# Cesar Guzman

Stress Intensification Factors at Pipe Elbows

ME 404

Stress Intensification Factors at Pipe Elbows Abstract:
The point of this project was to confirm the accuracy of the Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) equation in various pipe sizes. We used ABAQUS an FEA program to show the SIF factor in four pipes and compared them to the hand calculated results. The final results showed that the hand calculations are accurate for the smaller pipes but stray from the hand calculations as the pipe size increases.

Introduction:
After graduation I will be working for Chevron as a Pipe Design Engineer. For this reason stresses and corrosion in pipes are very important to me. I have been reading “Introductions to Pipe Stress Analysis” by Sam Kannanppan. In this book the author talks about a phenomenon called Stress Intensification Factor (SIF). In the book I found out that I could use this equation on any size pipe to find the SIF in Elbows and tees. The book also had another equation called the Correction Factor Intensification (CFI) that can be used with SIF in order to correct for pipe sizes this new equation is called the Corrected SIF equation. In order to use this equation we need to use the pipe stress equations from Design 1. These equations can be used to calculate longitudinal stress, radial stress, and tangential stress in a pipe. The limitation that these equations have is that they assume that the pipe is long pipe with no bends and no ends. However, if I combine the equations from pipe stress equations from Design 1 with the SIF equation I can find the max stress in any size elbow.

Desired Outcome:
When I started this lab I wanted to prove that the Corrected SFI equation held true in four different pipe sizes 1”, 2”, 6”, and a 12”. I choose these pipe sizes because they are the most common sizes found in a refinery. My expectation in this project was to obtain “pretty” FEA pictures in order to show the location of the stress concentration. Before running my experiment I expected to show that the highest stress in the elbow would be on the outside corner of a pipe. I reasoned that elbows always fail in the outside section. However, after running the experiment I found out that the outside part of the elbow was actually the lowest stress point in the pipe. My other expectation was to prove that the Corrected SFI equation held true in any size pipes. Just for fun I decided to see if there was a liner relation between pipe thickness and stress, I also checked to see if there was a linear relation between pipe pressure and pipe stress.

Proposed Analysis:
In this project I plan to use the FEA program ABAQUS in order to prove that the Corrected SFI equation holds true in my four pipe sizes. I will use the3-D Shell Sweep option to draw my piece. The limitation with this method is that I will not be able to calculate the radial stress in the pipe. However, I will be able to calculate the longitudinal and tangential stress in the pipe. Using the pipe equations from Design 1 we know that the highest stress in the pipe will 1