LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu.

In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous

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Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arata o actiune repetata. In acest caz, exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous

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1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I love my brother. She talks too much. I understand you. You play the piano very well. I always believe you. He remembers my phone number. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. I trust my friend. I have lunch at one o’clock.

2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.

3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 2. 3. tea. 4. 5. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). What you (do) on Sundays? He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) In England it often (rain). I (not like) that boy.

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10. 12. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. but he is late. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. You (like) this book? 8. of course. 11. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. I always (have) a rest after lunch. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. 16. You (go) to work every day? Yes. as I (not want) to miss the first act. as usual. You (write) to John now? Yes. 4 . except Saturdays and Sundays. I always (write) to him on his birthday. 13.6. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. You (dream) at night? Yes. I (be). 15. 7. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. I (dream) every night. 9. 18. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. 14.

What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat. merge pe jos. B. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. 14. 9. 4. 16. 20. 6. Ce carte citesti? 10.19.Paste Tense. forma III – participiul trecut. You (know) what time is it? 4. 7. 17. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. Nu-mi place cafeaua. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? 5. Ex. forma II. Eu nu studiez seara. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. Iarna ninge. Ea isi face bagajul. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ 5 . Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. 19. Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. 3. 2. Ex. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. 8. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. Adesea citesc carti englezesti.

I was watching TV. terminata. (Ieri am mers al plimbare. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. terminata. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta. This time yesterday. Se traduce. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. Ex. Este timpul de naratiune. Yesterday I went for a walk. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. de obicei.) Last year I travelled to England. Se traduce. de obicei. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. cu perfectul compus.worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Ex. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta.) 6 . cu imperfectul.

I own two umbrellas. He meets John on Sundays. I like to have a coffee in the morning. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. He forbade her to do this. 6. 6. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. in aceeasi fraza. in plina desfasurare. 10. his sister was watching TV. I hated him. I always make cakes on Sundays. 7. 2. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. 5. 9. He came home late. He changed his library book every day. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). Ex.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. I met John. That sounds interesting. 7. I sold my car. 3. While John was reading. 1. de asemenea. 5. 10.Adesea. In aceasta situatie. Ex. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. They drank all the wine. 4. 8. 2. 9. You ask too many questions. ele aratând actiuni paralele. 8. intr-un moment trecut. You drink too much. He translated the text. Este. We worked very hard. You speak English well. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 4. 1. He thought about you. In acest caz. sora lui privea la televizor. While I was crossing the street. (In timp ce John citea. 7 . 3. I play football. I enjoyed travelling.

8 . When I (arrive). Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. I talk on the phone.Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. 9. 18. 9. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. When I first (meet) him. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. 10. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. 8. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. 20. 1. 2. someone (ring up). Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. 1. When I (enter) the classroom. Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. I (watch) a film on TV. 4. When you (come in). Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 7. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. she (have) dinner. he (work) in a bank. 16. As I (write). In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. he (have) an accident. 15. 19. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. 6. 5. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. While he (learn) to drive. 2. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. This time last Sunday. 3. 12. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. 5. 4. 10. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. 11.

Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie.) I have known John for two years.) I haven’t seen John since September. this month. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. In acest caz. incepând din) si for (de. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din. this week. 22. I have seen two films this week. C. 9 . Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia.) I have known John since 1990. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. • Ex. timp de).) arata o actiune trecuta. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. • Ex. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? In timp ce ploua. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990.21. I haven’t seen John for two months. this year. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani.

se foloseste Past Simple. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. always. ora 2 p. just. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. ora 10 a. Ex. dintr-un motiv sau altul. I must buy a new one. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. terminata. In acest caz. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. • Ex. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". care are rezultate in prezent sau care. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. intereseaza in prezent. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. seldom. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. ever.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca. never. I haven’t got up early this morning. Ex. Ex.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata.m. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) 10 . Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. I must buy a new one. already. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. arata o actiune trecuta.(Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. De asemenea. I lost my umbrella yesterday. Ex. I didn’t get up early this morning. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect.m.

Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". Daca nu se opreste in curând. (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. He has not (hasn’t) been working. If it doesn’t stop soon. It has been raining for three hours. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare.) De asemene. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. Ex. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. vom avea inundatii. He hasn’t returned home yet. I am tired because I have been working all day.) I haven’t seen him lately. we shall have floods.No. in functie de context. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. I have often been to England. (Ploua de trei ore. intre un moment trecut si prezent. 11 . Ex. fie cu perfectul compus. Yes. sa continue si in viitor. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working.) Dupa cum se poate observa. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. care continua in prezent. Ex. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. cu accent pe durata. I have never been to England. yet (in propozitii negative). poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut.

I’m tired of it. 11. 18. He (not come) home yet. I (not be) to the seaside this year. He always (rely on) his friend. 2. 10. 11. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. I already (see) this film. Ever since that woman came to work here.m. 5. 2. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. It (not rain) since December. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. 6. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. 9. No. You (water) the flowers? 3. How long you (live) here? 22. 1. Would you like a cake? 7. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1.1. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. He just (leave) home. 10. When are you going to do it? 12. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. I just (have) one. I (buy) a new house. I (cook) all the morning. 16. 7. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. He (not go) to bed yet. You must come and see it. I (live) here for one year. 5. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. 12 . The radio (play) since 7 a. I (water) the flowers. she (try) to make trouble. thank you. 21. 4. 12. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. 15. 4. I (not write) to my friend for three months. It’s time we woke him up. I (lend) him some money today. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. We (know) each other for several years. 8. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. 3. You ever (drive) a car? 17.

Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. I (get) a job last month. 1. Ninge de doua ore. 4. 7. You (not see) it anywhere? No. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. 6. M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. De cât timp inveti engleza? 5. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? 2. De când mi-am cumparat masina. La ce te-ai uitat? 15. 11. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. 12. 10. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. 13. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. 11. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. 10. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. 14. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). Un copil a spart geamul. I (lose) my pen. 9. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. You (be) out of work long? 5. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. 1. 9. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 13 . He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). 16. I haven’t. 4. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 6. When you (use) it last? 2. You (see) your mother this week? No. Nu am mers la vot. 7. 8. 3. 8. I am not out of work now. A fost un accident. Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? 3. 18. Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. El este ministru de doi ani.

este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. in acest caz. a plecat acum o ora. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. Da. A plecat John? 20. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. Este. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". D. Afirmativ I had worked. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. terminasem de scris temele. am petrecut o luna aici. Interogativ Had I been working? 14 . Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. (Când mi-ai telefonat. 25. Ex. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. un verb de relatie.19. dar. I had finished writing my homework. 21. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast.) Ca sens. acum doi ani. Da.) When you rang me up. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. Afirmativ I had been working. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminato inca. Da. ca si Present Perfect. 23. l-am luat la ora 8.

3. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. After they (finish) dinner. When I left home. When I arrived home. When she sat for the exam.) He said it had been raining for three days.) Dupa cum se observa. mother (cook) for two hours. she (study) the subject for a week. ea batea la masina de o ora. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. 2. 1. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. s-a plictisit. (Când el a intrat in camera. 10. 15 . At 3 o’clock on Friday. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. She said she already (be) to England. When we met them. he got bored. 3. I (return) from school. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. 9. 7. De asemenea. 4. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. Ex. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. 6. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. it (rain) for one hour.Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. 8. 5. she had been typing for one hour. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. When he entered the room. 2. they drank some coffee. 1. 4.

Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. 1. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. 6. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. After we (walked) for an hour. When she decided to have a rest. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. When we arrived at Sinaia. 2. After John (leave). When I rang her up. 4. 10. 1. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). 9. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. 7. When I called on her unexpectedly. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 4. When we reached the top. 2. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. 3. a inmânat-o profesorului. we (climb) for 7 hours. 6. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 9. we (realize) we (lose) our way. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. When I (find out) he (get married). 16 . I realized she (have) a party. 3. 8. 5. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. 6. De indata ce au plecat musafirii.5. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. 10. 5. she felt chilly. she (write) letters for one hour. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. am mers la culcare. 8. 7.

Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. E. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. They will be going. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. se foloseste numai „shall". Ex. 8. I (shall) will meet him next week. Negativ 17 . You will be going. will la persoana II si III. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. He/she/it will be going. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. 9. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare.) Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". 10. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit.7. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. You will be going. We (shall) will be going. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. iar pentru „will not" este won’t.

I (shall) will not be going. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. (have + forma III). Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. Ex. You will not be going. They will not be going. You will not have gone. You will not have gone. Ex. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. You will have gone.) Future Perfect Continuous 18 . We (shall) will have gone. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. He/she/it will have gone. By three o’clock tomorrow.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. They will not have gone. We (shall) will not have gone. We (shall) will not be going. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. I will be travelling to England. You will have gone. I will have reached Predeal. They will have gone. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. He/she/it will not have gone. He/she/it will not be going. At three o’clock. You will not be going. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone.

When you come home. Este un timp rar folosit. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". I will have been studying for three hours. 19 . Ex. He said that at 3 o’clock. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. he would be travelling to England. I (shall) will have been going. Când vei veni tu acasa. Ex. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. the next day. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive. Ex. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I should (would) be going. He said he would be late. (El a spus ca va intârzia. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele).) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore.Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.

2. 8. I leave for London tomorrow. bine stabilit.(El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. I (remember) this day all my life. arata un program precis. la ora 3. 1. • Ex. I am meeting John this morning. I (know) the results in three days’ time. You (be) in London tomorrow. Arata o intentie. I hope I (pass) the exam. 6. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. 5. (Voi citi/am de gând sa citesc aceasta carte. • Ex. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate.) Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. • Ex. 10. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. 20 . I am going to read this book. 3. va calatori spre Anglia.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. He (be) pleased if you invite him.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. Intr-un astfel de context.) It is going to rain. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. 7. I am sure you (like) this book. I am sure I (succeed).

Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. Pâna la ora 1. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. 10. I (pay off) all my debts. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. 4. 5. 4. I (work) at the office till late at night. Don’t expect me home for dinner. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. 7. 6. 3. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. I (cook) for two hours. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. 6. Next year. 8. By the end of the season. By the end of the month. 10. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. In a week’s time. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. we (take) our exam. This time next day. 2. If we don’t hurry. 3.m. I (have) breakfast. She (watch) TV. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 5. 4. I (swim) in the sea. 9. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. When I take the exam. I am sure when I arrive home. 2. 8. we (climb) the mountain. 2.1. 21 . You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. 7. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. 9. 7. By the beginning of next week. By the time you come home. Voi vizita târgul international. When you reach Sinaia. 3. 6. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. the baby (cry). By 5 o’clock. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. This time next month. He (study) all day tomorrow. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. it probably (rain). 4. they (be married) for 25 years. I (work) on this paper for a month. Let’s hurry to the beach.

a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. Propozitia principala 1. 10. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2.8. Past Tense Continuous. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. Vineri. Present Tense Continuous. ci in fraze. E un obiect frumos.) He said he was going to school. desigur. mâine. intre orele 12 si 1. Past Perfect Simple. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. (El a spus ca merge la scola. Unde il vei pune? LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. Present Perfect Simple. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect 22 . nu in propozitii. (El a spus ca este bolnav. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. 11. 9.

) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. Future-in-thePast se poate folosi numai o singura data. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: 23 . Ex. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. care nu pot include un verb la viitor.) She promised her mother she would help her. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). He said he would come to see me when he had time. (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens.) 1. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.) He said he would buy a car if he had money.He said he had returned home a week before. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. Ex.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia.

Ex. cu timpul. Se poate intâlni. când propozitia secundara este atributiva.) b. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". 1. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.) I will have finished studying when you come home. Ex. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 24 . Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu.a. de exemplu. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. Pentru moment insa. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Ex. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. 2. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. sa ajunga regula. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa. 3. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp.

we (dig) in the garden for an hour. After I (hear) the news. I understood you (be) a painter. I believed you (be) at the seaside. 25 . având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. 8. 3. When it started to rain. 10. the concert already (begin). 4. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-inthe-Past. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 8. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. 9. Looking out of the window. 6. When he finally reached London. When I arrived. I was not sure if you (speak) English. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. She told me his name after he (leave). It was clear they (talk) business again. 10. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 3. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. 7. 7. 6. 1. They didn’t know that I (play) football. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 1. 9. 2. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. 5.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. 2. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. 4. I congratulated him. 5. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: 1.

5. she will take a job as a secretary. 17. We all believed he (win) the competition. 11. 4. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. 14. he will drive to Sinaia. 6. 8. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. As wages had gone up. 3. 3. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. When their first baby (be born). 9. 10. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). He promised he (drive) me home. After he (repair) the car. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 1. 13. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). After she (learn) to type. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 9. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. By the time you (finish) translating the text. I shall have typed all the letters. 8. this beach will become very crowded. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 15. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 6. we supposed prices (go up). I thought you soon (have) a holiday. they will have been married for five years. 2. 10.2. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). 7. too. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. As soon as the holidays (begin). When I (finish) the book. When I heard the main actor was ill. 5. 16. He believed the strike (end) very soon. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. I will lend it to you. 12. 7. 26 . 4.

6. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 3. In 1998. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 8. 19. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. 6. you will feel better. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. After you (drink) a coffee. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. I will do it when I (want) to. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. 4. 5. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. 5. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 9. 2. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. 27 . 9. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. precum si exceptiile: 1. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. When we (go) to see them last night. 5. not before. 20. He told me he never (see) the sea. 7. they were listening to music. 6. 10. 7. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. I (not decide) yet. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. He was very upset because I (be) late. 4. 2.18. 3. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. 8.

9. 11. 7. 15. 6. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. A week ago. After we have finished dinner. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. 8. 20. 10. 16. 2. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. LECTIA III 28 . He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 3. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. 7. 17. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. 12. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. we (drink) coffee and brandy. he decided he (change) his job. 11. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. You will never know how much I (suffer). After having visited Italy. 19. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. 18. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 14. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. 13.10. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. 5. 4. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. 12. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. When I finally arrived home.

ar merge etc. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone 29 .). Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. ai merge. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat.MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. wouldn’t.

ai fi mers.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine.).Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. unde 30 . (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. cu exceptia verbului „to be".) I will stay at home if it rains. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna.) I would stay at home if it rained. ar fi mers etc. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele.

had. in case. should). tell her I am out. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. were. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. In caz ca telefoneaza. we would be fined. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. should se traduce cu: in caz ca.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. este posibila 31 . (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained.se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. Ex. in loc de Present Simple. providing. dar improbabila. daca s-ar intâmpla ca. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. Ex. What shall we do. supposing. suppose. noi am fi amendati. If the police should find out the truth. If she should ring up. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. De asemenea. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. In acest caz.

7. 1. 3. he (not make) so many mistakes. you (not find) me at home. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. If I (move) to the country-side. If it (go on) raining. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. If she finds out what has happened. 2. If he were more careful. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. I would ring him up. 5. If I (know) his phone-number. I (not do) this. If you (take) a dog. 1. 10. 5. she (be) very angry.omiterea lui if. 8. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Unless you come at 6. Were I in your place. If I tell you something. If I (give up) smoking. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 32 . I (buy) it. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. If I like the dress. Unless you study more. 2. 7. 10. we shall have floods. you (be) late. If I see him. Ex. he (take) a pill. If you don’t hurry. If I won the lottery. Should he have a headache. would you visit me? 3. I (greet) him. 9. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. you (not pass) the exam. 4. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. 8. I would be nervous. you will have to look after it. 9. I (buy) a car. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1.

1. 5. 10. 3. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. Dacaar fi plouat. you wouldn’t have an accident. You (be) sick if you eat so much. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. If I (see) him. It (be) better if you had waited. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. If I (be) you. Had I been at home. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. he (get) a bar of chocolate. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. he would have gone home. 1. I would have succeeded. If he had written a letter to me. 8. If you (drive) more carefully. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. 5. 7. 6. If you had taken my advice. 6. Daca ar ploua. 2. I would go home immediately. If the child is good. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. If I (not tell) him. 9. strazile ar fi fost ude. If I (know) you had no driving licence. If you had known English. 8. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. 33 . he would never have known. I would speak to him. 6. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. 4. 2. 5. 2. 10. 9. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. you (not get) into trouble. 3. I (answer) the phone. 7. strazile vor fi ude. I (answer) it. 3. 4. If I (work) harder. I (answer) your question if I can. 4. 1. Had I learned English grammar.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 1. strazile ar fi ude. He (tell) you if you had asked him. If he (realize) it was so late. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation.

7. 1. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. mi-ar fi fost frig. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. 5. 2. voi mânca la un restaurant. 12. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. 7. 10. LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. 8. 9. 8. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect 34 . Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. 1. I-ai da? 3. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. 9. 6. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. 11. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. 10. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1.

Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. He said he had been working hard. He said he had been ill. Ex. in functie de sens. He said she had given him a book. Se schimba pronumele. Ex. He said he would do the exercise. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time 35 . He said he was ill.Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. o He said „I will do the exercise". He said: „She gave me a book". o He said „I was ill". – He said „I am ill". o 1. 2. He said „I have been working hard.

 He said he would be at home on that day." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. Ex. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late. I will stay at home. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains. He said: „I’ll be at home today". ought to. could. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. 36 .next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex. I would stay at home. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow". should.  He said he was going to do that translation the next day. 3. 1. "If it had rained. Verbele modale would." He said if itrained he would stay at home. I would have stayed at home." He said if it rained he would stay at home. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained.

Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". 5. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. 1. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. 2. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. 3. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. Ex. He said „Don’t go out"  He told me not to go out. 3. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. 37 . Ex. Ex. He said: „I am ill". In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. 2. 4. The weather was fine yesterday. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex.Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. I will go shopping right now. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). He asked me if I liked music. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara.  He told me to go out. He asked me where I had been. Where have you been? I’ve been away.  He said (that) he was ill. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. ceea ce este o greseala. on holiday. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex. I saw this film a week ago. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. Ex. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. He said „Go out".

8. 2. 1. 7. 10. If I had been at home. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. 11. If I have enough money. I went to England two years ago. 8. 7. 5. 1. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 4. 8. 6. I will buy a car next year. Will you help me. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. I would have answered the phone. 6. please! Read the text. 12. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. 10. 9. 9. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? 38 . please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. ordered) me to come in. 2. 4. 2. 3. John left for Sinaia two days ago. I am very busy today. 7.6. 3. 5.

12. 9. Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. please? 4. 11. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. in unele cazuri. In limba româna. 7. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. complementul 39 . la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat.9. complementul indirect si. I have been asked. I was asked. Ex. 8. Ex. I had been asked. I will be asked. 6. 4. 10. 3. 1. 10. 2. 5. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. In limba engleza. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. I am asked.

Desigur. 5. Ex. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. my flat is being painted. His coworkers must do something for him. In multe cazuri. Ex. 8. People play football all over the world. Activ: I gave him a book. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: They will finish the work today. 1. Someone has found the missing child. 4. I will invite my friend to a party. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. He has found your bag. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. 7. se omite formularea by. my flat was being painted. 40 . Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. 6. Activ: She looked after the child. punctuality este un complement prepozitional. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. Unde complementul direct este a book. The noise frightened me. 2. Ex. de asemenea. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. A specialist will repair my TV set. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them).prepozitional. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. care. In aceste situatii. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. While I am in hospital. While I was in hospital. iar complementul indirect este him. 9. In this office punctuality is insisted on. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. They are building a new house round the corner. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). 3. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality.

2. 4. 2. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 8. 4. 6. 6. I teach them English. 3. 10. 7. The teacher asked me a difficult question. 3. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 5. when I passed by. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. We called for the doctor. 3. They have given me a nice present. They set fire to the shed.10. We laughed at John. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. They will give me a reward. 9. 8. 9. He hasn’t slept in his bed. 5. The policeman will show us the way. Burglars broke into the house. 9. We objected to his proposal. 7. Has someone repaired the TV set? Will you write the letter in ink? Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? Did the tornado frighten you? Will someone tell him the details? Have you fed the dog? Did the sight of the accident shock him? Did they tell you about the meeting? Do you think they will turn down your request? 41 . 2. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. I have lent John two of my books. 8. 2. 3. 6. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. 4. 7. They didn’t look after the children properly. 5. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 4. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize.

LECTIA VI 42 . Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. A reception was held in his honour. 14. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XVlea. English is spoken all over the world. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 3. 8. This book will soon be forgotten. He hates being made fun of. 6. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. 7. 4. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. 5. 2.10. 6. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. 13. This house has been built out of stone and cement. These books mustn’t be taken away. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. 5. The pupils will be told where to sit. 10. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 3. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. 2. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. 12. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. 10. 9. 8. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. I was recommended a very good doctor. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. 11. 4. 7. 15. 9. 6.

) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. shall. • Nu au toate timpurile. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. Se folosesc inlocuitori. Ex. I can make this traslation. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. may. must.VERBELE MODALE Can. Can = infinitiv. Can are sensul de a putea. I can do this. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? 1. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut 43 . need. prezent Negativ: cannot. He cannot (can’t) speak English. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". a fi in stare Ex. (Pot sa fac aceasta. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. might. can’t Ex. Ex. would. prezent. Ex. could. Ex. Can is a model verb. will. should. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. ought to. He can speak English.

timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. 3. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. can I take your car? Tata. poti. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. He is abroad. nu e posibil sa. In vorbirea familiara. He could have been here in time. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. a avea permisiunea Ex.) I can speak English. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. Soarele nu a apus inca. El e in strainatate. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9.) Cu acest sens. I can swim. Ex.) Negativ: may not. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. (Da. (Stiu sa inot. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. Ex. Ex. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. Ex. Ex. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. Ex. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. Father. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. Se traduce cu a sti sa.Ex. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. May 1. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. 2. are sensul de a putea. mayn’t 44 .). you may. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". Voi putea veni la tine mâine. The sun hasn’t set yet.

prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. Ex. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. You may/might help me when I am in need. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. Ring up John. It may/might rain. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. se adauga infinitivul trecut.Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Ex. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. I must go home. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. Must A trebui Ex. Trebuie sa plec acasa. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. 2. Ex. dar se foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. to be permitted to. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. S-a facut târziu. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. 3. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. 1. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. Ex. Ex. Negativ: must not. He may/might be at home now. 45 . Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. May/might pot exprima un repros. Telefoneaza-I lui John. He said I might smoke in that room. s-ar putea sa ploua. Cu acest sens. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. It’s got late. Take your umbrella. Ex. Ia-ti umbrela.

Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must, to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Ex. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday.
2.

De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil ca:

Ex. It must be late. Let’s go home. Probabil ca e târziu. Hai sa mergem acasa. John must be at home now. Let’s call on him. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Hai sa-l vizitam. Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have been late. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. Probabil ca era târziu.

Need Exista doua verbe: To need: verb obisnuit, notional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie

Ex. He doesn’t need this book. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte.

Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie

Ca verb modal, need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No, you needn’t. Nu, nu e nevoie. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus, se foloseste verbul must. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!)

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Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara, dar a fost facuta, se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut.

Ex. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta, se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul

Ex. We didn’t need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Ex. You needn’t drive so fast; we have enough time. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede; avem destul timp. You mustn’t drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede; aici e limita de viteza. Should, Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta, o obligatie morala, o recomandare. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa, ar fi cazul sa, ar fi bine sa. Ex. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Shall Folosit cu persoana I, shall indica viitorul. Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica, de asemenea, solicitarea unui sfat, o oferta sau o sugestie. Ex. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you?

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Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. Will, Would

Formula de politete, cerere politicoasa:

Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?

A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):

This child will/would not do what I say. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. This radio won’t work.

Actiune repetata: - in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor.
o

in trecut

When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy tales. Când eram copil, mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti.

Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi.

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Ex. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. 5. 17. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. 11. 10. 6. 20. care are numai forma de trecut. 18. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. 12. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. O fi sora ei. When I was a child. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. She can lend you that book. acolo unde este necesar: 1. I must go soon. 15. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. 7. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. This child may have another cake. Nota: In afara de „would". 49 . He can swim very well.This girl looks very much like Jane. I cannot translate ten pages a day. 1. Exercitii cu verbe modale Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. 3. 19. 2. 14. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. You may not speak to your mother like that. 9. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. 13. 16. 4. She can play the piano very well. I must look up the words in the dictionary. my mother used to read me fairy tales. She will be her sister. 8. I must learn English. You may not smoke in this room. You may leave earlier. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now.

14. 2. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. He must be delayed at the office. He may be at home. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 19. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. Model: He probably speaks English well. 4. 9. He must speak English well. You might pay more attention to your work. 6. John must be ill. It might rain. 5. John could be a winner. You might change your mind about that. You needn’t do this.Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. You probably forgot to lock the door. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. Man …travel through space now. 4. 20. He ought to tell me the truth. 1. 5. 12. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. 17. 15. You might write to me more often. He …reach the Moon and walk there. He …even drive on its surface. He should go to school everyday. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: 1. 50 . You must have forgotten to lock the door. there is plenty in the fridge. 16. 1. 13. 11. 2. 3. He needn’t buy milk. holidays will be very different. 10. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 18. It can’t be too late. 8. 3. 7.

He is probably older than he looks. It is possible for her to be very late. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right.1. 3. 6. 8. 9. 2. 4. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. 1. 2. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. You have probably forgotten his address. It is possible that I come home early. I have bought his latest book. You can’t be right. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. It may/might snow in the mountains. 5. perhaps it will rain. You can’t have been right. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 3. 7. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. He probably came home very early. Don’t wait. 6. Take your umbrella. 5. 10. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. 8. He probably thinks I am wrong. He was probably late. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. perhaps it is a good one. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. 6. 4. 7. I think she was angry with you. I don’t believe you were right. 5. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. She is probably a very good doctor. but I doubt it. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. 51 . 10. 9.

I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. The sky is clear. I don’t think the weather will change. He …read for hours on end. You … take sleeping pills too often. I don’t believe it was his fault. 10. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. 1. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. 5. 5. You…water the flowers. … you help me solve this problem? 3. 3. 4. I don’t think this is a true story. 9. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 6. 4. I …read one book a day. I don’t believe she has got so fat. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : 1. I don’t believe it is his fault. 6. 10. 2. 7. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. please? 7. When I was a teenager. I …wear my hair long. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 2. 7. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. I’ll give you as much as you want. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. 9. 1. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 4. 9. they are addictive. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. 8.1. 8. 3. 5. You … take an umbrella. I … return the books before the 1st of September. it will soon start raining. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. People … speak during the concert. When I was young. You …not go to bed so late at night. 8. You … worry about money. 9. 6. 52 . 2. 10.

6. It …(rain) here. you …re-type it. If you win the contest. I wrote him a letter. The student …(write) such a long composition. 3. he is a nice boy. 7. 9. you…get a nice present. 4. Completati spatiile goale cu must. 6. I am sorry you wasted your time. The child … (leave) home. 7. 4. 10. he will never read them all. 6. he is a very poor swimmer. the road is dry. but I forgot it was Sunday. You …(lend) him so many books. which would have saved me a lot of work. He …(swim) across the Danube. 2. I …(answer) the questions. She …write an article for this magazine every week. I …(answer) the questions. This door … not unlock. 5. You …(wait) for me. please? This letter is full of mistakes. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. I didn’t hear the phone. Go to sleep. 2. He …(be) at home. I …(leave) it on the bus. 8. 3.2. We …(wait) too long. He has one of his own. 5. I …(be) in the garden. She is away. I …(see) him for that. which was very convenient. I haven’t got my bag with me. …you tell me the truth. 10. You …(buy) so much bread. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. 10. I …(get up) so early today. 8. he was back soon. 10. I promise you not …be disturbed. … you correct my exercise. It’ll get stale. 11. 5.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. The light was on in his room. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. You…(lend) him your text – book. You …(see) Anna yesterday. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. John …(do) such a thing. 3. 7. 9. 8. You …do this whether you like it or not. 53 . 9. I locked the door and took the key with me. for once? This …be John’s house. 4.

11. 7. 21. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. 16. 54 . 8. Nu. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. 4. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. but he himself believes he needn’t. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. Nu stiu sa crosetez. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. 12. 9." Traduceti in limba engleza. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. 3. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni.12." "His family consider he should. 20. 1. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. 5. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. Va trebui sa plec curând. 2. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. am baut deja doua astazi. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. 6. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. 17. 19. 14. 10." "Yes. 13. 18. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar.

Fie ce-o fi. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. va rog. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. in situatii in care. o incuiasem chiar eu. De asemenea. exprimând o lozinca. Ex. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. may. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. Unde mergem acum? 28. would + infinitiv. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. in engleza contemporana. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. Apare in propozitii exclamative. 26. 27. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. Ex. o dorinta sau un blestem. Come what may. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. 24. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is 55 . Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. 29. 1. Vreti. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine.22. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. o urare. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. might. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. 23. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti.

Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. It is necessary that you be present. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. 1. to order Ex. Ex. • I wish (mi-as dori. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. Everybody leave the hall. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. d. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense.c. to demand. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Ex. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. It is impossible that he do this. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. to suggest. apare ca were la toate persoanele. 56 . it is likely that. • Ex. to insist. it is necessary that. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. Ex. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. to urge. to recommend. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. I wish I were in England now. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. it is desirable that. I wish I had been born in England.

persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. Ex. se foloseste would. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. 1. It is impossible that he should do this. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. a.) Ex. a. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. Ex. it is necessary that. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. It is high time you began to study seriously. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. d)It is time. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. 57 . (E timpul. I wish it would stop raining. • Ex. (Era de mult timpul. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. You speak English as if you had lived in England.Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. It is necessary that you should be present. In exemplul de mai sus. It is time the child went to bed. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. I would sooner stay at home tonight. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex.) It is high time. Echivalenti de subjonctiv should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that.

Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Ex.Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. why. • Ex. fie in vorbirea direca.when. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. • Ex. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. De asemenea. may. to suggest. a. to demand. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. to recommend. to insist. Dupa cum se observa. Hurry up lest you miss the train. fie in vorbirea indirecta. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). It is impossible that he should have done this. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. where. Ex. might 58 . Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Intrebari introduse prin how. to urge.

Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. however. Wherever I may/might be. whichever. you have no right to do this. whenever. • Ex. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. • Dupa to hope. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. you have no right to do this. Oricine ai fi. Dupa whoever. in secundara se foloseste might. It was possible that he might be here in time. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. It is possible that he may be here in time. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. No matter who you may/might be. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. iti voi telefona. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. 59 . iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. Whoever you may/might be. I will ring you up. in secundara se foloseste may. • Dupa it is possible. in order that Ex. it was possible Ex. etc. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. I hope that he may pass the exam. to be afraid Ex. wherever. • Dupa so that. no matter when. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. Oriunde as fi. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp.

9. 7. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 4. I regret I have no children. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella.Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. 6. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. 2. I am sorry you live so far away. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. I wish I could speak English. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. 60 . I regret I can’t go to the concert. I am sorry it rains so often. 1. I am sorry books are so expensive. I regret I have only one child. iar in aceste cazuri. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): 1. I wish I might borrow your car. 8. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. 1. 3. Ex. 1. 5. I am sorry my friend is ill. Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. I am sorry you had an accident. 10. I wish the weather were fine. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. I regret I am not a student.

10. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. I was sorry you were out when I called. 7. 9. 4. You behave as if you (own) the place. It’s time we (go) home. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I am sorry I was late for the party. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 8. 8. 1. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 3. 6. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 3. 2. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 7. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 5. 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. I would rather you (close) that window. 10. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 6. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. 10. 9. 11. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 2. 1. I was sorry you had got a fine. 4. 61 . 5. 5. 4. 3. 6. 8. 9.2. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I wish he would take my advice. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. 7.

Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. 3. 17. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 18. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. 13. 17. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 12. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. 4. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 9. 20. 10. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 11. 62 . 14. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. 13. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 14. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 2. 16. 15. 5. As prefera sa merg la teatru.He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 16. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 12. If only I (become) a millionaire. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. am putea merge la plaja! 6.

3. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. 7. 8. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. 5. 4. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. 8. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 6. 6. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. 2. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. 9. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 6. 7. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. 20.19. 3. 8. la tara. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 63 . 2. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. 5. 4. 8.

He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 14. 8. 4. Orice mi-ai spune. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 7. 3. 10. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). 5. 15. you should remember your own phone number. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. nu te pot crede. 8. The road is wet. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). I closed the window lest (get) too cold. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 9. 7. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). 10. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. 5. 2. Oricare ar fi motivul. 11. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. 6. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. 4. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. 6.1. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 3. 9. Oricât te-ai stradui. 64 . It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. 2. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. 13. 1. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. 12. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. Oricând te vei intoarce.

Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called 65 .16. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. I wish I (find) another. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). diateza si timpuri. 17. All success (attend) you! 18. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. I have such a boring job. I wish I (be) there when it happened. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. 19.

) 66 . (L-am facut sa invete engleza.) d. I consider him to be a good student. Ex. to allow. to watch.Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. to order. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think.) He ordered the door to be locked. to suppose. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. to like. I’d like him to come with me. I made him study English. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to understand.) I let him go out and play. to feel. Ex.) b. to believe. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. verbe exprimând un ordin. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. to expect. I saw him leave the room. Ex. to hate. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta.) c.) I want John to do this. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. to consider. to dislike. to know. (Consider ca el este un bun student. to wish. to hear. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. Ex. Ex. to cause. I want you to go now. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). in cazul verbelor neregulate. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal.

He is said to be a good writer. Ex. Ex. He considered the news to be false. to expect.I expected him to come in time. I consider him to be a good student. to believe. He was declared to be the man of the year. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. to admit.) f. b. verbe declarative: to state. I made him study English. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. to suppose. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. He is considered to be a good student. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. to declare. He was made to study English. to turn out. to hear. I rely on you to do this. to consider. to prove. cu verbele: to happen.) 67 . a. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. to count upon/on . (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. to know. He proved to be a good journalist. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. The news was considered to be false.) e. He admitted the news to be false. to say. Ex. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. to make.) They declared him to be the man of the year.) 1. to seem. They declared him to be the man of the year.

ii voi spune unde esti.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. de obicei. Ex. It is impossible that I (should) come.) This remains for him to decide. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". 1. 1. It is easy for me to do this. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. Constructii cu participiul prezent Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. Ex. It is necessary that I (should) go there. 68 . (E usor sa fac asta.) It is impossible for him to come. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. a. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina.) If I happen to meet him. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. She is sure to come in time. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala.) It is necessary for me to go there. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc.I happened to meet him in the street. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. I will tell him where you are. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este.

) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. 3. (Ea a fost auzita cântând.to hear. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. Ex.) I left / found her crying. am mers acasa. to leave. Ex: The classes being over. to watch. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând.) I heard her singing. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. (Daca vremea va permite. (El a fost vazut plecând. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. precum si cu verbele to find. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie.) I will have my hair done. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de 69 . Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuzisa. to smell.) Weather permitting. (Voi merge sa ma coafez.) She was heard singing. vom merge la plaja. (Orele fiind terminate. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând.) 2. we went home. (Am auzit-o cântând. we shall go to the beach. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat.

This problem is too difficult. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. The match was about to begin. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 4. We should have a heart to heart talk. I-am privit jucând fotbal. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. 6. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. 1. 6. 12. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. 7. 4. I cam make it.subiect. 9. 2. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. You should read it. 10. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. 3. 2. The people were impatient. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. 5. This translation is easy for me to make. 11. Cred ca el e un sot bun. The time has come. I can’t solve it. You should take it. 5. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. This fact is important. 2. 3. 8. You should bear it in mind. 70 . Ex. She had two sons killed in the war. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. This is a valuable piece of advice. I had my bedroom window broken. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. This is a good book. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. 13. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. 15. 14. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase.

4. 9. She was thought to be a gifted child. 3. It is recommendable that you should read this book. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. 9. 2. It is sure they have had an argument. I didn’t want her to miss the train. It is necessary that he be present. at once. Expected that he would resign. It was proved that she was a liar. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. Everybody. 5. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. It is important to know the truth. 10. 3. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 3. cold. I can’t believe she said that. I ordered a taxi. 71 . 4. It is advisable that you should resign. 8. This is a strange thing. 5. We should do it now. They said she was ill. 1. I don’t want you to catch a This is the main thing.7. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. 8. It is important that you should come to the office. 6. 7. They heard him repeat it several times. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 9. 2. It is impossible that he should have said that. 7. 1. 10. I thought she was unable to win the contest. I have closed the window. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. 8. 4. It is possible that I might buy a car. 6. It’s time we met again.

The mud having ruined my shoes. The plane having taken off. 5. 4. 9. Everybody being at home. 3. 8. The letter being written. 2. The sun having risen. 3. The concert being over. Weather permitting. the audience left the hali. l. I saw her lying on the beach. 7. I went to post it. I could hear her typing. I heard the child breaking the vase. we sat down to dinner. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. The dog was heard barking. 7. I went home relaxed. I saw the peasants working in the field. 9. 8. 10. 5. The river having risen in the night. I found the boy breaking the window. we were seared about having floods. I went shopping. I saw her fainting. I found her digging in the garden. She heard the hunters shooting. 10. The decision being taken in my favour. 6. 6.It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. I had to change them. I stopped smoking. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. The rain having stopped. 5. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. I saw the plane landing. 10. 4. we hurried to the beach. She heard the baby crying. 6. 2. 72 .

CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 73 .

drinks. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. I don’t always believe. The secretary is just typing a report. Is my mother resting? 8. are you waiting? I am waiting. 7. 6. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. Do I love? 2. I don’t trust. Are they swimming? 6. do you do? 3. What do you do on your free days? 12. I am not having. Do I understand? 4. is drinking. I don’t like coffee.Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. 15. 9. am taking. 14. Is my friend wearing? 7. It snows in winter. 1 am cooking. Now I am doing my homework in English. It isn’t raining. Do you smoke? 17. He isn’t telling. We aren’t studying. My friend isn’t wearing. 4. 11. Do you usually get. What book are you reading? 10. it often rains. Do they live? 8. He doesn’t have. Are you writing. write. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. don’t understand. I always have. He doesn’t go to school by underground. he is having. are you hurrying? I don’t want. My mother isn’t resting. go. 6. 20. Do you dream? I dream 9. She doesn’t talk. Are we studying? 9. Does he remember? 7. 1 don’t like. 12. 8. I don’t have. Does she talk? 3. Do I always believe? 6. Is he telling? 4. 5. He doesn’t remember. remembers. 19. am. Do you like? 8. 4. Do I trust? 10. he doesn’t get up early. Does he have? 9. I don’t love. Why 74 . I am not going. Am I having? 3. The child isn’t learning. speaks. are you thinking? I am thinking. always borrow/is always borrowing. 2. I don’t understand. You aren’t typing. On Sundays. he walks. 14. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. They don’t live. I do not study in the evening. 3. She goes shopping on Saturdays. They aren’t swimming. 2. Is Ann knitting? 10. 18. 13. Ann isn’t knitting. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 10. Is it raining? 2. Do you go? 16. it is raining. 7. Whom are you ringing up? 13. You don’t play. Are you typing? 5. Do you play? 5.

They hid the cards away and took out their school books. I didn’t sell. 2. I slept. 4. the teacher was writing. Exercitiul 2: 1. Did I enjoy? 9. Last night. 5. 2. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 7. Did he translate? 10. I played. When did you return from the mountains? 11. She is packing her luggage. 4. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. she was having. 1 liked. I arrived. 6.are you opening the window? I5. 10. 17. 10. Did we work? 7. I always made. 16. 7. This time yesterday it was raining. He didn’t come. he had. When did you buy this TV set? 12. he realized. I didn’t hate. you came in. he was-learning. 1 first met. I found this old photo. I didn’t enjoy. Yesterday I lost 75 . I got up late yesterday morning. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. 5. Did I hate? 4. When I go to the seaside. 5. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. You drank. That sounded. 8. We didn’t work. Did he change? 5. He didn’t think. 9. I owned. Exercitiul 4: 1. 9. Did I sell? 6. he wasn’t wearing. Last Sunday. What were you doing last Tuesday. 10. 20. He didn’t change. Did you sleep well last night? 3. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. 3. he was working. Did he think? 2. They didn’t drink. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. 9. my friends played chess. I was writing. 8. 6. You spoke. He didn’t translate. While I was looking for my passport. I was watching. He didn’t forbid. He met. I met. I was talking. Yesterday. Did they drink? 3. 19. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. I like to swim a lot. Did he come? 8. I often read English books. were you doing? 7. 8. I entered. 2. 6. 3. were you going. You asked. How often do you write to your parents? 18. someone rang up. 4.

13. 18. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. Have you ever tried? I tried. Have you been. 10. I have been asking. 1t hasn’t rained. I have been wearing. I didn’t succeed. Have you read? 18. Have you watered? 3. He has been a Minister for 76 . 14. she has been trying. 19. I haven’t written. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. He sat for his first exam last week. 17. Have you paid? 19. 10. 17. 2. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. he has caught.my gloves. Have you lived? I have lived. He hasn’t gone. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. Have you ever eaten? 13. have you been. She has changed. 7. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. The child has been playing. He hasn’t come. I had breakfast and then I left for school. 4. 5. It has been raining. 5. 20. I have’ been shopping. 9. Exercitiul 3: I. Have you been? I have been. 3. the engine – drivers have gone. 9. Have you seen? she left. 16. I got. 11 . I saw. 8. have you cooked? 7. 8. Exercitiul 2: l. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. I was. I have been cooking. began. I have lent. Yesterday I got up early. I have already seen. He has just left. He has been sleeping. 9. 7. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. I haven’t been. I5. The radio has been playing. The weather has got warmer lately. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. Have you visited? 12. While it was raining. I got up. 5. 14. 10. I have just had. 4. I have lost. 2. We have known. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. I have been watering. 6. He has been. 4. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. we left. 8. 4. He has always relied. 3. How long have you been learning English? 5. 6. Have you ever driven? 16. I was driving to Sinaia. I have been doing. I have bought. have you been wearing? 6. I returned. He has been fishing.

he had been. 6. We have walked 10 km so far. 9. 6. She had just gone out. I had returned. 11. 4. he went. had been cooking. 5. had spread. congratulated. I spent a month here. 15. 18. 8. he told. 8. it had been raining. What did you look at? It was an accident. We have been walking since 3 o clock. 6. 5.two years. it had been raining. 5. 7. 2. she had been studying. had eaten. had been speaking. 3. he left an hour ago. A child has broken the window. 9. we asked. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 10. I had it at 8 o’clock. 9. we had been walking. 10. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. 3. 2. 8. 8. 7. I was sorry I had hurt him. He thanked me for what I had done for him. Exercitiul 3: 1. they had been waiting. 14. 9. 19. they had been. 7. 3. she had been writing. Have you been to this town before? Yes. had listened. had not told. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. I had met. had left. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. had been climbing. he had learned/he had been learning. 4. she had not passed. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. I rang him up. she had been cleaning and dusting. I called. two years ago. We must replace it. Has John left? Yes. 4. 10. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. she had already been. he had visited. she told. Exercitiul 4: 1. 10. It has been snowing for two hours. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. he had thought. we realized. he had caught. had been swimming. 7. he had got married. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. they had finished. he 77 . 2. Since I bought a car. 3. it had been raining. I entered. we had lost. I have seldom walked to my office. he went. 13. 2. 20. had been having. I found out. 12. Exercitiul 2: 1. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet.

We shall/will have taken.handed it to the teacher. 2. Exercitiul 3: 1. 9. 2. By this time next year. they will have been married. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. As soon as the guests had left. 5. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. On Friday. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. 3. 7. they will be having their last English class. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. 4. 10. 5. Will you be needing? 5. 4. 6. I shall/will be swimming. 6. 7. 8. 8. 9. 6. I realized I had left my bag at home. She will be watching. You will be. I shall/will pass. Exercitiul 4: 1. 7. I went to bed. will be crying. 3. wilt be rising. I shall/will be having. I shall/will remember. I shall/will have saved five million lei. will have spent. I shall/will have finished. I shall/will have been cooking. 6. 7. Because of 78 . I shall/will have read 8. it will probably be raining. 5. I shall/will have been working. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. 7. I shall/will know. I shall/will have paid off. When I arrived at the bus stop. 2. will have risen. He will be. 10. 5. between twelve and one o’clock. 3. He will be studying. 10. You will have seen. will/shall will be climbing. 3. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. Exercitiut 2: 1. You will like. 8. 6. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. I shall/will succeed. 10. I shall/will be working. 2. Will you recognize? 4. You will not/won’t find. 8. 4. 9. Wil1 you remember? 9. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 4.

she notices you have broken. he has arrived. 10. 8. he tells. 7. he wanted. 5. 3. I have. you would soon have. 17. 3. you finish. 9. I usually read. he had been travelling. 4. 4. 2. 12. Exercitiul 2: 1. would end. 2. 8. I had heard. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 18. begin. 4. 3. I had read. Exercitiul 4: 1. I have received. they would remain. 6. you have read. 20. you have drunk. 10. he would pass. is born. 4. 6. you see. prices would go up. 2. I had not enjoyed. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. he had left. You had to type. she has learnt. 7. arrive. you spoke. 10. we reach. did not remember. they were talking. he would win. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. I finish. I played/I was playing. 16. 9. he would finish. she has changed. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. he has repaired. he had stolen. 9. 8. they have been. I had done. 5. 10. 6. we had been digging. 2. you were. would be cancelled. 5. you see. was shining.the strike of the bus – drivers. he would give. I would remain. he had just left. 7. Exercitiul 5: 79 . Exercitiul 3: 1. had already begun. you were. you see. 14. 11. 13. 3. 9. 19. 9. 6. she looks. 7. you have just told. 8. I had lost. 15. he would drive. 5.

9. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. I will earn/will be earning. I had not eaten. 5. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. 6. he had to write. 9. he had never seen. is. 5. will soon move. 9. I finish. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. they have done. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. would not go. 5. will you promise? 6. 20. 8. 8. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. is. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. 2. 4. 10. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. 3. you will be. 3. 12. they had been listening. 13. he trusted. 3. 9. 4. I was. you will not find. 16. I had not decided. I will greet 2. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. I work/I worked. 6. had failed. do not eat. Exercitiul 6: 1. 4. you had been wearing. we went. there are. I will lend. melts. 10. we will drink. you will not pass. 10. I want. I have been reading. I have suffered. 11. 7. 5. she will be. Exercitiul 7: l. is. 7. he would change. I was. 3. I would spend. 11. I knew you were in Bucharest. he would have. 6. he would not remember. 17. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. The secretary told me the manager was busy. I read. 7. 15. 19. 4. 2. you do. he hoped. 14. 18. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. you take. 8. they had known. 8. he had not expected. he had eaten. it goes on.1. I will buy. 12. Exercitiul 2: 80 . you are reading. 7. 10. 2. it would not be raining when I arrived.

8. you had invited. What would you do if you meet John? 12. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 3. 6. I would have answered. 10. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. I had not told. 8. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. You will see him if you wait. 9. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. he would have told. 2. he would take. If it rains. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 5. I moved. 3. I gave up. 5. 7. I saw. he had realized. 2. If it rained. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. 6. 6. he will get. 7. Would you buy? 4. 8. 4. 8. I would have answered. I would buy. If a beggar asked you for money. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. If dinner is not ready in time. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 7. I wouldn’t do. 6. I had known. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. I would not have made.1. you would have read. 4. 3. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. would you give him some? 3. Exercitiul 4: l. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. 6. 2. If it had rained. LECTIA IV 81 . What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. you had driven. I will answer. the streets would be wet. Exercitiul 5: 1. you were. 10. 2. 5. I will eat at a restaurant. 7. 5. he had tried. you wouldn’t have got. you will be. 3. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. he would not make. I were. 10. 10. 9. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 9. It would have been. 5. the streets would have been wet. he leaves. 2. I knew. 7. the streets will be wet. 4. I had worked. 9.

He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He told me to be careful with his books. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. Exercitiul 4: 1. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. He said he had gone to England two years before. He asked me how long I had been learning . He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 2. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. Exercitiul 3: 1. 10. 11. 12. 8. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. 8. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He said he was very busy on that day. 7. 3. 9. 4. 9. He said he had seen that film a week before. 2. He asked me if I would like a cake. He told me not to smoke so much. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 6. He said she would go shopping right then. 11. He asked me if my mother had been at home. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. 2. He told me to read that text. 6. 9. He told me to take that pill. He told me to open the door. 6. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. 12. He asked me if I could lend him a book. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. 5. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. He asked me if the train had left.English. 3. 7. 4. Exercitiul 2: 1. 7. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 2. 5. He asked me when I 82 . 8. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. 3. 4. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 3. 4. 5. He asked me if I would help him.

9. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 3. A nice present has been given to me (by them). We will be shown the way by the policeman. I have been given a nice present (by them). 6.would be back. He asked me when the rain had stopped. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. 8. 5. 6. 6. He asked me how I had travelled. 10. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. 7. Exercitiul 3: 83 . 7. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). 10. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). 4. A reward will be given to me (by them). 9. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 8. The missing child has been found (by someone). Football is played all over the world. 3. Exercitiul 2: 1. when I passed by. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). He asked me why it was so dark in that room. 10. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 7. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). 2. English is taught to them (by me). He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. 5. They are taught English (by me). 5. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). John has been lent two of my books (by me). He asked me where I would spend my weekend. The work will be finished today (by them). Your bag has been found (by him). The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 8. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. 2. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). I was frightened by the noise. 4. I will be given a reward (by them). He asked me who that man was. 9. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month.

9. Exercitiul 4: 1. The doctor was called for (by us). Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. They have built this house out of stone and cement. 8. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. Fire was set to the shed (by them). Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. 4. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. 9. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). very interesting things were told to us at the conference. Were you told about the meeting? 9. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. We were told very interesting things at the conference. 6. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. 5. 6. 11. People mustn’t take away these books. People speak English all over the world. 2. 7. 8. 3. 2. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 5. 7. His proposal was objected to (by us). 2. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. We were asked to show our passports. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10.1. Detailed 84 . 7. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 8. They held a reception in his honour. John was laughed at (by us). The event was commented on by all the newspapers. The house was broken into (by burglars). Has the dog been fed? 7. 10. 9. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). 6. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). Exercitiul 6: l. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. 3. 10. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. 4. 4. People will soon forget this book. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 5.: 3. He hates people making fun of him. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone).

You didn’t have to do. 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. You can’t have seen. He was not allowed/permitted to come. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. It can’t have been. 16. John must have been. 2. 9. She could play. You should have visited. He ought to have told. She will be able to lend. She will be able to read and write. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. 11. You won’t have to do. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. He should have gone. 6. 6. You were allowed/permitted to leave. You needn’t have done. 8. 10. 15. 4. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. The museum was closed for repairs. You can’t have been. I will have to go. I had to learn. I had to go. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. 12. 12. You might have paid. 8. He must have been delayed. 7. You might have changed. 13. I had to look up. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. He could read and write. 7. You might have written. 13. 15. 15. 12. I won t be able to translate. He may have been. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. 2. I will have to look up. 16. He must have been. 3. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. The child was allowed/permitted to have. I will have to learn. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. 14. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. He needn’t have bought. 10. 13. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. It can t have been. He will be able to swim. 17. I couldn’t translate. She could lend. Many new blocks are being built in our district. She will be able to play. 14. 19. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 5. 3 It might have rained. He could swim. 14. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 18. 4. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. It must 85 . Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18.instructions will be given to us about the paper.

10. 4: She must be a very good doctor. S. would. 10. It may/might be a good one. He must have come home. should. 7. can.have been. I may/might come home. Exercitiul 6: 1. 8. would. She may/might have been out. You must have forgotten. needn’t. 5. 6. mustn’t. can’t. mustn’t. needn’t. would. 7. You shouldn’t have gone. 3. She may/might have returned. 6. mustn’t. 9. 5. 5. 20. 4. He can’t be at the office. 2. needn’t. She can’t have learned English. 9. 5. 9. He must think. This can’t be a true story. 7. It may/might rain. would. Exercitiul 3: 1. It can’t have been his fault. He must have been late. She can’t have married. 19. Exercitiul 7: 1. would. 7. It can’t be his fault. 2. Exercitiul 8: l. mustn’t. 5. 10. would. He must be older. He may/might have done. You can’t miss the train. 3. She may/might have been angry. should. mustn’t. Exercitiul 4: l. can. 4. 8. This must be the best. should. 4. 10. 2. John could have been. Exercitiul 9: 86 . The weather can’t change. 4. 2. should. 5. 9. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 3. 6. needn’t. She may/might be very late. 9. 6. needn’t. 8. It must have taken a long time. 4. can. can. 2. 7. You must have known the lesson. He can’t have passed. 3. 10. 6. You must have left your umbrella. He may/might have been right. 2. can’t. 6. Exercitiul 5: 1. She can’t have got. 8. 3. 3.

needn’t have got up. can’t have left. needn’t have lent. needn’t have bought. must have left. must have taken. Exercitiul 13: 1. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 5. 5. 8. can’t have swum. will. Exercitiul 11: 1. 6. 13. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. didn’t need to buy. 2. a porter could help you. 3. I will have to leave soon. 14. 10. 20. 8. 7. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. needn’t have answered. 9. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. can’t have seen. 2. Exercitiul 10: 1. didn’t need to see. 6. 2. I rang you up and 87 . „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. 5. 16. will. Exercitiul 12: 1. 3. 17. will. will. 7. 7. shall. You needn’t have made coffee for me. will. I have already drunk two. 2. today. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 12. needn’t have waited. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. All the children ought to/should do some housework. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. can’t have rained. 4. 4. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. 19. needn’t have written. 10. 9. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 5. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. All the students can and must write this paper. 6. 8. 10. I could play the piano when I was a child. didn’t need to answer. 4. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill.1. You will have to help me more today. will. 8. didn’t need to wait. 3. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". shall. 10. shall. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 9. 18. No. can’t have done. must have been. shall. 3. I can’t knit. 7. 11. 9. needn’t have lent. 4. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. 6. must have been. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958.

7. 22. 2. 9. I must have been still at the faculty. 29. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. 4. 9. 21. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 26. 7. 7. I wish you would take a driving licence. 3. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. 4. I wish I were a student. I wish you didn’t live so far away. Exercitiul 2: l. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 6. please. 10. 23. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 88 . I wish I had won the Great Prize. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I promise you. you shall have the book tomorrow. 6. 8. 24. 2. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. You may not speak during the exam. I wish they would sign the contract. 5. I had locked it myself 27.nobody answered. 3. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. I wish he would accept my proposal. Will you. 10. S. 8. I wish I could go to the concert. 6. I wish I could pay the piano. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 5. 10. I wish it didn’t rain so often. 4. You can’t have found the door open. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. I wish books weren’t so expensive. I wish you would come on holiday with me. Where shall we go now? 28. I wish my friend weren’t ill. Exercitiul 3: 1. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. 25. I wish you had won the competition. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. 3. 2. 1 wish I had children. I wish I didn’t have only one child. wait for a few minutes? 30. I wish I had money to buy that painting. 9. 8. You ought to/should have insisted.

It is impossible that he (should) return so early. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the testpaper! 2. stopped. 13.Exercitiul 4: 1. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 14. 6. 20. I were. you didn’t waste. 12. 18. 17. 2. 19. You speak as if you were angry with me. I would rather you got up earlier. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 6. hadn’t caught a cold. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. we could go to the beach. watched. we went. 9. 4. 17. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. 15. 9. 16. 11. you started. his book would become. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in 89 . 2. 4. 16. 5. 6. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. 19. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. he told. 18. 12. I would become. 14. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. 4. 8. S. 3. It is important that you (should) know English well. I had entered. I were. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. you closed. he would have. he took. Exercitiul 6: 1. 7. 10. Exercitiul 5: l. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 20. you owned. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. you were. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. I stayed. 7. She looks as if she were a model. 3. I would rather you went to the theatre. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. my telephone worked. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 11. his daughter didn’t get married. I hadn’t forgotten. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 13. 10. I got. 8. too. 9.

12. you should have. Whenever you may/might return. 11. 10. 7. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 13. Whatever the reason may/might be. 19. 3. 9.Brasov? 10. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. she should have left. 6. 16. you shouldn’t have believed it. you may/might understand. 10. you may/might be. hadn’t broken down. you retired. may attend. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. Exercitiul 8: 1. 5. you shouldn’t lie to me. It is possible that she might be away. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 2. 2. 2. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 6. should have told. I had been. 15. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. we should take. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 90 . 9. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. 18. 14. 7. (should) have. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 8. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 3. I had. 17. we (should) leave. I would find. 8. I can’t believe you. 5. they (should) divorce. 5. Exercitiul 9: 1. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 3. I insist that you (should) accept this job. it might not get. 7. 8. Whatever you may/might tell me. he were. 6. you can’t win such a competition. No matter how hard you may/might try. 20. I will be at home waiting for you. 4. might prosper. 4. 4. he were. it should get.

It’s time for us to meet again. 9. 4. 4. They are sure to have had an argument. I rely on you to lend me some money. 5. 4. It is advisable for you to resign. I saw him speaking to his friend. 11. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. 2. 7. Exercitiul 5: 91 . She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. I heard her scold/scolding her child. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. 8. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. Exercitiul 2: 1. This is a good book for you to read. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. 10. 3. The people were impatient for the match to begin. 12. 7. 7. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 5. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. It is necessary for him to be present. 8. I expected you to come earlier. 9. 3. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. John admitted the fault to be his. It is recommendable for you to read this book. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 2. He was heard to repeat it several times. 9. Exercitiul 3: 1. 9. 6. She made me understand what had happened. I watched them playing football. 14. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 8. 15. I think him to be a good husband. 5. 3. 7. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 5. 2. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. It is impossible for him to have said that. It is important for you to come to the office at once. 13. 6. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 3. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 4. He wanted me to help him. 10. It is possible for me to buy a car. She was said to be ill. 10. She (was) proved to be a liar. He was expected to resign. 6. 10. This is the main thing for us to do. She seemed to be satisfied with me. I saw some children playing in the park. This is a strange thing for her to have said. 2. 6. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. Exercitiul 4: 1. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train.1. He made me miss the train. 8.

Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. 9. She was found digging in the garden. Exercitiul 6: 1. 7. The boy was found breaking the window. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. 5. 7. Concertul fiind terminat. The peasants were seen working in the field. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. 2. Intrucât ploaia incetase. The hunters were heard shooting. She was seen lying on the beach. 8. am plecat la cumparaturi. 10. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built 92 . ne-am grabit spre plaja. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built been borne. neam asezat la cina. Intrucât soarele rasarise. She could be heard typing. 9. am plecat acasa linistit. 8. 3. The plane was seen landing. 6. 10. 2. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build was. She was seen fainting. The child was heard breaking the vase.1. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. 5. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. am mers sa o pun la posta. a trebuit sa-i schimb. 3. 4. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 4. Daca vremea va permite. 6. publicul a parasit sala. The baby was heard crying.

to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown 93 .

to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend

forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

94

to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot

let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot

let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot

95

to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim

showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam

shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum

96

to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand 1 took taught told thought threw understood taken taught told thought thrown understood 97 .

98 .