psychology 11 THIS SKILLS NEEDED . Mentally and Socially Challenged BOX 11.

consumer. You have learnt about methods that are used to produce psychological knowledge in Class XI textbook. agencies of market-research. As a scientific enterprise psychology has developed theories in many areas and as professional psychologists do meaningful things in day-to-day life with the available psychological knowledge. Such activities require development of certain skills. the careers of psychologists in different areas demand specialised professional training. cognitive. psychological testing. Like other disciplines. health. clinical. The specialised fields of psychology like industrial/organisational. business houses. communicating and interviewing are described. On the other hand. This chapter has the modest goal of helping you understand the process of becoming a psychologist as well as to know about some specific skills important to the work of psychologists. schools. aviation. Becoming an effective psychologist requires that one should not only have theoretical understanding but must have the requisite skills and competencies. You have also learnt about the application of psychological knowledge in day-today life constitutes an important goal of psychology. many of your acquaintances will comment that it is a psychological problem. If you are facing a personal problem. it will be useful to have some idea about the preparation required for becoming a good psychologist. consultancy concerns. environment. . counseling. the basic responsibility of psychologists is to do something to help people and improve their quality of life. To this end four skills namely counseling. educational. dealing with people is quite challenging. However. hospitals. defence establishments and a variety of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). In all these areas.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 221 INTRODUCTION People often keep telling others that “I know your psychology”. school. forensic. The applications of psychological principles and research findings to solve everyday problems at individual and institutional levels are substantially increasing. community. They are playing different roles and carrying out various kinds of responsibilities. and military provide diverse opportunities to apply psychological knowledge. developmental. Today a large number of psychologists are working in different settings such as. psychology as a discipline claims expertise in handling psychological problems. While you are not mature enough to become a professional psychologist right now.

“identity crisis”. Responsibility : Psychologists have responsibility to uphold the professional standards of conduct and obligations. Who is an Effective Psychologist? Becoming an effective psychologist shall require a fine blend of knowledge. Therefore as a psychologist. Let us try to understand those qualities. employees. you are expected to maintain high standards of work and recognise the boundaries of your competencies and limitations of expertise. may misfire. which are needed to become an effective psychologist. and worth of the people with whom they interact. 3. motivation and values. 5. 2. as noted earlier operate in the hussel-bussel of life and use the professional knowledge for problem solving in different spheres. Psychologists should be aware of cultural and individual differences and try to eliminate the effect of such biases. and autonomy (Refer to ethical guidelines given in Chapter 2 of class XI textbook). As professional psychologists. Competence : Psychologists provide only those services and use only those techniques for which they are qualified in terms of education. “mental blocks”. 4. They must share egalitarian values. you have to serve the best interests of your patients. however. “inferiority complex”. skills. Also. human relations (HR) consultant).222 Introduction to Psychology DEVELOPING AS A PSYCHOLOGIST Anybody can think and pretend that he/she is a psychologist. clinical psychologist. Only then do they arrive at dependable generalisations that can be used. He or she should remain neutral and remain unbiased. As has been pointed out earlier the specific demands of various roles that a psychologist may like to play need specialised training and experience. Scientific Temper : As you are aware scientific work is based on the premise of objective pursuit of public and verifiable knowledge. students.g. They have to accept appropriate responsibility for their behaviour. some of the qualities of psychologists are described below. educational background. Generally. they need to take care of the welfare of their patients or clients. it will suffice to draw attention to certain basic and general aspects of the process of becoming a psychologist. clients. a psychologist has to use the knowledge and skills to deliver the required services to individuals and institutions. “lie detectors”. or other recipients of the services. honest. you need to respect the rights of the participants and clients to privacy. For instance. dignity. they need to be aware of the obligations to the community and society in which they live. In the capacity of a researcher a psychologist is primarily concerned with contributing to the growth of knowledge in a given field. Respect for People’s Right and Dignity: Psychologists must accord respect to the fundamental rights. confidentiality. people pick up these terms from popular writings and media and may not be entirely wrong in their understandings. and so many other terms during everyday conversations. As a professional practitioner (e. What is more crucial is the professional training required to become an accomplished psychologist both as a researcher as well as practitioner. or experience. counselor. Keeping this in view. Psychologists should not exploit or mislead other people during or beyond the span of professional relationship. co-workers. We need both types of psychologists. This requires that a psychologist must maintain integrity and objectivity. and fair in conduct. and institutional affiliations of the claimant can give a pretty good basis for distinguishing the pseudo psychologists from psychologists. Concern for Others’ Welfare : It is the duty of psychologists to contribute to the welfare of those with whom they interact professionally.. . In the present context. the professional training. Others. Naïve use of this kind of amateurish psychology. however. and adapt their methods to suit the needs of diverse groups. self-determination. As a psychologist. school psychologist. child psychologist. personnel manager. The researcher take the problems to the level of scientific research in laboratory and other controlled setting. 1. training. People do talk about “IQ”. Asking certain relevant queries like.

The theoretical and practical knowledge of the contents of psychology. and so on. Integrity and objectivity are important for becoming an effective psychologist. T/F 4.. you need to posses theoretical knowledge of the contents of psychology. He/she must register and attend to the behaviours and events that take place in any situation. beliefs (e. A skilful observer alone can identify the problems and prepare relevant interventions. Therefore. A psychologist must appreciate this diversity and need not be rigid in his or her approach or attitude. T/F 2. action. The knowledge and skills needed by a psychologist are of general and specific types. There are no definite professional standards of conduct for psychologists. research. Becoming a Counselor requires professional training under supervision of a competent and experienced Counselor. relationship skills). namely counseling. . skills. responsibility.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 223 6. communicating and interviewing is being given below. and motivation. He or she needs to be sensitive enough to the interactions that take place between individuals. The theoretical knowledge one may acquire by understanding the theories and principles of human behaviour. Interpersonal Sensitivity : Human behaviours usually occur in social settings and the cultural context provides meaning to it (see Chapter 4 of class XI textbook). 7. A good psychologist is able to attend to the nuances. communicating. counseling. interpersonal sensitivity. A good psychologist maintains the privacy and confidentiality of their clients. ways of thinking about oneself. counseling is an interactive process characterised by a unique relationship between Counselor (help giver) and client (help receiver) that leads to change in the client’s overt behaviour (e. testing. concern for others welfare. skills. To deliver services to individuals and institutions requires specialised training and experience. others. It will help you to appreciate the kind of skills that professional psychologists must possess. There are many skills required of a psychologist including helping. Openness to Ideas : You must have noticed that there are many theoretical perspectives in psychology. to have a successful career as a psychologist. coping skills. Thus. T/F WHAT IS COUNSELING? Counseling refers to the helping relationship that includes someone seeking help and someone willing to give help.g. decisionmaking skills. Becoming an effective psychologist requires the theoretical understanding of tools.. testing. meaning of any verbal or nonverbal behaviour is embedded in its sociocultural context.g. Recapitulation Psychologists have to play various roles to meet diverse demands. Ability to Observe : In order to deal effectively with others a psychologist should be a keen observer. you must have seen that people differ widely with respect to their ideas and views. Also. T/F 5. Thus. and level of emotional distress. methods and theories. openness to ideas and ability to observe. 8. The help giver is capable of or trained for helping and works in a setting that permits help to be given and received. While the details of all the relevant skills are beyond the scope of this chapter a brief description of the major skills. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. T/F 3. But we also learn by doing (practical knowledge). scientific temper. and values are also important to become an effective psychologist. Observation is not an important skill for an effective psychologist. respect for people’s right and dignity. motivation. and the world). He/she should be open to diverse ideas. Some basic knowledge and skills are applicable everywhere as some are specific to a particular context. Some qualities of good psychologist are : competence.

224 Introduction to Psychology People often carry many misconceptions about counseling. a Counselor feels rewarded because his or her efforts at helping the client have been productive and therapeutic. It is. Therefore. Similarly. Some of the major elements of counseling are as follows : l It is a voluntary process in which a Counselor responds to the feelings. The Counselor’s task is to allay the client’s fear and encourage selfdisclosure. Without honest self-disclosure by the client. counseling is an empty enterprise. but are not counseling. Owning the Problems : It means that client is able to accept the responsibility for his or her problems. attending . Owning the problem is often the first step towards solving them. Let us examine these stages in some more detail. their goals converge. Developing Understanding of Problems : Once the client develops some sense of responsibility of the problem he/she is able to develop understanding and get an insight into the problems. l It requires acceptance of the client’s perceptions and feelings. This helps them to perceive reality more clearly and gain control over their reactions to the problem. effort and money. such as giving information. Acquiring New Behaviours and Actions : In addition to developing greater understanding of the issues. To avoid repeating their ineffective behaviour patterns clients should develop new ways of behaving. and interacting in situations or with others. Therefore. While coming to the Counselor the client experiences two types of feelings: “I know I need help” and “I wish I were not here”. It begins with establishment of contact between Counselor and the client. therefore important to be aware of and be sensitive to the kind of messages present. the stages common to most of the counseling techniques are described below. peers. responding. Developing Effective Relationships : Most of the people (clients) who seek help from Counselor. establishing rapport becomes the first task. l Counselors and clients both exchange verbal and non-verbal messages during the process of counseling. The important gains of counseling for clients are given below. In real life. the goals and the ways of achieving those goals must be identified. both the client and Counselor spend significant time. In counseling. thoughts. advice. It is often confused with many related activities. discussing those variations is beyond the scope of this chapter. and community members is essential for clients in order to develop meaningful relationships with others.e. At the outset of counseling. In actual practice. There are three progressive stages in the counseling process. Then the Counselor endeavours to understand the client’s needs and desires. for counseling to be effective. Often clients come for counseling and blame people or environmental factors for their problems. do not have effective or satisfying relationships. The client-Counselor relationship during counseling is often the first step towards developing a meaningful relationship with others. the client and Counselor both need to know that they are moving in the same direction i. (a) Initial Disclosure : At the beginning the Counselor and the client do not know one another well. Finally. counseling is done as a systematic intervention in the life of a person who is willing to seek help. interviewing. l A Counselor does not use coercion to obtain information from the client. Therefore. the client also needs to acquire more effective ways of behaving in the situation. However. l A Counselor focuses attention on the specific problem of the clients. l The setting of counseling maintains confidentiality and privacy. and actions of the clients. a Counselor gets training in specialised techniques under the supervision of a senior practicing Counselor. The feeling of progress will occur if the client begins to relate or behave efficiently during the process of counseling. Social support from family. friends. which appear similar to counseling. selecting people for jobs etc. The Stages of Counseling Process Counseling process is guided by the theoretical orientation held by the Counselor.

Building a positive end to Counseling when the goals are achieved. 3. Also. These stages are summarised in Table 11. When the client is satisfied that the new behaviours or the new conceptions are working satisfactorily. the Counselor and client come to a mutually acceptable assessment and diagnosis of the problems. Counselor’s Activities 1. Extending the client’s build a trusting and ability to understand working relationship. the Counselor must promote trust in the client by showing empathy (understanding others experience as if it were your own). . unconditional positive regard (total acceptance of the client as he or she is) and overtness (i. Communicating nature of concerns.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 225 (i. counseling ends. 2.e. Taking decisions to reach those goals. genuineness (or dependable). facial expression. Engaging the client to develop a mutually agreeable assessment of the problem(s). the Counselor brings into the discussion his/ her impressions of the client’s dynamics and coping behaviours. The Counselor gives support for trying new behaviours and helps the client evaluate the effectiveness of new behaviours or new conceptions of reality as they may relate to the reduction of stress. self and others. The Counselor tries to obtain the client’s response about whether the counseling process is progressing satisfactorily and also expresses his/her opinion about the progress achieved in a few counseling sessions. Undertaking Action 1. 2. the major problem(s). and eye contact. paying careful attention to the clients words and actions) is very important. The client considers possible actions and then chooses some of them to try out. In-depth Explorations the 1. The Counselor demonstrates attending by posture. 2. Re-evaluating unsuccessful actions and rewarding client successes. 3. Developing specific goals for change.1. 2. Clarifying spontaneous 2. Carrying out actions that will accomplish those goals. Joining with the meanings of the concerns Counselor to assess through disclosure.e. Building deeper understanding of the meanings of personal concerns. using clear language to describe the client’s life situation). Helping specify goals and translating goals into concrete plans for change. This stage frequently becomes emotionally stressful because the client repeatedly faces the inadequacy of habitual behaviours and must learn to give up the old behaviours for the new learnt during the counseling process. (b) In-depth Exploration : During this stage. (c) Undertaking Action : This is the stage in which decision-making takes place and action is undertaken.1 Summary of the Stages in the Counseling Process Disclosure during the first stage Client’s Activities 1. In addition. Table 11. Providing therapeutic conditions that will 1..

facial expression (smile. Counselors maintain objectivity in their dealings with the clients. A Counselor should have awareness and understanding of one’s own self. On the other hand. specifically selected for the study. This would help Counselors to understand themselves sufficiently and to know exactly what they are doing. pitch and speed depending on the client’s reactions and situations. In order to know more about empathy you are encouraged to study Box 11. Use of short verbal encouragers like ‘Ya!’. Cultural sensitivity and the knowledge of cultures different from the Counselor’s own are important to the effective use of empathy. who is popularly known as a ‘case’. He or she should not be distracted by one’s own problems. It is also important to learn to alter voice and change the volume. frown). Empathy involves sensitivity to the client’s problems and being able to see things. in communicating the Counselor says something that tells the client that his or her meanings and feelings are understood. The Counselor must have respect for the client. and which problems belong to the client. 2. The observations are reported in detail so that the . 6. ‘Mm-mm’ and so forth are ways of demonstrating verbal attentiveness. The case study is useful for the study of an individual client. It has been found that those who have greater sensitivity are able to cope better. 7. cause greater anxiety in the person who is in the need of help..226 Introduction to Psychology Characteristics and Skills of an Effective Counselor Though in counseling the client and Counselor both work together towards the desired outcomes. A related quality is that of genuineness. ‘I see’. which are their problems. personal strengths. Inferences usually are drawn about factors in one’s past. Perceiving is an intense process of active listening by the Counselor. A Counselor must be in good psychological health. feelings. why they are doing it. 1. They do not push clients to follow a particular belief or value system. Non-verbal attentiveness includes eye contact. Allowing clients to complete their sentences is one way of showing verbal attentiveness. limitations. In order to become an effective Counselor one must develop the following qualities. A case study consists of observations of a single individual or a group of individuals. A Counselor has to be sincere and must not mislead or present facades to clients. The Counselor must have attentiveness. It may be verbal or nonverbal. It involves perceiving and communicating. As you can see. present or anticipated in the future that are likely to account for current behaviour. Open-mindedness in Counselors suggests freedom from fixed or preconceived ideas. head nods. BOX 11. 3. Verbal attentiveness involves what is expressed to the client and the way it is expressed. and coping style. They contd. the way the client does. these inferences are subjective evaluations or interpretations. it is the Counselor who as a trained helper ensures that the client benefits. It helps in understanding and describing the personality and behaviour of the individual. body posture and distance. ‘Go on’. CASE STUDY description captures as much as possible of the unique characteristics of the individual and his or her situation. Counselors lacking psychological health.1 5. 8. Open-mindedness does not mean that Counselors are amoral or have no personal values or beliefs. Sensitivity means that the Counselor is aware of the client’s strengths. Open-minded Counselors are aware of their beliefs or values but are able to distinguish them from those of their clients.. 4. He or she must view the client as a worthwhile person and treat him/her with warmth and dignity.3. It means understanding one’s own needs. It requires the Counselor to be aware of his own biases while dealing with the problems of clients. These cues should be adapted according to the needs of the situation and the client. understand the client’s verbal and non-verbal messages and are also able to apply strategy for each client in a unique fashion. and limitations.

in-depth exploration. Some of the principles are given below. However. feelings and actions of clients by a trained Counselor. Imagine the problems you have had to grapple with or are struggling with now. ETHICS OF COUNSELING of counseling much in advance to the actual termination. The value of case study is that it serves as a source of ideas and hypotheses about behaviour. They have legal implications too. It may be noted that many of them also apply to psychologists engaged in other fields as well. Counselors should discuss with the client the termination Think of yourself as a client. professional disclosure. professional relationship and referral and termination. fee (if any). generalising from an individual case to people in general is tenuous. there are distinct limitations of the case study. Now write down simple sentences in response to the following questions. This means that a Counselor should not talk to anyone about the client’s problems without prior permission from the client. Professional Relationships : Counselors need to respect and protect their clients. open-mindedness. Counselor should have knowledge about the ethical issues such as confidentiality. Counseling proceeds through three main stages : initial disclosure. and offers permissive appeal and motivational value that may foster research. Confidentiality : Counselors are ethically obliged to keep the information of the client confidential. This information should contain Counselor’s background. This means that Counselors should not engage in any other kind of relationship with client that could doubt the Counselor’s objectivity and judgment and interfere with the therapeutic process. Recapitulation Counseling is a helping relationship. Any recording of relevant information should be done only after obtaining permission from the client. which involves responding to the thoughts. Results from a case study can be reinterpreted in so many ways that specific conclusions cannot be drawn without ambiguity. various measures can also be administered. In order to become an effective Counselor one must develop qualities such as : awareness and understanding of one’s own self. sensitivity. objectivity respect. ACTIVITY 11. (a) What would I want to get out of seeing a Counselor? (b) What would I want the Counselor to be like? (c) How would I want to be treated ? Discuss your statements with your classmates and teacher. These situations must be handled with sensitivity. It is also subject to the researchers’ bias. and undertaking action. observations arising from audio or video tape recordings. training and qualifications. Then consider yourself dealing with these problems with a Counselor. Further. allows the study of rare individual/phenomenon that may provide a counter instance to an accepted belief about personality and behaviour. . including self-report inventories. Referral and Termination : Counselors must also protect their clients while making referral or termination of counseling process. and so on. good psychological health.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 227 should be distinguished from more objective measures such as standardised tests or questionnaire or direct observation of behaviour. Professional Disclosure : A Counselor must represent his or her professional qualifications and experiences correctly to the client. The Counselor while referring should give the name of competent and qualified Counselors and not of ill-reputed counselors. To overcome these problems. and the area of specialisation.1 Understanding the Role of a Counselor l It is important for Counselor to have knowledge about the ethical issues involved in the profession of counseling. overt behavioural assessment. for others attentiveness and empathy.

T/F TESTING SKILLS: APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Use of tests is one of the very widely used domain of psychological skills. intended and validated for self-administration and/or scoring. conditions that produce most favourable test results are made known to the person who is being tested called as examinee. So. popularly known as examiner. (4) Training is needed to administer and interpret the test results. personality) are used in many areas of research and application. Counseling is a process of giving advice or help a person in need. norms) should be taken care of. aptitude. T/F 4. its administration. promotion). This is important because uniformity of procedure is helpful in interpreting test scores. and attitudes while giving help.228 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS II 1. As a tool to assess psychological properties. One should not permit unsupervised or inadequately supervised use of tests unless they are designed. standardisation. reproduce or modify published tests or parts thereof without acknowledgment and permission from the publisher. needs. T/F 3. Thus. “Testing in . and have adequate lighting. You have already learned about the nature and types of tests in relation to the analyses of intelligence and personality.g. and scoring and interpretation of test scores need theoretical knowledge as well as professional skills. He or she must have thorough familiarity with the standard instructions of the test to be used. ventilation.g. Examiner’s Role : The psychologist responsible for testing. Let us try to examine some of the details of the process of test-administration. social. Good psychological health is a prerequisite for effective counseling on the part of the counselor.. They do not appropriate. This is important because a psychological test is used as a source of information in reaching certain practical decisions (e. These are small things but may influence test results. Preparation for Test Administration : Examiners must make advance preparation for the testing session. difficulty level. Referral is a not a part of counseling process. Counselor must be aware of his or her own motives. some information about tests was given in the Chapter 2 of class XI textbook. The first most crucial aspect of counseling process is to make the client accept and own the problem. (2) The person who uses a test should be a qualified examiner because choice of test. T/F 2. the types and characteristics of tests are not discussed. The broad guidelines in testing are as follows : (1) The use of psychological tests needs to be controlled because of its value in the process of decision-making. Prior to test administration.g.. reliability. ability. It is advisable that demonstration and practice sessions should be undertaken before actual test administration. The testing condition should be free from noise. T/F 5. the test takers and the testing condition (e. achievement. clinical. Tests of various kinds (e. temporary emotional/physical state).. The test users and examiner may be different. educational and other fields. Test Security : The examiners maintain the integrity and security of tests consistent with legal and contractual obligations.. and seating facility. Here our concern is to understand the important considerations and skills that one should be equipped with for proper use of psychological tests. is required to follow test instructions precisely. Interpretation of test scores requires understanding of the test. Careful control of testing conditions also need to be maintained. (3) For the tests to serve the purpose evaluation of its technical merits (e. Communication about the test before test administration may help to dispel any mystery that may have become associated with the process of testing. Also. T/F 6. interest. one should memorise the instructions and have thorough familiarity with specific testing procedures. validity. employment. Counseling can be given by a person good in communication. it is used in industrial.g.

Friendly. They are motivated for putting in best effort while appearing for the test. The main considerations while preparing for testing and during test administration are summarised here : l order and check the materials in advance. The test administrator must have flexibility of procedure without compromising the basic aspects of test. It is important for the examiner to understand that the results may be influenced by factors such as : physical and emotional condition of the testee at the time of taking the test. parents and others. elicit their cooperation. following instructions. l l l l l l select a suitable place for testing. Many tests are now also available online.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 229 progress” this sign should be put on the door of the room in which testing is going on. Testing Procedure : This should take into consideration the seating arrangement. cheerful. ethnicity. following the directions for giving the test. One has to reassure the child and use brief test periods. This is an effort to arouse the interest of examinees in testing. It helps to enhance their concentration. high distractibility and negativitism. After the test has been scored. practise administering the test. The paper-pencil tests and computer-administrable tests require different kinds of preparation. testee and test-situations are understood in the right perspective. it is essential that the requisite information is recorded for each testee. Scoring errors such as errors in counting answers. which is often present in many examinees. Examiner variables like age. encourage the students to do their best. examiner behaviour and his or her expectations influence test performance. Appropriate rapport helps motivating the examinees and relieving their anxiety. Recapitulation Tests are important tools of assessment used by psychologists. Scoring of Tests : The scoring can be done manually by hand or by machine. Proper use of psychological tests requires the skills of administration. and validity. Introducing the Test : The rapport need to be established while administering the test. sex. follow the time limits. reliability and norms of the test. appearance. Test administration requires advance preparation and suitable environmental conditions. accurate timing and recording of significant events observed during testing. Also testing young children poses many problems. In recent years computer has been introduced to help psychological testing. To summarise the conduct of test one has to focus on the following aspects. Proper recording facilitates the reporting of test information to teachers. Electronic scoring machines are used for accurate and quick scoring especially for large scale testing programmes. scoring and interpretation. encouraging them to respond in a manner appropriate. keep a record of any event during the testing period that might effect the test scores. The examiner must make it clear that it is in the interest of examinees to get the correct test results. using scoring guides etc. They show shyness with strangers. ensuring that all examines have understood the instructions. The process of testing has to take into account the specific characteristics of groups if they are different from the standardisation group. . errors in administering or scoring of the test. need to be guarded against in hand scoring procedure. Attention should also be paid to test anxiety. Interpretation of Test Scores : It is important and essential that the test scores are properly interpreted and the test. personality. and relaxed way of test administration will help them do the job well. As discussed above administering tests requires careful preparation before hand and strict adherence to the set procedure during testing. Rapport building is important to motivate the examinees to put in best effort. distribution of answer sheets and test booklets. Other Considerations : A test presents an implied threat to the individual prestige of an examinee. closely follow the test directions given in the manual.

Clarifying the type of information needed must be preceded by the intended use of the results.e. sending or receiving messages. If you want a test for the assessment of intelligence. l Validity of the Test : Another important characteristics of a test is validity – the test should measure what it purports to measure. Some tests require the testee to record their answers on the body of test itself. Rapport need to be established while administering the test T/F 4.2 GUIDELINES FOR TEST SELECTION l Mode of Administration : Some tests are only meant for individual administration (one respondent at a time). while others can be administered individually and/or in group. No social life can be imagined without communication. Tests are used in the process of decision making. “to live is to communicate”. Test score cannot predict the behaviour of the person being tested. A psychologist is free to reproduce or modify a published test. l Norms : The examiner should ensure that the norms for appropriate age. COMMUNICATION SKILLS It is said. The major ones are : Factorial. true/false. and academics). l Nature of the Items : Please see whether the items are in verbal or non-verbal form. You should carefully consider various aspects of a test before selecting it for assessment purpose. are given so that comparison of the subject’s score with the norms can be made. In other tests test booklet and response sheets are different. You should select a test where sufficiently high degree of validity co-efficients have been reported. through writing or through other modalities. you should be sure that the test which you have selected only measures intelligence. l Type of Information Required : It is important to define the specific type of information being sought by the use of a particular test. etc. friendship. stability of test scores over time and internal consistency of the test). polities. while there is no time limit for completion of other tests. T/F 3. BOX 11. Communication is an art and mastery over it makes life easier as it solves many of our problems. non-verbally. Communication is essential in each and every domain of life (. Also. Validity is of different types. and other forms of reliabilities.230 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS III 1.g family¸ work. The examiner should select an appropriate test. sex. Either we are communicating verbally.e. the test should have been developed for use in the culture in which it is proposed to be administered. T/F 5. Testees are required to write their answers on the response sheet only. Rapport building helps to relieve the anxiety of the test takers T/F active lifetime is spent in some form of communication i. l Language of the Test : The test should be in the language with which the testees are more comfortable.. Therefore without going into the details of the model of communication certain aspects of communication as a skill are presented here. If you are excellent in communication the chances of your success definitely increase. multiple choice) or open-end type (long answer or essay type). Concurrent and Cross-validation. It is a well-known fact that more than eighty percent of our You have already studied certain aspects of communication process in Chapter 11 of class XI textbook. This is particularly important for use with illiterate testees. Particularly. with others. Construct. Reliability of a test should be high for use in assessment. l Mode of Response : Items in a verbal test can be closed end type (Yes/no. Test manual contains information about test-retest.e. l Reliability of Test : An important consideration in selection of a test is the reliability (i. It seems reasonable to conclude that one of the most inhibiting forces to successful life is the lack of effective communication. the examiner should see that test items are not alien to the people who are supposed to answer them. split-form. l Age Range : The test should have been constructed for use with the age group of the respondent. l Time Requirement : Some tests need to be administered within a specific time period. As you are aware communication is a process of transmitting meaning from one . T/F 2.

if some one in your class speaks French and others do not know French.. “we”. pitch. encoding is not done properly. Similarly. l Try to ensure that the perspective of audience and yours own are the same. Hearing is like receiving sound and does Amount of information not necessarily result in listening whereas listening Fig. It helps in demonstrating the speaker’s involvement. The process of communication and the factors influencing it are shown in Figure 11. encoding.g. Therefore. you need to become a good communicator. channel. decoding. or reception is poor it can cause the problem. A skilled communicator is able to handle such problems.e. It is more than conveying meaning because the meaning conveyed should also be understood. You should be sensitive to the body language of the audience. communication includes both the transfer as well as understanding of meaning. Using Actual words Communication used in constituting audio-visual aids and Channel the message multimedia are quite helpful in creating the impact. l Maintain eye contact while speaking to another person. l Select the proper channel of communication. a good communicator pays attention to the context as well as to the person with whom communication is taking place. With this. if the sender is unable to consolidate and organise the message properly there can be a problem. Effective Listening Generally. the person speaking French will not be understood. message. Effective Speaking While interacting in face-to-face situations. As a psychologist.1. volume. salient and Paralanguage understandable. communication occurs between two human beings in a particular context. wave length the communication will have great impact. if other factors like. If the two are at the same. While doing so you can benefit a lot by observing the following tips.. For instance. The communication will be effective only when the sender transmits a thought or an idea and the receiver gets exactly the same meaning as the one held by the sender. feedback) can have a source of distortion.11. intonation) to a fullest possible way. l Use body language appropriately. For example.g. people take ‘listening’ for granted SENDER RECEIVER Sender because they confuse between hearing and Artifacts Noise listening.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 231 person to another person. “me” is helpful. It provides feedback and a good speaker gathers strength and accordingly monitors communication process. It has profound role in enhancing the impact of communication. which is the core of interpersonal communication much needed in professional psychological work. in view let us focus on two aspects of communication i. speaking and listening. l Use of pronouns like “I”. l Use the range of voice quality (e. As you can recollect each of the components of communication process (e. Today many options are available to make the message Non-verbal Aspects of cues present effective. Therefore. l Organise the thoughts and contents of communication before speaking.1 Factors influencing communication between sender and receiver involves paying attention to .

fax etc. Your voice carries both intentional and unintentional messages. By moving your body. it is important that we stick to the use of language with minimum differences in order to make the communication more effective. of course. tables) also determines the use of technology. etc. In professional circles. looking at watch. The requirements of presentation (e. 8. 7. Ask questions for clarification. That is not necessarily true. comfort and reassurance. photograph. The choice of technology has become very important. fax machine.232 Introduction to Psychology the sender and interpreting and understanding the message. Touch is an important vehicle for conveying warmth. We use various gesture and postures. l You must remember that face is the primary site for expressing your feelings l l l l l and emotions. Like touch. In order to be effective in nonverbal communication you may like to attend to the following suggestions. power point presentations with the help of LCD Projector makes presentation more effective in its impact. all of us assume that we are good listeners. People want faster communication. 1. Punctuality or choosing a space to sit often show your ability to assert. Non-verbal Communication As you know. 5. That style makes communication in normal situations difficult. Apparently. Avoid over talk. We often fail to attend to the message given by the speaker. group. So. Make eye contacts with the speaker. personal. Communication and Technology Today technology provides faster and more efficient equipments for all the aspects of communication. Avoid interruption while the speaker is speaking. is often incorrect and creates distortions in communication process. family and business people want communication through hand written documents. we also communicate through body language without use of spoken words. 4. The nature of message to be communicated (e. laser printers. The following tips are found useful for effective listening. diagram. Therefore. Show affirmative head movements at appropriate places with right facial expressions. idea. restate the received message in your own words.g. For instance.. Desktop publishing (DTP) and Word Processing have become core technology. Make smooth transition between the roles of speaker and listener. choose these things carefully. This aspect of communication comes under body language or paralanguage. nature of the message and presentation requirements. Be careful about your facial expressions. time and cost involved. time and space are used to assert one’s authority. . It often accompanies oral language to impress upon the listener. large audience) also determine the technology. you can express both specific and general messages and communicate to others. This choice is determined by the expectations of the audience. language is used with a lot of jargons and technical usage. Your appearance helps you establish your personal identity and style. Avoid distracting actions like playing with pen.. In addition the cost of communication is equally important. hand movements and facial expressions to communicate an idea or information. A sender assumes that the words used by him or others have the same meaning for the receiver. Time is becoming an important consideration in communication. 3. while listening. The audience (or the receivers of the message) often have specific expectations about the nature of message (or document) so. e-mail. The availability of word processors. Use paraphrasing. Role of Language in Communication People use language differently and follow different patterns of speech in different settings. telephone conversation.g. Do try them while communicating with others. This. 6. 2. In other words. voice recognition system have changed the scenario of communication. in schools.

Structure message in such a way that it becomes memorable. Listed below are some statements. Electronic mail called e-mail. Also. teleconferences (which involves audio conferencing and videoconferencing via phone lines and satellite) have provided connectivity with people who are scattered across the country or around the globe. For this purpose. 2. 5. On the whole. 3. A quiet location with adequate lighting and acoustics will make communication effective. If you have to deliver it orally try to remove the physical barriers. Try to indicate to the audience the connection of new information to existing set of ideas. . 3. 6. This will help you to understand how the message will be received and responded to. it should be made appealing. you need to do the following. l my mouth dries up l my stomach becomes loose l there are butterflies in my stomach l I feel like running away l I feel the need to talk to someone l I am unable to concentrate l I feel very vulnerable l I sometimes feel like crying Some General Recommendations for becoming a Good Communicator The development of communication skills require overcoming the barriers that occur in the process of communication. 4. Inform the audience or share with them about what they should expect. Using a concrete and specific language would be useful. you need to know the background and level of understanding of the audience. All the related problems fall in three main domains. Thus. Try to highlight and summarize the key points of message. 1. Choose communication channel and medium which do not interfere with the message. Reduction of Noise : A message may fail to yield results if it does not reach to the audience.. When I feel accepted.2 Knowing your feelings The communication involves listening to others’ feelings and emotions.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 233 Using software the production of documents through computer and laser printer have changed the intime process of publication. Try to exclude any information that does not directly contribute to the purpose of communication. If message is written. before listening to others. 1. You will need to attend to the following guidelines. If you tell the purpose and key point of the message a framework will be created with which the communicator and the listener share common meaning. Know about the people who are the targets of your communication. which is capable of attracting the attention of audience. Check the statements that are true for yourself. This will make audience focused.e. which describe the different types of feeling when you feel accepted or scared in the listening process. graphics and sounds are also added. Try to remove the possible sources of interference. 2. Select a method. Creation of Message : The message should be created carefully so that it may reach to the receivers (or audience) without any distortion. However. technology is increasing the flow of information making it easier to communicate. control of noise and provision of feedback. using words that evoke physical impressions may be very useful. In order to bring your audience nearer to you. You may use words and body language to this end. l I feel warm inside l I feel safe l I feel like sitting back and relaxing l I feel some of my fears easing away l I feel at home l I feel at peace l I feel my loneliness drifting away When I feel scared. creation of message. try to develop credibility to generate a relationship of trust. you should be familiar with your own emotional states. Let us learn certain ways through which many of these problems can be tackled. ACTIVITY 11. i.

T/F 3.234 Introduction to Psychology Facilitating Feedback : Providing the audience. Standardised interview is a technique which helps to reduce the bias of interviewers. facial expressions help in communication. Communication helps to transmit meaning from one person to another. facial expressions. To be a skilled communicator it is important to be aware of the sources of distortion in the message. Feedback is not necessary for effective communication. An atmosphere of peace and confidence is created to facilitate the client to express the facts of his behaviour. INTERVIEWING SKILLS Interviewing is a process of face-to-face communication and interaction between. T/F . Use of gestures. message. A standard condition is set for all the interviewers. T/F 4. The non-directive interview is valuable to get more and deep information about the client. Feedback is usually good but it reduces communicator’s control over the situation. be clear about the amount of feedback that is needed. ACTIVITY 11. During this Recapitulation Communication is a process of transmitting meaning from one person to another. Psychologists say that 50% of interview decisions are made within the first 60 seconds and the other 25% are made in another 15 minutes. Feedback may be made more useful by planning how and when it should be accepted. receiver and feedback. ) are used in communicating the message. In particular creating suitable messages. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. Effective speaking and listening are arts that need to be practiced. If you get off to a bad start. facial expressions. Stages of Interview Every interview proceeds through three stages: the warm Up. The Warm Up : Of the three stages warm up is the most important. postures. the question-andanswer-session and the close. T/F 2. an opportunity to give feedback is important for effective communication. Interview takes various forms depending upon what the interviewer is attempting to discover about the interviewee. Interview is an important technique to elicit personal information for several purposes such as selecting people for a job.3 Understanding Communication Think of a particular communication experience you have had recently. at least. Identify the sender. Eye contact has profound affect in enhancing the communication. While preparing the message. Asking questions shows poor listening. The worth of interview depends on the experience and skill of the interviewers. research etc. Communicator’s receptivity and frankness is also important. In free interview there is no limit on the area and field of the subject matter to be asked from the interviewee. Some aspects of the interview process has already been described in chapter–2 of class XI textbook. transmission channel. In this the questions are predetermined and same or similar questions are uniformly asked to all the interviewees. personal problems. admission. To develop communication skills requires overcoming the barriers in the communication process. attitudes conflicts and other problems. reducing noise and provision of feedback are important steps to remove the barriers to communication. two persons. it is extremely difficult to turn around the interview. The Question-and-Answer Stage : The question-and-answer stage consumes the greatest part of the interview. A brief description of the stages are given below. even though it may account for only a small fraction of the time you spend in the interview. T/F 5. hand movements etc. hand movements. Language as well as non-verbal cues (gestures.

6. sum up the discussion. You begin by stating your purpose. Determine the need of an interviewee.4 Conducting Interviews Ask three students of your class to volunteer as interviewers. 2) to motivate the interviewee to respond honestly and appropriately. 7. analysing the other person and formulating your own ideas. Decide on the purpose and goals of the interview. Close the interview on an appreciative note. While answering one must not limit to only yes or no answers. The Close : Like the opening. Interview sometimes involves several interviewers. to create a goodwill. Be sure to thank the interviewer for the opportunity. Planning the Interview : Planning an interview is like planning any other kind of communication. 2. restate the interview’s key ideas. but do not rush. Choose a structured or unstructured approach. both interviewers and interviewees. you need to evaluate how well you have done and correct any misconceptions the interviewer might have. Take notes or use tape recorder. Be on time for the interview. When you plan to conduct the interview. the end of the interview is also important. bear in mind that you have to ask questions 1) to get information. or to persuade a person a take a action. Inform the interviewee of the nature of the interview and agenda to be covered. While planning the interview following things should be kept in mind. Interview as you know is a planned conversation with a predetermined purpose that involves asking and answering questions. 9. Conducting the Interview : Some General Considerations The speaking and listening skills serve a person throughout his or her career. and develop a plan for accomplishing the goals. Outline your interview based on your goals and the interview category. At the end. One must take a pause and think before responding to questions. 6. 5. with thanks to the interviewee for his/her time. Feedback may be provided by the class members and the teacher. but more often two people participate. You can generally tell when the interviewer is trying to conclude the session by watching for verbal and non-verbal cues. perhaps to obtain or provide information. 4. Follow the stated agenda but be willing to explore the subtopic if some thing comes up. Formulate questions as clearly as possible. ACTIVITY 11. In a typical interview the interviewer controls the action. 2. 4. interest and cooperation. to solve a problem. Give 4-5 days for preparation to the students. both sides have a chance of achieving the objective. 1. and plot their order according to your purpose and the interviewee’s needs. Choose a topic on which about 10-15 students will be interviewed. Project the outcome of the interview. If the participant establishes rapport and sticks to the subject at hand. You need to keep following points in mind.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 235 phase interviewer asks questions for which the interviewee is expected to provide the answer. The rest of the class can act as observers. Select a time and site. The interviewer may ask you if you have any question. The purpose of interview and the nature of interviewees determine the types of question that are asked. and gather necessary background information. 1. Although the interviewer guides the conversation. 5. . Maintain a level of formality. the interviewee may also seek to accomplish a purpose. 7. or indicate with gesture that interview is over. 3. When you get this signal. Remind the interviewee of the purpose and the format. Let each interviewer conduct interview in the class. In the last few minutes. respond promptly. and 3) to create good working relationship with the other person. Use ears and eyes to pick up verbal and non-verbal cues. 3. 8.

Some of the initiatives taken by SSNI are: l developing a model for community based rehabilitation of children and young adults suffering from any disability. The training courses of SSNI respond to the needs of cerebral palsied. The courses are structured in a manner. MENTALLY AND SOCIALLY CHALLENGED Cooperation and collaboration of health personnel. BOX 11. after they have learnt how to do a particular activity or job. Interview questions should be the kind that would motivate the interviewee to respond appropriately. l campaigning through print. in case of disabled persons they are disturbed or hampered to varying degrees. It is a process of face-to-face communication and interaction between. employees and other agencies is indispensable for the rehabilitative work. therefore. motivating the disabled and attracting workers to the field of rehabilitation. equalisation of opportunities and social integration of people with disabilities.3 LEARNING CHECKS V 1. T/F 2. mental and social. any programme aiming at rehabilitation of the disabled should focus on reintegration of the person to active community life. tolerant. vocational and social services. Everybody is engaged in different kinds of activities. activities which prepare the disabled to take their place in the community. l disabled people should be allowed to work independently. It is. You have already read about rehabilitation of mentally ill earlier in Chapter – VII of this textbook. family members. and train families and rural workers to become their partners in rehabilitating the disabled people. community leaders. nondirective interview or structured interview. l persons involved in managing the disabled should to be caring. Establishing rapport is the first step towards conducting the interview. Verbal and non-verbal cues can provide indication about the closure of the interview. It is implemented through the combined efforts of disabled people themselves. and are also suitable for rehabilitating other kinds of handicapped people. education. constant reinforcement and encouragement should be given. Interview can take various forms such as free interview. their families and communities. l providing holistic job through vocational rehabilitation (e. l the disabled be respected as an individual. However. l choice should to be given to the disabled in selection of the activity or task. T/F 4. two persons. Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is a service delivery model for rehabilitation. Rehabilitation means rebuilding of physical. physical and recreational activities makes such a person more dependent on the family members and community. l the disabled persons should be shifted to work areas in the community to help them lead independent lives in the society. and become a productive member of the community. l proper supervision. Inability to take part in social. T/F 3. so that the students are specially trained to work in rural areas. the questionand-answer session and the close. atleast.236 Introduction to Psychology Recapitulation Interviewing is an technique to elicit information. sheltered employment and placement in open employment) to the disabled through its ‘Viswakarma Work Training Centre”. motivate families and rural communities. Successful planning for organising rehabilitation services for the disabled require that the following points be kept in view.g. l understanding of the potentialities and capabilities of the disabled before involving in any rehabilitative activity. Interviewing cannot help much to elicit personal information about the interviewee. . Spastics Society of Northern India (SSNI) since 1979 is actively involved in designing and developing a model of rehabilitation services and training courses to meet the needs of the handicaped people. and devoted to work. social and recreational activities.self-employment. home based employment. In sum. It is not necessary for the interviewee to have a good start in the interview. television and other media to initiate social action. important to take certain steps to facilitate the functioning of the disabled in his/her personal. The three stages through which an interview proceeds are : the warm up. and the health. T/F ORGANISING REHABILITATION SERVICE FOR PHYSICALLY.

Communication.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 237 BOX 11. As you must have gathered the psychological applications in all the areas demand effective mutual understanding between two human beings. This is possible with training in regulating and monitoring one’s conduct mindfully. counseling. Objective. the counselor says something that gives indication to the client that his or her meanings and feelings have been understood. and understanding it becomes possible to develop this capacity to experience how one would feel and think in other’s place. A psychologist. You must have experienced in the course of your personal lives that even a simple act like talking with someone depends on how you conduct yourself. In many professional situations a psychologist has to act as a facilitator or helper. empathy. Self Discipline : Human interactions involve dynamic social interchanges. has to exercise a great deal of control over impulses. Primary empathy is most often communicated through verbal response. counseling. Empathy involves two major skills i.. expressions. Experience near-understanding of the client’s world : It involves understanding what it is like to have the problems the client has or to live in the life situation the client lives in. objective. Thus. Case Study. Empathy occurs at different levels. in which the counselor adds the perceptions that were implied but not directly stated by the client. Through empathy one makes an effort to understand or know another person’s internal mental state including thoughts and feelings. Counselors. Without going into the details it may be mentioned that empathy has three main features as given below : Empathic rapport : It involves tolerant acceptance by the counselor of the client’s feelings and frame of reference. In most of the situations a psychologist has to necessarily interact with another person but he or she has to constantly remember that the role-demands are of a different kind. Using the available knowledge. and feelings. and what he or she is experiencing. counseling interview. Rapport. The psychologist has to assume the role of an impartial. primary empathy is the level that is usually Key Terms Skills. imagination. Advanced empathy is communicated through verbal responses. behaviours. Thus. In all these contexts enacting the role of a psychologist will be possible only if the psychologist has a fair amount of self-control. and sensitive observer. Perceiving involves an intense process of actively listening to the client for themes. facial expressions and other nonverbal responses. Client. Unconditional positive regard. Empathy and self-discipline constitute two key skills that are required in a variety of psychological applications. and emotions. Let us try to examine these concepts in some detail. Effectively communicated empathy has a number of desired effects on the efficacy of counseling. empathy enables one person to feel as another person feels. In the communication component of empathy. issues. It can be facilitated or hindered by mere change in the tone of voice. Empathy is found very important in the development of counseling skills. Empathy : It is the ability to understand another person’s experience as if it is one’s own experience. communication. Communicative attunement : By putting himself or herself in the shoes of a client the counselor tries to capture what the client is trying to consciously communicate at the moment. therefore. gestures.4 EMPATHY AND SELF DISCIPLINE facilitative in the initial disclosure stage of counseling while advanced level of empathy is often more appropriate at the in-depth exploration stage. personal constructs. While engaging in empathy one enters the experiential /subjective world of the other person.e. It is projecting oneself into another’s situation. The development of empathy and self-discipline provide the necessary foundation for such an understanding. . Informed consent. perceiving and communicating. and postures. Empathy.

2. 4. 3. Developing the skills of psychological testing is important since tests are important tools used for the assessment of individuals for various purposes. Creating a proper message. 4. 3. 4. 5. methods and theories has a profound impact on the expertise of psychologists. 6. Counseling proceeds through three progressive stages : initial disclosure. F. 4. Language is important for communication. T. scientific temper. professional and scientific responsibility. F. T. F. 3. F. T. 5. F. 2. T. Knowledge of the contents of psychology. openness to ideas and ability to observe. Review Questions 1. skills. F. Interviewing is a process of face-to-face communication. What What What What What What What What are the qualities that make an effective psychologist? is counseling ? State the major elements of counseling? are the stages of counseling? are the characteristics of an effective Counselor? are the main components of test administration? steps need to be taken to become an effective communicator? planning is required to conduct an interview? are the stages through which an interview proceeds? ANSWERS I II : : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. T III : IV : V : . F 1. respect for people’s right and dignity. 4. F 1. F. T. postures. Speaking and listening are central to interpersonal communication. concern for others welfare. In order to become a successful psychologist one needs to have certain characteristics such as : competence. 4. Communication is a process that helps in transmitting meaning from one person to another. 7. 3. interpretation and scoring of tests. 6. T. 3. T.238 Introduction to Psychology SUMMARY l l l l l l l l l To become an effective psychologist both as a researcher as well as practitioner requires professional training. Its use should be done according to the characteristics of audience. It proceeds through the stages : the warm up. F 1. 2. 5. T 1. 2. Proper training is required for administration. 5. hand movements are also used to communication ideas. Qualities of a good psychologist are : competence. 5. Knowledge of tools. Non-verbal cues such as gestures. 3. the question-and-answer and the close stage. T. and commitment to action. integrity. respect for peoples right and dignity. interpersonal sensitivity. 8. T. motivation and values play an important role in becoming an effective psychologist. in-depth explorations. T. tackling environmental noise and providing feedback are ways to reduce distortions and making effective communication. 2. T. concern for others welfare and social responsibility. responsibility. 2. F. T.

For each area there are 30 items (total 330 items). It may also be used as timed test. classification. Rao. Joshi) This is a verbal test of intelligence which aims at measuring the general mental ability . Draw–a–Man–Test (Author: Pramila Phatak) The test measures intelligence through children’s drawings of a human figure. 20 minutes). 1433A. Kacheri Ghat. The test is available with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. Ramalingaswamy. Raven) This test assesses a person’s intellectual development. The problem figures progressively become difficult. 4/230. 19/60-B. Children are asked to draw a full human figure. It takes 20 minutes to complete the test. 15 to 20 minutes) b) Pre-Adolescent Dependency Scale (PADS) (10 items. & E) of 12 problems each.. 1. It may be noted that these tests are only suggestive . & B. best-answers. It contains 100 items of seven different types: synonyms. P. All children are equally acquainted with the human form and human body parts and there are equal opportunities to get experiences with it. All the items are statements in simple and easy to understand language. The test can be administered to a single child at a time or to a group of children.C. is used for gathering information about the problems of adolescents (high school students) and helps them in expressing their personal problems.C. 2. I NTELLIGENCE Standard Progressive Matrices (Author: J. number series. dependency Some tests have been described here for the assessment of different aspects of pupil’s behaviour.e. Test of General Mental Ability (Author: M. The test is available with M/s National Psychological Corporation.K. 10 to 15 minutes) c) Pre-Adolescent Class Trust Scale (PACTS) (8 situations.C.PRACTICALS IN PSYCHOLOGY in a limited time period (i. The test is available with M/s Anand Agencies. The Battery of Pre-Adolescent Personality Test (Authors : Udai Pareek. Sharma) The battery consists of the following tests: a) Pre-Adolescent Adjustment Scale (PAAS) (40 items. Pune-411002. and analogies. Shukrawar. available in Hindi. T. Joshi & Jagdish Pandey) The test. It is a test of a person’s capacity. D. and by doing so develop a systematic method of reasoning. It covers eleven areas related to adolescent problems. B. antonyms. two forms. The test can be used individually or in a group. to apprehend meaningless figures presented for his observation. 20 to 40 minutes) e) Pre-Adolescent Activity Level Scale (PAALS) f) Pre-Adolescent Level of Aspiration Test (PALAT) (20 minutes) The battery can be used for studying the patterns of adjustment (PAAS). Scoring is based on the weightage points assigned for major body parts and their proportions. Deoriabir. Agra – 4. conceive the nature of the figure by completing each sub-sets of relations presented. reasoning. at the time of testing. It is suggested that those tests should also be consulted before finally selecting a test. Varanasi – 221010. Bhelupura. The test consists of 60 problems divided into five sets (A. There is no time limit but the test usually takes about 10 to 15 minutes.V. The test can be administered to group of students from grades 8 to 12. P ERSONALITY Problem Check List (Authors : M. 20 to 35 minutes) d) Pre-Adolescent Initiative Questionnaire (PAIQ) (6 situations. A number of other tests are also available. see the relations between them. C.

Suspicious Factor M : Practical vs.S. The completion of each test requires separate time periods. Happy-go-lucky Factor G : Expedient vs. Imaginative Factor N : Forthright vs. A and B.M. New Delhi – 110092. The inventory is available with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. Deoriabir. A PTITUDE Differential Aptitude Tests for Higher Secondary Schools (Author: J. and success and failure orientations (PALAT). The inventory is self-administered and has no fixed time limit. 4. Varanasi – 221001. Verbal Reasoning. people take 30 minutes to complete the test. and general adult literate population. The battery is available with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. Language Usage-spelling. Saket. the process is reversed in the second form. Sakarpur. Selfsufficient Factor Q3 : Undisciplined Self-conflict vs. Bhelupura. Subjects can choose their response from three alternative answers for each item. Varanasi – 221001. It presents a profile of an individual’s abilities. Main Vikas Marg. Bhelupura. S-524. 3. The students may use either of the tests depending upon the purpose of the study. Conscientious Factor H : Shy vs. Cattell & H. The test can be administered to high school/college students. Outgoing Factor B : Less Intelligent vs. Venturesome Factor I : Tough-minded vs. Tenderminded Factor L : Trusting vs. and level of aspiration. The test is available in Hindi and English and can be obtained from M/s The Psycho Centre. Generally. H Block. relative to his own and to a specific group. It is available in two forms. it attempts to segregate the poorly-adjusted from those who are better adjusted. New Delhi – 110017. B 19/60-B. Apprehensive Factor Q1 : Conservative vs.B. G-19. First Floor. Rosenzweig Picture–Frustration Study (Children’s Form)–Indian Adaptation (Authors: Udai Pareek & Saul Rosenzweig) . Controlled Factor Q4 : Relaxed vs. Ojha) The Differential Aptitude Test Battery is in Hindi. There are 40 items in the second form. Space Relation. Eber). B. activity (PAALS). A DJUSTMENT Adjustment Inventory (Author: H. Tense There are 10 to 13 items for each factor in the test. The first form contains 42 items of yes/ no type. 19/60 – B. Available in Hindi. The 16 PF is an objectively-scorable test devised to give the most complete coverage of personality possible in a brief time. While. Emotionally Stable Factor E : Humble vs. It measures one’s personality in 16 areas (called factors): Factor A : Reserved vs. Numerical Ability. Clerical Speed and Accuracy. Asthana) The Adjustment Inventory has been devised to serve as a quick screening device for use with students between ages 14 and above. initiative (PAIQ). Scores on all the tests together yield an index of mental health. The battery consists of 8 tests: Abstract Reasoning. Assertive Factor F : Sober vs. The inventory is in two forms.W. Shrewd Factor O : Placid vs. Mechanical Reasoning. and Language usage-grammar. The time limit varies from 3 minutes to 35 minutes for different tasks in the battery. Experimenting Factor Q2 : Group-dependent vs. Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (“The 16 PF”) (Author: R. Deoriabir. Agarwal Complex. in the first form ‘yes’ answers are given 1 score and ‘no’ answers as 0. The test can be obtained from M/s Manasayan. classroom trust (PACTS).264 Introduction to Psychology (PADS). More Intelligent Factor C : Affected by Feelings vs. School Block.

It also gives a total score on self-concept. Educational. The testee has to respond to fiftyone statements by marking one out of the five alternative responses – Strongly agree. and (10) purely psychological manifestations. S-524. The subject is required to say or write what the other person would say in that situation. Ahluwalia) This inventory has 90 items and is based on Likert scale. School Block. The study is available with M/s Manasayan. There is no time limit but it takes about 30 minutes to respond to all the items The scale is available with Agra Psychological Research Cell. It contains 22 statements indicating different degrees of favourableness and unfavourableness towards NCC training and its activities. Undecided. 7. It contains 24 cartoon – like drawings representing frustrating situations. Belanganj. war. (9) physical and physiological manifestations. and Strongly disagree. individually or in groups. The test consists of 100 true/false type items. Agree. . A TTITUDE 6. and virtue. the test measures self-concept of adolescents. It can be administered to children of 4 through 13 years of age. (8) guilt and shame. SELF -C ONCEPT Self-Concept Questionnaire (Author: R.A Self-Analysis Form (Anxiety Scale) (Author: Durganand Sinha) The test has been designed to elicit selfratings on items descriptive of anxiety reaction to the following areas: (1) health. and injury. Self-concept Scale (Author: Mukta Rani Rastogi) The self concept scale is in English language. Tiwari Kothi. 5. which can be administered individually or in a group. It takes 20 minutes to complete the test. Belanganj. Each sub-scale has 15 statements pertaining to professional attitudes of prospective and practising teachers. Saraswat) Available in English. First Floor.A. It is a 48-item inventory to measure six separate dimensions of self-concept : Physical.P. Agra-4. Agra 282004. The test is available with M/s Psychological Corporation. One character in the drawing is shown saying something that causes frustration to the other person depicted in the picture. and Temperamental. Intellectual. The scale is available with M/s Agra Psychological Research Cell.K. Disagree. 4/230 Kacheri Ghat. (7) worries about civilization. (4) anxieties regarding friendship and love. It is a self-administered scale. Each item is provided with five alternatives. The TAI is bilingual (English and Hindi) and is available with M/s National Psychological Corporation. Moral. Main Vikas Marg. (3) family anxieties. Checking of time response indicates the Measurement of Attitude towards NCC Activities (Author: B. Social. Delhi – 110092. Sakarpur.Practicals in Psychology 265 It is a controlled projective technique. The six aspects dealt in the inventory are : Teaching Profession Classroom Teaching Child-centred practices Educational Process Pupils Teachers The subjects can choose their response for each item from the 5 alternatives ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The scale is self-administered and requires about 10 minutes to take the test. 4/230. (2) area of ambition (success or failure in work. (5) social relations and social approval. primarily intended to measure reactions to frustrating situations. money. Agra-4. Tiwari Kothi. Agarwal Complex.Parikh) This scale measures student’s attitude towards NCC training. appearance. and occupation). Teacher Attitude Inventory (TAI) (Author: S. (6) worries regarding the future. A NXIETY Sinha W . in about 20 minutes. Kacheri Ghat. Agra – 282004.

any disability/illness (in the past and present). actual conduct of test administration. fears.).). etc. etc. worry. The test can be administered to persons from 19 to 24 years of age. Identification Data Name (may be fictitious) Diagnosed Problem Voluntary or Referral (By whom referred such as teacher. Method Subject Name Age Sex Material Brief description of the test (name of the test. etc. its incidence. The administration time for the entire test is approximately 20 minutes. It is suggested that case be developed in a narrative format along the following points: Introduction A brief introduction of about one or two pages presenting the nature of the problem. Varanasi – 221001. sleeplessness.266 Introduction to Psychology anxiety of subjects.) Assessment of Data Compilation of data collected by use of tests and other techniques (e. number of members in the family. e.) Procedure Process of test administration. school attended. parent. with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. author. year. brothers. A half page (brief) summary of the case. screen. mannerisms. The test is available in Hindi and English. Describing subject’s scores in terms of norms and drawing conclusions.g.. etc.) and symptoms (what the subject reports. Introduction l l l l l l l l l Basic Concepts Problem and Variables Objectives of the Study FORMAT FOR PREPARING A CASE PROFILE A format for case presentation covering following broad aspects is given here.g. psychometric properties. adjustment in the family. l Information about physical health. 19/60-B. Title of the Study (e. sisters (birth order). Deoriabir. etc. etc. etc. l l l l l l 4.g. physical characteristics (height and weight). such as rapport formation. Results and Conclusions 5. and likely causes and possible counselling outcomes. signs and symptoms) Interpretation of data Evaluation/Comments 3.) Other materials (e. stop watch. attitude towards counselling (indicating the motivation to seek help etc. Bhelupur. tension. sibling. instructions.. gender. Scoring of the test Preparation of graph. l Information about Socio-Economic Status (SES) consisting of information about mother/father’s education and occupation and family income. and materials consulted on the topic .g. house type. Recommendations l For the testee/organization 6. FORMAT FOR WRITING A PRACTICAL REPORT (Psychological Testing) 1. class (grade) presently enrolled in. psychogram. etc. Precautions. References l List the books manual. l Recording signs (what is observed in terms of facial – expressions. To study the level of intelligence of Class X students) 2. l Any professional help taken (past and present) giving a brief history of the problem. Case History l A paragraph giving age.

if it were produced by human beings. and physiological arousal. Alienation : Lack or loss of relationships to others. and social withdrawal. apprehension. a single trait that dominates an individual’s entire personality. Aversion therapy : A therapeutic technique that attempts to reduce the frequency of deviant behaviour by pairing an aversive stimulus (e. perceptual. Humans are viewed as purposive and striving toward selfactualisation. Aptitude Tests : Tests designed to measure the ability to acquire new information. Attribution: The process through which we seek to identify the causes behind others’ behaviour. Bystander Effect : The finding that as the number of bystanders increases. contative. Behaviour therapy : Therapy based on the principles of behaviouristic learning theories in order to change the maladaptive behaviour. managerial) to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed. Attitude object : The target of an attitude. Avoidance behaviour : Behaviour that avoids anxiety-producing objects or situations. Archetypes : Jung’s term for the contents of the collective unconscious-images or symbols expressing the inherited patterns for the organisation of experience . Aptitude : One’s special ability or abilities like music. apprehension. Artificial Intelligence : A branch of science that studies the capacity of computers to demonstrate performance that. place. According to Allport. defective reality testing. which occurs during the child’s second year. goods and services. Anorexia nervosa : Disorder involving severe loss of body weight. drug abuse or other causes.GLOSSARY Adaptation : Structural or functional change that enhances the organism’s survival value. Pleasure is focused on the anus and on retention and expulsion of feces. including deficits in language. at the time they occur. Biofeedback : Use of equipment to provide immediate feedback about the activities of the autonomic and somatic systems. these are five or ten traits that best describe an individual’s personality. Authority : The rights inherent in a position (e. Causal attribution : The way people attribute causes to behaviour. Affect : Relatively mild feelings and moods. event. or fear. Anxiety disorders : Disorders in which anxiety is a central symptom. the likelihood of any one bystander offering help decreases and more time passes before help does occur. For example. Centralisation : The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point. Aggression : Behaviour directed toward intentionally injuring another person who wishes to avoid such treatment. Cardinal trait : According to Allport. used primarily to predict future performance. and affective components. accompanied by an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming “fat. Amnesia : Total or partial loss of memory stemming from illness. It has cognitive. idea or situation. Analytical Psychology : Carl Jung’s theory of personality. and motor development.g. The disorder is characterised by feelings of vulnerability.” Anxiety : A state of psychic distress characterised by fear. . thing. Attitude : A disposition to respond favourably or unfavourably toward a person. Central traits : Allport’s term for trait that is less important and pervasive than a cardinal trait. would be described as showing intelligence. electric shock) with undesired behaviour. painting etc. Autism : Pervasive developmental disorder beginning in infancy involving a wide range of abnormalities. Client-centered (Rogerian) therapy : Approach to therapy developed by Carl Rogers. giving information about heart rate or brainwaves to the person in whom they occur. The unconscious includes a collective as well as a personal unconscious.g. Advertisement : A way of providing information in a popular way to the target population about product. Anal Stage : The second of Freud’s psychosexual stages. injury.

language.268 Introduction to Psychology Emphasises a nonevaluative. Depersonalisation disorder : Dissociative disorder in which there is a loss of the sense of self. projection. Depression : A mood disorder in which individual experiences extreme unhappiness. Collective unconscious : Inherited portion of the unconscious. Counseling : A broad name for a wide variety of procedures for helping individuals achieve adjustment. median. Cognitive therapies : Forms of therapy focussed on changing distorted and maladaptive patterns of thought. or ethnic groups. accepts direct requests from one or more others.g. Community Mental Health Centers : Facilities for the delivery of mental health services located in communities where clients live. lead people to feel depressed. and several related symptoms. and mode) Diathesis-stress model : A view that the interaction of factors such as biological predesposition combined with life stress may cause a specific disorder. and ideas. and other higher mental processes. and vocational assistance. Consumer : An individual or group of people involved in acquisition. Client-centered therapy : The therapeutic approach developed by Carl Rogers in which therapist helps clients to clarify their true feelings and come to value who they are. reaction formation. rationalisation. Crowding : A psychological feeling of too little space. and ideas. and one’s view of the future. (e. accepting atmosphere conducive to honesty and concentrates on present relationships and feelings. encompassing one’s view of one’s experiences. Compliance : A form of social influence in which one or more persons. and disposition of goods. that theorist Aaron Beck says. as in repression. consumption and disposition of goods. etc. ways in which the ego unconsciously tries to cope with unacceptable id impulses. Counseling interview : An interview whose purpose is counseling or providing guidance in the area of personality. Diffusion of Responsibility : Decrease in individual sense of responsibility for taking . Cognitive triad : The three forms of negative thinking. Conformity : A type of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behaviour in order to adhere to existing social norms. lack of energy. Consistency : The extent to which an individual responds to a given stimulus or situation in the same way on different occasions. mean. Controlling : Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations. Consumer psychology : A sub-field of psychology that studies the psychological processes underlying the acquisition. Descriptive statistics : Statistical methods used to summarize a vast amount of data in forms that are brief and easy to understand. services. Delusions : Irrational beliefs that are held despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. therapeutic discussion. cultures.. perception of crampedness Culture-fair test : A test relatively free from invalidating biases caused by questions favourable or unfavourable to certain social classes. such as the giving of advice. Correlation : The degree to which events or characteristics vary in relation to each other. the administration and interpretation of tests. The unconscious shared by all human beings. Contact Hypothesis : The suggestion that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice between them. vocational choice. The mental activities associated with thought. sublimation. Clinical psychology : A sub-field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnostic and treatment of mental and behavioural disorders. as postulated by Carl Jung. one’s view of oneself. decision making. Compulsions : A repetitive behaviour a person feels compelled to engage in despite the fact that it is senseless. Defense mechanisms : According to Freud. Cognition : The process of knowing . consumption. Correlation coefficient : A numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two or more variables . Decision Making : The processes through which individuals or groups combine and integrate available information in order to choose one out of several possible courses of action. Cohesiveness : All forces (factors) that cause group members to remain in the group. not holding authority. services.

Formalisation : The degree to which jobs within the organisation are standardised F r e e a s s o c i a t i o n : A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes verbally any thought. Division of labour : Distribution of task and activities according to the roles and abilities of the individuals in a given area in the organisation.. Gestalt therapy : A humanistic therapy in which therapists focus on helping individuals to acknowledge hidden aspects of their thoughts and feelings. feelings. Equity theory : Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. Great Person Theory of Leadership : A theory suggesting that all great leaders share certain traits that set them apart from most human beings. or any aspect of. physical and social set-up that surround and affect an individual organism. used in the development of tests designed to discover basic personality traits. Environmental Psychology : The branch of psychology that concentrates on the interaction between the physical world and human behaviour. A biological treatment for unipolar depression in which electrodes attached to a patient’s head send an electric current through the brain. Engineering psychology : A sub-field of psychology that focuses on the interrelationship between humans and machines. Forced Compliance : A situation in which we feel compelled to say or do things inconsistent with our true attitudes. Ecology : That branch of biology which deals with the relations of organisms to their environment. during which the organism makes efforts to cope. Factor analysis : Mathematical procedure. and behaviour operate independently from others.g. or image that comes to mind. involuntary discharge of urine after the age of expected continence (age five). a key concept in psychoanalytic theory. causing a convulsion. It identifies items that are homogeneous or internally consistent and independent of others. involving correlations. and (3) Exhaustion. Empathy : Experiencing other’s emotional condition as one’s own. Emotional Intelligence (EQ) : A cluster of traits or abilities relating to the emotional side of life – abilities such as recognising and managing one’s own emotions. being able to motivate oneself and restrain one’s impulses. the less likely each individual is to act. for sorting trait terms or test responses into clusters or factors. characterised by extended periods.Glossary 269 action in an emergency because of the presence of other bystanders. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) : A three step profile of response to stress : (1) Alarm. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) : Commonly called “shock treatment”. Distinctiveness : The extent to which an individual responds in the same manner to different stimuli or different situations. Exorcism : Religiously inspired treatment procedure designed to drive out evil spirits or forces from a “possessed” person. standard deviation) Displacement : Redirecting an impulse toward a less threatening or safer target. Dissociation : A split in consciousness whereby certain thoughts. a defence mechanism. Discrimination : Negative behaviours directed towards people who are the object of prejudice. Extravert : One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed outwards to nature and other people rather than inwards to the thoughts and feelings of self (introvert). (2) Resistance. a non-specific mobilisation phase that promotes sympathetic nervous system activity. Enuresis : Bed wetting. Dispersion : The extent to which scores in a distribution spread out or vary around the center point. the greater the number of bystanders. A moderately severe mood disorder. Dyad : A social group consisting of two persons. and handling interpersonal relationships in an effective manner. . It is effective in the treatment of cases of several depression that fail to respond to drug therapy. feeling. (e. Global Warming : The probable increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere and its oceans brought about partly as a result of various human activities. Dysthymia : A chronic form of depression that last for years at a time. Environment : Totality of. even if it seems unimportant. recognising and managing others’ emotions. which occurs if the organism fails to overcome the threat and depletes the coping resources.

It is an abnormal phenomenon. The group with which one identifies. profitability and growth of the organisation. Intelligence : Psychologists have found it difficult to precisely define intelligence. Intelligence quotient (IQ) : An index of child’s mental development computed by dividing a child’s mental age MA by the child’s chronological age. turning the earth into a vast “greenhouse”. (instinctual). rather than outwards (extravert) Job analysis : An evaluation of activities and tasks that must be performed on a job and the knowledge. It ensures that individual’s potentials are utilised to get higher level of productivity. The id is conceived as the true unconscious. Impulse : An act performed without delay. (CA) and multiplying by 100 ( to eliminate the decimal point). The other groups are outgroups. Group : Two or more persons who interact with one another. voluntary direction. judgement and adaptability as the mental processes . the impulsive and unconscious part of the psyche that operates through the pleasure principle toward the gratification of instinctual drives. Group test : A test designed to be administered to more than one individual at the same time. or the deepest part of the psyche. Industrial/organisational psychology : A subfield of psychology that focuses on relationship between people and work. Intellectualisation : The tendency to deal with emotional conflicts in a detached. The Binet and Wechsler intelligence tests are examples of individual tests. the period between the phallic stage and the mature genital stage IQ = . methane. The analysis of a problem in purely intellectual terms and feelings and emotions are ignored. (2) The ability to utilise abstract concepts effectively. and controlled manner. and consider themselves as members of group . There are many definitions of intelligence. Hypochondriasis : A psychological disorder in which the individual is dominated by preoccupation with bodily processes and fear of presumed diseases despite reassurance from doctors that no physical illness exists. Insight therapy : A group of treatment methods that focuses on developing a client’s selfunderstanding (insight). have shared goals. which includes industrial and all other organisations. and chlorofluorocarbon or CFC) trap the sun’s heat. insight. skills and abilities that is necessary to perform them. reflection. Hassles : Annoying minor events of every day life that cumulatively can affect psychological well-being Homeostasis : A state of physiological balance within the body. MA × 100 CA Intelligence test : Test used for establishing a subject’s level of intellectual capability. Human resource development : It deals with the conditions that enable people to get the best out of them. Humanistic psychology : An approach to understanding personality that emphasises self-fulfillment and growth as the prime motivators of behaviour. at a time typically by a specially trained person. an act determined by the id.270 Introduction to Psychology Greenhouse Effect : The basis of global warming: gases released into the atmosphere (carbon dioxide. Hallucination : A false perception which has a compulsive sense of the reality of objects although relevant and adequate stimuli for such perception is lacking. In psychoanalytic terms. All these three aspects of intelligence include reasoning. Introvert : One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed inwards. intellectual. however. imagination. (3) The ability to grasp relationships and learn quickly. Id : According to Freud. in contrast to individual test. Individual test : A test that must be given to a single individual. Group therapy: A therapeutic approach in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist and discuss the problems or concerns of one or more of the members. are interdependent. Latency Period : In Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages. Implosive therapy : A treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly to the feared object and made to see that such exposure is harmless. some of the aspects of intelligence could be abstracted as: (1) The ability to meet and adapt to novel situations quickly and effectively. Ingroup : The social group to which an individual perceives herself or himself as belonging (“us”). In the contemporary context the emphasis has shifted from industrial psychology to organisational psychology.

and direct of the conduct of others. Obedience : Behaviour which is characterised by conformity with commands given by person in authority. Leadership : The process through which one member of a groups (its leader) influences other group members toward attainment of shared goal. (d) partial impairment of personality. the overall pattern of decisions and behaviours that determine health and quality of life. Maladaptive (abnormal) behaviour : The inability of the individual to develop patterns of behaviour necessary for success in his environment. the term mentally challenged is generally used. It includes the exercise of authority to control. an exaggerated sense of self-importance. distrust. Lifestyle : In the context of health psychology. or images that a person experiences.Glossary 271 (period from age 4 or 5 to about 12) during which interest in sex is sublimated. Most scores are found near the middle. Obsessions : Recurrent and persistent thoughts. the presence of phobias. Neurosis : A mental disorder milder than psychosis. including depression and bipolar disorder. with tendency for most members of a population to cluster around a central point with respect to a given trait. Normative influence : Influence groups exert because members are afraid of the consequences of violating the group’s expectations. with the rest spreading out to the two extremes. (c) anxiety. emotion. Mood : A mild. Mode : The most frequent score in a distribution . Phallic stage : Third of Freud’s psychosexual stages (at about age five ) when pleasure is focused on the genitals and both males and females experience the “Oedipus complex”. Personal space : The small area around an individual considered to belong to him and whose invasion is experienced as threatening or unpleasant. Paranoid personality disorder : Personality disorder characterized by pervasive suspiciousness. Likert Scale : A type of attitude scale on which the subject is asked to indicate his degree of agreement or disagreement with stated attitudes on a five point scale. characterised by : (a) incomplete insight into the nature of the difficulty. composed of two or more people. Now. Mental age (MA) : Level of mental development expressed in units of chronological age for which the mental age is judged normal. Panic: A sudden overpowering fear. . the task requiring overt motor responses other than verbal. It is a function of person (p) and environment (E). and preoccupation with being admired. Modeling : A process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others. (b) conflicts. Performance test : A test in which the role of language is minimised. often irrational in nature which may be accompanied by a compulsion to carry out an act. Minority influence : Influence exhibited by a minority on the majority of a group. Life space : According to Lewin. Normal Distribution Curve : A symmetrical. Median: The number that falls in the exact middle of a distribution of scores arranged from highest to lowest. A measure of central tendency. Noise : An unwanted sound. Personality : The dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought. Another measure of central tendency. varying from strongly agree to strongly disagree. jealousy and stubborn behaviour. Meditation : A technique of turning one’s concentration inward and achieving an altered state of consciousness. Normal distribution : A frequency distribution showing a normal curve. and fewer and fewer occur toward the extremes. that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. envy. Mental retardation : A general term meaning any degree of mental deficiency. guide. Organisation A consciously coordinated social unit. Mean : The arithmetic average of a set of scores. impulses. Many psychological characteristics are distributed in this manner. It is also a measure of central tendency. Narcissistic personality disorder : Personality disorder characterised by grandiosity. In Freud’s treatment libido was quite simply a direct or indirect sexual expression. Libido : Freud introduced this term. one that brings about a negative affective response. life space (LS) is the totality of all possible events that influence the individual. bell-shaped frequency distribution. (e) often. Mood disorder : Disorder affecting one’s emotional state. usually transitory.

Proximity : The principle of gestalt psychology that stimuli close together tend to be perceived as a group. Reference group : A group to which a particular person compares himself or herself. emotional blunting and distortion. the expectation that one can successfully conduct the action required. withdrawal from reality. in which with the help of correlation prediction is made. or attitudes. and which sometimes could be a risk for the prosocial person. . Schizophrenia : A group of psychotic reactions characterised by the breakdown of integrated personality functioning. Random sampling : A technique of sampling in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. the process of unwittingly attributing one’s own traits. Rationalisation : A defense mechanism that occurs when one attempts to explain failure or short comings by attributing them to more acceptable causes. ardour. Sanguine temprament: Describes one of the four temperaments of Hippocrates’ typology. Self-efficacy : Bandura’s term for the individual’s beliefs about his or her own effectiveness. Practical Intelligence : Intelligence useful in solving everyday problems. Rational-emotive therapy (RET) : A therapeutic system developed by Albert Ellis. or drives. Phobia : A strong. Psychotherapy : The use of any psychological technique in the treatment of mental disorder or maladjustment . Planning : A process that includes defining goals. establishing strategy. and developing plans to coordinate activities. The tendency to develop one’s talents and capacities. Repression : A defense mechanism by which people push unacceptable. a very ancient classification of personality characterised by warmth. or beauty. either positive or negative (usually negative) formulated in advance of sufficient evidence and held with emotional tenacity. Resistance : In psycho analysis. and disturbances in thought and behaviour. Role play: A therapeutic technique in which client is instructed to perform role assigned to him by the therapist. and hopefulness or optimism. A measure of dispersion. Prejudice : An attitude. the highest motive of human behaviour. persistent. Recategorisation : Shifts in the boundary between an individual’s ingroup (“us”) and various outgroups (“them”). Regression : A defense mechanism that involves a return to behaviours characteristic of an earlier stage in life. It seeks to replace irrational. Range : The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution of scores. Phlegmatic persons are supposedly calm and listless due to an excess of phlegm. Sample : A selected part which is representative of the whole (population) . The branch of psychology concerned with the investigation of mental disorders and other abnormal phenomena . Psychopathy : A condition involving the features of anti-social personality disorder plus the traits of lack of empathy. Self-actualisation : According to Maslow’s view. The term is also used in statistics. Primary group : Group in which each member is personally known to each of the other member. causing persons formerly viewed as outgroup members now to be seen as belonging to the ingroup. The comparison might be in terms of rewards. and glib and superficial charm. attitudes.272 Introduction to Psychology Phlegmatic : Describes one of the four temperaments of Hippocrates’ typology. inflated self-appraisal. anxietyprovoking thoughts and impulses into the unconscious to avoid confronting them directly. Relaxation training : A procedure in which clients are taught to release all the tension in their bodies . Psychopathology : A systhematic investigation of morbid mental condition. Predisposition : Increased likelihood that a person will develop certain symptoms under given stress or other conditions. problem provoking outlooks with more realistic ones. Prosocial Behaviour : Action that benefit others but have no obvious benefits for the person carrying them out. meet face-to-face Projection : Defense mechanism. attempts by the patient to block treatment. and which the members at least on occasion. the motive to realise oneself fully as a person. and irrational fear of some specific object or situation that presents little or no actual danger to a person. Psychodynamic approach : Approach that strives for explanation of behaviour in terms of motives. or subjective processes to others. and so on.

or threaten to disrupt. interpret.Type A personality. an aspect of some types of self-control training. Self-instruction : Talking to oneself to control one’s behaviour. It helps in making sense of other people and ourselves. Shaping : Teaching a desired response by reinforcing the series of successive steps which lead to learned response. . Territoriality : An arrangement found in some species in which members of the species (typically males) defend an area of land against incursions from males of the same species (or other species that feed on the same resources). Social facilitation : The tendency for people’s performance to improve in the presence of others. Temperament traits : R. Verbal test : Test in which a subject’s ability to understand and use words and concepts is important in making the required responses. or social dilemma) Training : Training is systematic acquisition of skills. and later use social information. e. Standard deviation : A measure of variability or dispersion showing average extent to which all the scores in a particular set vary from each other and the mean. Surface traits : R. Tragedy of the commons : A situation. Factor analysis of the correlations reveals source traits. Social Identity : A person’s definition of who he or she is. in which hospitalized patients earn tokens they can exchange for valued rewards when they behave in ways the hospital staff consider to be desirable. Work Motivation : Motivation to perform and complete various tasks. Social Cognition : The processes through which we notice. Unconscious : In psychoanalytic theory. which are common to all members of the household. remember.Glossary 273 Self-esteem : Refers to the individual’s personal judgement of his or her own worth. in which the most rational response from each individual will not produce the best outcome for a group of people. Syndrome : Group or pattern of symptoms that occur to gather in a disorder and represent the typical picture of the disorder. Unconditional Positive Regard : In Rogers’s theory.B. characterising any activity or mental structure of which a person is not aware. our physical or psychological functioning. Trait : A relatively persistent and consistent behaviour pattern manifested in a wide range of circumstances. Shared environmental influences : The effects of family environment. Stress : The process that occurs in response to events that disrupt. Token Economy : Forms of behavior therapy based on operant conditioning. Somatoform disorders : Conditions involving physical complaints or disabilities occurring in the absence of any identifiable organic cause. Transformational Leaders : Leaders who exert profound effects on their followers and establish special types of relationships with them. includes personal attributes (self-concept) along with membership in various groups. Transference : Strong positive or negative feelings toward the therapist on the part of individual undergoing psycho-analysis. communicating to others that they will be respected or loved regardless of what they say or do. Stereotypes : A preconceived idea of what numbers of a particular group are like.B. one’s attitude toward oneself along a positivenegative dimension. Sublimation : A defense mechanism in which socially unacceptable impulses are expressed in socially acceptable form of behaviour. Self-monitoring : Systematic self-observation and recording of progress in a behaviour change program. Stressors : Events or situations in our environment that cause stress. Cattell’s term for traits that determine emotional reactivity. Systematic desensitisation : A form of behavioural therapy in which phobic client learn to induce a relaxed state and then exposed to stimuli that elicit fear or phobia. Cattell’s term for clusters of observable trait elements (responses) that seem to go together. Statistics : Mathematical procedures used to describe data and draw inferences from sample.g. concepts and attitude that results in improved performance on the job. (Also called n-prisoners’ dilemma. Typology : Ways of categorising individuals into discrete categories or types. rules. Self-Serving Bias : The tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal causes but negative outcomes or events to external causes. like the prisoners’ dilemma. or social trap.

Hove: Laurence Erlbaum. P. Psychology and Life. W. McMahon. (1999). P. Malim.G. Zimbardo. H. Butterworth. Psychology and You. Tata McGraw-Hill. B. (1997). J. Prentice – Hall. A.. H. (1994). (1995). Messer. R. & Miller. The developing child (7th edition). Inc. Addison Wesley Longman. S. H. and Birch. l l l l l l l l l l l . T (1995). M. (1985). (1997). & Harris. Psychology. Psychology : An Introduction. T. West Publishing Company.L. Introductory Psychology. Weiten.. Psychology (Fifth Edition) Allyn & Bacon.W. London: Arnold. Inc Davison. (1998).. F. McMahon. D. Harper Collins Publishers. G. Zimbardo. London: Harper Collins.. Abnormal Psychology. Psychology : Themes & Variations. Psychology – An Introduction. Bee. (1998). Basic Psychology. Gleitman. (2001/Indian reprint 2002). New York: Longman. (1998). Macmillan Press Ltd. John Wiley & sons. (1997). & Palladino. Davis. Exploring developmental psychology: From infancy to adolescence. R.. A. A. C. G. J. F. (1996). Psychology. B. B. & Romano. Inc. Wayne (2001). Principles of developmental psychology. & Weber. G. Lahey.. Inc. S.Norton & Company.SUGGESTED READINGS l l l Baron. W. Wadsworth : Thomson Learning. J. Gerow.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful