Introduction to Psychology

Part II
A TEXTBOOK
.OR

CLASS XII

AUTHORS
GIRISHWAR MISRA K.D. BROOTA AJIT K. DALAL ANAND PRAKASH Y.S. VAGRECHA ASHOK K. SRIVASTAVA ANJUM SIBIA

EDITOR
GIRISHWAR MISRA

.

The content is participatory. interest and their involvement. Chapter Summary would help in revising the main ideas of each chapter.OR THE TEACHERS The total organisation of the text and its contents are intended to be responsive to major developments in the field and show sensitivity to the interests and needs of students. The Glossary given at the end would help to acquaint students with psychology’s technical language which is important in any introductory text. including topics of current interest to students. The aim is to engage students. Activities are experiential in nature which would help to translate concepts in practical and behavioural terms. These descriptions may go beyond the contents of the syllabus. . and the Indian view point. but it should not be imposed on every student. The material presented in BOXES is NOT for evaluation.A NOTE . Review questions in the form of ‘Learning Checks’ are interspersed throughout the chapters to help students check their understanding of each section’s main ideas immediately after finishing the section instead of waiting until the end of the chapter. drawing examples from everyday life. and contain new developments in the field. Students may be encouraged to read the matter presented in boxes. each chapter has ‘Recapitulation’ at the end of each major section. Illustrations and figures are some other aids which would help in transaction of the contents and make the text appealing to the students. newer developments in the field. To help students organise and remember important ideas. Enrichment material given in Boxes have information on higher level concepts.

The content outline at the beginning of each chapter provides an overview of the topics covered in the chapter. These are.OR THE STUDENTS This textbook contains information and learning aids to help you in understanding the contents. The chapter Summary at the end of the chapter provides a summary of the chapter’s main ideas to help you review the materials read in the chapter. The learning outcomes would enable you to know how you would gain after reading the chapter. Some illustrations provide examples of complicated concepts. In preparing this textbook efforts have been made to make the presentation of the contents interesting to read. This would help you know the organisation of the chapter. are interim summaries that would permit you to check your understanding of section’s main ideas immediately after finishing the section. The Glossary given at the end of the textbook should assist you in this learning process. however supplementary reading materials which are not for evaluation. Learning Checks interspersed throughout the chapter are self check exercises. Experiential exercises are given under activities which are for self growth. tables and figures will also help you understand the material discussed in the text. challenging to think and easy to learn. Recapitulation given at the end of major sections. Enrichment materials presented in the BOXES throughout the chapter are to acquaint you with newer developments in the field.A NOTE . Key Terms are important vocabulary terms and are listed at the end of the chapter. .

CONTENTS A Note for the Teachers A Note for the Students Chapter 1 Intelligence Chapter 2 Self and Personality Chapter 3 Social Influence and Group Processes Chapter 4 Attitude and Social Cognition Chapter 5 Coping with Life Challenges Chapter 6 Psychological Disorders Chapter 7 Therapeutic Approaches Chapter 8 Environment and Behaviour Chapter 9 Psychology in Organisational Setting Chapter 10 Psychology and Social Problems Chapter 11 Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist Chapter 12 Statistics in Psychology Practicals in Psychology Glossary Suggested Readings vii viii 1 29 62 82 106 126 147 165 180 197 220 239 263 267 274 .

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Ä acquaint yourself with different methods of assessing intelligence. . Ä explain the multiple facets of intelligence.5) Intellectual Deficiency: Nature and Types New Directions: Emotional.2) Contemporary Approaches to Intelligence Theory of Multiple Intelligences Triarchic Theory of Intelligence PASS Model of Intelligence Samples of PASS Measures (Box 1.4) Intelligence Testing in India Variations in the Level of Intelligence Giftedness: Nature and Identification Identification of Talent in the Indian Context (Box 1. and Spiritual Intelligences (BOX 1. Ä understand some emerging notions of intelligence. Practical. and Ä describe the concept of aptitude and its measurement procedure. Ä discuss cultural differences in conceptualising intelligence. Ä explain the nature of intellectual deficiency and giftedness.1) Definitions of Intelligence Intelligence: The Interplay of Nature and Nurture Intelligence: Some Classical Approaches (Box1.6) Special Abilities or Aptitudes: Nature and Measurement Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks Ä Nature of intelligence and approaches to its understanding Ä Culture and conceptualisation of intelligence Ä Methods of assessing intelligence Ä Range and variations in intelligence Ä Nature and measurement of aptitude BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä describe the concept of intelligence.1 THIS INTELLIGENCE CHAPTER COVERS CONTENTS Introduction What is Intelligence? Beginnings of Intelligence Testing (Box 1.3) Creativity and Intelligence Culture and Intelligence Intelligence in Non-Western Traditions Intelligence in the Indian Context Assessment of Intelligence Distribution of IQ Scores Types of Intelligence Test Alternatives to IQ Testing (Box 1.

because it is due to the intellectual development that humans have been able to transcend the physical frailties and gain dominance over the more powerful and numerous animals. However. The emphasis on one or the other aspects of intelligence varies across cultures. Every parent wishes his/her child to be intelligent. industry. during social interaction. training. to engage in various forms of reasoning. its assessment. cultural differences in its conceptualisation. to learn from experience. to adapt effectively to environment. People differ from each other in their ability to understand complex ideas. and to overcome obstacles. You must have heard about tests that are used to measure intelligence in different settings including school. . and social domains also. In recent years. We often make judgements about the intellectual competence of people on the basis of these and related characteristics and label them as being more intelligent or less intelligent. and so on.2 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION Intelligence is probably one of the most popular psychological terms used in everyday life. you must have noticed individual differences in this highly valued trait. These tests are useful in selection. and providing educational and vocational guidance and counselling to the students. understanding about the nature of intelligence has changed drastically. defence organisations. it is manifested in every human activity. may it be in school. rather. at work. rather has multiple dimensions or facets. placement. The expression of intelligence is not limited to any particular activity. The notion of intelligence has expanded to encompass affective. You too must have encountered people showing different levels of intelligence. For long. or context. In this chapter you will study the nature of intelligence. And it is rightly so. however. domain. changing definitions of intelligence. and the nature of special abilities or aptitudes. It is now believed that intelligence is not a single entity or unidimensional. bureaucratic set-ups and so on. range and variations in the intellectual competencies of people. the study of intelligence was confined to the cognitive domain.

shrewdness. Unlike Galton who reduced intelligence to sensory. perceptual. Simon developed the first test of intelligence in 1905. talent. Galton Alfred believed that simple sensory. Binet with his student T. and perceive. Psychologists have proposed a number of definitions of intelligence. Binet attempted to devise a method to identify children who did not benefit from regular classroom teaching and needed to be placed in special schools. to BEGINNINGS OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING The first systematic attempt to develop a test of intelligence was made by Alfred Binet. acumen. ability to grasp relationships etc. In 1884. comprehension. For example. The term ‘intelligence’ has not only been used more popularly in daily life. At the request of the French Ministry of Education. Sir Francis Galton.M. education. . intelligence is a capacity to profit from experience and to go beyond the given. breathing capacity. J. Chaturya. reaction time. and motor responses were key aspects of intelligence. Medha. words such as Buddhi Pratibha. visual acuity.1 Understanding the Concept of Intelligence Find out the synonyms of intelligence and analyse the similarities and differences among them. In the Indian context. the following terms have been listed as the meaning of intelligence: ability to understand.Intelligence 3 WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? ACTIVITY 1. and child development. J. Binet and Simon in 1905 defined intelligence as “the ability to judge well. mental alertness. in 1904. a Frenchman. Historically. Discuss your observations with your classmates and teacher. discrimination. Galton attempted to measure intelligence by administering a battery of tests which measured such characteristics as head size. to the ability to draw designs from Binet memory and define abstract concepts. is considered to be the father of mental tests. in 1838. The development of the concept of intelligence in modern psychology is closely related to the efforts in the direction of assessing intelligence. and memory for visual forms. perceptual. and judgement. Dhi. etc. the work of a Frenchman. Esquirol. However. are used for intelligence. BOX 1. reason. The test consisted of 30 items ranging from the ability to touch one’s nose or ear when asked. it has also received maximum attention of the researchers in the fields of psychology. strength of hand grip. Binet argued that the core of intelligence consists of more complex mental processes such as memory. quickness in learning.1 DEFINITIONS OF INTELLIGENCE Broadly speaking. and motor processes. Cattell is credited with introducing the term mental test. an Englishman. Prajna. are used as synonyms of intelligence. The words such as capacity. On the basis of the analysis of synonyms make three or four statements about the nature of intelligence. etc. imagery.. The works of Galton and Cattell together paved the way for further studies on intelligence. on mental disorders is considered to be the beginning of modern mental testing. aptitude. A perusal of dictionaries will reveal that the term intelligence has been taken in a broad sense.

An analysis of the above and other definitions indicates that intelligence consists of three general classes of skills or abilities: l Adapting to new situations and changing task demands. and adaptation. adequate adaptation. any environmental context. such as death or illness of the mother. This definition goes beyond the adaptive nature of intelligence. Thus. a pioneer in the field of intelligence research. and (4) Self evaluation or person’s idea of whether he or she has been able to solve the problem correctly. shaping. when you find it difficult to adapt or bring about changes in the relative’s house. one that starts during infancy and continues throughout the life span. and is notable for the dogmatic nature of the opinions. He defined it as “the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully. Slowly. There were four elements that were believed to be important for intelligence: (1) Direction or ability to set up a goal and work towards it. More recently Robert Sternberg (1997).4 Introduction to Psychology understand well. first of all you try to behave according to their expectations. is that the landscape of an environmental context changes over time. bringing out change in the environmental context may not always be possible due to various reasons. (3) Comprehension or ability to have a basic understanding of exactly what the problem is. as well as shaping and selection of. The second important point. and selection involve a process of life-long learning. when you visit a relative on holidays. Discuss these examples with classmates and teacher. As you know monozygotic twins result from the fertilisation of a single ovum by a single sperm and they are genetically identical. For example. According to Howard Gardner (1986). has defined intelligence as follows: Intelligence comprises the mental abilities necessary for adaptation to. intelligence is not just reacting (in the form of adaptation) to the demands of the environment. you begin to suggest them changes according to your taste. The controversy has aroused fierce passions. you may go to another relative’s house or go back to your home. but also involves actively shaping and selecting the environment. In that case an intelligent person tries to find another suitable environment (selection). become politicised. rather the use of these abilities in real life situations is important. However. INTELLIGENCE: THE INTERPLAY NATURE AND NURTURE OF There is no end to the debate as to whether intelligence is innate or acquired. Thus. Therefore. It should be noted that intelligence does not simply mean possessing certain abilities per se. When a person is not able to adapt to an environment. it may be assumed that their intelligence (genetic) level should be similar and any difference would be due to non-genetic (environmental) factors. and to reason well”. some of these monozygotic (identical) twins were reared apart. (2) Adaptability or ability to make the necessary adjustments to solve a problem. and to deal effectively with the environment”. l Learning or profiting optimally from experience or training. On rare occasions. to think rationally. according to Sternberg. It has also been reported in some studies that identical twins separated very early in life share considerable degree of .2 Processes Involved in Intelligence Find two examples each from everyday activities that relate to shaping. Studies have shown high level of similarity between the intelligence levels of such monozygotic twins. he/she may try to bring changes in the environmental context (shaping) according to his or her own likings. l Thinking abstractly using symbols and concepts. ACTIVITY 1. selection. The definition proposed by Wechsler in 1939 has been very popular. For example. The evidence for the innateness comes from studies on twins. intelligence is “the ability or skill to solve problems or to fashion products which are valued within one or more cultural settings”.

‘g’ is considered responsible for relationships between different human activities.2 INTELLIGENCE: SOME CLASSICAL APPROACHES l l Charles Spearman (1927) proposed a “Two Factor theory” of intelligence. However. Characterised as mental energy. and mannerisms when they were identified later. Recapitulation The systematic attempt to define and assess intelligence in modern period began with the work of Binet in 1904. Some studies have reported that IQ of the adopted children tends to move toward that of their adopting parents. Spatial Visualisation. ‘gf’ (for fluid g SI S2 S3 Fig. According to him. Adoption studies lend support to the nurture side of the debate. and Perceptual Speed. an intelligent person either attempts to shape and bring changes in the environment.. In these studies children’s intelligence levels were compared with their biological and adopting mothers. each of which is relatively independent of the others. Generally. the maximum limit is drawn by the genetic factors. Probably. family background. There is evidence to show that deprived environments may result in lowering of IQ scores. within which the actual development depends upon the support from environmental conditions. Inductive Reasoning. and quality of schooling. learning from past experiences. contemporary view of intelligence goes beyond adaptation skills—where adaptation is not possible. . In all these definitions. 1. Other studies have shown greater closeness with the IQ of biological mothers. This theory maintained that all intellectual activities share a single common factor. Verbal Fluency. l Raymond Cattell (1971) proposed that there are two ‘g’ factors. Louis Thurstone (1938) advanced the “Theory of Primary Mental Abilities” which states that intelligence consists of seven major factors.. the presence of adoptive parents of higher IQ level raises a disadvantaged child’s IQ. Since then many definitions of intelligence have been proposed. Memory. In addition to ‘g’. or carve out another environment of his/her liking. intelligence consists of General (‘g’) and Specific (‘s’) factors.Intelligence 5 similarity in intelligence. Positive correlations between any two factors were attributed to ‘g’ factor.1 shows this pattern. The most accepted view today is that intelligence is a product of a complex interaction of genetic factors and environmental conditions. These factors are: Verbal Comprehension. Number. A range of environmental factors. called ‘g’. such as nutrition.1 Relationship between ‘g’ and ‘s’ conceptualised by Spearman contd. this theory also postulates a number of specific factors ‘s’. and abstract thinking. The limitation of these studies is that the samples have been generally very small. personality. intelligence is defined in terms of adaptation to new situations. each being strictly specific to a single activity Fig 1. are found to be related to IQ scores. BOX 1.

6

Introduction to Psychology

intelligence) and ‘gc’ (for crystallised intelligence). Fluid intelligence includes the ability to think creatively, to reason abstractly, to make inferences from data, and to understand relationships. It can be measured by analogy and classification problems. It is strongly influenced by heredity. In contrast, crystallised intelligence includes what a person learns and retains from experience; so, it is strongly influenced by environment. Tests of vocabulary and general information can be used to measure crystallised intelligence. It has been found that fluid intelligence tends to decline at an early age than crystallised intelligence though both show rapid decline starting in the late seventies.
l

stimulus input prior to the outcome or response. Level II refers to a general class of abilities involving effective transformation or manipulation of stimuli, as evinced in higher order learning, such as reasoning and problem-solving.
l

Arthur Jensen has advanced a theory of two levels of intelligence: Level I and Level II. Level I denotes associative learning (e.g. rote learning and memory). These activities involve minimal mental transformation of the

On the basis of more than two decades of factor analytic research, J. P. Guilford proposed a box-like model, which is known as Structure-of-Intellect Model. This theory organises intellectual traits along three dimensions: Operations—what the respondent does, Contents—the nature of the materials or information on which operations are performed, and Products— the form in which information is processed by the respondents. Guilford’s classification includes 6 x 5 x 5 categories, resulting into 150 cells in the model. In each cell at least one factor or ability is expected; some cells may contain more than one factor. The model is shown in Fig.1.2.

Operations Co nv er Di ge ve Ev nt alu rg pr en at od tp ion uc ro tio du n Me ct ion m Co or y gn itio n

Vis

ua

l Au o dit ry bo lic ma nti

Contents

Sym Se

c h io av ura l

Be

Units Classes Products Relations Systems Transformation Implications

Fig. 1.2 Guilford’s Structure of Intellect

Intelligence

7

LEARNING CHECKS I

1. The speed with which one accomplishes a task refers to one’s intellectual capacity. T/F 2. Binet developed a test of intelligence to discriminate amongst normal students of a class. T/F 3. Learning from past experiences is a characteristic of an intelligent person. T/F 4. Selection strictly refers to leaving a task, which cannot be accomplished, and selecting a task, which is easy to perform. T/F

CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO INTELLIGENCE The classical notion of intelligence, which defined it in terms of a single index of cognitive abilities, has undergone major changes. It is now believed that intelligence is not one or unitary ability, rather there are many intelligences, which people display while solving problems in everyday life. In this section you will study about three such theories. THEORY
OF

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

Howard Gardner (1983) proposed this theory. It is based on three principles. First, intelligence is not a single entity; rather, there exist multiple intelligences, each distinct from others. Second, these intelligences are independent of each other. In other words, if a person is good in one type of intelligence, it does not give any indication about how good or bad the person may be on Howard Gardner other types of intelligences. Third, different types of intelligences interact. That is, different intelligences work together to provide a solution of a problem. Gardner has so far proposed eight intelligences. However, all the individuals do not possess them in equal proportion. The particular situation or the context decides the

prominence of one type of intelligence over the others. The eight intelligences are as follows: l Linguistic : This is related to reading, writing, listening, talking, understanding, etc. Poets exhibit this ability better than others. l Logical-mathematical : This type of intelligence deals with abstract reasoning and manipulation of symbols involved in numerical problems. It is exhibited in scientific work. l Spatial : Intelligence of this kind is used while navigating in space, forming, transforming, and using mental images. Sailors, engineers, surgeons, pilots, car drivers, sculptors, and painters have highly developed spatial intelligence. l Musical :Persons with musical intelligence show sensitivity to pitch and tone required for singing, playing an instrument, composing and appreciating music, etc. l Bodily-kinesthetic : It requires the skills and dexterity for fine coordinated motor movements, such as those required for dancing, athletics, surgery, craft making, and the like. l Interpersonal : It requires understanding motives, feelings, and behaviours of other people. Sales people, politicians, teachers, clinicians, and religious leaders have high degree of interpersonal intelligence. l Intrapersonal : It is related to understanding one’s self and developing a sense of identity. l Naturalistic : It is related to recognising the flora and fauna and making a distinction in the natural world. It is more possessed by hunters, farmers, tourists, students of biological sciences, and the like.
ACTIVITY 1.3 Application of the View of Multiple Intelligences Prepare a list of about 20 vocations. Analyse these vocations in terms of the type of intelligence required for success in those vocations. Discuss the results of your analysis with your teacher.

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Introduction to Psychology

TRIARCHIC THEORY

OF

INTELLIGENCE

Robert J. Sternberg (1985) proposed this theory. It attempts to understand the cognitive processes involved in solving problems. According to this theory, there are three l subtheories of intelligence: Componential, Experiential, and Contextual as shown in Fig. 1.3. Robert J. Sternberg l Componential Sub theory: It consists of internal mental mechanisms that are responsible for intelligent behaviour. The components of intelligence serve three different functions. Metacomponents are the executive processes that are involved in planning strategies, monitoring progress, and allocating internal and external resources to problem solving. Performance components ACTIVITY 1.4 are the processes that are used to perform a Application of Triarchic Theory task or solve a problem. This component Read the following problem statements and is the one that is measured best by identify the type of intelligence that would be existing intelligence tests. Knowledge required to solve those problems: acquisition components are the processes l You see a novel word embedded in a used in learning. paragraph and have to infer its meaning l Experiential Subtheory : It focuses on from the context. the relationship between the person’s l You have to solve everyday problems inner, mental world and the outer, faced by an adolescent. external world. This aspect is concerned (For answers see Learning Checks on p.11) with the effect of intelligence on one’s experiences as well as the effect of Contextual person’s interaction Subtheory with the environment Metacomponents Specifies the Control, monitor, and evaluate on intelligence. This behaviours cognitive processing considered intelligent view adds creativity in a particular (or novelty and culture Performance Components originality) to the Execute strategies assembled Experiential overall conception by metacomponents Componential Subtheory of intelligence. A Subtheory Specifies how Knowledge-acquisition creat-ively intelligent Specifies the experiences affect Components cognitive processes person may not intelligence and how Encode, combine, and that underlie all particularly perform intelligence affects a compare information intelligent behavior person’s experiences well on a test of intelligence but is Fig. 1.3 Elements of Triarchic Theory of Intelligence able to combine

different experiences in uniquely original ways. A second aspect of experiential intelligence is the ability to automatise or “make routine” tasks that are encountered repeatedly. An example of automatising is reading, which is carried out largely without conscious thought. Playing music is another example of this type of activity. Contextual Subtheory : It deals with the ways people effectively shape their environments, adapt to different contexts, and make the most of their available resources. Contextual intelligence refers to “street smarts” or “situationally smart”. It is the effective management of self and the practical management of the business of everyday life. People high on contextual remain practical or down-to-earth in life. Such people remain involved in activities such as implementing, using, applying, and seeking relevance.

Intelligence

9

PASS MODEL

OF

INTELLIGENCE

Serial

Concurrent

Serial

Concurrent

Extending the information processing approach, J.P. Das, Naglieri, and Kirby (1994) proposed this theory. The basic statement of the model is that intelligence can be understood as a result of interdependent functioning of three neurological systems: those responsible for arousal (and attention), coding (or processing), and planning. The two coding processes are simultaneous and successive. Thus the theory is known as PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive) Theory. The three components of PASS theory are shown in Fig. 1.4. l Arousal and Attention: Suppose a young lady goes to market with her 3-year-old child. After some time the child becomes restless and also occasionally cries. This arouses J.P. Das the mother to attend to the child’s needs. Arousal is basic for initiating an activity. It forces one to focus attention in a particular direction. You have read earlier that attention is selective: You do not pay attention to each and everything that comes on your way; rather, you attend to a few selected objects/events/persons which may be helpful in achieving the desired goal or are related to the motivational state. l Simultaneous and Successive Processing : The mother realises that her child is hungry and decides to take her to a restaurant. She looks at the shops around her. The shops have displayed different types of signboards. The mother attends to those signboards to find out a restaurant and tries to grasp their meaning. Here she uses simultaneous and successive processes to grasp the meaning out of the signboards. Simultaneous processes help you in grasping the meaning out of the pictures. This involves the integration of different stimuli at a time in groups and is holistic

KNOWLEDGE BASE
First Functional Unit AROUSAL/ ATTENTION Third Functional Unit PLANNING

KNOWLEDGE BASE

KNOWLEDGE BASE

Conceptual

Conceptual

Perceptual

Brain Stem

Frontal

Second Functional Unit

Occipital, Parietal and Temporal (Posterior) Memory Conceptual Perceptual

SIMULTANEOUS AND SUCCESSIVE KNOWLEDGE BASE

Fig. 1.4. The PASS Model of Ability

l

in nature. On the other hand, the mother reads the letters and words one after another written on the boards, integrating the stimuli in series. In this case she is using successive processing to grasp the meaning. Learning of digits and alphabets is another example of successive processing. Simultaneous and successive processes can be applied to the tasks of various modalities (auditory, visual, kinesthetic etc.) involving different kinds of stimuli (verbal or non–verbal), and may take place during direct perception, retention of information, and at higher cognitive levels. Planning : After the attention and processing of information, you decide that this is a restaurant where you can get something to eat. If there are more than one, you select one of your choice. Thus, planning refers to generation of plans or

Perceptual

Memory

Memory

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Introduction to Psychology

problems as well as to goal setting, strategy selection, and performance monitoring. Planning is responsible for activities such as asking questions, problem solving, and the capacity for self-monitoring. Based on the PASS theory, Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) was developed. The system employs verbal and non-verbal tests presented through visual and auditory sensory channels. It is appropriate for use with individuals between ages 5 to 11, and has been specially designed for use with intervention purposes. Some measures are given in Box 1.3. The system is considered an appropriate and innovative tool for the assessment of cognitive status.

Creativity and Intelligence Highly intelligent people may or may not be creative but highly creative persons are without doubt highly intelligent. Sternberg talks about three types of intelligence: Analytic, Creative , and Practical. Creativity is a process that requires the balance and application of various aspects of intelligence. The creative intelligence is the ability to go beyond the given data to generate novel and interesting ideas. A creative person is a good synthetic thinker, sees the connections and relationships others don’t see. In addition, creative people also have the ability to analyse and evaluate ideas. The practical intelligence is the third aspect of creativity, which refers to the ability to translate theory into practice and transfer abstract ideas

BOX 1.3

SAMPLES OF PASS MEASURES

Planned Connections ( for Planning): It requires children to develop some effective way of connecting sequential stimuli (e.g., the numbers 1-2-3-4-5), which appears in a diverse manner on a page. For the first five trials a child is required to connect the series of numbers in their proper numerical sequence (1 to 2, 2 to 3, etc.). On the last two trials the child is required to alternatively connect numbers and letters in their proper sequence (1 to A, A to 2, 2 to B, B to 3, and so on). The test score is the time in seconds taken by the child in each trial separately as well as on all the trials. Expressive Attention ( for Attention):It consists of three pages, although only the last page is used as a measure of attention. The first and second pages contain the words Red, Blue, and Green written in the respective colours (page 1) or coloured rectangle of these colours in varying orders (page 2) arranged in eight rows and five columns. The task before the child is to read all the words on page 1 or say the names of the colours on page 2 as fast as possible. The selective attention component of this task is apparent on page 3 through the use of an interference paradigm. Page 3 contains the words red, blue, and green printed in

colours different than the words (e.g. word GREEN printed in red colour). The child’s task is to name the colour used to print the word, rather than read the word, as fast as possible. Time needed to complete is recorded. Raven’s Progressive Matrices ( for Simultaneous Processes): These matrices are used to assess the simultaneous processes. In this test, the task involves the completion of figural analogies using a progressive matrix format. The child is required to choose one of the six options that best completes the abstract analogy. The requirement that each component of the matrix must be interrelated to the others makes this task congruent with the simultaneous paradigm. The scores for this test are the total number of correct choices and the time taken by the child to complete the task. Digit Span (for Successive Processes): You present, for example, the following series of digits to the child 4-7-9 2-5-8-9 3-5-6-9-11 After each presentation the child is required to recall the digits. The total number of digits recalled (maximum) is the digit span.

is passed on from one generation to the next in written or oral form. respectively. Componential intelligence is concerned with the components of mental functioning involved in cognitive tasks that underlie vocabulary. T/F 5. T/F l l This type of culture gives rise to a kind of intelligence. a creative person is high on all three aspects of intelligence – analytic. for example. Thus. Spatial. Bodily-kinesthetic. Interpersonal. many Asian and African cultures consider a person . while an intelligent person is high only on analytical intelligence. minimal moves (the best performance calls for reaching the solution in fewest steps). knowledge. Contextual intelligence is required to solve everyday problems faced by an adolescent. Intrapersonal. In certain places. T/F 7.P. and is imposed upon each of us without our conscious intent. Gardner proposed eight types of intelligences: Linguistic. attention. it is reasonable to assume that different behaviours may represent intelligence in different cultures. Thus. characterised by attention. and contextual subtheories of intelligence. and successive processes (PASS model). LEARNING CHECKS II CULTURE AND INTELLIGENCE It is increasingly recognised that intellectual processes and skills are determined by the socio-cultural context in which people live and grow. It emphasises the development of following factors in children: l generalisation (or going beyond the information given). creative and practical. called technological intelligence. Logical-mathematical. The salient features of Western culture are urbanisation. Componential intelligence covers the aspects of intelligence measured by standard intelligence tests. You require componential intelligence when you see a novel word embedded in a paragraph and have to infer its meaning from the context. a creative person is high on all the three aspects. meaningful and valuable. Das considered intelligence in terms of planning. Recapitulation In this section you read about the three important contemporary theories of intelligence. Sailors are high on spatial intelligence. experiential. T/F 2. Such an understanding depends upon people’s experiences. An Intelligent person is high on analytical intelligence. which is shared by majority of the persons in the group. speed. insight. These theories assume that intelligence is not one or a unitary ability rather. to the understanding of intelligence. intelligence is considered a cultural genre or product of culture. l l speed (faster performance is superior). and higher achievement in school. In the PASS model. Sternberg proposed componential. J. the skills needed to be an excellent farmer are far more important than the skills needed to be a lawyer. Intelligence in Non-Western Traditions In contrast to technological intelligence. and something of one’s own (a preference for originality or creativity). high use of technology and schooling. intelligence tests developed in the West look for these qualities among people. Street-smart persons are high on experiential intelligence. 1.Intelligence 11 into practical accomplishments. Thus. T/F 8. a composite of many intelligences. Solving logical puzzles requires bodilykinesthetic intelligence. Cultural groups differ in their notions of what constitutes intelligence. T/F 3. T/F 6. Since successful adaptation to one’s own socio-cultural environment is considered a sign of intelligence. as one would observe variations in what a particular society views as worthwhile. simultaneous. and Naturalistic intelligences. and analogies. no hands (a preference for mental rather than physical manipulations). Musical. observation. Gardner has proposed seven kinds of interrelated intelligences. T/F 4. Experiential and contextual intelligences add creativity and practicality. the most basic aspect is coding of information.

Knowledge of one’s own self. obedience. and l Emotional Competence (such as control of emotions. Non-verbal reasoning (or silent thinking). in general. Slow. and skill.12 Introduction to Psychology intelligent on the basis of social and emotional attributes as well as his or her ability to perform a task. discernment. It includes such things as determination. politeness. l Reason. Ability to judge and perform tasks that are required to be done at homestead. and also beyond all these. and (e) reading and writing. l Social Competence (such as following social norms.P. goaldirected behaviour). The Indian concept is more inclusive. problem-solving. it encompasses the social and emotional domains. society. good conduct). realistic self-appraisal. (b) ability to take another’s point of view. vigilance. and decision-making. and their integration. commitment. The Indian view is holistic and emphasises mental abilities. The notion of buddhi not only includes cognitive but also affective and motivational aspects of life. and speaking well in public. and understanding. Intelligence in the Indian Context The Indian thought has shown deep concern for human potential and explored its nature in the context of self. and effective speaker. The terms that are used for buddhi in Sanskrit. intellect. and effective communication). and judgment. (a) Sociable. understanding the problem in the proper perspective and constructive intelligence. comprehension. politeness and respect for elders. will and desire. which emphasises on the connectivity with the social and work Table 1. careful and active. and even feelings and opinions in addition to such intellectual processes as knowledge. Thus. Das. honesty. helping the needy. More listening than talking.1 summarises the salient features of intelligence emphasised in some non-western cultures. unlike the IQ notion of intelligence. discrimination. According to the Indian view. Service to the family and community. According to J. the word often used to translate the word intelligence. conscience.1 Characterisation of Intelligence in Different Cultures Africa Baoule China Japan Capability in specific situations. understanding. the universe. l Entrepreneurial Competence (such as hard work. noticing. mind. both in the cognitive and non-cognitive domains. an intelligent person shows the following four competencies: l Cognitive Competence (such as sensitivity to context. Table 1. comprehension. and social responsibility (such as cooperativeness and obedience). l l l Perception. as well as task performance. the Indian view is not limited to the cognitive domain alone. refer to the followings: l The mental vigour or power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions. recognising. ready wit. Rather. (c) task efficiency. has been used in a broader sense as compared to the scope of intelligence in modern western psychology. Presence of mind. humorous. Kenya Uganda Yoruba . and admitting mistakes. discrimination. mental effort. ‘Buddhi ’. service to elders. (d) originality. Buddhi refers to waking up. and comprehending. showing concern for the environment). apprehension.

Discuss the similarities and differences in their definitions with other students and the teachers. which refers to an individual’s level of mental development relative to the environment in which he/she lives. etc. if mental age is less than the CA. Among Japanese. speed of work. . respectful. the emphasis is on technological intelligence. it may not be appropriate to label people as intelligent or not intelligent in these cultures on the basis of intelligence tests developed in Western countries. ASSESSMENT OF INTELLIGENCE Recapitulation The western concept of intelligence is not valid in all the societies. He compared MA with Chronological Age (CA) or the biological age or age from birth. Willingness to cooperate with group members is considered intelligent in the African societies. This type of intelligence is termed as “integral intelligence”. Culturespecific definitions of intelligence need to be explored and appropriate measures need to be developed. emotional. poor in verbal abilities LEARNING CHECKS III 1. T/F 4. T/F 5.6 Computing the IQ l l Find out the mental age of a 16-year old student who has an IQ of 125. He also gave the concept of Mental Age (MA). an intelligent person may not work at a high speed. T/F You have read earlier that the first attempt to measure intelligence was made by Binet. ACTIVITY 1. He/she may be slow but careful. Thus. ACTIVITY 1. and multiplied by 100: MA IQ = —— x 100 CA If the mental age is the same as the Chronological age. In these societies. T/F 3. then the IQ is less than 100. For example. Indian view of intelligence encompasses social and emotional components together with the cognitive and activity related components. which is characterised by generalisation.Intelligence 13 environment. achievement. Different behaviours in different cultures are characterised as intelligent. Binet argued that a mentally retarded child would perform like a normal child of a younger age. T/F 2. such as Asian and African. then the IQ is more than 100. On the other hand. A preference for mental manipulation rather than physical manipulation is the characteristics of intelligent behaviour in non-Western societies. in non-western societies. a person is considered intelligent more on the basis of social and emotional qualities than on the cognitive attributes alone. The notion of integral intelligence emphasises interconnectivity between cognitive. A bright child has an MA above CA. (8/6 x 100) whereas a 6-year old child with a mental age of 5 ( 5/6 x 100) would have an IQ of 83. IQ refers to a child’s mental age divided by chronological age. In the West. then the individual’s IQ is 100 (normal). and social worlds. a dull child has an MA below CA. across various sections of society and find “what they think are the characteristics of an intelligent person”? Try to understand the concept of intelligence of these groups.5 Understanding Laypersons’ conception of intelligence Interview children of different age groups as well as some adults. admitting mistakes is not considered an intelligent behaviour. and willing to share responsibilities. cooperates with group members. a 6-year old child with a mental age of 8 would have an IQ of 133. but good at non-veral reasoning abilities. if mental age is above CA. The term Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was devised in 1912 by William Stern. Calculate the IQ of a 12-year old child whose mental age is 9 years.

The Wechsler Scales Besides the Stanford-Binet Test. Year 3 l Point to eyes. 9. Table 1. In the last revision. How many would it take to do it in 3 days? An automobile goes 25 miles in 45 minutes. In the earlier revisions. 3. namely verbal reasoning. Lewis Terman. 4 Repeat the following digits in reverse order: 5. and mouth l Repeat 2 digits l Identify objects in a picture l Repeat a sequence of 6 syllables Year 7 Show right hand and left ear l Describe a picture l Carryout 3 commands given simultaneously l Count the value of 6 coins l revision appeared in 1916. 4. separate scores for 11 subscales (6 of which are verbal and 5 non-verbals) are also obtained. These are known as: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS).3 conta ins sample items from WAIS. and short-term memory are also obtained. introduced Binet’s test in the United States of America. where the test underwent many revisions. the individual’s responses in four content areas. Table 1. abstract/visual reasoning. Year 15 l Repeat 7 digits l Find 3 rhymes for a given word in 1 minute l Repeat a sentence of 26 syllables l Interpret a set of given facts Table 1. the other most widely used individual intelligence tests are the Wechsler Scales. 5.3 Sample items from Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Verbal Scale Information: Comprehension: Arithmetic: What is steam made of? What is pepper? Why is copper often used in electric wires? Why do some people save sales receipts? It takes 3 people 9 days to paint a house. developed by David Wechsler. nose. The fourth and latest revision of Stanford-Binet test was published in 1986. 6 In what way are a circle and a triangle alike? In what way are an egg and a seed alike? What is a hippopotamus? What does ‘resemble’ mean? Digit Repetition: Similarities: Vocabulary: . 8. This was further revised in 1936 and 1961. and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) for use with children from the ages of 4 to 6 ½ years. the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) for use with children between the ages of 6 and 16. In addition to providing an overall IQ score. 2.2 Some Items from Binet’s Test of Intelligence (1911 Version) at Three Different Age Levels. quantitative reasoning. only a general composite score was computed to reflect one’s IQ. 2. which is known as Stanford-Binet Test.2 contains some items included in 1911 Binet’s test. The first Table 1. in addition to a composite score.14 Introduction to Psychology Stanford Binet Test The intelligence test developed by Binet in 1905 was revised in 1909 and 1911. 7. a Professor at the University of Stanford. How far would it go in 20 minutes? Repeat the following numbers in order: 1.

Verbal. . a group test can also be administered to a single individual. and also maintain their interest by providing necessary help when needed. There is further difference between an individual and a group test. The individual tests are administered to one person at a time. 1.2 TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE TEST Intelligence tests are available in different forms. Non-Verbal.7 2. In RPM. Individual tests allow people to answer orally or in written form and performance tasks require manipulation of objects or forms. Descriptive Label Very Superior Superior Bright normal Average Dull normal Borderline Mentally Challenged Percent of Population 2. The collection of data using individual tests from a larger sample is time consuming. individual tests allow the test administrators to establish proper rapport and give personal attention to testees.1 6. Table 1.4 Descriptive Labels for IQ Scores IQ Score Above 130 120-130 110-119 90-109 80-89 70-79 Below 70 the correct alternative. However. Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) is one such test. Individual or Group Tests : These tests may be classified into different types depending upon their mode of administration and content. the group tests are standardised on ultra large samples. one out of six available alternative figures. Some of the types of tests available are described below. Testees have to find. A group test is not defined by the number of examinees but by the mode of administration. A trained psychologist generally administers such tests to one student or one client at a time. Non-Verbal tests use pictures or illustrations as items. Therefore. For example. The former helps in the diagnosis and remediation of individual learning difficulties. one incomplete pattern is given. and Performance Tests: A Verbal test demands understanding of written words. As regards administration. putting testees at ease and maintaining their interest is generally found to be difficult.5 for an example). while the individual tests are standardised on relatively small samples. Stanford-Binet and Wechsler scales are individually administered tests. such tests can only be administered to literates. They may either be administered to one person at a time (Individual Test) or to a number of persons simultaneously (Group Test).Intelligence 15 Distribution of IQ Scores The IQ scores between 90 and 110 are labelled as “normal”. Though group tests are easy to administer. Finally. which will complete the pattern (see Fig.1 50. it is difficult to express spatial relationships between objects through written communication.2 6. above 120 “superior ” and below 70 as evidence of “mental retardation” or “mentally challenged (see Table 1.0 16. Group tests generally employ a multiplechoice format: A question that is followed by four alternatives and a person has to answer There is only a negligible opportunity for oneto-one interaction between the tester and the testee. Also. however be noted that. You can select an appropriate type of test depending upon the purpose of its use.7 16. It may. and the latter is more commonly used for mass screening. examiner plays a minimal role that is restricted to reading the instructions of the test and getting the test completed within the stipulated time limit. Separate answer sheets are provided to write the answers.4).

small boxes containing a number of wooden blocks of different sizes and shapes are given. Mohsin Performance 1. Up to 1950.5. Test of General Mental Ability by M.16 Introduction to Psychology 1 2 3 with these cultures in view and the intent or activities in many of these items do not find place in other cultures. Joshi 5.K. Performance Test of Intelligence by C.C. To overcome these problems. which is popularly known as Bhatia Battery. Kulshrestha 4. CIE Non-Verbal Test . M. Desai in 1954. Work was also done on the development of Indian norms for some other foreign tests like the WAIS. It was only since 1950s that published evidence points towards the development of Indian tests. rather it consists of a series of five performance tests. The testees task is to arrange these blocks. The items were written Table 1. white European and American people. Minnesota Paper Forms Board. These tests are considered culturefair tests because people of any culture could take them. and others. At about the same time. and Lahore. The first systematic attempt to standardise a test of intelligence (Binet’s test) was made by Dr. Draw-A-Man Test by Pramila Phatak 3. The first doctorate on Test Construction was awarded to K. NonVerbal and performance tests have been developed. Intelligence Testing in India The development of intelligence tests in India has for long remained one of the popular academic pursuits. Majority of early tests favoured urban. Indian Adaptation of Binet-Simon Scale by S. Bhatia developed a performance test of intelligence. in an order within a given time period. For instance in Koh’s Block Design Test. Culture-biased vs. However. 1. Cube Construction. Adaptation of Wechsler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale by R.M. for the development of a group test of intelligence in Gujarati. The norms for these tests were almost entirely based upon these cultural groups. The Bihar Test of Intelligence by S. Ramalingaswamy 2. Some tests developed in India are given in Table 1. particularly Asian and African cultures. Jabalpur. in accordance with the pattern card. Subsequently a number of intelligence tests were either developed originally or were adaptations of tests developed in the West. Alexander’s Passalong.G. Group Test of Intelligence by Prayag Mehta 2. it has been noticed that these tests too show cultural bias. middle class. Kohs’ Block Design Test. C. It is called battery because it is not just one test. Jalota 3. 4 5 6 Fig. They sample items from the experience of a particular culture. Culture-fair Tests : Many intelligence tests show a bias towards the culture in which they are developed. RPM. Group Test of Mental Ability by S. Mahalanobis attempted to standardise Binet’s test of intelligence in Bengali.5 An item from Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) Performance tests are made up of certain concrete tasks. the work on Binet’s test was done at Chennai. Bhatia 4. Dacca.M.5 Some Tests Developed in India Verbal 1. Rice in Urdu and Punjabi in 1930s.

In the second phase. dynamic testing.4 that about 2 per cent of the population possess IQ scores above 130 and a similar percentage possess IQ scores below 70.Intelligence 17 Recapitulation Intelligence is measured in terms of IQ. when traffic light is red. conservation. frequency of presentation. Some tests have been developed on the assumption that they can be administered in any culture and. ALTERNATIVES TO IQ TESTING to an individual to make a judgement about it that meets some pre-established criteria of accuracy. The time gap between onset of the green light and your movement is a measure of RT. presumably. It could be in visual or auditory mode. It is done in two phases. the person’s cognitive (mental) operations. For example. the available intelligence tests measure developed abilities of the individuals. a number of tests for assessment of intelligence have been developed. you stop and wait for the green light. you take some time to start moving. It reflects the minimum amount of time a particular stimulus must be exposed . have in recent years been BOX 1. etc. Similarly. In India. IQ tests. class XI).) depending upon the child’s developmental level. Intelligence tests come in three categories: Verbal. and multiplied by 100. and Performance. & WPPSI) are the other widely used scales. some of which can be administered to a group while others can be administered individually. which has undergone several modifications and has been used extensively. Non-Verbal. WISC. For example. These individuals are different from the average population for the reason that their performance is at variance from what is expected from people of their age and circumstances. You have learnt (in chapter 12. Reaction time refers to the time gap (in seconds) between presentation of a stimulus and the beginning of a response by the individual. Reaction Time (RT) is considered a more valid measure of intelligence. ZPD refers to the difference between the actual development and the developmental level which a child can attain after proper guidance. providing a single index of intelligence. an adult (usually a teacher or a parent) familiarises the child with the tasks. Binet developed the first test of intelligence. In recent years some alternative ways of assessing intelligence have emerged. The dynamic testing is based upon the principle of ZPD. Wechsler scales (WAIS. After the light turns green. called Culture-Fair Tests. Test contents that show bias toward a particular culture are called Culturally Biased Tests. the actual testing takes place. It is based on the assumption that being intelligent involves being able to process information quickly. which refers to a child’s mental age divided by chronological age. motivates them. In the first phase. The shorter the inspection time. gifted individuals have faster and more consistent reaction time than average persons. thus. (also called interaction phase). the faster will be. There you have read about seriation. Inspection time is another measure of intelligence. and also makes some modifications in the tasks (such as changing the order of presentation. in which the child is given the tasks or the test to solve them. Since then. pendulum tasks. many intelligence tests have been developed. The first group is termed as the intellectually gifted and the later as mentally retarded or challenged. etc. The speed and consistency with which people perform on reaction time tasks discriminate between groups of individuals expected to differ in their intellective functions. VARIATIONS IN THE LEVEL OF INTELLIGENCE You have observed in Table 1. Some of these are: Biological Measures of Intelligence: Among the biological measures. after 1950. class XI) about Vygotsky’s notion of Zone of Potential Development (ZPD). gives them hints about how they could be solved. are gaining popularity.4 loosing their popularity for several reasons and alternative measures such as reaction time. Dynamic Testing : As you have read. individuals with mental retardation have slower and less consistent reaction times than normal people. These tasks are also used for the assessment of intelligence. etc. Piagetian Tasks: Recall Piaget’s theory of development (Chapter 12.

1. and to strive for excellence. and early onset of language. high creativity. but is strongly influenced by personality and motivation. T/F 3. self-concept. across all economic strata. intellectual. Thus. who developed intelligence tests for screening populations to identify individuals of superior cognitive ability. it is a High Intelligence High Creativity High Motivation Fig.6. T/F combination of general ability. Table 1. Giftedness GIFTEDNESS : NATURE AND INDENTIFICATION The term ‘gifted’ is an adjective. Identifying the Gifted The tests of intelligence and achievement have been most frequently employed for the identification of the gifted children. preference for novelty. to achieve. it is the nature and organisation of abilities (i. and an important communication aspect. Rather. Mental age is obtained on the basis of the individual’s performance on a test of intelligence. It is evident from the above definition that: l Gifted individuals exhibit high levels of performance in comparison to their peers living in the same socio-cultural background. Professor Stanford adapted Binet’s tests. or aesthetic life of the humanity. The study of such gifted persons began with the work of Lewis Terman.18 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. l It is not limited to school related activities alone but also involves areas. In recent years. and motivation that predisposes the gifted person to learn.e. Wechsler scales of intelligence have both verbal and performance subtests. Maximum number of individuals possess an average IQ. and has strong social elements including an ethical dimension. direction. exceptionally talented or intelligent’. and in all areas of human endeavours. specific talents. ranging between 90 to 110. You can also know one’s intelligence on the basis of his/her reaction time. Rather.6 contains some of the salient characteristics of such children. T/F 5. which refers to a person ‘endowed with one gift or many gifts.. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups. in 1925. and high motivation as shown Fig. 1. Many . Therefore. Joseph Renzulli proposes that giftedness depends on the interaction of three factors : high intelligence. T/F 2. however. good recognition memory.6 Aspects of Giftedness Characteristics of Gifted Children : Gifted children show early signs of being exceptional. physical. processes) that constitute giftedness. l Mere possession of cognitive abilities is not regarded as giftedness. giftedness is defined as a superior ability in any worthwhile line of human endeavour including moral. giftedness was defined as high general intelligence as measured by high score on a test of intelligence. these tests are called Stanford-Binet tests. T/F 6. The nature. T/F 4. and speed of this process depends partly upon cognitive factors. emotional. During infancy such children show large attention span. Culture-fair tests can only be administered to the persons of a particular culture. over-reactivity to sensations. l Giftedness is not restricted to performance on a test of intelligence. social. such as sports and leadership.

5 IDENTIFICATION OF TALENT IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT of India caters to the gifted children in rural areas and in the weaker sections of the society. problem solving and decision-making. High on self-efficacy and internal locus of control. or 160. while others show l . Preference for being solitary and introverted. The candidates selected at the national level are called for interview. and having a high self-esteem about their intellectual capacities. Though. Intrinsically motivated to achieve mastery. Possibility of showing giftedness in one area and poor learning in another. The students recommended by the States appear in the national level written examination. For promoting cultural talent. it is more pronounced at the secondary school level. High incidence of social and emotional problems. or achievement at about the 95th percentile. which consists of Mental Ability. 150. differences in gifted and talented students may be observed at all levels. The National Talent Search Scheme is run by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) in which 1000 scholarships are awarded each year to the students studying in Grade 10.6 Characteristics of Gifted Children l l l l l l l l A Higher order in thinking process. The Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas. derive pleasure from work. another prominent scheme of the Government special programmes for gifted children have rather used rigid cut off points such as IQ’s of 130. The admission to these vidyalayas are made through an objective type test. which consists of Mental Ability and Scholastic Aptitude Tests. drama as well as painting. however. facilities are provided to outstanding young children in the age group of 10-14 years studying either in recognised schools or belonging to the families of practicing traditional performing or other arts for developing their talent in various cultural fields such as traditional form of music. Awards are declared on the basis of the national level written tests and interviews.Intelligence 19 Table 1. Transferring skills to new problems and solving problems insightfully. 135. while others are very unusual to the extent of being extremely rare. Giftedness is a multi-dimensional term. attention is given to the following types of data as indicator of giftedness: l Performance on group intelligence test l Teacher judgment l School record. BOX 1. which are in the process of becoming extinct. peer and self-nominations also do help in identification of the gifted child in certain cases. The state level examination is conducted by the State Governments. dance. The scholarship is awarded on the basis of examination conducted in two phases: State and National Level examinations. the Cultural Talent Search Programme is run by the Centre for Cultural Resources and Training. Under this scheme. laying emphasis on rare forms. The scholarship is available for studies up to the doctorate level in the basic and social sciences and up to seconddegree level in engineering and medicine. Independent thinking and non-conformism. In recent times. including achievement test scores and teacher grades l Performance on individual intelligence test l Appraisal of social and emotional maturity and adjustment Parent interviews l Pupil ambition and drive In addition. Some are gifted in just one area. Some gifted youngsters are just slightly above average. Language Proficiency and Arithmetic Ability. sculpture and crafts.

mental retardation (or mentally challenged) is currently defined as intelligence test performance two or more standard deviations below the mean. Table 1. competitive to semicompetitive. primarily unskilled work Usually marries. The decision about the level of mental retardation is based upon the skills to perform in daily life. third to sixth grade Has friends. and American Psychiatric Association (1994). are not viewed rigidly. has speech problems Very few academic skills. persons having IQ below 70. According to these criteria.20 Introduction to Psychology it in many areas. INTELLECTUAL DEFICIENCY: NATURE AND TYPES There are defined diagnostic schemes. and health. First. expressive. dependent Speech and Communication Academics Social Skills Not capable of having real friends. Rather. low performance on a test may also be due to defects in vision. usually needs consistent supervision Usually does not marry or have children. always dependent on others Vocational Adjustment Adult Living . as given by the American Association on Mental Retardation (1992). accompanied by limitations in adaptive functioning such as failure to cope with the common tasks of daily living appropriate to one’s age and situation. for judging the presence and degree of mental retardation. language is limited to poor No academic skills Self-help Skills Feeds and dresses self and cares for own toilet needs Receptive and expressive. can learn to adjust quickly Can hold a job. gifted children differ in terms of motivation or interest. has children. According to this definition. coupled with the inability to manage their everyday activities like a normal person. a person’s ability to function in everyday life is important. needs help during stress Has difficulties and requires training but can learn adequate self-help skills Receptive and expressive. It may be noted that the IQ ranges. hearing. first or second grade is maximal Capable of making friends but has difficulty in many social situations Sheltered work environment. Two points here are worth noting.7 contains the characteristics of different types of mentally challenged persons. usually needs constant care No marriage or children.7 Characteristics of the Mentally Challenged Level of Mental Retardation Area of Functioning Mild (IQ range = 50-70) Moderate (IQ range = 35-49) Severe (IQ range = 20-34) and Profound (IQ = below 20) No skills to partial skills. but some can care for personal needs on limited basis Receptive language is limited to good. which Table 1. language is adequate. as shown in Table 1. understands communication Optimal learning environment. language is adequate.6. No social interactions Generally no employment. are classified as intellectually deficient or mentally challenged. Also.

l A high degree of self-awareness. SQ operates out of the brain’s centre and integrates all our intelligences. It is considered to be the Ultimate Intelligence. A capacity to use and face suffering. It gained popularity by the publication of the best selling popular book ‘Emotional Intelligence’ by Goleman in 1995. A reluctance to cause unnecessary harm. be it family. It may be viewed as “mind in action” or the thinking that is embedded in the larger scale purposive activities of life. A tendency to see the connections between diverse things (being ‘holistic’). These include: l The capacity to be flexible (actively and spontaneously adaptive). Tacit knowledge is procedural in nature and intimately linked to action. but is essential for success. practical intelligence seems to be of more use in concrete situations than academic . SQ makes us the fully intellectual. or at work. meaning-given context. to discriminate among them. It helps in attaining one’s goals. AND SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCES intelligence. and expression of emotion l Emotional facilitation of cognitive activities l Understanding and analysing emotional information and employing l Regulation of emotion Practical Intelligence: It refers to the kind of thinking people do in solving their dayto-day problems. We have a longing to see our lives in some larger meaning-giving context. emotional and spiritual creatures that we are. It serves to achieve the goals of everyday activities of daily life. the intelligence with which we can assess that one course of action or one life-path is more meaningful than the other. Danah Zohar and Ian Marshall in their book “Spiritual Intelligence: The Ultimate Intelligence” (2000) have reported the indicators of a highly developed SQ. It is acquired without direct help from others – on one’s own. the work. Spiritual Intelligence (SQ): It is the intelligence with which humans address and solve problems of meaning and value. it enables the workers to meet the often unwritten or unspoken demands of their job. There are three characteristic features of tacit knowledge. as measured by the tests of intelligence. which emphasises blending cognition with emotions.6 NEW DIRECTIONS: EMOTIONAL. Spiritual intelligence allows human beings to be creative. l l l l l l l l Emotional Intelligence (EI): Salovey and Mayer first formally defined the concept of EI in 1990. In occupational settings. it consists of the following four dimensions. the intelligence with which we can place our actions and our lives in a wider. It is the knowledge that is unspoken. to change the rules and to alter situations by extending the boundaries. and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. l Perception. the community. l l l Thus. Also called Tacit Knowledge or Procedural Knowledge. richer. it is the ability to learn and then apply information that is never explicitly taught to workers nor is rarely verbalised.Intelligence 21 BOX 1. PRACTICAL. in social settings. appraisal. EI is generally defined as a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions. A capacity to face and transcend pain. The quality of being inspired by value and vision. It takes the form of “knowing how” to do something rather than “knowing that” subject. religious framework or the universe itself. It takes us beyond the present moment and ourselves. Being what psychologists call ‘fieldindependent’—possessing a facility for working against convention. under-emphasised. whether at home. Briefly. A capacity to inspire others. A marked tendency to ask ‘why?’ or ‘what if?’ questions and to seek ‘fundamental’ answers. or poorly conveyed relative to its importance for practical success. SQ has no necessary connection with religion.

Second. Phenylketonuria. Down Syndrome is associated with mild to severe retardation. Down syndrome is caused by the possession of an extra chromosome. are used to identify these children. and adult living. T/F 2. On the other hand. or ill health cannot explain those problems. Down Syndrome is associated with mild to severe retardation. Multiple methods such as test. A variety of unfavourable environmental factors also cause mental retardation. and early onset of language. For example. T/F 5. social skills. such as slanted eyes. A vast majority of mildly retarded children come from the lower socioeconomic classes. mentally retarded children score two or more standard deviations below the mean on a test of intelligence. school record. Many organic conditions can cause mental retardation. and only if linguistic or cultural barriers. where a host of factors – such as greater marital instability. teacher judgement. academics. hearing. etc. physical handicaps. a metabolic disorder. can lead to retardation.22 Introduction to Psychology may erroneously lead to categorising a person as mentally challenged. Also. social and emotional maturity. For example. You can’t expect someone to perform a task appropriately if he/she has not performed similar tasks in past or is not a part of his/her everyday activities. and general health conditions of the person likely to be categorised as mentally challenged are functioning normally. the person’s linguistic and cultural backgrounds must also be taken into consideration. after training. over reactivity to sensations. LEARNING CHECKS V 1. You need to be certain that vision. Persons suffering with this syndrome show distinctive physical characteristics. stubby limbs. Causes of Mental Retardation Many organic conditions can cause mental retardation. vocational adjustments. and thin hair. Scientists have been able to unravel more of the genetic bases for various kinds of mental disorders. good recognition memory. emotional disturbances. T/F SPECIAL ABILITIES OR APTITUDES: NAURE AND MEASUREMENT An aptitude is a combination of characteristics that indicates an individual’s capacity to acquire some specific knowledge. and environment and also with respect to the norms. Hydrocephaly or excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull destroys brain tissues and causes retardation. The performance of gifted people is superior to the performance of all other individuals irrespective of their age and background. preference for novelty. T/F 3. Moderately retarded persons can learn ‘self-help skills’ by appropriate training. Recapitulation There are two major types of extreme variations in intellectual ability–the giftedness and the mental retardation (or mentally challenged). It simply states that you need to . they show poor performance in comparison to the normal children in areas like self-help. Giftedness refers to the high levels of accomplishments in comparison to one’s age. inadequate nutrition and medical care. Phenylketonuria is a metabolic disorder (due to an inherited enzyme deficiency) that can lead to retardation if it is not caught and treated in infancy. and lower quality schooling – many of these factors contribute to children’s poor intellectual development. One can be gifted in the moral and aesthetic aspects of life as well. T/F 4. parental neglect. experience. Gifted children show long attention spans. Children should be classified as retarded only if they exhibit both a low IQ and deficiencies in everyday skills. Similarly. High incidence of social and emotional problems is observed in the gifted people. speech and communication. or skill. The verbal expression of a severely retarded person is similar to that of a normal person.

Generally. aptitude. Clerical Speed and Accuracy : It attempts to measure some of the skills necessary in clerical and office jobs. It is assumed that a person who scores poorly in this area will not do well in occupations requiring a great deal of reading and writing. In a Multiple Aptitude Test Battery the examinee is tested in several separate.g. are used for prediction. It consists of eight independent sub-tests: l Verbal Reasoning (VR) l Numerical Ability (NA) Abstract Reasoning (AR) l Clerical Speed and Accuracy (CSA) l Mechanical Reasoning (MR) l Space Relations (SR) l Spelling (S) l Language Use (LU) J. Prominent aptitude test batteries are: The Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). such as clerical aptitude. clerical.Intelligence 23 possess various qualities in different proportions to learn or become something. scholastic.M. because they are concerned with the potential of doing something. the tests measuring different aptitudes are grouped together in the form of a Test battery. literary and other aptitudes. such as to acquire ability to speak a language. homogenous aptitude areas. teaching. and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). Each of these tests usually contains a number of sub-tests. and so on. typing aptitude. have been developed to predict success in specific professions. etc. and other aspects of musical sensitivity. he/she would not be a musician. Many aptitude tests. Let us understand the nature of some of the tests. mechanical aptitude. These qualities can be harnessed by appropriate training. It has two gears. This is a timed. will gear y move : (a) clockwise or (b) counter clockwise? l Y X Fig. refrigerators. The DAT was first developed to provide a basis for the educational and vocational guidance of students for grades 8 through 12. 1.7 An Item of Mechanical Aptitude Test Verbal Skills : This test measures a person’s interest in and knowledge about words. to become a musician. air-conditioners equipments. In addition. . if a person does not have the special abilities required to become a musician. it has been found useful for vocational counselling of young adults out of school and in the selection of employees. musical aptitude. tone. In other words.7. which generally consists of a combination of abilities. Aptitude refers to the potential ability of the individual to perform a task. and the like. Salient characteristics of one of the batteries most often used in educational settings are described here. etc. speed test because such a job require speed with which one works. and achievement. Aptitude tests. Intelligence refers to the ability of a person to do certain thing at a given time. The battery of tests is administered to the client for counselling. If gear x is moving in the direction of the arrow. Several multiple aptitude test batteries have been developed. engineering. Ojha has developed an Indian adaptation of the DAT. There are salient differences between intelligence. Mechanical Reasoning : This test attempts to predict success in fields involving repair of autos. A typical test item is shown below in Fig. rhythm. the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). even after sufficient training. a number of aptitude tests have been developed in India for measuring scientific. mathematics) with which you have been made familiar. 1. medical. such as discrimination between pitch. Subsequently. which are used for aptitude testing. to do some mechanical work. Achievement involves performance at any given point of time in a particular subject (e.

which point moves faster a) b) c) The point on the inner side of the wheel. Both are equal. 8. The point on the outer side of the wheel. c) The load will be equal on both sides. b) The larger wheel. c) The effort will be the same in both the cases. Left. 2. Stool with five legs. b) c) One in which it doesn’t get submerged. If the plank is lifted by two persons then: a) Person on side A will have the heavier load. In this manner complete the test without spending too much time. If a moving train turns towards the right direction. If a heavy weight is to be lifted with the help of a rope.. 5. In a moving wheel. 3. 9. If one table fan has three blades and the other five. 1. c) Both will need equally powerful motors.7 Test Your Mechanical Engineering Aptitude This is a test of applied science and mechanics. The tumbler with thin walls.24 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 1. a) The person who pulls the rope through a single pulley. The inner rail. If a bicycle has two unequal wheels. b) The fan with 5 blades.. which fan needs a more powerful motor: a) The fan with 3 blades. which wheel will turn faster. which side of the rails will be higher: a) b) c) The outer rail. b) Towards the left. 4. a) The smaller wheel. resulting in stopping the wheel. If a car turns towards the right. In a moving car the left hand break of the front wheel somehow gets locked. read each item carefully and mark (ü) one answer (a. A heavy weight is kept on a wooden plank in such a way that the weight is closer to side A and away from side B. man sitting inside will move towards: a) b) c) Right. Twenty items are given below. Which liquid is heavier: a) One in which a piece of wood gets totally sub-merged. Won’t move at all. 7.b or c) that you think is correct. Both would be equal. Stool with four legs. b) The person who pulls the rope through a double pulley. If hot liquid is poured into a glass tumbler which is likely to break: a) b) c) The tumbler with thick walls. Both will move at an equal pace. Both are equally likely to break. . which person will have to pull it harder. c) Both will be equal. 10. 6. b) Person on side B will have the heavier load. Which stool will be steadier: a) b) c) Stool with three legs. 11. Which side will the car turn : a) Towards the right. c) It will just stop. contd.

12. 20. b) Time will be proportional to the weight. when boiling water is poured into it: a) The tumbler with the silver spoon. b. The apparent weight of a man in a moving lift is less than his real weight when it is moving down with: a) An acceleration. 1. 13. Which pendulum will oscillate faster: a) Pendulum with shorter length. There are two pendulums. b) The tumbler with the wooden spoon. 20. 10. a. 17. in which direction must the rudder be turned: a) Left. Medium Poor . 3. b) Uniform speed. 9. b) Better cooling. b) A lean mixture. c) Theoretically correct mixture. They should not be used for evaluation and diagnosis. c) None of the above. a. c) Restrained by the safety belt. b. Fins over engine cylinder in scooter are provided for: a) Strengthening the cylinder. 19. If we keep a silver spoon in one glass tumbler and a wooden spoon in the other. one has short length and the other long. a. 2.a. 4. 13. 14. b) Pendulum with longer length. a. b) Backwards.a. 18. 15. c) Retardation. c) Both will oscillate with equal movement. 7. If the water in the building is coming from an overhead roof-top-tank. b) Right. b INTERPRETATION Scores 15-20 10-14 Scores below 10 Level of Aptitude High. b. 17. 11. which floor will get the greatest pressure in the taps: a) Second floor. a. which tumbler is more likely to break. c) Both are equally likely. 19. c. 15. The car engine idling or in low speed operation requires: a) A rich mixture.D. © K.Intelligence 25 12. KEY Give a Score of 1 if you have marked the following answers and finally. 16. c) No need to turn the rudder. 6. 16. a. add all the scores.b. b) First floor. b. 8. 18. Three different weights fall from a certain height under a vacuum condition.BROOTA Note: These are sample items.a. In a head-on collision the driver is thrown: a) Forward. a. b. 14. c) Ground floor. If the flying plane is to be turned in the left direction. c) Good appearance. 5. They will reach the earth: a) At the same time. a. b.

COMPLETING THE SQUARE Right Answers : 1a. (c) & (d) given in each problem. (b). 5d. ODD MAN OUT (B) II. choose and mark the figure that is different from the other three. 5b . 5-7 Medium and Scores below 5: Poor. Add all the scores in I and II II.4d.D. Broota Attention : These are sample items. 2b. Assign a score of 1 for correct answers. ODDMAN OUT Right Answers : 1b.26 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 1. (A) I.8 Test Your Abstract Reasoning Out of the four figures (a). COMPLETING THE SQUARE QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d QF AF a b c d a b c d © K. They should not be used for evaluation or diagnosis KEY INTERPRETATION Scores and Abstract Reasoning 8-10 High. 2d. I. 4c. 3b. three are similar in some way. 3d.

and profound. Intelligence tests can be administered in groups as well as individually. Individual Test. severe. can be verbal or performance types. Das conceptualised intelligence in terms of Planning. Non-verbal Tests. fulfilling role-related obligations. Attention. an experiential aspect. Technological Intelligence. social. In the West it is more conceptualised in terms of cognitive abilities and the speed with which cognitive functions are performed. Sternberg’s theory distinguishes three aspects of intelligence–a componential aspect. An aptitude refers to the potential of an individual to performa a task. and task performance. prefer to remain solitary. Logical-mathematical Intelligence. Performance Tests. Intelligence Tests. the conceptualisation is more integral as it includes cognitive. Gardner proposed eight different types of intelligences: Linguistic. and giving weightage to group goals than individual goals. are nonconforming. Such mentally challenged people have difficulty in feeding. ability to learn. Spatial. Aptitude. and Successive Processing. moderate. Generally. Interpersonal. They are called “gifted”. Mental Age. and Naturalistic. The recent views of intelligence recognise active role of an intelligent person in terms of shaping and selecting an environment according to his/her choice. which has undergone several revisions. and ability to adapt in novel situations. Traditionally. PASS Theory. Intrapersonal. emotional. high on self efficacy. Shaping. Practical Intelligence. a battery of tests is administered to identify the potential areas. Aptitude Test. In India. on the other hand. Musical. The PASS model of J. and may be culturally biased or culturally fair. Intelligence Quotient. Culture-fair-test. lack social skills. In contrast. The score on an intelligence test may be converted into IQ. The first attempt to assess intelligence was made by Alfred Binet in 1905. A small proportion of the population is found to possess very high level of intelligence. IQ between 90-110 is considered average in intelligence. The more recent approach to understand intelligence does not see it as a unitary ability. Mental Retardation.P. and multiplying by 100. SUMMARY l l l l l l Intelligence is one of the highly popular psychological concepts. Logical-mathematical. It is used for prediction purposes. school record. and a contextual aspect.Intelligence 27 Key Terms Adaptation. Group Tests. Bodily-kinesthetic. easily transfer skills to new problems and solve problems insightfully. score two or more standard deviations below the mean on a test of intelligence. Intelligence. Studies about the nature of intelligence in different cultures have shown that it is culturally variable. A number of aptitude tests are available for use in different areas. intelligence was defined in terms of ability to do abstract reasoning. social and emotional maturity. non-Western cultures view intelligence in terms of social and emotional competence such as obedience. Integral Intelligence. and communicating. Mentally retarded children. Multiple Intelligences. Simultaneous. cooperation. . dressing. Mental retardation can be of four types: mild. Intelligence is assessed with the help of a specially designed test which gives an indication about the mental age of a person. and also show high incidence of social and emotional problems. and are vocationally maladjusted. Linguistic Intelligence. which is obtained by dividing mental age (MA) by chronological age (CA). These persons show higher order thinking. and parental opinion. intrinsically motivated. Emotional Intelligence. The gifted children can also be identified on the basis of teachers’ judgement. rather it assumes that there are many type of intelligences.

28 Introduction to Psychology Review Questions 1.F. T. T. shaping. TO LEARNING CHECKS III : IV : V : T. F. T. 4. F F. 7. 2. F. F. 6. 5. 5. 2. 3. 1. T. 8. 5. 2. 2. F. 3. 11. 4. 5. 6. F. 2. 2. 3. 10. T.. F. T. 3. 4. 4. T 1. 9. T. T T. and selection? What are the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner? How is Sternberg’s theory different from that of Gardner? What is experiential intelligence? What are the components of PASS model of intelligence? What is IQ? How can you differentiate between verbal and performance tests of intelligence? What is giftedness? How can gifted children be identified? What is mental retardation? What are the salient characteristics of a mentally retarded person? What is aptitude? How is it measured? Is concept of intelligence similar across cultures? What are the different types of intelligence test? ANSWERS I II : : 1. 3. 1. T. 1.F T. 7. T . 8. 4. 5. F. T. 4. T. 6. 3. How can you relate intelligence to adaptation. F.

4) Colonialism and Self: The Indian Experience (Box 2.6) New Advances: Five-Factor Model (Box 2.3) Approaches to the Study of Personality Types and Traits : Development of Taxonomy Formation of Indian Identity (Box 2. .9) Concept of Gunas Assessment of Personality Observer Reports Projective Techniques Self-Report Measures Personality Assessment in India (Box 2. Ä differentiate between various psychological approaches to the study of personality. Ä explain the Indian notion of self. Ä describe the concept of personality.8) Type A.2 THIS SELF CHAPTER COVERS AND PERSONALITY CONTENTS Introduction Concepts of Self and Personality What is Self? Self as Subject and Object Self in the Indian Tradition Facets of Self (Box 2. and Ä describe some important tools for personality assessment.5) Consistency of Traits (Box 2.10) Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks Ä Concepts of self and personality Ä The Indian notion of self Ä Different approaches to the study of personality Ä Assessment of personality BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä describe the concept of self. Ä understand meaning and some of the methods of regulating self. Type B. and Type C Personalities (Box 2.7) Psychodynamic Approach Behaviourist Approach Humanistic Approach Who is a Healthy Person (Box 2.2) Self-Regulation What is Personality? Distinguishing Personality Related Terms (Box 2.1) Culture and Self : Some Indigenous Ideas about Self-Thought (Box 2.

we direct ourselves to undertake various activities. The major theoretical approaches to personality and the various methods of its assessment shall also be briefly described. Also. All of us are engaged in knowing. his sense organs go beyond the control of the intellect (the charioteer) as vicious horses go beyond the control of charioteer. This Chapter is intended to help you understand the concepts of self and personality. we look within ourselves and try to analyse our own qualities. While focusing on self and personality we step into a very interesting area of psychology that deals with the totality of a person’s existence. who is devoid of proper knowledge and wisdom. These activities almost always involve the notions of self and personality. The mind should be known as (merely) the reins. we try to make sense of a person’s behaviour. i. describe individual differences in personality.. – Kathopanishad . It will introduce the Indian concept of self and the concept of Gunas. The interest in knowing others and self appears to be a part of common human inquisitiveness. evaluating and predicting the behaviours of others. Know the Atman as the Lord and the Master of the chariot. On the basis of the study of personality they also try to predict the behaviour of people.e.30 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION If you stop for a moment and reflect on what is that which draws maximum attention from all of us then you will find nothing but the people – others and yourself. You will find in this chapter that the psychologists who specialise in this area try to measure personality. and assess the extent of these differences. Sometimes. It is hoped that learning all this will help you understand yourself and others in a better way. which is the body. You must have noticed that a considerable portion of our time during waking hours is spent in talking about our own self and others. The one whose mind is not harnessed properly. It helps us to understand the uniqueness and commonality found within and across individuals. This has led to the development of different theoretical perspectives. These occupy a central place in our lives. The intellect you should know as the charioteer. Understanding the notions of self and personality has been the concern of thinkers for a long time.

............... and teachers... I am ........ If you give the Activity 2.. You were aware of yourself in the same way as you are aware of certain objects (e...... characteristics........................ The characteristic patterns of behaviour constitute ‘personality’ for a given person....... I am ...... Thus self involves the mental representations of personal experiences and includes a physical body................ I am ...................... While completing this activity you were referring to yourself......1............. Thus........... beliefs........... Taking these into consideration............. ‘I’ is approaching ‘Me’.... I am .......e... which people express in different situations........ Instead..................... social identity.. Different persons may have different personalities. i................ You have to describe yourself....... I am .. It has been observed that children start showing some idea of ‘self’ around two years of age...g... I am ...... WHAT IS SELF? Self is one of those central concepts that are frequently used in everyday life.... You will agree that we spend a lot of time pondering over our own selves......... the self-schema influences a person’s behaviour in important ways............... you will end up with a long list of qualities. perceptions. I and Me.. Each one of us has a unique personality which can be assessed by others.... In the beginning they learn about own self from parents............. . a book............ We may consider self as an organised cognitive structure based on the experience of our being............................. You can say........ therefore..... “I was thinking about me or myself ”............... it is based on the integration of the information from several sources...Self and Personality 31 CONCEPTS OF SELF AND PERSONALITY ACTIVITY 2...........1 you will realise that while undertaking the activity you approached your own self as an object... a pen........................................... Interestingly enough............ thought processes.. interests.......... If you analyse carefully the way you responded in Activity 2.... The structure of self... It must be noted that self-concept is not a mirror like reflection........ These differences are supposed to be quite stable for that person. The personalities are accessible to others as they are manifested in behaviours shown by a person.......... etc.......... a person standing before you) in your waking life....... it may be said that self refers to the totality of an individual’s thoughts and feelings having reference to himself or herself as an object......... etc... The social interaction with them provides the basis of the experience of self......... In order to know these ideas you may like to complete the Activity 2........... and a conscious experience that one has separate existence....... I am ..... Self as Subject and Object While talking about self we often use two expressions........................................ is open to modification in the light of our experience in the world... How did you like the activity? You must have realised that it was not very simple.... activities...... You too must have nurtured some ideas about your own self................. The term “personality” is an attempt to grasp and make sense of the totality of the expressed part of our existence.................. we are not born with the notion of our own ‘self’ as distinct from others’ ‘self’. Once formed..1 (commonly known as Who Am I Test) to a large number of people and analyse the responses obtained.......... I am ..........1 Understanding The Self Please complete the following sentences beginning with “I am”..... and real or imagined ideas about ourselves............. The concepts of self and personality refer to the characteristics of our existence as experienced by us and the way they are externally manifested.... It is a common observation that people differ in the patterns of behaviour............. friends.. It is indeed the centre of all human activities...... I am . We are preoccupied with the feelings.. I am .........

nonmaterial realisation of a real self and the Ahamkar refers to the inflated sense of personal worth which is a consequence of ignorance (avidya) of one’s true being. The self as an object is said to be represented by ‘Me’ which is observed and known. In contrast. The Atman represents the independent. the Huna. Thus. social. successful. mental. then . as well as spiritual aspects of human existence (see Box 2. The Vedic hymns. Self in the Indian Traditions The notion of self develops in a cultural context. technology and western education has also influenced the Indian mind.1). FACETS OF SELF the person is considered to have self-efficacy. We construct a set of concepts about the self.1 marked both by tradition and modernity. and optimistic.32 Introduction to Psychology Self appears to have been taken in two ways namely as a subject and as an object. Self-disclosure is another aspect of self-functioning. They are known as high selfmonitoring people. The Indian cultural context has elements of continuity and change. then the person may experience adjustment problems. The ‘I’. we hold ideas about some kind of ideal self. It refers to our ability to monitor our self. The sense of identity is the perception of one’s self as distinct from other people and other things as related to one’s self or alien to one’s self.2 to acquaint with indigenous ideas). When we are conscious of self. In everyday life self is usually understood in terms of the meanings attached to self as an object. It has been found that people with high self-esteem are active. We are self-focused. we hold ideas about a possible self. the low selfmonitoring people are guided by internal cues and awareness. the Shaka. (see Box 2. Those who have low selfesteem are often found depressed and feel discouraged. It represents what a person believes he or she can do with the skills under certain circumstances. On other occasions we are engaged in focusing on others. and the Western people have contributed to blending of diverse cultural traditions. It is BOX 2. People also learn techniques for positive self-presentation so that they may relate to others. who knows is representing the self as knower or subject. The former are high on self-disclosure and the latter have low self-disclosure.5). Similarly. while others have difficulty in talking about themselves. rituals and characters from epics still reverberate in the consciousness of the people. They are endowed with self-confidence. which we aspire to achieve. While behaving we are not always self-conscious. we develop a whole conceptualisation or a theory of self. The study of self has attracted the attention of a number of psychologists. For instance. From the very beginning we come across Atman and Ahamkara like concepts. It has been found that some people take cues from the external environment and change their behaviour accordingly. the Muslim. we not only hold a self-concept but also value ourselves. We always think about self and try to mentally represent what we might become or should become. The duality of jiva (experiential self) and Brahman (the absolute) is there but it is also emphasised that the individual soul or Atman is a part of the absolute or Brahman. The Indian notion of self encompasses the physical. The impressions and evaluations of others about us play important role in determining our self-esteem. This is also called as empirical self. Thus. This I is an active observer. The contacts between various groups such as Arya. In addition.4 and 2. There is also a notion of self-monitoring. It refers to people’s perceptions about their capabilities to produce the desired effects by their own actions. Our judgment about our own worth is called self-esteem. A related aspect of self-concept is that of selfefficacy. It actively processes our experiences. In the course of studies many aspects of self have been uncovered. perform various activities and gain favours from others. Some people talk freely about themselves without any problem or inhibition. If the real self shows high degree of discrepancy from the ideal self. In the contemporary period the impact of science. In other words. Another aspect of self-concept is that of selfconsciousness. if a person believes that he or she can successfully execute the behaviour required by a particular situation. there are many other aspects of self (see Box 2. we pay attention to self. the Dravida.

the self and own group are seen as having variable boundaries. The gross physical body is said to be the product of food (Annamaya kosa). Thus. It is not the ego. each with its own fixed boundaries. The self may be more or less inclusive on different occasions. This sheath is supposed to be the seat of ego striving and manifests itself in the form of personal involvements. constructs etc. However. 5. This is not true for the Indians who do not endorse such clear dichotomies. the fact that the self is included within the group does not imply that the Indian mind differs from the western mind in terms of individualistic versus collective orientations. The self does not relate to the own group but is included in it. the self and own group are taken as two different entities. The most important distinction between the Indian and the western views on self is the way the boundary is drawn between self and environment. It participates in a unity with all things. The third layer is called the mental sheath (Manomaya kosa).. Within it is the self that consists of the life (Pranmaya kosa). This implies that the line demarcating self and non-self is not a fixed one. subjective and objective. Fig. 2. As can be seen the conceptualisation of kosas maintains a hierarchy of factors beginning Annamaya Pranamaya Manomaya Vigyanmaya Anandamaya Atman . 3. that are employed in knowing the world. In an interesting analysis R. Indians show coexistence of both the tendencies. Figure 2. Self operates within the context of greater degree of dependence.2 but at the next moment it completely withdraws itself from it. however. which are constantly shifting. which involves the sense organs. In contrast.Self and Personality 33 The notion of selfhood in Indian context can be appreciated in terms of the model of human being. There are five layers of Jiva consisting of five kosas or sheaths. It may be noted that it is through sensing that one seeks the objects of desire.. contd. The change and development are not linear. In the western mind. the boundaries appear to be relatively fixed.1. It involves ideas. CULTURE AND SELF : SOME INDIGENOUS IDEAS ABOUT SELF–THOUGHT with the gross (sthool) and progressing to subtle (sukshma). 4. Self is not separate. It is like the concentric sheaths of an onion. the western view considers the dichotomies between self and other. C. The innermost layer is called joyous sheath (Anandamaya kosa) as it reflects the bliss which is the basic characteristic of the true self. The Indian self. the self sometimes expands to fuse with the cosmos BOX 2. Nested in one another as shown in Figure 2.1 Panchkosas : The Multilayered Hierarchy of Selves. The next layer is that of cognitive sheath (Vigyanamaya kosa). The self then gets related to the own group by forming links with the group. man and nature. in the case of Indians. Given in Taittiriyopanishad it states that the Jiva is a multilayered entity. It involves breathing and other metabolic processes that activate the organs and keep them functioning. as complete. The self is viewed as a witness and non-participant. Tripathi has drawn attention to the following features: 1. ve gniti sheath Co s shea th al sheath Ment Jo y ou Food Life Self as a Multilayered Hierarchy: The description of self shall remain incomplete unless we refer to the hierarchy of selves. 2. In the West. In the case of the Indians. is governed by boundaries.2 illustrates the way relationships between self and own group are formed. Also there is essential continuity between the self and non-self. The universe is viewed as possessing the same properties of life as human beings including consciousness.

It views human beings as religio-psychological beings who began life in the unconscious union with nature. time and space. the so-called beloved. This leads to change in the self-concept. meditation. These details may furnish the necessary information to change. Self-instruction : We often talk to ourselves. It is loyalty to life and cosmic laws.34 Introduction to Psychology The Sufi View : Sufism is the mystical or inward aspect of Islam. Roza. Some of the techniques used in promoting self-regulation are given below. By giving instructions to Indian Perspective Individual Group Individual I : Individual G : Group Group Figure 2. It emphasises the purity of heart and intention. It is an inner experience that leads to identification with one’s object of desire. harmonious lives. We do it in view of attaining the long-term distant goals. Western Perspective Some Techniques for Self-Regulation : Self-control can be enhanced using the following psychological techniques. The term Sufi is like yogi and refers to some one who has reached the goal. Learning to defer gratification is self-control. Since then we have been seeking a new union. We can choose to delay or defer the gratification of our needs. This has been systematically used in changing one’s ideas about self and behaviour pattern. and austerity have been emphasised. auto–suggestion etc. yoga. Stimulus control : This involves attempt to learn to do a set of activities under the presence of certain stimuli and not to perform certain activities in the presence of other stimuli. 4. or as some say we were cast from paradise. the ideal ego. It is held that when I becomes Thou. Sufism is a process of regaining one’s naturalness. The notions of jitendriya (a person who has control over his receptors and effectors) and aparigrah (keeping limited things that can satisfy the minimum needs) also draw attention to it. Sufism teaches people to live simple. In the process of evolutions humans separated from nature. experienced pain. 2. The role of human will or volition is very crucial in this regard. In Indian context vrata. 3. the duality turns into unity. upvas . We can intentionally control or interrupt our behaviour. Observation of own behaviour : One can organise understanding of self by systematically noting down the details about own behaviour. 1. Self-Regulation Meeting the diverse needs and challenges of life often demands that we are able to resist situational pressures and show control over ourselves. The control of internal states is possible with the help of biofeedback. Self-reinforcement : People often find certain behaviours pleasant or unpleasant. It teaches that egoism and the inevitably ensuing strife are folly and that the essence of this universe is spiritual.2 Self and Group Boundaries in Indian and Western Cultural Perspectives . They often reward the pleasant ones and increase their probability. modify or strengthen certain aspects of self. zen. and harmonisation with true nature.

an honest person remains honest for a longer period of time and in different situations. T/F 5. In everyday life we devote a lot of time to understand self and other persons. It is a common observation that different people respond to the same situation in different ways. niyam. and self-instruction. The Indian notion of self is contextsensitive.Self and Personality 35 oneself one asserts and moves to behave in that direction. Delay of gratification is an example of self-control. This kind of common sense view of personality is impressionistic and often found erroneous. We need to distinguish personality from other related terms which are often used interchangeably or synonymously (see Box 2. BOX 2. The Indian self includes the ideas of familial self and spiritual self. Type: Distinct category to which people with a pattern of traits are assigned. Also. For instance. The psychological techniques include: systematic observation of behaviour. T/F 7. and emotion across situations and across time periods. Thus. Habit: Learned mode of behaving. In psychology personality refers to a person’s unique and relatively stable qualities that characterise behaviour patterns across different situations and over a period of time. Understanding uniqueness and commonality within and across individuals is a great challenge for psychologists. In that setting the mask led the audience to expect a consistent pattern of behaviour from the person enacting a particular role. The notion of self changes in the course of one’s life. In western cultures people often hold an interdependent notion of self. of beliefs and feelings about oneself. LEARNING CHECKS I WHAT IS PERSONALITY? 1. Self refers to the totality of beliefs and feelings about oneself. stimulus control. We try to regulate our self through various mechanisms like vrata. the self is a dialogue between the self as an object (Me) and the self as a subject (I).3 In everyday life we use the term “personality” to refer to physical or outward appearance of a person encountered in some situation. upwas. selfreinforcement. Trait: Constant. T/F 4. Temperament: Biologically based characteristic way of reacting. yoga.3]. . Values: Goals that are considered worthwhile. Character: Total pattern of regularly occurring behaviour. Stimulus control is not related to self-regulation. thought. or using the biofeedback. when we see someone and find him or her “attractive” we say that the person has charming or impressive personality. persistent and specific way of behaving. Interestingly enough the literal meaning of the term personality is derived from the term persona. DISTINGUISHING PERSONALITY RELATED TERMS Disposition: Tendency in the person to react to a given situation in a characteristic way. T/F 2. a schema. T/F 6.the mask used in make-up by actors in the Roman theatre. there seems to be some coherence. The Self is often viewed as a structure consisting of an organised collection. People often show consistency in behaviour. order and consistency. T/F 3. yam. The notion of self is learned in the course of social interaction with significant others. underlying the behaviour of each individual. “Personality” is used to characterise these aspects of an individual. As a process. zen. T/F Recapitulation The study of self and personality tries to understand human beings in totality. Self as the knower refers to Me and self as the known refers to I.

In contrast. watching television or playing cards? Are these differences stable throughout one’s life? The study of personality is an effort to understand. hot. They are exclusive and do not overlap. explain and predict the similarities and differences in the totality of a person’s behaviour. Each of them throws light on some aspects of personality but not all aspects. pitta emerges out of an interaction of Vayu and agni (fire). Personality Types The personality types are used to communicate certain expected behaviours based on similarities. vata. However. while kapha is produced by the joint action of jala ( water ) and prithvi (earth). sweet. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PERSONALITY The psychologists studying personality try to answer certain questions about the nature and origins of individual differences in personality. calm. Within psychology the works of Sheldon and Krestschmer are famous. If you are asked to describe your closest friend. In psychological literature we come across many trait and type theories of personality. specific dimension along which individuals differ in consistent and stable ways. The endomorphs are fat. pitta and kapha. Charak Samhita of Ayurveda or the Indian science of medicine. They are energetic . soft. Thus. soft and round. which are charged with some intrinsic forces. Those with yellow bile are called choleric. stable and viscid. it is almost certain that you will say that he or she is good natured. You do not know that person but there is a possibility that you are going to meet and work with him or her in future. and poignant. fluid. Mesomorphic. while others like to spend time reading. acid. In terms of properties the vata is dry. as you will notice these theories subscribe to different models of human being.2 Introduce Yourself Write a letter about yourself to a total stranger. the original treatise classifies people on the basis of three elements called doshas i. unctuous. clear and rough. cold. light. Each of these refers to a type of temperament referred to as prakriti (nature) of the person. the term trait refers to. They are irritable and excitable. Such a person is cheerful and active. are rectangular and strong in body build. They are relaxed and sociable by temperament. Those with the dominance of phlegm are called phlegmatic.e. The mesomorphs have strong musculature. The types are categories. why do they react differently? Why some people like to enjoy dangerous activities. Since personality theories are so many we will examine only the major approaches and theories.36 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 2. acute. mobile. they join you in dealing with common curiosities such as : When some people encounter the same situation. The kapha is heavy. subtle. Those with black bile are called melancholic. The pitta is slightly unctuous. loyal. Such efforts have been made since ancient times. They refer to certain basic types in which people are classified. In this approach people are put in categories on the basis of certain similarities. They are discontinuous dimensions Thus. The Greek physician Hippocrates also proposed a typology based on fluid or humour. Using body build as the main basis Sheldon proposed the Endomorphic. TYPES AND TRAITS: DEVELOPMENT OF TAXONOMY Using labels and classifying personality characteristics help us to organise the diversity noticed in human behaviour. The behavioural differences between the individuals and the consistency within each individual is the main concern of personality theories. He or she wants to know about you. They are biophysical components. cold. dependable.. sociable etc. You are using traits to describe your friend. people are grouped according to their personality types. Stated simply. and Ectomorphic categories. the dominance of blood leads to sanguine temperament. These theories categorise human personality by systematised observed behaviour in terms of a pattern. Vata is produced by an interaction of akasha (ether) and vayu (air).

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and courageous. The ectomorphs are thin, long, and fragile in body build. They are brainy, artistic, and introverts. These typologies were simple but could not help in predicting behaviour of individuals. They are more like stereotypes about people and it is very difficult to categorise people clearly in different categories. As a result they are not used in contemporary personality research. Jung grouped all people into introverts or extroverts. According to this typology, the introverts withdraw into themselves, particularly when encountering emotional conflicts, prefer to be alone, tend to avoid others, and are shy. The extroverts, on the other hand, react to stress by trying to lose themselves among people and social activity. They are drawn to occupations that allow dealing directly with many people and are apt to be conventional, sociable, and outgoing. Typologies are simple and appealing. However, human behaviour is complex and quite variable. It is, therefore, very difficult to assign people to a particular type. People usually defy such simple categorisations.
Trait Theories

as a combination of a smaller number of personality traits. Trait approach is quite similar to what you experience in everyday life. For instance when you know that a particular person is dependable you tend to assume that he/she will be cooperative, friendly, and engage in a predictable pattern of behaviour. This kind of thinking has made identifying primary characteristics of people as the major goal of trait theories. A trait is considered as a relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. Traits are attributes that function as generalised action tendencies. They suggest ranges of possible behaviours that are activated within a range according to the demands of situation. The traits are: (a) relatively stable over time, (b) consistent over situations, and (c) variation in the strength and combination of traits leading to individual differences in personality. The use of traits for the description and analysis of personality has been very popular and a number of theories have been proposed. Let us learn about some of the major trait theories of personality.
Allport : Characterising the Attributes

These theories are concerned with the basic components of personality. They try to answer the question: what are the building blocks of personality? It is held that while human beings display a very wide range of variation in personality, yet it is possible to see them
BOX 2.4

Gordon Allport is considered as the champion of trait approach. He proposed that traits exist within the person and constitute the ultimate reality of psychological organisation. They are more generalised than habits. They are dynamic and determine the behaviour causing that person to approach

FORMATION OF INDIAN IDENTITY

The primary themes of Indian identity, condemning aggression and idealising Kakar argues, emerge from the infant’s non-violence. Bankim Chandra ambivalent relationship with his mother. Chatterjee’s Anandmath that This relationship is shaped and coloured contributed to the growth of Indian by the Hindu world image. In Hindu nationalism during its early phases cosmology, mother-goddesses are concentres around the ideas of sons sidered as the reservoir of both construcfailing, defying or fighting for the tive and destructive energy. The very triad of mother, cosmic mother and word for energy is “Shakti”, the name motherland. As for the motherfo r the supreme mother goddess. daughter relationship, Kakar Second, there is a continuous attempt observers that despite having cultural to handle deep ambivalence towards the and social preference for sons over Sudhir Kakar various symbols of motherhood and daughters, there is special maternal femininity in the culture. The moral anxiety and affection reserved for daughters. Perhaps, in fears of retribution generated by the aggressive her daughter, the mother can re-experience elements in his ambivalence are countered by herself as a cared-for girl.

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different situations with similar goals or plans. The traits integrate what would otherwise appear as dissimilar stimuli and responses. Allport thought that the words people use to describe themselves and others provide a window on the human personality. He analysed the words in English language and found that when people are asked to describe a person these words fall into certain general categories (e.g., honest, gregarious, independent). Allport distinguished between cardinal, central and secondary traits. All these traits form a hierarchy. The cardinal traits are highly generalised dispositions. For instance, if a person’s whole life seems to be organised around the goal of achievement, it becomes a
BOX 2.5

cardinal trait of his or her personality. Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolence, Mother Teressa’s humanitarianism and Hitler’s hatred are examples of cardinal traits. Less pervasive in effect but still quite generalised dispoGordon Allport sitions are central traits. Finally, more specific and narrow traits are called secondary traits. While Allport acknowledged that situations do influence the behaviour, he also posited that the way a person reacts in situations depends

COLONIALISM AND SELF : THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE

attributed the former’s superiority to these Analysing self under the colonial period in India, Ashis Nandy remarks that colonialism, differences. Throughout their lives they kept on apart from being many other things, is also a exhorting Hindus to emulate the westerners. Nandy considers it as the defeat of Indian psychological state rooted in earlier forms of social consciousness in both the colonisers and selfhood in the hands of the West and the the colonised. This implies that colonialism is a result of this defeat is the loss of ‘Indian’ self. Mahatma Gandhi, on the other hand, tried shared culture which may not always begin with the establishment of the alien rule in a to organise people as Indians not as Hindus. society and end with the departure of the alien He also granted Hinduism the right to maintain its character as an unorganised, anarchic, openfrom the colony. It includes codes which both the rulers and the ruled can share. The main ended faith. Interestingly, he unhesitatingly function of these codes is to alter the declared that the Britishers were worse victims of its colonial policy than the original cultural priorities on both sides. As a consequence of this, the Indians. In this sense Gandhi wanted to previously recessive or subordinate liberate the British as much as he wanted to liberate the Indians. He sub-cultures are brought to the centre of the two confronting cultures. In a rejected the ideas spread by colonialism way, colonialism as a state of mind is that masculine power is superior to femininity. He emphasised that naritva an indigenous process released by the external forces. The second feature of (the essence of femininity) is superior to Ashis Nandy colonialism is that it perpetuates itself purusatva (the essence of masculinity). Further, he rejected history and affirmed the by creating a culture in which the ruled are constantly tempted to fight against their rulers primacy of myths over historical chronicles. within the psychological limits set by the latter. Gandhi ji believed that uniqueness of Indian culture lies not so much in having faith in Both the features of colonialism influence the self definition of the colonised. unique ideology but in the society’s Colonialism tried to consolidate its position traditional ability to live cultural ambiguities and to use them to build defence against by glorifying certain cultural beliefs. These were superiority of masculinity, adulthood, sense of cultural invasion. Probably, the culture itself historicity, rationality over femininity, childhood, demands that a certain permeability of boundaries be maintained in one’s self image mythic consciousness, and non–rationality. In response to this many Indian social reformers and self should not be defined too tightly or such as Madhusudan Dutt, Raja Rammohan separated mechanically from the non-self. Nandy thinks that under the leadership of Roy, Bankim Chandra Chaterjee, Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekanand etc. tried to ‘list’ Gandhi ji Indians could recover their selves the differences between the West and India and which had been lost under colonial culture.

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on his or her traits. However, people sharing the same trait may express it in different ways. Allport proposed that one’s pattern of traits determines one’s behaviour. The traits were like intervening variables. In this way they mediated between the stimulus situation and response of the person. If trait varies the response of the person to the situation also varies. The traits operate in unique ways in each person. This view is reflected in Allport’s famous definition of personality as a “dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought”. Cattell : Factorial Analysis of Personality Raymond B. Cattell believed that there is a common structure across personalities, which must be determined empirically. In order to identify the basic or primary traits that underlie the huge array of descriptive adjectives found in language, Cattell applied factor analysis (a statistical technique) to subjective peer ratings. Cattell, on the basis of factor analysis, concluded that personality consists of 16 primary or source traits. The source traits are building blocks of personality. There are also a number of surface traits that are caused by the Raymond Cattell interaction of source traits. They are obvious aspects of personality. The source traits are stable. Cattell described the source traits in terms of opposing tendencies. He could identify 16 source traits and developed the Sixteen-Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) for the assessment of personality. Eysenck : The Dimensions of Personality H. J. Eysenck proposed that personality could be reduced to two dimensions. These dimensions are presumed to be biologically and genetically based. These dimensions subsume numerous specific traits (See Fig. 2.3). These dimensions are briefly described below: (1) Neuroticism VS. emotional stability : It refers to the degree to which people have control over their

feelings. At one extreme of this dimension we find people who are highly neurotic. They are anxious, moody, touchy, restless, and quickly loose control. People who are calm, even-tempered, reliable, and remain under control occupy the other extreme. (2) Extraversion VS. introversion : It refers to the extent to which people are socially outgoing or socially withdrawn. At one extreme are those who are active, gregarious, impulsive, and thrill-seeking, and at the other extreme are people who are passive, quiet, cautious, and reserved. In his subsequent work Eysenck has proposed a third dimension, namely, Psychotism, which he believes interacts with the above mentioned two dimensions. A person who scores high on psychotism dimension tend to be hostile, egocentric, and anti-social. Others often treat him or her as peculiar. Eysenck is also considered a type theorist. He has argued that while people do show a large number of traits, their traits are clustered into two main personality types i.e., extravert and introvert. The extroverts are outgoing, active, sociable and impulsive. They are tough-minded people.
Unstable Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Melancholic Choleric Phlegmatic Sanguine Active Extravert Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easy-going Lively Carefree Calm Leadership Stable

Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Introvert Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable

Even-tempered

Fig. 2.3 Eysenck’s Structure of Persnality

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The introverts are withdrawn, cautious, reflective and passive. They are tenderminded. The extroverts are found to be more alert and have more attention-seeking tendency. They learn better when aroused. They have higher level of brain chemical dopamine. They are more suggestible. The introvert students prefer to study in quiet places, with few interruptions, and are cautious. They do better in schools. They learn faster under low arousal. They have low threshold for pain. The trait approach is very popular and many interesting questions have been raised. Many advances are taking place, which are beyond the scope of your present studies. Some glimpses of these developments are given in the boxes that follow. The consistency of traits (Box 2.6) have been investigated and a new formulation has been advanced that provides a new way to organise the traits (Box 2.7). Recapitulation The typological approach to personality provides description of personality in terms

of types and traits and relating them to behaviours. Early attempts in India, and in the western world provide examples of typology that were used in the context of medicine. Sheldon used body build as the basis of personality types and tried to link these types with temperament and behaviour. These approaches are simplistic and have lost their appeal. The trait approaches put forward by Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck use traits of various kinds as attributes or dispositions which function as generalised action tendencies. The traits are supposed to be responsible for individual differences and uniqueness observed in the behaviour of the people. They function as building blocks of personality. Following empirical approach Cattell and Eysenck have developed measures for the assessment of personality. The relationship between trait scores and behaviours are found low and cross-situational consistency is not very high. Behaviour appears to be specific to the demands of specific situation.

BOX 2.6

CONSISTENCY OF TRAITS characteristics of the person. Thus, what we do or what role we play depends not on who we are, but the situation in which we find ourselves. However, there are observations that support the influence of traits on behaviour. It is mentioned that even if there is little personal consistency across situations, there is impressive consistency in the behaviour of people over time. Many psychologists think that explaining behaviour on the basis of either traits or situations is inadequate. Rather, it is the interaction of the two that is of importance. The interactional approach to personality assumes that it is the inseparable complex interplay of situation and person factors, which determines the behaviour. The actual behaviour is a function of a continuous multidirectional interaction between the individual and the situation. The individual is an intentional and active agent in the interaction process. Also, the psychological meaning of the situation is more important.

Walter Mischel has drawn attention to the fact that consistency in trait-related behaviours varies across situations. Thus, people are not equally honest, or domineering in all the situations. All of us want to predict behaviour on the basis of traits but one cannot tell what a particular person will do in a particular situation. At best they may indicate only an average tendency to behave in certain ways over several situations. Thus, the traits of a person do not tell the whole story. Situational characteristics also play an important role in determining our behaviour. Thus, people are dependent or independent not because of their internal personality trait but because of external rewards or threats in the situation. The cross-situational consistency with respect to traits is found to be quite low. The power of situations can be seen by looking at the behaviour of people in market, courtroom and a place of worship. The view known as situationism asserts that human behaviour is largely determined by the characteristics of situation itself rather than the

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BOX 2.7

NEW ADVANCES : FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY fearful, distressed, irritable, hypertensive. Its opposite is well adjusted. 5. Conscientiousness: Those who display high degree of this factor are achievement-oriented, dependable, responsible, prudent, hardworking, self-controlled. Its opposite is impulsive. This model has been considered as an important theoretical development. It is also found useful in understanding the personality profile of people in many cultures. Also, it is consistent with the analysis of personality traits found in different languages and supported by the studies of personality through different methods. It is now considered to be the most promising empirical approach to the study of personality. The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) was developed by Costa and McCrae. It provides scores on the five factors of personality. It has been developed on the basis of extensive research that uses lexical data describing personality in various languages in different parts of the world.

In recent years the controversy regarding the number of basic personality traits has taken an interesting turn. The new picture that emerges consists of five-factors. Paul Costa and Robert MacCrae have done extensive research on all the possible personality traits. They found that all the findings indicate a set of five-factors. They are often called Big Five. These factors are described below. 1. Openness to experience: Those who score high on this factor are imaginative, curious, open to new ideas and interested in cultural pursuits. In contrast, the low scoring people are rigid. 2. Extroversion: It characterises people who are socially active, assertive, outgoing, talkative, and fun loving. It is opposite of shy. 3. Agreeableness: This factor represents the traits of people who are helpful, cooperative, friendly, caring, and nurturing. It is the opposite of hostile and being self-centered. 4. Neuroticism: People scoring high on this factor are emotionally unstable, anxious, worried,

LEARNING CHECKS II

PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH This is one of the most popular approaches to personality. It focuses on change, development and conflicts in people’s lives. As you have learned earlier, this view owes largely to the contributions of Sigmund Freud. It is undoubtedly one of the most popular theories that have influenced equally the minds of common men as well as scholars from other disciplines. Freud was a physician and he developed the theory in the course of his clinical practice. Freud is famous for his innovative use of free association (a method in which a person is asked to openly share all the thoughts, feeling and ideas that come to his/her mind), dream analysis and analysis of errors to decipher the internal functioning of mind. The theory visualises human mind in terms of different levels of consciousness. Thus, we are aware of the current thoughts, which are in the consciousness. Beyond the conscious is the preconscious, which is immediately not accessible but can be accessed. Beyond the preconscious lies the unconscious, of which we are not aware. It contains the repressed desires and impulses.

1. Endomorphic people are relaxed and sociable. T/F 2. Allport proposed that traits are generalised behavioural tendencies.T/F 3. Cardinal traits are those dispositions around which life is organised. T/F 4. Introverts are more suggestible. T/F

5. Extroverts learn better when more aroused. T/F 6. The definition of personality is related to the theory of personality. T/F 7. Surface traits are caused by the interaction of behaviours. T/F 8. Personality refers to enduring dispositions that ensure consistency in behaviour. T/F 9. Personality traits are discrete and personality types are continuous. T/F 10. Trait theorists are interested in knowing how people differ and to what extent they differ. T/F

and Superego. 2. Ego: Reason : It develops out of Id. Thus. Personality Structure: The personality consists of three structures i. It is reflected by a concern with the retention and expulsion of faeces. provide a way to approach the unconscious. the Id seeks one thing only and that is the discharge of tension arising out of biological drives. Freud was able to infer these forces from the ways people behave (see Fig. Ego. perhaps. Let us understand these terms in some detail. Need gratification in any manner is its main concern. Conscious External Reality External Reality Superego Ego Preconscious Unconscious Id Fig. if a person is subjected to very harsh. dreams. They however. We are constantly engaged in the struggle to either find some socially acceptable way to express unconscious impulses or in effort to keep those impulses from being expressed. It follows the secondary processes. Id: Desire : It is that part of personality that deals with immediate gratification of primitive needs. It works on reality principle. The baby gets satisfaction from sucking. etc. (Refer to Chapter VII on Therapeutic Approaches). and aggressive impulses. 2. Stages of Personality Development : Freud gave emphasis on the childhood traumas as key to neurotic disorder during adulthood. Thus. Phallic stage : In this stage the child observes the difference between male and female and experiences what Freud called the Oedipus . it stores all the ideas and wishes that are concealed from conscious awareness. Oral stage : It is observed during the first year of life. It also creates the feelings of guilt and punishes the person if he or she falls short of the societal norms and ideals. it may make the person in his adult life preoccupied with cleanliness.4). making jokes. It follows the pleasure principle. sexual desires. therefore.42 Introduction to Psychology Freud believed that the unconscious was a reservoir of instinctive drives. may influence later personal qualities and conflicts experienced by the person. During this stage body pleasure is centered on the mouth. Problems encountered at any stage may retard or arrest–development and have long term effect on the life of a person. It is totally unconscious. repressive kind of training during this period. It represents the societal demands and ideals. Also. This occurs about five or six years of age. They are used as strong psychological forces and not physical locations in the brain. forgetfulness. should not be treated like three distinct entities. eating. because they cause psychological conflicts. Id. It tries to maximise pleasure and minimise the pain. Reflexes and primary processes are its mechanisms of functioning. Thus. The pattern of toilet training. anal and phallic stages unfold. This is why Freud felt that it is during toilet training a child has the first experience with externally imposed control. A brief description of these stages is given below. Then comes a quiet period of latency. mispronunciations. It is characterised by a shift in body pleasure to the anus.. and biting in the course of feeding. The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to bring repressed unconscious material to consciousness and to thereby aid us in living our lives in a more self aware and integrated manner. He believed that people normally progress through five stages of psychosexual development.4 Structure of Personality in Freudian Theory Anal stage : It is found in the second year of life. The newborn baby is completely dependent on others for the satisfaction of all needs. Finally there is a genital stage that occurs after puberty. Super Ego: Conscience : It deals with the ideals. During the first five years of life pleasure is successively focused on three zones of the body as the oral.e.

A young child often does that but a mature person cannot deny objective facts. When a person’s resolution of problems at any stage of psychosexual development is less than adequate. The psychodynamic theories emphasise that if an external danger leads to anxiety then people try to cope with it realistically and when realistic methods fail or are not available unrealistic defence mechanisms may be tried unconsciously. However. When Id’s impulses are very strong unpleasant feelings of nervousness. This kind of attraction leads to serious conflict. They use denial when the person can neither escape nor attack the threat. deprivation or overindulgence at a given stage or inconsistent alterations between indulgence and deprivation may lead to fixation. This is often replaced by repression. The person becomes capable of genuine love for other people and can achieve adult sexual satisfaction. moral anxiety which is due to the conflict of id and super ego. This occurs at about five years of age. some of them have framed theories that chart the emotional growth of young girls across a model of continuity as opposed to rivalry with the mother. People take recourse to a variety of defences. Instead. boys give up sexual feelings for their mothers and begin to see their father’s as models rather than as rivals. These defences serve as disguises through which people hide their motives and conflicts from themselves as well as from others. there is very little explicit or overt concern with sexuality. Ego may use defence mechanisms to manage them. and the total mind (or psyche) was a closed system directed towards maintaining equilibrium. girls give up their sexual desires for their father and identify with their mother. It has been found that fixation occurs when conflict at any stage of psychosexual development is very high. which is transformed in different ways.Self and Personality 43 Complex. When defences fail neurotic anxiety takes place. There are three types of anxiety: Neurotic anxiety which is due to the Id – ego conflict. This energy called libido is attached (cathected) to aspects of external and internal environment. Repression is forgetting or rejection from consciousness. When such regression takes place people display a behaviour which it typical of that less mature stage of development. The fear of punishment brings about resolution of the complexes and identification with the same sex parent. tension and worry take place. which is due to real external threat. King Oedipus unknowingly killed his father and then married his mother and Electra induced her brother to kill their mother. Fixation and Regression : These concepts are important in understanding psychosexual development. For him denial becomes less plausible. The child represses his or her memories of infantile sexuality and forbidden sexual activity. Defence Mechanisms : Freud thought that there is some kind of psychic energy. it may cause fixation to an earlier stage of development. and objective anxiety. He or she may relate to others in a heterosexual fashion. Fixation refers to a situation when a sexual impulse is arrested at an early stage. if journey towards this stage is marked by excessive stress or overindulgence. Regression occurs when someone goes back or reverts to an earlier stage. which he termed as Oedipus and Electra Complexes in boys and girls. Thus. These complexes were named after two Greek characters. subsequent stress may lead to regression to that earlier stage.1 summarises the main features of the five stages of psychosexual development. respectively. Since the time of Freud. many feminist psychoanalysts have argued that Freud’s ideas on the development of girls reflect a male-oriented perspective. The defences transform the wishes of Id into an acceptable form. Latency stage : This stage follows the phallic stage. Also. If the panic is very high. the instinctive impulses could be displaced from one another. Using a hydraulic model it was thought that Id is a kind of dynamo. Table 2. The discharge may be indirect also. Any forces that were building up required discharge. In other words it involves inhibition . Freud proposed that children develop a desire for the opposite sex parent and a wish to displace the same sex parent. of memories of threat. In other words. Genital stage : During this stage the person attains maturity in psychosexual development. the only possible alternative may be to deny it.

When repressed urges tend to find new and often disguised outlets. Projection is helpful because it reduces anxiety. the case studies are biased. .1 Stages of Sexual Development according to Freud Stage Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Approximate Age in Years) 0 to 1 1 to 3 3to 6 6to 12 12 to adult Erogenous Zone Mouth Anus Genitals None Genitals Developmental Task Weaning Toilet Training Overcoming Oedipal or Electra Complex Expanding interests Establishing intimate relationships of a threatening impulse or event by rendering it unconscious. The conscious ego operates according to principle. impulses.44 Introduction to Psychology Table 2. The traditional psychoanalytic approach is criticised on many grounds. 6. 8. The dream represents a wish fulfillment and is a censored version of the dream that lies underneath. motives. to one that is social in character. They have manifest content–the dream that we remember– and latent content – the hidden meaning that can be deciphered from the manifest content. The sexual attachment of a girl to his father and her desire to replace her mother is . It is said that its concepts are vaguely defined. and beginning a journey means death. This reduces disappointment and saves the person. logical distinctions are not made. They work as wish fulfilment device. In reaction formation. For instance viewing a house has reference to one’s body. 5. Sublimation is used to displace or redirect the impulses from an object that is sexual. 3. The blocking of unacceptable impulses to keep them from awareness is . the theory is not testable. People often create false reasons to manage an interpersonal interaction in trouble. release of unconscious tension. Various forbidden acts become associated with as the child is scolded or disciplined for performing them. Another important defence mechanism is Projection. In Rationalisation people make excuses. and the efficacy of psychoanalytic therapy is questionable. and work as guardians of sleep. 10. This defence mechanism has been central to the theory propounded by Freud. The part of personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality is . The sexual attachment of a boy to his mother and his desire to replace his father is termed as 2. wishes. bath means birth. desires. According to Freud symbols in dreams represent different things. etc. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. 9. the anxiety provoking impulse is replaced in consciousness by its opposite. Dreams serve three purposes. desire that lie beyond a person’s normal awareness constitute the part of personality. 7. The thoughts. The person’s own unacceptable impulses are inhibited and the source of the anxiety is attributed to another person. 4. In the person interprets some of his own feelings or actions in more acceptable terms. Dream : Dreams are considered as the royal road to unconscious. clothes means nakedness. the techniques have low reliability and validity. it is called .

He devoted much of the time to the study of such expressions in various traditions. To be constructively masculine or feminine. The unconscious of every female includes a masculine. a general perspective is presented. One of the Carl Jung expressions of the striving for wholeness includes the mandala. the Earth Mother. and conscious reality. and thinking. Its contents are archetypes or primordial images. individuals of each sex must recognise and integrate these opposite sex elements within themselves. They are due to heredity. According to him achieving unity and wholeness a person must become increasingly aware of the wisdom available in one’s personal and collective unconscious and must learn to live in harmony with it. The human qualities of creativity. With a view to develop familiarity with post-Freudian developments in psychodynamic perspective some of the major theories are briefly described here: Carl Jung : Understanding the Collective Unconscious Jung was an early admirer of Freud but later developed his own theory known as analytical psychology. In contrast to Freud’s biological orientation. dreams and art of all mankind. Jung describes four ways of contact or experience of the world. and realising potentials are Erich Fromm outcomes of a desire for freedom and a striving for justice and truth. assertive element (the animus). Jung held that self strives for unity and oneness. and the young potent hero. Fromm had a social orientation. They are not individually acquired. Jung proposed that the human psyche includes conscious as well as a covert or shadow aspect. Alfred Adler : Life style and Social Interest In his theory known as individual psychology Adler believed that behaviour is purposeful and goal directed. In fact. He thought that everyone of us has the capacity to choose and . and expansion of the concept of ego. that is unconscious. feeling. His work recognises the value of positive qualities such as tenderness and love. These theories present a definite shift in focus. Thus. So. psychoanalytic thought has grown in many directions. For him character traits develop from experiences with other individuals. justice. Some examples of archetypes include God. In turn.Self and Personality 45 POST FREUDIAN DEVELOPMENT Subsequent theorists called Neo-Freudians have given attention to social determinants. The unconscious of every male includes a feminine. the dominant character traits of the people in a society become forces shaping the social process and the culture itself. An individual’s personal growth involves an unfolding of this shadow and its gradual integration with the rest of the personality into a meaningful coherent life pattern. competence and problem-solving abilities are emphasised. The ideals of truth. They are characterised by less prominent roles to sexual and aggressive tendencies of Id. He also visited India in 1930s. etc. culture is moulded by the mode of existence of a given society. He claimed that there is collective unconscious also. Jung is also famous for his distinction of extraversionintroversion. can be genuine strivings and not merely rationalisations. The trend is towards an ego-psychology. They can be understood in terms of their relationship with others. passive element (the anima). freedom. It is an archetype that is expressed in many ways. They are found in myths. Fromm argued that psychological qualities of the people such as growth. Erich Fromm: The Human Concerns Fromm viewed human beings as basically social beings. They include sensing. Diverse emphasis have appeared and it is not possible to present all the perspectives. intuition.

and to interact with. ego. Our goals are the sources of motivation. to be aware of. His concept of identity crisis of adolescent has drawn considerable attention. the society “in principle. The originality and comprehensiveness of his theory is remarkable. however. The theoretical developments in psychoanalysis are still taking place. The psychological disorders were not caused by the fixation of psychic energy but from disturbed interpersonal relationship during childhood. His emphasis on social and cultural forces is crucial as it distinguishes him from Freud. or by providing too much approval and admiration or too little. disparaging. In this process ego identity is central. He overlooked female experiences and perspectives and implied that females should strive to be like males. These styles are described as moving toward people (affection and acceptance from others). Erikson is also famous for his psycho-history of Gandhi ji. The theories are largely based on case studies and no rigorous scientific basis is available.” Thus young people must generate for themselves some central perspective and direction that gives them a meaningful sense of unity and purpose. With advancing age we face a wider range of human relationships. The use of small and atypical individuals as samples for generalisation is another limitation of this approach. the child feels insecure–a feeling termed by Horney as basic anxiety. Freud is also accused of gender discrimination.e. not because of any innate inferiority among the females. a widening social radius”. Recapitulation The psychodynamic perspective is rooted in Freud’s psychoanalysis. moving against people (others are hostile). by showing indifference). When parents’ behaviour toward a child is indifferent. He has used males as the prototype of all human personality development. Only by overcoming them through appropriate therapy the person can recover. Erikson believed that “human personality in principle develops according to steps pre-determined in the growing person’s readiness to be driven toward. Karen Horney : Social Foundations of Personality She argued that the differences between females and males were largely the results of social factors.46 Introduction to Psychology create. Here it may be mentioned that he considered each stage involving a crisis. Freud. Deep resentment toward parents or basic hostility occurs due to basic anxiety. Psychodynamic theories face strong criticism from many quarters. which was published as Gandhi’s Truth. The goals that provide security and help to overcome inferiority are very important. He calls attention to the problems of social adaptation. He also viewed development as a life-long process. The parents generate feelings of isolation and helplessness in their children that interfere with healthy development by being too dominant. has profound impact on literature and social success. He distinguished three systems of personality i. The accounts prepared by the therapists are subject to various kinds of distortions.. These patterns lead to unhappiness. and erratic. and . He thought that everyone suffers from an inferiority complex or feelings of inadequacy that arise from childhood. and moving away from people (striving for independence). Id. His theory was discussed in your textbook for Class XI. According to her each sex has attributes admired by the other and neither should be viewed as superior or inferior. Subsequent theoretical developments have expanded the scope of psychodynamic theory by incorporating aspects of ego functioning and reality. Erik Erikson: In Search of Identity Erikson developed a theory of personality development with a focus on social adaptation. On the other hand. The solution of problems faced during the eight psycho-social stages determines adult development. tends to be so constituted as to meet and invite this succession of potentialities for interaction and attempts to safeguard and to encourage the proper rate and the proper sequence of their enfolding. The concepts are not defined properly and it is difficult to submit them to scientific testing.

phallic. Learning is based on certain observable manipulations of stimuli and responses. Theorists like Carl Jung. It follows the reality principle. T/F 4. T/F 10. which focuses on responses and reinforcements. . Id. and superego can be located in human brain. Psychodynamic theories are based on scientific evidences. and genital stages. People experience internal conflicts due to anxiety that becomes associated with forbidden thoughts and wishes. These stages have different erogenous zones through which gratification is obtained. He proposed that children pass through the stages of oral. T/F contd. The behaviour is considered to be a product of complex stimulus–response combinations. This approach is criticised for its limited database and the ambiguity of concepts. T/F 9. LEARNING CHECKS IV 5. if paired together change the situation in such a manner that the previously neutral event (now CS) alone evokes the same response that was produced by the potent stimulus. Skinner refused to accept internal motivational forces or traits. According to Jung unconscious holds only the individual’s repressed urges or desires and not the collective memories of the entire human race. The person represses these and sends them to the unconscious. Ego operates according to pleasure principle. T/F 7. The superego is the representation of the internalised rules of the society and punishes the deviations by feelings of guilt. Unconscious is the main motivating force behind human behaviour. During the phallic stage the male child develops Oedipus complex. The ego is the seat of creativity. should be the chief concern. Operant conditioning is a process of learning in which behaviour that leads to satisfying consequences or rewards is likely to be repeated. social. The ego makes effort to reconcile–Id with the actualities of world. paid less attention to Id and more to the ego. The superego is roughly equivalent to conscience. Reaction formation is the attribution of one’s own objectionable impulses to others. and selfish. This approach has been extended to explain and treat many abnormal behaviours including irrational fears. For them the only thing that matters is the external conditions that determine the pattern of reinforcement. reaction formation. Adler. and projection etc. Freud believed that unconscious conflicts are located in the psychosexual development. They advocate that the complex learning. and cultural forces and the contemporary circumstances of the person. and the formation of self-fulfilling goals. rationalisation. Horney and Erikson. planning. T/F 8. Freud considered dreams as wish fulfilment. T/F BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH The behaviourists did not give importance to the internal causes of behaviour. T/F 2.Self and Personality 47 superego. latency. However. The classical conditioning of Pavlov emphasised learning as a product of the pairing of responses with stimuli. A defence mechanism is a mental strategy that blocks the harmful Id impulse while reducing anxiety. anal. According to psychodynamic view the events that we no longer consciously remember may still influence our behaviour.. Fromm. They shifted the focus towards interpersonal. The Id is like a child who is demanding. Analysis of stimulus conditions controlling 1. impulsive. T/F 3. To cope with them people take recourse to various defence mechanisms such as displacement. T/F 6. which is stored in human brain in the form of S-R connections. ego. Id strives towards biological satisfaction following pleasure principle.. Skinner emphasised on the operant conditioning. The Neo-Freudians disputed many of the views of Freud. repressed materials generally surface again. As you know a neutral stimulus and a potent stimulus (UCS).

People also learn by observing others. Such persons are sensitive to the needs and rights of Carl Rogers others.5). Their actions become increasingly constructive. They always remain in touch with their own values and feelings and experience life more deeply. Recapitulation The behaviourist view is opposed to any internal or subjective entity as a determinant of behaviour. which show that observational learning can account for the learning of many novel responses. In this way the approach does not find a need to have a strong concept of personality. but do not allow society’s standards to shape their feelings or actions to an excessive degree. Such a condition is created in client-centered therapy. however. The causes of behaviour are located in the current conditions that control present behaviour. When life experiences are inconsistent with our ideas about us we experience anxiety. It uses the conditions of learning and the cues in the situation for determining the pattern of behaviour. It is clear. The opposite is true when there is little or no overlap between the two (See Fig. This situation needs creation of an atmosphere of unconditional positive regard. Out of many such theories we shall discuss the theories of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.5 Pattern of Adjustment and Self-Concept . A gap between selfconcept and reality is the main cause of maladjustment. The theories following this approach recognise the role of personal responsibility and growth and emphasise on the present rather than the past. It is simplistic and neglects the subjective and psychodynamic processes that are important in human life. this view provides an analysis of behaviour. If our selfconcept is consistent with actual life experiences. punishment and environmental cues. Thus. Rogers believed that one’s mental health is related to the degree of congruence or match between our selfconcept and life experiences. This kind of learning is also called modeling or observational learning. You may recall the pioneering studies by Bandura. we learn that significant others will approve of us only when we behave in certain ways and express certain feelings. drives or conflicts in one’s personal history. HUMANISTIC APPROACH This approach puts forward a positive and optimistic view of human nature. Thus a person is accepted irrespective of what they say or do. Rogers Self Theory The most important idea proposed by Rogers is that of fully functioning person. Using the process of learning and environmental factors such as reward.48 Introduction to Psychology behaviour is crucial for explaining behavioural phenomena. Much of our social learning is based on observation without any direct reward or reinforcement administered to the learner. The incentives and reinforcers are important in determining what a person does in a particular situation. 2. Incongruence Congruence Self-concept Experience Self-concept Experience Well-adjusted individual Poorly adjusted individual Fig. we ourselves will be congruent and we will be well adjusted. It is held that human beings are largely responsible for what happens to them. that everybody does not get success. The emphasis is on what people are doing in the current situation rather than motives. 2. People want to become such persons and move in this direction. Social learning approach of Bandura does not propose traits or dispositions.

accept themselves. are not trapped 3. have autonomy and are not trapped by their own self-concepts or the expectations of others and the society. and creative work. 6. LEARNING CHECKS V 1. independent. unity). Human beings are considered free to shape their lives and to self-actualise. dedicated to some cause outside themselves. Recapitulation The Humanistic approach is rooted in two assumptions i. the focus on subjective experience and the importance of individual choice. were spontaneous. devoted to goals. Maslow had an optimistic and positive view of man who has the potentials for love. 3. 2. Maslow has given a detailed account of psychologically healthy people who have attained self-actualisation – a state in which people have reached their own fullest potential. have “the courage to be”.g. They experience the “here-and-now”. people do experience moments of selfactualisation (peak experiences) when a feeling of richness and bliss is found. Among the humanistic theorists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are the most significant. not as a means of fulfilling a deficiency.Self and Personality 49 Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualisation You have already read about the need hierarchy of Maslow in the chapter on motivation in your textbook of XI grade. joy. 4. They see the world more accurately because objects are seen in relation to themselves. order. Peak experiences are and moments in a person’s life. had fresh appreciation of people and events. and what they make of their lives as their . and cynicism. 7. They are likely to behave in disordered ways. 5. On the hierarchy of needs a preoccupation with meeting lower order needs may lead to a deficiency orientation.e. their feelings. autonomous. is the inborn drive to develop one’s talents and capacities. 1. How do you think about yourself? The humanistic theorists have indicated that healthy personality lies in not merely adjustment to society. apathy.. It involves a quest to know oneself deeply and to be true to one’s own feelings without disguise. According to them the healthy people share the following characteristics. and their limits. Maslow studied a number of self actualised people and found that they were more open to experiences. They do not live in the past or dwell in the future through anxious expectations and distorted defences. Thus. Maslow used the term Meta needs for higher order needs (e.8 western societies people are trained to focus on material satisfaction of needs. They realise their potentialities. were in tune with their inner world. The frustration of meta needs results in alienation. resisted conformity. From the humanistic perspective people are . Such persons are bothered about meeting the needs for the material things they do not have. The humanistic approach emphasises the significance of positive aspects of life (see Box 2. Self actualisation is like a than a . 4. In the BOX 2. WHO IS A HEALTHY PERSON? own responsibility. goodness. They become aware of themselves. According to Rogers parents must create a setting in which children are . justice. Healthy humans want to feel free to and their own lives. The satisfaction of needs is also influenced by cultural factors. to be oneself in the here and now. Positive behaviour shown to a person with no contingencies attached is . 2. beauty. personality is a person’s perceptual orientation and the level of needs on which he or she focuses attention and energy. While fully self-actualised persons are rare. The lower order needs are considered more important than higher order needs.8).

hostility). In an interesting research two cardiologists.g. Friedman has now identified a selfhealing personality. TYPE B AND TYPE C PERSONALITIES Studies have suggested a type of personality which is prone to cancer. Abraham Maslow approached human behaviour in terms of needs that motivate people. high cholesterol levels. responsive. rude. and/or a tendency to be antagonistic. This disrupts the homeostatic mechanism and weaken the body’s capacity to defend itself from cancer cells. The results of researchers are not conclusive. They were found to be highpowered. When these two are similar the situation is congruent and a person is fully functioning. The person complies with those in authority. Some researchers have tried to correlate this personality type with the severity of the disease. It can be described in terms of enthusiasm. and creative. This type of person suppresses his or her negative emotion (e. irritable. It was found that Type A people were twice as likely to as Type B to develop some form of coronary heart disease (CHD). and resentful in response to everyday frustrations. or smoking. People with Type C personality are more likely to suffer cancer.9 TYPE A.e. It has been found that the risks of Type A personality were equal to or greater than the risks of high blood pressure. and uncooperative in everyday interactions. although they may be calm and conscientious. It is found in people who are aggressively involved in a chronic.. empathy. They develop a sense of humour that is philosophical than hostile. However.50 Introduction to Psychology BOX 2. The self healing emotionally–balanced people are alert. The humanistic approach is unique in its scope to attend to the role of meaning and spirituality in human life. The needs encompass a wide spectrum–from basic needs to selfactualisation. Morris has termed it as Type C ( Cancer prone) personality. depends on the availability of people who provide the conditions for growth i. Type B personality is defined as absence of Type A traits. particularly lung cancer. intense. Rogers developed a theoretical model which emphasised on the relationship between what we feel we are (the real self) and what we feel we should be (the ideal self). are good problem solvers. openness and unconditional positive regard. In scientific terms the humanistic theories need further development and analysis. He is the founder of client-centered therapy. His ideas have been influential in counselling and therapy. More recent research has shown that the critical factor that predisposes Type A personality to health risks is hostility or a tendency to become angry. Self-actualisation is the need to grow. unassertive and patient. Rogers was very optimistic about human nature. These persons were followed up for eight and a half years. It refers to an action-emotion complex. have close relationships with other people. Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman noticed that many of their patients possessed similar personality traits. ambitious. surly. and have a playful sense of humour. Such an individual is cooperative. They are spontaneous. and energetic. anger. Maslow believed that self-actualisation is experienced in peak experiences that are deep. incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time. The blocking of emotions releases certain neuropeptides in the brain. competitive workaholics who seemed unable to slow down and relax. It may be noted that personality characteristics can influence the person directly by altering the immune system or indirectly by affecting the healthy-related behaviours. This kind of personality was termed Type A personality. and momentary. they tell us what personality should be rather than what it is. Based on a survey these researchers identified people who were type A and those who were type B. CONCEPT OF GUNAS In prevalent Indian thought the notion of personality as an entity or totality of dispositions is not . Being congruent. which happens to be the goal of development.

Self and Personality 51 popular. they are rooted in different theoretical orientations. OBSERVER REPORTS Observation of behaviour is helpful in appraising personality of a person in a variety of settings. placement. etc. information from other persons etc. ACTIVITY 2. Bhagvadgita states that Sattva guna includes the following attributes: cleanliness. laziness. and Tamas. It is used for a variety of purposes. studying developmental changes. and nomination are some frequently used techniques that utilise observational data for personality assessment. They.3 Are you a Type A person? Answer the following questions yes or no. Let us try to learn about these assessment approaches. depression. dissatisfaction with one’s position. dutifulness. Perhaps the balance of the gunas is the right state of being. In our personal life we use expectations based on past experience. stereotypes. diagnosis. however. It tries to study the typical responses or what the person most often does in a situation. anger. Interview : Interviewing and observing are frequently used to know the personality of individuals. personal biases. and walk rapidly? Do you overemphasise some of your words and add dramatic gestures while speaking? Do you become very annoyed when you have to wait in line? Do you constantly schedule more activities than time allows? Do you feel a sense of guilt if you try to relax? Do you try to move the topic of conversation to your own interests? Do you believe that your success is due to the fast pace that you maintain? Getting to know and understand people and describe them is a task in which everybody is involved. You will agree that in order to meaningfully interact with people we need to understand them and to predict what they will do. counselling etc. The formal efforts to analyse and measure personalities are termed as personality assessment. procrastination. sharp intelligence. It may be noted that all the three gunas are present in each and every person in different degrees. These are: Observer Report. mental equilibrium. Assessment refers to the procedures to evaluate or differentiate people on the basis of certain characteristics. All of us frequently talk to others and watch their behaviours. and staunch determination. observation. finding relationships among variables. It must be noted that these assessment approaches throw light on different aspects of personality as they have access to different aspects of personality. and Self Report Measures. envy for others.) . According to one of the major perspectives of Indian thought namely Samkhya Yoga all material elements are infused with the modes of nature or three Gunas namely Sattva. respect for superiors. Tamas guna characterises mental imbalance. sense control. mood. arrogance. The Attributes of Rajas include intensive activity. desire for sense gratification. Interview. speak. needs. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy. are influenced by hearsay. discipline. Rajas. The dominance of one or the other guna may lead to a particular type of behaviour. detachment. rating. Also. There are various ways in which personality has been assessed by psychologists. As you have read l l l l l (Note: The more items answered yes. It is used in the study of diversity in the people. and little interest in spiritual elevation. the higher your degree of Type A behaviour. Let us examine them in some detail. Projective Techniques. conversation. l l l l ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY Do you give yourself harder than most of the people you know? Do you tend to complete sentences for people who speak too slowly? Do you eat. observation. The person is considered as made of dynamic and context sensitive qualities. and a feeling of helplessness. truthfulness. and a materialistic mentality. gravity.

It requires certain degree of maturity on the part of a psychologist to be able to obtain valid data through these techniques. For instance. In using nomination each group member is asked to choose one or more group members with whom he or she would like to work. Despite these limitations interviews are frequently used as personality test for employment purposes. The biggest problem is that the presence of observer may vitiate the results since mere presence of a stranger may influence the observation process and the behaviour of the person being observed. play or undertake any other significant activity. It is used with a group of persons who know each other very well through long-term interaction. The ratings suffer from several kinds of errors. A nomination technique has been found to be one of the most dependable techniques but it can also be affected by personal biases. However. In order to use ratings effectively the traits should be clearly defined in specific terms. raters have a tendency ACTIVITY 2. The nominations received by a person can be analysed in many ways to understand personality and behavioural qualities of the person. which colours their judgment of other traits. Discuss your observations with classmates and your teacher. A very detailed guideline is prepared to see examples of specific behaviours for identifying personality traits under consideration. Nomination : It is frequently used in obtaining peer assessment. Use this set of rating scales in observing children of a primary school in playground. using observation for personality assessment is more than just observation and is a sophisticated procedure. A commonly used test of this kind is situational stress test. The structured interviews have specific questions and follow a set procedure.52 Introduction to Psychology in class XI textbook. Psychologists call this halo effect. Most of the interviews are usually unstructured. study. Everybody watches people and form impressions about personality. to place persons in the middle of the scale and avoid extreme positions. interviews may be structured or unstructured. Rating scales are also used to standardise the evaluations. Ratings : Ratings are frequently used in educational and industrial settings. It is obvious that while the use of interview and observation is useful they do have several limitations. You must have seen people going for interview for job. This is done to obtain objective comparison of the persons being interviewed. For instance. It has been found that rather than using numbers or general descriptive adjectives that may convey different meanings to different raters a trait may be more clearly identified in terms of carefully stated behavioural anchors. For instance the person may be asked to perform some task with the help of two persons who are obstructive or . Observation : Behavioural observation is also used to assess personality. Using carefully designed observation the clinical psychologist may understand and gain insight into the personality of the client. Also. It provides sample of the behaviour of a person under stressful situations. Situational Tests : A variety of situational tests have been devised to provide assessment of personality. In the unstructured mode of interviewing interviewers get impressions and use their hunches or let the person expand on the information that has potential to unravel the personality of the interviewee. a clinical psychologist may like to observe his client’s interactions with family members and visitors to his or her home. The kind of professional training required for obtaining useful data through these methods is quite demanding and time consuming. raters are found to be unduly influenced by a single favourable or unfavourable trait. admission to schools or while solving problems. The rating procedure can be improved by training the raters.4 Using Ratings While Observing Children Discuss in small groups of classmates and identify a set of adjectives describing certain attributes prevalent in children.

4. —————————— is the name of the formal procedure used to analyse and measure personalities. They are: observer reports. projective techniques. Researchers have developed a variety of projective techniques using various kinds of stimulus materials and responses for assessing personality. In interview the person or candidate has chance to explain his or her qualities in his or her ———————. LEARNING CHECKS VI PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES You have learned while studying psychoanalytic theory that behaviour is also determined by unconscious forces. Rorschach ink blot test). TAT. 2. The person is informed that there are no right or wrong responses. obse rvation. sentence completion test). The projective techniques are different from the psychometric tests in many ways. Role-playing may be used. 5. In unstructured interviewing interviewers get —————— and use their ——————. Personal interviews may be ————— —————— toward certain applicants. 6. In the present section three main approaches are described. 7. The situation may be presented realistically or through videotape etc. 8. 4. 3. These techniques are based on the assumption that weakening the stimulus structure will allow the individual to project his/her feelings. Draw-A-Man-test). The person being assessed is usually not told the purpose and the method of scoring and interpretation. Role-playing is an example of a ———. 3.g. desires. 1. 5. The person is clearly and explicitly instructed to play a part. (situations which are open to different interpretations). In some other techniques the person may be asked to choose among a variety of stimuli indicating those they like best and least. The stimulus material is relatively or fully unstructured and poorly defined. The scoring and interpretation in projective assessment are lengthy and subjective. nomination. The projective techniques were developed to assess unconscious motives and feelings. and self-report measures. Also.g. 2. In other kinds of techniques one may be required to express himself or herself through drawings (e. 9. either reporting verbally or overtly what he or she is asked to do. Some of them require the examinee to make associations to stimuli such as words or inkblots (e. and need which can be interpreted by experts. rating. Some involve the writing of stories around pictures e. . Each response is considered to reveal a true and significant aspect of personality. because of motivational involvement and social desirability reasons people do not like to share about themselves in direct ways. and situational tests. Psychologists have developed a number of approaches and procedures. all of them share the following features. Other techniques require the person to complete sentences (e. In observation the presence of may vitiate the results. indirect methods of assessment are required. Instead they are based on 1. During ———— each group member is asked to choose one group member with whom he or she would like to undertake any significant activity. While stimulus material and nature of responses elicited vary. —————— effect refers to undue influence of a single favourable or unfavourable trait. They cannot be scored in any objective manner.g. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with ———— and ————. Recapitulation Personality assessment refers to the procedures to evaluate or differentiate people on the basis of certain characteristics. Observer reports include techniques such as interview.Self and Personality 53 non-cooperative. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy. Therefore. which colours the judgment of other traits.g.

The blots were originally made by dropping ink on a piece of paper and then folding the paper in half. 2. If you take this test you will be instructed as follows: “Tell what has led up to the event shown in the picture. An example of a TAT card is given in Fig. 2. Starting with the first card the person is reminded about the response and is required to tell where and how the response was seen by him or her. or some combination (e. It is expected that people will interpret an ambiguous stimulus according to their individual readiness to perceive in a certain way. An example of the Rorschach type Inkblots cards is over the inquiry phase begins. Once the responding to all the 10 boys (B). They are obstacle dominance (emphasis on the frustrating object). Some cards are used for adult males (M). Researchers have developed special scoring keys for use with the TAT. Fig.7 An illustration showing the drawing of a card of TAT Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study (The P-F Study) : This test was developed by Rosenzweig. The blots are printed and centered on pieces of white cardboard of about 7”x10” size. In the first phase the person is instructed as follows: “I am going to show you a number of inkblots. adult females (F).54 Introduction to Psychology assumptions of the dynamic theories. The person is encouraged to imagine and say whatever comes to mind. The themes that recur in these imaginative productions are thought to have significance. and want you to tell me what you see in each of them”. Let us try to understand the nature and use of some of the well-known projective techniques. The cards are presented one at a time. 6. and then give the outcome”. which are recorded. However. The use and interpretation of this technique requires training. 2. Five of them are black and white and five have same color. There are two phases of administration: performance proper and inquiry. describe what is happening at the moment. The person being tested gives the responses.g. girls (G). The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) : This test was developed by Morgan and Murray in 1935. ego defence (emphasis on . BM). Fig. what the characters are feeling and thinking. The Rorschach Inkblots test consists of 10 symmetrical inkblots (see Fig. Twenty cards are appropriate for every subject. The Rorschach Inkblots : A Swiss psychiatrist named Hermann Rorschach developed this technique. In India many adaptations of this test have been done.6).7. It consists of a series of 30 pictures and one blank card. lesser number of cards (even five) have been successfully used. The cards are usually administered to a person individually. They are generally qualitative in nature and require rigorous training in interpreting the different kinds of responses. Using frustration and aggression as the main focus it presents a series of cartoons in which one person frustrates another or calls attention to a frustrating condition. The analysis of responses is based on type and direction of aggression. 2.

Try to figure out the differences. Use it on five persons. etc. 1. 4. These tests may demand association. It is held that the type of ending used reflects the motivation. and need persistence (emphasis on the constructive solution of the problem). People often tend to note the confirming instances and ignore the contradictory data. arrangement. Uday Pareek and Rosenzweig have adapted this test for Indian population. Recapitulation Projective techniques appraise personality in an indirect manner. 3. These techniques present a paradox. The direction of aggression may be towards the environment (extragressive) or toward oneself (intraggressive) or inaggressive or tuned off in an attempt to gloss over or evade the situation. the examinee is required to make up a story about the person as if he or she were a character in a novel or play. Try to find out the similarities and differences in the obtained responses. and pre-occupation with headaches. I am proud of ————————————— ——————————————————. Discuss your findings with your teacher. 2. The Holtzman Inkblots Test has ACTIVITY 2. movement. form. The Draw-A-Person Test: It is a simple test in which the examinee is presented with a blank sheet of paper and a pencil and an eraser. Some of the interpretations included the following: omission of facial features means that person is evasive about highly conflictual interpersonal relationship. or incomplete stimulus.6 Using Draw-A-Person Test Ask a boy and a girl of 10 years to draw two human figures – a male and a female. the responses will be projections or reflections of his or her feelings. Finally. unclear. The interpretation of the responses or products is a skilled job for which specialised training is required. and expression with drawings. content etc. disproportionably large head means organic brain disease. desires and needs. Discuss the results with your teacher. construction. In their use the interscorer agreement (scorer reliability) is considered more important. Machover has used it for personality assessment. While validity of the findings using these techniques is considerably low the practitioners are very fond of using it. The task is to provide an ending. When the drawing is complete the examinee is normally asked to draw the figure of another person of the opposite sex. The examinee has to respond to the question “what this might be?” The part of the blot is clarified. The analysis of personality with the help of projective techniques is rooted in one or the other kind of psychodynamic theory. Each response is scored for location. conflicts. They are based on the assumption that when a person is forced to impose meaning on relatively structured. This kind of illusory validation partly explains the popularity of projective techniques. The best thing about my mother was —— ————————————————. Some of the frequently used projective tests are Rorschach Inkblot Test consists of 10 inkblot cards: five of them are black and white and five have the same color. graphic emphasis of the neck means disturbance about the lack of control over ACTIVITY 2. She used the psychodynamic approach to analyse the drawings. completion. He or she is asked to draw a person. Sentence Completion Test: In this test a number of stems consisting of a few words are presented. . Perhaps we cling to certain stereotypes even when the findings or observations are contradictory. They are very interesting and provide a variety of materials. A sample of items used in sentence completion test is given below. Their reliability and validity in traditional sense is low. impulses. Thus the examinee has many opportunities to reveal underlying motivations about each topic. The scores help to understand personality functioning.Self and Personality 55 protection of the frustrated person). and attitudes of the person. My greatest fear is ——————————. selection.5 Using A Sentence Completion Test With the help of your teacher prepare a set of sentence blanks. My father——————————————--.

The details of various features are analysed and interpreted in the light of certain assumptions of the psychodynamic theory. The mode of reaction is analysed. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):Hathaway and McKinley. It refers to psychopathology and represents a lack of feeling for others. A person scoring high on this dimension tends to be hostile. the projective tests try to understand the dynamic and unconscious aspects of personality. On the whole. In the sentence completion test a number of stems consisting of a few words are given. It has been used in many diverse types of populations. egocentric. and antisocial. It has 567 items in the form of affirmative statements to which the test taker gives the responses: true or false. Psychesthenia. 3. In a sentence completion test an examinee has many opportunities to reveal ——————————— about each topic. These dimensions subsume 32 personality traits. Masculinity-femininity. They are called self–report because the examinee has to respond objectively to the items of the measure and his or her reports are accepted as they are. 5. The theme of the story thus produced is analysed. The examinee is asked to write a story for each card referring to the past. —————— and ——————————. The Rorschach scoring criteria include location. The TAT has 30 pictures and one blank card. LEARNING CHECKS VII SELF–REPORT MEASURES These are structured measures in which the examinee is required to give verbal responses on some kind of rating scale. Sixteen Factors Personality Inventory (16 PF) : This test was developed by Cattell 1. The examinee is required to draw male and female figures. and a tendency to defy the social conventions. 4. This test has been found to be more reliable and overcome the limitations of Rorschach test. Depression. 6. The examinee has to complete the sentence. as an aid in the process of psychiatric diagnosis. In India an effort has been made by Mallick and Joshi as they developed a test similar to MMPI the test is known as Jodhpur Multiphasic Personality Inventory (JMPI). Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) : This test was developed by Eysenck to assess two basic dimensions of personality namely introverted-extroverted and emotionally stable–emotionally unstable. They are interpreted on the basis of norms developed by the author of the test. Hysteria. a tough manner of interacting with people. The revised test known as MMPI– 2 was published in 1989. Psychopathic Deviate. The type of ending used by the examinee reflects his or her motivation. Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study presents a series of cartoons in which one person ———————— another. determinant. conceived this test in 1940. The MMPI-2 provides scores for 10 subscales: Hypochondriasis. The scores on these measures are quantitative. and Social Intervention. Schizophrenia.56 Introduction to Psychology 45 cards and one response is required for each. The Draw-APerson test has also been used for the assessment of personality. The examinee has to provide a verbal response to that situation. Projective tests assume that ambiguous stimulus is viewed by an examinee according to his or her ———————— ———— in a certain way. They are not treated as projections to be interpreted by the investigator. In subsequent research this test has been found very effective in detecting psycho-pathology. Projective assessment is based on the assumption that personal —————— of ——————— stimuli reflect the unconscious contents. In subsequent work he also identified a third dimension named psychotism. Mania. In TAT stories produced by the examinee the hero is —————————————. Paranoia. 2. . present and the future of the main characters. Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study has 24 cartoon drawings depicting two persons in frustrating situations.

You do not like to share your experiences with others. 7. you are capable of keeping yourself occupied. It is used for high school students to adults. If given opportunity. vocational exploration. the scoring is in reversed order. On holidays. You are a thinking type. you would like to have a cup of tea and sit in some secluded corner enjoying the tea alone. 4. Broota. and enjoy the company of nature. 6. You like more of those people who are sociable and mixing type. In parties. Key . Factor analyses is a statistical technique in which correlations among the items are used to find out the clusters of items that are correlated or go together. 8. Add all the scores across 10 statements and that is your score on the test.Self and Personality 57 on the basis of a large set of empirical data about personality descriptions. The test has declarative statements and the examinee has to respond to a specific situation by choosing from among given alternatives. In addition to 16 basic scales there are 4 second order indices of personality. 9. listening music and reading.e. You do not get bored when alone. b. and occupational testing. even on phone. meeting people and attending parties is a waste of time. 2. and 8. Attention: These are sample items and should not be used for clinical evaluation or for diagnosis. Apart from the above-mentioned measures there is a huge number of measures that assess specific personality dimensions and needs. For these three statements. each followed by 3 alternative responses (a. The test is currently available in 5 separate forms and in one form of the test there are 105 items. You hesitate to talk to strangers. That makes you feel more secure. — — — — — — — — — — (b) undecided — — — — — — — — — — (c) disagree — — — — — — — — — — Interpretation Scores between 10-14: Introvert Scores between 15-25: Ambivert Scores between 26-30: Extravert © K.D. you like a very personal life. you like to be to yourself. you do not like to stay at home. ACTIVITY 2. (a) agree 1. On holidays. 5. This test is frequently used in career guidance. After marking all the 10 statements give a score of 1 each to all statements marked ‘a’ 2 each to ‘b’ and 3 each to ‘c’ except statements 1. 10. 2 for ‘b’ and 1 for ‘c’. You like to meet friends and relatives. You think. b & c). 3 for ‘a’. He used the technique of factor analysis to identify the basic personality structure. you would like to have a large circle of friends. 3. Read each statement carefully and mark the alternative (encircle the corresponding letter a. i. 3.7 Where do you stand on the dimension of Introversion-Extraversion? Ten statements are given below.. or c ) that is close to your experience/thinking/or way of life. like seclusion.

this test measures dependency as a response disposition. Dependence Proneness Scale (DPS) : Developed by J. The personality variables include Achievement. Affiliation. In particular it is used to provide self description and description of relationships. Some of the frequently used measures are as follows. It is a tendency on the part of the respondent to endorse socially desirable. lack of internal control.. MMPI 2 has 10 sub scales. fatalist. i. The responses are considered. Exhibition. Dominance.e.58 Introduction to Psychology BOX 2. Order.B. ego-ideal and pessimism. Now it is also used in other settings for counselling and employment purposes. and undecided around the middle. This work has been undertaken in different Indian languages as well as in English. introversion. It takes about They are used for assessing specific attributes. Abasement. this test measures personality variables. Interception. locus of control. as they are to provide a quantitative index of the trait being measured. i. It is for adults. The responses are given on a response sheet. Difference. It involves four components. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) assesses two basic dimensions of personality: introverted-extroverted and . Each item has pair of statements and the student has to choose one alternative. dominance. affiliation motive. putting a prescribed number of cards into each. nishkama karma and so on. Hathaway and McKinley developed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for the purpose of psychiatric diagnosis. Recapitulation Self-report measures of personality involve verbal items of different types. This is the tendency to agree with items/questions regardless of their contents. Q Sort is a measure to study a person’s traits through rating scales. The response sets make it difficult for true assessment of personality. The examinee is asked to sort hundred or so statements into nine piles. Another is yessaying or acquiescence. affection – affiliation.10 PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT IN INDIA 50 minutes to complete the testing.C. They are also called structured measures because they are standardised according to psychometric criteria. The cards most descriptive of the person are put at one end and the least descriptive at the opposite end. Succoraver. A brief description of the sample Indian personality tests is given below: Tripathi Personal Preference Schedule (TPPS) : Developed by R. Percentile norms and scores for male and female college students are provided. Nurturance. the larger the score. Muthayya. Heterosexuality and Aggression. A dependence prone person is anxious. hope. The self-report measures suffer from response sets. traditional and resists change. neuroticism. The responses are given on a 5 point scale ranging from ‘quite true’ (5) to ‘not at all true’ (1) with undecided (3) in the middle. Endurance. and conformity.. competence. Sinha. The Indian psychologists have taken interest in the adptatation of foreign tests as the well as development of new tests to assess various traits and dimensions of personality. Change. unpractical. need achievement. Autonomy. Tripathi.P. It has been used in many diverse types of populations. evading responsibility. There are 50 items and Yes or No are the response categories. self-confidence. Many of these tests are published in journals and some of them are commercially available. R. Multivariable Personality Inventory (MPI): Developed by B. Its revised version. Examples of these sets are social desirability. optimism. There are 225 items. The test has 50 items. empathy.e. dogmatism. It can be used for a variety of purposes. like authoritarianism. approval motive. this schedule is a multi–trait scale of 15 personality variables with a control of social desirability. The scores could range between 20 to 100. the greater is the degree of dependence proneness. In subsequent research this test has been found very effective in detecting psychopathology.

Ego Identity. 8. Id. conceptualise the self in a relational manner with shifting boundaries between the self and the non-self. Personal Constructs. The studies show that while the people in western cultural settings emphasise on the uniqueness and the separateness of the self. 7. Impulses. biofeedback. Sublimation. As a structure the self represents an organised collection or a schema of beliefs and the feelings about oneself. upwas (fasting). 3. gregariousness.. Yoga etc. It is used from high school students to adults. Projection. the people in many non-western cultures including India. Rationalisation. Surface Traits. In subsequent work Eysenck also identified a third dimension named Psychotism. Q Sort procedures involve ——————————of ———————statements in different piles. Central Traits. SUMMARY l l l The study of the self and the personality is an effort to appraise the totality of a persons existence. the self represents a dialogue between an object (Me) and a subject (I). vocational exploration. Lie score in MMPI provides ———————————————————————. As a process. a tough manner of interacting with people. Human beings acquire the notion of the self during social interaction with significant others. The test is frequently used in career guidance. It refers to psychopathology. In addition to 16 basic scales that measure source traits of personality there are four second order indices. LEARNING CHECKS VIII 1. Phlegmatic. Cattell’s 16 Factors Personality Inventory (16 PF) is another very popular tool. The personality test 16 PF is an ————————— based on factor analysis. Displacement. Ego Psychology. Sanguine. Warmth. Psychodynamic Approach. Collective Unconscious. MMPI was initially developed for ————————————————————. Biofeedback. CPI is used on —————————————————————————————. Defence Mechanisms. and a tendency to defy the social conventions. assertiveness. Latency Period. 9. Contemporary empirical studies of Indian self tend to suggest that it is context . Client centered Therapy. Phallic Stage. Regression. Cardinal Traits. The psychological techniques include systematic observation of behaviour. and ——— —————. Identification. The Self and culture are mutually related. Neuroticism. excitement-seeking. 5. self-reinforcement. Zen. stimulus control. It involves a lack of feeling for others. 4. Libido. Self-report measures provide —————— and —————————— assessment of personality. 2. activity. Repression. Typology. Intellectualisation. Introversion Extroversion. The three dimensions of EPQ are introverted-extroverted—————————etc. Key Terms Anal Stage. 6. and self-instruction. It is a forced choice test in which the examinee has to respond to a specific situation by choosing from among given alternatives. These dimensions subsume 32 personality traits.Self and Personality 59 emotionally stable-emotionally unstable. We try to regulate the self by using a variety of strategies such as vrata. following the rules of conduct ( yam and niyam). Unconscious. The responses of examinee on self-report measures are ————————— to be interpreted. and occupational testing. positive emotions constitute ———————————. Archetypes.

Three main approaches to personality assessment are: observer reports. Personality refers to characteristics of a person that are stable across situations and over time and make him or her unique. Freud considered dreams as wish fulfillment and utilise symbolism. openness and unconditional positive regard. counselling. the repressed materials generally surface again. and projection etc. To cope with them people take recourse to various defence mechanisms such as displacement. and the formation of self-fulfilling goals. He proposed that children pass through the stages of oral. It however.e. The needs encompass a wide spectrum–from the basic needs to selfactualisation. The state of being congruent. However. Theorists like Carl Jung. Sheldon used body build as the basis of personality types and related them to temperament and behaviour. and situational tests. The typological approach aims at describing personality in terms of types and traits and relating them to behaviours. Allport. humanistic. It provides dependable information about other individuals needed for a variety of purposes including research. Id. observation. It punishes the deviations by creating the feelings of guilt. planning. selection. reaction formation.. and genital stages. psychodynamic. Id strives towards biological satisfaction following pleasure principle. The erogenous zones through which gratification is obtained characterise these stages. anal. and self-report measures. They shifted the focus towards interpersonal forces and the contemporary circumstances of life of the person. and placement. projective techniques. Abraham Maslow approached human behaviour in terms of needs that motivate people. is low and cross-situational consistency is not very high. The relationship between trait scores and behaviours. nomination. During the phallic stage the male child develops the Oedipus complex and the female child experiences Electra complex. phallic.60 Introduction to Psychology l l l l l l l l l sensitive.. however. Personality assessment refers to the procedures to evaluate people on the basis of certain characteristics. Freud believed that unconscious conflicts are located in the process of psychosexual development. which happens to be the goal of development. The Freudian concepts are criticised for lack of scientific support. Personality has been studied through many approaches in which typological. The psychodynamic perspective originated from Freud’s psychoanalysis.e. Observer reports include techniques such as interview. maintains individuality and autonomy – a situation that depicts coexistence of opposites. Horney and Erikson paid less attention to Id and more to the ego and social forces. rationalisation. Thus dhatus and humours present in the body are linked to temperament and behaviour. Rogers emphasised on the relationship between what we feel we are (the real self). The Post-Freudians disputed many of the views of Freud. Cattell and Eysenck have developed trait theories that offer unified view of person. and what we feel we should be (the ideal self). latency. rating. He identified three systems of personality i. focus on subjective experience and importance of individual’s choice. When these two are similar. training. Adler. These approaches are very simplistic and have lost their appeal. Fromm. Early attempts illustrate the use of typology in the context of medicine. and cognitive are prominent. The ego is viewed as the seat of creativity. The Humanistic approach is rooted in two assumptions i. and interdependent. The goal of assessment is to predict behaviour with minimum error and maximum accuracy. The traits as generalised behavioural tendencies are assumed to be responsible for individual differences and uniqueness observed in behaviour of the people. . and superego. depends on availability of people who provide empathy. collectivist. People experience internal conflicts due to the anxiety that becomes associated with forbidden thoughts and wishes. The ego makes effort to reconcile the needs of Id with the actualities of world following reality principle. ego. The superego is the representation of internalised rules of the society. the situation is congruent and a person is fully functioning. The person represses them and sends to the unconscious. Among the humanistic theorists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are the most significant.

objective. Personality assessment. content. Oedipus complex. empirically developed test III : IV : V : VI : VII : VIII: . Sentence Completion Test. 3. 5. goal 5. needs etc. interpretation. selection. 3. T. 6. What is the trait approach to personality? 5. 6. 10. anxiety. They provide objective and quantitative assessment of personality. accepted. T. 6. emotionally unstable. 4. T. determine. Its recent revision MMPI– 2 has 10 sub-scales. F. 8. 6. 7. Review Questions 1. underlying motivations. T. F. validity check . clinical diagnosis. T. Thematic Apperception Test. Electra complex. F. positive self regard. 2. construction. unfairly biased. 1. observer. Roenzwieg’s Picture Frustration test. T. 7. extraversion. 10. What is self? What is the Indian notion of self? 2. 4. 7. Hathaway and McKinley developed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for the purpose of psychiatric diagnosis in 1030s. What are the main observational ways to assess personality? 9. T. halo effect. 1. 3. 9. What is Freud’s threefold conception of personality? What functions do they serve? 6. It has versions suitable for samples from high school students to adults. popular vs. The frequently used projective test include Rorschach Inkblots. 6. 4. nomination. 2. and expression made by the examinee. 6.. minimum error and maximum accuracy. T. 5.T. 5. and Draw-a-Person Test. normal people. 3. It is popular in career guidance. In addition to the 16 basic scales that measure the source traits of personality. F. Most of them are based on specific theories of personality. unconscious. 5. The structured measures of personality include a number of self-report measures that are developed psychometrically. manifest.Self and Personality l 61 l l l Projective techniques are based on the assumption that when a person is forced to impose meaning on an ambiguous stimulus. 3. 8. readiness to perceive. 9. 1.T. 4. The projections are located in the association. 9. arrangement. 8. What are the structured personality tests? What are the two most widely used tests? 10. What is the humanistic approach to personality? What did Maslow mean by self-actualisation? 8. and occupational testing. 9. basically good. 7. quantitative. 9. there are four second order indices. the responses will be the projections or reflections of his or her feelings. Self-actualisation. frustrates. repression. T. journey. latent. choose. ambiguous. 2. original. F. 3. 5. 2. reality. impressions. rationalisation. 7. F . Psychotism. 4. super-ego. 8. 5. 3. 6. 7. 8. 4. 2. self related. 1. F.T. situational test 1. 2. 6. own words. 5. emotionally stable. In subsequent research this test has proved useful in detecting psychopathology. How do the Post-Freudians differ from Freud? 7. deeply felt 1. 3. F. What is personality? What are the main approaches for its study? 4. completion. 1. 4. displacement. T. 2. Cattell’s Sixteen Factors Personality Inventory (16 PF) is a forced choice test in which the examinee has to respond to a specific situation by choosing from among given alternatives. 2. 10. desires. What is delay of gratification? Why the ability to cope with it is important for adult development? 3. They are of various types and use different format of verbal items. not the projections. the protagonist. T. T. 4. profound. 7. vocational exploration. What are the two projective tests that are famous? How are they administered and interpreted? ANSWERS I II : : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. F. T. T. sorting. F. hunches.

Leadership Styles: How Leaders Operate Ä Nature. Ä differentiate between various types of groups.2) Types of Group Primary-Secondary Groups.4) Obedience: Milgram’s Experiment (Box 3. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . and Risk Taking Conformity.62 Introduction to Psychology 3 THIS SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND GROUP PROCESSES CHAPTER COVERS CONTENTS Introduction Nature and Formation of Groups What is a Group? Functions of a Group Factors Facilitating Group Formation Understanding Group Structure through Sociometry (Box 3.3) Minority Influence (Box 3. and formation of groups. and obedience Ä Nature. Ä understand the functions. Ä know how individual behaviours are shaped by group influences. and Ä define leadership and explain its styles and functions. In group-Out group Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour Social Facilitation.1) Groupthink : Adverse Effects of Cohesiveness (Box 3. types. Compliance and Obedience Experimental Demonstration of Conformity (Box 3. and formation of groups Ä Influence of groups on individual’s behaviours Ä Processes of conformity. Social Loafing. and styles of leadership BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä appreciate the nature and importance of groups. functions.5) Cooperation and Competition Leadership: Nature and Functions What makes a Leader? The Functions of Leaders. compliance. Formal-Informal Groups.

it is important to understand the nature of groups: what they are and how they influence the individual behaviour. how group can affect decision-making. important to know how people deal with others. and in your classroom. why certain individuals become leaders. It is. provide us support by shaping and strengthening our ideas and views. Such interactions. also called social interaction. you will find wide differences in your own behaviours in these settings. The group serves as a framework against which one can compare one’s own behaviour and thought. If you closely analyse these situations. and behave in groups. how our performance is influenced by working with others or by the mere presence of others. the support from the family and other groups continue to play an important role. Interaction with the group members can be of different kinds. a teacher talking to a class of students. A newborn baby needs the care and warmth of its mother and in its subsequent development too. and also by serving as a source of information. and how leaders influence the behaviours of group members. Leaders don’t create followers. You will notice that your thoughts and behaviours are to a large extent shaped by the interaction and contacts with other persons. therefore. In this chapter you will read about the nature of group. – Tom Peters . therefore. they create more leaders. In all these group situations. such as: two friends talking to each other. influence one-another. are shaped by the various kinds of groups with whom we interact. Also. a shopkeeper talking to a customer. our behaviour will be affected to a great extent by the nature of the group. a political leader addressing a gathering of people. with your parents. or a group of people attending a lecture.Social Influence and Group Processes 63 INTRODUCTION Imagine yourself present in three situations: in the company of your friends in the market. groups are necessary for survival and development of human beings. To a large extent we. To understand human behaviour with respect to the social surroundings.

Group functions as a unitary system. either working towards a given goal or away from certain threats. which we cannot do alone. Thus. We are often able to do certain jobs with the help of others. clubs (theatre. music). how many individuals are required for the emergence of a group? Even two individuals may develop an organised mode of relationship. This brings us to the question: why do we join groups? As mentioned earlier. as in the case of husband and wife. Do people standing in a queue waiting to catch a bus or watching a cricket match in the stadium constitute a group? These people may share certain common characteristics. A group is an organised system of two or more persons who are interrelated to perform a function. cricket or football team. Thus. The roles to be carried out by each member of the group are specified in advance. either directly or indirectly.1 Understanding The Nature of a Group Identify the groups of which you are a member. a group consists of two or more interacting persons who share common goals. These norms tell how individuals should behave in relation to others in the group and in other matters of importance. All of these . and perceive that they are Functions of a Group You must have realised that every person belongs to a number of groups at any given time. but can only be called a physical assembly of people or a mere collection of people. l Groups help in achieving such goals which cannot be attained individually. religious groups. Thus. which influence the formation of groups. According to the definition.64 Introduction to Psychology NATURE AND FORMATION OF GROUPS What is a Group? part of a group. are interdependent. Factors Facilitating Group Formation There are a number of factors. the main characteristics of a group are as follows: l Individuals must interact with each other. physical proximity alone does not make a group. l Interactions among the individuals in a group must be structured in some manner. This means that the functions performed by each member are same every time the group meets. In such situations people are together but do not have defined status. Being a member of prestigious groups enhances the individual’s self-concept. it is important to know that groups vary depending on the time spent together by the member. l Individuals adhere to the group norms. l Group membership provides us knowledge and information and broadens our view. being a part or member of a group may help an individual in the following ways: l Groups satisfy important psychological or social needs of individuals such as attaining a sense of belongingness. All members work towards the same goal. l Individuals must be interdependent – what one is doing must have some consequence for the other. Being with people gives a sense of protection from real or imagined enemy. or from other potential hazards. Thus. and has a set of norms that regulate their behaviours. l Groups fulfil our need for security and safety. How do the above–mentioned conditions apply to your group? What are the salient features of these groups? How are they different from other groups? Discuss your observations with classmates. a young boy or a girl may be a member of student associations. l The members of a group have common motives and goals. and expectation towards each other. and giving and receiving attention and affection. The expected modes of behaviour guide the functions of a group and its members. ACTIVITY 3. has a structured set of role relationships among its members. l Group membership helps to establish a positive social identity and self-concept. While all these conditions are necessary for describing a group. A two-person group is called a dyad. and informal groups consisting of neighbours or others. role. art.

there is a feeling of strangeness and they may initially react indifferently or negatively.1 G C F E B A D H I Fig. Common Goals : When a number of people have common objectives or goals. There are no choice lines connecting these two sets of individuals. Your best friend or the persons you like to sit with in the class would have quite similar ideas. This similarity leads to the formation of groups. Such similarities are highlighted at times. Gradually. which can work towards facilitating their travel in the trains. A sociogram representing the sociometric choices of the people in a group is shown in Fig. 3. group structure can be studied with the help of a sociogram. A and I are isolates. if we are very similar to another person. For example. The responses thus obtained are used to prepare a sociogram. dislikes. Another reason why we like similar persons is that they reinforce and validate our opinions and values. teams. B. (1) A.1 people prefer consistency and like the relationships that are consistent and balanced. by wearing similar clothes (school uniform). which influence the formation of groups. J Sociometry (social measurement) was introduced by J. One possible explanation is that BOX 3. Proximity : Individuals with similar background. they tend to get together and form a group. F-J. they become more positively disposed toward each other. Usually. Let us analyse the conditions. each member of a group may be asked to tell about “A person with whom he or she would like to work”. For example. H. D. 2.e.Social Influence and Group Processes 65 assume that interaction is basic to group formation. Therefore. It is used to understand the liking of group members for each other. which may facilitate goal attainment. Three members i.L. values and opinions. it seems sensible to like that person. It is always reassuring and rewarding to know that people agree with you or have similar values. Being exposed to someone or something several times may lead towards the development of greater liking for that person which increases the likelihood of spending more time together or the need to be together. J. Thus. F-H). We also find mutual choices (B-C. when people are put in new situations or conditions. Moreno in early 1930s.1 A Sociogram based on the choices made by hypothetical group of ten persons . 1. F.. He has received maximum number of choices. For instance. C.3. D. UNDERSTANDING GROUP STRUCTURE THROUGH SOCIOMETRY You can see that person G is a star. likes. Similarity : It has been observed that more the similarity in the attitudes of two persons. 3. as they become familiar with the new situation. Such goals may be externally set leading to the creation or formation of groups with specified people. accessories or symbols (flags) to show a group’s distinctiveness from others. There is a cleavage in a group resulting in two subgroups. commuters in trains may form a group. All the group members nominate some group member in response to it. living in the same complex and going to the same school may form groups on the basis of proximity. There are many ways to analyse sociometric data. ways of behaving etc. repeated encounters with the same set of individuals give a chance to discover similarity in their interest. He has the highest popularity status followed by C and F. E and G and (2) I. For instance. These are important determiners of liking for other persons. there is greater likelihood that they would form a group.

and certain norms and LEARNING CHECKS I 1. some people are much liked while some are disliked. People sharing same opinions and values are likely to form groups. This reduces the chances of leaving the group and increases cohesiveness. war. Students taking the Board Examinations in Delhi would be referred to as a group. The term ‘group’ refers to an organised system of two or more individuals. etc. Cohesiveness tells the ‘affect structure’ of a group. violence. In brief. higher would be attraction of members towards the group. l Amount of Effort : It is seen that the amount of effort required to gain entry into the group influences group cohesiveness. There can be a strong bondage among the members or weak relationship. The study of group structure is usually done with the help of sociometry (see for details Box 3. Even competition with others such as in sports. it is important to know how individuals participate in groups. Members of a group have common motives and goals. such as (a) attraction of the members to each other. Cohesive groups have rigid structures.66 Introduction to Psychology task forces. a group becomes more cohesive when its members like each other. in which one group is compared to another creates a ‘we’ feeling among the team members and develops high level of cohesiveness. l External Threats and Severe Competition: It has been observed that group cohesiveness increases in face of threats from outside the group such as loss of privileges. T/F 3. quizzes. Usually group cohesiveness increases by the attractions that a group provides and decreases by the costs a group imposes. Being part of the group enhances prestige of the person and provides rewards. Finally. Such a situation is found in the phenomenon of group think described in Box 3. if the group members have incurred high costs and now find that they cannot get out of it. Cohesive groups are difficult to enter and leave than non-cohesive groups. However. Proximity is a necessary condition for group formation. T/F 5. etc. they prefer to remain associated with the group. The factors influencing cohesiveness are as follows: l Attractiveness : It includes dimensions of individual attraction to a group. T/F 6. political leaders do use the threat of war to generate national cohesiveness. clearer is its boundaries and sharper the distinction between members and nonmembers. also bring people together. (b) attraction of the individual members towards the activities and functions of the group. It works as a source of motivation and morale of the group. or (c) the extent to which the individual is attracted to the group as a means of satisfying his/her own needs. floods. To understand human behaviour. the costs of being in a group may enhance cohesiveness if a member is committed to the group. In a group. T/F 2. For example. T/F 4. The interpersonal ties between group members lead to cohesiveness. l Group Belongingness : It implies the emotional attachment among the group members. At times. if you make efforts to become a member of a school team. committees and work groups are sometimes formed to meet specific objectives. T/F . 4. this leads to inadequate decisions. the chances are that you would continue to remain in the team rather than leave it. The costs involved in group membership are small. More the effort made for joining the group.1). Natural calamities such as earthquake. Group cohesiveness leads to uniformity in the attitude of group members. Recapitulation Social interaction helps us understand others and ourselves. Norms guide the behaviour of group members. It is observed that greater the cohesiveness of a group. Groups have common goals of its members. Group Cohesiveness : Cohesiveness characterises the degree of “we” feeling present in a group.. particularly when people find that no alternative sources for rewards are present.2. a structure defining the role and status. At times.

In-group and Out-group. and so on. The groups we belong to changes or may take various forms during the course of their existence. Some of the factors facilitating group formation are: proximity. a group may emerge whenever two or more persons are involved in a common activity and there is interaction among the individuals. group should be encouraged to present alternative courses of action. inviting outside experts to evaluate the group’s decision and encouraging members to seek feedback from trusted others. whereas secondary groups are the ones. which guide the activities of its members. (ii) permanence (lasting for few minutes to a relatively longer duration). such as a family. Its members have close physical proximity and share warm emotional bonds. cultural interests. that have no tradition of considering alternatives. an individual may belong to different kinds of groups. No one expresses dissenting opinions because each person believes it would undermine the cohesion of the group and would be unpopular. husband-wife. A group. Studies have values. wife and her colleagues. and neighbours are examples of primary groups. and common goals. it becomes increasingly out of touch with reality. Thus. which an individual joins by choice. may further be subdivided into other groups for various purposes and its members may be part of other groups as well. Primary groups are characterised by intimate. Broadly. It is the tendency of decision-makers to make irrational and uncritical decisions. daughter and her basket-ball team. Formal and Informal Groups. Family. Primary and Secondary Groups. tribal. In order to preserve the group’s internal harmony and collective wellbeing. A brief description of these groups is given below: Primary and Secondary Groups Primary groups are pre-existing formations. However.Social Influence and Group Processes 67 BOX 3. Cohesiveness depends on attractiveness. son and his cricket team. husband and his co-workers. Primary groups are more central to individual’s functioning . Irving Janis suggests that cohesion can interfere with effective leadership and can lead to disastrous decisions. In other words. cohesive groups that are isolated from outsiders. The affiliation to different types of groups may be transitory or permanent. external threats. Groups may differ in terms of the functions performed or the manner in which they are organised. the groups are categorised in the following types: 1. the number of alternatives considered by the group goes down. teamwork in groups leads to beneficial results. which are usually given to the individual. Some ways to counteract or prevent group think are: encouraging and rewarding critical thinking and even disagreement among group members. and that face a decision with high costs or failure. Each member believes that all members agree upon a particular decision or policy. For example. Group cohesiveness ensures continued functioning and effectiveness of the groups. coastal. and tends to ignore or minimise cues from the real world that suggest danger to its plan. Groupthink is likely to occur in socially homogenous. family is a primary group whereas a political party is a secondary group.). 2. amount of effort. hills. Consequently. in which a cohesive group allows its concerns for unanimity “override the motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action”. Groupthink is characterised by the appearance of consensus or unanimous agreement within a group. Janis discovered a process named groupthink. TYPES OF GROUP As we have seen.) and (iv) determinants (blood relationships. etc. and belongingness. Social groups can be characterised in many ways based on different dimensions such as: (i) size (group of two persons (dyad) to millions of citizens of a country). (iii) geographical distribution (plains. You have read earlier that individuals may enter into groups for different purposes.2 GROUPTHINK : ADVERSE EFFECTS OF COHESIVENESS shown that such a group has an exaggerated sense of its own power to control events. similarity. etc. 3. playmates. face-to-face interaction. Generally.

and a group of scientists to be Out-group. The functions of a formal group are explicitly stated. Such perceptions contribute to the self-esteem of the person and may lead to biases. T/F 3. Persons in the ingroup are generally viewed favourably. age. may be an Outgroup in another. an artist will consider a group of artists to be In-group. or removed in space or time (e. or social work club. religion. occupation. In-group and Out-group People generally think of the social world in terms of categories such as – they and we. Perceptions of in-group and out-group affect our feelings and behaviours. With changes in size and type of relationship. Perception of In-groups and Outgroups affects social life. and many other features.. feelings of loyalty and commitment to one’s own group makes them perceive their group as superior to other groups. However. lunch) than through the formal channels of communications. values and ideals of the individuals during early stages of development. while only small groups tend to have the properties of primary groups. T/F 5. Such distinctions are based on race. In contrast. Dividing people into “us” and “them” creates contrasting feelings and beliefs for members of one’s ingroup and members of other outgroups. whereas for a scientist. T/F 4. The members of the outgroups are often perceived negatively compared to the ingroup members. The members usually come together for a common goal and work according to the agreed rules. having desirable behaviour. The students belonging to a particular school (In-group) perceive students of other schools (Out-group) differently.68 Introduction to Psychology and. although in many formal groups (such as military or bureaucracy) informal decision making processes may exist as parallel mechanisms. Formal and Informal Groups These groups differ in the degree to which the functions of the group are stated explicitly and formally. Each one feels somewhat superior to the other. Primary groups have close intimate interaction. usually. changes in the society have resulted in wider acceptance of diversity including ethnic and cultural variations and have blurred the In-group and Out-group demarcations in many areas of our social functioning. groups need to have rigidly defined roles and status difference. It is observed that large groups by nature are ordinarily secondary groups.g. formal LEARNING CHECKS II 1. As individuals identify with a specific group. They view other persons as belonging either to their own group (usually called the ingroup) or to another group (the outgroup). less frequent. For example. T/F 2. political party or one’s nation). and prejudices against Out-group members. They have rigidly stated functions and the roles of the members are well defined or imposed. Groups differ with regard to their function and organisation. a hobby group. artists would constitute an Out-group and scientists an Ingroup. what may be In-group in one culture or subculture. Social organisations have distinctive symbols. T/F . Formal groups have a chain of command for decision-making. and the personality of individuals. and admirable traits. as in an office organisation. Members of primary groups usually feel more comfortable to take decisions in informal settings (like tea time. Formal and Informal groups differ in terms of the relationship among the members. The roles to be performed by group members are stated in explicit and formal manner (as in a job or in military service). they are instrumental in forming the social nature. Formal groups are generally secondary groups. secondary groups are those where relations among members are more impersonal. dress or signs. Primary groups like family are informal groups. However. Recapitulation Groups have been classified in many ways like: primary and secondary groups. indirect.

What impact does the presence of others has on our performance? We will discuss in this section the manner in which working with others affects our performance. over learned behaviours. Individual behaviour is ‘facilitated’ in several ways while performing in the presence of others. while some others would only appear to be helping. On complex tasks. In one study. copying text. Floyd H. for example. A few persons will be putting in all their efforts. Allport conducted a series of studies in which the performance of individuals was compared on a variety of tasks when they performed alone. which is often arousing. Social Loafing Suppose you and your class-fellows were asked to shift a heavy table to the next room. and when they were doing the same in the presence of others. The participants were allowed to work alone and in the presence of two other persons. Facilitation effect is found in case of simple. Were you more tense or excited? In general. and not only due to the mere presence of others. the participants were asked to write down on paper as many associations for the given words as they could think of.Social Influence and Group Processes 69 and informal groups. people’s performance is adversely affected by others’ presence. or from concerns over self-presentation–looking good in front of others. In general. she/he gets flustered. and then makes more mistakes. Do you think all the people will be putting equal effort? May be or may not be. the social facilitation stems from evaluation apprehension–concerns over being judged by others (which is often arousing). which enhances performance. Such adverse effects on performance due to others’ presence are called “Social Inhibition”. In which situation will you run faster? Probably you will run faster when you are competing with others. This positive effect on performance due to the presence of others is known as Social-Facilitation. and In-groups and Outgroups. The fear of negative evaluation can arouse people to do well. etc. (ii) The second reason for social facilitation is apprehension of evaluation or concern of being judged by others. or pretending to do more than they really are. Social Facilitation Think of the situations when you are running alone trying to compete with your own standard. Try to recall how you had felt when you were on stage in front of the school assembly or audience. The results showed that participants produced more associations when working in the presence of other people than when working alone. when a performer makes mistakes and assumes a negative reaction. Our behaviours are affected by the nature of groups and by our perception of such groups. We all are affected in different ways by other people. Various types of groups influence behaviour and shape the pattern of interaction of individuals and society. Sometimes. this is not true in all cases neither for all individuals. All of you try to push the table. Do you know that even the mere presence of the other person affects our behaviour? It is a common observation that we tend to eat more when in a group than when we are alone. or when you are running a race competing with others. such as running. However. automatic. (iii) Another reason contributing to social facilitation is the concern over self-presentation–looking or performing well in front of others. People sometimes tend to make greater number of errors in the presence of others. especially on simple tasks. INFLUENCE OF GROUP ON INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR You must have noticed that people perform a large number of tasks with the co-operation of others or at least in their presence. it is observed that performance is facilitated in the presence of others. stutter more when reading a passage aloud in front of an audience than when they do the same alone.. and is not observed for complex tasks. This pattern is commonly observed when a group is required . Stutterers. (i) The presence of others seems to energise people or generate feelings of increased arousal. Why does the presence of others sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs performance? There are different reasons for this type of behaviour.

as a class you might have done it several times. political actions. Decisions like choosing sports team. government policies. Today most of the decisions are taken by groups. four or six. decisionmaking involves combining and integrating the available information in order to choose one course of action out of the several available ones. and (v) by strengthening group cohesiveness which increases the concern for group outcomes. and making educational and career choices are some examples. students in a group may take the risk of bunking classes. In case of complicated problems. provide opportunities for sharing different viewpoints. They are then placed in a group situation. In an interesting experiment. A group of participants is first asked to make individual decisions on a series of problems in which it is possible to take greater or lesser risk.70 Introduction to Psychology to make efforts together for completing a task. that someone in the group would have the skills to solve the problem and thereby reach better decisions than the individuals. How many times you alone have gathered courage to ask the teacher for a free period? Maybe never. The standard method for studying this effect consists of two steps. participants were asked to read a series of problems and make choices among the recommendations that differed in the degree of the risk of failure they carried. (ii) by increasing group members’ commitment to successful task performance (pressures towards working hard). which normally as individuals they may not. Initially the participants made decisions on their own. Social loafing is a quite common phenomenon. Studies have revealed that social loafing may occur due to several reasons: (i) group members may feel less responsible for the task being performed and exert less effort. and less than what they might do if they were working alone. Is this true? Do groups actually approach and solve problems more effectively and accurately than individuals making decisions alone? Contrary to the popular belief. enforcing laws. It has been observed that after discussing the alternatives with other group members. On such tasks. (iv) making people feel that their contribution to the task is unique. Later these were discussed in a group after which the group gave its decision. Similarly. by pooling the knowledge and expertise of their members. It is generally believed that groups. and (iii) when they find the task monotonous particularly in such situations where they work with people whom they do not know well or do not respect. some persons work hard while the others pretend to be working. the group decisions were more polarised than the decision of the individual group members before the discussion. Risk Taking Groups perform a variety of tasks including decision-making. Such effects are referred to as social loafing – reductions in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively in a group compared to when they work individually. It was observed that the magnitude of the sound made by each person decreased sharply as the group size increased. However. Social loafing can be reduced by: (i) making the effort of each person identifiable. either alone or in groups of two. (iii) increasing the apparent importance or value of a task. (ii) motivation of members may decrease because they realise that their contributions cannot be evaluated on individual basis – so why work hard. As you know. each participant put less effort as the group size increased. This shows that groups make decisions that are more risky (or non risky) than the individuals do. The groups lead to polarisation of the position taken in decisionmaking. the chance is greater. A number of studies have demonstrated that groups have a tendency to take greater risks than individuals do. Latane and his associates asked groups of male students to clap or cheer as loudly as possible at specific times. doing less than their share. . In other words. In an experiment. and are required to discuss and make group decisions on the same problems. research has shown that groups are actually more likely to adopt extreme positions than individuals making decisions alone.

One is that people conform when they are not sure of themselves and because they feel that. following a time schedule. Thus. are all ways of conforming. a student may join his/her classmates to watch a cricket match. On other occasions. compliance. who are the best source of information about many social conventions. and friends. Thus. nonacceptance of some form of punishment. Conformity essentially involves yielding to group pressures. but in certain conditions.4).. the information provided by others is the “right and most important information”. beliefs. in ambiguous situations where we do not know what is “right”. which otherwise we might not have done. and the information dependence leads to conformity. Second. In some forms of social influence what others do matter a lot and we do things of being influenced by others. New group members learn about its customs by observing the actions of other group members. conformity is a type of social influence in which individuals change their behaviour or belief to correspond more closely to the behaviour of others in the group. You have read earlier that social influence plays a key role in group decision making. The pressures from the group may be explicit or implicit. In fact. People provide information about the world. thereby creating a doubt on the correctness of the majority’s viewpoint. In reality. The radio and television commercials. the conformity response under group pressure may take the form of overt behaviour. teachers.e. to make you think. COMPLIANCE AND OBEDIENCE You have read earlier about social facilitation (and inhibition) which is the simplest form of social influence. perceptions or behaviours. advertisements in newspapers. we look for the opinions and behaviours of people who are similar to us before deciding what to do. requests from parents. a person may refuse to help another person because the group members have declared him or her as an undesirable person. Conformity Going to the school in uniform. A number of explanations have been given for conformity behaviour.3. This section describes three important group processes such as conformity. For example. We learn by observing people. we look around at other people to see what to do and follow . when attending a wedding (of a different community) where rituals are unfamiliar. It is generally observed that the group majority determines the final decision. This kind of rational conformity can be thought of as learning about the world from the actions of others. Conformity takes place because of informational influence (influence that results from accepting evidence rather than reality). people conform because deviation from the group may lead to rejection or at least. Such processes of influence go on throughout our social life. This occurs when the minority takes a firm and uncompromising stand. In such cases.Social Influence and Group Processes 71 CONFORMITY. frequently create one or the other kind of social influence. magazines. adhering to the rules of the game in playground. and obedience. feel and act in ways they want. or making attempts towards going along with society’s expectations about how one should behave in various situations are all examples of conformity. a minority may be more influential. Throughout the day you may encounter a number of incidents when others have tried to influence you in different ways. or following school norms. Try to think of the ways in which different people try to influence you from morning till night. Others may try to influence you by flattery or by threats also. i. performing a ritualistic act on entering a place of worship. you will realise that social influence is a part of our life. we defy their influence and may even influence them to adopt our viewpoints. Attempts at social influence are efforts made by others to change our attitudes. People conform in several ways: adhering to traffic conventions while driving. Thus. Conformity may also occur because of normative influence (influence based on a person’s desire to be accepted or admired by others). The pressure for conformity may also lead to prevention of action. This creates a conflict within the group (see Box 3. An experimental study demonstrating conformity is given in Box 3.

This demonstrates the influence of group behaviour on the behaviour of an individual. A classic experiment by Solomon Asch has shown that group pressure can induce conformity of judgement in an individual. etc. It consisted of one standard them. therefore. A B C D Fig.g. which are used for gaining compliance. they stated their answers before the participant responded. The participants had to indicate which of the three comparison lines matched the standard line in length. smiling. Commitment/Consistency : Once we commit to an action or take a stand we tend to comply with requests for behaviours that are consistent with that stand. people do not deviate from consensus and.. but unknown to the real participant. etc. all were accomplices of the experimenter. i. There are many techniques. This also serves as a basis for gaining compliance. Some of these are briefly described below. It has been found that increasing others’ liking for us by improving one’s appearance. agreeing with significant people. This tactic is often used by employers – . Compliance is a form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another. which are readily available. giving gifts. Scarcity : Things that are viewed as scarce. To avoid the possibility of social ridicule.e.2. eye contact. It was observed that most of the participants in Asch’s study conformed to the wrong judgements given by the majority. by “going along” with people or by behaving like others.. On certain occasions. door salesmen often use this strategy making people comply by answering a small non-committal question (like naming the brand used by them) and then making them accept a greater demand (such as buying a new brand or accepting special offer on a particular brand).).3 EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF CONFORMITY line ‘A’ and three other lines of different length. doing favours.3. known as the critical trials (twelve out of the eighteen problems). conform. the accomplices gave wrong answers. using positive non-verbal cues (e. they all chose the wrong line as a match for the standard line. Also. people meet their needs to be liked and accepted by others. only one of which was of the same length as the standard line. Compliance Have you ever thought how people make you do certain things they want to be done by you? Alternatively how do you make people do things for you? Each one of us must be using different techniques for gaining compliance – for inducing others to say ‘yes’ to your requests. Third. This shows that unspoken pressure has powerful influence on the behaviour of people. the target person was in a situation on critical trials where the correct answer would be the opposite of that given by the majority. showing interest in them. people who do not conform at times become the target of social disapproval. In addition. You have also read that people tend to conform to the judgements of others even though there is no external pressure to do so.2 Task Utilised in Conformity Study Asch asked the participants to respond to a series of simple perceptual problems such as the one shown in Fig 3. The Control group while judging alone made no errors. For example. l Friendship/liking : We willingly comply to requests from friends or from people l l we like than those we do not like or those who are strangers. A number of experiments in laboratory setting have demonstrated that individuals can be influenced by the group members to conform. rare or difficult are generally viewed as more valuable than those.72 Introduction to Psychology BOX 3. Thus. Several other persons (usually six to eight) were also present during the session. results in greater compliance.

g. It has been found that obedience to authority relieves the individual of responsibility for his/her action. obedience can be demanded. Therefore. negative sanctions. uniforms. such a person usually has the means to enforce his/her orders (e. do not appear as rigid and dogmatic. (See Box 3. Obedience occurs when people obey commands or orders from others to do something.Social Influence and Group Processes 73 BOX 3. How do you feel now about your act? Discuss in class with the teacher. obedience to the commands of the person who has authority can be expected but often persons lacking in such power can also induce submissiveness in others. this is not always the case. Reciprocity : We generally comply more with a request from someone who has previously provided a favour than from someone who has not. also underlies the most direct and explicit social influence called obedience. The majority may disregard their views. demotions. Influence of the minority occur when people in the minority 1. titles) which people find difficult to resist. In school.4 MINORITY INFLUENCE current social context. However. There are examples of people who were in minority but have influenced the majority. He experimentally demonstrated that when the minority is consistent it causes the participants to change their overt responses as well as the way they look at the stimulus situation. Milgram’s studies seem to suggest that the ordinary people are willing. the willingness of The Chinese troops to fire on the unarmed civilians during Tiananmen Square in 1989). You might have helped your classmates keeping in mind that they too had helped you in the time of need. They remain in minority and protest the decisions taken by the group to which they belong. Obedience is obtained through power that an authority figure possesses. to harm an innocent person if ordered by someone in authority. What makes people yield to this powerful form of social influence? ACTIVITY 3. It is important to know why do such cases of destructive obedience occur. a French social psychologist has shown that under certain circumstances the minority exerts greater influences. Further. fines. teachers and principal. We often come across people who dissent from the views held by the group to which they belong. Social psychological experiments provide evidence for occurrence of such effects. you often agree to the requests from head boy or head girl. authority commands for destructive obedience are gradually increased from lesser to greater levels of violence and initial obedience binds . 3. The obedience phenomenon demonstrated by Milgram can be viewed as an instance of the more general human tendency to conform to the group norms when under social pressure. This is an effective way of gaining compliance. Obligation to return others’ favour makes us comply. Authority usually is enforced with symbols of status (e. are consistent in opposing the majority opinions 2. A number of social movements began with small numbers of people who challenged the existing assumptions of the majority. are consistent with the l l by not readily agreeing (hard to get) to give the job and thereby increasing their worth to the potential employee.g. This also shows how in real life the group influence can lead to acts of violence against innocent people (for example. may be with some reluctance.2 Understanding Obedience to Authority Think of one situation when obedience to an authority figure had made you follow harsh directions. Authority : People usually comply with requests from someone who is an authority figure – or looks like one.5 for an interesting experiment by Stanley Milgram). If a person has the power over another. Serge Mosocovici. Obedience The tendency to agree to requests from persons who have authority.).

acting their role). if you ask them to demonstrate how quickly the corks can be pulled out of the bottle. even when the teacher was asked to forcibly push the learner’s hand on the shock device – 35 per cent did so. However. However.74 Introduction to Psychology BOX 3. The goals may be cooperative or competitive. the behaviour that yielded maximal relative gain is labelled competition. the learner was in a cubicle and the communication between the learner and the teacher was over the intercom. so as to be the first one to pull the cork out. Later these participants were paired with two other pairs who did not obey the experimenter and had discontinued to deliver the shocks. that they generally refused. police may first be ordered to arrest. Thus cooperative goal are those. when the experimenter left the place of experiment and another participant ordered the subjects to continue giving the shocks. The way shared goals are defined is important for the structure of the group. In contrast. It was found that 90 percent of the teachers joined this group and refused to obey the experimenter. The teachers believed that they were administering shock to the ‘learners’. relay race).. (In reality.g. If you ask them to compete. The findings of Milgram’s experiment reveal that– l The Presence of authority alone is not as critical as the presence of expert authority. they will probably organise themselves and pull the corks one by one in quick succession. Usually situations where team effort is needed. threaten the demonstrators and gradually they maybe asked to beat. but the goals are defined in such a manner that each member can attain his or . “Please continue”. COOPERATION AND COMPETITION Tie five small corks to five long strings and lower each of the corks down the neck of a bottle. the other teacher tried to stop him. l Saying. which are defined in such a way that each individual can attain his goal if other members also attain their goals. In reality. Ask your five friends to hold each of the strings. In order to reduce the likelihood that the participants would deliver the shock. no shock was given to the learners. no shock was administered since all learners were confederates. he or she shouted to stop giving him/her the shocks. For example. The competitive goals involve situations where all members of the group aspire. sometimes events involving destructive obedience move so quickly. This shows the role of cooperation and competition within a group. There is interdependence in goal attainment. l When there is a convincing rationale for giving shock on another person. you will find that they will all try to pull the five corks simultaneously and get all of them jammed at the neck of the bottle. About 65% of Milgram’s participants continued to obey the experimenter. characterise cooperative goals (e. The teacher would turn to the experimenter for instruction and if the experimenter said. In reality. Finally. implies I am the expert and I know that the learner will not be harmed so the shocks can be administered. During the experiment.5 OBEDIENCE : MILGRAM’S EXPERIMENT shocks. that the people obeying orders have little time for reflection. Such implied assurance was an important determinant of the subject’s attempts to continue giving the shocks. torture or even shoot at the unarmed people. Milgram conducted an experiment on obedience in which participants from varied socio-economic and educational levels participated. the learners were experimental confederates. The learner had to learn a list of associations and the teacher was to present the stimuli. While shared goals are usually adopted by the members of a group. Milgram brought the teachers physically closer to the learners receiving the the followers to commitment. They were grouped into pairs and one was the “teacher” and the other the “learner”. Technically the behaviour that yields maximal joint profit for all the parties involved is called cooperation. “Please continue” the teacher would continue giving the shocks. Every time the shock was given to the learner. In another instance. If this person himself/herself tried to administer the shock. the subjects continued to participate in spite of the other person being in pain. record answers and administer shocks of increasing intensity to the learner for every incorrect response. not all members many commit to the same extent. it was observed.

since the activity of each member is seen as contributing towards fulfilling the group goals. ____________ is change in behaviour or belief to correspond more closely to the behaviour of others in the group. reciprocity. commitment/consistency. There is only one winner and the others will have to remain unsatisfied. which are associated with the tendency to lead. In a cooperative situation. We tend to conform because of two basic social motives: need to be liked by others whose approval we desire (normative social influence) and the need to be right in our judgements or action (informational social influence). The second approach. They may become more (or less) risky than as individuals. competition between two or more groups tends to increase cohesiveness within a group. Jawaharlal Nehru. Conformity occurs when people change their attitudes and behaviour to comply with expectations about how they should behave in various social situations. we have seen how cooperation and competition affect group members. Finally. Studies have shown that cooperative goals increase interpersonal relations among the members of a group. tends to produce disharmony of conflict that threatens the organisation of the group. Normative influence is based on the desire to be ____________ by others. It allows substituting activities for each other. Power accrues to persons from various sources so that they can make other people behave or do things. 4. Recapitulation We have seen that the mere presence of people affects our behaviour. therefore. individuals are more willing to accept each other’s views and ideas since each individual is considered as helping the other. scarcity. LEADERSHIP: NATURE AND FUNCTIONS What Makes a Leader? If you study the life history of great leaders such as Alexander the Great. contribute directly to the emergence of mutually interrelated roles. Abraham Lincoln. Cooperative goals. It has been observed that groups make decisions that are polarised. creativity. 2. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. Subhash Chandra Bose and many others. Such observations lead to formulation of a view of leadership known as the Great Man Theory. Conformity that results from external rewards or punishments is ______________________. such as: drive. Obedience is the most direct form of social behaviour. Social facilitation makes people perform better in the presence of other people than when alone. you will notice that leaders differ from ordinary people in various aspects. Leaders have certain traits. which adopt super ordinate cooperative goals may tolerate certain degree of competition without destroying the overall organisation of the group. honesty . 3. Influence that results from accepting group behaviour as correct behaviour is ________________________________. It may be noted that organised groups.Social Influence and Group Processes 75 her goal only if others do not attain the goal. Compliance involves efforts to change the behaviour of others. The basic principles underlying compliance are: friendship/liking. which they may not otherwise do. self-confidence. 5. It assumes that leaders are unique or have unique background that makes them different from followers. Although competition among individual members within a group. Social loafing refers to the reduction in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively in a group compared to a situation when they work individually. Groups have shown to influence the decisions of individual members. Mahatma Gandhi. assumes that leadership is a general attitude that gives an individual the ability to lead in all situations. since each contributes to the other’s progress toward the goal. and authority. Social facilitation effect refers to improvement in performance occurring due to the ____________ of people. called Trait Theory. flexibility. self-confidence. It involves yielding to orders from another person usually with power and authority.

you would read about the nature and functions of leadership and the styles of leadership. Leadership is a process through which one member of a group (the leader) influences other group members toward the attainment of specific group goals. Crisis : In certain situations a group may suffer a set back towards achieving its goal or there may be some threat to its security. play important roles in shaping and directing the group goals. Leadership emerges as a function of the organisation. l There is a need to differentiate between the leader as an individual who has significant influence and the official head of a group who may have very little influence. Some of the factors influencing the emergence of leadership are briefly described in the following section. as well as exert influence over their followers. leadership can be best understood in terms of complex interactions between social situations and individual characteristics. leadership works in two ways: the leader influences the follower and the follower. According to this definition: l All members of a group (at least to some degree) are leaders. They are also more preferred by others. rather than being spread evenly among all members of the group.. which an individual exerts on his/her fellow beings. and tasks of the group. since every member. However. In other words. 2. You may have observed that whenever two or more people gather together to form a group. and so on. 1. In this section. Which appealed to you the most? Defining and Identifying the Leader The criterion important in identifying leaders is influence. the influence in a group tends to become lodged in one or relatively few persons. Leaders are influenced by. not all formal. and thus the quality of relationships in the group varies. In fact depending on the situation you maybe a leader or a follower. List down the characteristics in him/her because of which she/he was able to influence you. The first type of person is known as leader and others as followers. then Secondary and Tertiary leaders. At the bottom of the hierarchy are followers. ACTIVITY 3. or when it acquires more functions. Think of one teacher who exercised most influence on you. Leadership is a social process: it depends on fulfilling a certain role in a pattern of relationships in a group of people. leadership is concerned with influence – who is able to influence whom in different groups. This role will vary in different groups. It is reciprocal in nature. However. the trait theory does not fully explain the relationship between traits and leadership. Leaders by virtue of their central position in the group. Development of such a hierarchy involves spreading or delegation of leadership. influences the activities of other members. You may have observed this in school activities such as Annual Day Celebrations. The members who influence the group largely may be termed as ‘leaders’. In general. Group Complexity : As the group becomes larger. an individual in the group is perceived by its members . and in different situations. Since leaders operate in a social context. To handle such situations. situation. when some students assign work to others or those who volunteer for some work and others who do as they are asked to. organisation and activities of the group members. official leaders are actual leaders. to some degree.3 Understanding Leadership Think of your teachers in school. l Like all forms of interaction. Sports Day etc. a hierarchy of leadership emerges. We therefore may define leaders as those members of the group who influence the activities of the group. Different tasks and problems require different types of leaders and leadership. command more respect and dominate others. In other words. Leadership defines a particular type of relationship between people. some people take a more active role than others do. the amount of leadership vested in different persons varies. At the top of the hierarchy are Primary leaders. in turn. No one is always a leader or a follower. ideology. influences the leader.76 Introduction to Psychology and integrity.

You may recollect instances when Governments are thrown out of power because of weak or non-performing leaders. External or internal threat. skill. Group Representative : In case of large groups it is not possible for all members to directly deal with other groups. 5. History has shown that dictatorship arises in crises. She/he plans for the entire work. and are chosen by the teachers for assigning work. no leader will emerge and the group may disintegrate. Collate the information of the class discuss the pattern of preferences and its implications with your teacher.5 Observing Leadership Behaviour Think of a situation when in crisis.4 Identifying The Leader of a Group Write down separately the names of those students of your class who help in taking decisions. This person is likely to emerge as a leader. Expert : Leaders are generally viewed as sources of readily available information and skills or expertise. Planner : A leader decides the ways and means by which the group shall achieve its goals. This may not be the case in groups where members agree upon the group goals and means to achieve them. 2. self-confidence) is potentially more capable in handling the problem. a leader will emerge only if a group has members who have such needs in sufficient degree. The leader assumes the role of representative of the group in its external relations. In case the group has ACTIVITY 3. Let us examine briefly the main functions performed by the leader. 1. new leaders are likely to emerge. Sometimes the leader is not able to delegate responsibility and authority and feels necessity to be personally involved in each group activity. Such situation may prevent members from taking or sharing responsibility. such situations give rise to the emergence of informal leaders. Therefore. which require sudden changes in the government. knowledge. If there are no such members. often the person demonstrating greatest technical knowledge and skills becomes the leader. expertise. THE FUNCTIONS OF LEADERS 4. The members are apprised of the different aspects of the plan-often not the entire plan. ACTIVITY 3. In many informal groups. 4. Personal Needs : Leaders besides seeking fulfilment of group goals also desire power. He becomes the official representative for the group.g. 3.Social Influence and Group Processes 77 as someone who because of his/her personal characteristics (e. Executive : A leader in his/her executive capacity does not carry out work or activities but assigns it to other group members. affecting their involvement in the work of the group. the immediate steps to be taken and the long range planning for future steps. 3.. volunteer to undertake responsibilities. For example during camping or trekking. both offer opportunities for the emergence of leadership. 5. Purveyor of Rewards and Punishments: Group members perceive the leader as having power to apply rewards and . more of such members leadership role may be shared by two or more individuals. Leaders perform several functions. Inadequate Leadership : When the formal leader of a group or official head is unable to perform the role and functions of leadership. All communications–outgoing and incoming–are channelled through the leader. prestige etc. the guide may play the role of the group leader because of his/her familiarity and knowledge about the area. Group Instability : When group members hold divergent views about the goals or activities of the group or the ways for achieving them. some student had taken the lead role to solve the problem in your class. are liked by you and by the teacher.

and providing a focus for positive feelings. The autocratic leader guarantees that his guidance is indispensable for proper functioning of the group. 7. They differ in terms of personal style or approach to leadership. or taking away the responsibility assigned or lowering of the status. a religious leader should exemplify all the moral virtues he would expect the disciples to imbibe. values. Father Figure : The leader may also play the emotional role of father figure for the individual members of the group. Rewards and punishments may relate to being promoted to a higher position. This enables the leader to exercise control over group members. The democratic leader encourages greater involvement and participation of group members in the activities and in setting up of group goals. which made them different from others. Exemplar : In certain groups the leader may serve as a role model to the group members. On the other hand. Individual members are often discouraged to set personal goals. l Task orientation. or simply assign work without any consideration for personal likes and dislikes. Sometimes the leader provides the ideology of the group. there would also be people who allow the class to arrive at a decision.78 Introduction to Psychology punishments. Such a leader tries to establish a structure where intercommunication among the members is minimum. likewise. but differs greatly in the way power is used. and participate in activities. The leader is the ideal object for identification. ACTIVITY 3. The Commanding Officer in the Armed Forces who leads his troops into a battle serves as an Exemplar. LEADERSHIP STYLES: HOW LEADERS OPERATE? Leaders do not function in the same way. it depends on the specific circumstances. and norms of the individual members. and have a democratic way of handling situation. This role may form the basis of power of a leader in certain circumstances. l Relational dimension. giving special honours. is through the leader or is under his supervision. 6. Identify the qualities.5 Identifying Leaders Write the names of leaders whom you admire. The leader seeks the distribution of responsibility. Authoritarian/Autocratic Leadership: An authoritarian leader tends to yield absolute power. encourages and reinforces interpersonal relations among the group . You too must have observed that there are people in school who take all the decisions. Let us have a look at some of the major styles of leadership. The distinction between different ‘styles’ of leadership is largely in terms of the kind of relationship that exists between the leader and the group members and the degree of emphasis on task accomplishment. The goals are imposed on them. makes major plans. dictates activities of group members and determines the pattern of relationship among them. It is obvious that these two types of leaders have contrasting styles of functioning. Some of the major dimensions along which leaders differ in terms of their style are as follows. no single style is the best. give orders. It refers to the leader’s interest in creating friendly relations and satisfying group members. However. Leaders can be high or low on any of these dimensions. The authoritarian leader deliberately develops these absolute functions and resists changes in them. 2. Democratic Leadership : A democratic leader may have the same amount of power as an autocratic leader. He serves as the source of the beliefs. It refers to the extent to which the leader focuses on getting the work done and gives primacy to task achievement. 1. for transferring feelings. Discuss the observations with your teacher. Such a leader alone takes decisions for the group. Nurturant leaders value nurturing the members through a personal relationship.

P. and many such leaders have draws on the cultural values such as shaped the course of world events. trusting. In other them. In Indian organisations. same leader gradually adopts participative the success of a democratic leader lies in style as the subordinates gain expertise how well the group can function without and experience. In between the two 5. in order to be effective. task oriented. 4. his subordinates to work hard. and prevents development of a in their well-being and above all. Indira expectations from the subordinates. having structured Mahatma Gandhi. democratic or participative style is nurturant task leadership is found to people oriented and directed be effective. Franklin D. He also assumes more significance in group does not intervene in any way in the group functioning. and the need for There is something special about these personalised relationships. committed to their growth. Charismatic Leader : Personalities like styles. members. affection. takes a personal interest tension. while the subordinates who prefer to maintain democratic leader acts as the “facilitator” dependency and personalised relationship of group activities. Roosevelt. The major difference in the two styles of A leader. as we have seen. personal clearly so that communications strengths and motives of individuals are explicit. He initiates. has to leadership is that the authoritarian leader be nurturant and task oriented to the tends to be the group “dictator”. make some people charismatic leaders. His role is of a passive western cultures a nurturant relationship observer or provider of information if of the leader with group members is required by some group member. has the mix of leaders. He cares for his subordinates. is hierarchical group structure. task achievement participate in group activities. Sinha. The work 3. etc. Gandhi. Sinha relationship with members. rigidity. He thus creates a climate of words. dependency. guides and directs Besides possessing certain traits. considered important. Churchill. An authoritarian leader is the keystone of the group. Nurturant Task Leadership : The is performed diligently as a part of a snehauthoritarian style is self-centred shardha (affection-deference) and is oriented towards status relationship between a dependent/ maintenance. What personal components: concern for task and characteristics make certain leaders nurturant orientation.Social Influence and Group Processes 79 nurturance. Such a leader charismatic? According to the “great defines his and his subordinates’ role man theory” certain traits. His of personalities who become charismatic task orientation. The situation must also be . and thereby want him. without with him and accept his authority. freedom and autonomy to work. Kennedy.P. however. In actively guide the group and may not western cultures. is the nurturant task style. towards sharing. They are often termed proposed by Jai B. structured and task-relevant. whereas in many nonfunctioning. It is John F. there seem to be certain types purposiveness and goal orientation. vary in suggests (“laissez-faire” in French the extent of their emphasis on mean “let the people do what they task achievement and their chose”) such a leader does not Jai B. Laissez-faire : As the name Leaders. It has been leaders. charismatic leadership involves a Responsibilities are pinpointed and areas special type of relationship between the of decision-making are synchronised with leaders and their followers. charismatic leaders (charisma means Nurturant task leadership has two main gift in Greek). and subordinate and his nurturant domineering posture whereas the superior. reduces intergroup conflict and shows affection. The whom the group may collapse whereas.

Charismatic. (1) Charismatic leaders are capable of evoking high levels of devotion. (c) external and internal threats faced by the group. Also. T/F 2. there is no single leadership style. T/F Key Terms Conformity. which is effective in all situations. Leadership involves exercising influence by one group member over the other members. (2) willingness to sacrifice their personal interests for the group goals. T/F 5. 6. policy makers. Out-group. T/F 6. They describe in clear. emotionprovoking manner. Also. an image of what the group can become. they provide a route for attaining the vision. Obedience. Charismatic leaders prefer to maintain direct personal contact with the group members. Democratic leaders do not yield as much power as do the autocratic leaders. experts. so that the followers readily accept the leadership of a person who possesses those particular traits. Risk Taking. Proximity. external group representatives etc. Groupthink. Democratic. Leadership. Some of history’s most successful leaders had varied their leadership style to fit the circumstances. They have a high level of confidence. loyalty and reverence towards the leader. Charismatic leadership involves a special kind of leader-follower relationship in which the leader inspires the followers to make personal sacrifices in their devotion to causes. Laissez-faire leadership promotes healthy inter-personal relationship among the group members. Recapitulation The leaders of a group are those members who exert relatively greater influence on the group. In sum. excellent communication skills. to varying degrees. T/F 3. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. Normative Influence. Authoritarian. Transformational and Nurturant-task leadership are some typical styles of leadership.80 Introduction to Psychology appropriate. Primary Group. The emergence of leaders is facilitated by: (a) an increase in the size and complexity of the group. The optimal leadership style is the one that suits the situation. Evaluation Apprehension. The contexts of group functioning also vary. A goal leader has a fixed style which does not change over time. Compliance. They are able to communicate emotion and get emotional responses from their followers. Leaders serve several functions. . Traits of leaders are different from those of the followers. The effectiveness of any style of leadership is contingent on the demands of the situation. high degree of concern for the followers. Authoritarian leader encourages hierarchy among the group members. They work as executives. Cohesiveness. Informational influence. Transformational Leadership: These leaders exert considerable influence over the followers by proposing an inspiring vision. In-group. Social Loafing. They are leaders of mass movements. Laissez-faire. Leadership always emerges at a result of situational factors. and (d) failure of the official head and availability of ‘potential’ leaders in the group. Minority influence. A rigid leadership style is not always the best. Transformational leader motivates the followers to accomplish more than they originally expect. T/F 4. (b) blockage to the achievement of group goals. they are very capable in impression management that enhances their appeal to others. planners. SocialFacilitation effect. T/F 7. There are individual differences in leadership styles. T/F 8. and (3) performance beyond the expected level.

share a stable relationship. personal qualities etc. 6. (3) T. Conformity. to feel secure and safe and to bolster their self-esteem. (7) F. in-group and out-groups. experts. have common goals. (4) F. Leaders perform different functions. 2. as: executives. to acquire information. influence the emergence of leadership. (2) T. (5) T. belongingness. What is a group? State its functions? Which factors facilitate the formation of a group? Describe the different types of groups with examples? What is social facilitation effect? Explain with the help of examples? What is conformity? Why do people conform? How do people obtain obedience? Who are leaders? What factors lead to the emergence of leadership? What are the different styles of leadership? What is compliance? How does it differ from social loafing? ANSWERS I II III : : : TO LEARNING CHECKS IV : (1) F. compliance and obedience are important examples of social influence. Leaders appear to differ from their followers in terms of several traits. (4) F. group instability. perform expected behaviours and recognise that they belong to a group. 4. planners. etc. purveyors of rewards and punishments. They adopt very different ‘styles’. (2) conformity. formal and informal groups. which are distinct in terms of the kind of relationship that exists between the leader and the group members. group representatives. Laissez-faire. 3. similarity. Individuals join groups to satisfy their social needs: to enjoy recognition and affection. Democratic. (8) F. Factors such as group complexity. The optimum leadership style is the one that suits the situation. (4) informational influence.Social Influence and Group Processes 81 SUMMARY l Group refers to two or more persons who interact with each other. inadequate leadership. (5) T. l l l l l l l Review Questions 1. (5) compliance. Charismatic and Nurturant-task Leadership. A number of dimensions are used to characterise various types of groups: primary and secondary groups. (5) T (1) presence. (4) T. (3) T. 5. behaviours. 7. Groups differ in terms of their function and organisation. (2) F. (1) T. (6) F (1) T. (6) F. or perceptions of others is a very common form of social behaviour. Transformational. exemplars and father figures. Leadership involves exercising of influence by one group member over the other members. cohesiveness. Some of the leadership styles are: Authoritarian/Autocratic. Social influence or efforts by one or more persons to change the attitudes. 9. There is no single leadership style which is most effective in all situations. (3) T. . (3) accepted. (2) T. crises. Group formation is facilitated by factors such as: proximity. but not all leaders are alike. 8.

Ä understand the difference between prejudice and discrimination and to acquaint with some measures to overcome them. Ä learn what are the determinants of maintenance. Altruism and Empathy (Box 4.2) Attitude and Behaviour Attitude-Behaviour Consistency: A Classic Study (Box 4.3) Prejudice and Discrimination Sources of Prejudice Intergroup Conflicts Strategies to Overcome Prejudices Beliefs and their Functions Social Cognition Causal Attributions Pro-social Behaviour : Nature and Determinants Bystander Behaviour.4) Aggression and Violence: Its Causes and Remedies (Box 4. and change in attitudes.82 Introduction to Psychology 4 THIS ATTITUDE CHAPTER COVERS AND SOCIAL COGNITION CONTENTS Introduction Nature and Components of Attitudes What is an Attitude? Components of Attitude Measurement of Attitudes Methods of Attitude Scaling (Box 4. formation. Ä learn about the nature of beliefs and their functions including causal beliefs.5) Ä The concept and measurement of attitude Ä The formation. maintenance and change of attitudes Ä The factors influencing intergroup relations Ä The nature and function of beliefs Ä The nature of pro-social behaviour and its determinants BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand what is attitude and how it can be measured. and Ä understand the concept of pro-social behaviour and what factors promote it Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . Maintenance and Change of Attitudes A Two-step Concept of Attitude Change (Box 4.1) Formation.

or about the objects seen. Think about your attitude towards your close friend. but at times we notice intergroup conflicts that may result in social disturbances. We not only help others and cooperate with. You would also realise that you think. and organisations. terrorism or even war. You will learn about many other questions such as: How can the attitudes be measured? How attitudes are formed and maintained? What leads to the changes in attitudes? What is the relationship of attitude with behaviour? Also. One has attitudes even about the strangers one meets casually. One has attitudes about friends. when we are angry. Mc Intyre MULTIPLE IDENTITIES OF A CHILD . This chapter will help you to understand the meaning and components of attitudes. whereas it is likely to be positive in the case of a close friend. The study of these efforts is social cognition. You will also learn about the ways we cognise the social world and how attributions and beliefs work and shape our behaviour. you will learn about the nature and factors underlying a pro-social behaviour. helpful and intelligent. or about the places visited. prejudices and the strategies to reduce them. political leaders. Confidence comes not from always being right but from not fearing to be wrong. The roots of all these are found in our attitudes and cognitions. We try to find the causes of various events. you will learn about attitudes toward groups. would feel positively about him or her. You would think that your friend is trustworthy. The relations between groups may be cordial. but also try to harm others. we cognise and try to make sense of the different aspects of our social world. feels and acts toward others in any social situation.Attitude and Social Cognition 83 INTRODUCTION Attitudes refer to the way one thinks. We also relate to other persons present in our environment in different ways. Expressions of anger and conflict are also found at group level. Did you know that you have attitudes about almost everything that matters to you? As human beings. parents. – Peter T. Your attitude about a bully is probably negative. Finally. feel and act differently toward a bully in your class. and would be ready to spend time together. Did you realise that these attitudes largely determine the way you deal with these people in everyday life? Attitudes influence your daily behaviour in a much more significant manner than you generally realise.

Once formed. On the contrary. doctor. Temporary mood states and one-time actions cannot be considered as an attitude. are often guided by the kind of attitudes we have about them. 2. Similarly. it is the shared attitude towards secularism and social tolerance that binds the Indian people. On the other hand. Attitudes are relatively stable. school. etc. feelings. feelings. The object may be anything – a person. The second situation creates tension and conflict. They guide the way people think. however. for example. if the attitudes about other religious groups are positive. and compare it with a situation when some of your friends have positive and others have a negative attitude towards the same. Attitudes are dispositional. Attitudes play an important role at the societal level : Think of a situation when all your friends have the same attitude about your school. occupation. affective (feeling) and behavioural . Just as a crucial element of some social groups is a set of attitudes. we may even harm or damage the interests of those who are categorised as ‘others’. The positive attitudes toward others may bring you closer to them and you may be favourably disposed to comply with their requests. The shared attitude towards environmental protection. and lead to less friendly interaction with others. Who were Vivekananda and Mahatma Gandhi without their attitudes toward India? Who is Sunderlal Bahuguna without his attitudes toward environment and ecology? What we think about ourselves is shaped by our attitudes. so too are attitudes central elements in people’s notion of themselves. Attitudes refer to the set of thoughts. negative attitudes create interpersonal distance. By dispositional we mean that the attitudes are the characteristics of an individual and people differ in their strength from one another depending on their socialisation and social interaction. In the same way. 4. and actions. feelings and actions that people hold on relatively long-term basis. Evaluations are related in complex ways to beliefs. They do change in the light of new experiences and informations. is all that holds a proenvironmental organisation together. Attitudes provide basis for defining social groups : Members of a group often share similar attitudes and this binds them together. feel. In this way attitudes are central in maintaining a group. The choices of friends. an idea or an object. Functions of Attitudes Attitudes serve four important functions as given below: 1. and act.84 Introduction to Psychology NATURE AND COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES What is an Attitude? In social psychology the term attitude is defined as a predisposition involving beliefs. a group. They are stable and dispositional. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE As indicated earlier an attitude comprises of three components namely. 3. 1. we have more communal conflicts in the society. Attitudes guide thinking and behaviour : Attitudes are important elements of people’s cognition. cognitive (thinking). It. You may imitate or model such people. Your mother may get angry with you for coming home late but it is not indicative of her attitude. 2. does not mean that attitudes do not change. attitudes have a tendency to persist over time and across situations. In recent years psychologists are moving toward a conception of attitude as evaluation. Attitudes help to establish our identities : Attitudes provide self-definition. In extreme cases. Thus attitudes are simply evaluations of (attitude) objects. there is peace and harmony in the society. The influences of attitudes are found on many aspects of social behaviour. The attitudes have two main characteristics. if people have negative attitudes about those who belong to another religion. and dispositions to act towards some object.

at the same time. It is a great fun. The second component is that of affect. one may think that the ideology of a particular political party is good (or not good) for the country. very intelligent) but. Finally. It is possible that you may evaluate someone positively (for example. you may not like someone but may want to help him anyway. in a large number of cases it may not hold true. The Relationship among the Components of Attitude You may be ready to dispute by now that why do you have to think. It is a product of interaction and experience. You also know that swimming is an excellent exercise and a great way to stay in shape. It comprises of three components namely cognitive. When one thinks about.Attitude and Social Cognition 85 (action). interacts or communicates with any person. and acts toward objects in any social situation. attitudes have a behavioural component. Our liking or disliking for some person refers to the affective component of an attitude. This evaluation could be positive or negative. l Compare these two attitudes. all the three components of attitude are closely related. there is no greater fun than swimming. The knowledge about the activity constitutes the cognitive component of an attitude. affective. The third component of attitude refers to the actual behaviour. You are not wrong. may not like him or her as a person and would like to keep a distance because of his or her antics. Attitude is not a single entity. for example. object or place. Let us take an example. Recapitulation Attitudes refer to the way one thinks. You change into a costume and jump into the swimming pool.. You love swimming. These feelings highlight the affective component. You understand the health benefits that swimming can bring.1 Understanding the Nature of Attitudes l Describe your best friend and a person whom you don’t like in terms of the three components of attitude. For example. feel and act in a particular manner. You have a positive attitude about swimming. implying thereby how we evaluate the characteristics of a person. l Share your observations with your teacher and classmates. On the other hand. feel and behave positively when you have a positive attitude about a person. defends it before others. it is possible to change those attitudes. The above description of swimming illustrates the three components of an attitude: affect. emotions and actions. and behavioural. feels. Our attitudes prompt us to do or say something. The three components are interlinked. For you. It deals with the way one feels about the attitudinal object. People try to maintain consistency across these three components. one may have a pleasant or an unpleasant feeling. Then what is the point in talking about these three components of attitude? Those who propose that an attitude is a consistent system of beliefs. where the three components are inconsistent than in the cases where they are consistent. i. ACTIVITY 4. and jumping into the pool brings a smile to your face. Suppose you love swimming. When all components of attitude are in the same direction the attitude will be more resistant to change. One approves the behaviour. cognition and behaviour. and helps and supports them. However. This may be understood when we analyse attitude towards something. they are in the same direction. .e. It is defined as a relatively stable disposition of human beings to think. The cognitive component represents the belief that one has about an attitude object. argue that inconsistency among the three components may cause tension and anxiety and the person would try to bring changes in these components in such a manner that consistency or balance is restored. Normally it is seen that if you have a very strong attitude. If one has a positive attitude about someone his or her actual behaviour would be favourable. In fact.

which are given to each person on whom the attitude measure is administered. Consequently. Yes. The statements selected for an attitude measure are carefully chosen to meet certain criteria. This type of question. usually sufficiently large in number and an aggregate score is than obtained. These criteria ensure that the statements do in fact assess the favourable or unfavourable views held by the person in relation to the attitude object. because individuals are given an attitude score based on the sum of their responses on all the items of the scale. One of the frequently used scales is Likert Scale. one may ask: Are women qualified . Thinks very highly about Sachin Tendulkar. such as reservation. Do not know. Yes/No 5. most of the questions on an attitude surveys in vogue are close ended. But on examining this measure many other features of attitude measures would become clear. all items are based on self-reports of the respondent.e.2 shows only one kind of attitude measure and there are many other types of measures. Never skips the psychology classes. all these measures use standard instructions. Yes/No 7. These questions may be open or close ended. For instance. Activity 4. Openended questions allow the respondent to provide an answer in his/her own words. Did not like the classmate for his her insincerity. There are several Understanding people’s attitude towards a particular issue. Some of these techniques use direct responses. Likes to be praised by others.86 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS I Read the following statements and indicate whether they refer to an attitude or not. Takes bath before going to school every morning. There is always more than one statement. Uses only Colgate toothpaste. The presumption is that people know their preferences and they can show them by following the instructions and choosing a response alternative. Rating Scales : In these scales respondents indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with a statement. The Attitude Survey : This is the most commonly used technique for measuring attitudes. Feeling depressed about failing in the examination. Yes/No 2.. whereas others are indirect. social psychologists use certain techniques to measure people’s attitudes. It is the aggregate score from which the favourability of one’s attitude is assessed. Yes/No 4. Maybe. forces the respondents into making limited number of choices. The attitudes are private. In an attitude survey. The items in this kind of scale ask the person to agree or disagree with attitude statements on a 5-point scale as shown below : I believe children should not be punished. a respondent might be asked: “What qualifications do you think are necessary for the Prime Minister of India? Although this type of question yields in-depth information. we can’t directly know what a person’s attitudes are just by looking at her or him. 1. Yes/No to be the Chief Minister of a State? The answer may be given by using one of the four categories. Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree Neutral Agree 2 3 4 Strongly Agree 5 MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES Likert’s technique is called a summated rating scale. or capital punishment or women’s rights is important for many purposes. Yes/No 3. i. attitude is not measured directly. For this reason. the answers can be difficult to analyse. No. however. Third. the investigators provide a questionnaire or ask a series of questions on the telephone. First. A respondent shows his or her attitude by answering a series of questions. or by asking a single question. For example. A brief description of these techniques is given below. Second. Yes/No 6.

— — — — — — — — — Neither Agree Nor Disagree — — — — — — — Strongly Disagree — — — — — — — ways of preparing and arranging appropriate statements. Coaching is a must in present times. If a researcher wants to measure a community’s attitude towards. Behavioural Measures: The self-report measures rely on respondents’ verbal reports of their attitudes. These are known as the Attitude Scaling Methods. The envelopes that turn up are counted and compared with names sounding foreign with those names that don’t. T/F . 4. if she has some stamps and envelopes. For example. Circle the appropriate number given before each statement to indicate your views. Coaching institutes are only for money making. say. she might not get honest answers on a questionnaire. she can try the lost-letter technique. 7. Coaching institutes provide better education. T/F 3. 8. Coaching institutes should be banned. It involves asking questions. Apart from the Self-report method. Services provided by coaching institutes should be appreciated. As her baseline control. Coaching institutes prepare you for competition. Attitudes are closed ended questionnaires. foreigners. This is what the researcher does: She addresses an envelope to someone with a foreign-sounding name at a local address. T/F 4. The people whose attitudes are being measured are not aware of it. — 2. Coaching institutes make false promises. But. Coaching is of no good for bright students. Likert’s technique is called summated rating scale. 6. Some of the popular scaling methods are described in Box 4. Keeping this limitation in mind. Rating scales require the person to respond to certain statements in a standard format and an aggregate score is obtained by calculating the person’s responses. This reflects the attitude towards foreigners.1.Attitude and Social Cognition 87 ACTIVITY 4. She puts a stamp on the envelope and then drops it on a crowded street near the post office so that it can be easily found and mailed. T/F 2. The lost-letter technique is a good example of this technique. The procedure is repeated to collect a sample. LEARNING CHECKS II 1. she drops a stamped envelope addressed to someone whose name does not sound foreign. there are behavioural and unobtrusive measures that are used to assess attitudes. Strongly Agree 1. 3. 5. Unobstrusive measures assess attitudes of people without making them aware of it. observation of overt behaviour becomes the basis of measuring someone’s attitude. with whom people interact in public places is a good index of their attitude toward other ethnic groups. Recapitulation Attitude survey is one of the most common ways to assess attitudes. Rating scales measure the extent to which the respondent agrees or disagrees with the statement. Often there is no way to verify the correctness of such reports.2 Attitude about Coaching Institutes Please read each statement carefully and answer by choosing one of the three alternatives: Agree. Unobtrusive Measures: These measures assess attitudes by indirect means. somewhat agree and disagree.

The mean of the ratings of all judges is taken as the scale value of that item. if one wants to measure the attitude towards coaching institutes.2 1. For example. in that order. Each statement is evaluated by many judges in terms of the degree of negativity of the view expressed. Attitude toward Child Marriage Scale Value 1. or degree of favourableness (about child marriage) of the statement. These categories are assigned scores from 5 to 1. strongly agree (5) and strongly disagree (1). a score of 1 would be assigned. 8. agree. For example. If the statement is put in the first category. Child marriage should be seen as one of the many social ills. These statements or items should be as diverse as possible covering all aspects of the attitude object. Thurstone Method : This method was named after Louis Thurstone who developed it in 1928. 3. Bogardus’ Social Distance Measure first names an ethnic group and then asks the respondent to check which one of the seven relationships they would be willing to engage in with members of this group. a researcher first collects a large number of opinion statements expressing favourable or unfavourable attitudes about the attitude object. These items are prepared in such a manner that the person given this measure would be able to use the following five categories: strongly agree. The aggregate score is obtained by adding the numerical values of the categories checked by a respondent. The person whose attitude we want to measure responds to each statement by choosing one of the five categories. which people have toward different ethnic groups. Thurstone. . indeed. Child marriage should be a cognisable offence.88 Introduction to Psychology BOX 4. People responsible for child marriage should be put behind the bars. Judges are then given these statements to categorise them in 11 categories – ranging from showing very unfavourable attitude to very favourable attitudes. disagree. Also known as the Social Distance scale.1 METHODS OF ATTITUDE SCALING Likert Method : This was developed by Rensis Likert in 1932. a score of 2 would be given if the respondent is ready to admit the members of other ethnic groups in their fold. if a respondent is willing to accept a person into the closest relationship (by marriage). These numbers are assigned in this manner so that a high score indicates a favourable attitude and a low score indicates an unfavourable attitude. the researcher first prepares a large number of statements that are relevant to the attitude object. it implies that the judge considers that statement as showing very unfavourable attitude toward child marriage. and strongly disagree.. Many times child marriages do not work. A set of items is then selected from the pool of such statements. 4. as shown below. A score of 7 is given to the respondent who wants the members of other ethnic groups entirely excluded from their social life. To prepare a Thurstone scale. To develop a Likert Scale. Thurstone viewed attitudes as varying along an evaluative continuum ranging from favourable to unfavourable. 2.8 Bogardus Method : Another attempt to develop an attitude measure was made by Emory Bogardus. 5. which are then presented to the participant who are asked to indicate the statements with which they agree. There is nothing wrong in child marriage.2 9. the statements should cover all aspects – from teaching techniques to learning environment to monetary matters. and so on. in terms of how much social distance people wish to maintain between themselves and various ethnic groups. undecided. was the first one to suggest that attitudes can be measured by finding the view that a person holds about attitude objects.e. The Sum total of the scale values of those selected items is the attitude score of that participant.4 3. i. Bogardus developed this measure to find the attitude. if the statement is put in category 6.3 4. it would mean that the statement is considered showing neither favourable nor unfavourable attitude about child marriage.

Instrumental conditioning : It applies to the situations when people learn attitudes which are systematically rewarded by significant others. jobs and positions. Parents provide categories. Children are keen observers and learn a whole lot of things from their parents and other family members. They form opinion about many more people and objects. A newborn baby has no attitude towards a snake. Therefore. policemen. vendors. For example. Classical conditioning : As you know this kind of learning shows how a neutral object gets associated with an already established stimulus-response connection. Players often develop a strong liking for the bat by which they made good runs. They form attitudes about other social and religious groups on the basis of such categories defined by their parents. Family : Parents have an all-encompassing influence on the way their children come to form attitudes. Children often learn to categorise other children as good or bad based on the categories supplied by their parents. Observational learning : It suggests that human beings are capable of acquiring new responses simply by observing the actions and their outcomes. The young children learn by observing and imitating their elders in the family. The children learn a great deal from these reference groups. neighbours. you may develop a positive attitude about a person who was present whenever you won a match. Lets examine what factors contribute to the formation of attitudes. approval to offering monetary rewards. affection. You have already studied about the basic processes of learning in Class XI. In fact. which is repeatedly associated with a stimuli capable of evoking positive or negative feelings. we are not born with attitudes. families constitute the primary source of information for children. Thus. Any attitude object. Imagine how much young children learn about the world from the stories told by their grand parents! Reference Groups : As the children grow older the diversity of influences on their lives increases. such as parents. The attitudes are acquired through different types of learning. The different aspects of environment shape the development of attitudes. The three basic learning procedures involved in the acquisition of attitudes are as follows. ‘how do people acquire an attitude toward the Chinese food’? Can we acquire an attitude about something we are not exposed to? Why do people have different attitudes? The term attitude formation refers to the movement we make from having no attitude toward an attitude object to having a positive or negative attitude. teachers or friends. They imbibe attitudes about . It has been observed that people quickly come to express specific point of views when they are rewarded for their expression. will acquire the ability to evoke a similar response. ranging from praise. If not stopped by elders. Some of the important aspects of environment. children are taught certain attitudes and behaviours by controlling reward and punishment and systematically reinforcing certain kinds of attitudes. Factors Influencing Formation of Attitudes The formation of attitudes takes place in our social environment. Only when it grows little older than a child it learns to fear and avoid a snake. it will have no problem in playing with a snake. They come in contact with teachers. We can also ask a question. and ideologies simply by observing the behaviours of adults. While the specific form of such rewards may vary greatly. which their children pick up to form attitudes. and more importantly with peers. They learn many of their attitudes about other ethnic groups. the relevance of learning process in relation to attitude formation is only briefly indicated. Children get their first exposure to the social world through their parents and other family members.Attitude and Social Cognition 89 FORMATION. They acquire initial knowledge about the people and places from their parents and very often imbibe their values and observations. relevant to the formation of attitudes are described below. MAINTENANCE CHANGE OF ATTITUDES Formation of Attitudes AND As mentioned earlier. These groups constitute the reference groups for children.

The social environment including people.V.V. Maintaining a particular attitude may be beneficial for the person.1 presents the range of factors that may influence attitude formation. If they are confronted with information. Figure 4. We discount the contradictory information. there are other unique significant life events and situations. if someone is very helpful to you in achieving your goals.V commercials tell us which products we should buy. The victims of criminal assault and social discrimination can hardly Once formed. or believe that it is coming from a dubious source. Think how many hours you and your friends watch the T.V. you tend to have a favourable attitude towards the army men. ETHNIC lCaste and Social lAttitudes of family l Patterns of Socialisation MULTIPLE IDENTITIES OF A CHILD lInteractions with Peer Group lRules traditionally defined lInequality in status lSocialisation GENDER be positive in their judgement of the groups to which the perpetrators belong. . They rarely question what they see on the T. urban middle school children watch T. If the membership of the reference group is important to the person. which is against their present attitude. We all have such turning points. probability is high that the child will also show similar kind of bias.1 Influences on Attitude Formation Direct Personal Experience : How do you form an attitude about an army personnel? It largely depends on your personal encounter with such a man in the past.. The reference group resists any change and people succumb to the group pressure. MAINTENANCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC lSocial Group Affiliations lStructure of Population lGenetic Inheritance lChanging Social Trends ECONOMIC ATTITUDES Fig. they tend to believe what they see on the T. Meeting Ramkrishna Paramhans changed Narendra and his whole attitude toward life and people. social and religious groups. remains stable to a large extent. If their reference group is biased about some religious group. People like to have consistency in their attitudes and they do this in many ways.4. attitudes persist. On an average. for at least 4-5 hours and this exposure has become a potent way to learn about the world. For instance. Media Exposure : Today’s life media has assumed a prominent place. national leaders. 3. which significantly shape our attitudes in a particular direction. even if you come to know about his negative qualities you justify his actions and maintain your existing attitude. your attitude may not be favourable toward all army men. they either consider that information as not very relevant or important.V screen. Several studies have reported that high-school children rate the mass media as their most important source of information. Apart from day-to-day life experiences. consumer products. If an army man has roughed you up for trespassing. We tend to generalise. 2. From a skeptic. If he was very kind and helpful to you. One can thus ignore such information. They help to maintain attitudes. Our reference group may be exerting influence to maintain the attitude. the pattern of interaction. which are endorsed by such reference groups.90 Introduction to Psychology occupations. and the distribution of reward and punishment. 1. T. he or she is more likely to retain his/her former attitude even in the face of contradictory information. which is important for the smooth functioning of the group. etc. their attitudes about others are not likely to be positive. Since children are more impressionable. It is understandable that those who are born in extreme poverty conditions and have had many bitter experiences. he became a believer and went on to address the World Religions’ Congress and became a legend as Swami Vivekananda.

and seniors keep telling us what is good and what we should do. or buy some particular brand of a product. This change in attitude can be congruent or incongruent. was a Professor and the Head of the Psychology Department. attitudes are difficult to change. Once we make a public commitment. The congruent change is the direction in which your present attitude is. In contrast. New and innovative techniques are constantly devised to catch the attention of people and bring about the desired change in attitudes. one of the pioneers of scientific psychology in India. This will set the reciprocated attraction process S. Later. It amounts to investing the agent with the potential to release agreeable thoughts and pleasurable feelings in the target with regard to the agent. Changing attitudes would. he or she may find it difficult to justify it. To foster a positive attitude towards the target. amount to changing one’s notion of self and identity.M. Let us now examine these factors : A TWO–STEP CONCEPT OF ATTITUDE CHANGE into motion – the agent being attracted to the target will attract target to himself. the agent has to undergo a process of self-correction through sincere heart searching. If one changes one’s attitude in such a situation. if someone has participated in a protest march against the reservation policy.M. You switch on your television and your auditory and visual senses are bombarded with all kinds of advertisements. Patna. whether our attitude will change or not. Generally. Here we will discuss some important factors. friends. or take a position. depends on several factors. Attitudes can change in the positive or negative direction. therefore. These shifts in attitudes are not very sudden or dramatic but are usually so gradual that we fail to take notice of them. Our family. issues. this behaviour will serve as a model for its imitation by the target person. the agent himself has to be inspired by a genuinely positive regard for the target. the incongruent change in attitude is difficult to achieve. S. After having been through the first step without faltering. it will be very difficult to take a favourable position about it. 5. These factors can be broadly put into two categories (i) characteristics of attitude (ii) communication factors. Attitudes greatly shape our identity. it becomes very difficult to change that. For example the advertisers try to change our attitudes all the time. Some attitudes are more resistant to change.2 advertising industry all over the world keeps telling people what product they should buy. Patna University. One’s identity is largely determined by the attitude one holds about people. Mohsin. He proposed a twostep concept of attitude change. well-wishers. while others are more amenable to change. people do undergo substantial changes in their attitudes during their lifetime. Of course.Attitude and Social Cognition 91 4. Yet. A five thousand crore BOX 4. Mohsin . which contribute to the changes in attitudes. The first step is the identification of the target of attitude change with the agent or source of change. and objects that matter. Identification implies generation in the target a liking for agent. Political parties want you to change your attitude in their favour. ATTITUDE CHANGE Once formed. Go to any public place and you cannot escape seeing the hoardings inviting you to join a particular coaching. the incongruent change is a change in the reverse direction. the second step calls upon the agent to enact the attitude relevant behaviour. The two-step concept of attitude change is grounded on a synthesis of the view point of Bandura’s social learning theory and the principles of inter-personal attraction. To achieve this. For example.

it is more persuasive. In general. are less likely to change. Thus. these attitudes become more stable. if the membership of a particular club enhances your self-esteem. Importance : If an attitude is the basis of our relationship with friends or life goals. Simply telling them good things about peer learning may not work. 3. you are less likely to pay attention to the information. Discuss your answers with the teacher. Sometimes attractiveness or likeableness of the communicator makes a difference. possible to engage in face-to-face communication. based on available information you have to build a very forceful argument in favour of peer learning. If something is said by an expert or a trustworthy person. For example. though. these attitudes mutually reinforce each other. which are extreme in nature. For example. the source of information plays an important role. which you want to take up as a career. it is supposed to have a greater appeal. The first thing you may need is to have convincing ground for the position that you want to advance. l Attitude toward a group whose membership was very restricted and hard to get. Strength : Attitudes. Interconnectedness : If the attitude is closely connected with several other attitudes and if they are in a state of balance. a researcher or educationist. You have to present that information in an effective manner. Functionality : If the attitude serves a useful function for the individual. If the information comes from some very credible source. which is contrary to your attitude. his/her classes very l Attitude toward a friend whom you consider very good at studies but do not like his/her work habits. l Attitude toward a writer whose novels your friends have read.g. you would like to maintain a positive attitude about that club. This enables you to modify your argument to fit the motive and characteristics of the student you want to persuade. Communication Factors You have read about the basic ideas of communications process in Class XI. For example. because changing such attitudes will change many other aspects of our lives. face-to-face communication is found to be more effective than indirect communication. Suppose you are given a task to change the attitude of your classmates in favour of peer learning. l Attitude toward a profession. The way or mode in which a message or information is presented to the students. Even then some people will change and others will not. 2. the attitude toward parents is much more complex than attitude toward a particular brand of soap.92 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 4. Let us see when and how people change their attitudes in the light of a new information. it is likely to be more effective. 1. how will you go about doing it? What will persuade them to change their attitude? The task is not as easy as it may appear to many people. l Attitude toward parents who are strict disciplinarians.. Please read them carefully and indicate which attitude is difficult to change and why? l Attitude toward a teacher whom you like 5.3 Understanding the Dynamic Nature of Attitudes Following is a list of attitudes. whose attitude you want to change will also be important. In this context. if you have a strong opinion that India should make nuclear bombs. You must have noticed that if your favourite actor comes in the advertisement of a particular product. . e. which constitute an attitude. he is less likely to change it. 4. It is. Complexity : It refers to multiple factors. Characteristics of Attitude The following characteristics of attitude play important role in the change of attitude. if the group is very large and you are not sure of your persuasive and attend regularly. not always.

The factors affecting attitude formation include Family. mass media has emerged as the most important factor in affecting opinions and attitudes. are only weak predictors of behaviour. Imagine a situation in which a new student joins your class. 1. persons with a positive attitude toward nuclear bomb. ACTIVITY 4. Family has a major influence in the formation of attitudes. This may not happen in the case of a student whom you like and consider very studious. On the contrary. Attitudes can be easily changed by explaining and talking. Personal experience. Learning helps to acquire attitudes. Personal experiences. T/F 2. which may have greater influence on behaviour than the attitudes. Reward and punishment meted by the family and the community play important role in reinforcing the acquisition of attitudes. attitudes were seen as determinants of behaviour. When in conversation with friends. at best. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR LEARNING CHECKS III 1. Operant conditioning and Social learning. However. as no clear and consistent relationship between attitude and behaviour has been found. The findings were not very encouraging. What will you do? The chances are very high that you may refuse to lend your notes. Effective communication plays a significant role in changing attitudes. The various reference groups as teachers. for example. One acts under many social pressures. attitudes are quite resistant to change. etc. in fact.V. vendors etc. and do other things to show their approval. and Media exposure. People more often use print and visual media to reach the larger audience. When such pressures are .4 Understanding the Dynamics of Attitude Change How can you resist the influence of T. affect our attitudes toward occupations. they celebrate this idea. One day he approaches you to borrow your class notes. Thus. Recapitulation Attitudes are acquired through the processes of Classical conditioning. Racial discrimination on the basis of attitude toward race. those who have a negative attitude about nuclear bomb will protest in some or the other way. T/F 3. attitudes can be changed. You find him very casual in his studies and you do not think very positively about him. People like to be consistent in their attitudes. For many decades psychologists kept studying attitudes to predict behaviour. shall praise the government for its decision to become a nuclear power. Do we. The factors that lead to attitude change are related to the characteristics of attitude and communication process. social and religious groups. policemen. They undertook investigations to predict actual cheating on the basis of attitude toward cheating. behave in accordance with our attitudes? Early researchers assumed that a close link did exist between attitude and behaviour.Attitude and Social Cognition 93 skills. significant life events. The main reason why attitudes became a popular area of research was that. Attitudes shape our identity. However. and situations also contribute towards attitude formation. When external influences are minimal : Attitudes influence actual behaviour when external pressures to behave in a particular manner are minimal. T/F We often believe that if we know something about a person’s attitude we should be able to predict his or her behaviour. Once formed. a review of attitude – behaviour research shows that attitudes. T/F 5. Reference groups. Church attendance on the basis of attitude toward the church. though this change may be slow and unnoticeable. Whether or not attitude and behaviour will be associated in the same direction (congruent) is influenced by several conditions discussed below. T/F 4. advertisements? Suggest a strategy and discuss it with your friends and teachers. In recent times.

family planning. and the remainder checked “uncertain. When attitude is strongly held : When attitudes are strong they are more accessible.94 Introduction to Psychology minimal. to say that an individual is prejudiced against the members of some group. When one is conscious of one’s attitude : If the attitude is strongly held. For example. the chances are high that attitude and behaviour will be closely linked. After LaPiere’s controversial study. An early study conducted by LaPiere in 1934 suggested that the relation between attitudes and behaviour is weak. 4. This question has been raised from time to time that how accurately can attitude predict the behaviour. The findings are mixed.3 PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION Prejudice refers to a biased. 3. The cognitive component of prejudice refers to generalised beliefs and expectations regarding members of a group. They were refused service only once. often negative attitude. a tendency to evaluate them negatively. we can have an attitude about psychology in general and about this paper in particular. higher education. All members of a particular group are perceived very much in the same manner. In this sense prejudices represent a general rejection or dislike. or if person is unclear or ambiguous. such persons are evaluated in a negative manner. nationality or race. group. if the attitude is weak and not so important to the person. formed about a group of people. In the same vein. 92% said that they would not accept Chinese customers. Attitude and behaviour are found to relate most when researchers define them similarly. implies that. it is also easily accessible and so there is greater tendency to behave consistently with attitude. not on the basis of their individual characteristics or behaviours. But peer group pressure may compel the person to exercise. It is . they tend to behave as others might expect them to. he/she is more likely to be conscious of his/her attitude. Six months after their return. It seems logical to assume that attitude and behaviour are closely related. depends upon circumstances”. On the other hand. It relates to the way we think about others. The behaviours might not reflect their actual attitudes. Clearly. For example. Had the external influence not been so strong. many studies were conducted to test the correspondence between attitude and behaviour in the areas of voting behaviour. People express prejudice about some person. but simply because they belong to a particular group. It refers to stereotypes. We can also understand prejudice in terms of the three components of attitudes mentioned earlier. When one is conscious or aware of an attitude. The questionnaire asked. behaviour can also be examined in terms of psychology in general. in terms of specific aspects of an attitude. the attitude and behaviour may have been more consistently related with each other. etc. Stereotypes are clusters of preconceived notions regarding various groups. and are more likely to be reflected in behaviour. if we have measured the attitude about this course only then it may yield a good correspondence with the behaviour related to this course. BOX 4. Stereotyping is frequently ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOUR CONSISTENCY : A CLASSIC STUDY clear that these written replies did not correspond with the actual behaviour of the respondents. regardless of their unique traits and characteristics. Thus. “Will you accept members of the Chinese race as a guest in your establishment?” Of the 81 restaurants and 47 hotels that replied. LaPiere travelled twice with a Chinese couple across the United States of America – a total of 10 thousand miles and stayed in 66 hotels and tourist homes and ate in 184 restaurants. a person may have a negative attitude toward exercise. Lapiere sent copies of a questionnaire to all those places where they stayed and ate. the attitude is less likely to be tied to behaviour. This controversy has not yet subsided in psychology. When behaviour is observed by others : When people are placed in situations where their behaviour is under close observation. It is a pre-judged opinion about others. or in terms of behaviour related to this course. by a person. 2.

region or community. which work as motivational and cognitive sources of prejudice. 1. paying them low wages. The more strongly one identifies with own group the greater is the strength of negative stereotypes about the other group or groups. It may be noted that while concepts of prejudice and discrimination are closely tied. It ignores the diversity within social groups and fosters inaccurate perceptions of people. to have a positive self-esteem. These emotions are based on some preconceived beliefs and unpleasant personal experiences.their own or the other one in the town.Attitude and Social Cognition 95 automatic and saves on the time and effort required to evaluate people individually. The affective component of prejudice refers to negative emotional state and dislike towards the members of a particular race. Considering our own group better than the other one is important to maintain a sense of belonging. Then. and “lacking ambitions” – as having those traits. people have a tendency to find someone to blame. When people are frustrated and there is no clear cause for it. People keep a distance. They perceive the world as a fair and predictable place in which good behaviour is rewarded and bad behaviour is punished. Motivational Sources Self-serving biases that justify one’s own status by downgrading others. It is a common experience that people who fail to qualify for a job attribute it to caste. The expression of prejudice in overt behaviour is called discrimination. if someone is underprivileged in the society. It justifies the economic and social superiority of those who have wealth and power. for example. This is known as scapegoating. religion. underprivileged people may conform to the expectations of the rich and thus a prejudiced view is maintained. there are situational factors that contribute to the prejudices which one has. Ask children which school is better . In some or the other disguise . and other things. which go against that group. Cognitive Sources Prejudice is also considered as a matter of beliefs about people. which justify their status. It simplifies our social world. Discrimination against women. It has been argued that the root of prejudice is the fact that our memories are fallible and therefore we are prey to beliefs about groups of people that are not in accord with our experience with them. caste. “irresponsible”. are viewed as “lazy”. There is no country or society in the world where there is no prejudice and discrimination. as well as. people often tend to attribute negative characteristics to them to justify their status in the society. Sources of Prejudice Prejudice is an experience common to all the societies. or religious factors and harbour negative attitudes for people associated with them. may imply denying them jobs because of their gender. who may accept such negative traits as true and see themselves as inferior to the privileged. and denying them public facilities. Discrimination can emerge from institutional policies that have nothing to do with hatred of members belonging to a particular group. they are different and can be independent of one another. An individual may have prejudiced notions about a group – such as people suffering from AIDS – yet not overtly discriminate against members of that group. The behavioural component refers to the specific practices toward that group. class. People get what they deserve. Such discriminations have some effect on the victims. Thus. decide things. The researchers have identified many factors. it does not necessarily mean that he or she is not prejudiced. giving them a status of secondary citizens. And just because a person does not discriminate. Belief in a just world : It is a belief that people get what they deserve. Often those who are underprivileged. and one’s own privileged status. For example. The probability is very high that they will mention their own school. Ingroup-bias : Often people are divided into ‘we’ (in-group) and ‘they’ (out-group) categories and treated accordingly. or in extreme cases engage in violence against them. race. People feel that they have been victimised because they belong to a particular group. 2.

It can stimulate new ideas. The prejudices which people harbour for other significant groups (minority or majority groups) are primarily responsible for intergroup conflicts. It is a feeling that the other group is unjustifiably more A person join group A to enhance self-esteem privileged than their own group. In each and every society diverse groups exist. profession. There is no escape from category memberships. Social Categorisation : We are all members of a variety of social groups or categories. Many people. We develop stereotypes for the members of each category. The relations between ethnic groups. for example. caste. and ethnicity and where all groups are competing for scarce resources. which has so much diversity in terms of religion. Emphasis on category membership underestimates the differences within a category and overestimates the differences across categories. goals or norms. Fig. think that men are aggressive and women are sensitive. and social tensions have become major challenges.96 Introduction to Psychology they operate in societies and shape intergroup relationships in all societies. language. and religion operate as organising principles in society. The stronger these social identities are greater will be the intensity of intergroup conflicts. Unfortunately in today’s world the number of the conflicts is increasing. nationality. Individual group conflict occurs when the individual’s needs are different from the group’s needs. The conflicts among such groups often occurs to maintain the identity of the groups different and stronger than other groups. Intergroup conflict refers to the situation of conflict between two groups. This sense of deprivation makes the underprivileged group hostile toward the privileged group. In the worst circumstances they take the form of war. Conflict of interest occurs when groups are in competition with each other over valued commodities or opportunities.2 Relationship of self-esteem and identity with conflict . 4. increase friendly competition and increase team effectiveness. many of which. there is always the potential for conflict. Another consequence of group comparison is a sense of relative deprivation. between religious groups and Identifying with group A and thinks it is the best Intergroup Conflict-prejudices A person join group B to enhance self-esteem Identifying with group B and thinks it is the best Fig.1 shows the linkages of self esteem identity and intergroup conflict. some of which are more important and others are less important in our lives. This results in intergroup tension and violence because competing groups consider each other as rivals. Interestingly enough moderate conflict may enhance group performance. such as gender. languages. custom. They consider their own group as better than the out-group with which they are competing. The groups are often organised around religion. Such conflict can take place between a group and an individual or it can occur between two or more groups. In a country like India. Intergroup Conflicts People join groups for various reasons and when they work together. region etc. It has been found that conflicts have negative effect but it does not mean that conflict is always bad. Search for Positive Identity : Henry Tajfel has proposed that people in the process of forming positive social identity make favourable group comparison.4. intergroup conflicts.

it is utopian to think that there can be a society free of any kind of prejudice. This neutral third party can use arbitration or mediation to settle the matter. ethnic prejudices are still rupturing the fabric of Indian society. Here we may briefly refer to some of the strategies of conflict resolution. simply increased contact will not decrease intergroup relations. social contacts between competing groups will lessen the prejudices. he examined the process of the development of intergroup relations. which shape the course of such relationships. Even after 50 years of Independence. Use of smoothing and conciliation. 4. While some of them are more effective than others. irrespective of caste. Studies of intergroup relations indicate various factors. However. STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME PREJUDICE A question. In today’s world groups cannot exist in isolation. the less powerful group may resent or feel threatened. In arbitration. which was responsible for communal violence and the killing of several lakhs of Hindus and Muslims during the partition. Withdrawal from the situation. Jointly arriving at a solution. In a group of adolescents. where everyone will be treated equally. The group develops norms to regulate the activities within the group. 7. It was a strong religious prejudice. the third party listens to both the groups’ arguments and then makes the decision. The racial prejudice against the Jews in the Second World War resulted in the killing of 60. which is of great significance. 3. In mediation. When people have to work together it is very difficult to maintain negative stereotypes about each other. Winning at all costs. For psychologists it is a big challenge to work for that kind of a society. It is also necessary that when two groups come in contact they should equally share power. they tend to cooperate. The interdependence among groups makes intergroup relations an important topic. when these groups interact with one another toward super-ordinate goals. Children who are .00. Only when these conditions are met. is. or at least device the ways to reduce prejudices in the society. on the emergence of group conflict. He found that when individuals interact with one another toward some common goals. 6. race and nationality.000 Jews by the Nazis. Inviting a third party to intervene. That means each group should have equal opportunity to influence the rewards of the other group. It is essential that increased contact takes place under the conditions of equal social and economic status. Muzafer Sherif did an interesting experiment. Use of negotiations and bargaining. Since groups are bound to exist. Reorganising Learning in the Family and School : Early socialisation plays a major role in developing prejudices. Unless this happens. each of them is found useful in specific situations. They develop negative attitudes and stereotypes toward one another. When one group has more power than the other group. The main modes of conflict resolution are as follows : 1. Many of them are discussed in the context of prejudice. and mistrust and suspicion may enhance intergroup prejudices.Attitude and Social Cognition 97 between groups following different ideologies often appear strenuous and indicate different degrees of conflict. Persuading the other party with the help of evidence. However. Some possible interventions in this regard are as follows : Providing Intergroup Contact : An important technique to reduce intergroup conflict is to provide greater opportunities to different groups to come in direct contact with each other. communication will be difficult between groups. 5. Racial prejudice has played great havoc and caused major tragedies in the history of mankind. creed. ‘how to reduce prejudice and discrimination in any society’. a mutually agreeable solution is sought. 2. Intergroup conflicts occur when two or more groups come in contact in competitive and frustrating situations. gradually a group structure emerges.

and role-play. Beliefs simplify and organise what one sees. If parents and teachers deemphasise social categories in dealing with the members of other groups. etc. It is not necessary that whatever one believes in. etc. Further. about the other world. the beliefs we hold are not verifiable: For example. free and balanced reporting can reduce social tension and help in maintaining communal and ethnic harmony. are not verifiable through legitimate scientific procedures. beliefs provide a context for experience and. The study of human history leaves little doubt about the importance of beliefs in the . and groups of people.. and how to interpret and make sense of what one sees. BELIEFS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS We have beliefs about our ‘selves’. internally consistent and exerts profound influence on our behaviour. group discussions. enforcing behavioural modifications. social diversity is increasing and we do need greater tolerance for people from different groups. Thus the weakening of group boundaries by recategorisation helps to reduce prejudice. Nevertheless. Also. The prejudiced people often suffer from anxiety. determine what information one will seek out. their attitudes toward the former outgroup members’ change. to some extent. Without beliefs. This can be achieved through a variety of activities such as exposure to additional information. Children often internalise the attitudes and stereotypes of their parents and the other family members. one’s thinks one knows what to expect from certain objects. Recategorisation : It has been found that when people hailing from different groups view themselves as members of one single social identity. changing in-group affiliations. Developing Positive Attitudes : Some strategies. Since the parents and teachers want to enhance the well-being of their children they should discourage transmitting prejudiced views to them. Beliefs summarise previous experiences and make future interactions with the world more predictable and meaningful. it is essential that we define the term “belief” before proceeding to study the relevance of belief in human behaviour. and fear.98 Introduction to Psychology brought up in an authoritarian style are found to be more prejudiced than those who are brought up in a liberal atmosphere. In other words. why do you believe that Indians are religious people? Or that. which help in reduction in prejudices focus on learning appropriate positive attitudes. Another factor that may play a crucial role in reducing prejudice is Mass media. all of us would be overwhelmed by the complexity of our environment. sureness. In today’s work. The term ‘belief’ has been used in different ways by people. or has experienced. one forms ideas about the general properties of objects. people. Once a belief is formed. all our success and failure depends on luck. feeling. This may reduce prejudice. On the basis of what one has been told. Beliefs are relatively stable cognitive structures that represent what exists for an individual in a domain beyond the direct perception or logical inference from the observed facts. Here one can ask a more general question: Why do people have beliefs? Why does one have to have beliefs about objects. Radio. to reflect faith. having prejudice is not healthy. and at conviction and so on. Sometimes this word has been used to convey opinion. is true. The Newspaper. People may be encouraged to pay attention to the characteristics of people rather than to their membership of various groups. and see them as persons. Cognitive Interventions : Stereotypes may be reduced promoting attribute driven thinking instead of category driven processing. our beliefs in God. Therefore. events and groups. about the world we live in. The favourable attitudes promote positive contact that reduces intergroup bias. Fair. anger. prejudices may not take their toll. events. spirits. have become powerful tools in the pubic education and opinion formation. other times. groups and events? To take a concrete example. This makes life less enjoyable. Television etc. but one’s actions are predominantly guided by these beliefs. face-to-face persuasion. about the causes of various happenings. our belief structure is enduring. soul.

Individuals subscribe to such and other beliefs. some form of religion. For example. life after death. uncertainty. We normally tend to believe that nothing happens in this world without a cause. For example. analyse. you may think that your poor examination performance was because . particularly when something unexpected happens. It should be remembered that the perceived causes of success and failure are not necessarily the actual causes of success and failure. the belief in life after death and the indestructibility of the soul helps in reducing death anxiety. the religious beliefs.g. or that they did not study hard. The mental processes involved are often automatic and occur without conscious awareness or intention. (b) Cognitive : Beliefs provide cognitive structures and help in understanding the “why” of the life events. magic. Causal Attributions Do you remember the day when your examination result was declared last time? Some of your friends had done well and others had not done so well. superstitious. For example. For example. All of us are interested in understanding the causes of all those events or outcomes that affect us.. etc. there is a large and complex universe of human belief systems e. fate. which are internally consistent. (c) Moral : Beliefs function to regulate the allocation of moral responsibility between the self and others. frustration. feelings among members can be based on religious beliefs. Social Cognition The study of social cognition deals with the mental process by which we make sense of our social world comprising of people and social situations. You will remember that people evaluate others and social objects spontaneously. In fact the field of social cognition deals with the ways in which we interpret. hence enhance group solidarity. (You have already read about it in the chapter on Motivation and Emotion in Class XI). soul. Causal attribution in this sense is an integral part of our everyday thinking.g. You and your friends must have talked about the causes of good or poor performance. Besides. in-group. The Functionality of Beliefs Beliefs do exist and influence our behaviour immensely.Attitude and Social Cognition 99 affairs of human species. belief about God.. All of us are naïve scientists in this respect.). (d) Group : Beliefs serve to enhance group solidarity by providing people with common identify. We try to explain the motives and traits of others. human beings hold strong beliefs about the supernatural forces that maintain and sustain life and nature in this universe. beliefs exert profound influence on the personal and social lives of individuals and groups. anger. We use heuristics or rules to make social judgements quickly and with reduced effort. trying to establish cause and effect relationships. Some would have said that they did poorly because the examination papers were tough. etc. Or in other words. Beacause they are functional in nature. they serve a very important role in human life and behaviour and fulfil certain needs. as you did in the case of examination results. Similarly. holy spirits. religious beliefs mark the boundaries between right and wrong actions. In modern life too. For example. The search for causes is an ongoing mental activity. anything that happens must have a cause.. Those who had done well might have thought that they were lucky or had a high ability. etc. ‘Karma’ among the Hindus). The certain beliefs are universally shared (e. Pepitone has proposed four functions performed by beliefs: Let us examine these four functions briefly. angels. chance. Beliefs are norms shared by the members of a society (e. (a) Emotional : Beliefs serve to manage emotions such as fear.g. Let us try to understand it in detail. luck. or had failed. between virtues (Punaya) and sin (Paap). retain and utilise information about the various aspects of our social world. One of the most important processes of social cognition is causal attribution. The process of thinking and perceiving the causes of your own or others’ success and failure is an example of causal attribution.

). If a person does a good deed and the action seems to be voluntary. Fritz Heider. because he had no money to pay someone’s fee. Likelihood of future success: 2 3 4 Intermediate 5 6 7 Very high — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . Here the blame will go to the person. for example. 1 Very low (1) The prior failure occurred because you do not have the ability in the subject matter (for example.5 Understanding Causal Attribution-I Suppose you have just failed in an exam. who is credited as the founder of attribution theory. etc. Causal attribution plays an important role in regulating our social life. We blame or give credit to the people depending on the perception of their intentions and abilities. known as ACTIVITY 4.). Not only does the blame depends on the perception of causality. and the chance and the question paper are external causes. people will not blame the person for stealing. Indicate your subjective expectation of succeeding at the next exam. In the situation of success and failure in the examination. suggested that human beings function as naïve scientists. Research work has shown that people attribute their success more to internal factors and failure more to external factors than vice versa. the ability and the effort are internal causes. art. we attribute responsibility to a person when we think that he or she had both the ability and the intention to attain the outcome. For example. Likelihood of future success: (2) The prior failure occurred because you did not study enough. The responsible cause will be indicated below. etc.100 Introduction to Psychology the marking was not done properly. if someone stole. You expect to take a similar exam in the near future. and you think the failure was due to a certain factor. You will recollect from the chapter on Motivation and Emotion in Class XI that Weiner added another dimension to causal attribution. Heider categorised all causes into two categories: internal and external. Many psychologists have tried to categorise the causes as internal and external. As such we try to think in terms of causes and effects. Likelihood of future success: (4) The prior failure occurred because of bad luck (unlucky guessing. but rewards too. Likelihood of future success: (3) The prior failure occurred because this teacher makes up difficult exams and the class is very difficult for you. happened to study the wrong material. The other situation is where someone has a habit of stealing. or intentional. If the person is paid the causal responsibility lies outside the person. you think you are poor at math. whereas the fact may be that you had no interest in the subject and did not put in much effort. For example. the person will receive far more reward from others than would be the case if he or she had been paid to do the deed. We try to find out the causes of all personal and social events. The internal causes include people’s attributes while external causes include anything outside a person.

To what causes would you attribute your poor result? What were your feelings at that time? Conduct the same experiment on your friends and list the causes and feelings they have mentioned. communal riots. attributing success to stable factors gives you high expectations of success in future. The tendency to blame external factors for our own behaviour and internal factors for other’s behaviour is known as the fundamental attributional error. Stereotypes are clusters of these preconceived notions regarding various groups. Another dimension along which our causal attributions differ is actor-observer dimension. 5. You can easily find the evidence of fundamental attributional error from personal experience. 3. poor traffic sense. and on the basis of that experience. On the basis of these data try to establish the linkages between causal attributions and the feelings associated with them. unemployment. chance is both external and unstable. You may tend to think that he must be walking carelessly and attribute the responsibility for injury to him. _____________ can serve as an important tool to reduce prejudice and intergroup conflict. effort is internal and unstable (you may not make efforts tomorrow). such as earthquake. It refers to whether the cause is stable – it does not change over a long period (memory. Think of the situation when you hear that one of your acquaintances met an accident. floods. To take some examples: ability is both internal and stable. or for the behaviour of others (observer). or poor maintenance of the vehicle. Weiner suggested that when you attribute your success to internal factors you have a sense of pride. or forgetting an appointment? You might have felt hurt because you thought it was not your mistake. that you were careless. Recapitulation Prejudices are negative attitudes. Also. Studies have shown that such an attributional error is also seen in perceiving the causes of poverty. there is a pervasive belief that it is because of the sins. luck). The blame is often placed on the people who are the sufferers. Do you remember how many times you were blamed for misplacing or loosing things.Attitude and Social Cognition 101 stability. You would put the blame on the condition of the road. sit in a quiet corner and visualise the following scenario : You had taken an important examination and expected to do well. whether we are making attribution for our own behaviour (actor). ACTIVITY 4. Think of a situation when one of your classmates tripped and fell and got injured. Many studies have supported these predictions. The various sources of prejudice are . which represent a general rejection or dislike toward the attitude object. Think when it happened to you in the past. 2. _________________ are biased negative attitudes formed about a group or people. People blame the person because it is assuring for them that if they are more vigilant they will not meet such an accident. Now let us presume that the same thing happens to you. Preconceived notions regarding various groups are called ________________. or on another person or some other external factor. 4.6 Understanding Attribution-II Take a paper and a pencil. family). There may be many instances when you did the same to your friends or family members. cyclone. or is unstable – it may change over a short time (interest. That is. Discrimination is the behavioural manifestation of prejudice. which people have committed. ______________influence our behaviour by making our interactions more meaningful and predictable. etc. A general tendency is to blame the injured person – his or her careless driving. When the result was declared you found that you did very poorly. _____________________ is a behavioural manifestation of prejudice. This phenomenon is known as blaming the victim. answer the following questions. Even in the cases of natural disasters. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1.

1. but most often we don’t. Pro-social behaviour can be defined as a behaviour that is positively valued by society and is generally beneficial to other people and the society at large. which people do without any selfinterest. which are used interchangeably with pro-social behaviour. Some people sacrifice their own interests while engaging in prosocial behaviour. There are others who always go out of their way to help others even if there is a risk involved. Helping others is only one. If an act intended to benefit others is also expected to benefit the helper. emotional and cognitive. and humanity. philanthropic activities. but because of the breakdown of your vehicle your friend misses the train. There has to be an intention to benefit the other person.102 Introduction to Psychology motivational. 1. Some of the important techniques to reduce prejudices and intergroup conflicts are greater contact between different groups. 3. Sometimes we help. You may offer to drop your friend to the station. What will you do? Will you run after the thief and try to catch him. helping others. however. Suppose you are walking on a busy street and are in a rush to meet your friend for some important work. The most common pro-social behaviour is. Determinants of Pro-social Behaviour The pro-social behaviour depends on many factors. of course a much broader category. Obviously. helping a thief in stealing is not a prosocial behaviour. it cannot be termed as pro-social. it is not necessary that it should actually be so. The other terms. Pro-social behaviours are. You have just got your report card and are feeling great . early socialisation and using mass media as an important tool. Should your behaviour be still considered pro-social? The answer is ‘yes’. Prejudices which people harbour for other significant groups as minority or caste group are responsible for intergroup conflicts. society. which would include all the activities for the interest of individual. The literal meaning of altruism is doing things or acting for the interest of others. which one accomplishes by compulsion or as a requirement of a job. 2. Most of their activities are organised with the help of others. without any ulterior motive. is altruism and helping. PRO-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR : NATURE AND DETERMINANTS Humans are social beings. One thing should be clear that though prosocial behaviour is intended to benefit others. come under the category of altruistic behaviour. or would you just ignore the event and go on your way? If you leave your seat for the old man or set out to chase the thief. What will you do? Will you ask the old man to vacate your seat or will you try to accommodate him? There could be another example. humanitarian. We cannot live and grow unless there is support from others. Any-prosocial act. you are engaging in prosocial behaviour. Suddenly you find that someone has snatched the purse of an old lady and is running away. The Feeling State : Suppose you have done very well in the examination. Most of us experience such situations in our everyday life. All charitable. There is a big crowd and confusion in the coach and you find that a very old man is sitting on your reserved seat. The intentions and the consequent positive behaviour are more important considerations of pro-social behaviour than the actual benefits. Suppose you are boarding a train to visit a relative in the summer vacation. much better than what you had expected. does not merit to be called prosocial. This definition emphasises that pro-social behaviour involves social judgement. The behaviour should be considered socially desirable by the other members of the society. but the most important kind of altruistic behaviour. Such efforts are considered as pro-social behaviours. which depends on time and place. For example. For any behaviour to be prosocial it should fulfil the following conditions. a violent act against the informers of an enemy country may be considered pro-social behaviour. Many are just watching and shouting but nobody is doing anything. We often engage in helping others.

The perceived welfare of the other person is quite important. Of course. Some researchers have used empathy to refer to taking the perspective of the other person. On arrival they were told that arranging the experiment would take a few minutes more and they were requested to wait in the lobby. If there was only one participant in the lobby. that is. there are always more passive watchers than active help providers. The passers-by stop out of curiosity and go on their way. Such instances are plenty. you are likely to donate more than in the situation where you had failed and were in a bad mood. people are less likely to lend money when the amount is big than in a situation where the amount is small. as if somebody had fallen from a height. 3. If there were more participants sitting and waiting in the lobby. . the participants heard a crashing sound. No help comes forward for long. particularly the emotional state with feelings resembling the emotions of the other person. Each person believes that the responsibility for helping is spread (diffused) equally among all bystanders. which is more involved in pro-social behaviour. The most plausible one is what researchers call ‘diffusion of responsibility’. the tendency of a person to be less likely to help in the presence of others than when alone. people feel inhibited to help in the presence of others because they fail to see themselves as being personally responsible for helping. From the lobby they could hear sounds of furniture being moved for the experiment in the connecting room. People like to make donations only to those charitable organisations. Studies have shown that feeling empathy for a person in need leads to increased helping toward that person. as we observe in a real life situation. Empathy becomes a source of moral motivation by inducing altruistic acts to make someone else feel better. which they think are doing good work. According to this hypothesis. Why does the presence of more people result in delayed help? On the basis of further inquiry from the participants many plausible explanations were obtained. What would the subjects waiting in the lobby do? Will they help the person who is calling for help? If yes.Attitude and Social Cognition 103 BOX 4. For example. The tendency to empathise is more like in care of people who are considered to be similar to one self. it took him or her the minimal time to rush inside to help. In one such study. How often have you come across a road accident where someone got injured by a speeding vehicle and was lying in a pool of blood on the roadside? A big crowd must have gathered around and must be anxiously watching the injured man moaning for medical help. which the experimenters tried to investigate. as it was an experimental manipulation only. Then they heard somebody moaning and calling for help.4 BYSTANDER BEHAVIOUR. all are likely to feel less responsible than they would if they were alone. Perceived Deservingness : You will not lend your class notes to someone who is very casual about his/her studies. It enhances the human capacity to care by allowing us to experience what other people are feeling. how long would they take in reaching out to help? These were some of the questions. The Cost : People are less likely to help when the cost of helping is too much. If at that time someone approaches you for donation for earthquake victims. Whether it is a case of eveteasing or purse snatching. This phenomenon is known as about it. Nevertheless. The findings were very clear. It is a source of altruistic motivation involving an other-oriented emotional reaction while seeing another person in need. While waiting to be called in for the experiment. students were invited to the psychology lab to participate in a study. it took longer for them to provide help. As a result. It allows us to feel his or her joys and sorrows as if they were our own. the findings were the same. ALTRUISM AND EMPATHY bystanders’ effect. People in a positive mood are more likely to help others than those who are in a bad mood. Empathy is considered as an important component of altruistic personality. no body actually fell. to imagine ourselves in another person’s place. Empathy refers to the tendency of responding to another person’s mental state. Why are people not forthcoming in providing help in such crisis situations? Some laboratory experiments were conducted to answer this question. 2. People are far less likely to jump in a river and save someone’s life at the risk of their own lives.

Diffusion of Responsibility : People do not jump to help others in crisis in every time. aggression is defined as a behaviour that is designed to deliver negative outcomes (pain and suffering) to another person. verbal and mental violence. Modelling : This effect is important in learning pro-social behaviour. Scapegoating. Stereotypes. That is.4. Ingroup. which is defined as blocking of their goals. We always desired a society in which there is no place for any kind of physical. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE : ITS CAUSES AND REMEDIES disposition that we share with all living beings. you are more likely to do the same. In an ambiguous situation where people are not clear about their own role. Self-serving biases. political and economic context. or when they think that someone else is supposed to provide help. but in the case of war and organised crime feeling is not an essential component. The reward system of the society is such that people who are aggressive are directly or indirectly rewarded by the society. riots. It should also be understood that this definition of aggression is from the aggressor’s point of view. everyday. It is further argued that if the reward system of the society can be appropriately changed. If everyone close to you chooses to do voluntary service for the earthquake victims. the same way as they learn to be moral. liberal. A third viewpoint is suggested by two American psychologists – Dollard and Miller. whenever people experience frustration. Learning psychologists do not agree with this view and argue that people learn to be aggressive. Reference group. In-group bias. It should also be noted that feeling may or may not be associated with aggression. which is open. or society is free from incidences of violence. etc. Pro-social behaviour. Of course. Violence against women. Prejudice. Dollard and Miller’s hypothesis was criticised by many other psychologists as too simplistic. The children copy such behaviours and learn to be aggressive. Empathy. children and other weaker sections has become a cause of concern for everyone. Pick up any newspaper and you will find some news of murder. Aggression. Intergroup conflict. they may not help. Discrimination. This point is discussed in more detail in Box 4. . Altruism. aggression will be a certain outcome. In psychology. Unintended harm or injury to other person is not termed as aggression. Outgroup. BOX 4.5 5. and in a way history is a record of wars and killings. Many psychologists consider aggression as instinctive. Social Attribution. will have fewer instances of violence. and less competitive. This view holds that nothing can be done to prevent human aggression and that we are biologically programmed to be destructive.104 Introduction to Psychology 4. Belief. Cognition. social. Diffusion of responsibility. The critics argued that aggression and violence are outcomes of complex personal and social conditions and need to be understood in a broader cultural. an inborn Key Terms Attitude. They argue that aggression persists because it pays. In personal and direct aggression people may have negative feelings (of hate. Aggression and violence has always been there. intention is an essential aspect of aggression. many situational factors will not only modify the expression of aggression but also results in the displacement of the aggression. kidnapping. No country. Fundamental attributional error. rape. who proposed frustration-aggression hypothesis. Why there is so much aggression and violence all over the world. anger or dislike). This hypothesis states that a feeling of frustration always leads to some form of aggression. Recategorisation. It is quite possible that the behaviour which the aggressor does not consider harmful may be considered harmful by the other person or persons. it will reduce aggression and violence in the society. Children observe their parents acting pro-socially and learn such behaviour from them. It is contended that a society. The universality of aggressive behaviour gives credence to the proposition that there is a biological basis of aggression and that it is essential for the survival. terrorism. Social identity.

7. 4. Attitudes are not innate but people learn them in the process of socialisation. Family. social learning. Important among them are family influences. There is an extensive research to show that source. which are extreme. The rating scales are based on different types of items and response alternatives. T. Yes. T. Rating scales and behavioural measures. the less is the help provided. such an attitude is more stable and difficult to change. 4. 2. 4. 5. 7. T. Attitudes have three components – cognitive (evaluative). tendency to blame the victim. Attitudes are formed through classical conditioning. Mass media . They deal with the way people give causes to explain important social events. When all the three components of attitude are in the same direction. which help in overcoming prejudices? What are beliefs and their functions? ANSWERS I : TO LEARNING CHECKS II : III : IV : 1. in-group bias. No. Pro-social behaviour is essentially one which is intended to benefit others. Unobtrusive measures are also used. No. affective (feeling) and behavioural (expression). Many factors contribute to the formation of these attitudes. and deservingness of the help seeker and behaviour of others in similar situation. Prejudices are attitudes. cost of helping.Attitude and Social Cognition 105 SUMMARY l l l l l l Attitudes are relatively stable dispositions to think. T. 1. operant learning and social learning. medium and message are important factors in attitude change. 3. T. 2. 3. This tendency is known as fundamental attributional error. Discrimination 5. etc. T. which caused them. Yes. 1. Review Questions 1. Beliefs 4. 2. 6. F. Prejudice 3. reference groups and media can play important role in reducing prejudice and discrimination. They are most frequently used. They are the products of a person’s life experiences. Yes. 6. All of us try to understand success and failure in terms of the factors. consistent. 3. media exposure and personal experiences. T 1. 3. F. 8. Such behaviour depends on positive mood state. 9. which are biased toward a person or group. and useful. are resistant to change. It has been discovered that more are the number of people present. 5. Measurement of attitudes is done with the help of survey (questionnaire). What is an attitude? What functions do attitudes perform? Which are the components of attitudes? What are techniques of measuring attitudes? How are attitudes acquired? Which environmental influences affect the formation of attitudes? Which factors play an important role in the change of attitude? Differentiate between prejudice and stereotypes? What are the sources of prejudices? Discuss the strategies. 4. Generally. No. which refers to a generalised response towards the target. It has been found that people give internal causes for the behaviour of others and give external causes for the behaviour of own-self. These prejudices are primarily because of social categorisation. feel and act in a particular manner. Yes. Causal attributions constitute an important part of social cognition. 5. attitudes. self-serving biases. 2. Stereotypes 2.

sources. Ä know what kinds of behaviours help people to stay fit and healthy.3) Health Impairing Behaviours (Box 5.4) Positive Health and Well-Being Positive Health through Positive Attitude (Box 5.6) Optimism and Thriving (Box 5. and types of stress Different ways of coping Explanation of healthy lifestyle The factors contributing to health and well-being BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä know how people adjust with major life challenges. and Ä understand what factors promote positive health and well-being. Ä understand the type of stresses one experiences in life.2) Coping with Stress Stress and Health Life Style and Health Some Stress Management Techniques (Box 5.1) Nature and Sources of Stress Concept of Stress Sources of Stress Types of Stress A Measure of Stressful Life-Events (Box 5. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . Ä appreciate how people deal with life stress.106 Introduction to Psychology 5 THIS Ä Ä Ä Ä Ä COPING CHAPTER COVERS WITH LIFE CHALLENGES CONTENTS Introduction What is adjustment? Who is Socially Adjusted? (Box 5.5) Learned Helplessness and Learned Resourcefulness (Box 5.7) The concept of adjustment The nature.

Her brother dropped her at the school gate. which cause tension. At times having more choices is also problematic. You will also come to know about how people cope with stress. a serious injury or illness. where one feels the pressure to make a judicious decision. and the nature of stress and its manifestations. You may feel tense when someone questions your abilities or intentions. and you may go out of the way to prove yourself. When the situations are not very demanding or beyond the capabilities of an individual. Success is going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm. a break in relationship or a financial loss which are not only very stressful but demand major readjustment in one’s life. The whole class laughed. no stage of life is free from struggles and crises. Human beings are constantly trying to adapt themselves to the changing environmental situations both internal as well as external. She felt lost in the teeming crowd of strangers. This could be a familiar experience for many. The various internal and external changes demand modification of behaviour that will enable people to adapt to that situation. You could be experiencing failures in some competitive situation. The effects of chronic stress on mental and physical health will also be discussed. loosing a job. After a few wrong turns. like the death of a near and dear one. they result in successful adjustment.Coping with Life Challenges 107 INTRODUCTION For Sunita it was her first day at the new school. or about loosing those who are close to you. Every one faces similar situations. – Winston Churchill . but at times positive events also throw up many challenges before us. but she did not know where to go. You may be worried about your future. mistook her as the teacher and addressed her as ‘sir’. This chapter would help you to understand the nature of adjustment. in her nervousness. It is not only the negative events. All these are considered normal life stresses with which one has to deal within everyday life. which are challenging and difficult to deal with. Sunita. she could finally find her class. There could be conflicts between what you want and what your parents want you to do. securing good marks in the examination. as she fumbled for words. and everyone has to deal with such situations. In fact. be it admission in some important course. When situations are difficult and demanding the situation is termed stressful and requires the person to utilise various coping mechanisms to adjust to the situation. Her heartbeat went up when a girl who had just entered the room asked for her name. At times there are more serious problems. It took her some time to gather courage to approach a school employee and inquire about Class XI. or making friends. There was no familiar face in the class and she could feel many eyes staring at her and making faces.

The level of social adjustment shown by children depends on the quality of family environment. Many of your behaviours. physical. and guidance. internal. we make efforts to deal with the environmental-biological. When our resources are limited or when we fail to properly harness such resources to meet effectively the environmental demands. The degree of social adjustment attained by a person can be judged on the basis of the following criteria. and work places without much problem. Many a times such paths may be different from the rules and norms of our group. schools. the ability to acknowledge one’s difference and to strive in a creative manner is also the indicator of positive mental health. sweating functions to maintain a balance. l Positive thinking about groups and people : We need to have a positive view about people. such as school. If it is hot outside. plans. problems of maladjustment are seen. Social adjustment refers to a condition when we are able to adjust with other persons in general and the group in particular to which we belong. At a psychological level. at least temporarily. we also engage in similar activities or processes to deal with the demands from the external reality or from within ourselves. These tools explore or predict the relative presence or absence of problems faced by the people. marriage. Researchers have developed tools to assess adjustment in different areas or aspects of life. and motivations are perhaps modified as you strive to meet such expectations. For example. or earthquakes. feelings. along with adjustment. motivation. They have positive thinking about others. they are expected to be both adjusted to the demands of social life and behave in accordance with the social expectation for their age levels. Adjustment is the outcome of such efforts. which have posed challenges for us. personal failure. l Adjustment with diverse groups : Since a person has to work or interact with . and frustrations threaten our BOX 5. We are considered well adjusted when we deal successfully with our situations such as in home. and behaviour in group setting. For example. As children grow older. your parents expect you to perform at a certain level in your studies. l Personal happiness : When we are adjusted well we feel satisfied and happy about our role performance. Thus. we must also remember that happiness and health as well depend on our ability to find innovative and creative paths in life. l Behaviour : When a person’s behaviour or overt performance comes up to the expectation of the members of the group to which one belongs. Temporary or more enduring failure of adjustment is maladjustment. Hence.1 WHO IS SOCIALLY ADJUSTED? different groups. Normally. and external demands. as atmospheric temperature changes the balance is disturbed and our body functions in a way to restore the balance between the body temperature and the atmospheric temperature. Socially adjusted persons are skilled in social relations. Extreme conditions in our physical environment such as cyclones. social. You also have your own goals. the life functioning depends on a balance or harmony between the demands made on the organism by the environment and the organism’s functioning to deal with such demands. While each of the above is true. and you know that many of your acts are directed at meeting such demands. which create demands from within. thoughts.108 Introduction to Psychology WHAT IS ADJUSTMENT? Human beings are born and grow in a sociophysical environment. we call the person adjusted. As we know. social participation. It disturbs our balance or harmony with the environment and/or within ourselves. a person who adjusts well with different groups is regarded as well adjusted. problems in our social and psychological environment such as death of a near one. work organisations etc. heat waves. We all have experienced situations in our lives. we mobilise our resources for achieving adjustment.

religion. The result of this force is strain. social insecurity. Crowding. Stress can be described as the pattern of responses an organism makes to stimulus event that disturbs the equilibrium and exceeds a person’s ability to cope. whether it is personally threatening or not. this is not always true. science and technology bring improvement in the quality of human life in many ways. those who have not experienced any stress in their lives have a poor adaptive mechanism and may succumb to even mild forms of stress. stress is a basic ingredient of life. When all these are taken into consideration. which is an evaluation of your own resources and options available for dealing with the stress. Some of these ways are helpful to us in dealing with the situation so that we are able to bring things under control or tolerate the situation or. personal. Primary appraisal is an initial evaluation of whether an event is relevant. Events that are stressful for one person may be a matter of routine for the other person. But such situations do not always lead to maladjustment. It occurs when we have positive experiences or uplifts. the characteristics of the person and the resources available at the disposal of the person. at least. unemployment. All the challenges. They create distress. Our biological system is equipped with some stress alarms that are essential for survival and allows one to function effectively in many situations. competition.Coping with Life Challenges 109 well-being. We also experience positive stress or U stress. physical. and difficult circumstances put us to stress. noise pollution. abnormal behaviour. It depends on the nature of stressor. Responding to stress in such helpful ways is coping. To an engineer it means any external force directed at some physical object. loneliness. and drought. we put in additional efforts and mobilise all our resources and the support system to meet the challenge. Your response to a stressful situation largely depends upon what events you notice and how you interpret or appraise them. It can be said that adjustment is an outcome of coping. you are likely to make a secondary appraisal. discrimination. In the contemporary analysis the stress is considered as a process that depends on what events a person notice and the way it is appraised or comprehended.. violence. Without undergoing stress. mostly in terms of health consequences. It improves our adaptive system and we are better able to deal with such situations in future. it gives an impression that there is no escape from stresses. In fact. The stimulus events include a large variety of external and internal conditions called stressors if they are perceived to threaten one’s well-being and demand some kind of adaptive response. The term ‘stress’ has its origin in the field of engineering. Stress is an integral part of our lives. Stress quite often increases our efficiency and makes us search for new coping resources. and if relevant. When you view an event as threatening or stressful. We respond to stresses in many ways. Faced with any challenge. reduce the negative effects of the same on our well-being. which are welcome. While stress is considered a major cause of mental and physical health problems. it also resulted in many new crises. there can be no constructive and creative activity. its effect is not always undesirable.1. One is also subjected to prejudice. which refers to a change produced in the structure of the object. and exploitation because of one’s belongingness to a particular social class. are all accompaniments of modern living. or mental disorder. There are also people who thrive on stress and show greater efficiency in handling crises. Generally. Many psychologists adopted this definition . THE NATURE AND SOURCES OF STRESS The Concept of Stress However. The stress process is described in Figure 5. However.stress being the external event or stimulus and strain being the resultant effect. These resources may be mental. floods. However. A certain level of stress is necessary to perform better in examinations. problems. . it is found that high levels of stress lead to greater strain. etc. or region. Lazarus has distinguished between two types of appraisals : primary and secondary. Nature also inflicts certain crises in the form of earthquakes.

5. pressure shock). whether the stressful event is perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. etc.. One who thinks that he or she has the positive attitude. guilt frustration. who believes that he/she can control the onset of a negative situation. Another factor is. social (e.110 Introduction to Psychology or social. arousal plays a key role in stress-related behaviours. Thus. conflict. If one has handled similar situations very successfully in the past. air pollution). or psychological (e. emotional. The stressors can be external. At the physiological level. This leads to physiological changes seen in fight-or-flight response. in a broad sense. Very often. will experience less amount of stress than those who have no such sense of personal control. and social support to deal with the crises will feel less stressed. As indicated earlier. Hypothalamus initiates action along two pathways.g. One such factor is the past experience of dealing with such a stressful condition. or its adverse consequences. Personal Skills Coping style Social Support Networks Professional Help PERSON CHARACTERISTICS Physiological Physical Health Constitutional Vulnerabilities Psychological Mental Health Temperament Self-Concept Cultural Cultural Definitions and Meanings Expected Response Style STRESS APPRAISAL Physiological response Behavioural response Emotional response Cognitive response Fig.1 A Theoretical Model of the Stress Process . they are less threatening. noise. break in relationship).. Often such appraisals are very subjective and will depend on many factors. loneliness..g. which threaten or challenge the well-being of a person.g. The first pathway involves autonomic nervous system. behavioural. A person. includes all those environmental and personal events. skills. which may be physiological. the experience and the outcome of a stressor may vary from individual to individual. stress. The second pathway involves pituitary gland which secretes the corticosteroid which provides STRESSORS Types Environmental Psychological Social Dimensions Intensity Duration Complexity Predictability RESOURCES Physical Money Medical Care. You will recollect from your study of nervous system in Class XI that the adrenal gland releases large amount of catecholamines into the blood stream. health. these stressors result in a variety of stress reactions. and cognitive. such as environmental (e.

Examine the differences in the stress experienced by your friends in the light of their coping resources. looking after their home work.g. duration. less complex and expected stresses. retirement. personal injury). death of a spouse. Usually more intense. The cultural context in which people live determines the meaning of any event and defines the nature of response that is expected under various conditions. the stress experience will be determined by the resources of the person. divorce. temperament. predictable). however. The behavioural and cognitive responses involve coping or active effort to master.. Find out how much ability. sadness.g. Sources of Stress Studies in medical science are increasingly showing the role of stress in various disorders. complex.. Some victims also report nightmares. A victim may start feeling depressed or have flashbacks and relive the horror of the earlier experiences.g. skill. and personal like social skills and the particular style of coping used by people to deal with stress. are rare. In this way. In fact. The outcome of stress depends on the position of particular stressful experience along these dimensions.1 Appraising Stressful Events Identify the stressful events. the effects of such events may occur after the lapse of some time. mortgage. we find three major types of stresses. Thus. personal life (e. however.e. Psychological characteristics like mental health. There are jobs in which such daily hassles are very frequent. Thus preparing children for schools. reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress. shortterm. work (e. The emotional arousal may interfere our dealings with stresses. It may. high intensity). major change in financial condition) generate stress. All these factors determine the appraisal of a given stressful situation. The emotional reactions to the experience of stress include fear. social. Events in family (e. Recent Life Events : It has been found that the effects of life changes cumulate and contribute to stress. be noted that this division is for analytical purpose and all . (short-term vs. change in residence.Coping with Life Challenges 111 energy. being a hostage.. Hassles : These involve the happenings in everyday life. and psychological. The stresses which people experience also vary in terms of intensity (low intensity vs. Such stresses make life full of desperation. and anger. more complex) and predictability (unexpected vs. which your three friends have experienced in the past one year. Discuss these results with your teacher. long term). Many different sources of stress are known to precipitate illness like heart disease. Finally. environmental. These kinds of traumatic events.. medical facilities. many health professionals recognise that the concept of a single cause for an illness is no longer suitable. A person’s experiences of stress depend importantly on the physiological strength of the person. prolonged (or chronic). change in eating habits. witnessing a gory crime. ACTIVITY 5. These resources can be physical like money. and self-concept are also relevant to the experience of stress.g. and family support your friends have to deal with each of those stresses. marriage). Traumatic Events : These include a variety of extreme situations such as fire. etc. The exact effect of such events is not known but it is certain that they do contribute to stress in different degrees. These stresses may not be known to an outsider. and unanticipated stresses have more negative consequences than less intense. Some of the important sources of stress are given below. In fact. List these stressful events and select those that are common for all three of your friends. i. people with poor physical health and weak constitution would be more vulnerable than those who enjoy good health and strong constitution. care of family and attending to various emergencies are daily hassles.. experienced by a housewife. may be months after the traumatic event has occurred. TYPES OF STRESS Looking at the range of stressful experiences that are faced by people one may divide the stresses with reference to their domain. trouble with one’s boss) and financial matters (e. complexity (less complex vs.

For others. causing tension when one has to decide. etc. You may want to take up a job offered to you and at the same time may want to continue your studies. There could be value conflicts when you are forced to take action that is against the values held by you. People vary widely in their life experiences. These are known as catastrophic events or disasters. fire. industrial noise. which can lead to frustration. For an adolescent who wants to attend a college party.112 Introduction to Psychology these types of stress are interrelated. Pressure : The third source of stress. Social Stress Social events or conditions. When these continue to persist daily over a long period in a person’s life and he/she can in no way avoid them. These events or conditions are perceived as stressful by the individual experiencing them. then these hassles take their toll. which occur in the course of everyday life. The internal sources of stress are many. Furthermore. as a member of a social group one may experience a sense of insecurity and deprivation. The conflicts could be of approach-avoidance. and tension. these life events could be one-time happenings. which impinge on all people uniformly. These could be environmental pollution. A second group of environmental stressors could be events. like earthquake. but there are large individual differences in the way people react to them. is social and other types of pressures. inside or outside the family network for material and non-material rewards.. Some suffer from a chronic health problem and have to think in terms of long-term adjustment. Psychological Stress These are personal and unique to the person experiencing them and are considered as internal sources of stress. which affect individuals at various times in their lives. Many of these are major life stresses. Frustration may be minor and inconsequential. death of the loved ones. Many of us drive ourselves ruthlessly towards achieving goals. There could be a wide range of environmental obstacles. which have known and predictable health impairing consequences. For example. You may be in conflict with the other people. interpersonal hurt. there could be social discrimination and barriers impeding the efforts of the weaker sections of the society. These include accidents. and typically centres on our aspirations and life goals. approach-approach. that are sudden and have a powerful impact. Like frustration. divorce. and the like. which we experience in everyday life. and hostile neighbours are some of the examples of social stressors. or avoidance-avoidance type. separation. There could be conflicts because of your membership of a particular group. over-restrictive parents would be a source of frustration. called ‘daily hassles’. These events may affect a large number of people at the same time and require a great deal of effort for effective coping. You will read more about environmental stressors in Chapter 8 on Environment and Human Behaviour. Let us try to learn about these different types of stresses. Environmental Stress These stresses could be of very high intensity. Conflict : Stress may originate from a conflict between interests and motives (see Chapter 11 of Class XI textbook). Frustration : It results from the blocking of needs and motives by something that prevents or hinders us from achieving a desired goal. conflict. etc. Some go through more hardships and personal tragedies than others do. pressure may stem from inner and outer sources. and try to live up to unrealistically high . and are more or less universal in terms of initial response. Some of these stressors involve minor irritating events. while lack of water would be a source of frustration for someone living in the desert. strained relationships. but not necessarily by others. Let us try to understand the nature of these stressors. flood. Some of the important ones are: frustration. You may be in conflict regarding whether to study psychology or music. crowding. or may be a serious threat to our well-being and survival. like death and illness in the family.

blood pressure? Is it possible to know the stress level by using an appropriate psychological measure? For quite some time psychologists have been trying to develop. This data can be used to predict the work efficiency and mental health problems of a person. Manisha feels that she will not be happy unless she stands first in the Annual Examination. Discuss your interpretations with teacher. and arthritis are some causes of chronic stress. In today’s competitive world. it is also not always true that minor stresses will result in minor strain. frustration. In the rapidly changing world of today. Some of the sample items of their measure are: Life Events Death of close family members Marriage Change in health of family member Change in responsibility at work Trouble with the Boss Change in sleeping habits Vacation Value 100 63 44 29 20 16 13 The question. It may be conflict. An attempt was made in this direction by two psychologists named Holmes and Rahe. The world in which we live today is flooded with opportunities and choices. These often cause many emotional and interpersonal upheavals. l l l l Laxman is late for an appointment but is stuck in traffic.2 Understanding Various Types of Stress Following is a list of certain situations that are encountered in our life. It should also be made clear in this context. It was found to be of great practical use to be able to find out the stress level of a person. everyone is under pressure to produce more and work for extra hours. it can be at times more damaging for health. The stress score of that person is the This measure developed by Holmes and Rahe became very popular and more than 400 similar measures were developed in later years. .2 to affect physical health. unemployment. believing that both kinds of changes cause stress. Each of these life changes is assigned a numerical value in terms of their severity. that stress need not be very severe BOX 5. but more importantly on the coping resources available to the person. Again. or change in life circumstances. Even if a stress is of the low intensity but continues over a longer period (chronic stress).Coping with Life Challenges 113 standards. Read them carefully and analyse their nature. The respondent is asked to check how many of these life changes they have experienced in the recent past (a year or so). They developed a life-events measure of stress. strained relationships. Daily hassles. such measures which can tell us about the stress level of a person. Both positive and negative events are taken. divorce 73. Gurmeet has lost his job and needs to find another. personal illness or injury 53 life-change units. They developed a self-rating questionnaire made up of forty-three life changes. pressure. which is of much significance in stress research. Research has shown that everyday hassles may have significant harmful effects on the mental and physical health of a person. is: how to find out the level of stress which people are experiencing – like the body temperature. unfriendly co-workers. Try to find out what is the nature of underlying psychological stress. Akhil has cleared a course in communication and has joined a company. the death of one’s spouse is assigned 100. It may be noted that mental health does not depend merely on the stress level experienced. and one is constantly under pressure to optimise the gains. like missing A MEASURE OF STRESSFUL LIFE-EVENTS weighted sum of all the items checked. which a person may have experienced. one is constantly under pressure to adapt to the newer reality and challenges. ACTIVITY 5. For example. Poverty.

one generally does not succumb or shows signs of breakdown. hardiness and detachment. the next step is to decide what to do about it. T/F 7. is not always possible. The role of appraisal in this process is very important because the way we appraise the situation changes the pattern of our responses. To cope effectively with the stresses people continually scan their environment – both external and internal. to see what opportunities or dangers may be present and learn new skills to adapt to the changes. In addition. People cope with the stress that they experience in everyday life in a number of ways. These actions may entail making changes in one’s self. and cognitive. A brief description of the reactions in these categories is given below. Recapitulation In order to survive and grow we need to adjust with the demands of our environment. moderate the responses to stress. The relationship between stress and physical health is not direct. and constructive course of action. They tend to be based on an objective assessment of the stress situation and on a deliberate. the response to a given stress may vary across persons. T/F 6. T/F COPING WITH STRESS Coping refers to the process of dealing with the stress experienced by an individual. Three major types of stressors are: environmental. and exceed your ability to cope. noise at night may be minor irritants but their cumulative effect is found to have more harmful consequences than the major stressful events. As you can guess. Tragic events are more injurious than everyday life hassles. logical. the first task is to define it and evaluate the degree of threat. however. T/F 5. Those outcomes. Some other such mechanisms are falling asleep in the face of highly traumatic events. someone not acknowledging or returning your greetings. emotional. behavioural. T/F 2. or in the . LEARNING CHECKS I 1. characteristics of the person and the availability of resources. when we become aware of a new demand. T/F 4. One such built-in mechanism is crying. various personality dimensions like optimism. emotion focused and ego-defensive. Stressors are stimulus situations that cause stress. This. How do people react to all those stresses that they experience in everyday life? It is surprising that despite all the stresses one goes through. are less stressful. Not all stressors have long-term consequences. Coping reactions can be broadly divided into three broad categories: task-oriented. T/F 3. The responses to stress are physiological. Some of the coping reactions come into operation automatically rather than as a result of deliberate effort of the individual. crying is not uncommon in adults and may serve. We find that stress is very common in our daily life. duration and in frequency of their occurrence. It refers to the pattern of responses you make to stimuli that disturb your physiological and psychological equilibrium. Those who know why they are suffering are less miserable.114 Introduction to Psychology the school bus. Though more common in children. Some of these built-in reactions are physiological and psychological changes to restore the state of equilibrium. This involves formulating new courses of action that might solve the problem by identifying the best alternative. and psychological. which people can control. These stressors vary in intensity. social. The type of response made by the person depends on the nature of stress. Generally. Moderate stress is necessary for good performance. of high and low severity. It is useful in relieving emotional tension and pain. Task-oriented Coping : These reactions aim at realistically coping with the adjustive demands. It is important that one makes a realistic evaluation of the problem. Having defined the problem and its degree of threat. They are a part of the survival mechanism and can be termed as built-in reactions. an important purpose of relieving tension and hurt. All stressful events have negative effects on health. which come into action whenever there is a threat to survival.

and other emotional reactions. Reappraisal of the stressful situation and accepting the responsibility also help to cope with the stresses. Such behaviour is often shown by students who avoid taking courses that they think are very difficult. l Discussing his/her problem with a friend. Often people think about the potentially harmful consequences of stressful events in order to make anticipatory preparations. l Going for an eye test after hitting a pole while driving a scooter. trying to remove the obstacles. l Making efforts to anticipate when the problem will recur. as in lowering one’s level of aspiration. or both. It is like accepting whatever is available in the given situation. or changing one’s attitude. In substitution. we may try to anticipate and avoid many situations that we view as potentially dangerous or threatening. or watch TV when feeling distressed. or finding a workable compromise. even when the threatening stressor is present. the problem does not seem to be working. l Eating a lot during the examinations. l Trying to remember what one did in a similar crisis last time. the situation may be much more complicated. Emotion-focused Coping : The emphasis here is on self-control and emotion regulation. We often have to live as best we can with what cannot be changed. Of course. or the source of the problem. withdrawing from it. Ego-defensive Coping : In this kind of coping. People use the strategies of distancing or disengagement by going to a party or movie. Discuss the answers with your teacher. anger. and engage in daydreaming when they feel helpless. as in the case of a breakdown in a love relationship in which one is deeply involved.3 Understanding Problem – Focused Coping Which of these are problem-centred coping behaviours? And why? l Trying to find out environmental stressors for poor health. The action may be overt. People seek social support and use planful problem solving. as in improving one’s study habits. and accordingly. or trying to change these emotions. Many people whistle or laugh when they are afraid or over eat when anxious. l Hiding poor examination performance from parents. The emotion focused coping aims at relieving the emotional impact of stress to make one feel better. Such coping behaviour when appropriate to the individual’s resources and the stress situation is often found effective in dealing with the stress. the person primarily tries to protect oneself ACTIVITY 5. For example. Dealing with the problem headlong may amount to appraising the threat emanating from the stress. depending upon the situation. The action may involve confronting the problem. people may take alcohol or tranquilisers – which may provide temporary relief.Coping with Life Challenges 115 surrounding. or covert. a better option could be to escape or withdraw from a stressful situation that we cannot handle or prefer not to deal with. When confronting. Such emotion-focused coping may not solve the problem.e. l Reading literature to find out negative consequences of stress. Accommodation here refers to a kind of compromise in which we settle for a part of what we wanted. . To relieve tension. we either escape or avoid facing the problem. we may handle a monotonous and unrewarding job by changing to more suitable one. i. In other instances. l Finding fault with the teacher for doing poorly in the examination. which is less attractive. we tend to reduce the stress by accepting whatever goals we can meet.. controlling anxiety. In that situation. Two common compromise reactions are substitution and accommodation. the man who is consistently denied a job may finally accept one. Compromise involves bringing change in us and is resorted to when the stress situation cannot be changed. but helps people in managing the adverse outcomes. For example. appraising one’s coping resources. l Feeling sorry for failing in the examination. It is a remedial rather than a problem-solving approach. frustration.

etc. The primary aim of most of the ego-defencive responses is to cushion failure. These are: confronting the problem or task orientated coping.. The physical exhaustion includes chronic fatigue. which aims at controlling and managing emotions. LEARNING CHECKS II Match the defence mechanism in the following examples. but they tend to operate on habitual and unconscious levels. repair emotional hurt. fantasy. People experience exhaustion and attitudinal problems when demands at the work place are very high. The other is emotion focused copying. Research in this area has also established that tragic life events. b. In general. body aches. for instance. and maintain feelings of adequacy and worth. c. Fantasy. An overweight boy indulges in binging when he feels neglected by his classmates. looking after a severely ill family member may as well lead to an experience of burnout. these people frequently suffer from stomach upsets.g. Why does this happen? Various explanations are provided to answer this question. and threatening situation for a long period of time. This state of physical and psychological exhaustion is technically called burnout.116 Introduction to Psychology psychologically from emotional hurt and selfdevaluation. The mental exhaustion includes irritability and the feelings of hopelessness. a. Hans Selye proposed General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) to explain the bodily consequences of stress. Chronic stress takes its toll on one’s ability to think and perform effectively even in one’s routine activities. They (e. or neurologically ill or challenged member(s) too frequently express the feelings of extreme exhaustion or burnout. like natural disasters (flood. As examinations approach. You have read about various defence mechanisms in Chapter 2 on Self and Personality. First is the alarm reaction. and being in a blind alley. An incompetent person imagines himself chosen by an organisation as a manager. 2. and the like. The adrenal activity and cardiovascular and respiratory functions are . death in the family. Over compensations STRESS AND HEALTH Did you ever realise that many of your friends (if not you) fall sick during the examination time. It is the experience of a stressor. they are not adaptive. which refers to examining the problem objectively and then working on strategies to remove it. it affects the physical health. Denial of reality. unemployment. repression. and psychosomatic diseases. You might have also observed that people who are unhappy in their personal lives fall sick more often than those who are happy and enjoy life. Because of the close connection between the mind and the body. A chain smoker draws the conclusion that the evidence of linking cigarette use to illness is worthless on scientific grounds. or the presence of a noxious stimulus. The GAS is a three-stage model of reactions to stress. 1. The third is ego-defence mechanism. Thus. when the stress is prolonged. Similarly. in the sense of realistically coping with the stress situation. mentally.). and low energy. When people have to live in an undesirable. failure in examinations. and impairs the psychological functioning as well. Here a person prepares to resist the stressor. physical. etc. denial of reality) have the component of self-deception and reality distortion. It may also be caused by many other life experiences. helplessness. 3. weakness. and when all efforts to change such a situation fail. cramps. rationalisation. the consequences are bad for physical and mental health. these mechanisms are learned responses. projection. fever. make people more vulnerable to all kinds of mental. reduce anxiety. earthquake. uncertain. It is chiefly caused by intense and prolonged work–related stress. caretakers in families which have physically. displacement. Recapitulation People use three different types of coping strategies. to protect the ego against the impending dangers of hurt and self-devaluations.

detecting and identifying antigens. What happens? Your blood pressure goes up. virus. the body prepares for immediate physical action.1. sympathetic nervous system gets aroused. Your body mobilises all its resources. such as anger. norepinephrine) are released in greater amounts. a major illness may occur. which brought about the alarm reaction. Only when the immune system is suppressed and weakened. 5. and in many cases. With added stressors or depletion of the ability to continue resisting. fear. The GAS Model is shown in Fig. and breathing becomes faster. the secretion of endocrine glands also increases to manage bodily activities. and its details are given in Table 5. These are special white blood cells (medically called T-cells. If the stressor continues. rendering the person vulnerable to a host of diseases. as you get emotionally aroused on seeing danger. The sympathetic nervous system is activated. depression) affect the body’s immune system. There is also increasing evidence that stress related negative emotions (such as grief. This is the reason why prolonged stress consumes all bodily energy and impairs the efficiency of different systems. This is the stage when the body’s entire reserves are exhausted and the person is no longer in a position to resist the stressor. For example. The ongoing stress experience causes many bodily changes and over secretion of glandular chemicals. Level of Normal Resistance Alarm Reaction Stage of Resistance Stage of Exhaustion Figure 5. The basic functions of the immune system are. and NK-cells). the person may be at the risk of irreversible physiological damage. fungi. In stress situations. and parasites. This is the stage when body’s reserves are ready to deal with the stressor and typically achieve suitable adaptation. there is relatively constant resistance to the stressor. At this stage. When these reactions are repeated many times. B-cells. or when they are prolonged because of recurring problems. This could lead to the onset of physical symptoms. The organism has increased its ability to withstand the original stressor. Emotions. The effectiveness of the immune system is called immuno–competence. the body enters a stage in which a variety of illnesses or even death may occur. lead to bodily activation in which stored energy is converted into usable resources.2 The General Adaptation Syndrome heart beat increases. but a decrease in response to other stimuli. Resistance Exhaustion . an individual becomes susceptible Table 5. All this prepares you to defend yourself from the danger.Coping with Life Challenges 117 heightened as the body makes its preparation to face the threat. The cells that perform these functions are produced in the lymph organs and bone marrow. This is the third stage of exhaustion. The immune system protects the body from foreign invaders (known as antigens) – bacteria. and stress hormones (cortisol. epinephrine. when you are preparing for an exam you fail to pay attention to what is happening around you. the body maintains a moderate level of physiological arousal. neutralising them and removing them from the body. Long-term depletion of such stored energy inhibits growth and repair functions. They are known as lymphocytes. Stages of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Stage Alarm Description In response to a stressor.1. Imagine an acute stress situation of seeing a snake crossing your path.2. which produce their own antigens to mobilise the body’s defence system to kill the invading microorganisms in the blood stream. sadness. The second stage is that of resistance.

and less mental and physical health problems. The other personality characteristic known as hardiness also buffers the adverse impact of stress. cause more adverse effects than those stressors. intestine and can cause neurological and infectious diseases as secondary complications. Again. the link between stress and personal health is very strong. Curiously. genetic influences. Those people who have friends and relatives to care in case of an illness take less time in recovering. These habits can kill people directly and immediately when taken in an overdose.3. The stressors. To list a few. However. and control. Hardiness is a personality disposition that is marked by commitment. some people drink heavily.118 Introduction to Psychology to all kinds of diseases. This is a kind of mental attitude of not being overly concerned about the outcomes. LIFE STYLE AND HEALTH As we have seen. some characteristics of personality moderate the impact of stressful events. stress has direct implications for our health. They are more willing to seek social support and more likely to emphasise the positive aspects of any stressful event. For example. At present. The increased prevalence of diseases among smokers may not be due to their smoking alone. and other diseases. It is associated with strong stress resistance. this is one of the most exciting fields of research to establish the linkages between stress and illness. experience less strain. which are controllable. regular exercise. It was found that people high on hardiness are less prone to illnesses. Others eat all wrong food. People develop different styles and habits. Studies have shown that people who are not outcome-oriented (detached). As mentioned earlier. The addiction to alcohol and narcotics damage the liver. according to medical experts. There are many other factors. In comparison. pessimists are more likely to deal with stress by giving up or engaging in denial. One is optimism. most of the people who engage in such harmful habits have a tendency to underestimate the risk of damaging their health. low fat diet. The modern lifestyle has led to violation of many basic principles of health and paid little attention to what do we eat. which are uncontrollable. Smoking is another health impairing habit. challenge. regular exercise. depressed people are found to be more susceptible to infectious diseases and show a slower recovery rate once they fall sick. high blood pressure. Keeping these effects of stress in view. Unless one perceives a situation as threatening. They exercise less and eat more. Alcohol and drug abuse are very common health-impairing habits. one wonders why some individuals live life for more than hundreds years. one would not experience stress. The third personality dimension is anaskti or detachment. It is a mindset in which a person does not emotionally respond to stressful events but rather maintains equanimity. Optimists are more likely to engage in actionoriented and problem-focused coping. respiratory system. Factors like diet. Management of stress is receiving considerable attention in different walks of life. Social and emotional support also makes a major difference. Many of these drugs can also damage one’s ability to think logically and coherently. as Lazarus pointed out. In fact. which determine how stress would affect the body’s immune functioning. A growing body of evidence suggests that people may be able to extend their lives significantly by adhering to a lifestyle that includes balanced. where do we live and how do we think. You may like to study these techniques. Some of the stress – management techniques are given in Box 5. even when they know that they are damaging their liver. It is found that lung cancer and heart diseases kill the largest number of smokers. many of which are health impairing. much depends upon how an individual evaluates a stressor. Many people are their own enemies and do precisely those things that are bad for their health. and continued activity during later years. stress has been implicated in the occurrence of heart disease. family stability and personality characteristics play an important role in longevity and good health. but smokers are prone to other habits injurious to health. . It is a general tendency to expect good or positive outcomes.

spinach. One must practice these exercises at least three times a week for at least fifteen minutes at a time. Stress is called a silent killer. Affirmative eating can keep the body free from diseases and can delay the ageing process. salty meal. (routine) and Vichara (thinking). Controlled breathing is another technique in which deep long breaths are used. Such self-destructive behaviours are many. tomatoes. They do things that are injurious to health. Usually relaxation starts from the lower body. i. Vihara (Recreation) Achara. This mechanism helps to reduce stress. Most of the programmes involving these techniques have three stages.Coping with Life Challenges 119 BOX 5. citrus fruits. minerals. Some of these techniques are as follows. Exercise : Aerobic. Thus by reducing muscle tension the feelings of stress and anxiety can be reduced. Heart disease. and communities are taking interest in evolving stress management techniques. In the practice stage. In the education stage. and rewarding goal achievement. In training. offices. flexibility. BOX 5. evening and night). The fundamental principles of life style described in Ayurveda are Ahara (food). ‘Dincharya’. and ‘Ratricharya’. education. Exercise helps to improve endurance. the participants rehearse the skills learned in real life situation. . Din (day) charya (routine) and Ratri (night) charya means to eat and act according to the time of day (morning. Food should contain fresh fruits. By providing feedback about body’s functioning. and stress tolerance. In view of increasing incidence of stress. schools. and cool-down phases. HEALTH IMPAIRING BEHAVIOURS l l People do not take ‘health’ as a serious matter until they fall ill.e. noon. positive self-talk. cardiovascular fitness. Some of these are: l l l l Smoking Use of tobacco Poor nutritional habit Lack of exercise Alcohol and drug use Behaviours involving risk of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Person-to-person contact involving the exchange of bodily fluids. training. Garlic. use of relaxation techniques. a person is trained to recognise and control it. social skills. and are helped in recognising stress – symptoms. Ritu (season) charya means to eat and act according to the six seasons of a year.. dancing. and skipping help to reduce stress. enough fibre content. swimming. running. cycling. Each session must have warm-up. and very small quantity of spices and oils. they learn time management. walking. antioxidants. These are briefly discussed here: Ahara (food) is the most important of all the four basic principles for a healthy and happy life. betacarotene and fibre.4 onion. People tend to ignore the risk that lie in future and also underestimate the risk. ulcers. Vegetarian food is considered safe and healthy for the body. Cognitive Behavioural Techniques : These techniques try to inoculate people against stress. iron. and practice. Relaxation Techniques : The state of relaxation is opposed to stress. and progresses up to the facial muscles and the whole body is relaxed. asanas.3 SOME STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Biofeedback : It is a procedure to monitor and control the physiological aspects of stress. It has been estimated that stress plays some role in 50 to 70 per cent of the total of physical illness. setting realistic goals. the participants come to know the nature and effects of stress. According to the principles of ‘din charya’ one should wake up early in the morning and exercise. carrots and almonds provide vitamins. high blood pressure. and diabetes are closely related to stress. primarily semen and blood. The above listed health-impairing behaviours develop gradually and are often accompanied by pleasant experiences. Achara (routine) comprises of ‘Ritucharya’. exercise.

People can have good health by adhering to a life style. According to this definition health is the state of complete physical.4 Are you in Good Physical Health? A simple way to determine physical health is to find out the Body/Mass/Index (BMI). and realistic goals are important for healthy life. LEARNING CHECKS III considered healthy. It goes beyond the mere absence of a disease. or heart disease. alcohol. then that person is . Social support and positive aspects of personality like hardiness. which is as important as physical health. Certain styles and habits such as smoking. Good health is more than just good physical health and includes social and mental health also. which is widely acceptable and sufficiently broad. wrong foods can be injurious to health. however. In medical practices. Here virus or organic malfunctioning is considered the main cause of illness. Achara and Vichara. optimism. Such a broad concept of health is now well accepted in all health care programmes of the government and other health organisations. no risk Low risk Moderate risk High risk Very high risk 1. and does not do justice to psychological health. Burnout is a state of physical exhaustion T/F 3. impulse control. proper medication is believed to bring the person back to good health. It is now realised that health is more than a medical problem and that medical doctors alone cannot deal with all kinds of health problems. General Adaptation Syndrome as proposed by Selye explains how the ongoing stress causes depletion of the bodily resources and results in physical illness. This definition of health is. has been proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Positive thinking. the focus being on maintaining good health. nor can they be entirely responsible for maintaining good health. mental. Recapitulation This section dealt with the interrelationships between stress and physical health. Another view posits that stress lowers the body’s immunity and secretion of harmful chemicals in the body. diarrhoea. one definition of health. very restricted. and detachment reduce the harmful impacts of stressors. If one is not suffering from any disease or other bodily affliction. This is a definition of positive health. The fundamental principles of Life Style described in Ayurveda are Ahara. Optimism is tendency to expect good or positive outcomes T/F POSITIVE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING Health is often defined as the absence of physical illness. which includes balanced diet and regular exercise. this is a well-accepted definition of health. which needs some treatment. A person’s life style is unrelated to his health and longevity T/F 5. Prolonged stress affects a person physically as well as psychologically. Vihara (recreation) refers partially to psycho -physiological and partially to physical aspects. You can compute the BMI for yourself using the following formula: Body weight (kg) BMI = —————————— [height (m)]2 You can interpret the score according to the following chart: BMI RANGE 20 – 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 –40 Above 40 Obesity/Health Risk Not obese. Stress affects the body’s immune system T/F 4. rather than on ACTIVITY 5. social and spiritual well-being. drugs. Vihara. How can health be defined in a broader sense? In recent times. T/F 2. Vichara refers to mental or psychological aspects.120 Introduction to Psychology The Ratri charya advises to take dinner 2-3 hours before sleep. and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. If one is suffering from fever.

What people eat and how much they weigh involve behavioural processes. ‘comfort foods’ or foods that make them feel better. the Indian medicinal system. People who are self-centred and egoist cannot have sound health status. Factors Facilitating Positive Health and Well-being Diet : Diet can affect health independently or may enhance or modify the effects of stress in combination with other factors. in this sense. Ill health is a part of health. and well-adjusted person can attain the state of well-being. Most of these foods are relatively high in fat and salt or sugar. Ayurveda deals with both internal and external causes of illness and views health in a very wide sense.’ It defines health in terms of balance and harmony of the body. intellectual and moral standards. and spiritual health. Such people gain weight and loose stamina to fight stress. only a healthy. which is below the poverty line. conversely. The literal meaning of swasthya is the ‘state of being located in itself’. freedom from anxieties. Stress is supposed to affect diet and weight in many ways. . People who are under stress or in a negative mood are often seen eating more.Coping with Life Challenges 121 treatment of different diseases. Ayurveda literally means ‘the science of life and longevity. According to Ayurveda. A sound and logical mind is essential for positive health. Good health is a matter of self-perception. They seek. and the soul (swasthya). Interestingly. This definition views health as a multidimensional concept: the four dimensions and components of health being physical. is a state of imbalance. Positive health is accompanied by a general feeling of wellness. increased metabolic demand during stress may increase the consumption of food without necessarily affecting weight. Being overweight is not only a health risk factor but is also socially stigmatised. A healthy diet appears to directly reduce the risk of disease. Culture decides what we should call ‘good health’. suffer from malnutrition. and health history. as the total well-being and happiness of a person. meaning that stress may increase consumption of less healthy foods. The socially maladjusted can still have good health. there is no one diet. genetic structure. Illness. which is ideal for everyone. In some cases. ACTIVITY 5. climate. which interact with genetic and metabolic characteristics. It lays emphasis on the cultivation of certain positive attitudes. Those who have not visited a doctor can be considered as having sound health. People can depart from social norms and still be healthy. Obesity is very much dependent on psychological factors. the WHO definition of health is very close to the concept of health as given in Ayurveda. a much larger section of the society. How much nutrition one needs depends on one’s activity level. Some people are able to maintain a healthy diet and normal weight. happy. Discuss your answers with your teacher. Weight management and nutritional risk management have become part of the health promotion programmes of modern societies. Faith and trust are essential ingredients of positive health. appears to contribute to disease. In fact.’ This system of medicine was developed and practiced for thousands of years in India and other neighbouring countries and is given in the ‘Charak Samhita’ and ‘Sushrut Samhita. in a state of harmony. mental. inner conflicts and truthfulness . and others become obese. social. in all situations. Whereas obesity and weight gain is a problem for a section of the society. the mind. Poor diet.all considered as essential conditions for maintaining good health. but the maintenance of good nutrition is based on motivation and social practices.5 Identifying the Indicators of Positive Health Which of the following should not be included in the definition of positive health? l l l l l l l l l l personality characteristics.

and cycling. such as yogic asanas . in keeping oneself physically and mentally fit. Find out which of the two uses the above means of coping with stress. and faulty food . Yogic asanas provide systematic stretching to all the muscles and joints of the body and massages the glands and other body organs. aerobic exercises increase the arousal level of the body. Women are discriminated in terms of both quantity and quality of food available to them. as well as. Acceptance. The problem of malnutrition is a resultant of unavailability of food.122 Introduction to Psychology While good nutrition enables one to lead a socially and economically active life. disability. say the word “one”. alcohol. Breathe through the nose. Persons who have good sleep habits are able to resolve stress better. Breathe easily and naturally. Talk to two different persons. they are equally essential for healthy living. and reduce the cholesterol level. and the muscles. is directly related to promoting positive health.6 Try Relaxation l l l regular physical exercise play an important role in managing weight. As you breathe out. Whereas stretching exercises have a calming effect. Behavioural disengagement. Maintain a passive attitude. one whom you consider stressful. Denial. Studies have shown that in India diets of female children and women are inadequate due to discriminatory practices. and Self-distraction. Malnutrition of the mothers again causes child mortality and mental retardation. stress. When you finish the relaxation exercise. and pregnant women. infants. pre-school children. sit quietly for several minutes. Two kinds of physical exercises essential for good health are stretching exercises. The Low status of women in the society and social practices are greatly responsible for this sorry state of affairs. Exercise : Exercise. Deeply relax all your muscles. l l l Recapitulation Healthy lifestyle reduces the risk of falling sick. Do not practice this within two hours after any meal. It retards physical growth and leads to functional impairment. These exercises increase the heart rate and the breathing. Smoking. Religion like faith in God. lungs. The low dietary intake and maternal malnutrition is a major cause of low birth-weight children. ACTIVITY 5. TM (transcendental meditation) and Zen are considered helpful in resolving stress or enhancing an individual’s stress tolerance levels. Use of humour. Aerobic exercises have activating and stimulating functions . deep breathing. Keep them relaxed. drugs. In conditions of poverty. Ignore the distracting thoughts. purchasing power of the people.7 Coping with Stress People use different techniques for coping with stress and being healthy: Active coping. malnutrition has an adverse impact on health and life expectancy. at first with your eyes closed. Moderate and ACTIVITY 5. and population growth. Similarly meditation. Do not stand up for a few minutes. and increases mortality. Start from your feet and progress up to your face. Although these two types of exercises produce different effects. swimming. Continue for 10 to 20 minutes. Sit quietly in a comfortable position. Close your eyes. Planning. Restraint.to energize the heart. women are the one’s who are most malnourished. People who are most vulnerable to malnutrition are those below the poverty line. and the other who is often relaxed. Sleeping is very essential for any living organism. Positive reframing. and aerobic exercises. Suppression of competing activities. They relax muscles and bring about a decrease in their activity level. such as jogging. Use of social support. and diminished productivity. Try to become aware of your breath. and reduces resistance to diseases. These two kinds of exercises have opposite effects.

Optimists are those who are hopeful and confident in life and pessimists are those who think that all things tend to evil. to be able to laugh at oneself and absurdities of life helps to see things in their proper perspective. The state of Health includes physical. They are better able to self-regulate and selfmonitor their own thoughts. mental and social health T/F 2. I usually expect the best. accepting l l l l BOX 5. depression. or who come from the lower strata of the society. Thus while optimists tend to assume that adversity can be handled successfully in one fashion or another. and positive reframing. If that does not work. Such people show resilience and adapt better to life-changes. pessimists anticipate disasters. feelings. to alleviate learned helplessness. or ways of doing things. where they had to struggle hard to survive. and taking credit for success. Positive health and well being can be realised by: perceiving the reality fairly accurately.. Optimists use more problem focused coping strategies. Learned resourcefulness refers to acquired skills BOX 5. Most of us acquire such skills without any formal training. social psychological and spiritual well-being. It has been found that persons who were exposed to uncontrollable outcomes show the symptoms of learned helplessness. Such a definition of health is given by the WHO and is found consistent with the Ayurvedic understanding of health. People who experience learned helplessness show the symptoms of performance impairment.5 POSITIVE HEALTH THROUGH POSITIVE ATTITUDE blame for failures. It has been found that people differ in the manner and the degree of success while coping with adversity. Positive health includes physical. It is also found in the research that people who have gone through a lot of hardships in life. they use acceptance. who repeatedly meet failure in spite of all the efforts they make. Pessimism often leads to self-defeating patterns. show learned resourcefulness. tolerating and understanding different points of view.. especially for children. These people always have adequate internal resources to deal with any crisis.7 OPTIMISM AND THRIVING psychological well-being of people as well as caregivers. l having a sense of responsibility. The person who has acquired these skills of self-management develops a sense of learned resourcefulness. humour. Some of its items are as follows: l In uncertain times.Coping with Life Challenges 123 are generally accompanied with other healthimpairing habits. This is often seen in the case of unemployed youths who have seen their efforts failing in the past. Scheier and his colleagues have developed a measure to assess optimism. having a good sense of humour. Proper diet and exercise help to maintain good health. Stress may cause obesity in some individuals T/F 4. Meditation cannot enhance stress tolerance T/F BOX 5.6 LEARNED HELPLESSNESS AND LEARNED RESOURCEFULNESS and behaviours by which a person can effectively manage internal responses to stressful situations. and lack of efforts. Stress does not affect an individual’s diet and health T/F 3. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. The concept of learned resourcefulness is in a way opposite to that of learned helplessness. contd. It is also observed in real life situation that people. do not make efforts even in the situations where their efforts can succeed. Optimism has a positive effect on the . l having a sense of purpose in life and being problem-centred. activities. and behaviour. being open to new ideas. and only bad things can happens to them. Many training programmes are developed. They are less affected by life-stresses and display better coping with the adversities of life.

Personal. Changing environment (internal as well as external) demands adaptation. in the form of coping with illness and thriving. SUMMARY l l l Stress is considered as a disease of existence. There is an increasing interest in the positive aspects of health behaviour. l l l l l l . Detachment.124 Introduction to Psychology l l l l If something can go wrong for me. Burnout. e. and Social. and Exhaustion. recent life events. which arise from routines of life and lead to stress. Emotion focused and Defensive. Alarm Reaction. Coping. frustration. Alarm.g. Positive health and well-being come through a healthy attitude of the mind. The sources of stress include traumatic events. Overall. The response to stress may be physiological. and meditation. and other emotional outbursts. or compromises with the stressful situation. There are some everyday hassles in our environment. There is also need for spiritual health and the overall harmonious conditions in the society. resources. and characteristics of the stresses. Defensive reactions involve the use of various defence mechanisms. Research has shown that people with high internality (internal locus of control) manifest more health-related activity and cope better with illness than those with external locus of control. Adjustment involves individual’s adaptive response to the demands of the environment and maintaining a harmonious relationship with it. I rarely count on good things happening to me. There are three major types of stresses: Environmental. Exhaustion. yoga.. behavioural. and cognitive. it will. I expect more good things to happen to me than bad. aerobics. escapes. alcohol. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). Coping with stress is more of an individual and culture based mechanism. Key Terms Homeostasis. In Task oriented reactions an individual confronts. Stress should be coped with positive and healthy approaches and one must avoid escape routes like drugs. An optimistic approach in thinking is also useful for counteracting stress. The responses are to be given on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to ‘strongly agree’. The effect of stress depends on personal characteristics. Optimism. I am always optimistic about my future. In emotion focused coping the individual shows symptoms of anxiety. The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) model of stress has three stages of stress. and hassles. emotional. An individual can promote health through exercises. They show a higher level of thriving. anger. and other socially unacceptable behaviours. It is all around in our environment. There are three main types of coping: Task-Oriented. Stress. Thriving is the process of “going beyond survival and recovery from a stress or illness” by an individual or a community. Resistance. Health. It is essential to have healthy life styles for stress tolerance and coping.

3. 3. T. b. What What What What What What What What is adjustment? is stress? State the factors that determine the effect of stress? is GAS model? is the relationship between stress and health? are the various sources of stress? are the ways of coping with stress? is meant by healthy lifestyle? is meant by positive mental health? How can it be facilitated? ANSWERS TO LEARNING CHECKS I : 1. II : 1. (4) F. . 5. F. 4. T. T. (3) T. (5) T. (3) T. a. 6. c. T. 2. 2. III : (1) T. (4) F.Coping with Life Challenges 125 Review Questions 1. IV : (1) T. 8. (2) F. 6. 5. T. 7. F. 3. 7. 2. (2) F. 4.

3) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Box 6.6) Mental Health Regulations (Box 6. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .1) DSM IV Classification System (Box 6.4) Mood Disorders Schizophrenic and Delusional Disorders Substance Related Disorders Behavioural Disorders Personality Disorders Types of Personality Disorder (Box 6. Psychological and Socio-cultural Factors Major Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders Epidemiology of Mental Illness in India (Box 6.5) HIV-AIDS (Box 6.2) Causal Factors Related to Abnormal Behaviour Biological. and Ä familiarise with major forms of psychological disorders.126 Psychological Disorders 6 THIS Psychological Disorders CHAPTER COVERS CONTENTS Introduction Evolution of Understanding about Abnormal Behaviour What is Abnormal Behaviour? Concepts of Normality and Abnormality Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour Classification of Psychological Disorders Perspectives on Abnormal Behaviour (Box 6. Ä appreciate the factors which cause abnormal behaviour.7) Ä Basic understanding of abnormal behaviour Ä An overview of different types of disorders Ä Causal determinants of abnormal behaviour Ä Symptoms and causes of anxiety and mood disorders Ä Factors responsible for schizophrenic and personality disorders Ä Problems and remedies of drug abuse BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the meaning and classification of abnormal behaviour.

. These distressed people do have certain psychological disorders but are not necessarily the way they are perceived. some often find fault with their family members and colleagues and feel threatened. Various forms of psychological problems are becoming common in India. which are psychological in nature. others seem to experience hallucinations and delusions. This chapter shall help you to understand certain basic concepts related to these disorders. We may find some people over-reacting to simple statements and situations. There is also increasing awareness and understanding of such disorders. Then the concepts and criteria for abnormal behaviour are described. there is wide prevalence of psychological problems involving anxiety and depression and most of the afflicted people do not seek professional assistance. We perceive or comprehend that they have some kind of psychological problem and use terms like ‘mad’ and ‘eccentric’ for such persons. Abnormal behaviour and various other forms of psychological disorders are on the rise. many of us have problems. For example some have difficulty in relating to other people. It will begin with a brief overview of the evolution of human understanding about abnormal behaviour. This is followed by the classification and description of various psychological disorders. Due to rapid social and technological changes.Psychological Disorders 127 INTRODUCTION In our everyday life. It is hoped that the study of this chapter shall broaden your perspective on the nature of human behaviour and enable you to appreciate the problems that people suffer.

the unconscious mind. especially that. pitta and kaph and three mental gunas i. incantation and administering purgatives and various forms of torture. fires. namely. He emphasised that they are caused by brain dysfunctions. scientific methods came to replace faith and dogma as ways of understanding the natural world.. Manastap (anxiety) etc. advocated that maladaptive behaviour is caused by faulty learning or failure to learn appropriate behaviour. Grahi (fit or seizure). social and cultural factors causing mental disorders.128 Psychological Disorders EVOLUTION OF UNDERSTANDING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR ABOUT The pre-historic man used to explain lightning. One can find reference to psychological disorders in Atharva-Veda. Henri VIII officially made the monastery of St. mostly by the bad ones. Sudhir Kakar has provided a detailed psychoanalytic description of some of the shamanistic practices that still prevail in India. prayer. It was natural for them to extend such logic to mental disorders also. It describes three physical gunas as vata. sattva. melancholia (depression) and phrenitis (brain fever). earthquakes. Bhaya (fear). Twentieth century was instrumental in establishing the mental hygiene movement for the cause of mentally ill. There is an elaborate description of the symptoms and methods of treatment of these disorders. Later. played an important role in the causation of mental disorders. epidemics and many such phenomena. which is dated around 2000 BC. This led to the development of various behaviour modification techniques.e. Later. Excessive indulgence and predominance of Tamas guna over Sattva and Rajas gunas is manifested in psychological disorders. a German physician. drum beating. Such hospitals or ‘asylums’ were gradually established in other countries also. It was also the beginning of understanding of psychological. In India. (800 BC) disturbed or abnormal behaviour was interpreted as punishment for offences against Gods. In ancient Greece. floods. In the 17th and 18th centuries. Mental patients were considered to be possessed by such spirits. measures to reform mental hospitals were initiated in Europe and America. emphasised psychological conflicts and disturbed interpersonal relationships as causes of mental disorders. In 1547. Lumbini Park hospital in the state of West Bengal was established in 1920 for the treatment of mentally ill. Apasmar. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) believed that abnormal behaviour was caused by organic disturbances. Sullivan (1892-1949) and many others viewed unsatisfactory . The Greek physician Hippocrates (460-377 BC) considered to be the father of modern medicine. These practices still prevail in many parts of the world including India. Watson (1878-1958). rajas and tamas. which were hither to incomprehensible as the work of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ spirits. However. Johan Weyer (1525-1588). sickness. this belief gradually declined. The treatment for possession was exorcism. denied the role of deities and demons in the development of mental disorders. According to Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) and Carl Rogers (1902-1987). which was meant to drive the evil spirit out of the body of the afflicted person. but are also found in industrialised societies and often exist alongwith the modern approaches of treatment. Some of these have been named in Atharva–Veda as Unmad. He classified mental disorders into three general categories. Such a movement resulted in improving the conditions and the establishment of some 32 mental hospitals in USA. thunderstorms. mania (intense unfounded excitement). psychopathology is a blockage or failure to develop the tremendous potentials inherent in human beings. He also gave classification of mental disorders. These practices are not only prevalent in non-literate cultures. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) established clearly that psychological factors. Techniques employed for such purposes were magic. by the late 18th century. Skinner (1904-1994) and many others. Mary of Bethlehem at London into a mental hospital. Canada and Europe. Shamans or witch-doctors practiced exorcism.

T/F 4. Kardiner and Margaret Mead established through their crosscultural investigation that there was greater need for understanding of socio-cultural influences on psychopathology. Recapitulation During pre-historic period. Further. Abnormality cannot always be characterised as a quantitative or statistical extreme of the range of normality or simply as a statistically infrequent phenomenon. there is no universal or objective standard of normality. Mental hospitals or asylums were established during the 17th and 18th centuries. In any society. the demarcation between ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ is not clear. mental patients were treated with kindness and compassion. rajas and tamas. earlier on homosexuality was considered quite abnormal in most societies. the Jarwas in Andaman live in a different habitat. and functional (or non-problematic) for . However. In case of physical illnesses. But today. revolutionary reforms were made for the care of mental patients. especially with parents during childhood as the root cause of maladaptive behaviour. Similarly. In Middle age. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. A very high level of intelligence of a genius is a quantitative or statistical deviation from the ‘normal’ level of intelligence in the society but we rarely speak of a genius as ‘abnormal’ or psychologically disordered. Exorcism is the modern technique of psychological treatment. A very low level of intelligence-characteristic of mental retardation. T/F 5. in this book. Sigmund Freud was the first to establish that psychological factors play an important role in causing mental disorders. The behaviour of Jarwas could be considered abnormal in settings other than their own. T/F 3. For instance. Shamans practiced exorcism. adaptive. Around 1950’s Ruth Benedict. Psychological disorders find a place in Artharva-Veda (2000 BC) as physical gunas: vata. certain forms of behaviour or a range of such behaviours is considered acceptable. T/F 2. nor because it lies at the low end of the range of distribution of intelligence in a population. is considered abnormal but not simply due to its low frequency in a population. As we have seen in several other chapters. the human heart has a normal range of beats per minute and any departure from this range may indicate abnormal physical condition. abnormality means deviation from normality. Hippocrates emphasised that mental disorders are caused by brain dysfunctions. As such. the nature of our biological system presupposes a level or a range of normal functioning in reference to which abnormality or conditions of illness can be identified. T/F WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR? Concepts of Normality and Abnormality Literally. and mental gunas: sattva. normality and abnormality are only relative concepts. in respect to human behaviour and psychological functioning. several societies have now changed to accept it as a normal sexual preference of some people in the society. pitta and kaph. mental patients were considered to be possessed by evil spirits. Sigmund Freud was the first to tell that psychological disorders are caused by psychological reasons. Pre–historic men attributed mental illness to possession by bad spirits. The normal body temperature of human beings is around 970 F (or 370 C) and a gross deviation from the same may be safely taken as a symptom of some physical illness. have very different lifestyles. cultures differ in the conception of acceptable and normal behaviour. Atharva-Veda has the oldest written documentation about mental disorders. In 18th and 19th century. Nevertheless. particularly when we think of abnormalities involved in psychological disorders. T/F 6. For instance.Psychological Disorders 129 interpersonal relationships. social values and practices change over a period of time making ‘normality’ a changing concept. and consider wearing clothes as abnormal.

ACTIVITY 6. Thus. Nevertheless. However. abnormality has an adverse effect on a person’s well-being as well as the well-being of the society. aggressiveness. we may find it extremely difficult to carry on with life. Hence. Thus. if you express similar levels of fear and scream often in relatively nonthreatening situations. At other times. every person can behave abnormally and show symptoms for mental disorder. assessment.130 Psychological Disorders the individual in his/her relationship with others in specific contexts or situations. Instead of only labelling ourselves and others ‘abnormal’. etc. delusions or hallucinations. You may have seen a very scary movie in a cinema hall. In fact. abnormal behaviour is a maladaptive behaviour. sometimes and in some situations. we should know that behaviours or psychological states such as anxiety. as states of mind. The behaviour(s) must not be considered culturally sanctioned or culturally appropriate. During such periods. The American Psychiatric Association has specified some standards for defining and classifying mental disorders. The Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour Since the distinction between ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviours is not easy to make. . Match it with what is given in your book. There must be some criteria for including some behaviour within the category of abnormal based on which we can identify people suffering from mental disorders in order to help them. From this point of view. we must have some criteria for defining ‘abnormality’ for proper identification. a gross departure from the acceptable range of behaviour in usual contexts or from the social norms. mental disorders are defined in terms of the following two broad criteria : 1. Some scenes in such films evoke fear and anxiety in people and often. abnormal behaviour is to be viewed in terms of cultural inappropriateness and the problems (dysfunctions) they cause for the individual or his/her group or community or the society. a manifestation of mental disorder. Such behaviour is accepted as normal.. It is difficult for persons with abnormal behaviour to adapt or to function smoothly in society. many in the audience scream out of fear. they lie on a continuum and in different phases of life. abnormality is a matter of the degree to which a set of behaviours of an individual are considered inappropriate as against accepted norms of the society and which are problematic for the person in his social functioning and adjustment.1 Views about Abnormal Behaviours Talk to people. Thus. almost everyone of us feels low and sad. 2. depression. your behaviour can be considered abnormal. anyone could face many inner fears and anxieties. normal people also engage in similar behaviours. Stated simply. most of the behavioural symptoms of clinically diagnosed mental disorders are not unique to the mental patients. both-general public as well as families who have a member suffering from any psychological disorder and get their ideas about the basis for designating a particular act or behaviour as abnormal. may hinder a person’s adjustment or his/her ability to function. if it is both persistent and in serious degree contrary to the continued wellbeing of the individual and/or that of the human community of which the individual is a member”. Such a condition may be considered ‘abnormal’ from a psychological point of view. At some stage of our life. particularly under difficult circumstances. which are widely accepted. As Carson. we should understand that normality and abnormality are not very rigid concepts. Instead. Butcher and Mineka have stated “…… behaviour is abnormal. treatment and prevention of abnormal behaviours associated with mental disorders. There must be clinically significant behaviour or set of behaviours or symptoms resulting in dysfunction (associated with distress/disability/ increase risk) of the individual. most human beings experience them. are found with ‘normal’ people as well as with those identified as suffering from mental disorders. Accordingly.

It is blocking or distortion of the individual’s natural tendencies toward health and personal growth.Psychological Disorders 131 BOX 6. c) Humanistic–Existential : Abnormality is a failure to develop the potentials of human being. ‘All Sadhus and Pirs are learned religious people’. abnormality is a matter of degree to which certain behaviours are considered inappropriate in a society and problematic in his social functioning and adjustment. The various perspectives on psychological disorders are not mutually exclusive. According to the American Psychiatric Association. anxiety. Abnormal behaviour is considered culturally appropriate. Today many psychologists are trying to develop an integrated model of abnormal behaviour. Socio-Cultural Perspective : Maladaptive behaviour results from the inability to cope effectively with social changes. biochemical and glandular systems and advances in the area of Neuro psychology provide sufficient evidence for the role of biological factors. Behaviours or psychological states such as anxiety. Behaviours which cause dysfunction of the person are called abnormal behaviours.1 PERSPECTIVES ON ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR Abnormal behaviour is the product of a failure to deal constructively with existential despair. aggressiveness. are found in ‘normal’ people as well as those with mental disorders. II. which are repressed and become part of unconscious. There exist clear-cut boundaries between normal and abnormal behaviour. Recapitulation The distinction between normal and abnormal is relative. These conflicts cause abnormal behaviour. Eclectic Perspective : Rather than accepting any one of the different viewpoints discussed above. the major ones are described below in terms of their core assumptions. a) Psychodynamic : Abnormal behaviour is a function of intra-psychic conflicts and experiences. The interpretations and views are based on the kind of underlying ‘schemas’ and experiences they have learnt to operate with. and is partly a failure of the individual’s social support systems.g. and frustration. T/F 5. T/F . delusions.. depression etc. Psycho-Social Perspective : It includes many perspectives. often the richest insight about the cause of a disorder arise from a combination of several viewpoints. Thus. T/F 3. e) I n t e r p e r s o n a l : Unsatisfactory interpersonal relationship in the past or in the present is the primary causal factor of many maladaptive behaviour. IV. Several perspectives have been proposed to understand abnormal behaviour. A brief description of these is given below. b) Behavioural : Maladaptive behaviour is the result of failure to learn necessary adaptive behaviours and learning the ineffective responses. Concept of normality is changing with the change in social values and practices. the criteria for defining and classifying mental disorders are (i) clinically significant set of behaviours resulting in dysfunction and (ii) the LEARNING CHECKS II 1. E. d) Cognitive : People are disturbed not by things and situations but by the interpretations they make. I. behaviour genetics. T/F 2. T/F 4. Biological Perspective : ‘Behind every twisted thought there is a twisted molecule’ is an exaggerated statement but signifies the importance of biological factors in the understanding of abnormal behaviour. some practitioners call for the integration of all the approaches to understand abnormal behaviour. III. Certain behaviours considered abnormal are sometimes shown by normal people. Finding of recent advancement in the field of genes and chromosomal studies. what may be normal in one culture may be considered abnormal in other cultures. catastrophes.

132 Psychological Disorders behaviours must not be considered culturally appropriate. there are people who are anxious. shy. The psychologist tries to gather information about different areas of the person’s functioning (such as. the clinical psychologist must go beyond diagnosis. hypertension etc. You are encouraged to know more about it (see Box 6.2). to relate with others.. A syndrome is a cluster of symptoms that are generally found together (in a psychological disorder). prognosis and management of the person. there are people who are unhappy. the classification system. Investigators in a variety of ways have classified psychological disorders. is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) devised by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). {e. limited in their ability to love. Diagnosis facilitates communication amongst professionals to decide about the further course of treatment. In our day-to-day observation. Currently. impulsive or feel inadequate. can the psychologist help the patient in a humane. They include genetic defects. One is known as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) accepted by the World Health Organisation (WHO). needlessly rigid. it may be noted that the causes of abnormal behaviour are of a diverse nature. analysing and actively intervening in any given situation. However. sad. Currently. It covers both physical and mental disorders and is used worldwide. moralistic. self-centred. What are the present stressors? (Axis IV). These are examples of lesser psychological problems and maladjustment. the emphasis should not be on individual symptoms but on syndromes. However. two systems of classification are in vogue. immature. At the other end. The various forms of abnormal behaviour are analysed from a variety of theoretical perspectives.. It helps in understanding. to work or have meaning in their lives. and intolerant of others. whether he has had any developmental disorders) (Axis II). The DSM system classifies disorders based on symptoms i. Thus.e. its fourth version (DSM-IV) is being used (see Box 6. CAUSAL FACTORS RELATED ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR TO The various theoretical viewpoints on abnormal behaviours focus on different factors that contribute to their development.) (Axis III). pattern of thoughts. and what is the present level of adaptive functioning (Axis V). CLASSIFICATION DISORDERS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL Most psychiatrists (medical specialists dealing with psychological disorders) and clinical psychologists (psychologists dealing with psychological disorders) agree that abnormality is an important aspect of modern life and people exhibiting abnormal behaviours should be diagnosed. . attention seekers. Therefore.1).g. DSM is a system that aids the psychologist in the diagnosis. DSM asks for judgements about individuals on five separate dimentions or “axes”. Biological Factors The biological factors underlying mental disorders are of various kinds. Currently it is in its tenth version (ICD-10 ). The main sets of factors that work as causes are as follows. sensitive and in-depth manner. which is becoming increasingly popular. He or she must try to listen to the unique experience of every patient. However. whether he has any medical and physical problems. fearful. emotions and behaviours. Any attempt at classifying psychological disorders begins with the patient’s symptoms. same or similar symptoms may be present in different psychological disorders. At the one extreme. defeated and worthless. In between. Only in doing so. It adopts a system of diagnosis that is broad based (multiaxial) and not just symptom based (Axis I). treatment. we see disturbed behaviour of all sorts with varying degrees of severity and duration. chromosomal aberrations. However. there are grossly disturbed people termed as psychotics.

Childhood or Adolescence Mental Retardation Learning Disorders Motor Skill Disorder Communication Disorders Pervasive Developmental Disorders Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behaviour Disorders Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early childhood Tic Disorders Elimination Disorders Other Disorders of Infancy. Dementia and Amnestic and other Cognitive Disorders Delirium Dementia Amnestic Disorders Other cognitive disorders Mental Disorders due to General mental condition not elsewhere classified Substance-Related Disorders Alcohol Use Disorders Amphetamine (or Amphetamine-like) Caffeine-Related Disorders Cannabis-Related Cocaine-Related Hallucinogen-Related Inhalant-Related Nicotine-Related Opium-Related Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Schizophrenia Schizophreniform Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Delusional Disorder Brief Psychotic Disorder Shared Psychotic Disorder Mood Disorder Depressive Disorders Bipolar Disorders Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia Agoraphobia without History of Panic Disorder Specific Phobia Social Phobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder . or Adolescence Delirium.2 DSM IV CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Acute Stress Disorder Generalised Anxiety Disorder Somatoform Disorders Somatisation Disorder Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder Conversion Disorder Pain Disorder Hypochondriasis Body Dysmorphic Disorder Factitious Disorders Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder Depersonalisation Disorder Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Sexual Dysfunction Sexual Desire Disorders Sexual Arousal Disorders Orgasmic Disorders Sexual Pain Disorders Paraphilias Gender Identity Disorders Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Sleep Disorders Primary Sleep Disorders: Dyssomnias Parasomnias Impulsecontrol Disorders not elsewhere classified Intermittent Explosive Disorder Kleptomania Pyromania Pathological Gambling Trichotillomania Adjustment Disorders Adjustment Disorder Personality Disorders Paranoid Personality Disorder Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizotypal Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy. Childhood.Psychological Disorders 133 BOX 6.

Prejudice. You have already read about stress in Chapter 5. Precipitating and Reinforcing The causes of mental disorders vary in terms of their relationship with the onset of disorder. Cretinism. The effect of these factors is not very predictable. Stress is an experience due to stressors in the environment that disrupts the normal psychological and physiological functioning. they may lead to psychological and physical disorders. individuals have certain vulnerability for specific .134 Psychological Disorders endocrine dysfunction. In other words. stress is also a stimulus for many and brings new motivation and zeal.. gender inequality. Stress is harmful to a person only when the person is relatively unable to cope with stressors. Lastly. Types of Causes : Primary. They vary from culture to culture. It has been found that certain psychological disorders like schizophrenia and manicdepressive psychosis have strong genetic basis. and psychic trauma play an important role. Psychological Factors The role of psychological factors in causation of abnormal behaviour is less specific and unpredictable than that of biological factors. It increases the vulnerability of the individual to become a victim of the disorder. precipitating and reinforcing. For example. Extreme physical deprivation is found to lead to psychological abnormalities. etc. Development of distorted identity. However. inconsistent reward and punishments. and faulty communication and undesirable parental models are found to be significantly related to the development of abnormal behaviour. Predisposing. unemployment. Maladaptive peer relationships also contribute to abnormal behaviour. A predisposing cause is a condition that comes before and increases the chances of the occurrence of the disorder later. The Physique and other aspects of body constitution also play an important role. They are less precise and work indirectly in uncertain ways. physiological homeostasis is disturbed due to nutritional deficiencies and lack of rest. and physical deprivation. Stress has usually a negative influence on the mind and the body. there are four types of causes: primary. over-permissiveness and over-indulgence. A primary cause is the condition that must exist for the disorder to occur. again a form of severe mental retardation in young children is due to lesser production of Thyroxin hormone by Thyroid gland. Socio-Cultural Factors These factors also contribute to the genesis of psychological disorders. Down’s Syndrome–a kind of severe mental retardation–is due to chromosomal aberrations where one extra chromosome is found in the 21 st pair of chromosomes. poverty does not equip growing children with adequate coping resources and makes them more vulnerable to psychological disorders. but the disorder may or may not occur depending on other factors. maternal and emotional deprivation especially during early childhood. Predisposition towards a given disorder is called diathesis. constitutional weakness. A precipitating cause is an immediate condition that triggers the disorder. very little is specifically known about these factors. A reinforcing cause is a condition that tends to maintain some already occurred abnormal behaviour. It is because these factors are difficult to identify and measure. dominance of faulty and unconscious motives. thereby causing disturbance in the individual. making unrealistic demands from children. All of them individually or in combination. discrimination. Likewise. Inadequate parenting which includes overprotection. may cause the onset of abnormal behaviour. If faulty genes are transmitted from parents to progeny. predisposing. Unfortunately. rapid social and technological changes. Brain damage and neurotransmitter dysfunction are largely responsible for several types of symptoms and psychological disorders. work in very subtle and complex ways and contribute to the genesis of psychological disorders. brain dysfunction. From this angle. They determine our primary reaction tendencies towards stress and in turn determine our adaptation to stress.

predisposing (condition that comes before and increases the chances of occurrence of the disorder). The current scheme of classification uses the clear and overt presence of marked anxiety as the criteria for including the different clusters of symptoms in the group of anxiety disorders. 3. Certain stresses or excessive demands compel him/her to make adjustment. Various types of anxiety disorders involve a wide range of symptom patterns (syndromes).Psychological Disorders 135 psychological disorders. it is the interaction of these which is crucial. A cluster of symptoms generally found together are called ______________.2. the list of disorders is very long and it is not possible for you to understand all of them. behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence. or 1. Here the individual is excessively anxious in general or under specific circumstances but still has (or maintains) enough contact with reality and rarely requires hospitalisation. precipitating (immediate condition that triggers the disorder). and personality disorders. either in his/her biological makeup or within the personality. Predisposition towards a disorder is called ______________. etc. Recapitulation Psychological disorders have been classified in many ways. The person tries his/her best to do so by mobilising of the resources available to him/her. various forms of phobia. A ______________ cause increases the vulnerability of the person to become a victim of the disorder.) and socio-cultural factors (poverty. only some important classes of disorders are being selected for the present discussion. Earlier on. The major ones include generalised anxiety disorder. They include anxiety disorders. The causes lie within the person. 4. 2. or repetitive thoughts that may reduce anxiety slightly. However. chromosomal abnormalities. 5. In general. Let us try to understand each of these in term of their main features. and socio-cultural factors separately. many psychologists described people who were suffering from anxiety disorders as ‘neurotic’. fear. Inability of the person to cope with excessive demands resulting into a break down is known as manifestation of _______________. unemployment. and (ii) they try to cope with these feelings through ritualised behaviours. brain dysfunction. psychic trauma. obsessive-compulsive disorder. worry. somatoform disorders. a point comes when one is unable to cope with these excessive demands and a breakdown takes place.) have important roles to play in the causation of abnormal behaviour. In this context. psychological. Therefore. panic disorder. stress etc. or reinforcing (condition that tends to maintain already occurred abnormal behaviour). The causes in terms of the onset of disorder may be primary (condition must exist for LEARNING CHECKS III disorder to occur). The causes of abnormal behaviour relate to biological factors such as genetic defects. 6. Nutritional deficiencies and lack of rest cause ____________. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) devised by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is popularly used. . Psychological factors (deprivation. etc. schizophrenic. It is known as the manifestation of psychological disorders. Mental retardation caused due to chromosomal aberration is __________ ________. dissociative disorders. MAJOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS As you have seen in Box 6. somatoform disorder. and apprehension more intensely and long lasting than the common people do. the patients (i) frequently experience anxiety. mood disorders. dissociative disorders and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However. and delusional disorders. ANXIETY DISORDERS There are many types of anxiety disorders. discrimination. we shall discuss the role of biological. substance-related disorders.

overwhelming. This leads to the development of ‘anticipatory anxiety’ and gradual change in the life style of the patient. shortness of breath. The non-social irrational fears are called specific phobias like fear of rats or cats. For example. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders : An obsession is an unpleasant and unwanted thought that keeps coming to mind. and the avoidance behaviour (agoraphobia) interferes with patients’ work and other activities. These are normal fears. and is not attributed to recent life experiences. Panic disorder is like sudden release of the pressure from the cooker. these fears are realistic and appropriate in view of the danger posed before us.136 Psychological Disorders try to avoid situations that trigger the anxiety. They try to avoid them.1 Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Generalised Anxiety Disorders Psychological Symptoms l l l l l l Physical Symptoms l l l l l l l l l Nervousness Tension Worry and apprehension Sleeplessness Difficulty in concentration Heightened vigilance Feeling tired Dizziness Frequent urination Increased palpitation Feeling faint Breathlessness Sweating Trembling Dryness of throat. despite a person’s effort to resist it. It is a common disorder and roughly.1. They have fear of specific objects. seem inexplicable. aggressive. five percent of population suffers from it at one time or other in their life. A compulsion is an act or a series of acts a person feels compelled to perform repeatedly despite knowing that it is senseless e. Panic Disorder : It is characterised by a sudden attack of unanticipated. prevails. and apparently unexplainable terror that reaches its peak within 5-10 minutes.. some are afraid of losing their voice when speaking on the stage or talking to strangers. chest discomfort. many people have fears which are out of proportion. The most common obsessions are sexual. Traditionally. Most of the time. The unexpectedness of attack is often extremely disturbing as the patient is unable to relate it to any particular situation or event. The disorder results in personal distress and often impairs relations within the family. Generalised Anxiety Disorder : It is marked by unrealistic or excessive worry. Generalised anxiety disorder differs from panic disorder in the diffusion of anxiety. repetitive hand washing. There are irrational fears of public places called agoraphobia. and religious in nature and of contamination and doubt. which persists for months or longer.e. but today they are grouped into a few categories. People with panic disorder may not remain anxious all the time. It was traditionally described as ‘free floating anxiety’. trembling. However. calmness wondering whether the gas stove had been turned off before leaving for work. where before and after the release. as is the case with generalised anxiety disorder. people. Phobic Disorder : Every one of us has fear of one thing or the other. or situations. These attacks generally subside after a while. and are beyond voluntary control. The most common . Examples of obsession are recurring thoughts of killing a loved one or constantly Table 6.. Persons suffering from generalised anxiety disorders manifest the characteristics shown in Table 6. i. Increased palpitation and respiration. and this makes their lives difficult. dizziness and a sense of helplessness mark the panic attack. These irrational fears are called social phobias. sweating. phobias have been named by means of Greek or Latin prefixes that stand for the object of fear.g. patient avoids going to public places. which is more focused and intense in the latter than in the former.

checking. Paralysis. they create confusion. These people have an obsessive concern about the disease and preoccupation with body organs.Psychological Disorders 137 forms of compulsive acts are counting. which is not due to any visible indication of organic changes. and vague body pains. vague. specially working on the jobs where public dealings are a constant requirement. a compulsion need not always be caused by an obsession. If assured by doctors that they do not have any illness. It is not surprising that somatising patients frequently go to doctors. The main types of this disorder are listed below : (i) Dissociative Amnesia : It involves selective memory loss. (ii) Conversion Disorders : People with these disorders exhibit symptoms of deficits affecting voluntary motor or sensory function that suggests a medical condition. or visceral in nature. bowel troubles. efficiently and are able to organise their daily activities. may be such disorders. despite contrary evidences and medical reassurances. the most common complaints are headaches. ordering. Symptoms may be sensory. some such behaviours are commonly accepted as cultural–religious experiences in many societies. no organic basis is found. somatoform disorders consist of physical symptoms. Dissociative Disorders : Dissociative disorders are not always considered pathological in nature. On the contrary. Here an individual complains of a serious physical problem over a long period. and splitting of the self into multiple self-states. They are assets in certain kinds of jobs like cashier of a bank or laboratory technician or machine designer. However. it becomes a major problem and requires professional attention. it is on the safer side to rule out any medical reasons before coming to the conclusion. immaturity and overexcitedness. feelings of ‘alienation’. palpitation. these disorders refer to physical problems. obsessive persons prove to be a disaster. selective hearing. The main types of somatoform disorders are given below. by current knowledge of body functions and believed to be having psychological basis of their occurrence and maintenance. motor. psychological problems are manifested in sincere complaints of physical dysfunction. Instead of order. Healthy people with a few obsessivecompulsive tendencies tend to work meticulously. Psychological factors are judged to be associated with these symptoms as they appear without regard for the actual fact of anatomy and often lead to a stressful life experience. abdominal pain. Thus. Somatoform Disorders : The term ‘soma’ means body and therefore. In fact. or mentally reciting a series of mantras or numbers. They seek frequent medical attention. fatigue. Hypochondriacs monitor their physical condition and look for signs of illness. disorganisation. Secondary gain (seeking attention or affection) that he or she might not get otherwise is evident in such patients.. Memory loss can be localised to a particular event or time . but on medical examination. (i) Somatisation Disorder : In this disorder. Many of them can maintain a high level of achievement.e. They impress other people by their selfcenteredness. (iii) Hypochondriasis : It is diagnosed when an individual believes that he has a serious illness. They differ from hypochondriacs as the latter focus on the fear of having specific disease while these people remain preoccupied with symptoms. and exaggerated. Thus. However. nausea. obsessive thinking leads to compulsive acts. and hindrance. However. These individuals sincerely believe that the symptoms are real and of serious nature. which cannot be explained on medical basis. loss of voice. They believe that they are sick. Often obsessions and compulsions go together. When obsessive thoughts or compulsive acts begin to interfere with the routine of daily life. narrate long and detailed history to support it and take lot of medicines. cleaning. about one fourth of the people having these disorders only have obsessive thoughts but do not act on them. they often are skeptical and disbelieving. double vision. i. severe laryngitis or mutism etc. Their complaints are dramatic. change them and even undergo needless surgery. They involve large memory gaps.

at one time or the other in our life. persons.582 36. riots.09 Epilepsy 7. a rare disorder. and other mood disorders .25 6. and depressed. Some people cannot recall their past while others are unable to recall specific events. MOOD DISORDERS We often hear that someone whom we thought happy and well settled suddenly starts talking about ending his/her life. these are temporary phases. Bipolar disorders are much less common than depressive disorders.3 Place Bangalore Baroda Calcutta Patiala Year 1983 1983 1983 1983 person would then be described as being ‘emotionally disturbed’. difficulty in concentration. we usually overcome these feelings. and usually very different personalities.82 1. he or she may ‘wake up’ and feel distressed being in a strange place. No. presence of cues resembling to the traumatic event and poor . rape.05 3. losing a job or honour. When we know that the talk of suicide was a result of ‘failure in a business deal’ the BOX 6. grieved.50 10. Such a person exhibits a disturbance in mood.71 3.10 4. terrorist attacks. (iii) Multiple Personality : It is the most dramatic disorder. places. Some accident or severe emotional trauma can trigger these amnesias. accident or natural calamities like flood. The three main types of mood disorders are: depressive disorders.96 Rate Per 1000 Population Schizophrenia 1. which represent a short-term response to stress and in due course of time. All of us become sad. earthquake. fire. and difficulty in concentration. This is ‘normal depression’ that most of us feel occasionally. Depressive Disorders : Symptoms of depressive disorders are more severe and long EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MENTAL ILLNESS IN INDIA Population All Psychosis 35. They may have symptoms like sleep problems.77 2.10 (Source: ICMR Bulletin Vol. bipolar disorders. It is considered a delayed stress reaction that reoccur repeatedly even long after the trauma – victims experience emotional numbing in relation to everyday events and feelings of alienation from other people. due to death in the family. Depressive disorders should be distinguished from depressed mood. It involves the coexistence of two or more largely complete.83 1.29 3. It is.548 39.30 14. failure in relationships or major financial loss.60 8. Many victims of war. (ii) Dissociative Fugue : It involves unexpected travel away from home and assumption of a new identity. They complain of tension. Such a person may set up a new life in some distant place. The magnitude of the trauma. After several years. and things. 18. in one person.17 All Causes 11.595 3. and guilt about surviving.138 Psychological Disorders or so generalised that the entire past is forgotten. exaggerated startled response. This is often transitory and time bound and often a period of genuine introspection. These feelings occur during cloudy weather. etc.655 34. go into a state of anxiety. They get recurrent nightmares in which the trauma is relived.28 1. however.4 POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) ‘coping styles’ of the victim are some of the factors identified for recurrent attacks of PTSD. Mood disorders are disorders of emotion of sufficient intensity and duration which require immediate psychological and medical attention. depression and numbness immediately after or in the following months and some times for years. 12. However. 1988) BOX 6. Neither of the personalities has any awareness of the other. sleeplessness.

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lasting. They include dissatisfaction and anxiety, changes in appetite, disturbance of sleep and psychomotor functions, loss of interest and energy, feelings of guilt, thoughts of death, and difficulty in concentration. In major depressive episodes, loss of interest and pleasure in all activities of life is marked. Weight loss or gain, sleep disturbances, agitation or slow-down behaviour, fatigue, inability to think clearly, feeling of worthlessness, and frequent thought of death and suicide are common symptoms. Bipolar Disorder : It includes both, periods of depression as well as periods of elation (Mania). These may be in varying degrees of intensity ranging from mild to severe. Manic has the symptoms of elevated mood, increased psychomotor activities and grandiose ideas. Dysthymic Disorder : It is a mild depression of less incapacitating nature, often lasting for years and sometimes hard to recognise. A person who remains depressed has either poor appetite or overeating tendency. They may have difficulty in sleeping or too much of sleeping. They constantly suffer from the feelings of tiredness, hopelessness, and worthlessness. They have also difficulty in concentration and decision-making. It is chronic disorder and the least amenable to therapy. Genetic factors are often involved in severe depression and the bipolar disorders. The role of neurobiological factors is important in this respect. Biological therapies including Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) and drug therapies are found very effective in treating mood disorders. Social skills training and cognitive therapy are also used for the treatment of depression. You will read about these in Chapter 7. SCHIZOPHRENIC
AND

some point of time in their life. Such persons typically have problems with attention, perception, thinking, social relationships, motivation, and emotion. For example, they ‘hear voices that are not there, speak a language others don’t understand, laugh when there is nothing humorous, and do not have touch with reality’. Schizophrenics are typically known for their thinking disorders. They suffer from delusions or false beliefs, which cannot be shaken inspite of clear contrary evidence. Prominent among delusions are ideas of reference in which patients believe that their thoughts, feelings, or actions are being stolen or controlled by someone else or by some machines. A schizophrenic, seeing his wife talking to a stranger may be convinced that they are in love and hatching a plot to kill him. Such a belief is known as delusion of persecution. A schizophrenic may imagine that he/she is famous, beautiful, wealthy or powerful and he or she may win a noble prize. They have a delusion of grandeur. Schizophrenics also have hallucinations, which are mostly auditory in nature. They hear voices and commands, which are not there in real sense. Many schizophrenics have disorders of attention, motivation and emotion. For hours, they may sit listlessly without any expression in an apathetic manner with expressionless face. At the social level, they generally have very poor relationship with others. There is progressive withdrawl from the world of reality, which paves the way for gradual deterioration. The major types of schizophrenia are described in Table 6.2. SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS Psychoactive drugs including alcohol influence our thoughts, emotions, and activities. Prolonged use of them may cause changes in motivation, attention, concentration, and motor co-ordination in a negative way. Intense craving, increased tolerance of some substance, withdrawal symptoms when substance is stopped, and drug seeking behaviour (e.g., spending lot of time, effort and energy in procuring drugs) are characteristic features of these disorders.

DELUSIONAL DISORDERS

Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic condition. The name is coined after the two Greek words : schizo meaning ‘split’ and phrene meaning ‘mind’. Thus, schizophrenia means, spilt or fragmentation of mind or personality. Some prefer to call it schizophrenias, as they believe that it is not a single disease. Approximately 1 percent of the population suffers from this disorder at

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Table 6.2 Major Types of Schizophrenia
Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid Catatonic Main Symptoms Delusion of persecution/grandeur, ideas of reference/jealousy, if hallucination, auditory. In excitement phase, psychomotor activities increase up to level of agitation; in stupor phase, person remains standstill for hours or days. Bizarre and silly behaviour, inappropriate emotions Those types that do not fall into any of the above categories. Apathy, social isolation, lack of will.

Disorganised Undifferentiated Residual

Though alcohol is a drug, but for many, the addiction of choice may be ‘gutka’, panmasala, tobacco, opium, marijuana, all of which are natural substances. The synthetic drugs like ‘smack’ and ‘ecstasy’, which have been universally banned, are a combination of chemicals like barbiturates and tranquillisers often attract adolescents. They tend to get drawn into groups that experiment with different kinds of drugs. These ‘thrill seeking’ persons often end up with moderate to severe addictions, requiring de-addiction therapy and individual counselling. They cause extreme distress to parents and teachers and often drift into criminal activities to sustain their addictions. Medical treatment of this disorder, related to particular substance may differ from drug to drug, but the actual process adopted to de-addict a patient have the following common steps : (i) Detoxification : It is a medically supervised process aimed at removing the toxic effects of the substance from the body. (ii) Administration of drugs to ease withdrawl symptoms : Withdrawl symptoms, like tremors, sweating, confusion, increased blood pressure, depression, and agitation do occur due to stoppage of substance intake and detoxification. Therefore, some safe drugs are given to ease the effect of these symptoms. (iii) Aversive conditioning : For treatment, aversive stimulus, such as nausea producing drug along with very small

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

amount of drug or alcohol is given to the patient in several trials. This association produces aversion to addictive substance in the patient. Encouragement for abstinence : The patient is encouraged to remain away from the drugs. Mutual social support : The patient is encouraged to join ex-patient groups. Members of such groups have successful history of overcoming their addiction. Individual and group psychotherapy : The patients are also offered individual/group psychotherapies where their personality, emotions and inter-personal problems, and the possible causes of their indulgence in addiction, are discussed in an attempt to resolve them. Rehabilitation programme : Recreational and occupational therapies are offered to engage patients, mind and to keep them busy. Relapse prevention and follow-up : From time to time it is done so that ex-patient may not return to the earlier addictive stage.

BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS Maladaptive behaviours of the childhood may continue into adolescence and even into adulthood. The major disorders that occur during these stages are given below. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Children may suffer from either or both

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problems. They may not be able to attend to specific stimuli or may show hyper level of activity. As a consequence, they may show deficiencies in academic and social skills. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder : The child or adolescent behaves in defiant and hostile manner toward parents, teachers or other authority figures. In conduct disorder, the basic rights of others are severely violated. They behave aggressively toward other individuals and cause damage to the person/animal or property. Separation Anxiety Disorder : Children with this disorder have excessive anxiety and even panic if separated from parents especially from mother. They cannot live alone and refuse to go to school. Eating Disorder : Children and adolescents may have Anorexia Nervosa or conscious and
ACTIVITY 6.2 Understanding Drug Addiction Interview individuals who are addicted to drugs/alcohol. Organise classroom discussion on the causative factors (biological, psychological, socio-cultural). Discuss ways in which students can be made aware of addiction.

deliberate refusal of food and preoccupation with weight reduction and related behaviours. Contrarily, they may have Bulimia where large quantities of food are consumed followed by vomiting, purging and excessive exercise. Eating disorders often have cognitiveemotional basis for indulgence in them. Functional Enuresis : This refers to bedwetting or habitual involuntary discharge of urine after the age of five. Faulty learning and disturbed family interactions often appear to be the cause of this disorder. Autism : It is a very disturbing condition in which the young child is unable to relate to people and situations and remains aloof. He or she remains occupied with inanimate objects and disregards, ignores, and shuts out any thing that comes to him/her from outside. They have very poor language acquisition and show peculiarities of speech. The autistic child often engages in orderly,

repetitive and compulsive activity and if disturbed, becomes agitative. The signs of autism are visible from the infancy itself where infant remains unresponsive to the mother’s gestures and cuddle. Approximately 80 per cent of autistic children have I.Q. below 70 indicating the presence of mental retardation, but some have better visuospatial skills. It is a rare condition and difficult to treat. However, operant conditioning and drug treatment have promise to treat at least some autistic children. Mental Retardation : It is a condition of arrested intellectual growth before the age of 18 years, but when it prevails early in life, the severity of condition is marked. You have read about the levels of retardation in some detail in Chapter 1 on Intelligence. You may recollect that the broad categories of retardation are mild, moderate, severe and profound. When I.Q. is below 70, the child is considered to be retarded. There are many causes of mental retardation. Broadly speaking, these are genetic, metabolic, organic and environmental. People need to be aware about the problems and various special education and rehabilitation programmes that are run in India and elsewhere in the world. All these efforts are like a drop in the ocean and much more is required to be done in this direction. Juvenile Delinquency : Many children and adolescents commit minor offences such as stealing, or fighting on streets. However, there are some who persistently behave in a way, which causes offence to other people and their properties. They are people with conduct disorders. It covers a great variety of behaviour patterns such as aggression, defiance, disobedience, verbal hostility, lying, destructiveness, vandalism, theft, promiscuity and early drug and alcohol abuse. Genetic and environmental factors including disturbed family relations play a part in the development of such behaviour. Elder children often come in confrontation with police and law enforcing agencies and if their offences are proved, they are put in Remand Homes and Reformatory Schools. Courts are lenient toward them and they are not severely punished, as is the case with adult offenders. However, the conditions of

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Reformatory schools and Remand Homes need to be conducive for their rehabilitation and reform. It is difficult to treat them but therapy based on principles of operant conditioning is useful. PERSONALITY DISORDERS Personality disorders are longstanding, maladaptive, and inflexible styles of relating to the environment. They cause problems in interpersonal relationships, on the job or result in personal distress. In your life, you might have come across persons who are over suspicious and distrustful to others or too much orderly and systematic even in trivial matters that puts your patience on trial. You might have seen people who give too much importance to self and have little time for others. They suffer from some sort of personality disorder. An understanding of their behaviours will definitely help you to deal with them in an effective manner. These disorders are grouped into following major clusters : 1. Paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal. 2. Histrionic, narcissistic, anti-social, and borderline. 3. Avoidant, dependent, obsessivecompulsive and passive-aggressive. 4. Self-defeating.
BOX 6.5

These types are described in Box 6.5. However, a detailed description of antisocial type is given below. The Antisocial Person A very important sub-category of the personality disorder is the antisocial person, also known as Psychopath or Sociopath. They require special mention because the damage they cause to their potential victims is, mostly so devastating that it ruins the life of a person, family or of the whole community in one stroke. The characteristic features of these persons are that they constantly engage in anti-social activities and in turn, harm others but have little guilt or remorse for their behaviour. Many of them are charming and intelligent persons who manipulate their victims by giving a false sense of intimacy, love or belonging and then exploit them financially, sexually or otherwise. One may find these persons in all shades and varieties ranging from a petty pickpocket to a fraudulent share broker/banker, a deceitful lover, a firebrand politician, and a flippant cult leader. Psychopaths are pleasure seekers, have short-term objectives, do not learn from experience, and have little regard for others, social norms or law. They are so clever that they seldom come in the clutches of law and order agencies. Charles Shobraj

TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDER at the centre of attention. They are attention seekers, and express their emotion in an exaggerated and dramatic fashion. They may indulge into suicidal threats to manipulate significant others. They generally respond with impressions rather than details. This disorder is more prevalent in women than men. Narcissistic persons are in love with the self and give too much importance to it. They have great expectations of special favours and constant attention from others. They feel that they are very special in brilliance, power, and beauty or in love relationships. They lack empathy and take advantage of others. Borderline persons, more of women than men, are found to have unstable interpersonal relationships. Intense clinging, dependency, and
contd...

Paranoid persons have unwarranted feelings of suspiciousness and mistrust. They are cold, incapable of having warm and close relationship with others. They have hypersensitivity to criticism and have fears of losing independence and power. They rarely have insight into their problems and hardly seek psychological help. Schizoid persons are cold, reserved, reclusive, and lack capacity for close and warm relationships. They lack humour, social skills and remain comfortable in isolated jobs. Schizotypal persons have odd ways of thinking, perceiving, communicating and behaving. They are like schizoid but in addition to it oddities of speech and ideas is visible in them, at times to the extent of bizarreness. Histrionic people always try to keep themselves

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manipulation are marked in their relationships. They have impulsiveness in areas of sex, crime, substance abuse, and reckless driving and have chronic feelings of emptiness. Avoidant persons avoid relationships and social interactions. They want to enter into relationships, but fear of rejection and doubts about acceptance by others restrain them from doing so. Therefore, they avoid it until they become sure of uncritical acceptance. They seem to be cold, withdrawn and timid but remain hyper vigilant and continuously assess all signs and cues, both positive as well as negative, while interacting with others and cautiously move ahead accordingly. Dependent persons live on others to make all-important decisions of their lives and subordinate their own needs to the needs and demands of the others. They have difficulty

to act independently and feel insecure when left alone. Obsessive-compulsive persons are rigid and unadaptive but feel that things are under their control. They show excessive concern for rules, order, and cleanliness. There is a preoccupation for trivial details and poor allocation of time. Passive-aggressive persons express their hostility and resentment in indirect and non-violent ways such as being stubborn or becoming intentionally inefficient. They do not comply with demands others make on them. It is visible in their behaviour, in their work place, in their social interactions, and in social relations. Self-defeating persons engage in excessive selfsacrifice and avoid pleasurable experiences. Such an individual chooses relationships or situations that lead to failure, in spite of having opportunities or ability to choose rewarding alternatives.

and the famous cheat Mithilesh Kumar Shrivastava alias ‘Natwarlal’ are best illustrations of psychopathic personality. In our day-to-day interactions, we come in contact with ‘normal’ persons but feel distressed after dealing with them. Obviously these so called ‘normal’ persons have problems, of which they themselves are not aware or don’t know where to get help, while others often wonder why these people behave in strange ways. These are the persons suffering from personality disorders. Recapitulation In anxiety disorders, the individual feels excessive anxiety in general or in specific circumstances but maintains contact with reality. The main types of anxiety disorders include generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder etc. Somatoform disorder refers to physical problems having no organic basis. They include somatisation disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis etc. Dissociative disorders are pathological in nature and involve memory gaps, feelings of alienation and splitting of self into multiple-self-states such as dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue and multiple personality.

Mood disorders are disorders of emotion requiring psychological and medical attention. These include depressive disorders, biopolar disorders etc. Schizophrenia means fragmentation of mind or personality. Paranoid, Catatonic, disorganised, undifferentiated, and residual are its major types. There are substance related disorders
LEARNING CHECKS IV

Write the names of the disorders associated with each of the following symptoms : 1. She remains all the time in a state of high alert and apprehension though she does not know the cause of it. 2. He checks and rechecks door lock at least ten times before leaving for work. 3. For some months he remains very happy and for some months very sad. 4. His mother is perturbed, as he is bed wetting even at the age of ten. 5. All the time she does something or other to attract the attention of others. 6. He has duped the public after collecting a large sum of money for years in saving schemes and now his whereabouts are not known .

It is becoming a major health problem and awareness about it can prevent susceptibility to it. Indian Lunacy Act of 1912 was the legal document for governance of mental patients. During the past few decades. tremendous advancement has taken place contd. Insanity defence rules are not without controversy and much progress has been made to improve upon these rules. they can help in educating people to change their behaviour so that HIV transmission may decrease.144 Psychological Disorders BOX 6. Insanity defence is the view that ‘a person is not responsible for his criminal acts.1 million people were living with HIV infection at the end of 2000 in the world. Psychosocial support to the victims and their families can be provided as a community service. Final authority for discharge from mental hospital in civil commitment rests with court and in case of voluntary commitment with doctors. and his relatives. Assessing potential danger upon : Court may often ask mental health professionals to give their expert advice about a patient regarding danger/risk the patient poses to self or to others. patients. l People can be educated and awareness can be spread about safe sexual behaviour. l There are many myths of HIV-AIDS. in general. McNaghten Rule became the ‘right and wrong’ test of insanity. centre around (1) rights of the persons suffering from psychological disorders and (2) right of the public to be protected from people suffering from such disorders.. he was insane’. l l l l Mental health regulations. but in 1986. to serve the best interest of all concerned. This is known as Durham Rule. a U. According to WHO estimates more than 9 million cases of HIV infected people exist in India and 36. l HIV-AIDS is a deadly infection and efforts are being made for its cure. Procedures and professionals involved in seeking such advice differ from country to country. a patient having this infection has to die.S. judge broadened the scope of insanity defence further and stated that a person is not criminally responsible if he is suffering from irresistible impulse due to mental disease. l It is mostly due to unsafe sexual behaviour or due to some other factors like transfusion of infected blood or body fluid etc. Admission to mental hospitals or places of treatment is called commitment process. l High-risk behaviours can be identified and measures taken to contain the infection.6 HIV-AIDS l Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). l Further spread of infection in the population can be controlled by creating community awareness. They need to be removed. Sooner or later. l Life can be made happy and comfortable during the period an HIV-AIDS patient is alive. Primarily. Daniel McNaghten assassinated Edward Drummand. in India it is not so. help patients and their families to deal with social and interpersonal aspects of the disorder and advising them to adhere to complex treatment programme. He was found not guilty because court stated that l l l ..7 l MENTAL HEALTH REGULATIONS he was in such a mental state where he did not know that he was doing wrong. Psychologists have an increasingly important role to play in combating the HIV-AIDS epidemic. Civil or involuntary commitment is carried out by court of law when an insane person is judged dangerous to the self or to the society or has committed a crime and put in mental hospital instead of prison. They also help people who have HIV infection to live with infection. In 1843. BOX 6. In 1954. ECT or Electro Convulsive Therapy has been declared illegal and unlawful in many states of the USA. However. secretary to the Prime Minister of England. Mental Health Act replaced it. Voluntary commitment to a mental health treatment facility is carried out by patient himself or by relatives of the patient. counselling people to get tested for HIV. if at the time of committing such an act. They are engaged both in primary and secondary prevention efforts.

). somatoform disorders. Compulsion. T/F 3. it is culturally inappropriate. and socio-cultural factors. the new bill has not taken care of all these. anti-social. ICD. and personality disorders. Dissociation. tobacco etc. (addiction to drug. Psychopathology. T/F 7. T/F 5. Psychological disorders may be caused by biological. avoidant. Narcissistic. Somatoform. Current trend is multi-professional care. Excessive stress makes a person healthy and strong. love.). It needs a further improvement. schizophrenic and delusional disorders. One should remain aware and cautious about psychopaths. Autism. T/F 6. Mental health regulations and psychological aspects of HIV-AIDS need to be part of understanding psychological disorders. Hallucination. Enuresis. it is clinically significant dysfunction and second. Alienation. work. Predisposing. Schizophrenia. Dysthymic. Phobia.Psychological Disorders 145 in the care of the psychologically ill. etc. Psychopathy. DSM-IV is gaining popularity for diagnostic purposes. community approach. predisposing. There are two major criteria to identify normal and abnormal behaviours. Amnesia. DSM classification is popular one. 1.) and the personality disorders (histrionic. Hypochondriasis. psychological. Currently International Classification of Disorders (ICD) by WHO and Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) by American Psychiatric Association in their recent versions are in vogue. and play are the sign of a normal person. Key Terms Exorcism. hyperactivity. Panic. precipitating. Syndrome. Humour. The bill has used new terminology but maintains old spirit of the antiquated act of 1912. They may be primary. Social deviance is one of the common but not an absolute sign of psychological disorder. substance related disorders. narcissistic. dependent etc. and psychosocial therapies. Delusion. l l l l l . Diathesis-stress model explain the causation in a better way. Classification of psychological disorders is needed for diagnosis. T/F 4. alcohol. Neurotransmitter. behavioural disorders. and reinforcing in nature. Anorexia Nervosa. attention LEARNING CHECKS V deficit. autonomy. Each of these categories has several subtypes. Depressive persons have a suicidal risk. Schizophrenics predominantly have disturbances of emotions. Depersonalisation. dissociative disorders. Paranoid. T/F 2. Maladaptiveness. mood disorders. The major psychological disorders including anxiety disorders. Phobia. behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence (juvenile delinquency. First. autism. However. T/F SUMMARY l From prehistoric to the modern period understanding of and practices dealing with abnormal behaviour have changed gradually. Obsession.

3. 6. III : 1. 4. 6. Anxiety Disorder. 2. V : 1. 4. T. Histrionic Personality. T. What are the criteria of abnormal behaviour? What are the socio-cultural causes of psychological disorders? What are the biological causes of psychological disorders? What are the main types of anxiety disorders? What are delusions and hallucinations? Give examples. 6. 2. 5. 5. F. T. physiological homeostasis. IV : 1. predisposing. 5. T. T. F. 6.146 Psychological Disorders Review Questions 1. diathesis. 3. Mood Disorder. F. F. 7. 4. 3. 5. What are the behavioural disorders found in children. 2. . psychological disorders. 2. 5. T. 7. Down’s Syndrome. 5. 3. F. 4. 2. Psychopathic Disorder. T. 6. T. T. syndromes. 3. T. T. 3. 2. F. T. 4. : 1. What are the main types of personality disorders? Give example of an antisocial person? ANSWERS I II TO LEARNING CHECKS : 1. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Enuresis. 4.

4) Limitations of Therapies (Box 7.Therapeutic Approaches 147 7 THIS THERAPEUTIC CHAPTER COVERS APPROACHES CONTENTS Introduction The Nature and Process of Therapy A General Model of Psychotherapy Types of Therapies Bio-medical Therapies Psychodynamic Therapies Behaviour Therapies Humanistic-Experiential Therapies (Box 7. Key Terms Answers to Learning Checks Summary Review Questions .1) Cognitive Therapies Application of Cognitive Therapy for Depression (Box 7.5) Ä The basic nature of therapies and the therapeutic process Ä Introduction to major therapeutic techniques Ä Client-therapist relationship Ä Yoga.2) Stress-Inoculation Therapy (Box 7.3) Indigenous Therapies Yoga Meditation Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill Reiki and Pranic Healing (Box 7. and Ä know that there are indigenous traditions of healing prevalent in India. meditation and rehabilitation techniques BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the nature of psychological therapies. Ä appreciate that different techniques are suitable for different persons.

In this chapter.g. These problems may be. you will learn about the problems of rehabilitating the mentally ill people. community or private clinics. Then. delusions and hallucinations in schizophrenics). Thus in this chapter you are going to learn about the nature and process of psychotherapy. Both jointly share the goal of increasing the patient’s adaptive and autonomous functioning. You must have realised that psychological disorders involve different types of problems. it is found that the involvement of the person’s partner may be helpful and therapy is extended to the couple. but all of whom are interested in resolving personal problems. all are designed to be corrective and helpful. in thought processes (e. At times. The treatment may be given to the patient by psychologists. with activities (e. social workers and other helping professionals in hospitals. At present. In such situations. The treatment of mental disorders is often guided by different theoretical orientations. All of them involve an interpersonal relationship between the therapist and the client. At times. in emotions or mood states (e. in individual therapy the goal of the treatment is to remedy personal adjustment problems. . This enables the person to function independently. you will study more about the therapist’s efforts to help their patients. Finally. While the therapeutic approaches are diverse. the others are more action oriented. the therapist emphasises the fact that the problem belongs to the family as a unit. in manics and depressive patients). the avoidance behaviour of phobic patients or the ritualistic behaviour of compulsive patients). The group develops an interpersonal system in which an effort is to improve the level and quality of adjustment of all the group members. While some of them focus on self-understanding. various therapeutic approaches are available for mental disorders. there is group therapy in which a therapist brings people together who may not know each other. Therapy is a broad term referring to any attempt by a mental health professional to assist a client to adjust to or overcome certain dysfunctions. A particular approach may be more suitable for a particular kind of disorder or for a particular type of patient. We also have the family therapy approach in which the entire family receives therapeutic help.g. you have learned about the major psychological disorders and steps for their treatment which were briefly indicated. psychiatrists. or sometimes emotional problems may manifest themselves as physical symptoms (as in anxiety disorders and psychosomatic disorders).148 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION In the preceding chapter. Therapy can follow a variety of formats.g. This will be followed by a description of major types of therapies.

(vii) Improving interpersonal relations and communication. All these acts of people around us contain some elements of psychotherapy. yet there are important differences between what they do and psychotherapy. therapeutic changes in the patients’ life can occur without psychotherapy. and techniques. (iii) Unfolding the potential for positive growth. (i) Reinforcing patient’s resolve for betterment. or a clergy person. or relatives to a discourse delivered by a saint. A General Model of Psychotherapy Goals and Purpose : All psychotherapies aim at a few or all of the following goals. (ii) persons who have received practical training under supervision can do psychotherapy and not everybody. Recently. It focuses on both verbal and nonverbal communication. All these make some impact towards emotional healing. Overall. (v) Changing thinking patterns. and dynamic relationship. the psychotherapeutic process revolves around the unique relationship between the therapist and the patient. or modify the existing symptoms of maladaptive behaviour. priest. and (iv) the interaction of these two persons – the therapists and the client – results in the consolidation/formation of the therapeutic relationship. This is a confidential. having problems of an emotional nature. interpersonal. we will consider the generic approach to understand how psychotherapy . (viii) Facilitating decision-making. This can be done by a trained person who deliberately establishes a professional relationship with a client (patient). (ii) Lessening emotional pressure. with the developments in the area of cognition.Therapeutic Approaches 149 THE NATURE AND PROCESS OF THERAPY There are various forms of psychological help spontaneously available in every day life to a person who is emotionally disturbed. consolation from a friend. however. inadequate marital. Earlier. which can relieve distress and set the conditions for relearning and personal growth. The aim is to remove. psychotherapy used to be defined as verbal and nonverbal mode of treatment for emotional dysfunctions. (x) Relating to one’s social environment in a more creative and self-aware manner. occupational and social adjustment also require that major changes be made in an individual’s personal environment. At other times. (vi) Increasing self-awareness. All psychotherapies aim at removing human distress and fostering effective behaviour. All psychotherapeutic approaches have the following characteristics : (i) there are systematic application of principles underlying the different theories of therapy. (iv) Modifying habits. Instead of focusing on the differences. (ix) Becoming aware of one’s choices in life. but they differ greatly in concepts. This process helps him to select more adaptive and solution oriented behaviours resulting in personal growth and the integration of the self. there has been some reorientation also. in turn helping the person to gain insight into the development of his problem. Psychotherapies aim at changing the maladaptive behaviours and decreasing the sense of personal distress and helping the client to adapt better to his environment. as happens in instances of spontaneous recovery and or sometimes even because of suggestive measures such as placebos (Which influence a person’s behaviour related to his or her expectation of change). However. methods. (iii) the therapeutic situation involves a therapist and a client who seeks and receives help for his/her emotional problems (this person is the focus of attention in the therapeutic processes). An untrained person unintentionally may cause more harm than any good. to include cognitive aspects of communication in the therapeutic situation. In psychotherapy. retard. parents. there is a systematic attempt to treat a person using psychological means. This human relationship is central to any sort of psychological therapy and is the vehicle for change. They range from simple advice by a teacher or a wise person.

and (iv) enhance the client’s resolve to change for better. The therapists also communicate which goals are worthy. 3. health-seeking and striving for growth. Physical touch is generally not allowed. 2. emotionally corrective and fulfilling experiences must take place during the process of psychotherapy. This is a very important aspect. availability during emergencies etc. This however. psychotherapy provides opportunity and experiences for new kinds of learning to take place. As you will study in the next section. Most therapeutic processes are inclusive of at least three phases : (1) the Initial Phase. The Therapeutic Alliance : Most therapists come to understand that every patient has two distinctive inner parts. Experiencing : To bring about positive change. new. Setting of Limits : The Psychotherapeutic atmosphere must be free and permissive. setting the goals in therapy are essential. He or she is free to express anger or affection. and (3) the Phase of Termination.g. that therapy requires the voluntary efforts of the patient. various types of therapies differ greatly in this respect. the therapeutic contract is about agreeing to work together with honesty in achieving the therapeutic goals. it is encouraged at some stage of the therapy. They are openly discussed by both the parties and formed over several sessions. efforts and money. But at the deeper level. (2) the Middle Phase. timings and nature of the therapy. The Therapeutic Contract : The mutual obligations and understanding between the therapist and the patient is known as therapeutic contract. The other is rational. However. does not mean that a patient can do whatever he likes. The therapist is there only to help him. realistic and attainable. 5. but not free to be aggressive or violent. The patient needs an experience. 1. neurotic problems develop through faulty learning during early socialisation process.150 Introduction to Psychology proceeds. Psychotherapy Actual : the Middle Phase The actual process of psychotherapy depends upon the type of therapy that one is undergoing. The discussion between the two helps to arrive at mutually agreeable goals. fee. Starting the Therapy : the Initial Phase 1. indeed. appointment and its cancellation rules. (ii) gain information about the patient and his difficulties. the patients may be having unrealistic expectations. though they may be modified later with mutual consent. Psychotherapeutic Relationship : It is a fundamental requisite of effective psychotherapy and differs from other human and professional relationships. negotiated and renegotiated. The patient must respect the person and property of the therapeutic setting. not an explanation. Setting the Goals : The progress and direction of therapy depends upon what one wants to achieve. and the sacrifices of time. a high motivation. At times the patients’ goals are of immediate concern. fee. The Initial Interview : In the first contact of a patient with the therapist an attempt is made to (i) establish a relationship of trust and hope. Thus. 4. as a process and irrespective of the type of psychotherapy given or taken the following components are always present. At the surface level they are related to time schedules. One is hopeless and self-defeating. 3. Psychotherapy is a professional relationship between a psychotherapist and a client. Thus. Similar rules are equally applicable for the therapist also. A psychotherapist fixes his/her fee . At other times. so these can be undone through unlearning and relearning. The term therapeutic alliance refers to the process through which the therapist tries to establish a relationship between his healthy self and the rational self in the patient. personally meaningful. Swimming can best be learnt by throwing oneself in the water than by only taking lessons about it. 2. (iii) provide information about formal conditions of therapy e. Psychological problems are different and require highly specialised skills to tackle them. Relearning : In accordance with a learning paradigm.

emotions. In one sense. ACTIVITY 7. Insulin Coma Therapy : Today the use of this therapy has markedly declined. differences exist about how these changes can be brought about and which is to be changed first. This is followed by the middle phase. pragmatically it should be terminated when the stated goals are reached. psychotherapy never ends. the patient becomes more adaptive. as well as hope. anxiety. Talk to the persons available there and observe the services they are giving. and expectations play an important role. The psychotherapist is a trained person who establishes a professional relationship with a patient to change maladaptive symptoms and to help the person to develop insight in his/her problems. goal setting. The successful ending of therapy demands follow up action on a periodical basis. However. Relate it with what is given in the book. Drug de-addiction centre. BIO-MEDICAL THERAPIES Medically trained people consider mental illness parallel to physical illness and accordingly treat them on the basis of a medical model. The client is assured of full attention. However. Counselling centre. and follows the clinical contract. It involves relearning and experiencing. It begins with the initial interview. motivation. Recapitulation The therapeutic situation involves a therapist and a patient. It is assumed that the psychological disorders are at least partly caused by biological reasons. lives in the present rather than in the past. confidentially and a non-judgmental attitude. Yoga centre. Some of the therapies used for the treatment of psychological disorders by them are as follows. It may also be terminated without reaching the goals stated earlier. in general there are phases of therapy. Ending the Psychotherapy : the Phase of Termination In the last phase of psychotherapy.1 First Hand Ideas about Therapies Visit the psychiatric department of a medical college. He/she has faith in the ‘expert’ who will be able to understand him/her as a person and help him/her in the achievement of personal happiness. Rehabilitation centre. Psychotherapies are of various kinds and vary in details. The successful ending of therapy often requires a follow up action on a periodical basis. Psychology clinic. TYPES OF THERAPIES All therapeutic approaches aim at producing change for the better in the thought processes. His/ her goal is to see the advance and the well being of the patient by forwarding this unique relationship. Here increasing amounts of insulin (hormone that regulates sugar metabolism in the body) on an every day basis is injected in the body . activities. and setting of limits of therapy. which is the actual therapeutic phase. keeps the appointments. He/she does not manipulate the patient to serve his/her own needs. we will describe five important types of therapies. and develops a forward-looking approach. or a voluntary organisation providing some psychosocial services. and bodily processes. However.Therapeutic Approaches 151 properly. The psychotherapeutic relationship. and progresses towards developing the therapeutic alliance. The experiential growth attained in the therapy needs to be transformed into actual life situations. establishing therapeutic contract. when either the patient or the therapist feels that they are no longer capable of working further and have come to an impasse. as there is no limit to personal growth. 4. Whatever learning or understanding is gained by the patient during the therapy is to be transformed into actual life situations. The third phase of the therapy can be termed as the termination phase. privacy. They want to reduce the symptoms associated with psychological disorders. It was introduced for the treatment of schizophrenia. Motivation and Expectations : A patient comes for psychotherapy with doubt. In the following sections.

These drugs are also called antipsychotic drugs. in some countries its use has been banned or stringently restricted. Today such operations are extremely rare and used only as a last resort. Drug therapy includes antianxiety drugs to relieve excessive apprehension and antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. These drugs are referred to as Psychotropic drugs because their main effect is on the psychological behaviour of the patients. T/F 5. a simple and reliable machine has been developed through which a mild electric current can be applied to the patient’s temple that passes through the brain and produces convulsions in the patient. Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) : It is widely used. which may last for several weeks. Insulin has been used for the treatment of schizophrenia. which in turn improve the behaviour of the patients. However. The Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT) is used to create a cortical seizure that has therapeutic value for mood disorders like depression. At one time psychosurgery too was a prominent method of treatment. In the beginning. Major tranquilisers are used as a drug of preference to treat anxiety patients. it was recognised that the undesirable side effects of such psychosurgery was devastating. the prolonged use with high dosage produces severe side effects. They produce a calming effect on the patients and reduce the intensity of psychotic symptoms like delusions and hallucinations. However. Socially withdrawn patients become responsive to the environment. It causes severe stress on body. Later. The rationale of the therapy was that coma causes convulsions of the body and mind. and (2) epilepsy and schizophrenia hardly ever occurred simultaneously in them. though. it was thought that introducing artificial convulsions might cure schizophrenia and other mental disorders. depression. Its effectiveness is not very high. Antidepressant drugs are used for patients having depression and suicidal risk. Psychosurgery is frequently used to treat psychological disorders. it was done by injecting metrazol and other drugs in mental patients. ECT is used to prevent future episodes of mania. T/F . in search of an effective treatment for psychosis won him. the Nobel Prize in medicine for the year 1949. T/F 2. Therefore. there is memory impairment. mania. These are used with major psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. today it is no longer the treatment of choice. cardiovascular and nervous systems and considerable risk is involved. T/F 4. Due to the damage it may cause to the body and to the emergence of more improved methods of treatment for mental disorders. no lasting loss of memory occurs. Recapitulation Biomedical therapies are physiological interventions for psychological disorders. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. excited and at times unmanageable. Now. this therapy is not preferred any longer. Psychosurgery : Prefrontal lobotomy introduced by Moniz in 1935. For the treatment of psychological disorders medical approach believes in changing the bodily processes.152 Introduction to Psychology of the patient until he or she goes into coma caused by an acute deficiency of sugar in the blood. T/F 3. T/F 6. Antimanic drugs are used to treat patient who are highly agitated. and anxiety. Antianxiety drugs are known as minor tranquillisers. This process is repeated for 50 days or more and closely monitored by doctors. There is amnesia for the whole treatment procedure and after several such treatments. Electro Convulsive Therapy is meant for the treatment of convulsions. Drug Therapies : Drug treatment has been used mainly with four types of disorders – schizophrenia. The drug approach has yet to produce a ‘cure’ for schizophrenia. Convulsive therapy was introduced on the basis of two different observations (1) it was observed for a long-time by mental hospital physicians that patients would suddenly lose their symptoms when they had a spontaneous convulsion.

Thus. Psychodynamic therapy is based on the psychoanalytic perspective. Transference analysis : Patients react to the therapist as they did with significant others. The latent content is the hidden and repressed material. unwillingness to talk about certain things. shameful or irrelevant it may be. and systematic theory of psychoanalysis. the psychoanalytically oriented. and are expressed in symbolic form. In the following years. The patient. is asked to spontaneously share his/her thoughts and feelings as they come to his/her mind. Recapitulation Psychodynamic therapy is based on the assumption that unresolved conflicts are the main sources of psychological problems. dream analysis. Freud’s associates. like coming late for sessions.Therapeutic Approaches 153 PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES Modern psychotherapy begins with the work of Sigmund Freud in the 1880’s. the psychodynamic therapy attempts to bring the unconscious material into consciousness and to help the patients develop insight into the genesis of difficult emotional patterns. painful. Freud developed an elaborated. This reaction may be in the form of hostility. interpersonal therapies or Jungian depth oriented psychotherapy. The therapist’s interpretations lead the client towards increased awareness and understanding of one’s unconscious and its relationship to the experienced distress. for example. disciples and followers added to the richness of psychoanalysis. often with father or mother in their childhood. forgetting and so on. Often the child is subjected to psychic traumas or may be in situations where unacceptable impulses are stimulated. through a reliving of the past during the process of therapy. revolutionary. These impulses are repressed into the unconscious. The different techniques used by the psycho analytically oriented therapist are as follows : 1. 3. 2. in a relaxed position. There are various versions of psychodynamic therapies. It may be manifested in various forms. flight into sickness or flight into health. The ill effects of undesirable early relationships are counteracted in the therapeutic setting. remain so. or therapy. The therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the patients’ dream. This is a mixture of present and past wishes which is condensed into a single event. The therapist puts together the patient’s verbalisations into a meaningful perspective and helps him/her to gain insight into his/her unconscious. Free association : Here the patient is simply asked to say whatever comes into his mind spontaneously without censoring it and regardless of how personal. The underlying assumption of this therapy is that the genesis of psychological problems lies in childhood experiences. Patients spend a lot of psychic energy to maintain the repression and are left with little energy for living more effectively. It is believed that gaining insight into such repressed material can free individuals from pain and the shame associated with it. The manifest content of the dream is the dream as it appears to the dreamer. The resolution of transference is the essential element in effective psychodynamic cure. sudden blocks. Ego censor is often less vigilant during sleep and repressed ideas from unconscious are more likely to appear in dreams than in waking states. Free association and dream analysis are used to . 4. Analysis of dreams : Freud said that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious. but always threaten to come into consciousness. Psycho-analytically oriented psychotherapy remains the treatment of choice for individuals seeking extensive self-reflection or insight into himself or herself. Analysis of resistance : During free association. These are indicated and discussed with the patient in order to provide a better understanding of the unconscious causes of such resistances. dependency or exhibition of overaffection to the therapist. an individual may show resistance.

. 1. 6. if increasingly anxiety producing stimuli are presented while the patient is in a deeply relaxed state. then disturbed behaviours would disappear. Similarly. especially on Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning techniques. internal states. the relaxation state overpowers the anxiety state and the patient is desensitised to the anxiety inducing stimuli. ______________ are the royal road to the unconscious. Lindsley and Skinner coined the term ‘behaviour therapy’ in early 1950s in their effort to modify psychotic behaviour. many recent developments in the field have led to marked advancements and shifts in analytical method and technique. They focus on the elements in the environment. Probing into sensitive areas may be met by resistance on the part of the patient. yet in modern times. The following four steps are followed as part of the systematic desensitisation procedure : (i) Interview : A few initial interviews are conducted. it is based on the simple assumption that one cannot be both relaxed and anxious at the same time.versa. They do not address themselves to subjective feelings. The mutual obligations and understanding between the therapist and patient is known as ____________. Behavioural methods as an approach to clinical problems started a little later. the ultimate goal is to bring the desired behaviours under the control of the individual concerned. It is felt that if these can be modified. Some formal arrangements for contact even after the termination of therapy is known as __________________________. The transference relationship is used to delve into the patient’s past. which lead to punishment or no reward situations. LEARNING CHECKS II Fill up the blanks with appropriate terms.B. behavioural patterns. 3. or unconscious determinants. During the course of psychodynamic therapy. Many of the psychological disorders are due to faulty learning. 5. 2. Therefore. their modification requires relearning or new learning. J. Relation between therapist and the rational part of the patient is known as ___________________________. Though the Freudian approach still provides the core features of psychoanalysis. Those behaviours become established which lead to reward or avoidance of punishments. BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES Some prefer to call it Behaviour Modification. (ii) Training in relaxation : First few sessions are devoted to train the patient in relaxation. Developed by Wolpe. 4. i. This can be done through the application of learning principles and use of reward and punishment schedules. and behaviours that are more functional could be substituted. Watson in the United States during the 1920s reported some applications of conditioning methods for curing behaviour disorders. the ‘flight into health’ is termed as __________________________. However. Experimental psychologists have joined clinicians in the quest to address the problems of psychological disorders. which trigger specific habitual responses and aim to modify the response by modifying the eliciting stimulus or vice.154 Introduction to Psychology explore the patient’s unconscious.. conditions which maintain such observable behaviours and habits matters. Techniques of Behaviour Therapy 1. Disordered observable behaviour is the focal interest of behavioural therapists. are usually weakened. The science of emotional cognition and adaptation is known as ______________. Therefore. According to Skinner’s Operant Conditioning. Systematic Desensitisation : This is the best known and most widely used technique of behavioural therapy used in the treatment of Phobia and other anxiety related disorders.e. Therapists use different relaxation techniques. every individual operates on his environment. These are followed by the administration of some personality questionnaires to discover the person’s major sources of anxiety. It is based upon the learning principles.

5. The treatment continues by repeating this process. the sight of the drink alone may lead to nausea. . In practice. Assertive Therapy : Another use of the reciprocal inhibition principle is the teaching of assertive responses as conceived by Wolpe. The patient is asked to try out new behaviour. role-playing. some special foods or a picnic. the patient is presented with. (ii) to eliminate fears and inhibitions. The person learns that he can control his own environment in a way. 2. biofeedback is oriented to reducing the reactivity of some organ system innervated by the ANS by bringing it under voluntary control. It consists of 20 to 25 pictures or statements of roughly equal gaps. an important part of learning is based on watching and imitating others. a person is taught to influence his or her own physiological processes. the patient is generally able to visualise anxiety at the highest level of hierarchy. The therapist describes the most frightening event or client is asked to imagine the most anxiety-arousing situation. (c) providing means of a prompt feedback. so that drinking leads to sickness and vomiting. Implosive Therapy and Flooding : In comparison to systematic desensitisation Implosive therapy operates precisely in a reverse manner. The steps required are. A token may be a card or a clip. or asked to visualise the least anxiety producing item. (a) monitoring the physiological response that is to be modified. or social modelling has been used. which will elicit positive reinforcement from others. ranging from eating behaviour in children to institutionalised psychotic patients. but there is a need for caution in the use of this technique. Aversion Therapy : If a response is followed by pain or punishment. 6. Accumulation of certain numbers of tokens can be traded for any one of these. Modelling Technique : In children. For the development of such skills behaviour rehearsal. Modelling can influence behaviour as it serves (i) as a basis for learning new skills. The goals of a token programme are to develop desirable behaviours that will lead to social approval from significant others and to develop necessary skills in the individual. Biofeedback : The importance of the Autonomic Nervous System in the development of abnormal behaviour has been recognised. a hierarchy of anxiety producing situations ranging from the most moderate to the most extreme is prepared. A nauseaproducing drug is mixed into an alcoholic drink. 3. while he/she is in a relaxed state. Thus. sexual perversions. 4. first in a mild way and later in a more intense way. Bandura has worked extensively on developing the modelling technique. pushing one. Token Economy : This technique has been used to establish adaptive behaviours. its strength should be weakened. Roles may be reversed. One cannot be assertive and timorous at the same time. instead of money. In this type of treatment. After several sessions. After some time. Three steps are involved in this technique. (ii) A medium of exchange is established. After a number of such trials. The technique has been used to treat a variety of problems like overeating. The technique works well. This process is continued until the patient asks to stop due to the overwhelming anxiety producing situation. hierarchical situations may range from the Lizard being seen 20 feet away to just on the head. the therapist moves on to the next most disturbing stimulus on the hierarchy and then goes on to the next situation up to the highest level of anxiety producing stimulus. (iv) Desensitisation sessions : In these sessions. (i) Designate the behaviour felt to be desirable and hence to be reinforced. Flooding on the other hand involves placing the client in a real life anxiety-arousing situation. A token. over a period of time. and drug and alcohol abuse. for a person afraid of Lizards. 7. heavy smoking. indicating to a subject as rapidly as possible when the desired change is taking place. They may be a movie show. (b) converting the information to a visual or auditory signal.Therapeutic Approaches 155 (iii) Construction of anxiety hierarchies : On the basis of the initial interviews. For example. is paid for the work and later the token can be exchanged for the desired objects or activities. and (iii) to facilitate socially existing behaviour patterns. chronic alcoholics have been treated by this technique. (iii) Back up reinforcers are decided.

As their self-concept becomes more harmonious with their actual experiencing. therefore. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. modelling. or make judgements about what the client says. Those who had lost all faith in the future fell into depression and were doomed. T/F 6.156 Introduction to Psychology Recapitulation Behaviour therapies are based on the principles of learning. Some of them are briefly described below. Logo Therapy : It emerged out of Viktor Frankl’s traumatic three years experience in the Nazi concentration camps. a person will be able to search his or her own way. Systematic desensitisation involves unlearning troublesome anxiety response. and first wife died in the camps or were sent into the gas chambers. This therapy. His father. It starts with constructing an anxiety hierarchy. . Assertiveness training. Systematic desensitisation is used to treat phobias and other forms of specific fears. T/F 3. understood. clients for the first time explore their real feelings. and valued as a person. Rogers was rated as one of the most influential psychotherapists and his approach had immensely influenced counselling procedures. Gestalt Therapy : It was developed by Fritz Perls to recognise the bodily processes and emotional modalities blocking off from awareness. The therapist’s job is only to facilitate. relaxation training. and step-bystep movement through the hierarchy. This therapy is also called nondirective therapy. These therapies are particularly suited for children and hospitalised patients. endeavours to help the client find or create purpose and meaning in his/her life. Behaviour therapy assumes that behaviour is primarily a product of heredity. T/F BOX 7. He or she does not give answers. In the camps. T/F 2. and biofeedback are used to shape behaviours in desired ways. Humanistic-experiential therapists feel that human beings have existential problems but they need freedom to make choices. thoughts and accept negative emotions of hate. In time. T/F 4. Aversion uses the principles of learning to get rid of an undesirable behaviour. mother. and counsel the client’s effort. Frankl and other like minded tried to forestall suicide by giving meaning to the lives of those who had sunk into depression. Therefore. T/F 7. because the therapist does not direct the course of therapy. They focus on changing the particular aspects of behaviour. By expanding one’s awareness about the possible avenues and about one’s potentials. guide. feeling and action. The Client-centred Therapy of Carl Rogers : This therapy creates a psychological climate in which a client can feel unconditionally accepted. there were many suicides. According to behaviour therapy neurotic anxiety is a conditional response. These therapies emerged out of the reactions to psychoanalytic and behaviouristic approaches to therapy. paring relaxation with each phobic stimulus. T/F 5. Implosive therapy and flooding involve exposure to the frightening condition. Here. they become better-integrated people. brothers. which are based on these assumptions. Deep muscle relaxation is used in systematic desensitisation. The therapist only acknowledges or restates and encourages the client to look at them and to explore further. In aversion therapy a pleasant stimulus is paired with an unwanted response. integration of thought. Logos stands for ‘meaning’. anger and ugly feelings as parts of themselves. All of them utilise certain principles and procedures of learning. Gestalt means “whole” and the therapy emphasises upon unity of mind and body. token economy.1 HUMANISTIC-EXPERIENTIAL THERAPIES interpret. Token economy utilises the principles of reinforcement. which are authoritarian and mechanical in nature. There are a number of such therapies. Modelling cannot be used to develop new skills. Frankl observed that prisoners who gave ‘meaning’ to their lives survived anyhow. they become more open to new experience and new outlook.

try out new interpretations.Therapeutic Approaches 157 COGNITIVE THERAPIES In the past two decades. These negative thoughts are repetitive in nature and play an important role in the maintenance of the depressive state. Beck’s cognitive therapy has also been successfully applied to panic disorders and other anxiety disorders. and the future. A psychologically healthy person is one who is rational and in tune with reality. This include : (i) Selectivity : This involves emphasising the insignificant aspects of an event or situation while ignoring its major aspects. and consciousness used in comprehending the world of our experience. (iv) Magnification : It stands for the trivial negative conclusions drawn about self or others based on very limited facts. If the client realises how unrealistic and self-defeating BOX 7. and ultimately apply alternative ways of thinking in their daily lives. Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) : It is one of the most widely used therapies. The patient sees the world as posing obstacles and finds the future as totally hopeless. The term cognition refers to functions like attention. and some may hate you in this world. the world. and errors in logic that pervade their thinking and. which has been most widely used in cases of depression. which attempts to change the patient’s basic maladaptive thought processes. worthless and inadequate. memory. Many people harbour unrealistic beliefs and perfectionist values. long-term memories etc. The depressed patient regards him/her self as helpless. Altering these processes and structures at realistic levels is the primary goal of cognitive therapy. Depressed people also make a number of errors in logic in their thinking. Depressed people who are treated with Beck’s approach are found to improve significantly.2 her/his beliefs and attitudes are. The therapist also guides clients to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts. attitudes. thought. They act accordingly. emphasises on recognising and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. the environment threatening. there is a significant increase in the use of cognitive therapies due to their efficacy specially in the treatment of depression and anxiety. the so-called cognitive triad – make the self miserable. The negative or self-defeating contents or schemata towards the self. The objective in cognitive therapy is to change the depressed patient’s distorted and selfdefeating thought patterns and to help him or her to have a more realistic and positive direction. learning. The therapist uses various techniques such as challenging. especially in depression and anxiety. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck were the pioneers in the use of cognitive therapy. This is how cognitive therapy works. (ii) Personalisation : It refers to attributing the . judgement. biased interpretations. disappointments and feel always miserable about themselves. (iii) Arbitrary inference : It involves drawing conclusions that are not supported by evidence. cause them to feel depressed. some may be indifferent. Cognitive therapy has a comparable success rate in the treatment of depression with some other therapies. have significant influence on behaviour. In recent years. and the future feared. For example. Cognitive therapists consider that cognitive processes and structures like beliefs. These are important components in many forms of mental disorders. Cognitive therapy. irrational expectations like “I should be loved by everyone” is the main cause of trouble for many. specially the cognitive triad. For example. she/he will then seek to change them. The reality is that some may love you. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck has developed a system of therapy. ‘I should always be able to win every one’s approval and be competent in every thing I do’ APPLICATION OF COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR DEPRESSION cause of negative events to the self. The cognitive therapy should start with uncovering and challenging the negative and unrealistic beliefs of the depressed patients. activity raising and graded task assignment for this purpose. Cognitive therapists help the clients to recognise the negative thoughts. and invite failures. according to Beck.

The use of cognitive therapies is growing rapidly. T/F 3. and self-defeat. Ashtang Sangrah. frame the self-statements about the problem-situation. . Accordingly. Starting with simple situations the client is gradually placed in difficult situations. like schizophrenic disorders. Yoga Sutra. and emotionally satisfying life. Rehearsal : in the second phase of rehearsal. The rational-emotive therapy developed by Ellis also tries to change the patient’s maladaptive thought processes by restructuring his or her self-evaluation and belief system. 2. The objective of yoga as given by Patanjali is chittavrittinirodh or restraining the mental modifications. Some of these are purely psychogenic. Thus. T/F 5. They also agree on new self-statements which are more adaptive. Beck’s therapy is used in panic disorders. Stress-Inoculation therapy is done in three stages : 1. an individual gets prepared to face stress in an adaptive manner. and also Buddhist and Jain literature contain a number of psychotherapeutic practices. Yoga Yoga. ‘oughts’. inadequacy. Beck’s therapy helps the patient to recognise the negative thoughts. and 3. Cognitive preparation : This is the first stage when a client and therapist together. He presented the eight-fold path of yoga for the 1. T/F BOX 7. Charak Samhita. Patanjali compiled and refined various aspects of yoga systematically in his famous treatise known as ‘Yoga Sutra’. It inevitably leads to the non-realisation of one’s goal. It aims at increasing the individual’s feelings of self worth and paves the way for self-growth. The therapist guides the client to challenge LEARNING CHECKS IV these thoughts. spontaneous. The literal meaning of the Sanskrit word yoga is to ‘yoke’. vast varieties of practices have been mentioned for the cure of psychological disorders. and others are physiological in nature. INDIGENOUS THERAPIES In ancient Indian literature. the wrong interpretations that lead to depression. Most of these need to be rediscovered but some of them have stood the test of time. According to cognitive therapists the main problem is negative or selfdefeating thoughts. Susrut Samhita. ranging from simple disorders to complex ones. Unrealistic and perfectionist thinking creates feeling of self worth.158 Introduction to Psychology is an unrealistic way of thinking in this world. ineffectiveness.3 STRESS-INOCULATION THERAPY new coping strategies are applied to actual situations. Cognitive therapy focuses on unconscious conflicts. of faulty expectations from self and others. new self-statements are learned and practised. Therapy : in the third phase of therapy. These emotional responses of self-devaluation are not necessarily the consequence of ‘reality’ but of one’s thought processes. The goal of RET is to change maladaptive thought of the patient. Atharva-Veda. T/F 2. and. an ancient Indian system of thought as well as practice is very pertinent to the treatment and prevention of psychological disorders as well as the maintenance and promotion of physical and psychological well being. yoga can be defined as a means for uniting the individual spirit with the universal spirit or God. Recapitulation The cognitive therapies focus their interventions on explicit cognition and try to alter cognitive processes and structures at a realistic level. T/F 4. The failure to achieve such a goal evokes emotional responses of worthlessness. A few of the latter are described here. They are being applied in a variety of disorders. some are psychosomatic. RET attempts to restructure the person’s selfvaluation and belief system in the context of irrational ‘shoulds’. and ‘musts’ that are hindering his/her creative.

e. It is the withdrawal of mind from all senses. (iii) Asteya means not stealing or misappropriating the things that belong to others. 1. The next stage is Dhyana (Meditation).Therapeutic Approaches 159 overall development of human personality. It is useful in psychotherapy for breaking the learned and conditioned responses. and (v) Ishwara Pranidhana means surrendering oneself to the Almighty. which comes after the state of mastery over the senses. Asanas may be classified as (i) meditative. Niyama means observances in behaviours. It is not to harm other living beings in deeds. (ii) Santosh means contentment.1. Asanas are special patterns of postures that stabilise the mind and the body. Literally. Dhyana. By practicing various bodily postures. of practicing pranayama. Dharana. (iii) Tapa means conditioning the body to endure Fig. (7) Dhyana and (8) Samadhi. 7. (ii) Satya or truthfulness. These are five in number i. By this. in the initial practice. and maintained for a comfortable time. i. 7.. Yama means restraints in behaviour. 4. When the awareness of oneness is carried to the extent of even forgetting this act of becoming one with the thing thought of. (iv) Svadhyaya means to study spiritual scriptures to acquire correct knowledge of self and the supreme divinity. Every asana should be performed effortlessly. Holding of the breath for a prolonged and comfortable time is an essential technique of pranayama. (i) Ahimsa or non-violence. some of the dormant psychophysical systems of the body are activated. Dharana. (iv) Brahmacharya means celibacy or purity of sexual life and (v) Aparigraha means not to possess beyond the actual needs.. Samadhi : Dharana means steadiness of mind. This is called ‘Ashtanga Yoga’ i. (5) Pratyahara. and (iii) relaxative. it means the pause in the movement of breath. Pratyahara facilitates pushing aside all sorts of distractions. Pranayama is the regulation of breath. thoughts and language unnecessarily. 2.e. (6) Dharana. (ii) stretching.e. 7.1 Steps of Yoga difficulties like fasting etc. Pratyahara is purely a psychological technique. 6. In this stage the practitioner keeps his mind empty but steady for longer and longer duration and continues to practice concentrating on any one point. The main purpose of pranayama is to gain control over autonomic nervous system and through it influence the mental functions. (4) Pranayama. 5. This means not to tell lie.. and Samadhi are . A brief description of these components is given below and summarised in Fig. However. There are graded techniques from simple to complex. (3) Asana. These are : (1) Yama. (i) Saucha means keeping purity of internal and external body. (2) Niyama. These are five in numbers. there comes the determination of withdrawal of senses from outer and inner stimuli. It is the unity of mind with some object. it is called the state of Samadhi. It is a very advanced method and requires daily practice. steps of yoga. Dhyana and 8. The stages and processes of Pratyahara. the breath–holding phase is avoided and emphasis is put on the controlled inhalation and expiration. 3.

It has been found effective in problems of anxiety. Vipasana.. and researchers have developed miniature and selective techniques to address specific psychological symptoms and disorders. Behavioural observances are called niyama. T/F 4. Yoga means asana. Your task is to identify and indicate which therapy or technique will be suitable for the treatment of these disorders. Contemplative meditation presupposes skills in concentrative and mindfulness meditation. There are three major categories of focusing attention in meditation: (i) a focus on the field (mindfulness meditation). opening up. . l Surendra has lot of potentials. T/F 6. T/F 5. Meditation Meditation involves a group of techniques. There are six aspects of yoga. increased happiness. however. benevolent other. respectively. LEARNING CHECKS V 1.e. Thus. sense of coherence. which have in common a conscious attempt to focus attention in a non-analytical way and attempt not to dwell on discursive. T/F 3. l Ranjan wants to please everybody but nobody takes him seriously. l Ramesh is a good student but lacks concentration. empathy. Contemplative meditation involves opening and surrendering to a larger self (e. let go. l Rashmi always avoids speaking in the class. The yogic system of Patanjali delineates eight components of yoga i.g. l Ramu Kakka. Pranayama. Meditation leads us to wake up to our true nature and offers a road map to reach optimal openness. l Your sister is afraid of lizard. They involve three process levels: focussing. but is shy to put them in practice. and asking. Practice of different asanas can activate certain physiological systems of body. Dharana. T/F 7. awareness. and self-actualisation. T/F Recapitulation Indigenous thought in India provides detailed accounts of healing processes that are useful in therapy. Two of them that have received attention from modern researchers are yoga and meditation. Prayahara. guru). T/F 2. and.. Discuss your answers with your teacher.2 Therapies Suitable for Various Kinds of Problems You have just read different kinds of therapies used for psychological disorders. and (iii) a contemplative meditation. Now certain disordered behaviours are listed below. Yoga involves meditation. The studies. alcoholism. vipasana requires one to merely notice and label the thought (thinking) and then to merely notice. the peon in your school is depressed since several months. God. It may be noted that meditation emphasises the development of greater understanding through the systematic cultivation of inquiry and insight. and borderline hypertension. Niyama. Pranayama involves regulation of breath. Sudarshana Kriya and Transcendental Meditation are some of the techniques. l Raghwan’s thinking appears to be confused. There is growing evidence that meditation enhances physiological and psychological well-being. insomnia. observe with equanimity. he feels let-down. when weary of watching. Therefore. ruminating thought. The specific results include physiological rest. stress hardiness. Pratyahara refers to attachment of sense organs to object. and insight. It may provide a comprehensive and integrative approach to healing. (ii) a focus on specific object within the field (concentrative meditation). Yama. It is a way of being that needs to be cultivated. Asana. Yoga focuses on retraining or educating the mental processes. ACTIVITY 7.160 Introduction to Psychology inseparable and may be considered as gradual stages of meditation. have certain methodological limitations. various practitioners. Under the broad umbrella of the eight-fold path of yoga.

Such thoughts may turn into headaches. Meditation has been used in recent years to help people attain health and cure diseases. It is an interesting development in the context of healing. mental. It deals with physical. Prana contained in the ground is called ground prana. ulcers. and are most acquainted with. and outings. Pranic healing requires much practice and time to achieve a certain degree of proficiency. informal atmosphere in which socialisation is encouraged through organised group activities and individual relationships. a kind of energy medicine. Our thoughts and emotions are all composed of energy at various frequencies. The energy is passed through the hands laid on the body in certain positions. touch. Pranic Healing is the transfer of subtle energy from one person to another. This accelerates the healing process. Pranic Healing is an ancient science and an art of healing that utilised prana (or chilqilki) or life energy and the charkas or energy centres to heal diseased energy levels.4 environment. as energy is the fundamental nature of the universe. They are markedly reducing the number of relapses. According to the precepts of pranic healing body is actually composed of two parts : The visible physical body. and Samadhi. This is done automatically and unconsciously. They provide a permissive. “After Care Programmes” are found to be effective in ensuring a somewhat smooth transition from the hospital to community life. following release from a hospital may be very difficult. The success of rehabilitation depends upon the residual capacity as well as the degree of disability of the patient released from the hospital and the BOX 7. but rather to complement orthodox treatment. “After Care” is the responsibility of the community as a whole. REHABILITATION OF THE MENTALLY ILL The purpose of rehabilitation is to help psychologically disturbed people to achieve a high level of adjustment as far as possible on their return to the community following the treatment. The visible physical body is that part of the human body that we see. which interpenetrates the visible physical body and extends beyond it. Negative thoughts are experienced as uncomfortable vibrations. and the invisible energy body called the bioplasmic body or aura. REIKI AND PRANIC HEALING emotional and spiritual disorders without the use of touch or drugs. this system provides a way of life that enhances a sense of well being in people. Taken together. Practicing meditation has been found useful in many kinds of health-related problems. It invigorates the whole body and promotes good health. Universal life force or energy calms the mind and body. Walking barefoot increases the amount of ground prana absorbed by the body. which can then penetrate and dissolve any block. These energy centres are called charkas. Our aura is that invisible luminous energy body. By getting the body and mind in touch with universal energy. Some of these programmes are described below. the body is actually energy vibrating at a certain frequency. According to it. . Reiki is a Japanese word. Prana contained in the air is called air prana is absorbed by the lungs through breathing and is also absorbed directly by the energy centres of the bioplasmic body. sports.Therapeutic Approaches 161 Dhyana. Solar prana is prana from sunlight. Reiki raises the life energy in the body. Pranic healing : It is not intended to supplant orthodox medical treatment. It refers to a simple hands-on-healing technique. Reiki can release the individual from bondage and allow him to experience health and freedom. This is absorbed through the soles of the feet. Ex-patient Clubs : The primary objective of such clubs is to redevelop social skills in individuals. There are three primary sources of prana : solar prana. or anger (blockages) Reiki exposes those thoughts to the much higher vibratory frequency of universal life force energy. air prana. Ex-patients engage in a variety of recreational activities such as drama. Reiki is the fundamental nature of the existence. Currently. in which the discharged patient will reside. and ground prana. There are many types of meditation and different kinds of claims. The task of readjusting back into the community.

so is the case with patients and their problems. and other groups attempting to make an adjustment in the community after hospitalisation. Experience reveals that various therapies have their own limitations. it is also important to mention the concept of sheltered workshops. they provide opportunities to develop new skills and appropriate work habits. valuable mental health resources are saved. drug addicts. but it has a limited value with others. Partial Hospitalisation : Day Hospitals. It gi ves him/her a feeling of worthiness and fulfilment. These houses are partially run by the inmates themselves who are attempting to make adjustment in the community after discharging from hospital. However. they serve as “way stations” and open the door for regular employment.162 Introduction to Psychology BOX 7. It is also mechanical and somewhat reductionist. which serve multiple functions. . It is possible to learn how a patient feels about himself and others through the medium of occupational therapy. activities or work used to be assigned to the withdrawn patients in an attempt to involve them. Does psychotherapy encourage conformity to the status quo? Whether it should do this? This is a difficult question. Occupational Therapy : Like normal people. Mental health professionals generally work as facilitators in half way home. Cognitive therapy has proved its efficacy in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In planning occupational therapy an attempt must be made to fit tasks to the needs of every individual patient. Initially. It also helps to prevent a relapse. To evaluate the success of psychotherapy is difficult. However. Night Hospitals. In this way. In the later phase. it is simple and economical. Psychodynamic therapy is usually effective with reflective persons. they may provide a permanent refuge. For patients with skill. self-confident and earn him or her selfrespect. It also demands much time. occupational therapy imparts vocational and interpersonal skills required to carryout an earning for living. Halfway Houses : These are living facilities for recently released patients who are not yet prepared enough to live a full family life. but today occupational therapy has become a regular treatment of several psychologically disturbed persons. Yoga and encounter groups are growth-oriented approaches and help in selfactualisation efforts. and there is no definite answer to it. the general conclusion of various researchers has shown that various treatment approaches are effective to varying degrees. Thus. which involves moral and social issues. Rehabilitation approaches have proved valuable in integrating mentally ill persons with the society. Humanistic therapies are valuable for persons having potentials but who experience themselves blocked by existential problems. Ultimately it is the discretion of the therapist and the client to choose the best available approach or to work with a combination of more than one. each approach of therapy has some limitations and some advantages. Which type of therapy is more effective with which type of patient and which type of problem is again a difficult question. For others. money. and Weekend Hospitals may serve as “after care facilities” during the transitional period following hospital discharge. Similar clubs have been formed for ex-alcoholics. which enhance their sense of belonging and decrease their feelings of alienation. and efforts on the part of individuals receiving it. the psychologically disturbed people also become restless when they have too much free time on their hands. and provide space and time to family and community to reintegrate the person who was psychologically troubled. Here. Work has a curative effect upon them too. For patients having major residual defects. It enables a person to be economically self-sufficient.5 LIMITATIONS OF THERAPIES Behaviour therapy is most effective with children and problems of habit disorders. Partial hospitalisation facilitates transition from hospital to community. or as an alternative to hospitalisation.

Prisoners who gave ‘meaning’ to their lives survived anyhow. Dreams. F 6. Technique. T. Encounter Groups. Follow-up. 3. LEARNING CHECKS VI Name the applicable therapy. 3. Facilities for recently released patients who are not yet ready to live a full family life. One cannot be both relaxed and anxious at the same time. T. 7. F. which tries the volitional withdrawal of senses from outer and inner stimuli. Anxiety Disorders. 7. F. F. 4. Therapy which tries to change expectations like ‘I should be loved by everyone’. 5. T. Therapeutic contract. it involves after care. 5. Group Therapy. F. 4. 1. 3. T 5. 6. Avoidance Behaviour. Cognitive Therapy. T.F. Role Play. 4. ANSWERS I II III IV V VI : : : : : : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. T. Relaxation Training. In other words. 1. and rehabilitation centres. Therapeutic alliance 3. 1. 5. 4. T. F. Pratyahara. Aversion Therapy. partial hospitalisation. F 3. All of them are not available in every community. 2. Free Association. Meditation. 1. Arbitrary Inference. Token Economy. Key Terms Anxiety. In recent years. 6. nor do they have an equal degree of success in the rehabilitation of patients. 3. F 4. 5. 6. T. T. 1. half way homes. They include ex-patient clubs. Rational-Emotive Therapy. F. Modelling. 4. Psychotherapy. the level of dysfunction. 6. 2. Cognitive Therapy. Logo Therapy. Implosive Therapy. 5. or term with which following statements are associated : 1. T. 3. 2. Groups which strive to increase man’s positive potentials. Client centred Therapy. Systematic Desensitisation. 5. T. Behavioural Therapy.Therapeutic Approaches 163 Recapitulation Rehabilitation tries to facilitate the process of achieving a higher level of adjustment by a patient after the formal termination of treatment. Gestalt Therapy. T. 4. Systematic Desensitisation. and the support facilities available in his or her environment. Halfway houses. . T. a variety of such programmes have been initiated. The effectiveness of these methods depends on the patient’s characteristics and that of the environment. 2. technique.T 2. Resistance. The success of rehabilitation depends upon the capacity of the patient. Climate in which client can feel unconditionally accepted. T 7. 2. Depression. 2. 7. Mood Disorder. 6. occupational therapy.

What is the focus in Cognitive Therapy? 6. Indigenous therapies such as Yoga and Meditation provide a way of life to help people attain health and cure diseases. Electro convulsive therapy (ECT). and Psycho-Surgery. What are the common features in all psychotherapeutic approaches? 2. The techniques used in behaviour modification are – Systematic Desensitisation. the phase of actual therapy and the termination phase. Bio-medical therapies provide physiological interventions for the treatment of psychological disorder. Cognitive therapies try to alter the cognitive processes and structures at a realistic level. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy. 7. Aversion Therapy. analysis of dreams. Behaviour therapies are based on principles of learning. analysis of resistance and transference analysis are some techniques used by psychoanalysts. Some of the therapies used are Insulin Coma therapy. What are the steps involved in Systematic Desensitisation Technique? 5. Review Questions 1. and Ellis Rational-Emotive Therapy are examples of Cognitive Therapy. Psycho dynamic therapies assume that the genesis of psychological problems lie in childhood experiences and unresolved conflicts. the therapeutic process can be divided into three phases – the initial phase. What are the four techniques through which unconscious materials are brought to the level of consciousness? 4. Which are the different types of psychological disorders for which drug treatment has been used? 3.164 Introduction to Psychology SUMMARY l l l l l l l l Therapy involves a professional relationship between a trained professional and a patient suffering from psychological difficulties/distress. It facilitates a higher level of adjustment after the formal termination of the treatment. Name the facilities used for the rehabilitation of patients released from hospitals? . Name the aspects of Yoga Approach. Rehabilitation involves ‘after-care’. Implosive Therapy and flooding. Assertive Therapy and Token Economy and Modelling. Drug therapies. Free-association. For the sake of clarification/explanation.

3) Nuclear Energy and Waste (Box 8.5) Green House Effect and Nuclear Threat (Box 8. Ä explain the nature of environmental stresses and their consequences.Environment and Behaviour 165 8 THIS ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER COVERS AND BEHAVIOUR CONTENTS Introduction Man-Environment Relationship The Forest is Father and Mother (Box 8. Key terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . Ä appreciate the modes of humanenvironment relationship.4) Impact of Human Behaviour on Environment Recycling and Energy Conservation (Box 8.2) Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour Air Pollution Noise Pollution Crowding Natural and Man-made Disasters Tragedy of Commons (Box 8.1) Environmental Stresses and their Effects Personal Space and Territoriality (Box 8. and Ä understand how pro-environmental behaviours can be encouraged.6) Promoting Pro-environmental Behaviours Ä Introduction to the study of environmental psychology Ä Perspectives on human-environment relationship Ä Nature and effects of environmental stresses Ä Ways of promoting pro-environmental behaviours BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the scope of environmental psychology.

homes. is bi-directional. we have to make efforts to maintain the quality of environment that is supportive and constructive. and our reactions become abnormal. and the strategies to protect and maintain the environment. feelings. some critical environmental problems faced today. etc.). effects of environmental stresses. The cases of “road rage” (you must have read in the newspapers) increase during the hot summer days. Environmental pollution (air. You must have observed that people become more irritable and aggressive when the weather is hot and humid in comparison to cold weather. We have to draw extra physical and mental resources to work under noisy conditions. . Social interactions depend not only on the people. and behaviours. This chapter will help you to understand the nature of humanenvironment relationship. Similarly. In addition. The social and cultural environment refers to all aspects of culture such as socialisation processes. That is.166 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION We live in a world surrounded by physical objects and socio-cultural settings. The environment in which we live and work affect our thoughts. road. etc. Some negative reactions to heat involve more harmful interpersonal behaviour. For example. markets. there is built or man-made environment of cities. however. In today’s environment. rail. noise. and other geographic features. The relationship of man and environment. we tend to get irritated. The physical environment has aspects of natural environment such as landscape. All this indicates that some environments are more nourishing for us than others. The physical environment influences our behaviour in many ways. interacting with people and working under crowded conditions adversely affect our performance. offices. representing aggressive behaviour of players. In such environments. the greater the mean number of batsman hit by a ball. Therefore. wilderness. fatigued. norms. it has been found that higher the temperature. which is partly an outcome of human behaviours adversely affects our performance. Temperature level has also been linked to more serious interpersonal aggression like murder and rape. crowding. human beings are affected by the environment and human beings affect the environment. water. but also on the environments in which they occur. many things are happening which are creating problems not only for today but for the future also. etc. customs and values.

Environmental Orientations : It refers to the beliefs that people hold about their environment. we notice that there are three major views : 1. 4. processes of socialisation. 3. 2. personal space). The psychological processes include thinking. and other psychological processes. We shall be discussing some of these aspects in subsequent sections of this chapter. Experiences of privacy. 8. which constitute the field of environmental psychology. Environmental Behaviour : It includes the use of environment by people in the course of social interactions (e. Our interest in such environmental variables has led to the development of a field known as Environmental Psychology. etc. learning.1.Environment and Behaviour 167 Man-Environment Relationship We have just noted that physical environment directly or indirectly influences our behaviour. attitudes. crowding. urban planning. rainfall. Human beings are subjugated to nature and are controlled by the environmental forces. Physical Environment : It includes aspects of natural environment such as climate. The ambient noise in our physical surroundings. 8. it includes both physical reality and social-cultural phenomena which surround us. and environmental stresses. personal space. Aspects of human-environment interface All the said five aspects of the environment interact and determine the following crucial psychosocial and environmental outcomes. dams. we have five major components as described below : 1. Understanding of environmentbehaviour relationship involves several concepts as given in Fig. . Worldviews about human-environment relationship. Behaviour (or people’s actions) is a broad term that is a function of our thoughts. Nature is viewed as threatening. When we talk about the physical world. customs. multidisciplinary in the true sense. Reciprocal or transactional relationship deals with the two-way process in which environment influences human behaviour and human beings affect environment. thus. the temperature. and attitudes of peers. 2. This field of psychology is dedicated to the study of reciprocal relationships between psychological processes and physical environments. etc. Fig.. important structures like Taj Mahal. work of art. 3. feelings. cities. terrain. feeling. Before we do that. the field is. etc.1. The cultural environment includes all the material and the non-material man made environment like poetry. In this context.. Since environment is a theme relevant to many others disciplines such as geography. temperature. 2. Social-Cultural Environment : It refers to all aspects of culture such as norms. territory. flora. beliefs. the quality of air and water. climate change. various social challenges. etc. They are in harmonious relationship. and fauna. architecture. both natural and man-made. Human beings are over and above nature and control the environment.g. 1. In the central part of this figure. etc. Human beings are an inherent part of nature and the two constitute the whole. and the nutritional value of food we eat and such other objects and things all these constitute the physical world around us. 5. perceiving. The social environment around us includes the verbal stimulation received from parents. Products of Behaviour : These include the outcomes of people’s actions such as homes. perceptions. it is important to understand the different views in which human-environment relationship has been conceptualised in various cultures. etc. 3. Cognitions and perceptions about environments.

wake it up by singing to it. These contexts includes the person’s family. Worldviews vary across cultures. this foreign hull can influence the psychological reality of a person. 8. l Humans and the rest of creation are partners. THE FOREST IS FATHER AND MOTHER affection——. Africa live in a highly vegetated. “Then everything will be well and good again. if a person is not aware of the weather of his neighbouring countries. l The emphasis is on relationship and totality of existence. They want to awaken the forest happy. it is not part of his life space. and the universe. and like a father and mother it provides everything we need: food. in turn. Bronfenbrenner has a different view of the environment. A pygmy observes : “The forest is father and mother to us. l There is considerable emphasis on correspondence between macrocosm and microcosm. The Pygmies then go to the forest. shelters. For example.168 Introduction to Psychology In the Indian tradition humanenvironment relationship has been of symbiotic type in which humans are part of the total existence. warmth. life space can be described as : B = f (L) = f (P.” When something goes wrong.2 Life Space The physical environment that does not directly influence behaviour is called “foreign hull”. As such it will constitute foreign hull.” Interestingly. the Pygmies think that the forest must have been sleeping and was unable to take care of its children. BOX 8.1 Mathematically. Indian thinking also shares similar views.2). including physical.3. The Pygmies of Zaire. However. 8. peers. But it is quite possible that the weather of this neighbouring country may influence that of his own country which. Lewin calls “the person (P) in the environment (E)” as life space (See Figure 8. Kurt Lewin differentiated between psychological environment and physical environme nt. life space is the whole psychological reality that determines the behaviour of an individual (B). nature. He proposed hierarchy of environments and describes it in terms of five systems that are organized in a nested manner (See Fig. The forest is good to its children.) (i) Microsystem : is the setting in which the individual lives. According to Lewin. This environment (E) contains everything outside the person (P). clothing. school and neighbourhood. l Concern for everything in the universe is perceptible in the Indian thought. peers and teachers.E) Fig. l A basic sharing of all the life forms and their interconnectedness is recognised. They view themselves as an intrinsic part of it. Its main features are as follows : l Humans are not considered superior to nature and do not have right to exploit the nature. They see the forest as a living thing with which they interact on a personal basis. then it is not part of his psychological reality. Life Space (L) includes everything present in the environ ment (E) that influences an individual’s behaviour. dense forest. psychological and social aspects. In this system most direct interactions with social agents – parents. l Human life is enveloped by a dynamic cosmic order. for example. l It presents an integral view of man. my affect his behaviour. and . Therefore. He has introduced the concept of life space to explain the nature of relation between person and environment.

3 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model We have discussed earlier that the environment influences human behaviour and human actions affect the environment. We will discuss the environmental stresses and their effects under two separate heads. From the above analyses it may be concluded that the environment has three major components. Recapitulation We live in a world surrounded by physical objects and well defined social and cultural settings. Thus. which are essential for our life. Children from broken family may face difficulty in his adjustment with peers. Environmental Psychology is the study of reciprocal relationships between psychological processes and physical environment. however. Environmental stresses demonstrate this reciprocal relationship (Refer to Chapter 5). floods. all these influence our behaviour.e. processes of socialisation etc.e. The term environment has been used to include the physical world and socio-cultural set-up in which we live and interact. 3. (i) Environmental effects on human behaviour. i. i. 4. etc.. We live in a world surrounded by physical objects and well defined and settings. rainfall. For example family experience of child may affect his interaction with peers or teachers. 2. a person’s experience at work place affects his interaction with his children. . both natural and man-made. (iv) Macrosystem : It is the culture in which the person lives. and cultural.Environment and Behaviour 169 (ii) Mesosystem : It is the region in which various Microsystems are related.. (iii) Exosystem : It is involved when a person’s experience in an close context is affected by his experience in some other not so close setting. Environmental Psychology is the study relationship of between psychological process and physical environment. physical. The present crisis of deforestation. are interrelated. The environment surrounds us and its impact is simultaneously felt on all the sense organs. These two. Human beings affect the environment and environment influences human behaviour. customs. For example. 5. social. Culture refers to beliefs system. (v) Chronosystem : It involves the behaviour patterns that respond to the change in life course. 8. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES THEIR EFFECTS Fig. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. and nuclear waste are some of the serious problems human beings have created by abusing the environment. individual in the young age is active and optimistic and as they age they become less active and less optimistic. to have a healthy and fulfilling life we have to learn to conserve the environment and protect the scarce natural resources like water. values myths etc that are shared by majority of the common people. According to Lewin Life Space (L) is equal to + . green house effect. and (ii) The impact of human behaviour on the environment. socio historical context. environment includes aspects as norms. For example. environment includes aspects as terrain. The views of Lewin and Bronfenbrenner concerning environment have been presented. temperature. and all these components influence and affect human behaviour.

which are man-made.2 PERSONAL SPACE AND TERRITORIALITY “private” people. Air Pollution: Rapid modernisation and industrialisation have led to the degradation of quality of air... The environmental stressors are many. If a stranger comes closer. fatigue. we would not like a stranger to walk into our home without seeking permission. we shall focus on four: Air pollution. There are more emergency visits to specialists for depression during cloudy and humid days. and if invaded we feel uncomfortable and threatened. People use different markers and signalling devices to designate the territory. For example.. our personal space is roughly 2 feet around us. Though. Data released by the Environmental .g. Personal space refers to the “invisible boundary” or personal area around us that we try to keep from being invaded by others. etc. and various respiratory and related diseases. nitrogen dioxide. wide cultural differences exist in the way people maintain the personal space. in our social interaction we always keep a physical distance with others. etc. tent. Territoriality refers to one’s attachment to a fixed area designated as one’s own and the tendency to defend it against intruders. entranceways. Air pollution leads to reduced visibility. in many Middle Eastern countries. This space is very personal. technological advances have brought us new potential threats from the environment. are being mixed with the air that we breathe. hedges.. Due to auto and industrial emissions large quantity of harmful and toxic gases like carbon monoxide. and social class. Territoriality is a boundary regulation process. eye irritation. It involves ownership and control of environmental areas and objects. we feel uncomfortable and we move away to maintain this personal space. insomnia. Since environmental threats are physically harmful and stressful. earthquakes. They are clearly identified as theirs (e. and Natural and manmade disasters. on the average. Territories can be grouped into three types: primary. In recent times. The northern Europeans. people have been threatened by floods. animal. All animals have a sense of territoriality. Throughout human history. Here. Scientists believe that about 50 to 90 percent occurrence of cancer in some way or the other are related to pollution. park. and both Germans and English are rather ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS HUMAN BEHAVIOUR ON The environment has both nourishing as well as destructive effects on human life. attachment to a fixed area set aside for their use. Carbon monoxide prevents the brain. people stand very close together in conversation.170 Introduction to Psychology BOX 8. Animals will attack anyone who comes within that space.g. variations are found with age. heart. bed). secondary. Within culture. Public territories have a temporary quality and anyone has access and occupancy rights as long as certain rules are observed (e. people must find ways to cope with these stressors. Males generally have been found to have a larger personal space than females. This can lead to serious health problems. pollution still poses a serious problem all over the world. but we are also territorial. and public. Germans are more sensitive to spatial intrusion than Americans are. Secondary territories are less central and exclusive. and plant life. The primary territories are owned and exclusively used by individuals or groups. Crowding. Noise pollution. so vital for the human. sex. the personal space can approach zero for someone we truly love. on the other hand seem to maintain more physical distance. Intrusion into it often produces discomfort or tension. This indicates that the personal space will vary according to the closeness to the other person with whom we are interacting.g. For example. Human beings may not attack in the same manner as animals do. fences. for strangers. It has also been found that all types of psychological problems are on the increase during periods of high levels of air pollution. Further. In other words. hut. The occupants do not have total control over them. cinema hall). Studies indicate. headache. walls. and other organs in the body to absorb enough quantity of oxygen from the air. worldwide concern about air quality was expressed at the Rio Conference on the global environment in 1992. sulphur dioxide. e. However. and other natural disasters.

any year in the United States by sound. it was found polluted air as normal. The quality of diesel is also being access. also the incidence of psychological effects. and performance into the air by industrial plants and the decrement in general. It may such diseases is very high and lead to high level of arousal. narrowing of attention. bad odours evoke response to sound. It has been found that daily consider it an important issue and this exposure to sounds of a busy airport causes tendency is dangerous. 8. Early . is considered noise. Those. fatal strokes. Loudness is one major reason that a In addition to particulate matter and given sound is evaluated poisonous gases. leads to birds in the morning. which an individual finds particulate matter (e. physiological disturbances in basis learn to accept human body In one study. (loudness). not only has harmful effects on physical hypertension. We can negative feelings. hearing loss. The aversiveness of exhausts of vehicles powered by diesel noise largely depends on its intensity engines. Recently.000 deaths are caused each human beings. 8. such as chirping of the opposite effect. felt less upset – even though most of them but after living for some time they get did not actually press the switch (to turn off used to it. who live in surroundings (Compressed Natural Gas) and this has led with high level of noise.g. odour is as unpleasant. The positive emotions and negative effects of noise friendly behaviour. Noise Pollution : Industrial and technological Crowding : Crowding occurs when a large advancements have led to considerable number of people live in a limited space. may lead to various to pollution on a regular they have control over it. After some time they do not the noise). they performed better and complain about the poor quality of the air. The polluted air adults to have memory loss. and higher incidence of and mental health. are reduced when People who are exposed Fig. unpleasant. have to utilise to a reduction of pollution level by about 15 physical and psychological resources in percent. victims are primarily children Sound pollution leads to with respiratory diseases. and perceived powered buses have been replaced by CNG control. In adverse physiological and India. For that when participants example. get fatigued early because of extra improved to reduce the harmful effects of energy loss in the process.5 Noise. The some people. it also affects human behaviour negatively. predictability. emission from diesel engines) even music could be noise for in the air we breathe. Noise is defined as Harvard School of Public unwanted sound or sounds that Health indicate that 50. predictable pleasant odorous smell has sound. in Delhi.Environment and Behaviour 171 increase in the level of noise Protection Agency and by the pollution. the worst sufferers are children stress. the diesel. diesel engine exhausts.000 to create a negative effect on 60. when exceeds individuals perceive that certain limit. air that has regular. In adapt more easily to a contrast. Unpredialso involved in our ctability is the other major response to impure air. In reason for a negative general.4 Air Pollution reduction in reading particulate matter is released comprehension. newcomers to a were told that they can press a switch and heavily polluted city like Delhi or Kolkata turn off the noise. Thus. Most of the Fig. and elderly people.

For centuries. overpopulation and pollution. (reduced). many researchers are of the opinion that the term “crowding” should be used for the subjective feelings of crampedness. BOX 8. Cognitive performance is reduced. So the outcome is: “Ruin is the destination towards which all men rush. and a disease that had been killing many of the cattle is cured.e. Once the cure for the disease was available. one in which it is to a person’s advantage both to cooperate and to compete. Telephone use is difficult. not so wonderful. For example. and the number of cattle overgrew. each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons.3 helping behaviour. studies on crowding on animals showed high incidence of illness and pathology. Freedom in commons brings ruin to all. Reaction time affected. away) Noisy restaurant Normal Speech Normal noise at home Soft whisper Breathing Loudness in dB 130 100 95 90 80 70 60 40 30 0 Effect of Noise Brief exposure can result in permanent deafness. First the cattle owners and later the town prospered.” The tragedy of commons is relevant to the difficult problems we are facing in the world today. etc.. and (2) he will suffer a loss caused by the declining ability of the commons to support cattle. aggressive acts. withdrawal symptoms. However. That is. the restraint on the number of cattle was lifted. . what will be the reaction of the people using the commons. The tragedy of the commons is the generalized case of a situation of mixed motives. there could be two effects to this situation: (1) he will achieve a profit equal to the value of an animal.172 Introduction to Psychology Table 8. Legal acceptable noise limit for 8 hrs day. i. Imagine that one-day there is a great medical discovery. The immediate effect of discovery is wonderful for the town. If someone decides to add an animal to his herd. Imagine a small town with a town commons. In an obscure pamphlet published in 1833 by an amateur mathematician named. physical presence of a large number of people in a defined physical space can influence interpersonal relations. will people stop adding cattle before the commons was killed off? It is possible that people may not. an area of pasture on which all of the town people’s cattle are allowed to graze. there is a second effect of the new medical treatment. Studies with human beings indicate that density not only affects individual behaviour it also affects the quality of social behaviour.1 Effects of Noise at different Levels Cause of Noise Jet aircraft take off Textile-weaving plant Food blender City traffic Train (100 ft. the town people have been grazing their cattle on the commons without problem. Every herdsman will realize that by adding an animal to his herd he will increase his wealth substantially while decreasing the total wealth of the community a bit. Blood pressure increases. Crowding is more of a problem at the subjective level (perception of crampedness). The townspeople had not realised that commons had been able to support their herds because the number of cattle had been held in check by the disease. In fact. physical density (large number of TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS In such a situation. For some. William Foster Lloyd discussed the following scenario.

significant increase in number of abortions. Natural and Man-made Disasters: Natural disasters include earthquake. One important outcome of crowding is the loss of personal life and increased social strifes.000 delayed fatalities worldwide. windstorm. The experience of crowding and its behavioural effects is mediated by the availability of social support and perception of control. multi-storeyed housing complexes are coming up. Both natural as well as man-made disasters are catastrophic. Goal blockage. . The earthquakes at Latoor and Bhuj (2001) and Super Cyclone in Orissa (1999) not only caused extensive damage to property and physical environment but also had long-term effects on the lives of the people. therefore. Nuclear and toxic waste disposal facilities remain problem of major concern all over the world. Density at a rock concert may be very high but crowding may be low. Radioactive waste management is a serious challenge to the governments all over the world. the number of immediate fatalities were 31. and Bhopal MIC Disaster (1984). necessary to use two different terms for the condition where large number of people are present. there have been vehement public opposition to various new technologies with possible adverse consequences on public health and environment. Although. The other aspect of serious concern of nuclear energy production is the disposal of toxic waste. such as those at Three Mile Island (1979) in U. expected to be different in BOX 8.S. The technological disasters such as Three Mile Island (1979). Large number of people around the TMI experienced considerable stress due to perceived psychological and physical threat. etc. interpersonal relationships. These accidents provide stress related reactions in the public in a number of countries. disaster more than 3000 people died and over NUCLEAR ENERGY AND WASTE Another major disaster at nuclear facility occurred at Chernobyl in 1986. A large number of studies carried out in India and abroad reveal that crowding has negative effect on task performance. general physical and mental health.. have intense and longterm adverse effects on the lives of people. The ill effects of population density are different across cultures. etc. interference. In India the relationships are respected and valued. Chernobyl (1986). which disrupt the entire life system. and other long-life food. and mental and physical discomfort are common when people experience crowding. For their inherent risks. In the Bhopal. frozen. buying of radiation measuring equipments for personal use. panic buying of tinned. about half of them in the Ukraine and neighbouring states and half in Europe.4 comparison to the experience of people in the Western Culture.A and Chernobyl (1986) in erstwhile USSR. tornado cyclone. Most prominent among these has been nuclear energy. Since 1970s. etc. Density is the actual number of people per square foot. For example. In order to accommodate large number of people. The accident of Three Mile Island (TMI) resulted in the release of radioactive material. while crowding is the subjective feeling of being too close to each other. families are generally large and extended. under such a situation self is not given importance over others. It is.Environment and Behaviour 173 people in a defined space) may not create the perception of crowding. Another problem of great public concern is the management of nuclear waste from the nuclear facilities like nuclear power house. density and crowding. For example. The nearby populations experienced psychological and emotional damages. The population explosion and migration of large rural population to big cities are causing increased degree of stress due to crowding. There are man-made disasters also. there had been serious accidents at the nuclear facilities. uptake of potassium iodine. the experience and consequences of crowding are. etc. public concern has not been without any foundation. flood. that is. over the next 50 years there may be up to 28. Public has been opposing construction of nuclear and other hazardous facilities. creating civic and social problems of different kinds. volcanic eruption. therefore. famine. However. personality.

we indulge in a behaviour that goes against the environment and ultimately threaten our own existence on the earth. recycled. food. It is a twoway process. Our actions. there are now at least eighty countries having serious water shortages with a consequent threat to the agriculture. plastic. Recycling the waste is one promising approach – paper. Studies indicate that the survivors of such disasters suffer from anxiety. Its judicious use. Anything that you do personally may have very little immediate perceptible effect on the quality of environment. ranging from sewage to garbage.5 Water Pollution in the environment that supports and sustains life on our planet. all are gifts of this environment to the human kind. The most serious long – term threat facing the world is the danger that human actions are producing irreversible and harmful changes Fig. This has created severe problem of water pollution. the environment affects our behaviour. produces garbage. and our actions affect the environment. On our planet. the total effect will significantly alter (pollute) the environment. and nightmares. almost everything human beings do has small but cumulative effect on the environment in which we live. and metal can be saved. This alteration adversely influences the life of all of us. we are using water and are unmindful of its conservation. Harvesting of rainwater is helpful in augmenting ground water. which makes our river water unfit for human consumption. and others.174 Introduction to Psychology 2. We are over using the natural resources that we are not replenishing. It is sad that most of these rivers are now unfit for drawing water for human consumption.. plastic bags). are usually contrary to what is desired. we shall consider how the human activities affect the environment. There are no easy solutions to the growing problem of waste that we produce everyday. Environment is a naturally given capital having certain limits. Yamuna. and reused. and conservation is necessary for the survival of human beings and plant life on this earth. imagine that billions of people living on our planet in some way or the other affect the environment. 8. The rainwater that falls on the roof of our house is sent into a deep pit in the ground that raises the water table. fuel. however. However. However. other is not (e. withdrawal symptoms depression. anger. Perhaps. cooks food. Unmindful of the consequences of our activities and actions. to recycle the waste we have to persuade citizens to be aware and concerned about this serious problem and do . Similarly.000 were physically affected. etc. corporations. water. In fact.00. planting trees helps in preventing soil erosion and protecting environmental quality. and Governments to manage the sewage and garbage. It is a serious problem for municipalities. the environment is affected. glass. For example. Some waste is biodegradable. the most obvious by – product of human activity is waste material we produce. uses hair spray. Whenever. Thousands of the gas victims are still suffering from mental and physical health problems. You are aware that much of our sewage disposal is flushed untreated into the rivers. Air. IMPACT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR ENVIRONMENT ON We defined environmental psychology in terms of interaction between our behaviour and our physical surroundings. stress.g. You must have read in the newspapers about the threatening state of our important rivers like Ganga. someone drives a car. In this section.

contd. Greenhouse has a glass roof that lets in warming . forest fires. If this continues. In the same manner the three main gases released into the atmosphere (carbon dioxide. Recycling is being adopted as an easier way of ensuring that large amounts of natural resources are used again in productive ways rather than being dumped in landfills. the carbon dioxide emissions are reduced. The gradual increase in the temperature of earth’s atmosphere and its oceans brought about partly because of various human activities has far reaching consequences on the ecology and environment.). The city sewage is now being treated and the harmless water after recycling BOX 8. over consumption. Since much of the industrialized world runs on oil. These effects have been observed in several parts of the world. it is estimated that it will result in an average warming of the earth’s surface air temperature by about 3. The oceans are raising about one inch every five years. have been indulging in anti-environmental behaviours on a large scale. particularly energy (e. of earths’ population. Even an average increase of 1 or 2 degrees can change regional climates and disrupt agriculture worldwide.c.5 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100. resulting in raised ocean levels and flooding of huge low-lying coastal areas in many countries. and develop plans and strategies to conserve the energy resource for future use and safety of environment. etc. However. there may be no viable world for our descendants to live. planting more trees. The threat to the humanity today is due to human population growth. paper.c. the key example is petroleum. etc. It has been observed that three of the islands of the Republic of Maldives are now under water.. If this problem is not overcome early. burning of fossil fuel (Petrol.. aerosol cans.. and ban on the use of CFC. of the Earth’s commercial energy and uses it only about half efficiently as Japan. metals. Further. Because of this abuse of the environment. like producing waste. The extreme example is the United States. rags. The result of worldwide over consumption of Earth’s resources is that traditional supplies of many materials are being used up rapidly.5 RECYCLING AND ENERGY CONSERVATION is disposed off into the rivers. the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) for refrigeration. methane. Energy Conservation: One of the main sources of Earth’s Environmental problems is over consumption of natural resources. this situation will have dramatic impact on many aspects of life. are being recycled.. For example. petroleum products). burning of coal. The ban on CFC use by fifty nations has brought about some change in the ozone layer. The increase in the levels of these three gases began about the middle of the 1800’s and it still continues. It is extremely important for all the nations of the world to use this and other energy resources very carefully.g. deforestation. curb over consumption.Environment and Behaviour 175 BOX 8. Among the consequences are increase in storms and other weather extremes. are melted down and reused in making aluminium products. and lack of resource conservation. glass. used for soft drinks. For example. etc. Similarly.6 GREEN HOUSE EFFECT AND NUCLEAR THREAT sunlight but prevents warm air from escaping. With only five p. The cause of this change in climate (global warming) is known as the green house effect. aluminium cans. melting of ice caps at the North and South Poles that have resulted in raising the sea levels. water is becoming more and more scarce and it is important to conserve it and recycle the enormous amount of water that flows in our sewage system. and Nitrous oxide) trap the sun’s heat that turn the earth into a vast “green house”. The global warming can be reversed if human behaviour that brought about this problem is changed. for quite some time now. Human beings. It is estimated that world oil production will begin to decline around 2010. often contributing to pollution problems. This trend will cause extensive melting of polar icecaps. Enormous efforts and changes in our lifestyles and cultural practices are required to overcome this grim situation. for refrigeration. diesel. global warming is gradually taking place. We are producing irreversible and harmful changes to the environment that supports our life system. the United States of America uses 25 p.

Harmful and toxic gases like carbon monoxide. which is responsible for changing weather patterns.and reduce energy use. 5. Noise is any unwanted sound or sounds that an individual finds unpleasant. Environment affects actions affect the PROMOTING PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS It is important to realise that the environmental problems are quite complex. Daily exposure to high intensity sounds causes adults to have memory loss. animal. Social scientists must develop strategies to promote proenvironmental behaviour. The aversiveness of noise largely depends on its intensity. and plant life. hearing loss. Rapid modernisation and industrialisation have led to the degradation of quality of air which is so vital for the human. and killing lakhs of people by respiratory diseases. early.176 Introduction to Psychology the extent of damage to the ozone layer has been so much that it should return to its normal thickness in fifty to one hundred years. and other natural disasters have threatened our existence on earth. Technological advances have brought us new potential threats. 4. produced by automobile and industrial emissions. If this problem is not tackled. and chemistry will not be sufficient to address the problem. Throughout human history floods. Crowding is another problem that affects the quality of life. 2. therefore. over consumption. have led to serious physical and mental health problems. It has been found that crowding has negative effect on task performance. Environment is a naturally given capital to us. physics. Because. nitrogen dioxide. and higher incidence of fatal strokes. In a recent UN report. Man-made disasters. and perceived control. Chernobyl. LEARNING CHECKS II 1. which are man made. It should be a very urgent agenda for countries all over the world to get the machinery working on checking automobile emissions. Recapitulation Environment affects human behaviour and the human actions affect the environment. the help from disciplines like engineering. prevents the brain and heart to absorb enough oxygen. and general mental and physical health. hypertension. Because. the two are interrelated. the problem is man-made. is biodegradable substance. This threat is caused by human population growth. It is subjective feeling of crampedness resulting from the condition where large number of people are present. e. a non- 3. impacting crops. and human . their share – develop communications that encourage people to help in the process of recycling. such as: three Mile Island. and Bhopal disaster. we must preserve it. pollution causes narrowing of attention. social scientists have to play a crucial role in modifying human behaviour. Industrial plants release matter into the air. Natural disasters have long-term effect on the lives of people. sulphur dioxide etc. have equally affected the environment and lives of large number of people. it has been reported that South Asia (India included) is covered by a three km-deep blanket of pollution. . personality.g. there may be no viable world for our descendants to inhabit. the earthquakes at Latoor and Bhuj and super-cyclone in Orissa. predictability. social scientists have a vital role in helping our world to present the ecological disaster. the culprits are human beings. and lack of resource conservation. The problem is not solely technical in nature. especially the quality of air and water. earthquakes. Industrial and technological advancements have led to considerable increase in the level of noise. develop attitudes about recycling and promoting other pro-environmental activities. interpersonal relationships.

. maintenance of park. and avoiding littering are too meagre to have significant impact on the environment. “If you want to be happy in life reduce your needs”. paper.Environment and Behaviour 177 Since 1970s. People should be made aware about the problem of resource deficit so that voluntary simplicity is practiced by all. it has been found that people are not even aware about the intensity and extensity of the problem. 2. It is to live with balance – taking or using no more than we require and at the same time. human beings are increasingly experiencing greater risk to skin cancer. environmental psychologists.). To reduce air pollution car pools or mass transit system should be used. the problem is so acute that it is estimated that the ozone layer would take fifty to hundred years return to its normal thickness. There is no easy solution to the waxed problem of environmental damage that has already been done. the first step in the right direction will be to start an awareness programme. it is not enough to inform the people about the availability of such products and services and their usefulness but need to motivate them to make appropriate behavioural Pro-environmental Behaviour The most important concern for the environmentalist is not only to stop the abuse of the environment but also to reverse the process. recycling the waste (e. ACTIVITY 8. reducing the use of detergents.g. harvesting of rain water and sewage system and prepare a report. In global perspective. Therefore. Efforts made in conserving energy. Through international cooperation. The governmental efforts alone will not be sufficient to tackle this serious . Let us consider some possible motivational approaches to deal with the problem situation. It is a way of life that is outwardly simple and uses minimum amount of natural resources and technology. It is possible to control the situation if public cooperation is forthcoming. The indiscriminate use of CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) for refrigeration has gradually thinned down the ozone layer in the atmosphere that protects us from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. social psychologists. using shower for bathing requires large amount of water and electricity in comparison to the age-old way of using bucket. Enormous changes in the lifestyles and cultural practices are required to achieve this goal. peacefully. meals. The environmental problems facing the world demand that everyone must move in that direction. it requires all nations to share earth’s resources efficiently. Because of loss of much of earth’s protective ozone layer. cleanliness of roads. This is the essence of Aparigrah. 50 nations have discontinued the use of CFC. To achieve the objective citizens need to perceive the nature and extent of problem we are facing now and change their attitude and behaviour to make it pro-environmental. To promote pro-environmental behaviour several motivational approaches can be adopted to deal with different types of people. Motivational Approaches for Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviour 1. Later the values and attitudes of the people have to be changed to make their behaviour pro-environmental. giving fully of ourselves. It is important to make the public aware about the seriousness of the problem. In various studies in India and abroad. However. recycled products etc. etc. Some efforts are being made in this direction. Voluntary Simplicity : In India we have the age-old saying. Encouraging Concrete Actions : People should be encouraged to reduce resourceuse by installing and using energy efficient devices.1 Understanding The Environment Make observation of the nature and state of facilities for environmental management in your neighbourhood about garbage disposal. plastic. Modern way of living requires advanced technology. However. which is heavy on the natural resources. For example. and sociologists are trying to find ways to encourage proenvironmental behaviour to save the environment from further degradation. problem. and equitably. This is what should be voluntarily practiced by everybody.

LEARNING CHECKS III 1. 3. transport corporations. etc. Noise. Key Terms Environment. Global warming. it is important that people the gravity of the problem. Gradually. social scientists will have to work hard in devising strategies in creating a pro-environment attitude among the people. etc. Organised Group Activity: Another important approach is to carefully use group activity in monitoring and controlling environmental concerns. Such powerful and influential organisations ignore the individual protests and complaints and in such situations.). ACTIVITY 8. Social Environment.. The Supreme Court of India has also initiated action to cleanse the rivers in India. Community participation in programmes for reducing resource use. 4. recycled products. The essence of Aparigrah is: “ If you want to be happy in life reduce your . Territoriality. Sometimes. in Delhi the vehicle owners are required to get their vehicles checked for the pollution level and display the “pollution check” certificate.g. The production and use of CFC is being gradually phased out and it is being enforced on a time-based schedule all over the world. . To effectively reverse the situation. Ecology. it is not being strictly adhered to. we have to adopt Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) like electric cars and vehicles powered by fuel cells. Though.. Providing Behavioural Norms : Agencies responsible for enforcing environmental standards (e. open burning of waste and dead leaves are prohibited. Organised activism is frequently necessary to reduce and curb environmental damage caused by government agencies (e. To promote pro-environmental behaviour social scientists have to develop appropriate approaches.. Lifestyles..178 Introduction to Psychology actions. Similarly. Ecological system. Discuss and present the plan in the class and seek support and help from other students in the class to plant the samplings. Cultural Environment. Because. Providing clear behavioural norms and their strict adherence. 3. etc. industries. group activism works as a very effective tool in curbing the menace. Green house effect. For example. For example.g. 2. phasing out of old and inefficient vehicles. Physical Environment. waste management bodies.2 Experiencing Pro-Environment Action Develop a plan for plantation of saplings in your community. Environmental psychology. Enforcing agencies should be armed with necessary powers to enforce the norms strictly. The quality of fuel is being constantly improved (e. Life Space. Recapitulation To save the environment. To promote pro-environmental behaviour. it is imperative that people perceive the gravity of the situation and develop a pro-environmental attitude. compulsory conversion to CNG of Commercial Vehicles. power houses. efficient use of energy.g. Public Interest Litigation (PIL) has proved very effective. Crowding. Personal space. could be more effective than personal approaches. 4. powerful corporations. are essential to motivate people to act in right direction. the situation is man-made. mass media are very important in arousing concerns and promoting necessary actions towards the creation of healthy environment. sometimes with punitive actions. Some of the motivational approaches have been discussed to create a pro-environmental behaviour among the people. Government) should bring out more specific environmental regulations and norms to guide and enforce public actions. etc. The Supreme Court of India directed Government agencies to strictly adhere to fuel norms. lead free fuel) and the emission norms for the vehicle manufacturer are being made more and more stringent. social scientists have to change the of the people. emission norms.

cultural 2. Social-cultural 5. Noise pollution. The most serious long-term threat to human existence is due to the misuse and abuse of natural resources like water and air. perceive. 3. environment 1. Exosystem. E. first of all. carbon monoxide 5. Macrosystem. effectively the social scientists should devise methods and strategies of creating pro-environmental attitude among the people. Motivational approaches could be usefully employed in persuading the people for the adoption of pro-environmental behaviour. 2. Discuss the nature and scope of environmental psychology. attitude. noise 2. 4. 4. Human actions affect the environment and environment influences human behaviour. Review Questions 1. Waste management ranging from sewage to garbage is a serious threat to human life and a challenge to the civic authorities. both natural and man-made. 5. people must perceive the gravity of the situation that we are facing To solve the problem. Crowding and natural and man-made disasters pose serious threats to human life and existence. Physical 4. needs. human behaviour. According to Lewin. social. How do human beings affect the environment? What is environment and how does it influence human behaviour? What is air pollution and how can it be controlled? What is noise? How does noise affect human behaviour? Is population density and crowding the same thing? What are the effects of crowding on human behaviour? 7. 6. The region outside the life space is called “ foreign hull”. Environmental Psychology is the study of reciprocal relationships between psychological processes and physical environment. motivational. particulate 4. What is waste management? Does it pose a serious threat to the health and life of human beings? 8. reciprocal 3. plastic 3. Mesosystem. 1. P. behaviour (B) is a function of life space (L). which is composed of person (P) and environment (E). Bronfenbrenner proposed hierarchy of environments and describes environments in terms of five systems: Microsystem. Human action affects the environment in which we live. Air pollution.Environment and Behaviour 179 SUMMARY l l l l l l l l l l l Our behaviour is influenced by the physical objects and well-defined social and cultural settings in which we live. and Chronosystem. 2. II : III : . To save the environment. What is pro-environmental behaviour and how can it be promoted? ANSWERS I : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. 3.

and Ä learn to relate advertising and marketing in the context of organisations. Ä understand the basic functions performed by a manager.4) Interview for Personnel Selection (Box 9.6) Training and Performance Appraisal Human Resource Development (Box 9. Ä appreciate the different kinds of roles performed by organisational psychologists.8) Ä Introduction to the field of organisational psychology Ä Meaning of organisation Ä Structure of organisation Ä Functions of a manager Ä Role of psychologist in organisational setting Ä Relevance of advertising and marketing BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä understand the nature of organisation and its defining features.2) Types of Organisational Structure Basic Functions of Managers Mintzberg Managerial Roles (Box 9. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .7) Marketing and Advertising Techniques used to Attract the Customers (Box 9.180 Introduction to Psychology 9 THIS PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER COVERS IN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING CONTENTS Introduction What is an Organisation? Structure and Functions of Organisation Key Questions related to Organisational Structure (Box 9.3) Personnel Selection Some Methods of Job Analysis (Box 9. Ä know the structure of organisation.1) Delegation of Authority (Box 9.5) Work Motivation Reward Management (Box 9.

hospitality industries (hotels) etc. Finally. religious organisations. control and predict the functioning of an organisation we need to understand the psychology of these people. factories or by their products. school. a small departmental store. iron. State Bank of India etc. Thus. libraries. What an organisation does or how it functions. and what happens within an organisation depends on behaviour of the people in it. textiles. Others are smaller. Hindustan Levers. the school cannot function as an organisation. This is followed by a description of the processes of selection. These constitute ‘service organisations’. We need to understand their behaviours. Organisations are often identified by their buildings. But. Maruti Udyog Limited. It applies knowledge and the principles of psychology including social psychology to the study of organisations and their functioning. in some organisations. The managerial functions are also described. You will study about the way organisations are structured and the way they function. We work for them and consume their products. hospital. court of law. machines and equipments form the backbone and are used to produce goods like-steel. college. even though these machines do not play a prominent role in their functioning. MTNL. etc. the problems of work motivation and advertising are discussed. and motives. a school has its buildings. The material part of an organisation is very obvious. the material aspect in these organisations is quite tangible. attitudes. needs. However. fertilisers. which houses classrooms. training. a family owned restaurant. NGOs. TATA.Psychology in Organisational Setting 181 INTRODUCTION An organisation covers a whole gamut of places like bank. A school or a bank also use machines like computers. We read about various organisations in newspapers and follow their financial growth and its impact on economy and our day-to-day lives. or a service station. Some of them have been around for a long time. Organisations affect our lives in significant ways. locally based such as a school. we spend more time at jobs than at any other activity (with the possible exception of sleep) in life. They must have ‘people’ who put the materials and machines to use and make organisations what they are. do organisations function only through materials and machines? No. In contrast are some organisations where inputs are mostly intangible and products are the services they offer. To understand. the teachers and the support staff. and industry. . food products etc. etc. It involves internally integrative and externally adaptive activities. values. Organisational psychology helps us to understand these aspects of organisation in proper perspective. like-hospitals (health services). police station. Indian Railways. Thus. As an adult. Without a principal.. This chapter shall help you to understand some of the basic concepts used in the study of organisations. thinking. typewriters. laboratories. For example. and performance appraisal.

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WHAT

IS AN

ORGANISATION?

Organisations are necessary for achieving certain goals and objectives, which are difficult to achieve by the individuals alone. For example, consider the case of your own education. Can you get education without taking admission in a school or college? Yes, you can, by making necessary arrangements at home, but that education may not be acceptable in the society. It is important to know how work is organised and allocated to various people working for the school or any other organisation. In this context, many questions arise: How to recruit, train, and effectively manage the people to maximise output? How to create conditions which would enable the people to work effectively over a long period of time? How to make people and organisations to adapt the changing environmental conditions and technological innovations? How to cope with competition from other organisations in the some domain? Organisational behaviour, which is also referred to as OB, is a multidisciplinary field of study different from organisational psychology, and investigates the impact of individuals, groups and organisational structures on behaviour within the organisation for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organisation’s effectiveness. As stated above, it is important to recognise that organisations come into existence to accomplish goals– organisational, group and individual, which otherwise will not be possible to achieve by individuals alone. The techo-structural or structural and the human components of organisation need coordination of efforts at different levels. Coordination, infact is backed by authority to be exercised if required. Organisations have people with common goals who coordinate their individual and group efforts. This is done by assigning different kinds of work to different individuals who are entrusted with responsibility, power, and authority. For instance, in your school the teachers, the students, the principal and the administrative staff work towards providing

quality education. You will notice that each individual or group has a specific role and assigned work; and each has some responsibility, some power, and authority. Thus, organisations typically have the following features: Common Goals : Each organisation has goals that are shared by a group of individuals. Organisations have their objectives, which are accepted by the people who constitute the same. The objectives guide the activities of an organisation. Coordination of Efforts : The people in an organisation put in their efforts, help each other, and organise themselves to coordinate their activities so that the organisational objectives can be attained. Division of Labour : In order to achieve the goals of an organisation different functions are required to be performed. The labour or work involved in these functions is assigned to different individuals or groups of individuals. In your school, you will notice a clear division of labour. Teachers, students, clerks, principal, librarian etc. have assigned roles and functions, which may sometimes overlap; but broadly, the division of labour is functional. Based on different skills and capabilities of the people employed, they are trained to perform different functions. Responsibility and Authority : Coordination of efforts and division of labour in organisations imply that each individual has assigned tasks, responsibilities, and duties. Attainment of goals of an organisation depends on the extent to which the task responsibilities are fulfilled. Very often, this is maintained by self-discipline and work ethics of the people assigned with specific tasks. Each person with assigned task has responsibility for the same and has some power and authority in order to control task performance and its outcome. The coordination of efforts towards achievement of organisation’s objectives requires monitoring and control, at different levels. This implies different levels of authority, control, and power. In your school, for instance, students, teachers, staff, as well as the principal have assigned tasks, roles, and responsibilities and some degree of authority to enforce the minimum conditions

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for task attainment. The librarian has the task of issuing books to students as per rules. She is responsible for this work and has some authority and power in order to ensure that this task is done. In coordinating the efforts for goal achievement, organisations evolve different levels of authority. They exercise control over others’ activities and task performance. Thus, your principal has a higher level of authority compared to the teachers. Usually, organisations have a hierarchy of authorities so that some have greater control over others. However, this is not always the case; some organisations are less hierarchical than others are. If we put the above-mentioned features in view, following definition of organisation can be given: An organisation is the rational coordination of the individual or group efforts and activities for attainment of some commonly shared or agreed upon objectives and goals, through the division of labour and functions, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility. While describing an organisation, it must be noted that an organisation functions as an organism. It is often thought of as an open system that operates within an environment. Unlike the closed system, an open system is that which has a relatively more flexible structure. Its boundary is open to accommodate the new informations and the changes relevant in environment. In fact, the open system is always in active interaction with the environment in order to make smooth the export of its products (outputs) and to generate additional resources which are necessary for the survival of the system. These resources can then be subsequently used to import various forms of energies (inputs). It should be noted that any living system, be it a human being or an organisation, has a natural tendency of entropy. However, an open system develops a mechanism of re-energising the system which enables it to negate the entrophy. It imports energy and resources (inputs) from the environment (e.g., people, capital, machines etc.) and after processing these inputs produces certain products (e.g., consumable goods, services,

machines etc). It should also be remembered that all organisations involve people who interact with each other and with machines. These interactions are social and psychological. As a result, we find in organisations all the psychological processes in operation. People perceive each other, cooperate, feel motivated, communicate, come in conflict, feel frustrated, stressed, work in teams and try to achieve objectives that are fixed for the organisation.
ACTIVITY 9.1 Understanding the Nature of an Organisation Think of an organisation with which you are familiar. It can be a school, an industry, a hospital, a service station, a departmental store, or an NGO. Attempt to answer the following questions about that organisation.
l What

are the objectives of this organisation? l What connection does it have with the society and environment? l How is it functioning to attain the objectives? After you have written the answers to these questions, discuss them in the class. Try to see how far your answers approximate the definition of organisation that you have studied.

Recapitulation Organisations are increasingly playing important role in contemporary life. Organisational psychology specialises in the study of organisational functioning. Organisations are created when it is realised that individual efforts are not enough to achieve the goals. All organisations share the following characteristics: common goals, coordination of efforts, division of labour, responsibility, and authority. Organisations can be defined in terms of rational coordination of people’s efforts to attain shared goals. They function as an open system which imports energy from environment and after processing sends its products to the environment. Thus, organisations are open systems which are related to the external environment.

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LEARNING CHECKS I

1. A work done by machine represents organisation. T/F 2. The attitudes and inter–departmental conflicts in a college can be a problem for organisational psychologist. T/F 3. Organisations are introduced to achieve shared objectives. T/F 4. Division of labour is a characteristic of organisation. T/F 5. Organisations may not require rational coordination of efforts. T/F 6. Organisations work as an open system. T/F

STRUCTURE AND F UNCTIONS OF O RGANISATION It is a well-known fact that human behaviour is affected by the kind of set up one is placed in. An organisation also provides a set up. The organisations vary in terms of their structures, which characterise their set up. Different types of organisational structures influence the behaviour of employees in different ways. Organisational structure tells how jobs are divided and assigned to its employees. For example, in the early part of the last century, Henry Ford built automobiles on an assembly line. Every worker of the Ford company was assigned a specific task: one person would just put on the right front wheel and someone would

install the right front door. Thus, the jobs were divided into smaller units of standardised nature, which could be performed repeatedly. By doing this, Ford was able to produce cars at the rate of one every 10 seconds while using individuals who had limited skills. An organisational structure is defined in terms of how jobs are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. There are six key elements in designing an organisation’s structure. They deal with different concerns of an organisation (Box 9.1). Let us try to understand these elements in some detail. Work Specialisation : It helps in identifying the degree to which tasks in an organisation are sub–divided into separate jobs. The important aspect of work specialisation is that an entire job is not done by one individual, but is broken down into a number of steps. Each step of the job is completed by a different individual or groups of individuals. In essence, individuals specialise in doing part of an activity. In some organisations, work is highly specialised whereas in others, specialisation is minimal and each of the employees is trained for and required to undertake the whole or most of the work to be done. Departmentalisation : Jobs are not only divided into steps and assigned to different individuals; they can also be grouped according to their functions. The basis by

BOX 9.1

KEY QUESTIONS RELATED TO ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

Concerns To what extent tasks are sub–divided into separate jobs? On what basis jobs would be grouped together? To whom do individuals and groups report? How many individuals can a manager efficiently manage? Where does a decision-making authority lie?

Elements of Organisational Structure Work specialisation Departmentalisation Hierarchy (chain of command) Span of control Centralisation Formalisation

What is the extent of rules and regulations to direct the employees?

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which jobs are grouped together is called departmentalisation. For example, a hospital might have different departments devoted to research, patient care, administration, accounting, rehabilitation, and so forth. Similarly, a small restaurant may have departments like cooking, service, accounts, customer care, security, and vigilance. The major advantage of this type of grouping is to obtain better coordination and efficiency in work and productivity. Chain of Command : It refers to the line of authority that runs from the top of an organisation to its bottom. In practical terms, it clarifies who reports to whom. It tells the employees whom to approach if they have a problem. The chain of command involves authority and unity of command. These are complementary concepts. Authority refers to the rights inherent in a certain position to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed. It has a definitive place in the chain of command. It is necessary for facilitating the coordination of activities and doing the jobs. The unity of command principle states that a person should have one and only one superior to whom she/he is directly responsible. If the chain or unity of command is broken, the employees may be put to conflicting demands from several superiors. Span of Control : It specifies the number of employees a manager should efficiently and effectively direct. It determines the number of levels of managers an organisation has. If the span is too large, it will affect the employees’ performance because the managers have less time to provide the necessary leadership and support. If the span is too small, it will require more managers to control the employees. It would cost more to the company.
BOX 9.2

Centralisation : In certain organisations, top managers make all the decisions. People down the line carry out top management directives. Such an organisation is highly centralised. Contrary to these are organisations where decision-making powers have been given to all those employees who are closer to action. They take decisions at their levels. Such an organisation is highly decentralised, and the decision-making power is shared. Thus, organisations vary in respect of the degree to which decision, making powers are concentrated or shared. Degree of centralisation/decentralisation affects the speed with which decisions can be taken and implemented. It also determines the level of involvement of employees in their jobs and organisations. It is important to note that in a decentralised setting, the tasks are assigned by delegating. This is also a way of empowering the employees. This can be achieved better if the delegation is supplemented by periodic checks to ensure that the authority guidelines are not being abused, organisation’s policies are being followed, and proper procedures are being met. The key considerations while delegating authority to the subordinates are summarised in Box 9.2. Formalisation : It refers to the degree to which jobs within an organisation are standardised and made formal. In a highly standardised procedure, the employees have the least amount of discretion in performing their specific roles. Every time a job is given, it is to be done by following the same procedure in a uniform manner. Organisations function within a framework of rules and clearly defined procedures. When formalisation is of a lesser degree the

DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
l l l l

Sometimes authority is delegated to subordinates for certain assignments. When managers have to delegate authority they are required to: l clarify the assignment to subordinates, l specify to the subordinate the range of discretion,

allow the subordinate to participate, make him accountable and extend managerial support, inform others that delegation has occurred, and establish the feedback control to regulate and monitor.

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job behaviours are relatively nonprogrammed and employees have considerable flexibility and freedom in exercising discretion. Formalisation has advantages as well as disadvantages. The advantages are that employees are not allowed to engage in alternative forms of behaviours. The disadvantage is that employees may feel paralysed if the rules and procedures do not apply to a given situation. TYPES
OF

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

There are several kinds of organisational structure. Some organisations make use of simple structure whereas others use bureaucratic and other complex structures such as matrix type structure. There are tall and flat structures as well. Let us try to understand three types of structures, i.e., simple, bureaucratic, and matrix in some detail. Simple Structures: These are structures with low degree of departmentalisation and a wide

it becomes grossly inadequate as and when the organisation grows in size. You may consider the structure of a departmental store owned by a hypothetical person say, Mr. Hariram Banarasi Das. He is owner–manager. He has employed five sales–persons who directly report to him. This simple structure is shown in Fig. 9.1. Such a simple structure is becoming popular because of its flexibility, responsiveness, and high degree of adaptability to change. Bureaucratic Structure : This structure is characterised by routine operating tasks achieved through specialisation, formal set of rules, and activities organised around functions. The authority is highly centralised. It has a chain of command and narrow span of control. Its strength lies in its ability to perform standardised activities in an efficient manner. The managerial discretion is minimised by wide range of rules and regulations. The operational duties are standardised with high degree of formalisation.

Fig. 9.1 Example of a Simple Organisational Structure.

span of control. The authority is largely centralised in a single person with very little formalisation. It is also called ‘flat structure’. It usually has only two or three vertical levels, a flexible set of employees, and generally one person in whom the power of decision– making is invested. This simple structure is most widely practiced in small business settings where manager and owner happen to be the same person. Its advantage lies in its simplicity. This makes it responsive, fast, accountable, and easy to maintain. However,

The major weakness of bureaucracy is its extreme concern with strict adherence to rules. When cases arise that do not fit the rules, there is no room for modification. Bureaucracy promotes established procedures and programmed decisionmaking. Most of the organisations, however, were designed after bureaucratic structures. Now the dominant trend is to decentralise organisations into smaller units, making them fully autonomous, and having minimum obstacles in decision-making.

Take a notepad and visit the nearest departmental store. T/F ACTIVITY 9.2 Understanding Organisational Structure Find a partner from your class. T/F 4. MBA. departmentalisation. Organisational structures have no effect on individual behaviour. For example. T/F 2. The strength of matrix lies in its ability to facilitate coordination when the organisation has multiple. hospitals. consulting firms. matrix design. organisations can have various types of structures such as simple structures. and construction companies use matrix type structures. universities. but they do not begin to function unless people come and join them and perform the specific roles. They try to combine different functional groups and the final output i. if assigned the course responsibility of teaching a module of HRD.. Its strength lies in putting specialists together that allow pooling and sharing of specialised resources across products. and find out the organisational structure by asking following questions: l How many people are working here? l What are their roles and duties? l Whom do they report to? l Who writes their confidential reports? l Who is the decision taking person in case of a problem? l How are they held accountable? Discuss the responses obtained with your teacher and try to find out the nature of organisational structure that the organisation has? BASIC FUNCTIONS OF MANAGERS Organisations are blueprints for human activities. and Research Methodology and so on. Formalisation means having a formal dress code and living the life in a traditional mode. In bureaucratic structures. Research and Development (R&D) organisations. Members in the matrix structure have dual assignment. For example. T/F 3. decisionmaking flows toward the lower level of employees. strict chain of command and little delegation of authority gives freedom to a minimum possible extent. . Decentralisation amounts to power sharing and creating various centres of decision-making.D. departmentalisation. centralisation of power. The most central feature of bureaucracy is objectivity and accountability. complex. T/F 6. a Professor of HRD teaching MBA course reports to the Director of the Institute as well as to the Chairman of the MDP. Recapitulation Organisational structure can be described in terms of specialisation. The important functions of a manager are described as under. which can be called as products. LEARNING CHECKS II 1. Newer forms of structures are also being tried these days. an organisation structured around high level of formalisation. a business school using a matrix design would have several departments. the role of managers is very important. Finance. Matrix structure reduces many problems which typical bureaucratic structure suffers. Simple structure is good for quick decision-making. PGDBM. Generally. and interdependent activities. school office. and formalisation. They affect the profit-related activities only.. Accounting. or span of control. advertising companies. bureaucratic design. centralisation. service station.Psychology in Organisational Setting 187 The Matrix Structure : This structure integrates two forms of departmentalisation. T/F 5. BBA. chain of command. one to their functional department and the other to their product groups. they may have several courses like. Management Development Programme (MDP). Ph. product. For instance.e. In this context. etc. Organisational structures also constrain the behaviour and set the limits. It facilitates efficient allocation of specialists but it can also induce power struggle in organisations. In addition to this. like academic department of HRD. Besides.

Controlling : Once the objectives and goals of an organisation are established. Informational Roles : Managers need to receive and process information regarding various aspects of organisation’s functioning. . They have to provide leadership to their followers. Management Roles All managers are expected to perform certain roles in their respective organisations. These goals need to be defined and the ways of achieving them are worked out.3 if you want to know more about these roles. perform the role of selecting. the organisation evolves mechanisms to bring them back on the right track. etc. interpersonal. and motivating them and maintaining the discipline. training. They decide about assignment of duties and what are the resources required. directing their activities. promotion policy. If people in the organisation are not putting and coordinating their efforts to attain the stated goals. i. and correcting the activities of the members of an organisation. informational and decision related. People in the highest authority represent the organisation and they take on the responsibility of defining these goals. and people are selected and put to work. Mintzberg concluded that managers carry out 10 different roles. there still remains the task of coordinating and making people deliver the expected level of performance. However. Organising : It refers to specifying and linking the various roles and responsibilities to be taken up by the people working for the organisation.. They make choices. It includes the monitoring.e. Providing direction and establishing mechanisms for coordination is called leading. Leading : Organisations involve people and it is important that their activities are coordinated to achieve the goals. and setting up the ways of handling conflicts. appraising. take corrective decisions for solving problems. establishing the most effective way of communication. Interpersonal Roles : Managers have to communicate with other people in order to get the work done. In older organisations. a brief description of these roles is given below. They are required to transmit and disseminate information and play the role of spokespersons when interacting with others outside the organisation. It involves motivating people. Such activities represent the informational roles of managers. The employees also need training for updating their skills. comparing. They. These are interpersonal roles involving relationships between managers and workers. the structural arrangements are worked out. and initiate new ideas to improve organisational functioning. The process of selection of right persons for the right kind of job requires analysis of job profile and use of a dependable selection procedure. Decisional Roles : Managers have to play the role of decision-maker. Organising the organisation is necessary for effective goal attainment. Staffing : Selection and recruitment of the personnel to undertake the various activities is another responsibility of managers. the problems of performance appraisal. proposing strategies for achieving these goals and developing a comprehensive plan to coordinate the different activities of the people working in the organisation. They have to be in contact with the people inside and outside the organisation. Based on a study. and outsourcing (using external resources rather than employees) are to be decided. A variety of such decisional roles are involved in managerial functions. It can be done by using reward and punishment mechanisms. This is called controlling. which are highly interrelated. You may consult Box 9. at times. the plans are formulated. Planning includes defining an organisation’s goals. These roles can be divided into three categories. It answers the following question: What tasks are to be performed and by whom? How the tasks are to be grouped? Who will report to whom? Where the decisions are to be made? All these things are to be specified along with the areas of responsibility and accountability.188 Introduction to Psychology Planning : Organisations exist to achieve certain goals.

It also helps in identifying the characteristics of a successful jobholder. . Negotiator :A manager represents organisation during negotiations. organise thoughts and presenting the facts. Decisional Roles Entrepreneur : A manager searches opportunities and initiates projects to bring about changes in the organisation. Job description is a crucial document for guiding the selection process. Usually. It also provides interview leads. you are encouraged to study Box 9. and conditions of employment.Psychology in Organisational Setting 189 BOX 9. Interview : Interview is a way of obtaining information about a candidate so as to determine whether the candidate has the ACTIVITY 9. job descriptions are prepared. Application Blank : It is used for obtaining information about the suitability of candidates for a particular job.3 MINTZBERG MANAGERIAL ROLES Disseminator : A manager transmits information received from outsiders or from other subordinates to the members of organisation. competence. and references. The objective of selection is to match individual characteristics with the requirements of a given job. it is necessary to assess the demands and requirements of the job. attitude and abilities necessary to function in that job. Selection Methods A variety of methods are used to select personnel. In this way. Resource Allocator : A manager makes or approves significant organisational decisions. Leader : In this role. Spokesperson : A manager transmits information to external agencies on plans. educational qualification. he or she serves as an expert. the level at which an organisation needs people determines the choice of the method for selection. job experience. and results of the organisation. and abilities needed to perform a job. Some of the widely used methods of selecting personnel are described below. Based on the job analysis. They can vary from one organisation to another. In order to have the right kind of individual-job fit. Liaison : A manager maintains a network of outside contacts that provides resources and information. Interpersonal Roles Figurehead : Manager acts as a symbolic head and represents organisation to inside and outside clients. The process of assessing the activities performed within a job is called Job Analysis. It identifies the knowledge. The blanks are highly structured. There are various methods of doing job analysis. standardised. If you want to know more about the methods of job analysis. If the management is unable to get a proper match. Job Analysis It involves developing a detailed description of the tasks involved in performing a job.3 Understanding the selection process Collect five different kinds of advertisements published in a newspaper and describe the main types of job descriptions.4. a manager is responsible for the motivation and direction of his or her subordinates. Informational Roles Monitor : A manager receives a wide variety of information and serves as the nerve centre for internal and external activities. and determined in advance. It also tests the applicant’s ability to write. A job description is a written account of job contents. working out the nature of relationship of that job with other jobs and determining the level of skills. the employee–performance and satisfaction suffer adversely affecting the goals of an organisation. Application blanks are designed in many ways. working environment. PERSONNEL S ELECTION Selection is a deliberate effort to engage a fixed number of persons usually out of a large number of applicants. depending upon the specific job requirements. They require candidates to provide biographical data. skills. policies.

requisite skills. interests. It is particularly suitable for assessing intelligence level. . and ability appropriate for the job in question. Individual Interview: Selected employees are interviewed in detail. Group Interview: It is also a kind of interview but in this case. and interpersonal skills. Technical Conference: Experts who have extensive knowledge of the job. whereas the latter is relevant to the selection of managerial positions. Preliminary Interview: The applicant is given job details during the interview to make him think whether the job will suit him or her. attitude. INTERVIEW FOR PERSONNEL SELECTION Depth Interview: It covers the life history in detail about work experiences. ability. it can be a powerful tool for achieving accurate information and getting access to information. Observation: Detailed specifications of activities are prepared directly by observing employees on the job. and hobbies. To learn more about interview see Box 9. interest and integrity of the applicants. Patterned Interview: It is a combination of direct and indirect questioning of the applicant. They are maps of actual behaviours and not hypothetical as the written tests. The Interview Process Generally. and job analysis is carried out by content analysing the interview protocols. They have been found to predict job behaviour effectively..5 Performance Simulation Tests : The use of performance tests has increased significantly in the last two decades. In work sampling. interview is made up of four stages. It consists of interaction between an interviewer and the applicant. Information relevant to jobs are analysed based on responses to the questionnaires. contd. If handled properly. knowledge. It is the most frequently used selection device. which is otherwise unavailable. Generally. health. and decisionmaking games. They are unbiased and standardised devices and can be easily administered to a large number of people. an effort is made to create a replica of the job situation making a candidate perform in a job like setting. BOX 9. four kinds of Interviews are used in personnel selection. suggest specific characteristics of a job by conferencing. What is to be asked during the interview is already structured. They are cost effective and save time. In assessment centres.190 Introduction to Psychology BOX 9.4 SOME METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS Structured Questionnaire: Structured questions are prepared and employees are given the questionnaire to fill out the relevant details. unless they are properly developed and used. The effectiveness of assessment centres is very impressive. aptitude. Stress Interview: Stress is deliberately created to observe how an applicant performs under pressure. They are based on job analysis data. motivation. It can also be done by Video recording employees’ behaviour and watching it to create a job description. There are several advantages of using tests. trained psychologists run evaluation workshops wherein actual problems are presented through simulated situations. Written Tests : As a selection device. It ranges from frequent interruptions to strong criticism of the opinions expressed by the candidate. Two best-known approaches to simulation are work-sampling and assessment centres. The candidate confronts them through business games. These diaries are analysed to get the details about the job. Diary: Jobholders record their daily activities in diaries.5. a large number of employees participate in groups in generating ideas about the job details.. tests may not accurately predict job success. However. discussions. exercises. The former is suited to routine jobs. these tests are also conducted for evaluating intelligence.

communicating. the interviewer should introduce himself or herself. Controlling function involves ways of making people achieve the organisational goals by delivering the expected levels of performance. Prepare your questions in advance to tap the required qualities. sports and game preference and must be neatly dressed. organising. friendly. Taking the issues deeper into what the candidate says should also be done. Then the agenda for the interview is set.. Leading function involves providing directions. processing. coordinating. leading and controlling. Examine the way the board conducted the interview. Evaluation should be done immediately after the candidate has left. and intergroup relations that organisation as a total system began to come into focus.Psychology in Organisational Setting 191 It starts with preparation. Proper selection and recruitment of employees is important for organisations. You can announce that the above-mentioned qualities are needed. Psychologists found that workers’ motivation is determined by various factors. the job descriptions and resume of the candidate is reviewed for the position a candidate is being considered. Ask the candidate how he/she felt about the interview process. Ask members of the class to play the role of candidate one by one (You can have three candidates in one session). be sensitive to other’s feelings. then questioning and finally concluding. questions prepared during the preparatory stage are used as a road map. personnel policies. They are: planning. Recapitulation Managers have to perform certain basic organisational functions. Organising means putting things in order by assignment of roles and responsibilities so that the goals can ACTIVITY 9. motivating. The monitor of the class is expected to have following qualities: Regular in the class. In this stage. must possess some artistic talent like singing. Managers play a variety of roles i. The candidate should be informed about the next stage of happening. W ORK M OTIVATION It is through the studies on worker’s motivation. Organisations have different types of selection methods in which application forms. must have good communication skill. Job requirements need to be analysed so that the right individuals can be fitted to the right jobs. Informational roles involve receiving. drawing. interpersonal.4 Role-play for Monitor or Leader of the Class Create a board of interviewers to conduct an interview for selecting monitor of the class. . a candidate is made to enter in rapport in order to make him/her feel relaxed. it is important to organise questions in terms of what. The second stage begins with questions for ice breaking. In the opening stage. The final stage of interview is concerned with wrapping up the event. decision-making and informational roles. Interpersonal roles involve relating to people. incentive systems. communicating and providing leadership. followed by opening stage. Planning involves defining the goals and preparing a blue print for goal achievement. It is important to cover these and some additional questions arising out of the interview process. In preparation stage. Discuss the process with data in the class. written tests and performance simulation tests are used. They include relationship with co-worker. The third stage is of questioning and discussion. interviews. Managers play an important role in the decision-making processes in the organisation.e. and resolving conflicts. be achieved. Conduct the interview and make judgement about the most suitable candidate. staffing. While preparing the agenda. how and why–what questions are expected to be handled by descriptions and information details about the understanding of the candidate? How questions are concerned with explanation and why questions deal with the analysis of issues. Staffing refers to selection and recruitment of the personnel. and disseminating information within and outside the organisation.

More recently. their relationship with the boss. Reinforcement Theory : This theory tends to emphasise the role of reinforcement followed by action. Psychologists have developed many theories and frameworks about motivational problems of the people. and the nature of group to which they belong. Their most crucial concern is effective utilisation of people’s capacities. Creating working conditions effective and smooth functioning. Prepare a report and discuss with your teacher. performance appraisal. amount of pay being received by the employees. In order to motivate people. training. they work toward realising them.6 may help you to understand certain related issues. punishment. Helping to adapt to organisational conditions and changing technological circumstances. Goal-setting Theory : It emphasises goal-setting as a motivator. 2. motivating. attitude measurement. Expectancy Theory : It argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends upon the strength of expectation that the action will be followed by a given outcome and it will be attractive. Some areas of organisational functioning to which psychologists contribute significantly are given below: l l l l Organising work and allocating them to right worker. their contributions have been expanded to include topics like. when workers believe that their efforts will improve performance. which will be rewarded by something they value. Helping organisations cope with the internal and external competition and other environmental pressures. and other factors related to working conditions that could impede performance. Various theories consider needs in a different manner.192 Introduction to Psychology ACTIVITY 9. learning. Recruiting and training personnel to perform adequately. l l You may visit an organisation near the place where you live and try to understand the problems where a psychologist can contribute. leadership effectiveness. The details about reward management given in Box 9. Need Theories : These theories suggest that people will work hard if their needs are met. In brief. All these activities are now considered as part of human resource development. 5. 3. It is assumed that if people feel motivated toward certain goals. perception. Setting specific challenging and plausible goals increases work motivation. their basic needs or deficiencies must be satisfied. efforts have been made to help organisations solve motivational problems of employees.5 Role of psychologists in organisations It would be clear to you by now that OB is an applied behavioural science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioural sciences. it is likely to be strengthened. For instance. boredom. TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Psychologists are involved in developing training systems and helping organisations . Feelings of inequity reduce work motivation. Equity Theory : People experience feelings of unfairness or inequity when the ratio between their efforts (work input) and what they receive (outcome) are not similar. job satisfaction. personality. If a particular behaviour results in a positive reward. and incentive procedures to enable the people to maintain optimal level of functioning. The key motivational theories are summarised below: 1. job-design and stress management. 4. the organisational psychologists play important roles in helping organisations achieve their goals. decision-making. employee selection. for Establishing effective reward. they will work harder. Early industrial/ organisational (I/O) psychologists concerned themselves with the problems of fatigue. Drawing from these motivational theories.

if carefully aligned to individual needs. It is a well-known fact that people tend to do what satisfies their needs. and assess the impact of training on effectiveness of employees. They are required to cope with technological and environmental changes. They are internally rewarding. Sometimes an individual receives rewards. can provide stimulus for improved performance. Performance appraisal should be linked with promotion. Expectations about attractive outcomes may motivate the employees. Recapitulation Principles of psychology are useful in understanding organisational functioning and the behaviour of people in organisations. etc. they do so after looking for payoffs or rewards that an organisation offers. consumption. They do training needs analysis. market appeals are often made through television. profit sharing. MARKETING AND A DVERTISING 1. counselling. newspaper. For example. performance appraisal. Generally. In LEARNING CHECKS III order to be effective. basic salary. and disposition of goods. and recognitions. Similarly. Selection is a mechanism of finding out the best person for a job.Psychology in Organisational Setting 193 BOX 9. The theories of work motivation provide strategies to improve performance of employees in organisations. awards. develop training programmes. Psychologists play important role in training. The rewards can be distributed on an individual or group basis. These rewards are called extrinsic rewards. Performance appraisals are periodic evaluations of employee’s performance in an organisation along with feedback to the employees. Interview technique involves meeting a candidate with a defined agenda. and through Internet. marketing appeals. effect of advertisements. job satisfaction. Training and testing are undertaken on continuous basis because of the need to learn new skills and acquiring relevant capabilities. performance can be linked to rewards such as promotion. T/F 7. Advertisements play a crucial role in influencing buying decisions. Through suitable performance appraisal. These rewards. holiday’s premium and bonus. such appraisal should be objective and relatively free from biases and errors. an employee expects some kind of direct and explicit compensation. and purchase of stocks or shares. magazines. These kinds of rewards are improve their appraisal systems. development of leadership and motivation. which enhance the sense of personal worth. T/F 3. Estimates are that the average urban child sees 20. work design. Consumer psychologists study buying behaviour.6 REWARD MANAGEMENT called intrinsic rewards. T/F The study of psychological processes underlying the acquisition. and consumer decision-making. Selection helps the process of job analysis to decide the requirements. Performance appraisals can sometimes be affected by certain biases. It is also done through billboards. like. T/F 6. T/F 2. and ideas is done in a related area called consumer psychology. There are direct as well as indirect compensations. T/F 4. Feedback to employees is a necessary aspect of performance appraisal. Business organisations spend crores of rupees every year on advertisements and in developing messages that appeal to customers. Similarly. consumption of products. Many of the psychologists are currently playing the role of trainers and consultants to improve the internal processes concerning individual and group functioning. overtime allowances. services. T/F 5. hoarding. training and performance appraisal are other areas of psychological applications. Feeling of inequity increases the motivation of employees.000 . and radio.

Adjustment : Discipline.7 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (HRD) programmes for computer applications. Development : This function includes on the job training. It involves lateral transfer that enables one to work at different workstations. the threats of obsolescence are increasing. and pay management. They deal with different kinds of products such as packaged goods. and the media. People’s skills can become outdated with the passage of time.e. The process of looking into human capabilities for its maximum utilisation is known as human resources development (HRD). Training is the most crucial device for updating human capabilities in order to make them suitable to the changing and current requirements of the organisation. increasing work force diversity. The activity of advertising involves three main institutions. clerical staff needs to learn how to fully utilise the latest software commercials every year. the advertising agency. and providing employees with realistic job expectations. Training usually takes place on the job. It is observed that a competent employee does not remain competent forever. Thus. advertisements shape children’s desire for products irrespective of the merit of the product. a career development and training programmes are needed.. Interviewing candidates and making final decisions at the entry-level is also done. consumer . Goal attainment in an organisation depends primarily on the way people working for the organisation are able to utilise their capabilities to an optimal extent and help their organisation achieve its goals. Children under eight years of age are very trusting of commercials. irritation. the advertiser. open communication. namely technical. and conflict with parents takes place when children’s television induced desires are not fulfilled. Employees get to learn a wide variety of jobs and gain insight into the interdependency across different jobs. discharge. Skill Development : Skills can be divided into three categories. The two central activities in this respect are skill development and career development. training methods of several kinds are used. occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime.194 Introduction to Psychology BOX 9. A career is a sequence of positions. Retention : This comprises of providing fair treatment to the employees. with rapid technological changes. If an employee is to remain productive. Any work pursued over an extended period can constitute a career. Interpersonal and problem solving skills are acquired more effectively by training that takes place off the job. all members of an organisation should be involved in training-related activities. Career Development : Career development is a way for an organisation to increase its employees’ productivity and preparing them for the changing world scenario. applying motivational strategy. This ensures that right people will be available for meeting the changing staffing requirements. For example. promotion of teamwork. layoffs. It also helps develop people to take up future assignments. Training and Development Let us learn more about training and development activities in which psychological input is very crucial. The advertisers may be at national or regional level. face-to-face resolution of conflict. Similarly. In order to develop them. Executives participate in workshops to enhance their effectiveness or to develop strategic plans for their departments. They also confuse children and take advantage of their misunderstanding. and providing feedback to the subordinates. i. Disappointment. they undergo an apprenticeship phase to learn the trades of the job under an experienced person. and contribute to poor decision-making skills by focusing on irrelevant attributes of the product. In one or the other way. Job rotation and apprenticeship apply to the learning of technical skills. and transfers are included in this function. interpersonal and problem solving. job enrichment. The key HR activities in organisations are as follows: Staffing : This includes providing data for job analysis and determining minimum qualifications. One such method is job-rotation. Moreover.

Training. in the marketing and selling segments for attracting the customers through advertisements. which are practised quite regularly. . Advertisement.Psychology in Organisational Setting 195 durables. Le us take a brief look at some of them. The advertising agency creates advertisements and makes the media allocation decisions. They are paid for this. and personal campaign. the individual develops the self-perception that it is a proper thing to do and this will give the best deal. and media strategy and tactics. would like to return the favour by buying a product. Internet. so that the higher priced product could be sold. Matrix Structure. The T. Organising. However. message strategy and tactics. etc. Examples of this technique are: providing sample of a product to potential buyers and entertaining a client with an expensive lunch. as the market is globalising. Span of Control. Consumer. Job Analysis. It is based on consumer greed. The advertisement is a way of information dissemination about a particular product. This technique works because after complying with the first request. assessment of the consumers/market and the competitive situation of company. hoardings.8 advertisements have to cater to both–global and local needs. as customer. BOX 9. Planning. Use of media for advertising is becoming an important part of business. the retailer advertises a product at a very low price in order to get the customer into the shop. Recapitulation The area of consumer psychology was presented as an example of special application of organisational psychology. or industrial products.V commercials affect children. They make the client Key Terms Organisation. There are various ways of advertising including print media. the advertisements suggest that you can buy two shirts and get a clock free and reduce the cost of shirts and add it to the price of the watch. electronic media. Equity theory. Formalisation. Authority. Door-in-the-face technique : It is based on the principle ‘you scratch my back and I will scratch yours’. The advertising plan is developed keeping in view the company’s total marketing programme. a retailer invites the customer to buy some product at a low price but the strings attached to the main products are costly. It is based on the norms of reciprocity. Controlling. the retailer does not intend to sell the advertised product. wall posters. Low-ball approach : In this approach. Job satisfaction. Getting something free creates some feelings at a positive level and you. TECHNIQUES USED TO ATTRACT THE CUSTOMERS commit to certain deals and take advantage of it. it is a commonly used technique. The print media. and radio are used for advertising in a powerful way. television. services and concepts to a probable consumer. radio. Division of Labour. Its value is increasing with the globalisation of market. The idea is to lure the customer in. handbills. Centralisation. Now. For instance. Bait-and-switch : In the personal selling areas. He or she has to focus on cognitive and affective processes that occur in between exposure to the advertisement and buying or consumer behaviour. There are some techniques. Human Resource Development. It involves situation analysis. In this approach. An advertising manager has to attend to objective and target selection. Career.

goal setting theory. 5. chain of command. The functions performed by managers include planning. 7. 4. interview. There are many kinds of organisational structures. F. 5. 3. 6. F.196 Introduction to Psychology SUMMARY l Organisation refers to rational coordination of human effort for the attainment of shared goals. How can you define organisational behaviour? What are the contributions of psychologists towards the development of field of OB? What are the salient features that help you define organisation? What are the roles and functions of a manager in the organisation? What are the characteristics of organisational structures? What are the different types of organisational structure? What role a psychologist can play in making organisations effective? ANSWERS I II TO LEARNING CHECKS : 1. T. Selection of employees is an important area of OB. and formalisation. 4. 4. informational roles. span of control. and controlling. 7. 5. T. advertising is becoming a very important enterprise. equity theory. 2. 5. The structure of organisation is constituted by work specialisation. leading. T. Understanding buying behaviours and pattern of consumption needs to be understood to promote some product through advertising. and matrix structure. and decisional roles. and performance on simulation tasks. staffing. F. T. Marketing and advertising deals with an area called consumer psychology. 2. departmentalisation. It involves division of labour and functions within a framework of authority and responsibility. reinforcement theory. They include interpersonal roles. organising. 3. The main approaches to work motivation include need theory. 6. centralisation. A number of strategies are used to pursue people to buy a product. 2. Motivating the employees and achieving the goals is necessary to ensure organisational effectiveness. F. and expectancy theory. . F. T. It is based on job analysis. T. 3. Organisational behaviour (OB) and organisational psychology focus on the application of psychological processes to the study of organisational functioning. written test. T. 6. 3. III : 1. l l l l l l Review Questions 1. bureaucracy. T. Its three main types are: simple structure. T. Using print as well as electronic media. The selection is done with the help of many methods including application blank. The management roles are mainly of three kinds. T. F. 4. T. : 1. 6. F. F. 2.

and Ä understand the nature and consequences of urbanisation.2) Challenges for National Integration Why Does Non-Violence Work? (Box 10. Ä understand the problems related to national integration analyse the nature of gender discrimination in Indian society. Gender Discrimination Discrimination Against the Girl Child (Box 10. Ä appreciate the consequences of communication revolution.3) CHAPTER COVERS Ä Concepts of poverty and social disadvantage Ä The challenge of national integration Ä Discrimination based on gender roles Ä Population explosion Ä Impact of communication revolution and media Ä The problem of urbanisation BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Ä appreciate the nature and types of social problems existing in India.4) Population Explosion Crowding and its Consequences (Box 10. Ä understand the problem of population explosion.5) Impact of Media and Communication Revolution Urbanisation Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks .1) Interventions for Alleviation of Poverty (Box 10. Ä learn about the main features characterising the conditions of poverty and social disadvantage.Psychology and Social Problems 197 10 THIS PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS CONTENTS Introduction What is a Social Problem? Social Problems in India Poverty and Social Disadvantage The Concept of Poverty (Box 10.

and the geographic and climatic features have put constraints within which it has to grow. In recent years. the impact of communication revolution and media. These problems are complex and need inputs from the psychologists for their proper understanding. it includes poverty and social disadvantage. national integration. In the course of societal development the country has been encountering a number of problems. we have yet not been able to realise the dream of an egalitarian society. the psychologists have become increasingly aware of their role in solving social problems as consultants. and solution. The colonial past. Various sections of the society are being influenced by these problems in different ways. activists. . analysis. This chapter shall help you to understand some of the problems faced by our country and its people. and the problem of urbanisation. and agents of change. the heterogeneity of the population. advocates. Inequalities. However.198 Introduction to Psychology INTRODUCTION After gaining independence the Indian society has been trying to achieve the goal of providing social justice and fulfilling the basic needs of the people. In particular. and prejudices of various kinds are affecting the lives of people in significant ways. population explosion. gender discrimination. A careful attention to these problems will promote a better understanding of the social reality. It is hoped that sensitivity to these problems shall motivate you to know more about these problems. the scarcity of resources. disparities. The area of applied social psychology deals with the psychological understanding of social problems. the political situation in the subcontinent. think about their solutions and prepare you to contribute to their solution.

the common people. Usually such conditions are there and affect a large ACTIVITY 10. Sarovar-dam. detrimental consequences. The task of social scientists is primary social problems and in turn to provide different perspectives and suggest generating additional problems. Apathy they may lead to delinquency. and tertiary types. . For instance. however. 10.Psychology and Social Problems 199 WHAT IS A SOCIAL PROBLEM? Social problems represent social conditions that are regarded by a large segment of population as undesirable. To illustrate this 1.1: The social problem of poverty and its consequences malnutrition can result in illness. analysing. The social problems can be social problems are those harmful conditions. Tertiary different options. The secondary therefore. be noted that the categorisation of problems is for the purpose of analysis. In fact. at a particular point of time. The social problems differ on defining. are detrimental to the well-being social problems. In ask each of them to list five most important contrast. Consider the issue of Sardar of human societies. Fig. which may be state of balance existing in the society and considered as a primary problem. mental retardation. directly or indirectly. the environmentalists. policy makers. Fig. It is a project on which the The social problems can be grouped into Government. a latent problem is one that is not social problems faced by the Indian society recognised as a threat to major social norms today. The two main secondary problems that are outcomes of poverty are Delinquency Poverty Slums slums and malnutrition. which have multiple perceptions. all the social problems are interrelated. On the other hand. the primary. Unlike the problem in natural sciences. demands recognition of the sociosocial problems are those harmful conditions cultural and historical factors that shape resulting mainly from more influential social reality. and apathy. pollution. In reality. Functional: It assumes that there is a point let us consider poverty. Perspectives on Social Problems They have to be defined in different ways People often hold divergent views about the during different times. The slums have further problematic Illness Malnutrition Mental retardation consequences. 10. Understanding social problems. and environmental solution. Social problems change with time Discuss the data with your teacher and and are related to the social context present classmates. secondary. The World Bank. The be dealt with continuously and in different experts. approached from the following perspectives.1 number of people. and those primary social problems are those critical who are going to be displaced have different social conditions. and solving nevertheless. A manifest problem Identifying Social Problems is recognised by the public as a threat to Meet five adults in your neighbourhood and major social values or social norms. and the public often ways each time. the result of more dominant problems.1 shows that poverty. they need to nature and extent of a social problem. social problems do not become obsolete once they are solved. The social problem may be latent or manifest. in terms of the urgency required for its overpopulation. It may. which are. as a primary problem Secondary Tertiary Primary may lead to several secondary Problems Problems Problems and tertiary problems. Then ask them to rank each problem or values such as dictatorship.

you may study Box 10.200 Introduction to Psychology conditions and events. unemployment etc. religious dogmatism. could increase. child marriage. materialistic attitude. The people of India are diverse in many ways including language.). Psychologists have been more interested in poverty as a socio-psychological phenomenon and its consequences for the individual and the society. SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN interdependent in nature. Its culture spans over several thousand years of unbroken continuity. Over a period. necessary to meet the basic human needs of health reflect poverty. Poverty is usually defined in terms of economic resources. INDIA India is a unique country in many respects. juvenile delinquency. They are more focused on the psychological dynamics of poverty and on the psychological approaches of tackling it. Poverty and Social Disadvantage Poverty is an unfortunate aspect of our social reality. social disadvantage. lack of national character etc. The way we define poverty provides different estimates of incidence and prevalence of the “poor”.09 in rural areas. injustice. If we analyse these problems you will notice that they refer to different aspects of life. communal violence. briefly. 2.). social problems are caused by values and norms to which people subscribe. the social aspects (population. the governmental problems (poor economy.) and other problems (foreign influence.. caste. India ranks 115th out of 162 countries in terms of the UNDP’s Human Development Index. In the present discussion we shall be specifically concerned with three concepts i. law and order etc. They have approached the problem of poverty from different perspectives. religion. education. emphasis on rights etc.1 must have brought you closer to the various social problems faced in India.1. Normative : According to this view. which disrupt this balance are problems. However. dress. inadequate exploitation of resources. any condition that falls at the lower end of the socio-economic scale implies poverty. such as the basic needs (economic.62 and 26. Let us study some of the important problems that need urgent attention. laziness.e. when some one lacks material possessions to the point of physical suffering (such as hunger) that condition is characterised as poverty. housing etc. and deprivation. Subjective : According to this perspective the identification of a problem depends on the perception of individuals. There are 260 million poor. It is obvious that these problems are not isolated but .). dowry. Thus. corruption. Thus. According to the sample survey data on consumer expenditure by the National Sample Survey Organisation (July1999-June 2000) it is estimated that poverty ratio is 27. in India. One may further broaden the concept and say that poverty is a lack of material possessions that are necessary to have a decent standard of living. India is rightly considered as an example of unity in diversity.). and customs. the condition worsens to such an extent that it cannot be ignored any more. security. ethnicity. The social problem exists for those individuals whose norms have been violated. 4.10 for the country as a whole. defining poverty in concrete terms has proved to be a difficult task. Let us consider these concepts. poverty. health. the citizen behaviour (indiscipline. Some think that the lack of material possessions. The study of poverty and related phenomena has attracted the attention of social scientists from different disciplines. Objective : This view holds that problems exist when empirical evidence points to certain intolerable conditions that have come about cumulatively. 3. It’s a country that has assimilated diverse influences from many parts of the world. For more details. Doing Activity 10. They in fact reinforce each other. The perception and cognition of issues as problematic is necessary. In fact. problems involve situations in which the norms of the mainstream society are violated. The list however. The percentage of poverty in urban area is 23.

and psychological conditions. economic. good food) Disadvantage is a condition in which certain groups or communities are constrained or suffer from increased chances of failure because of their social standing or membership to a group or communities. It is related to the socio-economic hardships that are determined by the social structure. (e. the victim of poverty is blamed for his or her state of affairs. sub culture. Poverty can be approached from an absolute or a relative perspective. If a large section of society’s population is incapable of satisfying the basic needs then this situation is termed as poverty.. authoritarian. and per capita consumption. Social Structure : Both poverty and social disadvantage are not viewed as just economic phenomenon. Various socio-cultural conditions create inequality of opportunities. From a psychological point of view individual perception of his/her own condition as poverty vis-à-vis others in a given society is important in understanding poverty as a social problem. It is a relative lack of or inaccessibility to the resources and or inability to utilise the resources to achieve what is needed or desired.Psychology and Social Problems 201 Poverty is a comparative economic concept.. norms. Poverty line separates population into two categories namely those who have an adequate level of living and those who do not.2 Perceiving the Causes of Poverty Ask six of your neighbours (3 males and 3 females) to enumerate the causes or factors. It creates a stereotype that poor are fatalistic.g. Discuss your findings classmates and teachers. blocks any attempts of society to change the values. education. The Individual : The emphasis on the individual focuses on the characteristics of the person as the chief determinant of poverty condition. It deprives the individual of his/her capability for a desired life. and social structure associated with poverty. ACTIVITY 10. income or consumption level has been frequently contd. keeping the poor out of the mainstream of a modern industrial society. After collecting all the responses try to see what are the more frequent and less frequent causes stated by people to explain the conditions of poverty. A person is held responsible for his or her condition. Deprivation refers to a sense of loss or suffering. and physically and emotionally isolated from the community and from one another. . and lifestyle of the poor. which produces and perpetuates poverty. In other words. The Culture of Poverty : According to this view the cultural system prevailing in the community of the poor. A person who is poor may not have the resources or the resources may be present but remain out of his or her reach. The study of the causes of poverty and social disadvantage has indicated three sets of factors namely individual. In this context the concept of poverty line has been proposed. which are viewed by them as responsible for poverty. This kind of explanation ignores the social context. but as social and psychological reality. beliefs. clothing. It is associated with poverty but it is the individual’s experience or his/her subjective feeling of lack of something desired. with your The Causes of Poverty and Social Disadvantage Understanding poverty and disadvantage necessarily involves value judgments about the individual and the social order. then that group is termed poor. per capita income. A number of criteria are adopted for this purpose including calorie intake. nutrition. The culture of poverty fosters the typically disparaging behaviours and values associated with poverty. Out of these.. If a group lacks the resources to meet the essential needs like accommodation. food ratio. BOX 10. It perpetuates itself from one generation to the other. These phenomena refer to a complex set of social. It is rooted in the notion of inequality. A person can mention any number of factors.1 THE CONCEPT OF POVERTY and health. promiscuous.

training. poverty is both a relevant material conditions is necessary so structure and a product of a system. 10. class. Pareek proposed that behaviour is a product The low need for achievement results in of the social system in which people live. seeking expectations of behaviour being rewarded or favours of superior. low interest in feedback. interest in chance is produced through the intervening process and not in control. removal Low n Achievement of untouchability. The low need at the societal level. In India. low need for extension. which put some in an advantaged and others in disadvantaged position. income or consumption indices used by economists do not appear to be an inclusive criterion. the change in produces a specific pattern of motivation expectancy was introduced by certain and. It does not reflect the experience of poverty as a psychological and social condition. through the relevant processes constitutional provisions to extend economic opportunity. The caste. and other institutions of of cooperation. The focus of researchers from different disciplines has been different. He proposes that a social seeking company of friends instead of experts. system produces motivational patterns and and lack of activity and initiative. High need for dependency socialisation provide such mechanisms.202 Introduction to Psychology used. and the lack schooling. the expectancy of powerlessness is produced.2 indicates that poverty as a structure produces a three fold motivational pattern characterised by low need for achievement. However. and other social institutions stack the deck against the poor. They results in the lack of initiative. Thus. the others. This leaves many aspects of poverty untapped. on the basis of reinforcing mechanism The above motivational pattern can be influences the feedback to the social system achieved through appropriate programme of and the reinforcing mechanism. The model shown in Fig. and punished. As a that changes in motivation can be structural component of the society. it produces reinforcing of extension results in the lack of regard for mechanisms. Each discipline looks at the phenomenon of poverty from its own vantage point. of motivation. and Poverty: A Psychological Analysis high need for dependence. They cause and perpetuate poverty. 10. The expectancy framework built counter dependence. Human Development Index has been proposed which considers poverty more as denial of opportunities and choices most basic to human development. and Low n Extension reservation of seats. fear of failure. poverty sustained. They High n Dependence Poverty have facilitated the Conditions development of new expectancies and helped Behaviour (lifestyle or culture of poverty) upward mobility of the underprivileged groups like the scheduled Socialisation Powerlessness castes and scheduled tribes. minorities and other backward Fig. over conformity. An absolute definition of poverty does not help much because people’s needs are conditioned by the society in which they live. This disproportionate risk taking. avoidance condition human behaviour by producing behaviour. two persons with same expenditure may experience different levels of well being.2 A psychological model of poverty communities. For instance. More recently. the lack of faith or trust. the provision of From this perspective. . of socialisation. Child rearing practices.

g. The most crucial problem faced today is the problem of poverty and social disadvantage. secondary.. It is facing a number of social problems. They have a very low level of achievement motivation. Social problems can go unnoticed by the people. T/F 2. Poverty has been defined and assessed in many ways. objective. While the manifested problem is apparently recognised and the latent problem remains unrecognised by the majority of the people. T/F . Deprivation appears to impair cognitive functioning. they are quite similar in the early years but as they grow older the gap between them increases. l The children from the conditions of poverty and social disadvantage show a relatively low level of performance on measures of intelligence. Such cumulative deficits in performance retards academic achievement. motivation. A social problem is one. The main trends that emerge from these studies are as follows: l Mal and under-nutrition arrest physical growth and adversely affect psychological development. attentional deficits. academic achievement. T/F 5. and learning problems. It refers to lack or inaccessibility to resources or inability to utilise the resources. perceptual and cognitive abilities (e. health. deprivation. This may be one reason for high drop-out rate which in some disadvantaged groups is up to as much as 80 per cent by grade 5. In fact. normative. immaturity.Psychology and Social Problems 203 Recapitulation As a developing country. etc. cultural characteristics. which influences a large segment of the population. which is experienced because of the membership in a group. India is facing the challenge of ensuring social justice and welfare of the people. l The gap between the level of performance of the advantaged and disadvantaged children increases with advancing age. It is a kind of deprivation. A primary problem leads to a few secondary problems. and other sub-cultural dimensions representing poverty. income. The causes of poverty and social disadvantages have been identified in the individual’s characteristics. Such individuals are likely to attribute the 1. and academic achievement. It may be latent or manifest itself. Social problems can be categorised into primary. and social structure. socio-economic status (SES). the deprived and disadvantaged groups are found to show reduced curiosity. The causes of poverty lie within the poor people. social maladjustment. personality. l The personality of individuals growing up under adverse socio-economic conditions are characterised by the traits of neuroticism.. T/F 3. concept formation. Children who are undernourished are found to show apathy and withdrawal. T/F 6. region. Consequences of Poverty and Social Disadvantages The Indian researchers have examined the performance of samples differing along caste. and social disadvantage. In general. The consequences of poverty make a person poorer. Each kind of assessment provides a different way to distinguish between the poor and those who are not. Poverty is an economic concept. alienation and withdrawal. The studies have used measures of cognitive and intellectual ability. introversion. These problems change with time. which may result in tertiary problems. Pareek LEARNING CHECKS I has linked the poverty condition related to poor motivation and socialisation that leads to powerlessness. functional. The slums are examples of primary social problems. According to functional perspective social problems involve violation of norms of the mainstream. memory. Social problems are interrelated and reinforce each other. The social problems are viewed from different angles i.e. T/F 4. and tertiary categories. and subjective. language skills). The psychologists have focused attention on the experience of dispossession and social disadvantages.

employment generation. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). They view success as caused by some external conditions. Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana. Some are Governmental initiatives while others are by NGOs and other organisations or individuals. The country has recognised this problem and efforts are being made to reduce poverty and to empower the poor to cope with the problems and join the mainstream. Annapurna. 2. BOSCO in Cochin is trying to integrate street children with society. Poverty Alleviation It is clear that poverty is a great barrier in the process of individual and societal development. l Indiscrete support may lead to dependency. and provisions for support to the members of disadvantaged groups extend opportunities for upward movement. For instance. Some of the initiatives of this kind are given in Box 10. Indira Awas Yojana. motivational. Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozagar Yojana. The adverse effects of poverty and disadvantage are mediated by social. The Swadhyaya movement under the leadership of Pandrang Shastri Athawale mobilises the poor for community participation. Many researchers and institutions have taken up psychological interventions. Some studies also suggest that they are more aggressive and low in achievement motivation. they become sustainable. They should facilitate autonomous growth of the poor. A close analysis of the poverty alleviation programmes reveals that better results may be obtained if the following considerations are kept in view. . and behavioural skills and competencies necessary for effective functioning. Nevertheless. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP). The ninth plan had poverty reduction. and Shiksha Sahyoga Yojana. The Bhoodan movement of Vinoba Bhave was a non-governmental movement to help the marginalised. They are founded on the assumption that human development is shaped by the experiential base of the child. rather than by their own effort or ability. You may like to acquaint yourself with them. ‘Butterflies’ in Delhi deals with children–victims of poverty and abuse and destitutes. if such support is not associated with self-initiatives they are INTERVENTIONS FOR ALLEVIATION OF POVERTY Community based interventions have been taken up by NGO’S. A number of governmental and nongovernmental interventions were taken up during the Five Year Plans to help people outgrow the poverty trap. National Social Assistance Programme. The measures should ensure initiative and active participation. and economic context. Sampurna Gramieen Rozgar Yojana. Gyan Prabodhini in Pune is extending opportunities for all-round development of the youth in poverty settings. and income and consumption support. These efforts are of various types. Food For Work Programme. When supports available from poverty alleviation programmes are contingent upon people’s initiative and effort. and productive activity. The policies of protective discrimination in which seats are reserved in educational institutions. BOX 10. asset provision. Sulabha has taken initiatives to provide clean environment. It should be such that people feel competent and responsible for their actions and have the experience of selfefficacy. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna. spiritual awakening. They aim at strengthening and equipping individuals from poverty backgrounds with cognitive. political.204 Introduction to Psychology l outcomes of their own behaviours to external factors. The negative effects of poverty call for poverty alleviation measures on a priority basis. They are more likely to believe in fate. The Government’s initiatives to provide economic support and empowerment are reflected in programmes such as: Training Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). The anti poverty programmes are of three kinds: land reform. There has been some success in these efforts but we still have to go a long way. have been put together under Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY).2 and providing basic minimum services as key features. jobs. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWACRA).

and the factors responsible for their present condition (as perceived by them): Prepare a description of the life of these people on the basis of answers obtained. and lack the coping styles needed for growth and development. Therefore. and economic input are needed to operate simultaneously along with inputs at individual level. T/F 3. The studies also indicate that the lack of support from home and school environment plays an important role in arresting the development of poor children. Poverty alleviation has received attention from many quarters. The disadvantaged groups show characteristics like introversion and alienation. and income and consumption support. and group levels.3 Observe the Life Under Poverty Meet some people living in poverty. groups. the problems they face. it is important to keep in mind that such programmes do not lead to dependency. Discuss your observations with your classmates and teacher. The changes in school practices. and community. asset provision. ACTIVITY 10. the interventions need to be addressed to the levels of individuals. The chance is high that malnourished children shall become more social and cooperative. enrichment strategies.Psychology and Social Problems 205 l l likely to foster psychological dependence. They arrest the optimal growth of poor people and alienate them from the main stream of society. measures of cognitive development suggesting cumulative deficit. The poor children. While individual psychological interventions have to be embedded in a wider social context. social policy. Studies have shown adverse effects of poverty condition on all areas of development. The efforts to remove poverty at individual level can be successful only if supported by the changes at the structural level. have been found to be behind their advantaged counterparts on 1. T/F 2. T/F 6. While a micro perspective focusing on internal psychological processes in conditions of poverty is not sufficient. Community based and some psychological interventions have also been made. The disadvantaged people internalise success and externalise failure. In general. broad structural level changes without changes in the psychological make up of the individual and the community may yield only short-term benefits. In order to be successful. T/F 4. community. There are some exceptions of invulnerable children or lotuses of mud who outgrow the adverse circumstances and attain equally or better than the children from the socially advantaged background. Usually the disadvantaged children are more motivated to continue in the school than the advantaged. T/F 7. broader community level social interventions need to consider the psychological processes at the level of individuals and groups. A variety of schemes have been launched to empower the poor through land reforms. T/F 5. Cumulative deficit indicates that the gap in performance between the advantaged and disadvantaged group increases with age. poor motivation. T/F . we need a multi-pronged strategy at the individual. The mal/undernutrition caused by poverty interferes with brain development and physical growth. While organising interventions of any kind. Do state on what (specific) basis you have considered the two participants as poor. Community involvement in planning developmental programmes creates commitment among the members of the community towards the success of such programmes. in general. they show a low level of competence. The performance of socially disadvantaged children on cognitive and perceptual tasks is usually found lower than that of advantaged. LEARNING CHECKS II Recapitulation Poverty and social disadvantages have important consequences for the individual as well as the society. Ask them about their daily routine.

Rahim.R. Allarakha. or subcultural groups and communities together to share national identity and creating the feeling of belongingness has proved to be a big challenge. Bismillah Khan. Contact with other groups is very important for identity formation. These contacts have influenced and enriched the cultural heritage of our country. In contrast. The groups must perceive that each group has equal power in the society. sports and architecture clearly reflect the trends of accommodation and integration. However. As a result of acculturation. and nurturing the democratic institutions have been significant.206 Introduction to Psychology CHALLENGES FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION People belonging to different ethnic and cultural backgrounds inhabited India. The inter group relationship may be collaborative or competitive. the group differentiates own group from other groups. The formation and differentiation of identity depend on the broader societal conditions. the languages they speak. expansion of education. 4. Rahman? All these artists command respect and affection from Indian masses irrespective of their caste. The past experience shows that bringing the diverse ethnic. The diversity of the people provides a unique structure or configuration to the social fabric of India. It may involve expansion or narrowing of the group boundaries. One can trace the roots of this diversity in history. cuisine. For example. There is minimum level of trust amongst the groups. The forces of modernisation and urbanisation have helped to reduce the ethnic differences and bridging the social distance. who can think of Indian music without Alauddin Khan. While establishing identity. social rituals and practices. The country had to face the enormous challenge of building an infrastructure for one of the highly populated nations of the world. the following conditions are required for collaborative relationship to occur. when resources and goals are not shareable competitive relationships occur. people distinguish one’s own group (in-group) from other groups (out-groups). Thus. Amir Khusro. They vary in the religions they profess and practice. and now A. it is a challenge that requires us to deal with the issue of identity. religious. Pareek has shown that in addition to this. creed. There is continuous communication. a number of innovations have been introduced in the Indian culture. 2. This helps in developing a general attitude towards other groups in the society and may help in building collaborative relationship. It has developed contacts with people of different cultures over hundreds of years. 3. Thus. A new era began after gaining independence. and the customs they observe. The Country’s accomplishments in the areas of food production. Provision of super ordinate goals may help to achieve collaborative relationship. and Raskhan to Hindi poetry? Similarly. During the freedom movement. From a psychological perspective. can any one forget the contributions of Jayasi. The formation of identity provides uniqueness to a group. Today India is the world’s largest democratic country that embodies the aspirations of a variety of people representing diverse social categories like caste. language. dance. religion. Efforts were initiated through the Five-Year Plans and other steps to build a strong nation. much needs to be done. etc. 1. This may lead to inter group conflicts. literature. Ustad Amjad Ali Khan. Identity Construction : The Core Issue The diversity and pluralism are intrinsic to the Indian social reality and they are going to stay. if the conditions promote cooperative and collaborative relationships the identity formation will be different from a situation where resources are scarce and frustrations are high. or religion. The Indian music. the idea of nationalism helped people to forget the internal differences and dedicate their life to the great cause of the nation’s liberation. The general cultural orientation in the society. The collaborative relationships prevail if the goals or resources present in the society are shareable. advances in science and technology. .

3. cooperation and dependency on each other shall help to eliminate the unfounded stereotypes and contribute to greater social tolerance. excessive fear of failure. The success of pluralism depends on three factors – identity of the various groups. culture. status of these groups in relation to one another. and ensuring the different aspects of pluralism. These trends have helped in maintaining certain exploitative relationships among various ethnic groups. and commitment of the people to the goals and objectives enshrined in the Indian constitution. the Indian society needs to move towards the goal of synergic pluralism. secularism. Ensuring equal status : Steps like reservation. Enhancing acceptance of people belonging to various groups and creating opportunities to learn from each other will be relevant. It is a feeling of belongingness. achieving this situation shall require us to use the strength of cultural traditions. National identity refers to the distinctive character of the nation state. particularly the weaker sections. It involves psychological coherence of the various socio-political and economic institutions. Dependency : It leads to avoidance. . and a tendency to seek favours. Indian culture has been open to new ideas and trends. conflict. Non-involvement and non-commitment : It is the tendency to avoid and not confront the issues. Some of the ways in which national identity can be strengthened are given below: l Providing opportunities for greater contact across different subgroups and communities on various occasions can lay a key role in enhancing national integration. Meeting the Challenges : the Task Ahead The idea of ‘one nation’ is a psychological one. It also leads to a tendency to tolerate and live with such exploitation. composite character. The increase in interpersonal contact. providing equal opportunity. To achieve this goal the following steps shall be helpful. and the national identification constitute the main features.Psychology and Social Problems 207 The multiethnic condition has a long history in India. and a tendency to exploit certain groups. This identity derives its relevance from history. and presence of prejudices and discriminations. In the Indian context. Sharing the joys and sorrows together can help to achieve integration. which have come to India. 2. negative forces have also been present that have led to intolerance. 3. Maintenance of identity : Supporting groups to hold their particular identities and help different groups to have a sense of pride. Collaborative relationship : It can be achieved when necessary communication and trust is maintained across the groups and a super ordinate goal is made available. In addition. 1. The Challenges of Pluralism The Indian Society is a pluralistic society in which many groups live together. handling the negative forces. Fatalism : The belief that what is to happen is ordained and that what happens is not within the control of the individuals concerned. In the Indian context. which provides a distinctive character to the country. Pareek notes the following psychological factors that are important in this context: 1. equality of opportunity. They maintain their separate identities and contributions but produce music that creates something new and different from the individual contributions. and the relationship among the concerned groups. Taken together these factors help to develop prejudices. However. Casteism : The tendency to have hierarchical relationships amongst various groups makes it difficult to relate to other groups at an equal level. 4. Respect for each group and a search for the contributions of each group to society will be useful. there has been synthesis of the various influences. This situation is like an orchestra in which the various instruments play in harmony with each other. and effective use of legislation and law may help to achieve equality of status. 2. which transcends over diversities. over conformism. In a democratic set up.

T/F 6. This will facilitate developing an attitude of respect for each other. The attitudes start taking shape from early childhood.4 Understanding National Integration Choose any two communities and collect information from reliable sources (e. T/F 5. which share diversity in language. Discuss your observations with your classmates and teacher. Mahatma Gandhi was a person who preached and practiced this ideal in his life. LEARNING CHECKS III 1. However. Mutual understanding and cooperation need to be established. you are encouraged to study Box 10.g. parental education to socialise children. religion. Increase in inter group contact can facilitate harmony. it is only through the particular set of behaviours. promoting interdependence and social mobility.3. l The process of socialisation is crucial for the development of attitudes and value systems. We need to learn the value of non-violence (ahimsa) and try to practice it in our lives. If you like to know more about Ahimsa and Sathya. knowledgeable people) about the duties and responsibilities of a human being as followed in these communities. The existence of diverse groups and communities is a reality that needs to be accepted and respected. In this context. T/F 4. but no gender. therefore. This is an important step towards the emergence of a true civil society and strengthen the processes of democratic governance. This may facilitate national integration..208 Introduction to Psychology Creating the necessary space for inter ethnic dialogue may help to correct their mis-perceptions and reduce the mistrust. The parents. that we define an individual’s . Non-violence is very pertinent in this connection. the biological sex can be decided based on physical and anatomical features. T/F intergroup interaction. the concept of non-violence is relevant. in the ultimate analysis. increasing the scope of dialogue across different communities. Lack of people’s involvement and political participation is not a necessary condition for social harmony. At birth. Recapitulation Indian society is multiethnic and consists of diverse groups and communities. there is no solution to the problem of inter group tension excepting the inner growth of serene and benevolent persons who seek their own security and integrity not at the expense of their fellow men but in collaboration with them. Social conflicts and tensions cannot be eliminated from any society. The freedom struggle provided a super ordinate goal to unite the entire nation. and customs. attitudes and feelings. This is possible by creating space for greater l ACTIVITY 10. T/F 3. l A sense of involvement of the deprived and underprivileged groups in the development and implementation of policies and programmes may help to increase the sense of empowerment. a neonate has a sex. The traits that mark a serene and benevolent person are culture relative. Economic disparity and the need for identity are linked with social conflicts. involving people in programmes. have to share the burden of helping children to develop positive attitudes toward different groups and the nation as a whole. Indian society represents a homogenous community. Harmony and cohesiveness are the means for social development T/F 2. which are socio-culturally determined. As Allport says. Try to figure out the degree of similarities and differences across the two communities. GENDER DISCRIMINATION At the time of birth. Religious tolerance and dialogue is crucial.

Psychology and Social Problems 209 BOX 10. It is meant for the common people as well. a God who is half male and half female.g. Hence. At the same time. I claim to be a practical idealist. any generalisation made will fall short of the description of the totality. In other words. national life… By its very nature. Non-violence does not require any outside or outward training. exploitation and discrimination in work places. Males and females have different sex organs and sex hormones. social class. It is the soul-force or the power of Godhead within us. However. This is no sermon on ahimsa but cold reason and the statement of a universal law. I am not a visionary. domestic violence including wife battering. administration. and respect that women deserve. unfortunately. social activism. pilot. The issues related to women’s status in Indian society are linked with caste. The differential socialisation of the two sexes evolved as means for preparing children to assume their sex linked adult roles. early marriage. people frame a whole set of images. Given the unquenchable faith in the law. police service. Traditionally the Indians had the notion of ardhanarishwar. With satya (truth) combined with ahimsa (non-violence). the behavioural differences between the sexes are products of different socialisation practices that reflect training for different adult activities. However. Non-violence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute…. It is found that every society has certain clearly defined and commonly accepted gender differences in behaviour. and the traditions prevailing in various subcultures and communities to which people belong. Let us examine the broad trends that are visible in the Indian society. That is its beauty. it can effectively control and guide power without capturing the machinery of government. can work wonders. some events and incidents do provide indicators of the status of women in society. economic status of the family. Mahatma Gandhi on Non-Violence Non-violence is an active force of the highest order. and expectations about genders. non-violence cannot seize power. values. judiciary. no provocation should prove too great for the exercise of forbearance. on the basis of culture. Some division of labour is found everywhere. the incidence of exploitation of and atrocities on women are quite frequent. However. Satyagrah in its essence is nothing but the introduction of truth and gentleness in the political..e. Imperfect man cannot grasp the whole of that Essence–he would not be able to bear its full blaze. males sometimes share such responsibilities. army. However. For instance food preparation is a task assigned to females in almost all societies. when it becomes active within us. a lot still remains to be done to provide equal opportunity to both the sexes and offer a life of dignity. beliefs. The religion of non-violence is not meant for the rishis or saints. The Domains of Gender Discrimination In contemporary India. The dignity of man requires obedience to a higher law – to the strength of the spirit.. preventing girls from education. nor can that be its goal. child rearing happens to be the responsibility of females.) provides faith in the competence of women. area of residence. Gender is a cultural construction on a biological foundation. However. particularly in jobs that were earlier considered exclusively for men (e. and infanticide are still not uncommon. i. you can bring the world over your feet. corporate management etc. and their increasing participation in professional jobs. type of family structure.3 WHY DOES NON-VIOLENCE WORK? the will not to kill even in retaliation and the courage to face death without revenge. It simply requires gender. Similarly. the status of women has improved from what prevailed in the preindependence India. The mere fact that the sex ratio in the population is unfavourable to women and the literacy rate among the females is low. education. sexual abuse and harassment. but even an infinitesimal fraction of it. non-violence can do more. engineering. The magnitude of sex differences in socialisation is found to be strongly correlated with various features of culture. The presence of women in public sphere. The frequency of events such as bride burning (dowry death). is .

Maharashtra. The skills and attitudes needed to struggle with the demands of the outer world need to be emphasised for the upliftment of women. setting up institutions to support the cause of women’s welfare. BOX 10. Girls usually stay home to help with the household chores or look after the younger siblings while the boys are sent to school. Panchayati Raj). These are helpful in promoting the status of women and enhancing their participation in the mainstream of the society. Kerala.. The life activities demanded close interaction with ecology and the local people. For instance. The findings are as follows: l The girl child in India is discriminated even before birth.. l l l l . Lack of exposure : Due to the lack of exposure women had generally been confined to the roles within the family. They had to enact the roles of daughter. women have formed a cooperative society named SEWA and are running it on their own very successfully. in Gujarat. The Changing Scenario In the recent past. Lack of education : Education happens to be the main instrument of social change. The world outside the home remained alien to them. Customs : Earlier the social mobility was low and people used to live with kith and kin in a community setting. The formal education empowers one with the skills necessary in a fast changing world. The women’s liberation movements have also led to some changes in the sex roles. Gujarat. Such support for the cause of women comes from nongovernmental as well as the government agencies.g. no longer is she allowed to contd. and opens up horizons. the girl finds her movements highly restricted. At mealtimes. mother. The roots of gender discrimination are seen in the experiences of a girl child. urbanisation. Studies on amniocentesis have shown that female foeticide is widespread. Punjab. Provision of education accelerates the process of upward social mobility. Karnataka. The dependence on the father. Rajasthan. sister. and entertainment were organised with family as the basic unit. The resulting conflicts in values and norms have required readjustments and development of modern attitudes. The festivals. and West Bengal on a sample of 13.4 DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE GIRL CHILD Figures on female infanticide are also high in several states.4 shall help you to know more in this context. The women in different parts of the country are becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Some of the important ones closely linked with it are listed below. Dependence on males : In the traditional Indian families women had to be dependent on men for almost everything.. Women had to be embedded in the web of social relationships. and grandmother. social occasions. The trends reported in Box 10. Uttar Pradesh. Legal provisions for increase in the participation of women (e. Orissa. and industrialisation. In one of the pioneering works. and creating schemes to facilitate women’s empowerment have been helpful in changing the situation. Causes of Gender Discrimination Gender discrimination in contemporary Indian society is associated with several factors. she has to cope with deep-rooted gender. Madhya Pradesh. At puberty. the husband and finally on their own children constituted the fate of women. stereotypes and prejudices For instance the birth of a girl is generally not celebrated. Tamil Nadu.200 girls. the girl waits until the men of the family have eaten. Delhi. Their age ranged from 7 to 18 years. Bihar.210 Introduction to Psychology sufficient enough to indicate about the unfavourable conditions of women. Even after the girl is born. Anandlakshmy (1994) studied the status of girl child in Andhra Pradesh. wife. women’s role has been undergoing important changes due to the impact of western education. The intergenerational differences were important.

and assuring new roles and responsibilities. Today. Prepare a report on gender discrimination based on the above-mentioned survey of newspapers. The factors. The social stress and tensions are correlated with population growth. social support. lack of exposure.5. Go through the news items and find out the following: l News items which in any manner are gender discriminatory. the sex ratio is in favour of women.4 percent of the world surface area of 135.Psychology and Social Problems 211 move about freely. The effort to alleviate poverty is also thwarted. dependence on males. Discuss your report with your classmates and teachers. T/F Spread of education and urbanisation has led to change in gender role.5 Understanding Gender Discrimination Take a sample of newspapers for a week. cooking 65%. it is required to support 16. malnutrition. Increase in population is associated with increase in the incidence of starvation. However. l LEARNING CHECKS IV Gender is socially determined while sex is biologically determined. T/F Sex-related stereotypes are found only in India. The various sources of socialisation promote these constructions. legal provisions. T/F l l l l Recapitulation Gender discrimination is a behavioural manifestation of the prejudices against women. Some of the findings about it that may interest you are given in Box 10. T/F In Indian population. (102. l Once she is married. subordinate and powerless. While the country occupies only 2.7 crores) 531 million males and 495. T/F According to current reports of India women are lower in literacy than men. l News items showing women’s empowerment. the girl is often harassed for bringing an inadequate dowry. The girls are part of a social system. With the increase in population. include the lack of education. fetching water 43%.7 million females. ACTIVITY 10. The decreasing sex ratio in the population and the high rate of illiteracy clearly exemplify this. Her marriage becomes a priority. In year 2001. . the country is facing a number of problems. which maintain gender discrimination.79 million sq km. Overcrowding is growing very fast in large cities. Women had been dependent on males in various ways. In order of time spent a girl child is engaged in the following activities: sweeping 72 %. With a view to remove gender discrimination a variety of efforts have been initiated. The study by Anandalakshmy revealed that the celebration of the birth of the girl child was reported by 2% of the respondents. a small section of women have been able to move beyond the traditional role boundaries. They include. unemployment. and social customs. which exploit and keep the women.8 crores). for a large segment of women’s population the situation is grim. it has reached the figure of 1. and child care 33%. In 1901. The gender roles are predominantly social constructions. cleaning 42%.027 million. or for producing a girl child.7 per cent of the total world population. and other programmes by the governmental and nongovernmental agencies. the population of India was 238 million (23. and underemployment. POPULATION EXPLOSION The population in India has grown in an alarming proportion. 78% respondents reported sharing household work with their mothers. attempts to enhance their status.

The initial efforts to study the effect of population density were undertaken in animal laboratories. India has sufficient resources to support its population. When population grows. health facilities. In a traditional society like India. T/F BOX 10. It has been found that FP has been successful in a limited way. Estimate the population (in approximate term) of : l The World l India l Your State l Your City 2. Early marriage and illiteracy are negatively related to the adoption of family planning. T/F 6. The challenge is to provide support to a very large population with limited resources. The high density aggravates pollution of air and water. and civic amenities. The LEARNING CHECKS V 1.212 Introduction to Psychology Controlling Population Growth through Family Planning In order to control the population growth. and the amount of space available per person. The presence of large number of people in limited space leads to the feeling of crowding. The important ones are as follows: l Low economic security. Studies show that crowding leads to negative feelings. family planning (FP) methods are required. a) How urgent is the need to control the population growth? b) What is the possibility that India will be able to successfully control the population growth? c) What steps are needed to control the population explosion? Discuss the findings with your teacher and classmates. family planning has proved to be a real challenge. and the invasion of space. High population density leads to crowding which has negative effect on mental health and pattern of social interaction. l Lack of health consciousness. mortality. ACTIVITY 10. l High child mortality. High populations density is unrelated to task performance. The open space also becomes limited. T/F 4. . stress. it grows not only in size but also because of limited and depleted resources it grows in density. T/F 5. unemployment. T/F 2.5 CROWDING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES The population explosion has major impacts on the environment and the quality of people’s life. The adoption of family planning depends on effective communication. and migration. T/F 3. The density has two components: Number of people in a given space. The adoption of FP methods by the people is a major challenge. l Misconceptions about FP. The Government has undertaken a number of steps to popularise FP adoption including incentives for adopting small families norms. This pressure is creating a variety of problems related to the production of food. The use of mass media particularly TV has been found helpful to popularise the message of FP. anxiety. l Struggle for land and property ownership. Answer the following questions. l Religious beliefs. The reasons why it is not popular are many. Population growth adversely affects the quality of life of the people.6 People’s Perception of Population Explosion Meet two young and two old persons and ask them to do the following: 1. These studies showed negative physiological and behavioural effects. The population of India has been growing very fast. Recapitulation The growth of population depends upon fertility.

though. and misconceptions about the use of contraceptive methods. violence and sex. which suggest that viewing violence promotes aggressive behaviour. and (2) distorts their perception of the reality. Today TV has become an important and integral part of the life of the people. Today. lack of economic security. Let us examine some of its major consequences.Psychology and Social Problems 213 Control of population growth requires successful adoption of family planning methods. effective. feelings. Such measures were not adopted by people whole-heartedly for reasons like: high rate of child mortality. Education : The TV has opened the possibility of distance education. Various methods of persuasion are being used to promote family planning. attitudes. The children. Redefining Human Motivation : The media has brought about many changes that are taking place in the psyche of the people.. The experiments suggest that prolonged viewing of violence has two effects: (1) It desensitises the people towards cruelty. Viewing others performing an antisocial act can loosen the viewer’s inhibition or restraints. power point presentation) make the mode of communication very effective. The role of media in educating people formally as well as informally is significant. representation.g. compact disk. adults and the aged all are under its impact. the media performs many functions such as information.g. The TV is also used to reach to the villages in remote areas and for educating the people about agriculture and family planning. The media changes beliefs and shapes our perceptions in many important ways. The media portrayals evoke imitation in the viewers. and behaviours by selectively emphasising certain aspects of life and making them salient. particularly. recreation. and organising everyday activities. News Papers. education. The rapidly shrinking world and shrinking time scale offer a new level of connectivity that was earlier unthinkable. and electronic (e. Radio. has become a very important social issue. All these modern achievements of science and technology are fast changing the educational scenario. Studies on children indicate that the more violent the content of the child’s TV viewing. reality construction. The computer aided audio-visual aids (e. The children are showing greatest impact of the electronic media like TV. It is shaping our life in an unprecedented manner. IMPACT OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION REVOLUTION The media is considered as a powerful force in the modern life. Media not only presents the reality to us but also constructs it. Some Consequences of Communication Revolution The changes in communication technology have wide-ranging consequences for human life. Internet). the fast. The media is providing legitimacy and authenticity to the elements of reality of every day life. All of them are changing our beliefs. and large coverage of information flow across the world has made this world shrink to a global village. Through the cognitive input and offerings of lifelike experiences. Time and space are being redefined by the communication technology. The world of the media is diverse and comes in different modes including print. the depiction of aggression. There have been experimental studies. The printed words and the life like reality presented by the TV provide information that help people to plan their actions. The lectures are aired on the TV and are accessible to a very large number of students in different regions. The influence of media. The information and access to a large variety of products and consumer goods are made . TV.. The search and retrieval of information from anywhere in the world has become possible through the Internet. We monitor our activities in today’s fast moving world and organise them very effectively. the more aggressive the child becomes. Magazines. India has been able to keep pace with the advances in the media and communication technology. the nature of impact varies. audio-visual.

214 Introduction to Psychology possible by the media. Children are most vulnerable to TV and exposure to violence on TV has many negative effects. cell phone. apply for jobs. The timings of work. The advances in communication technology are useful for educational expansion. booking ticket for travel. People migrate from villages to cities in search of greater and more attractive . sports and many social issues. interests. and leisure activities are being redefined. T/F URBANISATION Urbanisation refers to the process of increase in the number of points at which population concentrates and a growth in the size of these concentrations. The public opinion is mediated by the flow of information from the media. patterns of social interactions. LEARNING CHECKS VI 1. record keeping. read novels. to 5 p. however. The migration of people from the villages is the main cause of urbanisation. The models. Advertising and the use of models have influenced even the emotional lives of the people. Media is substituting the first hand direct experience. The electronic media is effectively being used to promote the participation of the people in politics. Recapitulation In contemporary life. This new technology. and work experiences are being influenced by the media and the new communication technology. modified. The social reality is now mediated by the media. actors. people shift from agrarian occupation to industrial and service occupations. Creating websites and using them for legal and illegal purposes are not without problems. watch movies. the media is increasingly assuming a significant role. It has promoted consumerism. while interaction and connectivity have expanded across the globe.m. They are defining and organising our personal and social experiences. and used for a variety of purposes with unprecedented speed and accuracy. Unfortunately. T/F 3. transparency. and awareness about multiple products. Cutthroat competition is another outcome of advertising. and hierarchical structure. transferred. and attitudes of the younger generation. is not free from problems. the quality of interaction with neighbours and the community has gone down. do banking. send e-mails. people may not be required to attend office from 9 a. socialising. Communication technology has enhanced the connectivity across the people. Through the internet people can work from home or any place where they are located. With the help of Internet. T/F 4. The media exposure is promoting consumerism. T/F 5. confidentiality of information. It has increased the level of awareness of the people. and hacking. Reorganisation of Social Life : The developments in communication technology have revolutionised the life of the people.m. and have a powerful impact on the life goals. generating new needs. and actresses in cinema become role models. Media is changing the meaning of time and space and bringing the world more and more closer. Human aspirations. The impact of the media and communication revolution is seen on different aspects of life. The Internet is used to advertise. perform the office job from home or any place. Children are not able to discriminate the reality and its representation. T/F 2. Communication revolution has increased the distances across the globe. The bureaucratic structure is changing because the information can be kept in computers and can be accessed. This has produced tremendous impact and regulated the interaction pattern among the people. do shopping. With urbanisation. The users of computer are familiar with viruses. filing and paper work. and chat with people. Reorganisation of Work : The advances in the communication technology have implications for the structure of organisations. Increase in Public Awareness : The electronic media has accelerated the process of dissemination of information. The laws regulating the use of cyber space are also not well defined.

The cities are growing in size and adjunct rural areas are being acquired and made part of cities. The type of kitchen. The references to two different types of habitations i. etc. medical. economic options. work on a fast pace. Today a city represents a relatively large.7 Electronic Media and its Messages During free time. Most of the cities in India are facing various kinds of problems. and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals. 3. administration.Psychology and Social Problems 215 ACTIVITY 10. The life in cities is fast and very demanding.. In ancient. activities. The urban people have an acute sense of time. Town and urban planning has become a major responsibility of the Government. ________________________ 2. ________________________ 3. ________________________ Contents of Messages Conveyed _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Target Population ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ After collecting. religion. family. Name of the Programme 1. caste. transportation. for an hour. the grama and the nagar have a long tradition in India. While watching the TV note down the following information. ________________________ 4. Discuss the findings with your teacher and classmates. As cities happen to be the place for transacting business. They have elements of continuity as well as change. Consumerism and market orientation are the keys of urbanisation. The face-to-face interaction is being substituted by indirect and mediated interaction. Problems with Urbanisation Urbanisation has led to many problems that destabilise the life of the people. watch the TV carefully in the morning or in the evening. the above data try to find out what are the motivational implications of these messages. and general organisation of home provide a different structure of home. The urban centres. they have become the centres of power. however.. The cities differ from the villages in many respects. These problems are caused by the continued migration of population from the . Majority of the people who had migrated from villages now live in the cities as tenants. contractual. They work under tremendous pressure of time and therefore. A city was populated by traders and industrial workers with adequate amenities of life. politics. Some important features of urban life are as follows. 4. India Panini has referred to them. pose various challenges for the inhabitants and for governance. planned. food habits. 5.e. The urban settlements in India have undergone basic changes over the centuries. commercial and educational. 1. The friendship circle of the urban people is based more on the professional relationship than kinship. The studies of various cities in India show that social institutions like marriage. present a mixed picture. The village stood for simplicity and accommodated village craftsmen and agriculturists. kinship. 6. The spontaneity is being replaced by sophistication and rationality. The interpersonal relationships are becoming formal. and calculated. dense. 2.

The city dwellers do not want to get involved. The cooperation of people with government machinery is necessary. fast. The mounting social conflicts lead to demonstrations. use of drugs etc. To keep pace with the housing needs of the people is a major challenge. or absence of facilities or amenities. and institutional structure. and at times fights that creates a law and order problem. Disease. The streets are choked with traffic. crime and drug addiction are very common in these slums. law and order and transportation problems. which endanger the health. Maintenance of City : With the burden of growing population the basic infrastructure of many cities is crumbling down. and political will. You often must have read in news where people are murdered while others merely stand by and watch. The high-rise buildings have their own problems. corruption. Ask them to list the problems and advantages they have experienced. Recapitulation Urbanisation involves increase in the concentration of population and change in the occupational structure. The life in cities is becoming more impersonal. murders. and the mode of transportation. Some houses are overcrowded. waste disposal etc) mark the life of the majority of the Indian cities. ACTIVITY 10.) are on the increase in the cities. rallies. Crowding results in competition. The pattern of formal social interaction.g. Urban centres and villages differ in terms of social structure. and technology dependent.8 Psychology and the Advantages of Urban Life Meet three persons who have undergone the experiences of urban life for at least five years. organisation of home environment and use of gadgets distinguish urban life from rural life. It is gratifying that preserving green space and creating community facilities is getting the attention in the new towns. Transportation and Traffic : Public transportation system is a top priority since people have to commute long distances to earn their livelihood. The Growth of Slums : A slum is an area characterised by overcrowding. It is caused mainly by the migration of population from villages. Urbanisation has resulted in the growth of slums. safety. municipal services. drinking water. Law and Order : Crimes of various types (e. crowding. unsanitary conditions. huge investment. people’s participation.. Discuss your results with the classmates and teacher. The Challenge Maintenance of the cities and arresting their deterioration require long-term planning. There is mixed and incompatible land use. Crowding and Depersonalisation: Crowding is a difficult problem faced in the cities. Most of the Indian cities are showing a rapid growth of slums. Housing Problems : Housing in the city is a persistent problem. transport. These will be of little help if the necessary changes in attitude and behaviour do not take place. concern for time. Maintaining cities and providing the necessary support is becoming a major challenge. Analyse the answers and prepare an account of urban life. housing problems. so does the pollution. The number of automobiles multiplies.. All these adversely affect the mental and physical health of the people. Multi-storeyed accommodations are increasing. This kind of awareness is gradually emerging and new towns and colonies are being established with sufficient planning keeping in view the needs of residents and ecological balance. Growing deterioration in public utilities.g. Some of the major problems are stated below. . and morals of its inhabitants. housing pattern. professional friendship. immoral trafficking. Personal transport is not available to majority of the people. and high infant mortality. Bystander apathy is very common.216 Introduction to Psychology villages. the technological changes. sewage. and community facilities (e. social density. and traffic jam disrupts life of people.

T/F The behaviour of urban people is less rational and sophisticated than their counterparts. It is defined and measured in different ways leading to different numbers of people below poverty line. Psychological researches have indicated that poverty arrests the developmental potential. Comparisons of socially disadvantaged and advantaged groups indicate that the former show low level of performance on learning. In general. There are few who against all odds survive and grow. perceptual and cognitive tasks. NGO’s efforts and psychological intervention have been undertaken. Deprivation.Psychology and Social Problems 217 LEARNING CHECKS VII l Key Terms Poverty. Social Disadvantage. Being a central problem removal of poverty has received priority and a number of programmes in terms of asset provision. T/F City involves socially homogenous and temporary settlements. India is experiencing a large number of social problems. As an emerging developing country. which are not explicitly considered as problems because people are not aware of them. Urbanisation. Identity. The experience of poverty occur when people lack or do not have access to resources. the culture of poor people. Their motivation and aspiration level is at a lower level.g. overcrowding. Gender. The causes of poverty have been identified in the poor. T/F The pace of urban life is becoming more and more stressful. Sex. Density. Social Problem.. Non-violence. In addition. However. Nation. T/F Consumerism is in greater strength in the urban people. there are some problems. Such invulnerable people are found because of extra motivation. legal protection. or the broader social structure. Crowding. poverty and related phenomena make people vulnerable. T/F Crowding and bystander apathy is low in cities than rural areas. The problem of poverty persists and more vigorous attack on poverty at the individual and the structural levels is required. l l l l . Poverty is a primary social problem. Some are primary while others are secondary and tertiary because they emanate from the primary problem. They are latent problems (e. Majority of the urban population is engaged in industrial and service occupation. presence of a role model or support. Poverty may be relative or absolute. Social disadvantage stands for deprivations linked with membership of specific groups. environmental pollution). and protective reservation have been launched. T/F l l l l l SUMMARY l Social problems are those conditions which are considered by a large section of population as a problem. community based interventions.

it is important to respect and reciprocate the distinct identities. With the growth in the size. healthy housing. and patterns of social interactions in the urban areas are different from what we find in the rural area. We know about and interact with our world through the audio visual. While the notions of the village and the city have ancient roots in India. institutional support. and accurate. The legal provisions. Being a country with diversities in language. and special programmes initiated by the government are trying to uplift the status of women. the degradation of environment and the poor infrastructure to support law and order. customs. modern cities are the consequence of industrialisation. dialogue. Their occupations are more important. and social institutions. Inability to control the growing population impairs the economic growth. A more effective communication and motivational mechanism need to be used to control population growth. cities are facing a variety of problems such as the growth of slums. The domain of women has been restricted to home and dependent on the male members. deteriorating law and order. easier. promoting inter faith communication. and shape our choices in related matters. and non-violence need to be stressed in social life. crowding and traffic. viewing violence is often linked with the increase in violence in real life. Most of the Indian cities are becoming heterogeneous entities where the people from different regions and social backgrounds live.218 l Introduction to Psychology National integration is emerging as a serious social problem before the Indian society. The media and communication revolution are drastically changing our world. The problems of unemployment. The media is shaping the minds and habits of the people by providing selective exposure to certain kinds of information and experiences. transport. The life style. particularly its economy. Lack of education and exposure. The media also informs us about values. electronic. The move from the agrarian or rural mode of life towards the urban mode of life is a major event. While freedom struggle articulated a common goal for the whole nation. politics. Increasing interdependence and dialogue across groups. Discrimination against women presents a major challenge. Housing. life style. and the high rate of child mortality are the major causes for non-adoption of family planning measures. economic insecurity. the inadequate health and other facilities are to a large extent due to the high rate of population growth. the experiences in the last five decades indicate increasing degree of social tension in different parts of the country. The exposure to the media sensitises us in relation to certain kinds of events. Population growth has become a key issue before the planners and policy makers of India. and parental education can help to enhance mutual cooperation and national integration. Thus. traditional customs and the dependence on males has hindered their growth. spatial organisation. The new gadgets are making interaction and connectivity across the globe very effective. and religion etc.. including the work habits and leisure time activities are now shaped by the media. The communication revolution has made communication faster. The expansion of urbanisation is changing the shape of our society. culture. The gender roles are socially created and sustained. The misconceptions about family planning–measures. Tolerance. etc. l l l l . and print media.

T. T. F . T : 1. 2. T. 5. T. F. 2. F. F. 3. 6. T. T. F. T. 2. 6. T. 2. How do you define a social problem? What are the psychological consequences of poverty? How does poverty affect the development of the individual and the society? What are the challenges for national integration? What are the causes and manifestations of gender discrimination? What is the impact of media and communication revolution on social life? Explain the various dimensions of population explosion? What are the effects of urbanisation? ANSWERS I II TO LEARNING CHECKS : 1. 6. 2. 6. 4. F. T III : 1. F. T. 3. 4. F. F. F. T VII : 1. 3. 7. 5. 6. 7. 5. T. T IV : 1. T. 3. 3. F. 4. 2. F. T. T. F. F. T. T. T. 3.Psychology and Social Problems 219 Review Questions 1. 4. 4. T. 3. 5. 2. 3.F V : 1. 6. T. 5. 2. T VI : 1. 4. F. T. 6. 5. F. 5. 8. 4. T. 5. 4.

1) Ethics of Counseling Testing Skills: Applying Psychological Tests CHAPTER COVERS Ä Introduction to the domains of psychological applications Ä The challenges in developing as a psychologist Ä Learning about some of the important skills for becoming a psychologist Ä Awareness about counseling. Ä understand the need to develop skills among psychologists Ä describe some major domains in which professional preparation is required. psychological testing. Key Terms Summary Review Questions Answers to Learning Checks . Mentally and Socially Challenged BOX 11..2) Communication Skills Interviewing Skills (Organising Rehabilitation Services for Physically.4). (Empathy and Self Discipline BOX 11.OR AN E.ECTIVE PSYCHOLOGIST CONTENTS Introduction Developing as a Psychologist What is counseling ? The Stages of counseling Process Characteristics and Skills of an Effective Counselor Case Study (BOX 11. interviewing and communication skills BY THE END OF THIS CHAPTER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO Guidelines for Test Selection (11.220 Introduction to Psychology 11 THIS SKILLS NEEDED .3). and Ä appreciate basic aspects of the skills of counseling. psychological testing interviewing and communication.

psychological testing. hospitals. In all these areas. . the careers of psychologists in different areas demand specialised professional training. Such activities require development of certain skills. it will be useful to have some idea about the preparation required for becoming a good psychologist. If you are facing a personal problem. school. They are playing different roles and carrying out various kinds of responsibilities.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 221 INTRODUCTION People often keep telling others that “I know your psychology”. schools. developmental. forensic. You have learnt about methods that are used to produce psychological knowledge in Class XI textbook. health. consultancy concerns. Like other disciplines. defence establishments and a variety of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The applications of psychological principles and research findings to solve everyday problems at individual and institutional levels are substantially increasing. consumer. educational. Becoming an effective psychologist requires that one should not only have theoretical understanding but must have the requisite skills and competencies. Today a large number of psychologists are working in different settings such as. business houses. clinical. psychology as a discipline claims expertise in handling psychological problems. However. On the other hand. dealing with people is quite challenging. environment. community. The specialised fields of psychology like industrial/organisational. and military provide diverse opportunities to apply psychological knowledge. You have also learnt about the application of psychological knowledge in day-today life constitutes an important goal of psychology. While you are not mature enough to become a professional psychologist right now. aviation. To this end four skills namely counseling. This chapter has the modest goal of helping you understand the process of becoming a psychologist as well as to know about some specific skills important to the work of psychologists. counseling. the basic responsibility of psychologists is to do something to help people and improve their quality of life. agencies of market-research. many of your acquaintances will comment that it is a psychological problem. communicating and interviewing are described. As a scientific enterprise psychology has developed theories in many areas and as professional psychologists do meaningful things in day-to-day life with the available psychological knowledge. cognitive.

Only then do they arrive at dependable generalisations that can be used. They have to accept appropriate responsibility for their behaviour. and institutional affiliations of the claimant can give a pretty good basis for distinguishing the pseudo psychologists from psychologists. may misfire. and autonomy (Refer to ethical guidelines given in Chapter 2 of class XI textbook). and adapt their methods to suit the needs of diverse groups. however. As has been pointed out earlier the specific demands of various roles that a psychologist may like to play need specialised training and experience. employees. As a professional practitioner (e. As a psychologist. as noted earlier operate in the hussel-bussel of life and use the professional knowledge for problem solving in different spheres. Also. honest. they need to take care of the welfare of their patients or clients. Concern for Others’ Welfare : It is the duty of psychologists to contribute to the welfare of those with whom they interact professionally. some of the qualities of psychologists are described below. As professional psychologists. a psychologist has to use the knowledge and skills to deliver the required services to individuals and institutions. school psychologist. Psychologists should not exploit or mislead other people during or beyond the span of professional relationship. “identity crisis”. motivation and values. People do talk about “IQ”. 2. The researcher take the problems to the level of scientific research in laboratory and other controlled setting. dignity. clients. For instance. educational background. however. and worth of the people with whom they interact. 5. or experience. counselor. you need to respect the rights of the participants and clients to privacy. students. In the present context. Who is an Effective Psychologist? Becoming an effective psychologist shall require a fine blend of knowledge. . they need to be aware of the obligations to the community and society in which they live. which are needed to become an effective psychologist. it will suffice to draw attention to certain basic and general aspects of the process of becoming a psychologist. self-determination. confidentiality. “lie detectors”. This requires that a psychologist must maintain integrity and objectivity. “mental blocks”. 4. He or she should remain neutral and remain unbiased. They must share egalitarian values. Respect for People’s Right and Dignity: Psychologists must accord respect to the fundamental rights. or other recipients of the services. Naïve use of this kind of amateurish psychology. Asking certain relevant queries like. and so many other terms during everyday conversations. Psychologists should be aware of cultural and individual differences and try to eliminate the effect of such biases. 1. Competence : Psychologists provide only those services and use only those techniques for which they are qualified in terms of education.g. people pick up these terms from popular writings and media and may not be entirely wrong in their understandings.. Responsibility : Psychologists have responsibility to uphold the professional standards of conduct and obligations. Generally. Keeping this in view.222 Introduction to Psychology DEVELOPING AS A PSYCHOLOGIST Anybody can think and pretend that he/she is a psychologist. “inferiority complex”. 3. Therefore as a psychologist. human relations (HR) consultant). clinical psychologist. In the capacity of a researcher a psychologist is primarily concerned with contributing to the growth of knowledge in a given field. training. child psychologist. skills. Let us try to understand those qualities. personnel manager. Others. co-workers. Scientific Temper : As you are aware scientific work is based on the premise of objective pursuit of public and verifiable knowledge. you are expected to maintain high standards of work and recognise the boundaries of your competencies and limitations of expertise. We need both types of psychologists. and fair in conduct. the professional training. you have to serve the best interests of your patients. What is more crucial is the professional training required to become an accomplished psychologist both as a researcher as well as practitioner.

scientific temper. respect for people’s right and dignity. He/she must register and attend to the behaviours and events that take place in any situation. A skilful observer alone can identify the problems and prepare relevant interventions. decisionmaking skills. you must have seen that people differ widely with respect to their ideas and views. beliefs (e. responsibility. The knowledge and skills needed by a psychologist are of general and specific types. He or she needs to be sensitive enough to the interactions that take place between individuals. But we also learn by doing (practical knowledge).g. Openness to Ideas : You must have noticed that there are many theoretical perspectives in psychology..Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 223 6. ways of thinking about oneself. T/F 3.g. T/F 5. openness to ideas and ability to observe. to have a successful career as a psychologist. skills. Some basic knowledge and skills are applicable everywhere as some are specific to a particular context. Therefore. 8. counseling is an interactive process characterised by a unique relationship between Counselor (help giver) and client (help receiver) that leads to change in the client’s overt behaviour (e. While the details of all the relevant skills are beyond the scope of this chapter a brief description of the major skills. counseling. action. you need to posses theoretical knowledge of the contents of psychology. T/F 2. research. Observation is not an important skill for an effective psychologist. and the world). Thus. The theoretical and practical knowledge of the contents of psychology. Interpersonal Sensitivity : Human behaviours usually occur in social settings and the cultural context provides meaning to it (see Chapter 4 of class XI textbook). Thus. Recapitulation Psychologists have to play various roles to meet diverse demands. coping skills. Becoming a Counselor requires professional training under supervision of a competent and experienced Counselor. There are many skills required of a psychologist including helping. A good psychologist is able to attend to the nuances. 7. He/she should be open to diverse ideas. namely counseling. communicating and interviewing is being given below. and so on. The theoretical knowledge one may acquire by understanding the theories and principles of human behaviour. others. skills. communicating. and values are also important to become an effective psychologist. Ability to Observe : In order to deal effectively with others a psychologist should be a keen observer. concern for others welfare. methods and theories. A psychologist must appreciate this diversity and need not be rigid in his or her approach or attitude. T/F WHAT IS COUNSELING? Counseling refers to the helping relationship that includes someone seeking help and someone willing to give help. and level of emotional distress. There are no definite professional standards of conduct for psychologists. meaning of any verbal or nonverbal behaviour is embedded in its sociocultural context. Becoming an effective psychologist requires the theoretical understanding of tools. Also. It will help you to appreciate the kind of skills that professional psychologists must possess. motivation. Some qualities of good psychologist are : competence. LEARNING CHECKS I 1. Integrity and objectivity are important for becoming an effective psychologist. and motivation. testing. The help giver is capable of or trained for helping and works in a setting that permits help to be given and received. interpersonal sensitivity. A good psychologist maintains the privacy and confidentiality of their clients. testing. relationship skills). To deliver services to individuals and institutions requires specialised training and experience.. . T/F 4.

Therefore. peers. It begins with establishment of contact between Counselor and the client. a Counselor gets training in specialised techniques under the supervision of a senior practicing Counselor. a Counselor feels rewarded because his or her efforts at helping the client have been productive and therapeutic. Similarly. responding. (a) Initial Disclosure : At the beginning the Counselor and the client do not know one another well. the client and Counselor both need to know that they are moving in the same direction i. However. interviewing. Owning the Problems : It means that client is able to accept the responsibility for his or her problems.e. The feeling of progress will occur if the client begins to relate or behave efficiently during the process of counseling. In actual practice. effort and money.224 Introduction to Psychology People often carry many misconceptions about counseling. which appear similar to counseling. In real life. Let us examine these stages in some more detail. l Counselors and clients both exchange verbal and non-verbal messages during the process of counseling. The important gains of counseling for clients are given below. selecting people for jobs etc. Owning the problem is often the first step towards solving them. Some of the major elements of counseling are as follows : l It is a voluntary process in which a Counselor responds to the feelings. advice. Then the Counselor endeavours to understand the client’s needs and desires. Therefore. and interacting in situations or with others. for counseling to be effective. Without honest self-disclosure by the client. Acquiring New Behaviours and Actions : In addition to developing greater understanding of the issues. Developing Effective Relationships : Most of the people (clients) who seek help from Counselor. attending . The client-Counselor relationship during counseling is often the first step towards developing a meaningful relationship with others. establishing rapport becomes the first task. the stages common to most of the counseling techniques are described below. counseling is an empty enterprise. the client also needs to acquire more effective ways of behaving in the situation. therefore important to be aware of and be sensitive to the kind of messages present. thoughts. their goals converge. This helps them to perceive reality more clearly and gain control over their reactions to the problem. the goals and the ways of achieving those goals must be identified. There are three progressive stages in the counseling process. both the client and Counselor spend significant time. Often clients come for counseling and blame people or environmental factors for their problems. In counseling. It is. and community members is essential for clients in order to develop meaningful relationships with others. Developing Understanding of Problems : Once the client develops some sense of responsibility of the problem he/she is able to develop understanding and get an insight into the problems. such as giving information. but are not counseling. Social support from family. Finally. At the outset of counseling. To avoid repeating their ineffective behaviour patterns clients should develop new ways of behaving. l A Counselor focuses attention on the specific problem of the clients. It is often confused with many related activities. discussing those variations is beyond the scope of this chapter. l The setting of counseling maintains confidentiality and privacy. The Counselor’s task is to allay the client’s fear and encourage selfdisclosure. do not have effective or satisfying relationships. and actions of the clients. The Stages of Counseling Process Counseling process is guided by the theoretical orientation held by the Counselor. Therefore. While coming to the Counselor the client experiences two types of feelings: “I know I need help” and “I wish I were not here”. l It requires acceptance of the client’s perceptions and feelings. friends. l A Counselor does not use coercion to obtain information from the client. counseling is done as a systematic intervention in the life of a person who is willing to seek help.

2. Helping specify goals and translating goals into concrete plans for change. genuineness (or dependable). Extending the client’s build a trusting and ability to understand working relationship. When the client is satisfied that the new behaviours or the new conceptions are working satisfactorily. In-depth Explorations the 1. self and others. These stages are summarised in Table 11. paying careful attention to the clients words and actions) is very important. using clear language to describe the client’s life situation). Re-evaluating unsuccessful actions and rewarding client successes.e. Building deeper understanding of the meanings of personal concerns. facial expression. (c) Undertaking Action : This is the stage in which decision-making takes place and action is undertaken. the major problem(s). Engaging the client to develop a mutually agreeable assessment of the problem(s). (b) In-depth Exploration : During this stage. The Counselor demonstrates attending by posture.1 Summary of the Stages in the Counseling Process Disclosure during the first stage Client’s Activities 1. . and eye contact. Developing specific goals for change.e. 2. counseling ends. 3. 2. This stage frequently becomes emotionally stressful because the client repeatedly faces the inadequacy of habitual behaviours and must learn to give up the old behaviours for the new learnt during the counseling process. 2. Counselor’s Activities 1. the Counselor and client come to a mutually acceptable assessment and diagnosis of the problems. the Counselor must promote trust in the client by showing empathy (understanding others experience as if it were your own). Carrying out actions that will accomplish those goals. The Counselor gives support for trying new behaviours and helps the client evaluate the effectiveness of new behaviours or new conceptions of reality as they may relate to the reduction of stress. Clarifying spontaneous 2. the Counselor brings into the discussion his/ her impressions of the client’s dynamics and coping behaviours. Building a positive end to Counseling when the goals are achieved. Communicating nature of concerns. In addition. The client considers possible actions and then chooses some of them to try out. The Counselor tries to obtain the client’s response about whether the counseling process is progressing satisfactorily and also expresses his/her opinion about the progress achieved in a few counseling sessions..1. 3. Table 11. Also. Undertaking Action 1.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 225 (i. Joining with the meanings of the concerns Counselor to assess through disclosure. Taking decisions to reach those goals. unconditional positive regard (total acceptance of the client as he or she is) and overtness (i. Providing therapeutic conditions that will 1.

and limitations. It has been found that those who have greater sensitivity are able to cope better. He or she must view the client as a worthwhile person and treat him/her with warmth and dignity. It is also important to learn to alter voice and change the volume. ‘I see’. and coping style. A case study consists of observations of a single individual or a group of individuals. It helps in understanding and describing the personality and behaviour of the individual. why they are doing it. It involves perceiving and communicating.226 Introduction to Psychology Characteristics and Skills of an Effective Counselor Though in counseling the client and Counselor both work together towards the desired outcomes. Use of short verbal encouragers like ‘Ya!’. present or anticipated in the future that are likely to account for current behaviour. Inferences usually are drawn about factors in one’s past. A Counselor must be in good psychological health. CASE STUDY description captures as much as possible of the unique characteristics of the individual and his or her situation. In order to become an effective Counselor one must develop the following qualities. The Counselor must have attentiveness. who is popularly known as a ‘case’. The Counselor must have respect for the client. ‘Go on’. A Counselor has to be sincere and must not mislead or present facades to clients. BOX 11. 3. Sensitivity means that the Counselor is aware of the client’s strengths. 2. They do not push clients to follow a particular belief or value system. facial expression (smile. These cues should be adapted according to the needs of the situation and the client. specifically selected for the study. Perceiving is an intense process of active listening by the Counselor. 1. The observations are reported in detail so that the . which are their problems.3. Empathy involves sensitivity to the client’s problems and being able to see things. Counselors maintain objectivity in their dealings with the clients. Counselors lacking psychological health. in communicating the Counselor says something that tells the client that his or her meanings and feelings are understood. It means understanding one’s own needs. Non-verbal attentiveness includes eye contact. feelings. frown). and which problems belong to the client. 6. Open-mindedness in Counselors suggests freedom from fixed or preconceived ideas. 4. It may be verbal or nonverbal. ‘Mm-mm’ and so forth are ways of demonstrating verbal attentiveness. these inferences are subjective evaluations or interpretations. He or she should not be distracted by one’s own problems. Open-mindedness does not mean that Counselors are amoral or have no personal values or beliefs. the way the client does. personal strengths. it is the Counselor who as a trained helper ensures that the client benefits. 7. cause greater anxiety in the person who is in the need of help. Cultural sensitivity and the knowledge of cultures different from the Counselor’s own are important to the effective use of empathy. Open-minded Counselors are aware of their beliefs or values but are able to distinguish them from those of their clients. A Counselor should have awareness and understanding of one’s own self. It requires the Counselor to be aware of his own biases while dealing with the problems of clients. limitations. The case study is useful for the study of an individual client. 8. They contd.1 5. A related quality is that of genuineness. In order to know more about empathy you are encouraged to study Box 11. Verbal attentiveness involves what is expressed to the client and the way it is expressed. As you can see.. pitch and speed depending on the client’s reactions and situations.. understand the client’s verbal and non-verbal messages and are also able to apply strategy for each client in a unique fashion. body posture and distance. Allowing clients to complete their sentences is one way of showing verbal attentiveness. On the other hand. head nods. This would help Counselors to understand themselves sufficiently and to know exactly what they are doing.

Any recording of relevant information should be done only after obtaining permission from the client. The value of case study is that it serves as a source of ideas and hypotheses about behaviour. professional disclosure. Counseling proceeds through three main stages : initial disclosure. Professional Disclosure : A Counselor must represent his or her professional qualifications and experiences correctly to the client. Referral and Termination : Counselors must also protect their clients while making referral or termination of counseling process. ETHICS OF COUNSELING of counseling much in advance to the actual termination. open-mindedness. in-depth exploration. In order to become an effective Counselor one must develop qualities such as : awareness and understanding of one’s own self. and offers permissive appeal and motivational value that may foster research. there are distinct limitations of the case study. training and qualifications. . and the area of specialisation. Further. Counselor should have knowledge about the ethical issues such as confidentiality. These situations must be handled with sensitivity. observations arising from audio or video tape recordings. Results from a case study can be reinterpreted in so many ways that specific conclusions cannot be drawn without ambiguity. Imagine the problems you have had to grapple with or are struggling with now. fee (if any). overt behavioural assessment. objectivity respect. The Counselor while referring should give the name of competent and qualified Counselors and not of ill-reputed counselors. Confidentiality : Counselors are ethically obliged to keep the information of the client confidential. This means that a Counselor should not talk to anyone about the client’s problems without prior permission from the client. It is also subject to the researchers’ bias. Now write down simple sentences in response to the following questions. allows the study of rare individual/phenomenon that may provide a counter instance to an accepted belief about personality and behaviour. This information should contain Counselor’s background. To overcome these problems. (a) What would I want to get out of seeing a Counselor? (b) What would I want the Counselor to be like? (c) How would I want to be treated ? Discuss your statements with your classmates and teacher. They have legal implications too. and undertaking action. Recapitulation Counseling is a helping relationship. sensitivity. good psychological health. professional relationship and referral and termination. which involves responding to the thoughts. However. ACTIVITY 11. Then consider yourself dealing with these problems with a Counselor. It may be noted that many of them also apply to psychologists engaged in other fields as well.1 Understanding the Role of a Counselor l It is important for Counselor to have knowledge about the ethical issues involved in the profession of counseling. feelings and actions of clients by a trained Counselor. for others attentiveness and empathy. Some of the principles are given below. various measures can also be administered.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 227 should be distinguished from more objective measures such as standardised tests or questionnaire or direct observation of behaviour. Professional Relationships : Counselors need to respect and protect their clients. This means that Counselors should not engage in any other kind of relationship with client that could doubt the Counselor’s objectivity and judgment and interfere with the therapeutic process. and so on. Counselors should discuss with the client the termination Think of yourself as a client. generalising from an individual case to people in general is tenuous. including self-report inventories.

needs. is required to follow test instructions precisely. validity. T/F 2. T/F TESTING SKILLS: APPLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Use of tests is one of the very widely used domain of psychological skills. the types and characteristics of tests are not discussed. One should not permit unsupervised or inadequately supervised use of tests unless they are designed. Referral is a not a part of counseling process. The first most crucial aspect of counseling process is to make the client accept and own the problem. it is used in industrial. You have already learned about the nature and types of tests in relation to the analyses of intelligence and personality.228 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS II 1. promotion). T/F 4. achievement. So. Tests of various kinds (e. Preparation for Test Administration : Examiners must make advance preparation for the testing session.. and scoring and interpretation of test scores need theoretical knowledge as well as professional skills. and attitudes while giving help. The testing condition should be free from noise. one should memorise the instructions and have thorough familiarity with specific testing procedures. some information about tests was given in the Chapter 2 of class XI textbook. Careful control of testing conditions also need to be maintained. and seating facility. educational and other fields. As a tool to assess psychological properties. It is advisable that demonstration and practice sessions should be undertaken before actual test administration. temporary emotional/physical state). Counselor must be aware of his or her own motives. Prior to test administration. standardisation. Test Security : The examiners maintain the integrity and security of tests consistent with legal and contractual obligations. social. conditions that produce most favourable test results are made known to the person who is being tested called as examinee. Counseling is a process of giving advice or help a person in need. ability. norms) should be taken care of. its administration. “Testing in . aptitude. These are small things but may influence test results. Counseling can be given by a person good in communication.. They do not appropriate.g. (3) For the tests to serve the purpose evaluation of its technical merits (e. This is important because uniformity of procedure is helpful in interpreting test scores. difficulty level. Interpretation of test scores requires understanding of the test.. This is important because a psychological test is used as a source of information in reaching certain practical decisions (e.g. reproduce or modify published tests or parts thereof without acknowledgment and permission from the publisher. The broad guidelines in testing are as follows : (1) The use of psychological tests needs to be controlled because of its value in the process of decision-making. clinical.. (4) Training is needed to administer and interpret the test results. popularly known as examiner. intended and validated for self-administration and/or scoring.g. Here our concern is to understand the important considerations and skills that one should be equipped with for proper use of psychological tests. Examiner’s Role : The psychologist responsible for testing. Let us try to examine some of the details of the process of test-administration. ventilation. interest.g. Thus. T/F 6. The test users and examiner may be different. the test takers and the testing condition (e. T/F 3. T/F 5. Good psychological health is a prerequisite for effective counseling on the part of the counselor. employment. (2) The person who uses a test should be a qualified examiner because choice of test. personality) are used in many areas of research and application. Also. and have adequate lighting. He or she must have thorough familiarity with the standard instructions of the test to be used. Communication about the test before test administration may help to dispel any mystery that may have become associated with the process of testing. reliability.

As discussed above administering tests requires careful preparation before hand and strict adherence to the set procedure during testing. examiner behaviour and his or her expectations influence test performance. Rapport building is important to motivate the examinees to put in best effort. In recent years computer has been introduced to help psychological testing. using scoring guides etc. which is often present in many examinees. Many tests are now also available online. The main considerations while preparing for testing and during test administration are summarised here : l order and check the materials in advance. The examiner must make it clear that it is in the interest of examinees to get the correct test results. and validity. It is important for the examiner to understand that the results may be influenced by factors such as : physical and emotional condition of the testee at the time of taking the test. Scoring of Tests : The scoring can be done manually by hand or by machine. follow the time limits. scoring and interpretation. Interpretation of Test Scores : It is important and essential that the test scores are properly interpreted and the test. Appropriate rapport helps motivating the examinees and relieving their anxiety. l l l l l l select a suitable place for testing. personality. The test administrator must have flexibility of procedure without compromising the basic aspects of test. reliability and norms of the test. Test administration requires advance preparation and suitable environmental conditions. After the test has been scored. appearance. distribution of answer sheets and test booklets. The process of testing has to take into account the specific characteristics of groups if they are different from the standardisation group. It helps to enhance their concentration. Also testing young children poses many problems. testee and test-situations are understood in the right perspective. Introducing the Test : The rapport need to be established while administering the test. Examiner variables like age. errors in administering or scoring of the test. and relaxed way of test administration will help them do the job well. accurate timing and recording of significant events observed during testing. This is an effort to arouse the interest of examinees in testing. parents and others. Recapitulation Tests are important tools of assessment used by psychologists. Attention should also be paid to test anxiety. Other Considerations : A test presents an implied threat to the individual prestige of an examinee. Electronic scoring machines are used for accurate and quick scoring especially for large scale testing programmes. Testing Procedure : This should take into consideration the seating arrangement. encourage the students to do their best. closely follow the test directions given in the manual. ensuring that all examines have understood the instructions. following the directions for giving the test. Friendly. practise administering the test. . high distractibility and negativitism. elicit their cooperation. sex. Proper recording facilitates the reporting of test information to teachers. The paper-pencil tests and computer-administrable tests require different kinds of preparation. One has to reassure the child and use brief test periods. ethnicity. encouraging them to respond in a manner appropriate. They are motivated for putting in best effort while appearing for the test. it is essential that the requisite information is recorded for each testee. They show shyness with strangers. To summarise the conduct of test one has to focus on the following aspects. cheerful. keep a record of any event during the testing period that might effect the test scores. Proper use of psychological tests requires the skills of administration.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 229 progress” this sign should be put on the door of the room in which testing is going on. need to be guarded against in hand scoring procedure. Scoring errors such as errors in counting answers. following instructions.

sending or receiving messages. T/F 2. Clarifying the type of information needed must be preceded by the intended use of the results. l Reliability of Test : An important consideration in selection of a test is the reliability (i. Communication is an art and mastery over it makes life easier as it solves many of our problems. friendship. The examiner should select an appropriate test. If you are excellent in communication the chances of your success definitely increase. It seems reasonable to conclude that one of the most inhibiting forces to successful life is the lack of effective communication. multiple choice) or open-end type (long answer or essay type). Tests are used in the process of decision making. polities.2 GUIDELINES FOR TEST SELECTION l Mode of Administration : Some tests are only meant for individual administration (one respondent at a time). T/F 3. while others can be administered individually and/or in group. It is a well-known fact that more than eighty percent of our You have already studied certain aspects of communication process in Chapter 11 of class XI textbook. the examiner should see that test items are not alien to the people who are supposed to answer them. through writing or through other modalities. non-verbally. “to live is to communicate”.e. l Time Requirement : Some tests need to be administered within a specific time period. l Language of the Test : The test should be in the language with which the testees are more comfortable. Some tests require the testee to record their answers on the body of test itself. BOX 11. If you want a test for the assessment of intelligence. and other forms of reliabilities. COMMUNICATION SKILLS It is said. You should carefully consider various aspects of a test before selecting it for assessment purpose. etc. l Norms : The examiner should ensure that the norms for appropriate age. Rapport need to be established while administering the test T/F 4. the test should have been developed for use in the culture in which it is proposed to be administered. l Type of Information Required : It is important to define the specific type of information being sought by the use of a particular test.e. A psychologist is free to reproduce or modify a published test.g family¸ work. T/F 5. Testees are required to write their answers on the response sheet only. l Validity of the Test : Another important characteristics of a test is validity – the test should measure what it purports to measure. with others. true/false. Therefore without going into the details of the model of communication certain aspects of communication as a skill are presented here. Also. Test manual contains information about test-retest. Reliability of a test should be high for use in assessment. and academics). are given so that comparison of the subject’s score with the norms can be made. No social life can be imagined without communication. In other tests test booklet and response sheets are different. stability of test scores over time and internal consistency of the test).. you should be sure that the test which you have selected only measures intelligence. split-form. Particularly. Either we are communicating verbally. Rapport building helps to relieve the anxiety of the test takers T/F active lifetime is spent in some form of communication i. You should select a test where sufficiently high degree of validity co-efficients have been reported. This is particularly important for use with illiterate testees. l Mode of Response : Items in a verbal test can be closed end type (Yes/no. The major ones are : Factorial. As you are aware communication is a process of transmitting meaning from one . Construct.230 Introduction to Psychology LEARNING CHECKS III 1.e. l Nature of the Items : Please see whether the items are in verbal or non-verbal form. l Age Range : The test should have been constructed for use with the age group of the respondent. Communication is essential in each and every domain of life (. while there is no time limit for completion of other tests. sex. Validity is of different types. Concurrent and Cross-validation. Test score cannot predict the behaviour of the person being tested.

With this.1.g. For example. volume. Therefore. l Select the proper channel of communication. communication includes both the transfer as well as understanding of meaning. if other factors like. Effective Speaking While interacting in face-to-face situations.g. or reception is poor it can cause the problem. It is more than conveying meaning because the meaning conveyed should also be understood.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 231 person to another person.1 Factors influencing communication between sender and receiver involves paying attention to . pitch. “me” is helpful. channel. Effective Listening Generally. feedback) can have a source of distortion. As a psychologist.. If the two are at the same.e. encoding is not done properly. Today many options are available to make the message Non-verbal Aspects of cues present effective. communication occurs between two human beings in a particular context. speaking and listening. It provides feedback and a good speaker gathers strength and accordingly monitors communication process. It has profound role in enhancing the impact of communication. intonation) to a fullest possible way. in view let us focus on two aspects of communication i. l Use of pronouns like “I”. l Use the range of voice quality (e. The communication will be effective only when the sender transmits a thought or an idea and the receiver gets exactly the same meaning as the one held by the sender. l Use body language appropriately. l Maintain eye contact while speaking to another person. For instance. encoding. you need to become a good communicator. The process of communication and the factors influencing it are shown in Figure 11. Using Actual words Communication used in constituting audio-visual aids and Channel the message multimedia are quite helpful in creating the impact. Hearing is like receiving sound and does Amount of information not necessarily result in listening whereas listening Fig. l Organise the thoughts and contents of communication before speaking. if some one in your class speaks French and others do not know French. Similarly. if the sender is unable to consolidate and organise the message properly there can be a problem. message. You should be sensitive to the body language of the audience. Therefore. the person speaking French will not be understood.11. people take ‘listening’ for granted SENDER RECEIVER Sender because they confuse between hearing and Artifacts Noise listening. “we”. l Try to ensure that the perspective of audience and yours own are the same. salient and Paralanguage understandable. which is the core of interpersonal communication much needed in professional psychological work. As you can recollect each of the components of communication process (e.. It helps in demonstrating the speaker’s involvement. A skilled communicator is able to handle such problems. a good communicator pays attention to the context as well as to the person with whom communication is taking place. decoding. wave length the communication will have great impact. While doing so you can benefit a lot by observing the following tips.

In professional circles. Avoid interruption while the speaker is speaking. Make smooth transition between the roles of speaker and listener. Desktop publishing (DTP) and Word Processing have become core technology. For instance. 3. 6. Show affirmative head movements at appropriate places with right facial expressions. We often fail to attend to the message given by the speaker. In other words. Time is becoming an important consideration in communication. power point presentations with the help of LCD Projector makes presentation more effective in its impact. The requirements of presentation (e. idea. Therefore. Your appearance helps you establish your personal identity and style.. In addition the cost of communication is equally important. Role of Language in Communication People use language differently and follow different patterns of speech in different settings. Apparently. We use various gesture and postures. we also communicate through body language without use of spoken words. restate the received message in your own words. That is not necessarily true. etc. It often accompanies oral language to impress upon the listener. l You must remember that face is the primary site for expressing your feelings l l l l l and emotions. A sender assumes that the words used by him or others have the same meaning for the receiver. Make eye contacts with the speaker. People want faster communication. The following tips are found useful for effective listening. That style makes communication in normal situations difficult. you can express both specific and general messages and communicate to others. So. Ask questions for clarification. 8. personal. Your voice carries both intentional and unintentional messages. it is important that we stick to the use of language with minimum differences in order to make the communication more effective. fax machine. Punctuality or choosing a space to sit often show your ability to assert. 2. The choice of technology has become very important. fax etc. 7. time and space are used to assert one’s authority. By moving your body. large audience) also determine the technology. Non-verbal Communication As you know. looking at watch. language is used with a lot of jargons and technical usage. diagram. comfort and reassurance.g. This aspect of communication comes under body language or paralanguage. Touch is an important vehicle for conveying warmth. Like touch. Use paraphrasing. while listening. This choice is determined by the expectations of the audience. Avoid distracting actions like playing with pen. Be careful about your facial expressions. Avoid over talk. tables) also determines the use of technology. The availability of word processors. voice recognition system have changed the scenario of communication. This. e-mail. photograph. all of us assume that we are good listeners. group. laser printers. family and business people want communication through hand written documents. 4. is often incorrect and creates distortions in communication process. choose these things carefully. telephone conversation. . in schools.g. Communication and Technology Today technology provides faster and more efficient equipments for all the aspects of communication. Do try them while communicating with others. hand movements and facial expressions to communicate an idea or information..232 Introduction to Psychology the sender and interpreting and understanding the message. In order to be effective in nonverbal communication you may like to attend to the following suggestions. The nature of message to be communicated (e. 1. The audience (or the receivers of the message) often have specific expectations about the nature of message (or document) so. nature of the message and presentation requirements. 5. time and cost involved. of course.

2 Knowing your feelings The communication involves listening to others’ feelings and emotions. which describe the different types of feeling when you feel accepted or scared in the listening process. A quiet location with adequate lighting and acoustics will make communication effective. If you have to deliver it orally try to remove the physical barriers. teleconferences (which involves audio conferencing and videoconferencing via phone lines and satellite) have provided connectivity with people who are scattered across the country or around the globe. control of noise and provision of feedback. Creation of Message : The message should be created carefully so that it may reach to the receivers (or audience) without any distortion. l my mouth dries up l my stomach becomes loose l there are butterflies in my stomach l I feel like running away l I feel the need to talk to someone l I am unable to concentrate l I feel very vulnerable l I sometimes feel like crying Some General Recommendations for becoming a Good Communicator The development of communication skills require overcoming the barriers that occur in the process of communication. . Try to highlight and summarize the key points of message. Know about the people who are the targets of your communication. 2. Choose communication channel and medium which do not interfere with the message. In order to bring your audience nearer to you. Using a concrete and specific language would be useful. ACTIVITY 11. you need to do the following.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 233 Using software the production of documents through computer and laser printer have changed the intime process of publication.e. technology is increasing the flow of information making it easier to communicate. When I feel accepted. you should be familiar with your own emotional states. Listed below are some statements. creation of message. Try to exclude any information that does not directly contribute to the purpose of communication. before listening to others. Also. If message is written. 2. which is capable of attracting the attention of audience. it should be made appealing. 1. 3. Let us learn certain ways through which many of these problems can be tackled. This will help you to understand how the message will be received and responded to. l I feel warm inside l I feel safe l I feel like sitting back and relaxing l I feel some of my fears easing away l I feel at home l I feel at peace l I feel my loneliness drifting away When I feel scared. If you tell the purpose and key point of the message a framework will be created with which the communicator and the listener share common meaning. Inform the audience or share with them about what they should expect. Check the statements that are true for yourself. 3. Thus. On the whole. 5. Try to remove the possible sources of interference. Try to indicate to the audience the connection of new information to existing set of ideas. you need to know the background and level of understanding of the audience. Select a method. graphics and sounds are also added. All the related problems fall in three main domains. You will need to attend to the following guidelines. Structure message in such a way that it becomes memorable. You may use words and body language to this end. i. Reduction of Noise : A message may fail to yield results if it does not reach to the audience. 1. 4. For this purpose.. using words that evoke physical impressions may be very useful. However. This will make audience focused. Electronic mail called e-mail. try to develop credibility to generate a relationship of trust. 6.

Identify the sender. A brief description of the stages are given below. two persons. Feedback is usually good but it reduces communicator’s control over the situation. The Warm Up : Of the three stages warm up is the most important. Effective speaking and listening are arts that need to be practiced. INTERVIEWING SKILLS Interviewing is a process of face-to-face communication and interaction between. While preparing the message. Communicator’s receptivity and frankness is also important. an opportunity to give feedback is important for effective communication. T/F 5. In free interview there is no limit on the area and field of the subject matter to be asked from the interviewee. at least. T/F . reducing noise and provision of feedback are important steps to remove the barriers to communication. The Question-and-Answer Stage : The question-and-answer stage consumes the greatest part of the interview. A standard condition is set for all the interviewers. facial expressions. the question-andanswer-session and the close. ) are used in communicating the message. postures. In particular creating suitable messages. hand movements. Communication helps to transmit meaning from one person to another. Eye contact has profound affect in enhancing the communication. During this Recapitulation Communication is a process of transmitting meaning from one person to another. The non-directive interview is valuable to get more and deep information about the client. research etc. Feedback is not necessary for effective communication. transmission channel.234 Introduction to Psychology Facilitating Feedback : Providing the audience. T/F 3. facial expressions. facial expressions help in communication.3 Understanding Communication Think of a particular communication experience you have had recently. be clear about the amount of feedback that is needed. To be a skilled communicator it is important to be aware of the sources of distortion in the message. personal problems. Interview is an important technique to elicit personal information for several purposes such as selecting people for a job. Asking questions shows poor listening. Stages of Interview Every interview proceeds through three stages: the warm Up. In this the questions are predetermined and same or similar questions are uniformly asked to all the interviewees. message. LEARNING CHECKS IV 1. The worth of interview depends on the experience and skill of the interviewers. it is extremely difficult to turn around the interview. If you get off to a bad start. attitudes conflicts and other problems. hand movements etc. T/F 2. receiver and feedback. Standardised interview is a technique which helps to reduce the bias of interviewers. Psychologists say that 50% of interview decisions are made within the first 60 seconds and the other 25% are made in another 15 minutes. Language as well as non-verbal cues (gestures. admission. Feedback may be made more useful by planning how and when it should be accepted. Some aspects of the interview process has already been described in chapter–2 of class XI textbook. even though it may account for only a small fraction of the time you spend in the interview. Use of gestures. T/F 4. An atmosphere of peace and confidence is created to facilitate the client to express the facts of his behaviour. Interview takes various forms depending upon what the interviewer is attempting to discover about the interviewee. To develop communication skills requires overcoming the barriers in the communication process. ACTIVITY 11.

Project the outcome of the interview. 2. While planning the interview following things should be kept in mind. Conducting the Interview : Some General Considerations The speaking and listening skills serve a person throughout his or her career. Choose a topic on which about 10-15 students will be interviewed. ACTIVITY 11. 7. respond promptly. or to persuade a person a take a action. When you plan to conduct the interview. you need to evaluate how well you have done and correct any misconceptions the interviewer might have. Be sure to thank the interviewer for the opportunity. Select a time and site. 4. 6. 6. with thanks to the interviewee for his/her time. to create a goodwill. Maintain a level of formality. In a typical interview the interviewer controls the action. The purpose of interview and the nature of interviewees determine the types of question that are asked. 3. At the end. Take notes or use tape recorder. 9. and 3) to create good working relationship with the other person. or indicate with gesture that interview is over. Feedback may be provided by the class members and the teacher. The rest of the class can act as observers. bear in mind that you have to ask questions 1) to get information.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 235 phase interviewer asks questions for which the interviewee is expected to provide the answer. Let each interviewer conduct interview in the class. One must take a pause and think before responding to questions. both interviewers and interviewees. but more often two people participate. 1. 5.4 Conducting Interviews Ask three students of your class to volunteer as interviewers. 8. Remind the interviewee of the purpose and the format. and plot their order according to your purpose and the interviewee’s needs. Give 4-5 days for preparation to the students. You begin by stating your purpose. Inform the interviewee of the nature of the interview and agenda to be covered. and develop a plan for accomplishing the goals. Outline your interview based on your goals and the interview category. to solve a problem. Follow the stated agenda but be willing to explore the subtopic if some thing comes up. Although the interviewer guides the conversation. Formulate questions as clearly as possible. When you get this signal. You can generally tell when the interviewer is trying to conclude the session by watching for verbal and non-verbal cues. 2. the interviewee may also seek to accomplish a purpose. and gather necessary background information. The interviewer may ask you if you have any question. sum up the discussion. 4. 7. the end of the interview is also important. 3. While answering one must not limit to only yes or no answers. perhaps to obtain or provide information. Decide on the purpose and goals of the interview. both sides have a chance of achieving the objective. 5. The Close : Like the opening. restate the interview’s key ideas. In the last few minutes. Choose a structured or unstructured approach. interest and cooperation. Determine the need of an interviewee. Use ears and eyes to pick up verbal and non-verbal cues. You need to keep following points in mind. 1. . but do not rush. analysing the other person and formulating your own ideas. Be on time for the interview. Close the interview on an appreciative note. If the participant establishes rapport and sticks to the subject at hand. 2) to motivate the interviewee to respond honestly and appropriately. Interview sometimes involves several interviewers. Interview as you know is a planned conversation with a predetermined purpose that involves asking and answering questions. Planning the Interview : Planning an interview is like planning any other kind of communication.

any programme aiming at rehabilitation of the disabled should focus on reintegration of the person to active community life. the questionand-answer session and the close. Spastics Society of Northern India (SSNI) since 1979 is actively involved in designing and developing a model of rehabilitation services and training courses to meet the needs of the handicaped people. Establishing rapport is the first step towards conducting the interview. constant reinforcement and encouragement should be given. motivate families and rural communities. l disabled people should be allowed to work independently. in case of disabled persons they are disturbed or hampered to varying degrees. physical and recreational activities makes such a person more dependent on the family members and community. l the disabled persons should be shifted to work areas in the community to help them lead independent lives in the society. nondirective interview or structured interview. T/F ORGANISING REHABILITATION SERVICE FOR PHYSICALLY. and devoted to work. community leaders. Some of the initiatives taken by SSNI are: l developing a model for community based rehabilitation of children and young adults suffering from any disability. Interview can take various forms such as free interview. In sum. l proper supervision. vocational and social services. activities which prepare the disabled to take their place in the community. Successful planning for organising rehabilitation services for the disabled require that the following points be kept in view.3 LEARNING CHECKS V 1. It is. therefore. atleast. and train families and rural workers to become their partners in rehabilitating the disabled people. The courses are structured in a manner. It is a process of face-to-face communication and interaction between. two persons. Everybody is engaged in different kinds of activities. education. their families and communities. employees and other agencies is indispensable for the rehabilitative work. l the disabled be respected as an individual. l understanding of the potentialities and capabilities of the disabled before involving in any rehabilitative activity. and are also suitable for rehabilitating other kinds of handicapped people.236 Introduction to Psychology Recapitulation Interviewing is an technique to elicit information. Inability to take part in social.g. T/F 3. You have already read about rehabilitation of mentally ill earlier in Chapter – VII of this textbook. motivating the disabled and attracting workers to the field of rehabilitation. home based employment. It is implemented through the combined efforts of disabled people themselves. It is not necessary for the interviewee to have a good start in the interview. The training courses of SSNI respond to the needs of cerebral palsied. The three stages through which an interview proceeds are : the warm up. l persons involved in managing the disabled should to be caring. T/F 4. l providing holistic job through vocational rehabilitation (e. MENTALLY AND SOCIALLY CHALLENGED Cooperation and collaboration of health personnel. so that the students are specially trained to work in rural areas. important to take certain steps to facilitate the functioning of the disabled in his/her personal. and the health.self-employment. T/F 2. Rehabilitation means rebuilding of physical. equalisation of opportunities and social integration of people with disabilities. However. Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is a service delivery model for rehabilitation. social and recreational activities. and become a productive member of the community. Verbal and non-verbal cues can provide indication about the closure of the interview. BOX 11. Interviewing cannot help much to elicit personal information about the interviewee. l campaigning through print. l choice should to be given to the disabled in selection of the activity or task. mental and social. . tolerant. sheltered employment and placement in open employment) to the disabled through its ‘Viswakarma Work Training Centre”. television and other media to initiate social action. Interview questions should be the kind that would motivate the interviewee to respond appropriately. after they have learnt how to do a particular activity or job. family members.

e. As you must have gathered the psychological applications in all the areas demand effective mutual understanding between two human beings. Self Discipline : Human interactions involve dynamic social interchanges. facial expressions and other nonverbal responses. Communication. counseling. Primary empathy is most often communicated through verbal response. The development of empathy and self-discipline provide the necessary foundation for such an understanding. has to exercise a great deal of control over impulses. Without going into the details it may be mentioned that empathy has three main features as given below : Empathic rapport : It involves tolerant acceptance by the counselor of the client’s feelings and frame of reference. It can be facilitated or hindered by mere change in the tone of voice. objective. This is possible with training in regulating and monitoring one’s conduct mindfully. and postures. Let us try to examine these concepts in some detail. empathy enables one person to feel as another person feels. and what he or she is experiencing. Informed consent. counseling. Experience near-understanding of the client’s world : It involves understanding what it is like to have the problems the client has or to live in the life situation the client lives in. In most of the situations a psychologist has to necessarily interact with another person but he or she has to constantly remember that the role-demands are of a different kind. and emotions.Skills Needed for an Effective Psychologist 237 BOX 11. It is projecting oneself into another’s situation. and feelings. Through empathy one makes an effort to understand or know another person’s internal mental state including thoughts and feelings. communication. Empathy : It is the ability to understand another person’s experience as if it is one’s own experience.4 EMPATHY AND SELF DISCIPLINE facilitative in the initial disclosure stage of counseling while advanced level of empathy is often more appropriate at the in-depth exploration stage. expressions. Empathy is found very important in the development of counseling skills. perceiving and communicating. and sensitive observer. Empathy involves two major skills i. counseling interview. Empathy occurs at different levels. imagination. Thus. In many professional situations a psychologist has to act as a facilitator or helper. Advanced empathy is communicated through verbal responses. in which the counselor adds the perceptions that were implied but not directly stated by the client. The psychologist has to assume the role of an impartial. Perceiving involves an intense process of actively listening to the client for themes. . Empathy. issues. therefore. behaviours. Case Study. Thus. Counselors. While engaging in empathy one enters the experiential /subjective world of the other person. the counselor says something that gives indication to the client that his or her meanings and feelings have been understood. Empathy and self-discipline constitute two key skills that are required in a variety of psychological applications. Communicative attunement : By putting himself or herself in the shoes of a client the counselor tries to capture what the client is trying to consciously communicate at the moment. and understanding it becomes possible to develop this capacity to experience how one would feel and think in other’s place. personal constructs. Objective. Client. You must have experienced in the course of your personal lives that even a simple act like talking with someone depends on how you conduct yourself.. Unconditional positive regard. primary empathy is the level that is usually Key Terms Skills. A psychologist. In the communication component of empathy. Effectively communicated empathy has a number of desired effects on the efficacy of counseling. In all these contexts enacting the role of a psychologist will be possible only if the psychologist has a fair amount of self-control. Rapport. gestures. empathy. Using the available knowledge.

2. F. concern for others welfare. interpersonal sensitivity. integrity. Review Questions 1. F. the question-and-answer and the close stage. 4. Counseling proceeds through three progressive stages : initial disclosure. T. 2. 6. 5. Interviewing is a process of face-to-face communication. and commitment to action. T. 6. Qualities of a good psychologist are : competence. 3. 3. T. 2. openness to ideas and ability to observe. T. T. hand movements are also used to communication ideas. interpretation and scoring of tests. T. T. F. Speaking and listening are central to interpersonal communication. 7. Creating a proper message. F. 4. respect for people’s right and dignity. responsibility. T III : IV : V : . T 1. professional and scientific responsibility. concern for others welfare and social responsibility. 8. F. In order to become a successful psychologist one needs to have certain characteristics such as : competence. 2.238 Introduction to Psychology SUMMARY l l l l l l l l l To become an effective psychologist both as a researcher as well as practitioner requires professional training. F 1. F. F. 2. tackling environmental noise and providing feedback are ways to reduce distortions and making effective communication. F 1. T. motivation and values play an important role in becoming an effective psychologist. Knowledge of the contents of psychology. Knowledge of tools. T. scientific temper. 2. Communication is a process that helps in transmitting meaning from one person to another. 5. 5. T. 3. 3. Proper training is required for administration. Developing the skills of psychological testing is important since tests are important tools used for the assessment of individuals for various purposes. 4. Language is important for communication. postures. T. Non-verbal cues such as gestures. It proceeds through the stages : the warm up. 5. T. respect for peoples right and dignity. 5. methods and theories has a profound impact on the expertise of psychologists. What What What What What What What What are the qualities that make an effective psychologist? is counseling ? State the major elements of counseling? are the stages of counseling? are the characteristics of an effective Counselor? are the main components of test administration? steps need to be taken to become an effective communicator? planning is required to conduct an interview? are the stages through which an interview proceeds? ANSWERS I II : : TO LEARNING CHECKS 1. 4. F. in-depth explorations. 4. skills. 3. F 1. 4. 3. Its use should be done according to the characteristics of audience.

The test is available with M/s Anand Agencies. Shukrawar.C. to apprehend meaningless figures presented for his observation. Varanasi – 221010. Agra – 4. 1. All the items are statements in simple and easy to understand language. P ERSONALITY Problem Check List (Authors : M. It covers eleven areas related to adolescent problems. The test can be administered to a single child at a time or to a group of children. 2. P. All children are equally acquainted with the human form and human body parts and there are equal opportunities to get experiences with it. 20 to 40 minutes) e) Pre-Adolescent Activity Level Scale (PAALS) f) Pre-Adolescent Level of Aspiration Test (PALAT) (20 minutes) The battery can be used for studying the patterns of adjustment (PAAS). number series. see the relations between them. I NTELLIGENCE Standard Progressive Matrices (Author: J. It contains 100 items of seven different types: synonyms. reasoning. Sharma) The battery consists of the following tests: a) Pre-Adolescent Adjustment Scale (PAAS) (40 items. Rao. 20 to 35 minutes) d) Pre-Adolescent Initiative Questionnaire (PAIQ) (6 situations. Pune-411002. 1433A.V. dependency Some tests have been described here for the assessment of different aspects of pupil’s behaviour. There is no time limit but the test usually takes about 10 to 15 minutes. Draw–a–Man–Test (Author: Pramila Phatak) The test measures intelligence through children’s drawings of a human figure. Test of General Mental Ability (Author: M. 4/230. C. T. available in Hindi. It takes 20 minutes to complete the test.PRACTICALS IN PSYCHOLOGY in a limited time period (i. conceive the nature of the figure by completing each sub-sets of relations presented. It may also be used as timed test. The test consists of 60 problems divided into five sets (A. and by doing so develop a systematic method of reasoning.C. The Battery of Pre-Adolescent Personality Test (Authors : Udai Pareek. It may be noted that these tests are only suggestive . Children are asked to draw a full human figure. 20 minutes). Joshi) This is a verbal test of intelligence which aims at measuring the general mental ability . D. The problem figures progressively become difficult. For each area there are 30 items (total 330 items).K. & E) of 12 problems each. is used for gathering information about the problems of adolescents (high school students) and helps them in expressing their personal problems. and analogies. It is suggested that those tests should also be consulted before finally selecting a test. It is a test of a person’s capacity. classification. The test can be used individually or in a group. A number of other tests are also available. 15 to 20 minutes) b) Pre-Adolescent Dependency Scale (PADS) (10 items. The test is available with M/s National Psychological Corporation. Bhelupura. best-answers. Ramalingaswamy. & B. 19/60-B. Kacheri Ghat.e. Raven) This test assesses a person’s intellectual development. B. at the time of testing. The test can be administered to group of students from grades 8 to 12. Joshi & Jagdish Pandey) The test. antonyms. Scoring is based on the weightage points assigned for major body parts and their proportions..C. The test is available with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. two forms. Deoriabir. 10 to 15 minutes) c) Pre-Adolescent Class Trust Scale (PACTS) (8 situations.

activity (PAALS). Varanasi – 221001. Available in Hindi. Cattell & H.W. it attempts to segregate the poorly-adjusted from those who are better adjusted. Generally. It measures one’s personality in 16 areas (called factors): Factor A : Reserved vs. The inventory is self-administered and has no fixed time limit. The test can be obtained from M/s Manasayan. Assertive Factor F : Sober vs. The inventory is available with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. B 19/60-B. It presents a profile of an individual’s abilities. Sakarpur. Space Relation. Language Usage-spelling. The completion of each test requires separate time periods. Verbal Reasoning. The time limit varies from 3 minutes to 35 minutes for different tasks in the battery. A PTITUDE Differential Aptitude Tests for Higher Secondary Schools (Author: J. Saket. Clerical Speed and Accuracy. The first form contains 42 items of yes/ no type. B. The 16 PF is an objectively-scorable test devised to give the most complete coverage of personality possible in a brief time. and Language usage-grammar. G-19. Suspicious Factor M : Practical vs. Outgoing Factor B : Less Intelligent vs. Bhelupura. Apprehensive Factor Q1 : Conservative vs. 19/60 – B. Main Vikas Marg. Happy-go-lucky Factor G : Expedient vs. in the first form ‘yes’ answers are given 1 score and ‘no’ answers as 0. Tense There are 10 to 13 items for each factor in the test.264 Introduction to Psychology (PADS). Numerical Ability. classroom trust (PACTS). Scores on all the tests together yield an index of mental health. Varanasi – 221001.S. Subjects can choose their response from three alternative answers for each item.B. S-524. Emotionally Stable Factor E : Humble vs. initiative (PAIQ). and general adult literate population. Conscientious Factor H : Shy vs. Shrewd Factor O : Placid vs. More Intelligent Factor C : Affected by Feelings vs. School Block. Venturesome Factor I : Tough-minded vs. Deoriabir. and level of aspiration. Selfsufficient Factor Q3 : Undisciplined Self-conflict vs. and success and failure orientations (PALAT). Controlled Factor Q4 : Relaxed vs. New Delhi – 110017. Tenderminded Factor L : Trusting vs. It is available in two forms. H Block. Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (“The 16 PF”) (Author: R. The test can be administered to high school/college students. First Floor. Ojha) The Differential Aptitude Test Battery is in Hindi. The inventory is in two forms. Eber). New Delhi – 110092. The battery is available with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. Experimenting Factor Q2 : Group-dependent vs.M. The battery consists of 8 tests: Abstract Reasoning. The students may use either of the tests depending upon the purpose of the study. Asthana) The Adjustment Inventory has been devised to serve as a quick screening device for use with students between ages 14 and above. Mechanical Reasoning. A and B. Imaginative Factor N : Forthright vs. Rosenzweig Picture–Frustration Study (Children’s Form)–Indian Adaptation (Authors: Udai Pareek & Saul Rosenzweig) . Bhelupura. The test is available in Hindi and English and can be obtained from M/s The Psycho Centre. A DJUSTMENT Adjustment Inventory (Author: H. There are 40 items in the second form. the process is reversed in the second form. people take 30 minutes to complete the test. Deoriabir. 4. Agarwal Complex. relative to his own and to a specific group. While. 3.

It contains 22 statements indicating different degrees of favourableness and unfavourableness towards NCC training and its activities. money. and occupation). Agra 282004. Agra-4. Intellectual.A. It can be administered to children of 4 through 13 years of age. SELF -C ONCEPT Self-Concept Questionnaire (Author: R.Parikh) This scale measures student’s attitude towards NCC training. (6) worries regarding the future. It contains 24 cartoon – like drawings representing frustrating situations. Kacheri Ghat. and Temperamental. Moral. The six aspects dealt in the inventory are : Teaching Profession Classroom Teaching Child-centred practices Educational Process Pupils Teachers The subjects can choose their response for each item from the 5 alternatives ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Tiwari Kothi. (9) physical and physiological manifestations. A TTITUDE 6. The subject is required to say or write what the other person would say in that situation. Ahluwalia) This inventory has 90 items and is based on Likert scale. war. 4/230. (7) worries about civilization. and (10) purely psychological manifestations. which can be administered individually or in a group. One character in the drawing is shown saying something that causes frustration to the other person depicted in the picture. (2) area of ambition (success or failure in work. 7. Main Vikas Marg. Sakarpur. Tiwari Kothi. primarily intended to measure reactions to frustrating situations. Saraswat) Available in English. (8) guilt and shame. Social. and injury. Educational. (4) anxieties regarding friendship and love.Practicals in Psychology 265 It is a controlled projective technique. The scale is available with M/s Agra Psychological Research Cell. Belanganj. (3) family anxieties.P. . Delhi – 110092. First Floor. It is a self-administered scale. appearance. A NXIETY Sinha W . It also gives a total score on self-concept. Agarwal Complex. Undecided. The testee has to respond to fiftyone statements by marking one out of the five alternative responses – Strongly agree. The test is available with M/s Psychological Corporation. Agree. The study is available with M/s Manasayan. (5) social relations and social approval. and virtue. Self-concept Scale (Author: Mukta Rani Rastogi) The self concept scale is in English language. S-524. Disagree. 4/230 Kacheri Ghat. Agra-4. It is a 48-item inventory to measure six separate dimensions of self-concept : Physical. Agra – 282004. The scale is self-administered and requires about 10 minutes to take the test. Each item is provided with five alternatives. Belanganj. in about 20 minutes. individually or in groups. Each sub-scale has 15 statements pertaining to professional attitudes of prospective and practising teachers. Teacher Attitude Inventory (TAI) (Author: S.K. the test measures self-concept of adolescents. School Block. The test consists of 100 true/false type items. It takes 20 minutes to complete the test. 5. The TAI is bilingual (English and Hindi) and is available with M/s National Psychological Corporation. and Strongly disagree. Checking of time response indicates the Measurement of Attitude towards NCC Activities (Author: B. There is no time limit but it takes about 30 minutes to respond to all the items The scale is available with Agra Psychological Research Cell.A Self-Analysis Form (Anxiety Scale) (Author: Durganand Sinha) The test has been designed to elicit selfratings on items descriptive of anxiety reaction to the following areas: (1) health.

The test is available in Hindi and English. sibling. To study the level of intelligence of Class X students) 2. mannerisms. etc. Deoriabir. Method Subject Name Age Sex Material Brief description of the test (name of the test. instructions. author. physical characteristics (height and weight). year. Scoring of the test Preparation of graph. attitude towards counselling (indicating the motivation to seek help etc. gender. number of members in the family. The test can be administered to persons from 19 to 24 years of age.g. etc. The administration time for the entire test is approximately 20 minutes. Results and Conclusions 5. parent. psychometric properties. tension.) Other materials (e. signs and symptoms) Interpretation of data Evaluation/Comments 3. e.) Assessment of Data Compilation of data collected by use of tests and other techniques (e. psychogram. and likely causes and possible counselling outcomes.266 Introduction to Psychology anxiety of subjects. class (grade) presently enrolled in. with M/s Rupa Psychological Centre. sleeplessness.g. 19/60-B. etc.) Procedure Process of test administration. stop watch. Describing subject’s scores in terms of norms and drawing conclusions. fears. A half page (brief) summary of the case. References l List the books manual. l Recording signs (what is observed in terms of facial – expressions.g.) and symptoms (what the subject reports. Case History l A paragraph giving age. etc. adjustment in the family. school attended. etc. any disability/illness (in the past and present). l Information about Socio-Economic Status (SES) consisting of information about mother/father’s education and occupation and family income.g. brothers. actual conduct of test administration. etc. Introduction l l l l l l l l l Basic Concepts Problem and Variables Objectives of the Study FORMAT FOR PREPARING A CASE PROFILE A format for case presentation covering following broad aspects is given here. Identification Data Name (may be fictitious) Diagnosed Problem Voluntary or Referral (By whom referred such as teacher. Title of the Study (e. its incidence.. l l l l l l 4. such as rapport formation. screen. FORMAT FOR WRITING A PRACTICAL REPORT (Psychological Testing) 1. l Any professional help taken (past and present) giving a brief history of the problem. etc. sisters (birth order). worry. It is suggested that case be developed in a narrative format along the following points: Introduction A brief introduction of about one or two pages presenting the nature of the problem. etc. Recommendations l For the testee/organization 6. l Information about physical health. Bhelupur. and materials consulted on the topic . house type. Precautions. Varanasi – 221001..).).

perceptual. defective reality testing. and social withdrawal. Attribution: The process through which we seek to identify the causes behind others’ behaviour. thing. or fear. For example. Affect : Relatively mild feelings and moods. injury. Aversion therapy : A therapeutic technique that attempts to reduce the frequency of deviant behaviour by pairing an aversive stimulus (e. goods and services. Alienation : Lack or loss of relationships to others. Central traits : Allport’s term for trait that is less important and pervasive than a cardinal trait. and affective components.g. Aptitude Tests : Tests designed to measure the ability to acquire new information. Advertisement : A way of providing information in a popular way to the target population about product.g. would be described as showing intelligence. Pleasure is focused on the anus and on retention and expulsion of feces. accompanied by an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming “fat. electric shock) with undesired behaviour. the likelihood of any one bystander offering help decreases and more time passes before help does occur. Attitude object : The target of an attitude. contative. painting etc. . Analytical Psychology : Carl Jung’s theory of personality. Cardinal trait : According to Allport. Anorexia nervosa : Disorder involving severe loss of body weight. apprehension. which occurs during the child’s second year. Attitude : A disposition to respond favourably or unfavourably toward a person. including deficits in language. event. Bystander Effect : The finding that as the number of bystanders increases. Humans are viewed as purposive and striving toward selfactualisation.” Anxiety : A state of psychic distress characterised by fear. Archetypes : Jung’s term for the contents of the collective unconscious-images or symbols expressing the inherited patterns for the organisation of experience . The unconscious includes a collective as well as a personal unconscious. used primarily to predict future performance. Amnesia : Total or partial loss of memory stemming from illness. at the time they occur. Anal Stage : The second of Freud’s psychosexual stages. apprehension. place. Anxiety disorders : Disorders in which anxiety is a central symptom. a single trait that dominates an individual’s entire personality. managerial) to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed. Authority : The rights inherent in a position (e.GLOSSARY Adaptation : Structural or functional change that enhances the organism’s survival value. giving information about heart rate or brainwaves to the person in whom they occur. drug abuse or other causes. Behaviour therapy : Therapy based on the principles of behaviouristic learning theories in order to change the maladaptive behaviour. Aptitude : One’s special ability or abilities like music. and motor development. these are five or ten traits that best describe an individual’s personality. idea or situation. and physiological arousal. According to Allport. Biofeedback : Use of equipment to provide immediate feedback about the activities of the autonomic and somatic systems. Aggression : Behaviour directed toward intentionally injuring another person who wishes to avoid such treatment. if it were produced by human beings. The disorder is characterised by feelings of vulnerability. Client-centered (Rogerian) therapy : Approach to therapy developed by Carl Rogers. Causal attribution : The way people attribute causes to behaviour. Artificial Intelligence : A branch of science that studies the capacity of computers to demonstrate performance that. Autism : Pervasive developmental disorder beginning in infancy involving a wide range of abnormalities. Avoidance behaviour : Behaviour that avoids anxiety-producing objects or situations. Centralisation : The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point. It has cognitive.

encompassing one’s view of one’s experiences. Compliance : A form of social influence in which one or more persons. and other higher mental processes. Delusions : Irrational beliefs that are held despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. services. not holding authority. Collective unconscious : Inherited portion of the unconscious. one’s view of oneself. projection. Cognitive triad : The three forms of negative thinking. Consistency : The extent to which an individual responds to a given stimulus or situation in the same way on different occasions. Compulsions : A repetitive behaviour a person feels compelled to engage in despite the fact that it is senseless. Client-centered therapy : The therapeutic approach developed by Carl Rogers in which therapist helps clients to clarify their true feelings and come to value who they are. Diffusion of Responsibility : Decrease in individual sense of responsibility for taking . and ideas. therapeutic discussion. Community Mental Health Centers : Facilities for the delivery of mental health services located in communities where clients live. and several related symptoms. Decision Making : The processes through which individuals or groups combine and integrate available information in order to choose one out of several possible courses of action. accepts direct requests from one or more others. ways in which the ego unconsciously tries to cope with unacceptable id impulses. mean. etc. and mode) Diathesis-stress model : A view that the interaction of factors such as biological predesposition combined with life stress may cause a specific disorder. The unconscious shared by all human beings. Depersonalisation disorder : Dissociative disorder in which there is a loss of the sense of self. cultures. Consumer psychology : A sub-field of psychology that studies the psychological processes underlying the acquisition. Counseling interview : An interview whose purpose is counseling or providing guidance in the area of personality. and one’s view of the future. lead people to feel depressed. as postulated by Carl Jung. and ideas. or ethnic groups. rationalisation. Descriptive statistics : Statistical methods used to summarize a vast amount of data in forms that are brief and easy to understand. Cognition : The process of knowing . Crowding : A psychological feeling of too little space. such as the giving of advice. Counseling : A broad name for a wide variety of procedures for helping individuals achieve adjustment. language. perception of crampedness Culture-fair test : A test relatively free from invalidating biases caused by questions favourable or unfavourable to certain social classes.. Clinical psychology : A sub-field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnostic and treatment of mental and behavioural disorders. Conformity : A type of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes or behaviour in order to adhere to existing social norms. sublimation. (e. vocational choice. and disposition of goods. the administration and interpretation of tests. Cognitive therapies : Forms of therapy focussed on changing distorted and maladaptive patterns of thought. median. Depression : A mood disorder in which individual experiences extreme unhappiness. services. and vocational assistance.268 Introduction to Psychology Emphasises a nonevaluative. Correlation : The degree to which events or characteristics vary in relation to each other.g. that theorist Aaron Beck says. as in repression. The mental activities associated with thought. Consumer : An individual or group of people involved in acquisition. reaction formation. accepting atmosphere conducive to honesty and concentrates on present relationships and feelings. Contact Hypothesis : The suggestion that increased contact between members of various social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice between them. Correlation coefficient : A numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two or more variables . Cohesiveness : All forces (factors) that cause group members to remain in the group. decision making. Controlling : Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations. consumption and disposition of goods. consumption. Defense mechanisms : According to Freud. lack of energy.

used in the development of tests designed to discover basic personality traits. involving correlations. being able to motivate oneself and restrain one’s impulses. recognising and managing others’ emotions. Dyad : A social group consisting of two persons. Dispersion : The extent to which scores in a distribution spread out or vary around the center point. Environmental Psychology : The branch of psychology that concentrates on the interaction between the physical world and human behaviour. Formalisation : The degree to which jobs within the organisation are standardised F r e e a s s o c i a t i o n : A psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes verbally any thought. Ecology : That branch of biology which deals with the relations of organisms to their environment. Global Warming : The probable increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere and its oceans brought about partly as a result of various human activities. Dissociation : A split in consciousness whereby certain thoughts. Factor analysis : Mathematical procedure. or any aspect of. involuntary discharge of urine after the age of expected continence (age five). physical and social set-up that surround and affect an individual organism. Emotional Intelligence (EQ) : A cluster of traits or abilities relating to the emotional side of life – abilities such as recognising and managing one’s own emotions. characterised by extended periods. It is effective in the treatment of cases of several depression that fail to respond to drug therapy. a non-specific mobilisation phase that promotes sympathetic nervous system activity. Great Person Theory of Leadership : A theory suggesting that all great leaders share certain traits that set them apart from most human beings. and handling interpersonal relationships in an effective manner. Empathy : Experiencing other’s emotional condition as one’s own.g. even if it seems unimportant. during which the organism makes efforts to cope. Dysthymia : A chronic form of depression that last for years at a time. and behaviour operate independently from others. Exorcism : Religiously inspired treatment procedure designed to drive out evil spirits or forces from a “possessed” person. which occurs if the organism fails to overcome the threat and depletes the coping resources. a defence mechanism. Engineering psychology : A sub-field of psychology that focuses on the interrelationship between humans and machines. for sorting trait terms or test responses into clusters or factors.Glossary 269 action in an emergency because of the presence of other bystanders. (e. Division of labour : Distribution of task and activities according to the roles and abilities of the individuals in a given area in the organisation. Distinctiveness : The extent to which an individual responds in the same manner to different stimuli or different situations. Extravert : One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed outwards to nature and other people rather than inwards to the thoughts and feelings of self (introvert). Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) : Commonly called “shock treatment”. A biological treatment for unipolar depression in which electrodes attached to a patient’s head send an electric current through the brain. the greater the number of bystanders. . Gestalt therapy : A humanistic therapy in which therapists focus on helping individuals to acknowledge hidden aspects of their thoughts and feelings. a key concept in psychoanalytic theory. Equity theory : Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. feeling. feelings.. the less likely each individual is to act. A moderately severe mood disorder. or image that comes to mind. It identifies items that are homogeneous or internally consistent and independent of others. causing a convulsion. Discrimination : Negative behaviours directed towards people who are the object of prejudice. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) : A three step profile of response to stress : (1) Alarm. Forced Compliance : A situation in which we feel compelled to say or do things inconsistent with our true attitudes. Environment : Totality of. Enuresis : Bed wetting. and (3) Exhaustion. (2) Resistance. standard deviation) Displacement : Redirecting an impulse toward a less threatening or safer target.

Intellectualisation : The tendency to deal with emotional conflicts in a detached.270 Introduction to Psychology Greenhouse Effect : The basis of global warming: gases released into the atmosphere (carbon dioxide. are interdependent. in contrast to individual test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) : An index of child’s mental development computed by dividing a child’s mental age MA by the child’s chronological age. It ensures that individual’s potentials are utilised to get higher level of productivity. intellectual. and controlled manner. rather than outwards (extravert) Job analysis : An evaluation of activities and tasks that must be performed on a job and the knowledge. Hallucination : A false perception which has a compulsive sense of the reality of objects although relevant and adequate stimuli for such perception is lacking. Hypochondriasis : A psychological disorder in which the individual is dominated by preoccupation with bodily processes and fear of presumed diseases despite reassurance from doctors that no physical illness exists. reflection. Latency Period : In Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages. The id is conceived as the true unconscious. (CA) and multiplying by 100 ( to eliminate the decimal point). some of the aspects of intelligence could be abstracted as: (1) The ability to meet and adapt to novel situations quickly and effectively. skills and abilities that is necessary to perform them. at a time typically by a specially trained person. Individual test : A test that must be given to a single individual. Introvert : One of the dimensions of personality in which interests are directed inwards. or the deepest part of the psyche. and consider themselves as members of group . Humanistic psychology : An approach to understanding personality that emphasises self-fulfillment and growth as the prime motivators of behaviour. however. In psychoanalytic terms. Intelligence : Psychologists have found it difficult to precisely define intelligence. The analysis of a problem in purely intellectual terms and feelings and emotions are ignored. (instinctual). Ingroup : The social group to which an individual perceives herself or himself as belonging (“us”). methane. Implosive therapy : A treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly to the feared object and made to see that such exposure is harmless. MA × 100 CA Intelligence test : Test used for establishing a subject’s level of intellectual capability. have shared goals. insight. Id : According to Freud. The other groups are outgroups. the period between the phallic stage and the mature genital stage IQ = . Group test : A test designed to be administered to more than one individual at the same time. Insight therapy : A group of treatment methods that focuses on developing a client’s selfunderstanding (insight). Group : Two or more persons who interact with one another. Group therapy: A therapeutic approach in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist and discuss the problems or concerns of one or more of the members. an act determined by the id. profitability and growth of the organisation. The Binet and Wechsler intelligence tests are examples of individual tests. voluntary direction. Human resource development : It deals with the conditions that enable people to get the best out of them. which includes industrial and all other organisations. Industrial/organisational psychology : A subfield of psychology that focuses on relationship between people and work. imagination. turning the earth into a vast “greenhouse”. The group with which one identifies. Impulse : An act performed without delay. (2) The ability to utilise abstract concepts effectively. and chlorofluorocarbon or CFC) trap the sun’s heat. (3) The ability to grasp relationships and learn quickly. There are many definitions of intelligence. In the contemporary context the emphasis has shifted from industrial psychology to organisational psychology. the impulsive and unconscious part of the psyche that operates through the pleasure principle toward the gratification of instinctual drives. It is an abnormal phenomenon. judgement and adaptability as the mental processes . Hassles : Annoying minor events of every day life that cumulatively can affect psychological well-being Homeostasis : A state of physiological balance within the body. All these three aspects of intelligence include reasoning.

Organisation A consciously coordinated social unit. Libido : Freud introduced this term. an exaggerated sense of self-importance. envy. with the rest spreading out to the two extremes. Likert Scale : A type of attitude scale on which the subject is asked to indicate his degree of agreement or disagreement with stated attitudes on a five point scale. (d) partial impairment of personality. often irrational in nature which may be accompanied by a compulsion to carry out an act. with tendency for most members of a population to cluster around a central point with respect to a given trait. emotion. Personal space : The small area around an individual considered to belong to him and whose invasion is experienced as threatening or unpleasant. bell-shaped frequency distribution. that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. usually transitory. Life space : According to Lewin. and preoccupation with being admired. (e) often. Personality : The dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought. or images that a person experiences. life space (LS) is the totality of all possible events that influence the individual. Phallic stage : Third of Freud’s psychosexual stages (at about age five ) when pleasure is focused on the genitals and both males and females experience the “Oedipus complex”. Panic: A sudden overpowering fear. It is a function of person (p) and environment (E). the presence of phobias. distrust. impulses. Leadership : The process through which one member of a groups (its leader) influences other group members toward attainment of shared goal. one that brings about a negative affective response. (c) anxiety. the overall pattern of decisions and behaviours that determine health and quality of life. jealousy and stubborn behaviour. Mean : The arithmetic average of a set of scores. the task requiring overt motor responses other than verbal. Many psychological characteristics are distributed in this manner. Lifestyle : In the context of health psychology. Mood : A mild. Obsessions : Recurrent and persistent thoughts. and direct of the conduct of others. Neurosis : A mental disorder milder than psychosis. Another measure of central tendency. guide. . Normal distribution : A frequency distribution showing a normal curve. Noise : An unwanted sound.Glossary 271 (period from age 4 or 5 to about 12) during which interest in sex is sublimated. In Freud’s treatment libido was quite simply a direct or indirect sexual expression. Now. It includes the exercise of authority to control. Most scores are found near the middle. Maladaptive (abnormal) behaviour : The inability of the individual to develop patterns of behaviour necessary for success in his environment. Mode : The most frequent score in a distribution . Obedience : Behaviour which is characterised by conformity with commands given by person in authority. It is also a measure of central tendency. Mood disorder : Disorder affecting one’s emotional state. the term mentally challenged is generally used. Performance test : A test in which the role of language is minimised. Mental retardation : A general term meaning any degree of mental deficiency. Modeling : A process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others. Median: The number that falls in the exact middle of a distribution of scores arranged from highest to lowest. Paranoid personality disorder : Personality disorder characterized by pervasive suspiciousness. varying from strongly agree to strongly disagree. (b) conflicts. including depression and bipolar disorder. Mental age (MA) : Level of mental development expressed in units of chronological age for which the mental age is judged normal. Minority influence : Influence exhibited by a minority on the majority of a group. Narcissistic personality disorder : Personality disorder characterised by grandiosity. Meditation : A technique of turning one’s concentration inward and achieving an altered state of consciousness. composed of two or more people. characterised by : (a) incomplete insight into the nature of the difficulty. Normative influence : Influence groups exert because members are afraid of the consequences of violating the group’s expectations. Normal Distribution Curve : A symmetrical. and fewer and fewer occur toward the extremes. A measure of central tendency.

The branch of psychology concerned with the investigation of mental disorders and other abnormal phenomena . Schizophrenia : A group of psychotic reactions characterised by the breakdown of integrated personality functioning. Primary group : Group in which each member is personally known to each of the other member. or subjective processes to others. Phlegmatic persons are supposedly calm and listless due to an excess of phlegm. either positive or negative (usually negative) formulated in advance of sufficient evidence and held with emotional tenacity. Self-actualisation : According to Maslow’s view. and which sometimes could be a risk for the prosocial person. Recategorisation : Shifts in the boundary between an individual’s ingroup (“us”) and various outgroups (“them”). and hopefulness or optimism. Planning : A process that includes defining goals. emotional blunting and distortion. Relaxation training : A procedure in which clients are taught to release all the tension in their bodies . Prosocial Behaviour : Action that benefit others but have no obvious benefits for the person carrying them out. Random sampling : A technique of sampling in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. The comparison might be in terms of rewards. Rational-emotive therapy (RET) : A therapeutic system developed by Albert Ellis. Self-efficacy : Bandura’s term for the individual’s beliefs about his or her own effectiveness. and developing plans to coordinate activities. Prejudice : An attitude. meet face-to-face Projection : Defense mechanism. Role play: A therapeutic technique in which client is instructed to perform role assigned to him by the therapist. Psychopathy : A condition involving the features of anti-social personality disorder plus the traits of lack of empathy. Phobia : A strong. Proximity : The principle of gestalt psychology that stimuli close together tend to be perceived as a group. inflated self-appraisal. . the motive to realise oneself fully as a person. Practical Intelligence : Intelligence useful in solving everyday problems. in which with the help of correlation prediction is made. Psychotherapy : The use of any psychological technique in the treatment of mental disorder or maladjustment . Regression : A defense mechanism that involves a return to behaviours characteristic of an earlier stage in life. and so on. Resistance : In psycho analysis. It seeks to replace irrational. Range : The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution of scores. and irrational fear of some specific object or situation that presents little or no actual danger to a person. Psychodynamic approach : Approach that strives for explanation of behaviour in terms of motives. the expectation that one can successfully conduct the action required. or attitudes. attitudes. establishing strategy. the highest motive of human behaviour. problem provoking outlooks with more realistic ones. Repression : A defense mechanism by which people push unacceptable. Rationalisation : A defense mechanism that occurs when one attempts to explain failure or short comings by attributing them to more acceptable causes. causing persons formerly viewed as outgroup members now to be seen as belonging to the ingroup. Psychopathology : A systhematic investigation of morbid mental condition. persistent. or drives. anxietyprovoking thoughts and impulses into the unconscious to avoid confronting them directly. and disturbances in thought and behaviour.272 Introduction to Psychology Phlegmatic : Describes one of the four temperaments of Hippocrates’ typology. The tendency to develop one’s talents and capacities. Sanguine temprament: Describes one of the four temperaments of Hippocrates’ typology. and which the members at least on occasion. The term is also used in statistics. the process of unwittingly attributing one’s own traits. Predisposition : Increased likelihood that a person will develop certain symptoms under given stress or other conditions. withdrawal from reality. or beauty. Reference group : A group to which a particular person compares himself or herself. a very ancient classification of personality characterised by warmth. attempts by the patient to block treatment. and glib and superficial charm. ardour. Sample : A selected part which is representative of the whole (population) . A measure of dispersion.

Stress : The process that occurs in response to events that disrupt. Cattell’s term for clusters of observable trait elements (responses) that seem to go together. Tragedy of the commons : A situation. includes personal attributes (self-concept) along with membership in various groups. Shaping : Teaching a desired response by reinforcing the series of successive steps which lead to learned response. Stereotypes : A preconceived idea of what numbers of a particular group are like. and later use social information. Factor analysis of the correlations reveals source traits. . Transference : Strong positive or negative feelings toward the therapist on the part of individual undergoing psycho-analysis. or threaten to disrupt. Statistics : Mathematical procedures used to describe data and draw inferences from sample. Self-Serving Bias : The tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to internal causes but negative outcomes or events to external causes. Standard deviation : A measure of variability or dispersion showing average extent to which all the scores in a particular set vary from each other and the mean. Unconditional Positive Regard : In Rogers’s theory. Stressors : Events or situations in our environment that cause stress. rules. Verbal test : Test in which a subject’s ability to understand and use words and concepts is important in making the required responses. which are common to all members of the household.B.B. or social dilemma) Training : Training is systematic acquisition of skills. Social Identity : A person’s definition of who he or she is. one’s attitude toward oneself along a positivenegative dimension. e. our physical or psychological functioning. remember. Territoriality : An arrangement found in some species in which members of the species (typically males) defend an area of land against incursions from males of the same species (or other species that feed on the same resources). or social trap. Trait : A relatively persistent and consistent behaviour pattern manifested in a wide range of circumstances. Somatoform disorders : Conditions involving physical complaints or disabilities occurring in the absence of any identifiable organic cause. an aspect of some types of self-control training. (Also called n-prisoners’ dilemma. interpret. Shared environmental influences : The effects of family environment. concepts and attitude that results in improved performance on the job. Work Motivation : Motivation to perform and complete various tasks. Typology : Ways of categorising individuals into discrete categories or types. Token Economy : Forms of behavior therapy based on operant conditioning.Glossary 273 Self-esteem : Refers to the individual’s personal judgement of his or her own worth. It helps in making sense of other people and ourselves. in which hospitalized patients earn tokens they can exchange for valued rewards when they behave in ways the hospital staff consider to be desirable. Social Cognition : The processes through which we notice. in which the most rational response from each individual will not produce the best outcome for a group of people. Sublimation : A defense mechanism in which socially unacceptable impulses are expressed in socially acceptable form of behaviour. Syndrome : Group or pattern of symptoms that occur to gather in a disorder and represent the typical picture of the disorder. Systematic desensitisation : A form of behavioural therapy in which phobic client learn to induce a relaxed state and then exposed to stimuli that elicit fear or phobia. Unconscious : In psychoanalytic theory. Self-monitoring : Systematic self-observation and recording of progress in a behaviour change program. Temperament traits : R.Type A personality. communicating to others that they will be respected or loved regardless of what they say or do. Social facilitation : The tendency for people’s performance to improve in the presence of others. Self-instruction : Talking to oneself to control one’s behaviour. Cattell’s term for traits that determine emotional reactivity. like the prisoners’ dilemma.g. Transformational Leaders : Leaders who exert profound effects on their followers and establish special types of relationships with them. characterising any activity or mental structure of which a person is not aware. Surface traits : R.

.W. Tata McGraw-Hill. R. McMahon. Lahey. B. (1997). S. Wadsworth : Thomson Learning. (1999). (1997). Psychology. G. (1995).G. Inc. (1994). Wayne (2001).. (1998). H. A. (1998). (1998). Prentice – Hall. Macmillan Press Ltd. Davis. J. Zimbardo. (1997). & Weber.. Gleitman. H. and Birch. G. London: Harper Collins. (1996). (1985). Hove: Laurence Erlbaum. P. McMahon. New York: Longman. Addison Wesley Longman. Psychology and Life. A. M. l l l l l l l l l l l . & Harris.Norton & Company. & Palladino. W. Malim.. B. W. Weiten. Psychology : Themes & Variations. Inc. D. Psychology – An Introduction.. West Publishing Company. Psychology (Fifth Edition) Allyn & Bacon. Basic Psychology. Exploring developmental psychology: From infancy to adolescence. Principles of developmental psychology. & Miller. & Romano. A. Psychology : An Introduction. J. London: Arnold. (2001/Indian reprint 2002). F. Butterworth.SUGGESTED READINGS l l l Baron. Messer. B. F. S. Harper Collins Publishers. Inc Davison. P. Zimbardo. Abnormal Psychology. H. Psychology. Introductory Psychology. Inc.L. C. J. Gerow. R. T.. G. John Wiley & sons. Bee. The developing child (7th edition). T (1995). Psychology and You.

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