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Urea Production Report

Urea Production Report

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ŵ.

THE INDIAN FARMERS FERTILISER
CUUPERATIVE LIMITED
uurlna mldŴ slxLles Lhe CoŴoperaLlve secLor ln lndla was responslble for
dlsLrlbuLlon of 70 per cenL of ferLlllsers consumed ln Lhe counLrvŦ 1hls SecLor had
adequaLe lnfrasLrucLure Lo dlsLrlbuLe ferLlllsers buL had no producLlon faclllLles of
lLs own and hence dependenL on publlc/prlvaLe SecLors for suppllesŦ 1o overcome
Lhls lacuna and Lo brldae Lhe demand supplv aap ln Lhe counLrvţ a new
cooperaLlve socleLv was concelved Lo speclflcallv caLer Lo Lhe requlremenLs of
farmersŦ lL was an unlque venLure ln whlch Lhe farmers of Lhe counLrv Lhrouah
Lhelr own CoŴoperaLlve SocleLles creaLed Lhls new lnsLlLuLlon Lo safeauard Lhelr
lnLeresLsŦ 1he numbers of coŴoperaLlve socleLles assoclaLed wlLh lllCC have rlsen
from 37 ln 1967 Lo 39ţ824 aL presenLŦ

lndlan larmers lerLlllser CoŴoperaLlve LlmlLed (lllCC) was realsLered on
november 3ţ 1967 as a MulLlŴunlL CoŴoperaLlve SocleLvŦ Cn Lhe enacLmenL of Lhe
MulLlsLaLe CooperaLlve SocleLles acL 1984 Ǝ 2002ţ Lhe SocleLv ls deemed Lo be
realsLered as a MulLlsLaLe CooperaLlve SocleLvŦ 1he SocleLv ls prlmarllv enaaaed ln
producLlon and dlsLrlbuLlon of ferLlllsersŦ 1he bvelaws of Lhe SocleLv provlde a
broad frame work for Lhe acLlvlLles of lllCC as a CooperaLlve SocleLvŦ

lllCC commlssloned an ammonla Ŵ urea complex aL kalol and Lhe nÞk/uAÞ
planL aL kandla boLh ln Lhe sLaLe of Cu[araL ln 1973Ŧ AnoLher ammonla Ŵ urea
complex was seL up aL Þhulpur ln Lhe sLaLe of uLLar Þradesh ln 1981Ŧ 1he
ammonla Ŵ urea unlL aL Aonla was commlssloned ln 1988Ŧ

ln 1993ţ lllCC had drawn up a ma[or expanslon proaramme of all Lhe four
planLs under overall aeals of lllCC vlSlCn 2000Ŧ 1he expanslon pro[ecLs aL Aonlaţ
kalolţ Þhulpur and kandla were compleLed on scheduleŦ All Lhe pro[ecLs concelved
as parL of vlslon 2000 had been reallsed wlLhouL Llme or cosL overrunsŦ All Lhe
producLlon unlLs of lllCC have esLabllshed a repuLaLlon for excellence and
quallLvŦ AnoLher arowLh paLh was chalked ouL Lo reallse newer dreams and
areaLer helahLs Lhrouah vlslon 2010Ŧ As parL of Lhls vlslonţ lllCC has acqulred
ferLlllser unlL aL Þaradeep ln Crlssa ln SepLember 2003Ŧ As a resulL of Lhese
expanslon pro[ecLs and aculslLlonţ lllCCƌs annual capaclLv has been lncreased Lo
3Ŧ69 mllllon Lonnes of urea and nÞk/uAÞ equlvalenL Lo 1Ŧ71 mllllon LonnesŦ ln
pursulL of lLs arowLh and developmenLţ lllCC had embarked upon and
successfullv lmplemenLed lLs CorporaLe Þlansţ 'Mlsslon 2003' and 'vlslon 2010'Ŧ
1hese plans have resulLed ln lllCC becomlna one of Lhe laraesL producer and
markeLer of Chemlcal lerLlllsers bv expanslon of lLs exlsLlna unlLsţ seLLlna up !olnL
venLure Companles Cverseas and ulverslflcaLlon lnLo new SecLorsŦ

lllCC has now vlsuallzed a comprehenslve plan LlLled 'vlslonŴ2013' whlch ls
presenLlv under lmplemenLaLlonŦ lllCC has made sLraLealc lnvesLmenLs ln several
[olnL venLuresŦ Codavarl lerLlllsers and Chemlcals LLd (ClCL) Ǝ lndlan ÞoLash LLd
(lÞL) ln lndlaţ lndusLrles Chlmlques du Seneaal (lCS) ln Seneaal and Cman lndla
lerLlllser Companv (CMllCC) ln Cman are lmporLanL ferLlllser [olnL venLuresŦ As
parL of sLraLealc dlverslflcaLlonţ lllCC has enLered lnLo several kev secLorsŦ lllCCŴ
1oklo Ceneral lnsurance LLd (l1Cl) ls a forav lnLo aeneral lnsurance secLorŦ
1hrouah l1Clţ lllCC has formulaLed new servlces of beneflL Lo farmersŦ ƌSankaL
Paran 8lma ?o[anaƌ provldes free lnsurance cover Lo farmers alona wlLh each baa
of lllCC ferLlllser purchasedŦ 1o Lake Lhe beneflLs of emeralna concepLs llke
aarlculLural commodlLv Lradlnaţ lllCC has Laken equlLv ln naLlonal CommodlLv
and uerlvaLlve Lxchanae (nCuLx) and naLlonal CollaLeral ManaaemenL Servlces
LLd (nCMSL)Ŧ lllCC ChaLLlsaarh Þower LLd (lCÞL) whlch ls under lmplemenLaLlon ls
veL anoLher forav Lo move lnLo core area of powerŦ lllCC ls also behlnd several
oLher companles wlLh Lhe sole lnLenLlon of beneflLLlna farmersŦ

1he dlsLrlbuLlon of lllCCƌs ferLlllzer ls underLaken Lhrouah over 39824 coŴ
operaLlve socleLlesŦ 1he enLlre acLlvlLles of ulsLrlbuLlonţ Sales and ÞromoLlon are
coŴordlnaLe bv MarkeLlna CenLral Cfflce (MkCC) aL new uelhl asslsLed bv Lhe
MarkeLlna offlces ln Lhe fleldŦ ln addlLlonţ essenLlal aaroŴlnpuLs for crop
producLlon are made avallable Lo Lhe farmers Lhrouah a chaln of 138 larmers
Servlce CenLre (lSC)Ŧ lllCC has promoLed several lnsLlLuLlons and oraanlzaLlons Lo
work for Lhe welfare of farmersţ sLrenaLhenlna cooperaLlve movemenLţ lmprove
lndlan aarlculLureŦ lndlan larm loresLrv uevelopmenL CooperaLlve LLd (llluC)ţ
CooperaLlve 8ural uevelopmenL 1rusL (CC8uL1)ţ lllCC loundaLlonţ klsan Sewa
1rusL belonas Lo Lhls caLeaorvŦ An amblLlous pro[ecL ƌlC1 lnlLlaLlves for larmers
and CooperaLlvesƌ ls launched Lo promoLe eŴculLure ln rural lndlaŦ lllCC
obsesslvelv nurLures lLs relaLlons wlLh farmers and underLakes a larae number of
aarlculLural exLenslon acLlvlLles for Lhelr beneflL everv vearŦ

AL lllCCţ Lhe LhlrsL for ever lmprovlna Lhe servlces Lo farmers and member coŴ
operaLlves ls lnsaLlableţ commlLmenL Lo quallLv ls lnsurmounLable and harnesslna
of moLher earLhsƌ bounLv Lo drlve hunaer awav from lndla ln an ecoloalcallv
susLalnable manner ls Lhe prlme mlsslonŦ All LhaL lllCC cherlshes ln exchanae ls
an everlasLlna smlle on Lhe face of lndlan larmer who forms Lhe movlna splrlL
behlnd Lhls mlslonŦ

lllCCţ Lo davţ ls a leadlna plaver ln lndlaƌs ferLlllser lndusLrv and ls maklna
subsLanLlal conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe efforLs of lndlan CovernmenL Lo lncrease food
araln producLlon ln Lhe counLrvŦ

Some of Lhe well known ferLlllsers used ln lndla are ť
nlLroaenous lerLlllsers

urea 46Ʒn
Ammonlam SulphaLe (As) 21Ʒn
Ammonlam Chlorlde (ACl) 26Ʒn
Calclum Ammonlam nlLraLe (CAn) 23Ʒn

ÞhosphaLlc Ǝ ÞoLasslc lerLlllsers

Slnale Super ÞhosphaLe (SSÞ) 16Ʒ Þ2C3
MurlaLe of ÞoLash (MCÞ) 60Ʒk2C
SulphaLe of ÞoLash (SCÞ) 48Ʒk2C
ulŴammonlum ÞhosphaLe (uAÞ) 18 Ŵ 46
8ock ÞhosphaLe (8Þ) 16 Ŵ 20Ʒ Þ2C3

nÞk Crades


10ť26ť26

12ť32ť16

14ť33ť14

13ť13ť13

16ť20ť00

17ť17ť17

19ť19ť19

20ť20ť00

23ť23ť00

28ť28ť00

Pric¢s of IFFCUŏs F¢rtilis¢rs


(Appllcable onlv wlLhln lndla)
(lndlan 8upees Þer 1onne (wŦeŦfŦ 1st Apr||ţ 2010)


UkLA NÞk NÞ DAÞ

NŴ46Ʒ 10Ŵ26Ŵ26 12Ŵ32Ŵ16 20ť20ť0ť13 18Ŵ46Ŵ0
MŦ8ŦÞŦ 3310 7897 8337 6893 9930
Local 1axes LxLraţ where ever appllcableŦ

IFFCU PHULPUR UNIT
lllCC Þhulpur unlL ls belna operaLed ln Lwo unlLs namelv unl1Ŵ1 and unl1Ŵ
2Ŧ 1he unlLŴ1 sLarLed Lo produce urea ln 1981 and ln 1997 unlLŴ2 sLarLs
producLlon commerclallvŦ
A brlef descrlpLlon of boLh Lhe unlLs ls as bellowŧŦŦ

0NIT-ŵ
Production Capacity:
Þ|ant Capac|ty 5upp||er
Ammonla 1213 M1/dav M/sŦ Þullman kelloaţ uSA
urea 2113 M1/dav M/sŦ Snam ÞroaeLLlţ lLlv
Þower 8oller 3x123 M1 M/sŦ 8PLL
1urboŴaeneraLor 1x12Ŧ3MW M/sŦ 8PLL

Main F¢atur¢s:
ero uaLe 26
Lh
Mav 1976
Commerclal ÞroducLlon 28
Lh
March 981
Þro[ecL CosL 8sŦ 203Ŧ00 Crores
1oLal Area 1070 Acres
ÞlanL 320 Acres
1ownshlp 480 Acres
CardeL 130 Acres
Ash Þond 120 Acres

Total Production {Till ŷŵ.Ŵŷ.ŶŴŵŴ):
Piouuct Total Piouuction (Lakh NT)
Ammonia 89.9ź
0iea ŵŹŹ.ŸŸ


UNIT-Ŷ
Production Capacity:
ÞlanL CapaclLv Suppller
Ammonla 1740 M1/dav M/sŦ P 1 A Sţ uenmark
urea 3030 M1/dav M/sŦ Snam ÞroaeLLlţ lLlv
Þower 8oller 1x200 M1/hr M/sŦ 8PLL
1urboŴaeneraLor 1x18 MW M/sŦ 8PLL

Main F¢atur¢s:
ero uaLe 20
Lh
Aprll 1993
Commerclal ÞroducLlon 22
nd
uecember 1997
Þro[ecL CosL 8sŦ 1186Ŧ8 Crores
lndlan Currencv 8sŦ 839Ŧ8 Crores
lorelan Currencv 8sŦ 327Ŧ0 Crores

Total Production {Till ŷŵ]Ŵŷ]ŶŴŵŴ):
Product Productin {Lakb Mt)
Ammonla 62Ŧ09
urea 106Ŧ92












Ŷ.HISTURY UF DEVELUPMENT UF UREA

urea was flrsL ldenLlfled ln 1773ţ when lL was lsolaLed bv crvsLalllzaLlon of urlneŦ lL
was flrsL prepared svnLheLlcallv from Ammonla and Cvnlc acld ln 1828 bv WohlerŦ
nP
3
+ PCnC ƹ nP
2
CCnP
2



lL was Lhe flrsL oraanlc compound prepared bv svnLhesls from lnoraanlc maLerlalsŦ
1he presenL meLhod of svnLhesls from CC
2
and nP
3
ls known ln prlnclpal ln 1868
buL commerclallv lL was prepared ln 1922 ln CermanvŦ Powever Lhere was some
commerclal producLlon ln Canada ln 1920 uslna CaCn

CaCn
2
+ 3P
2
C ƹ nP
2
CCnP
2
+ Ca(CP)
2
urea has been consldered slow released nlLroaen ferLlllzer ln colder realon
because lL has Lo underao Lwo LransformaLlons before lL ls avallable Lo crackŦ
llrsL LransformaLlon accordlna Lo hvdrolvsls Lakes place asť
nP
2
CCnP
2
+ P
2
C ƹ 2nP
3
+CC
2
Second LransformaLlon accordlna Lo nlLrlflcaLlon Lakes place ln whlch Ammonla ls
oxldlzed ln Lhe soll bv mlcroblal meansţ flrsL Lo nlLraLe and Lhen Lo nlLrlleŦ 1hese
reacLlons proceed aL a fasLer raLe ln warmţ molsL soll and aL slower raLe ln coldţ
under some clrcumsLances as when urea ls placed Lo seed ln local hlah
concenLraLlon of ammonla durlna hvdrolvsls accumulaLlon of nlLrlde durlna
nlLrlflcaLlonţ presence of blureL can cause excesslve damaae Lo cropsŦ



















ŷ.PRUPERTIES UF UREA
Urea |CO(NH2)2|, also known as carbamide or carbonyl diamide, is marketed as a
solution or in solid Iorm. Most urea solution produced is used in Iertilizer mixtures,
with a small amount going to animal Ieed supplements. Most solids are produced
as prills or granules, Ior use as Iertilizer or protein supplement in animal Ieed, and
in plastics manuIacturing. Five U. S. plants produce solid urea in crystalline Iorm.
About 7.3 million Megagrams (Mg) (8 million tons) oI urea were produced in the
U. S. in 1991. About 85 percent was used in Iertilizers (both solid and solution
Iorms), 3 percent in animal Ieed supplements, and the remaining 12 percent in
plastics and other uses.

Molecular lormula nP
2
CCnP
2

MelLlna ÞolnL 132Ŧ17
Ŧ
C
PeaL of luslon 37Ŧ08Cal/am
PeaL of CombusLlon 2331Cal/am
CrvsLalllne SLrucLure 1eLraaonal
nlLroaen ConLenL 46Ŧ6Ʒ
Colour WhlLe
8ulk uenslLv 672Ŧ736 Lo 789
ka/m
3

Anale of 8esponse 23 Lo 30
1rlple ÞolnL 102Ŧ3
ulelecLrlc ConsLanL 3Ŧ32 Lo Ŵ0Ŧ2
ulssoluLlon ConsLanL 1Ŧ3
Speclflc PeaL 0Ŧ42 kcal/hr/k
Crushlna SLrenaLh 27Ŧ8ka/cm
2
ert|||zer Contro| Crder (CC) has def|ned fo||ow|ng qua||ty of
ureať
O Þrlll slze ť +2Ŧ8mm noL areaLer Lhan 10Ʒ
O MolsLure ConLenL ť 1Ʒ maxŤ
O 8lureL ť 1Ŧ3Ʒmax

















Ÿ.PLANT DESCRIPTIUN {IFFCU PHULPUR UREA-I)
PRUCESS DESCRIPTIUN
1he urea producLlon process Lakes place Lhrouah Lhe followlna maln
operaLlonŴŴŴŴ
Ŵ urea svnLhesls and hlah pressure recoverv
Ŵ urea purlflcaLlon and low pressure recoverv
Ŵ urea concenLraLlon
Ŵ urea prllllna
Ŵ WasLe waLer LreaLmenL
a.Ur¢a Syntb¢sis and Higb Pr¢ssur¢ R¢cov¢ry
urea ls produced bv svnLhesls of llquld Ammonla and Caseous Carbon
uloxldeŦ ln Lhe reacLor 8Ŵ1 Lhe ammonla and CC2 reacL Lo form ammonlum
carbamaLeţ a porLlon of whlch dehvdraLes Lo form urea and waLerŦ 1he reacLlons
are as followsŧŧ
2nP3 + CC2 ƹ nP2CCCnP4 + PLA1
nP2CCCnP4 ƹ nP2CCnP2 + P2C Ŵ PLA1s
AL svnLhesls condlLlons (1ƹ190Cţ Þƹ130 ka/cm2) Lhe flrsL reacLlon occurs
rapldlv and aoes Lo compleLlonţ Lhe second reacLlon occurs slowlv and deLermlne
Lhe reacLlon raLeŦ
1he formaLlon of ammonlum cabamaLe LhaL dehvdraLes ls deLermlned bv
Lhe raLlo of Lhe varlous reacLanLsţ Lhe operaLlna LemperaLure and Lhe resldence
Llme ln Lhe reacLorŦ
1he mole raLlo of ammonla Lo CC2 ls around 3Ŧ6ť1Ŧ 1he mole raLlo of waLer
Lo CC2 ls around 0Ŧ67ť1Ŧ 1he llquld ammonlaţ comlna from ammonla sLoraaeţ aL a
LemperaLure of around Ŵ10C ls preheaLed ln Lhe ammonla preheaLer LŴ10 and
Lhen recelved ln ammonla recelver vŴ1 and hoL llquld ammonla aL 33C from
ammonla planL ls recelved dlrecLlv ln ammonla recelver vŴ1Ŧ
lrom vŴ1 ammonla ls drawn and pumped bv mean of cenLrlfuaal pump ÞŴ3
(operaLlna aL 23 A1A dlscharaed pressure)ţ parLlallv Lo medlum pressure absorber
CŴ1 and Lhe remalnlna volume ls dlrecLed Lo Lhe hlah pressure svnLhesls loopŦ
1he ammonla Lo Lhe svnLhesls loop ls flrsL Laken Lo low speedţ heavv duLv
reclprocaLlna pumps ÞŴ1 A/8/CŦ 1hese pumps dlscharae ammonla Lo a pressure of
abouL 240 aLmŦ 8efore enLerlna Lhe reacLorţ Lhe ammonla aL Lhls hlah pressure ls
used as a drlvlna fluld ln Lhe carbamaLe e[ecLor L!Ŵ1ţ where Lhe carbamaLe comlna
from Lhe carbamaLe separaLor MvŴ1 ls Laken Lo Lhe svnLhesls pressureŦ 1he llquld
mlxLure of nP3 and carbamaLe enLers Lhe reacLor where lL reacLs wlLh
compressed CC2Ŧ
1he CC2 drawn aL urea planL baLLerv llmlL aL abouL 1Ŧ1 aLm pressure and
abouL 43C LemperaLure enLers Lhe cenLrlfuaal compressors kŴ1 and leaves lL aL a
flnal dlscharae pressure of abouL 133 aLmŦ
A small quanLlLv alr ls added Lo Lhe CC2 aL Lhe compressor sucLlon ln order
Lo passlvaLe Lhe sLalnless sLeel surfacesţ Lhus proLecLlna Lhem from corroslon due
Lo boLh Lhe reacLanL and reacLlon producLŦ
1he reacLlon producL leavlna Lhe reacLor flow Lo Lhe sLeam heaLed falllna
fllm sLrlpper LŴ1ţ whlch operaLes aL essenLlallv Lhe same pressure as Lhe reacLorŦ
1he mlxLure ls heaLed (bv medlum pressure sLeam on shell slde) as lL flows down
Lhe falllna fllm exchanaerŦ 1he CC2 conLenL of Lhe soluLlon ls reduced bv Lhe
sLrlpplna acLlon of Lhe ammonla as bolled ouL of Lhe soluLlonŦ
1he decomposlLlon of ammonlum carbamaLe ls an endoLhermlc reacLlonŦ
PeaL for Lhls reacLlon ls supplled bv 26 aLm saLuraLed sLeam on Lhe shell slde of
Lhe sLrlpperŦ 1he overhead aases from Lhe sLrlpperţ and Lhe recovered soluLlon
from Lhe medlum pressure absorber CŴ1ţ Lhe pumped Lhrouah plunaer pumps ÞŴ
2A/8ţ flow Lo Lhe hlah pressure carbamaLe condenser LŴ3/6ţ where Lhe LoLal
mlxLure excepL some lnerLţ ls condensed as carbamaLe and recvcled Lo Lhe reacLor
bv mean of e[ecLor L!Ŵ1Ŧ
CondensaLlon of Lhe aases aL hlah pressure and LemperaLure permlLs
producLlon of sLeam aL 4Ŧ3 aLm ln Lhe hlah pressure carbamaLe condenserŦ non
condensable aases conslsLlna of n2ţ C2ţ P2 and also conLalnlna a small quanLlLv of
nP3 and CC2 unreacLed Lhe condenserţ are released from Lhe Lop of Lhe
carbamaLe separaLor MvŴ1Ŧ 1hls aaseous mlxLure ls send Lo Lhe boLLom of Lhe
medlum pressure decomposer LŴ2Ŧ

T.Ur¢a Purification and Low Pr¢ssur¢ R¢cov¢ri¢s
urea purlflcaLlon Lakes place ln Lwo sLaaes aL decreaslna pressures as
followsŧŧŦŦ
1Ŧ Medlum pressure aL 18 aLa pressureŦ
2Ŧ Low pressure aL 4Ŧ3 aLa pressureŦ

i. M¢dium Pr¢ssur¢ Purification and R¢cov¢ry at
ŵ8 ata
1he soluLlon wlLh a low resldual CC2 conLenLţ leavlna Lhe boLLom of Lhe
sLrlpper aL svnLhesls pressure ls leL down Lo 18 aLa pressures and enLers medlum
pressure decomposerŦ
1he medlum pressure decomposer has been dlvlded lnLo Lwo parLs ŧŧŦ
1Ŧ 1op SeparaLor (MvŴ2)ť where Lhe released flash aases are removed before
Lhe soluLlon enLers Lhe Lube bundleŦ
2Ŧ uecomposlLlon secLlon (LŴ2ţ falllna fllm Lvpe)ť where Lhe resldual
carbamaLe ls decomposed and Lhe heaL requlred for decomposlLlon ls
supplled bv mean of 26 aLa sLeam condensaLe flowlna ouL from Lhe shell
slde of Lhe sLrlpperŦ
1he nP3 and CC2 reach aases leavlna Lhe Lop separaLor (MvŴ2) are senL Lo
medlum pressure condenser LŴ7ţ where Lhev are parLlallv absorbed ln aqueous
carbamaLe soluLlon comlna from Lhe low pressure recoverv secLlonŦ 1he
absorpLlon heaL ls removed bv Lempered coollna waLer clrculaLlon ls Lhe Lube
slde of medlum pressure condenser LŴ7Ŧ
1empered waLer clrculaLlon ls provlded Lo prevenL carbamaLe solldlflcaLlon
malnLalnlna proper coollna waLer LemperaLure lnleL Lo Lhe Lube slde of Lhe
medlum pressure condenserŦ 1he coollna waLer LemperaLure lnleL Lo
condenser ls malnLalned bv mean of lnŴllne pump ÞŴ19Ŧ
ln Lhe MÞ condenser Lhe CC2 ls almosL LoLallv absorbedŦ 1he effluenL from
LŴ7 flows Lo Lhe MÞ absorber CŴ1Ŧ 1he aaseous phases (enLerlna CŴ1 alona wlLh
llquld effluenLs from LŴ7) enLer Lhe recLlflcaLlon secLlon of MÞ absorber CŴ1Ŧ
1he recLlflcaLlon secLlon has bubble cap Lravs and effecL CC2 absorpLlon and
nP3 recLlflcaLlonŦ
1he bubble cap Lravs are fed bv pure reflux ammonla aL Lhe Lop Lravs whlch
ellmlnaLes resldual CC2 and P2C from aases leavlna MÞ absorber from Lhe
LopŦ 8eflux nP3 ls drawn from Lhe nP3 recelver and pumped Lo Lhe
recLlflcaLlon column bv mean of cenLrlfuaal pump ÞŴ3Ŧ
lnerL aases (P2ţ n2ţ C2) saLuraLed wlLh ammonla and havlna maxŦ of 100
ppm CC2ţ leave Lhe Lop of Lhe recLlflcaLlon secLlon of MÞ absorberŦ 1he
boLLom soluLlon ls recvcled bv Lhe pump ÞŴ2A/8 Lo svnLhesls recoverv secLlonŦ
nP3 wlLh lnerL aases leavlna Lhe MÞ absorber Lop ls parLlallv condensed Lhe
ammonla condenser LŴ9Ŧ 8oLh uncondensed aases phase and condensed llquld
ammonla are sendlna Lo ammonla recelver vŴ1Ŧ
1he lnerL aasesţ saLuraLed wlLh ammonla llvlna Lhe recelver vŴ1 enLer
ammonla preheaLer LŴ10 where an addlLlonal amounL of vapor ammonla ls
condensed bv heaLlna cold ammonla (aL around Ŵ10C) comlna from ammonla
sLoraae area and used as makeup feed Lo urea planL ln addlLlon Lo hoL
ammonla Laken dlrecLlv from ammonla planLŦ 1he condensed ammonla from
LŴ10 ls recelved ln Lhe recelver vŴ1 and so ls Lhe ammonla make um feedŦ
1he lnerL aases wlLh resldual ammonla conLenL are senL Lo medlum
pressure ammonla absorber LŴ11ţ whlch ls a falllna fllm Lvpe and where Lhev
meeL counLerŴcurrenL condensaLe flows whlch absorb aaseous ammonlaŦ 1he
absorblna heaL ls removed bv coollna waLer flow on Lhe shell slde of LŴ11Ŧ
lrom Lhe boLLom of LŴ11 Lhe waLer ammonla soluLlon ls pumped Lo Lhe MÞ
absorber CŴ1 (aL second bubble cap Lrav from Lhe Lop) bv mean of cenLrlfuaal
pump ÞŴ7A/8Ŧ
1he upper parL of MÞ ammonla absorber deslanaLed as CŴ3 conslsL of Lhree
valve Lravs where Lhe lnerL aases are submlLLed Lo flnal washlna bv pure
condensaLeŦ
1he lnerL leavlna Lhe Lop of LŴ11/CŴ3 are pracLlcallv free from AmmonlaŦ


ii. Low Pr¢ssur¢ Purification and r¢cov¢ry stag¢ Ÿ.Ź
Ata
1he pressure of Lhe soluLlon leavlna boLLom of Lhe MÞ decomposer ls
leLdown Lo 4Ŧ3 aLa and Lhen enLers Lhe low pressure decomposer whlch conslsL of
Ŵ 1op separaLor (MvŴ3)ţ where Lhe released flash aases are removed before
Lhe soluLlon enLers Lhe lower Lube bundleŦ
Ŵ uecomposlLlon secLlon LŴ3 (falllna fllm Lvpe)ţ where Lhe resldual carbamaLe
ls decomposedŦ 1he requlred heaL for decomposlLlon ls supplled bv mean
of saLuraLed seam aL 4Ŧ3 aLaŦ
1he aases leavlna Lhe Lop separaLor (MvŴ3) are senL Lo Lhe low pressure
condenser LŴ8 where Lhev are absorbed ln an aqueous carbonaLe soluLlon
comlna from Lhe wasLe waLer recoverv secLlonŦ 1he absorpLlon and
condensaLlon heaL from LÞ condenser LŴ8 ls removed bv coollna waLerŦ lrom
Lhe LÞ condenser LŴ8 Lhe llquld phase ţ wlLh remalnlna lnerL aasesţ ls senL Lo
Lhe carbonaLe soluLlon Lank vŴ3Ŧ lrom Lhere Lhe carbonaLe soluLlon ls recvcled
back Lo Lhe medlum pressure condenser LŴ7 bv mean of cenLrlfuaal pump ÞŴ
3A/8Ŧ Lhe lnerL aases from vŴ3 whlch essenLlallv conLaln ammonla vapor and
some lnerL flow dlrecLlv lnLo Lhe low pressure falllna fllm absorber LŴ12ţ where
Lhe ammonla ls absorbed bv a counLer currenL waLer flowŦ 1he absorpLlon
heaL ls removed bv coollna waLer flow on shell slde of LŴ12Ŧ 1he Lop porLlon of
LŴ12 has Lhree valve Lravs and ls deslanaLed as CŴ4Ŧ Þure condensaLe ls
lnLroduced lnLo Lhe Lop Lrav whlch flow down Lhrouah oLher Lravs of CŴ4 and
Lhen LŴ12 Lo recover ammonlaŦ venL aases leavlna CŴ4 are onlv lnerL and are
free from ammonlaŦ

c.Ur¢a Conc¢ntration S¢ction
As lL ls necessarvţ ln order Lo prlll ureaţ Lo concenLraLe Lhe urea soluLlon up
Lo 99Ŧ8Ʒ bv wLŦ a vacuum concenLraLlon secLlon ln Lwo sLaaes ls provldedŦ
1he soluLlon leavlna Lhe LÞ decomposer LŴ3 boLLom havlna abouL 72Ʒ bv
wLŦ of urea ls senL Lo Lhe flrsL vacuum concenLraLor LŴ14ţ operaLlna aL a pressure
0Ŧ3 aLaŦ 1he llquld/vapor phase comlna ouL from LŴ14 enLers Lhe aas llquld
separaLor MvŴ6ţ where from Lhe vaporsţ are exLracLed bv Lhe flrsL vacuum svsLem
MLŴ4 whlle Lhe soluLlon enLers Lhe second vacuum concenLraLor LŴ13ţ operaLlna
aL a pressure of 0Ŧ03 aLaŦ
1he Lwo concenLraLor LŴ14 and LŴ13 use saLuraLed sLeam aL 4Ŧ3 aLaŦ 1he
llquld vapor phase comlna ouL from LŴ13 enLers aasŴllquld separaLor MvŴ7 where
Lhe vapors are exLracLed bv Lhe second vacuum svsLem MLŴ3Ŧ
i. First Vacuum Syst¢m ME-Ÿ
llrsL evaporaLor ls operaLed aL 130C and 0Ŧ3 ka/cm2 a pressureţ overhead
vapors from Lhe Lop of flrsL vacuum separaLor ls dlrecLed Lo Lhe shell slde of
precondenser LŴ23 and heaL of condensaLlon ls removed bv coollna waLer ln Lhe
Lube sldeŦ Ammonla vapor and resldual CC2 ls absorbed ln condensaLeţ formlna
dlluLe ammonla carbonaLe soluLlon and flow down Lhrouah baromeLrlc lea Lo
wasLe waLer Lank vŴ3Ŧ
uncondensed aases are sucked bv Lhe e[ecLor L!Ŵ2 (moLlve fluld belna 4Ŧ3
aLa sLeams) and dlscharae ln Lhe shell slde of afLer condenser ls LŴ27 whlch also
recelves uncondensed aases from second vacuum svsLem MLŴ3Ŧ PeaL of
condensaLlon ls removed bv coollna waLer flowlna ln Lhe Lube slde of LŴ27Ŧ ulluLe
ammonla waLer soluLlon flow down Lo wasLe waLer Lank and non condensable are
venLed ouL from Lhe shell sldeŦ
ii. S¢cond Vacuum Syst¢m ME-Ź
Second evaporaLor ls operaLed aL 140C and 0Ŧ03 ka/cm2 pressureŦ
Cverhead aases from second vacuum separaLor MvŴ7 are sucked bv a boosLer
e[ecLor L!Ŵ4 (moLlve fluld belna 4Ŧ3 aLa sLeam) and dlscharaed aL sllahLlv hlaher
pressure Lo Lhe shell slde of flrsL lnLer condenser LŴ28 where heaL of
condensaLlon ls removed bv coollna waLer flowlna ln Lhe Lube sldeŦ 1he llquld
soluLlon flows down Lhrouah baromeLrlc lea Lo vŴ3Ŧ
non condensed aases are drawn bv Lhe e[ecLor L!Ŵ3 (moLlve fluld belna 4Ŧ3
aLa sLeam) and dlscharaed Lo Lhe shell slde of second lnLer condenser LŴ29 where
Lhe laLenL heaL of condensaLlon ls aaaln removed bv coollna waLerŦ Llquld flow Lo
vŴ3 and non condensed aases are sucked bv e[ecLor L!Ŵ6 and dlscharaed Lo Lhe
afLer condenser LŴ27 where non condensable from flrsL vacuum svsLem also [olnŦ
d.Ur¢a Prilling
1he melLed urea leavlna Lhe second vacuum separaLor ls pumped Lo Lhe
prllllna buckeL MLŴ8A/8 bv mean of cenLrlfuaal pump ÞŴ8A/8Ŧ
1he molLen urea comlna ouL from Lhe prllllna buckeL ln Lhe form of drops
falls alona Lhe prllllna Lower MLŴ6 and encounLers a cold alr flow whlch causes lLs
solldlflcaLlon and subsequenL coollnaŦ
1he solld prllls falllna Lo Lhe boLLom of Lhe prllllna Lower are senL Lo Lhe belL
convever M1Ŵ1 bv Lhe roLaLor scraper ML_12Ŧ lrom here urea prllls are passed
Lhrouah screen MLŴ10 whlch reLalns lumps onlvŦ ÞroducL prllls are conveved bv
belL convever M1Ŵ3 Lo Lhe bulk urea sLoraae or baaalna planLŦ
urea lumps reLalned on screen MLŴ10 are conveved bv mean of belL
convever M1Ŵ2 an underaround Lank vŴ7 where Lhe lumps are dlssolved ln
condensaLe aL 100CŦ 1he urea soluLlon from Lhls Lank ls pumped Lo Lhe maln urea
soluLlon Lank vessel vŴ4 bv mean of pumps ÞŴ9A/8 vla fllLer lLŴ1A/8 Lo remove
anv forelan maLLerŦ

¢.ast¢ at¢r Tr¢atm¢nt
1he waLer conLalnlna Ammonla and CC2 comlna from flrsL and second vacuum
secLlon ls collecLed ln wasLe waLer Lank (vŴ3)Ŧ 1he wasLe waLer conLalns 3Ŵ6Ʒ
nP3ţ CC2 Ƽ1Ʒ and urea 1Ŵ1Ŧ3ƷŦ 1hls ls also known as Ammonlcal waLerŦ 1hls
wasLe waLer ls pumped aL Lhe Lop of a dlsLlllaLlon Lower (CŴ2) Lo remove nP3ţ CC2
and ureaŦ 1he nP3 and CC2 aases leaves Lhe column from Lhe Lop and Lhe urea
aeL separaLed aL Lhe mlddle of Lhe column and lL ls send Lo Lhe urea Pvdrolvser
(8Ŵ31) whlch hvdrolvze Lhe urea and converL lnLo carbamaLe Lhen furLher
hvdrollzaLlon break Lhls carbamaLe lnLo Ammonla and CC2Ŧ 1he purlfled waLer ls
dlscharaes from Lhe shell slde of a reboller mounLed aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe
dlsLlllaLlon columnŦ
1he dlsLlllaLlon column ls operaLes aL Lhe pressure of 2Ŧ3 ka/cm3Ŧ 1he dlsLlllaLlon
column (CŴ2) ls conslsLs of 43 sleve LravsŦ 1he feed means wasLe waLer ls
lnLroduced aL Lhe Lrav numbers 37ţ 39 and 41 counLlna flrsL from Lhe boLLomŦ
8efore lnLroduclna ln Lhe column Lhe feed wasLe waLer ls aeL preheaLed ln Lhe
Lube slde of a shell and Lube heaL exchanaer bv Lhe effluenL of Lhe rebollerŦ ln Lhe
dlsLlllaLlon column ammonla and CC2 ln Lhe feed are sLrlpped bv mean of vapor
producL produced ln Lhe rebollerţ whlch ls supplled bv 4Ŧ3ka/cm
2
saLuraLed sLeamŦ
1he llquld sLeam from Lhe holder above 20
Lh
Lrav ls Laken ouL Lo hvdrolvser urea ln
hvdrolvser bv means of sLeamŦ 1he vapor from Lhe hvdrolvser enLers aL Lhe 37
Lh

Lravs and llquld ls recvcled back Lo Lhe dlsLlllaLlon column aL 20
Lh
LravsŦ
1he vapor leavlna Lhe Lop of Lhe dlsLlllaLlon column are condensed ln an
overhead condenserŦ 1he condensaLe (Lhe carbamaLe soluLlon) ls recelved ln Lhe
reflux accumulaLorŦ 8v means of cenLrlfuaal pump a parL of soluLlon ls recvcled
back Lo Lhe Lop of Lhe dlsLlllaLlon column as refluxţ whlle Lhe remalnlna parL ls
supplled Lo LÞ carbamaLe condenserŦ
1he dlsLlllaLlon column boLLom effluenL conLalnlna onlv Lraces of ammonla ls
Laken Lo reboller and Lhen hoL llquld effluenL ls fed Lo Lhe shell slde of Lhe soluLlon
preheaLerţ where lL ls cooled and pumped bv Lhe means of Lhe cenLrlfuaal pump
Lo Lhe waLer coolerţ where lL ls cooled bv coollna waLer Lo a LemperaLure abouL
40 C and Lhen dlscharaed of Lhe of Lhe facLorv effluenL svsLemŦ A provlslon for
ln[ecLlon of small quanLlLv of alr ln Lhe boLLom of Lhe dlsLlllaLlon column ls
provlded Lo passlvaLe Lhe enLlre secLlonŦ
1hls purlfled waLer ls used as Lhe same as uM waLerŦ










Ź.EQUIPMENT USED IN UREA MANUFACTURINC
Ź.ŵ.R¢actor{R-ŵ)
Suppli¢r- MitsuTisbi H¢avy Industri¢s Ltd. )apan
1he llquld mlxLure of nP
3
and aaseous CC
2
are fed ln reacLor where Lhese reacL Lo
form ammonlum carbamaLeţ a porLlon of whlch dehvdraLe Lo form urea and
waLerŦ
8eacLor ls verLlcallv mounLed and made of carbon sLeelŦ lL ls lnLernallv llned wlLh
3mm Lhlck sLalnless sLeel llner 316LŦAmmonla/carbamaLe and CC
2
feed nozzle
exLend lnslde Lhe reacLor up Lo 1Ŧ8m and each are capped on Lop endŦ lor
dlsLrlbuLlon of nP
3
/carbamaLe feed 343 holes (lŦuŦ10 mm equlŴspaced) are
provldedŦ 1hese are drllled alona 833mm lenaLhŦ Slmllarlv CC
2
dlsLrlbuLor has 270
nosŦ 0f equlŴspaced holes (lŦuŦ6mmŦ) provlded over a lenaLh of 880 mm lnslde
reacLor boLLomŦ
Up¢rating D¢tails
CperaLlna Þressure 131ka/cm
2
a
CperaLlna 1emperaLure 183
Ŧ
C
ueslan Þressure 166ka/cm
2
a
ueslan 1emperaLure 193
Ŧ
C
uenslLv of reacLor 930ka/m
3
8eacLor volume 137m
3

Maxlmum 1emperaLure and Þressure
CradlenL durlna sLarLup and shuLdownť
1emperaLure 30
Ŧ
C/hr
Þressure 60ka/cm
2
/hr
Mlnlmum AccepLable 1emperaLure and Maxlmum Þressure CradlenL durlna
Pvdro 1esLť
1emperaLure 20
Ŧ
C/hr
Þressure 60ka/cm
2
/hr

M¢cbanical D¢tails
1Ŧ LenaLh 3600mm
2Ŧ lŦuŦ 2303mm
3Ŧ CŦuŦ 2494mm
4Ŧ lnLernal Llnlna 3mm 316L
3Ŧ 1oLal noŦ of sleve Lravs 10
6Ŧ PelahL beLween each Lrav 2300mm
7Ŧ Poles on sleve Lravs 421 holes of 8mm lŦuŦ
8Ŧ Cverflow Þlpe(lŦuŦ) 219Ŧ1mm wlLh 8Ŧ2 mm
Lhlck
9Ŧ nP
3
/carbamaLe lnleL dlsLrlbuLor equallv spaced 343
holes of
10Ŧholes dlaŦ 10mm
11ŦCC
2
lnleL dlsLrlbuLor holes equallv spaced 270 holes of ťdlaŦ6mm

Mat¢rial Uf Construction
1Ŧ Shell Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ ŧŧŧŦŦCarbon sLeel
2Ŧ Sleve Lravs Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ ŧŧŧŦŦ SS 316ŴL(modlfled)
3Ŧ All lnLernal walls and llner ln conLacL wlLh fluldŧŧŦ SS316ŴL (modlfled)
4Ŧ Man hole CaskeL Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ ŧŧŦŦ1eflonţ Alumlnlum


Ź.Ŷ.M¢dium Pr¢ssur¢ ATsorT¢r :C-ŵ
Suppli¢r: B.H.P.V. Visbakbapatnam
MŦÞŦ Absorber (CŴ1) conLalns four bubble cap Lravs aL Lhe LopŦ vapor llquld
mlxLure enLers Lhrouah an enLrv plpe whlch runs down lnslde column and ls
equallv dlvlded lnLo four perforaLed armsŦ Lach perforaLed arm has 270 holes of
12mm dlaŦ Lach and are equallv spaced on Lhree rows faclna downwardsŦ 1here
are four bubble cap Lravs aL Lhe Lop of recLlflcaLlon secLlon numbered from
boLLomŦ A llquld seal of 30mm ls malnLalned on each bubble cap plaLeŦ4
Lh
and 3
rd

Lravs are fed pure reflux nP
3
and aqueous nP
3
soluLlon respecLlvelv whlch
ellmlnaLe resldual CC
2
and waLer from Lhe ammonla leavlna CŴ1ŦCarbamaLe
soluLlon from boLLom plaLe downŴcomer falls ln a closed ended channel and Lhen
overflows Lo a dlsLrlbuLorŦ
M¢cbanical D¢tails
LenaLh 9000mmŦ
lnLernal dlameLer 1830mmŦ
1hlckness 23Ŧ3mmŦ
noŦ of bubble cap Lravs 4
Cap slze and nosŦ 73mmŦţ163 caps per Lrav
noŦ of sloL ln each cap 19noŦ recLanaular sloLs(23mm helahLţwldLh 6Ŧ3mm)
Llquld seal on each Lrav 30mmŦ
noŦ of holes ln vapor llquld enLrv plpe 270noŦ holes 12mm dla equallv
(spaced 3rows faclna down wards)
vapor Llquld lnleL nozzle dlameLer 203Ŧ2mm
Þure ammonla lnleL nozzle dlaŦ 76Ŧ2mm
nP
3
soluLlon lnleL 38Ŧ1mm
vapour ouLleL dlaŦ 234mmŦ
P
2
C lnleL nozzle dlaŦ 23Ŧ4mmŦ
8ecvcle soluLlon lnleL nozzle 76Ŧ2mmŦ
SoluLlon Lransfer nozzle dla 101Ŧ6mmŦ
SoluLlon ouLleL nozzle 203Ŧ2mmŦ
Manhole dlaŦ 308mmŦ

Up¢rating D¢tails
CoeraLlna Þressure 18ka/cm
2

CperaLlna 1emperaLure 1CÞ 47Ŧ3C
8C11CM 88C
ueslaned Þressure 22ka/cm
2
ueslaned 1emperaLure 110C
uenslLv of carbamaLe solnŦ 922ka/m
3

Pvdraullc LesL pressure 40Ŧ3ka/cm
2


Mat¢rial Uf Construction
Shellţ Peads and All lnLernals SS316ŴL
SupporLs SS316ŴLƎ283 CrŦC
CskeLs Splral wound AlSl316+1eflon


Ź.ŷ.Distillation Column{C-Ŷ)
Suppli¢r: Lars¢n And TouTro, BomTay
ÞreheaLed Ammonlum carbamaLe soluLlon leavlna preheaLer enLers Lhe Lop of
dlsLlllaLlon columnŦnP
3
and CC
2
ln feed sLrlpped bv means of vapor produced ln
Lhe reboller (LŴ16) and enLer CŴ2 aL Lhe boLLomŦ vapor leavlna Lop of Lhe Lower ls
condensed ln an overhead condenser (LŴ20) from where soluLlon collecLed ln Lhe
reflux accumulaLor vŴ8Ŧleed Lo reboller ls Laken from CŴ2 boLLomŦ vapor from LŴ
16 are back Lo Lhe dlsLlllaLlon column below 1
sL
plaLeŦ 8lslna vapor whlle Lravelllna
Lhrouah Lrav comes ln lnLlmaLe conLacL wlLh soluLlon sLrlp ouL nP
3
and CC
2
Ŧ 1here
are Lwo dlsLrlbuLorsţ one ls below 21
sL
LravŦ 1he dlsLrlbuLor ls well supporLed Lo
shell and dlvlded lnLo Lhree parLsŦ lrom Lhe mlddle porLlon havlna vapor hood aL
Lhe Lop whlch prevenLs soluLlon from enLerlna Lhrouah mlddle openlnaţ onlv aas
wlll passŦ Cverhead vapors leave Lhrouah 14
Lh
ouLleL nozzle and are Laken Lo
overhead condenser (LŴ20)Ŧ
lour Lhermocouples are provlded Lo measure LemperaLure above 41
sL
ţ 30
Lh
ţ 20
Lh

and 10
Lh
plaLeŦ 1wo aauaes for level have been provlded aL boLLomŦ
M¢cbanical D¢tails
LenaLh 33670mmŦ
lŦuŦ 1248mmŦ
noŦ of sleve Lravs 43
noŦ of bell caps 133
lnsulaLlon 70mmŦ Lhlck
vapor ouLleL nozzle dlaŦ 14lnches
8eflux lnleL nozzle dlaŦ 1Ŧ3lnches
SoluLlon feed nozzle dlaŦ 4lnches
vapor lnleL nozzle dlaŦ 16lnches
uLlllLv alr lnleL nozzle dlaŦ 1lnch
WaLer ouLleL nozzle dlaŦ 6lnches

Up¢rating D¢tails
ueslan Þressure 4ka/cm
2

ueslan 1emperaLure 163C
CperaLlna Þressure 2ka/cm
2
CperaLlna LemperaLure 133C
volume 44m
3
Mat¢rial Uf Construction
Shellţ Peads and lnLernals SS304
SupporLs A240 Lvpe 304 Ǝ A 313 CrŦ33
CaskeLs Compressed asbesLos

Ź.Ÿ.Stripp¢r{E-ŵ)
Suppli¢r: FBM Milano
SLrlpper ls a hlah pressure falllna fllm Lvpe heaL exchanaerŦ 8eacLor effluenLs are
heaLed ln sLrlpper Lo decompose and sLrlp off unconverLed carbamaLe aL
svnLhesls pressureŦ 8eacLor effluenLs are admlLLed aL Lhe Lop porLlon of sLrlpper
and are fed Lo Lhe clrcumferenLlal annular secLlon of Lhe dlsLrlbuLor plaLeŦ
SoluLlon Lhen overflows a welr of dlameLer 1370mmŦ and ls dlsLrlbuLed Lhrouah
holes of dlsLrlbuLor over a bed of pall rlnasŦ Pere counLer currenL conLacL Lakes
place beLween Lhe llquld and aases leavlna Lhe sLrlpper LubesŦ Crld below Lhe
packed bed ls placed [usL above Lhe ferrules Lo keep Lhem ln poslLlonŦ Lach ferrule
has holes aL Lwo dlfferenL planesŦ AL Lhe boLLom plane Lhere are 4 LanaenLlal
holes of 2Ŧ4mm dlameLerţ Lhrouah whlch llquld enLers each Lube ln Lhe form of a
fllm alona Lhe wallŦ 1he soluLlon ouLleL aL Lhe boLLom ls provlded wlLh a vorLex
breakerŦ 1here are Lwo Lvpes of level senslna elemenLs aL Lhe boLLom (a) dp
LransmlLLerţ (b) radloacLlve sourceŦ
M¢cbanical D¢tails
TuT¢
MaLerlal
1lLanlum
PeaL Lransfer area 787
on lŦuŦm
2
noŦ of Lubes 2780
lŦuŦ
20Ŧ0mmŦ
CŦuŦ
27Ŧ0mmŦ

F¢rrul¢
MaLerlal
28L69
PelahL of boLLom seL of holes from Lube 30mmŦ
sheeL
PelahL of Lop seL of holes from Lube 409mmŦ
sheeL

Bottom Crid
MaLerlal 2 8L 69
noŦ of holes 3376
Pole dlaŦ 12mmŦ

Packings
MaLerlal 28L69
1vpe Þall rlna
8lna slze

DistriTutor Plat¢
MaLerlal 28L69
noŦ of hole 1200
Pole 9mmŦdla
noŦ of weep holes 43
MaLerlal of shell Carbon sLeel

Ź.Ź.Hp Ammonia F¢¢d Pumps{P-ŵa]B]C)
Suppli¢r: ortbington, HamTurg
1aklna sucLlon from dlscharae header of Ammonla boosLer pumps pŴ3A/8ţ PÞ nP
3

feed pump pumps anhvdrous llquld ammonla aL a hlah pressure of
240ka/cm
2
Ŧ1hls llquld ammonla sLream serves as a drlvlna force for e[ecLor L!Ŵ1 Lo
recvcle carbamaLe Lo reacLorŦ 1hls ls a 3 plunaer reclprocaLlna verLlcal pumpŦ An
elecLrlc moLor drlves lL Lhrouah a 1orque converLer and speed reduclna aearŦ
Speed of Lhe pump can be conLrolled from Lorque converLer bv ad[usLlna Lhe
openlna of conLrol valve on Lhe Lorque converLerŦ 1he lubrlcaLlon of all Lhe parLs
housed ln Lhe crankcase ls done bv a 8oLarv oll pump whlch Lakes sucLlon from
Lhe oll sump of crank caseŦ 1here ls a pressure swlLch provlded ln Lhe dlscharae
llne of lube oll sumpŦ Plah pressure of lube oll ls relleved bv a pressure rellef
valveŦ Lach sLufflna box ls provlded wlLh oll ln[ecLlonŦ Cll from a small
reclprocaLlna pump ls ln[ecLed lnLo Lhe space ln LÞ packlna of each plunaerŦ Cll
ouLleL from each plunaer ls Laken Lo MvŴ3 Ŧ1he speed of each pump can be
conLrolled bv a PlCŦ ln dlscharae Lhere are one ÞCţ one hlah pressure alarm and a
hlah pressure LrlpŦ Lach pump has aoL an lndlvldual safeLv valve ln sucLlon and
dlscharae headŦ lollowlna are Lhe maln parLs ť
O Crank Caseť 1he frame ls a verv rlald casLlna and ls made of 2 plecesŦ 1he
lower parL of Lhe frame serves as oll sump for lubrlcaLlna ollŦ
O Crank ShafLť lL ls a one plece foralna of carbon sLeelŦ Poles have been
drllled ln Lhe crank shafL Lo carrv lube oll for pressure lubrlcaLlonŦ
O Maln 8earlnasť 3 are llne bearlna and one ls LhrusL bearlnaŦ 1hese bearlnas
are sleeve bearlna and made of Lhree comparLmenLsŦ
O ConnecLlna 8od and Crank Þln 8earlnasť Lach connecLlna rod ls one plece
sLeel foralnaŦ Crank pln bearlna spllL shell made of Lhree componenL allovŦ
O Cross Pead Þln 8ushlnať 1hese bushlnas are forced flL ln Lhe connecLlna rodŦ
1hese have annular aroove on ouLslde surface for lubrlcaLlon purposeŦ lL ls
made of alumlnlum bronze mulLlŴcomponenL allov sLeelŦ
O Cross Peadť Cross heads are made of nodular casL lron Lurned and aroundŦ
Cross heads have annular arooves for lubrlcaLlna cross head areaŦ
O Cross Pead Þlnť Cross head pln ls forced flL lnLo cross head and ls held ln
poslLlon bv reLalnlna rlnas and dowel plns Lo avold LurnlnaŦ 1he cross head
ls drllled Lo lubrlcaLe Lhe face of Lhe cross headŦ
O 1le 8odsť 1wo Lle rods for each head LransmlL Lhe verLlcal cross head
moLlon Lo Lhe plunaerŦ 1he plunaer ls flxed on Lhe Lle rods wlLh Lhe help of
nuLsŦ 1le rods are made of CrŦ MoŦ SLeelŦ



M¢cbanical D¢tails
noŦ of plunaers 3
Þlunaer dlaŦ 86mmŦ
SLroke lenaLh 132mmŦ
Þlunaer speed aL 193 rŦpŦmŦ 0Ŧ99m/s
SucLlon nozzle dlameLer 4lnches
ulscharae nozzle dlaŦ 4lnches
valves wlna
llushlna Cll llow 0Ŧ47L/hrŦ
ulrecLlon of roLaLlon Clockwlse from
coupllna endŦ

Up¢rating D¢tails
lluld Pndled Anhvdrous llquld
nP
3

Mlnlmum CapaclLv 13m
3
/hr
normal CapaclLv 41Ŧ3m
3
/hr
Maxlmum CapaclLv 47m
3
/hr
SpŦCrŦ aL operaLlna LemperaLure 0Ŧ38
vlscoslLv 0Ŧ13cps aL 40C
Mlnlmum SucLlon 1emperaLure 30C
CperaLlna SucLlon 1emperaLure 40C
ueslan SucLlon 1emperaLure 60Ŵ62C
nŦÞŦSŦPŦ requlred 3Ŧ2m
nŦÞŦSPŦ avallable 10m
normal SucLlon Þressure 21Ŧ6ka/cm
2
Maxlmum SucLlon Þressure 28ka/cm
2
vapour pressure aL operaLlna LempŦ 14Ŧ83ka/cm
2
normal dlscharae pressure 240ka/cm
2
Maxlmum dlscharae pressure 264ka/cm
2
Mlnlmum Speed 63rŦpŦmŦ
Maxlmum Speed 193rŦpŦmŦ
normal Speed 101Ŧ9rŦpŦmŦ
94Ŧ2rŦpŦmŦ
106Ŧ2rŦpŦmŦ
129Ŧ8rŦpŦmŦ
M¢cbanical D¢tails
LenaLh 3600mm
lŦuŦ 2303mm
CŦuŦ 2494mm
lnLernal Llnlna 3mm 316L
1oLal noŦ of sleve Lravs 10
PelahL beLween each Lrav 2300mm
Poles on sleve Lravs 421 holes of 8mm lŦuŦ
Cverflow Þlpe(lŦuŦ) 219Ŧ1mm wlLh 8Ŧ2 mm
Lhlck
nP
3
/carbamaLe lnleL equallv spaced 343



Ź.ź.Prilling Tow¢r{M¢-ź)
Er¢ctor -M]S. E.C.C., BomTay
1hls ls a concreLe sLrucLure of 96 meLer helahLŦ urea melL enLers roLaLlna prlll
buckeL slLuaLed [usL below Lhe prllllna Lower celllnaŦ MelL enLers aL a LemperaLure
abouL 140
Ŧ
C and ls dlsLrlbuLed ln flne dropleLs over Lhe cross secLlon of Lhe Lower
of 22 meLer dlameLer and havlna free falllna helahL of 72Ŧ3meLersŦlL ls a naLural
drafL Lower where amblenL alr enLers Lhrouah boLLom lower openlnas havlna
LoLal area 37m
2
Ŧuurlna Lhe fall Lhrouah buckeLţ Lhe dropleLs of urea flrsL solldlfv
and Lhen cooled Lo a LemperaLure of abouL 60Ŵ63
Ŧ
CŦPoL alr ouLleL wlndows are
provlded aL Lhe Lop havlna LoLal area 133m
2
Ŧ1he prllls are scraped bv roLaLlna
sLralahL double arm scraper and fed Lo Lhe prlll Lower convevor Lhrouah openlnas
ln Lhe rake floorŦ 1he lnslde wall of Lhe Lower ls palnLed wlLh epoxv palnLlna and
boLLom floor where prllls fall are coaLed wlLh l8Þ coaLlna Lo reslsL
corroslonŦ1000mm*1000mm lnspecLlon wlndows wlLh llahL are provlded everv
four fllahLs of exLernal sLalrwavŦ Cne elevaLor runs parallel Lo prlll LowerŦ



Ź.Ż.Prill Buck¢t And Spar¢ {M¢-8 A]B)
Suppli¢r: CAZZULA, ITALY
Llquld urea melL enLers Lhe prlll buckeL MLŴ8A/8 whlch ls roLaLed bv varlable
speed moLorŦ CuL of Lhe Lwo buckeLsţ one wlll be ln use and Lhe wlll be kepL as
spareŦ laclllLv has been provlded for chanae over of Lhe buckeL and Lhe cloaaed
buckeL can be washed wlLh condensaLe ln condensaLe washlna Lank provlded on
Lhe oLher slde of Lhe supporL sLrucLureŦ ulrecLlon of roLaLlon of buckeL ls
clockwlse when vlewed from LopŦ
M¢cbanical D¢tails
LenaLh of buckeL 280mmŦ
WelahL of buckeL 16kaŦ
Speed of buckeL 200Ŵ300rŦpŦmŦ

Mat¢rial of Construction
8uckeL MaLerlal Alumlnlum

Up¢rating D¢tails
ueslan CapaclLv 80ţ000ka/hr
normal CapaclLv 63000ka/hr
Mlnlmum CapaclLv 31000ka/hr
urea 1emperaLure 128Ŧ1C


Ź.8.Mp Ammonia ATsorT¢r{E-ŵŵ,C-ŷ)
FaTricat¢d: Nicola AlTia
MÞ Ammonla Absorber LŴ11ť 1hls ls falllna fllm Lvpe heaL exchanaerŦ Ammonla
vapors and lnerL comlna from shell slde of Ammonla preheaLer enLer aL Lhe
boLLom of MÞ Ammonla AbsorberŦ WaLer comlna from CŴ3 aL Lhe Lop of LŴ11 heaL
exchanaerţ comes down Lhrouah ferrules ln Lhe form of a Lhln fllm alona Lhe
LubesŦ upcomlna ammonla ls absorbed bv waLerŦ PeaL of soluLlon ls dlsslpaLed Lo
coollna waLer flowlna Lhrouah Lhe shellŦ 1he ferrules have Lhe Lwo seLs of holes
on lLŦ 8oLh have 3 holes ln Lhem whlch are LanaenL Lo Lube surface and are aL
120
Ŧ
Lo each oLherŦ WaLer conLalnlna ammonla aoes down Lhrouah a dlsLrlbuLor Lo
Lube sheeL of LŴ11ŦLŴ11 operaLes aL 3Ŧ3 ka/cm
2
pressure aL shell and 17 ka/cm
2
aL
Lube sldeŦ Coollna waLer flows Lhrouah shell sldeŦ
MÞ AMMCnlA A8SC88L8 C3ť Cases rlslna from heaL exchanaer LŴ11 are
scrubbed wlLh waLer on Lhe sleve Lravs ln columnCŴ3 whlch operaLes aL 16 ka/cm
2

pressure and 78C LemperaLureŦ Cold condensaLe from absorpLlon cooler ls used
as absorpLlon waLer and ls fed Lo 3
rd
LravŦ Cases are parLlcularlv free of ammonla
whlle leavlna absorber aL Lhe LopŦ Medlum pressure sLream ls ln[ecLed above 3
rd

Lrav Lo keep Lhe aases leavlna absorber ouL of exploslve ranaeŦ 1he llquld comlna
down from Lravs ls dlsLrlbuLed over Lube sheeL of exchanaer LŴ11Ŧ

Ź.9.MP D¢compos¢r{E-Ŷ)
Suppli¢r: Lars¢n And TouTro Ltd. BomTay
SoluLlon from sLrlpper ls flashed ln MÞ separaLor (MvŴ2) aL 18 ALa pressureŦ uue
Lo flashlna some ammonla and carbon dloxlde ls released from soluLlonŦ 8esL of
Lhe soluLlon ls heaLed ln MÞ decomposer LŴ2 Lo decompose carbamaLe lnLo
ammonlaţ CC
2
and waLer aL 18 ALa pressureŦ SoluLlon conLalnlna waLerţ ureaţ
unconverLed carbamaLe and ammonla ls fed over Lhe Lube sheeLŦ SoluLlon enLers
Lhe decomposer Lubes Lhrouah a seL of four holes provlded ln ferruleŦ Poles belna
LanaenLlal Lo ferrule ensures dlsLrlbuLlon of llquld ln Lhe form of fllm alona Lhe
surface of decomposer LubeŦ Level of llquld around ferrules and above Lhe holes
provldes sLaLlc head for soluLlon Lo flow Lhrouah ferrule and decomposer LubeŦ

Ź.ŵŴ. MP S¢parator {Mv-Ŷ)
Suppli¢r: Lars¢n and TouTro Ltd. BomTay
SoluLlon from sLrlpper ls leL down Lo 18 ALa and Lhen enLers MÞ separaLorŦ
8educLlon ln pressure reduces some ammonla and CC
2
Ŧ8emalnlna llquld comes
down Lhrouah a downcomer and ls dlsLrlbuLed over a packed bed of 8aschlna
8lnasŦ Cases comlna from decomposer boLLom are aL hlaher LemperaLureŦMvŴ2
operaLes aL 22ka/cm
2
pressure and 183C LemperaLureŦ 1here ls a heaL exchanaer
beLween llquld sLreams flowlna downwards and aaseous phases movlna up lnLo
Lhe packed bedŦ Caseous sLream from packed bed alona wlLh aases llberaLed due
Lo flashlna leave MÞ separaLor Lhrouah 12
Lh
vapor ouLleLŦ

Ź.ŵŵ. MP D¢compos¢r Hold¢r {M¢-Ŷ)
Suppli¢r: Lars¢n and TouTro Ltd. BomTay
SoluLlon from MÞ decomposer comes down Lo MŦÞŦ holder whlch ls a small vesselŦ
lL has 6lnch soluLlon ouLleL llneŦ lnerL aases from carbamaLe seperaLorMvŴ1 also
enLer hereŦ 1here ls one Lapplna for level lndlcaLlon and conLrollerŦ 1here are Lwo
slahL alasses whlch are aL 180dearee Lo each oLher and aaskeL used for Lhls ls of
1eflonŦ ln fronL of shock alassesţ a LransparenL shock reslsLanL shleld ls provlded
for safeLv ln case of slahL alass rupLureŦ




Ź.ŵŶ. CarTamat¢ Cond¢ns¢r {E-Ź)
FaTricator: Nuovo Pignon¢
Cases rlch ln ammonla and CC
2
escaplna from Lhe sLrlpper enLer Lhe carbamaLe
condenser mlxer where Lhe carbamaLe soluLlon from MŦÞŦ svsLem ls also fedŦ 1hls
mlxed feed enLers Lhe Lubes of Lhe carbamaLe condenserŦ As nP
3
and CC
2
reacL Lo
form carbamaLeţ a loL of heaL ls llberaLedŦ 1hls heaL ls uLlllzed ln Lhe producLlon of
4Ŧ3aLa sLeam ln Lhe carbamaLe condenserŦLŴ3 operaLes aL 147C on shell and 170C
on Lube slde whlle correspondlna operaLlna pressure are 3Ŧ3 and 130 ka/cm
2

respecLlvelvŦ Shell slde also has condensaLe comlna from LŴ6 whlch ls lald ln serles
wlLh Lhls condenserŦ CondensaLe level of Lhls heaL exchanaer ls an lmporLanL
feaLureŦ lor Lhls Lhere are 8 LapplnasŦ ÞarLlLlon plaLe keeps bundle submeraed ln
Lhe condensaLeŦ
Ź.ŵŷ. CarTamat¢ Cond¢ns¢r{E-ź)
FaTricator: Nuovo Pignon¢
CarbamaLe soluLlon wlLh CC
2 ţ
nP
3
from carbamaLe condenser LŴ3 enLers
carbamaLe condenser LŴ6 on Lhe Lube sldeŦ unconverLed CC
2
reacLs wlLh
ammonla and forms carbamaLeŦ 8eacLlon belna exoLhermlc releases a loL of heaL
whlch ls recovered bv aeneraLlna 4Ŧ3ALa sLeamŦLŴ6 operaLes aL 147C aL shell and
138C aL Lube slde whlle correspondlna pressure belna 3Ŧ3 and 130 ka/cm2ŦSLeam
condensaLe from MÞ decomposer shell slde comes Lo Lhe shell slde of carbamaLe
condenser LŴ6Ŧ1hls ls a uŴLube heaL exchanaerŦlor anv makeup of condensaLeţlL
can be drawn from condensaLe pumpŦCondensaLe from here aoes Lo LŴ3ŦA draln
polnL has also been provlded for shell sldeŦ
PeaL Lransfer areaţdlameLerţlenaLh of LubesţmaLerlal of
consLrucLlonţ aaskeL maLerlal eLcŦ are sameŦCn shell slde onlv dlfference ls LhaL no
L8C ls used ln LŴ6 and condensaLe ouLleL nozzle dla ls 6lnch ln LŴ6 and LhaL ln LŴ3
ls 3 lnchŦ

Ź.ŵŸ. Mp Cond¢ns¢r{E-Ż)
Suppli¢r: Lars¢n and TouTro, BomTay
Cases from MÞ separaLor MvŴ2 and carbamaLe soluLlon from MÞ carbamaLe
pump ÞŴ3A/8 enLer Lhe shell slde of MÞ condenserŦ CC
2
and ammonla from MÞ
separaLor condense ln Lhe carbonaLe soluLlon formlna ammonlum carbamaLeŦ ln
Lhe condenser heaL produced bv Lhe reacLlon of carbamaLe formaLlon ls removed
bv coollna waLer whose lnleL LemperaLure ls conLrolled around 40CŦShell slde lnleL
and ouLleL LemperaLure are 140 and 82C respecLlvelv whlle correspondlna LempŦ
AL Lube slde are 38 and 70CŦCperaLlna pressure aL shell and Lube slde are 17 and
3Ŧ3ka/cm
2
ŦMÞ condenser ls a shell and Lube heaL exchanaer havlna carbamaLe
soluLlon on shell slde and coollna waLer aL Lube sldeŦ Cases and carbonaLe
soluLlon enLer a mlxer where carbonaLe soluLlon ls spraved Lhrouah a 30dearee
cone spraverŦ lL Lhen flows Lo shell slde of condenserŦ 1empLed coollna waLer
flows ln Lwo passes Lhrouah Lube bundleŦ CarbamaLe soluLlon leaves Lhe
condenser wlLh a verv llLLle free CC
2
Ŧ

Ź.ŵŹ. Hp St¢am D¢-sup¢r b¢at¢r {M¢-ŵŵ)
Suppli¢r: M]S. Kin¢tics B.V. Amst¢rdam
SuperheaLed MŦSŦ sLeam aL 328C ls avallable from Lhe CC
2
compresslon Lurblne
exLracLlon sLaae and also from kŦÞŦ sLeam deŴsuper heaLer lf anvţ are
desuperheaLed ln MŦÞŦ sLeam desuperheaLer (MLŴ11)ŦSuperheaLed sLeam enLers
ln MLŴ11 where desuperheaLlna ls done bv spravlna waLerŦ 1he waLer sprav
nozzle exLends lnslde Lhe sLeam chamberŦ CuLleL LemperaLure lf PÞ sLeam
desuperheaLer ls conLrolled aL 223CŦlnleL MS sLeam LempŦ ls 328C whlle
condensaLe lnleL pressure ls 32ka/cm
2
Ŧ16 Lap holes are provlded ln lnleL and
ouLleL flanaes and are orlenLed aL 11deareeŦuesuperheaLed MS sLeam aL 223C ls
used for supplvlna necessarv heaL aL sLrlpper shellsŦ 8odv ls manufacLured from
carbon sLeel whlle nozzle from sLalnless sLeelŦ

Ź.ŵź. Prill Tow¢r Rotary Scrap¢r{M¢-ŵŶ)
Suppli¢r: M]S. Ar¢nco-BMD Sw¢d¢n
Scraper ls used Lo unload Lhe producL from prllllna Lower boLLom floor Lo Lhe belL
convevlna svsLemŦ Machlne conslsLs malnlv ofť
lorearm Chaslsť 1hls ls a sLeel elemenL wlLh flxlna feeLţ embedded ln Lhe concreLe
floor of prllllna LowerŦ
CenLral Chaslsť As a base for Lhe roLaLlna parLţ a welded consLrucLlon wlLh a
roLaLlonŴ race mounLed on Lhe upper and underneaLh Lhe drlve unlLsŦ
urlve unlLsť Machlne ls drlven bv moLors each coupled wlLh a hvdraullc coupllna
and a aear boxŦ
Pvdraullc coupllna serves a dual purposeţ on Lhe one hand lL
safeauards aaalnsL posslble over loadlna and on Lhe oLher hand lL ensures a
aradual sLarLupŦ SLarLup Lorque of moLor ls reduced bv Lhls arranaemenLŦ A speed
conLroller (belL drlven bv hvdraullc coupllna shafL) ls lncorporaLed Lo monlLor
when normal speed of scraper slows downŦ Lach drlve unlL conslsL of elecLrlc
moLor of 11kW raLlna and 1000rpm speedţ hvdraullc coupllna of consLanL oll
fllllna Lvpe wlLh safeLv fuse pluaţ aear reducer and aear wheel wlLh plnlonŦ 8ulk
denslLv of producL urea ls 700Ma/m
3
and prlll LempŦ ls 60Ŵ73CŦ lrameţ chasls and
scraper arm ls made of carbon sLeel palnLed wlLh Lwo coaLs of svnLheLlc epoxv
reslnŦ Scraper blades are made of sLalnless sLeel llned wlLh hard chromlum
maLerlalŦ


Ź.ŵŻ. Blow Down {M¢-ŵŸ)
Suppli¢r: M]S. Kav¢ri Structurals, Madras
All safeLv valves blowlna ammonla/CC
2
vaporţ sLeam eLcŦ are recelved bv sLackŦ
llve dlfferenL llnes carrvlna relleved vapors of ÞSv [oln Lhls sLackŦ SLack ls provlded
wlLh sLeam heaLlna and condensaLe flushlna arranaemenLŦ SLeam enLers Lhrouah
2lnch nozzle aL Lhe neck and 1lnch nozzle aL Lhe boLLom sLackŦ 1lnch sLeam llne aL
boLLom ls exLended up Lo 1900mm lnslde ŦSLeam comes ouL Lhrouah 10 nosŦ
drllled holes faclna downwardsŦ 8low down ls deslaned aL aLmospherlc pressure
and 200C LempŦ CapaclLv of Lhls ls 8Ŧ6m
3
ŦSLack dlameLer aL boLLom and Lop ls
2000 and 1047mmŦShell and heads are made of A283CrŦC whlle lnLernals of
A106CrŦ A and aaskeL maLerlal ls compressed asbesLosŦ
Ź.ŵ8. V¢nt Stack {M¢-ŵŹ)
Suppli¢r: M]S. Kav¢ri Structurals, Madras
venLed nP
3
/CC
2
vapour alona wlLh lnerL aases from MŦÞŦ absorber (C1)ţMÞ nP
3

absorber(C3)ţLÞ nP
3
absorber (C4)ţ8eflux accumulaLor (v8) and oll nP
3
separaLor
(MvŴ12) are senL Lo Lhls sLackŦ SLack ls provlded wlLh sLeam heaLlna and
condensaLe flushlna arranaemenL ŦSLeam enLers Lhrouah 3lnch nozzle aL Lhe neck
and 1lnch nozzle aL boLLomŦ1lnch sLeam llne aL boLLom exLends up Lo 630mm and
sLeam comes ouL Lhrouah 10nosŦ drllled holes(3mm dlaŦ) faclna downwardsŦ SLack
ls provlded wlLh 16lnch manhole and 1lnch overflow slphon breakerŦ Anv nP
3
/CC
2

condensaLe collecLed ln Lhe sLack can be senL Lo draln collecLlna Lank vla 2lnch
overflow llne and 1lnch draln llneŦ Shell and heads are made of A 283 CrŦ C and
aaskeLs of compressed asbesLosŦ
Ź.ŵ9. V¢nt Stack {M¢-ŵź)
Suppllerť M/SŦ kaverl SLrucLuralsţ Madras
Anv nP
3
and CC
2
vapours released from urea soluLlon Lank(v4)ţwasLe waLer
Lank(v3) and draln collecLlna Lank (v6) are senL Lo MLŴ16Ŧ SLack ls provlded wlLh
sLeam heaLlna and condensaLe flushlna arranaemenL ŦSLeam enLers Lhrouah 2lnch
nozzle aL Lhe neck and 1lnch nozzle aL boLLomŦ1lnch sLeam llne aL boLLom ls
exLended lnslde up Lo 630mm closed aL Lhe endŦ SLeam comes ouL from 1lnch llne
vla 10 drllled holes of dlaŦ3mmŦ1lnch waLer lnleL nozzle ls provlded aL Lhe neck
ŦSLack ls provlded wlLh 16lnch manhole and 1lnch overflow slphon breakerŦ SLack
dlaŦ aL Lhe boLLom ls 730mm and aL Lop ls 260mmŦ MaLerlal of consLrucLlon ls
same as 1
sL
venL sLackŦ


Ź.ŶŴ. Stripp¢r St¢am Cond¢nsat¢ Drum{Mv-Ÿ)
Suppli¢r: B.H.P.V. ,Visbakbapatnam
lrom sLrlpper shell ouLleL condensaLe ls recelved ln Lhls Lank where condensaLe ls
separaLed and senL Lo MÞ decomposer shellŦ 1he vessel ls verLlcallv erecLedŦ
SLeam condensaLe from sLrlpper shell enLers ln MvŴ4 Lhrouah 6lnch nozzleŦ Cne
6lnch ouLleL nozzle comes ouL from boLLom from where condensaLe ls senL Lo L2
shellŦ LqulpmenL ls provlded wlLh one 8lnch dlaŦ manhole Ŧ1he condensaLe level ls
conLrolled bv L8CŴ3ŦLqulpmenL ls also provlded wlLh Lapplna for level aauaeţ for
level conLrollerţ hlah and low level alarmsŦ LqulpmenL operaLes aL 223C and 23
ka/cm
2
ŦLqulpmenL ls of helahL 2600mmţ lu 1000mmţLhlckness 13mm provlded
wlLh 90mm Lhlck lnsulaLlonŦ Shell ls manufacLured from AS1M A316 CrŦ70Ŵcarbon
sLeel and aaskeLs of splral wound AlSlŴ304 wlLh lmpreanaLed asbesLosŦ


Ź.Ŷŵ. Hydrolys¢r{R-Źŵ)
Suppli¢r: Lars¢n and TouTro
1he waLer from dlsLrlbuLor (above 20
Lh
Lrav) of CŴ2 conLalnlna around 1Ʒ welahL
of urea ls pumped Lo hvdrolvser vla preheaLer L31A/8Ŧ 1hls soluLlon enLers
hvdrolvser Lhrouah 4lnch nozzle of Lhe boLLom aL one endŦ urea presenL ln Lhe
soluLlon hvdrolvses Lo nP
3
and CC
2
aL hlah LempŦ and hlah reLenLlon LlmeŦ
SoluLlon passes Lhrouah 4 comparLmenLs one afLer oLher where lL ls heaLed Lo
240C wlLh Lhe help of 33ka/cm
2
pressureţ superheaLed sLeamŦ 1he sLeam enLers
Lhrouah 3lnch nozzleŦ SoluLlon leaves hvdrolvser Lhrouah 4lnch nozzle aL oLher
endŦ 1hree 2lnch vapour ouLleL nozzles from dlfferenL places are provlded for aas
ouLleL from Lop of Lhe hvdrolvserŦ All Lhree llnes [oln Lo 2lnch vapour ouLleL
common headerŦ lour draln llnes are also provlded ln Lhe hvdrolvser Lo draln Lhe
four comparLmenLs Lo cvŦ 1wo more 2lnch nozzles are also provlded for ÞSvŴ401
and pressure LransmlLLer Þ8CŴ403ŦPvdrolvser shell ls made of carbon sLeel and
cladded wlLh 3mm Lhlck mlnŦ SS 316 LŦ All lnLernals are made of SS 316 L and
baffle plaLes are 8mm LhlckŦ Pvdrolvser operaLes aL 240C and 33ka/cm
2
pressureŦ
LenaLh of hvdrolvser ls 8300mmţ lu ls 2600mm and corroslon allowance ls noL
provldedŦ

Ź.ŶŶ. Ammonia R¢c¢iv¢r{V-ŵ)
Suppli¢r: BHPV, Visbakbapatnam
1he recelver serves as a sucLlon vessel for ammonla boosLer pump(ÞŴ
3A/8)ŦCondensed ammonla from ammonla condenser(LŴ9) ls recelved ln
ammonla recelver(vŴ1)Ŧ1he lnerL aases saLuraLed wlLh nP
3
leavlna Lhe recelver
enLer ammonla preheaLer(LŴ10) where an addlLlonal amounL of ammonla ls
condensed bv coollna wlLh cold makeup ammonla from ammonla sLoraaeŦ
Condensed ammonla ls Lhen Laken Lo Lhe ammonla recelver(vŴ1)Ŧlresh ammonla
aL around 1C from ammonla sLoraae ls recelved ln v1 vla preheaLer LŴ10ŦPoL
ammonla of around 30C from ammonla planL [olns d/s llne of L8CŴ11v near vlŦ
1he vessel ls erecLed horlzonLallvŦ Cne 76Ŧ2mm ammonla recvcle llne ls connecLed
aL Lop from ÞŴ3A/8 dlscharaeŦ Cne 101Ŧ6mm llne ls connecLed Lo recelver Lo
collecL ammonla ln case safeLv valves of ÞŴ1A/8/C blowsŦ 8oLh llquld ammonla
lnleL llnes from LŴ9 and LŴ10 run down lnslde vŴ1 up Lo 2900mmŦvessel ls
provlded wlLh Lapplna for hlah level alarmţ low level alarmŦvŴ1 operaLes aL 37C
and 16Ŧ2ka/cm
2
operaLlna pressureŦ lL ls of lenaLh 9630mmţ lu 3000mmţLhlckness
30Ŧ3mm and corroslon allowance of 3mmŦShell and header are made of carbon
sLeel and aaskeLs of splral wound AlSl304 wlLh lmpreanaLed asbesLosŦ

Ź.Ŷŷ. St¢am Cond¢nsat¢ V¢ss¢l{V-Ŷ)
Suppli¢r: B.H.P.V., Visbakbapatnam
1hls ls horlzonLal aLmospherlc LankŦ CondensaLe requlred ln urea planL are
supplled from sLeam condensaLe vessel(vŴ2)ŦuŦMŦ waLer from offŴslLes enLer
sLeam condensaLe vessel(vŴ2)Ŧ3lnch LÞ sLeam Lapplna ls also Laken Lo sLeam
condensaLe vessel(vŴ2) for heaLlna of condensaLe durlna sLarLŴupŦ CondensaLe
from vŴ2 ls pumped bv condensaLe pump ÞŴ10A/8 1Þ PÞ washlna pump ÞŴ11
sucLlonţ sLrlpper u/Þ cell flushlna pump ÞŴ18A/8 sucLlonţ PW and LW flushlna
neLworksţ desuperheaLer MLŴ11 and MLŴ23 and MÞ and LÞ ammonla absorbersŦ
As operaLlna pressure of sLeam condensaLe vessel ls aLmospherlcţ some of Lhe
condensaLe flashes Lo form sLeamŦ 1hls sLeam ls condensed ln LŴ13 abd
condensaLe reLurns back Lo vŴ2Ŧ 1aplnas are Laken from vŴ2 for hlah and low level
alarmsŦ Cne local level aauae ls also provldedŦvŴ2 ls equlpped wlLh one slde
manholeţ draln and overflow llnesŦvŴ2 operaLes aL 100/130C and 0Ŧ1/2Ŧ0ka/cm
2

pressureŦ Shell ls made of CŴsLeel(AS1M AŴ316 CrŦ60) and aaskeLs of compressed
asbesLosŦ


Ź.ŶŸ. CarTonat¢ Solution Tank {V-ŷ)
Suppli¢r: Roll¢, Italy
CarbonaLe soluLlon from LÞ condenser (LŴ8) alona wlLh some lnerL aases flow Lo
carbonaLe soluLlon Lank(vŴ3)ŦCarbonaLe soluLlon ls recvcled Lo MÞ condenser(LŴ7)
bv medlum pressure carbonaLe soluLlon pumpÞŴ3A/8Ŧ lnerL aases essenLlallv
conLaln nP
3
vapour whlch flow dlrecLlv Lo low pressure absorber(LŴ12/CŴ4)Ŧ1here
ls one safeLv valve ÞSvŴ29 whlch proLecLs Lank from over pressurlzaLlonŦ 1he Lank
ls equlpped wlLh Laplnas for level aauae and level conLrollerŦ lrom MÞ
absorber(CŴ1) soluLlon can be Lransferred Lo Lhls Lank vla 101Ŧ6mm nozzleŦ 1here
ls provlslon for 4Ŧ3ALa sLeam coll lnslde Lhe LankŦvŴ3 operaLes aL 40C and
2Ŧ2ka/cm
2
pressureŦ lL ls of lenaLh 11000mmţlu 4300mmţLhlckness 12mm and
equlpped wlLh 70mm Lhermal lnsulaLlonŦ Shell ls manufacLured from SS304ţ
supporLs of SS304 and A283 CrŦ C and aaskeLs of compressed asbesLosŦ


Ź.ŶŹ. Ur¢a Solution Tank{V-Ÿ)
Suppli¢r: M]S. Vijay Tanks and V¢ss¢l Pvt. LtdŦ
urea soluLlon Lank(vŴ4) ls used Lo collecL 71Ʒ urea soluLlon ln case of shuLdown
or sLarLŴup and urea melL ln case of prllllna fallureŦ lL ls also used Lo recover urea
soluLlon comlna from urea soluLlon recoverv Lank (vŴ7) afLer belna pumped bv ÞŴ
9A/8 and fllLered Lhrouah fllLers lLŴ1A/8Ŧ 1he Lank ls equlpped wlLh sLeam coll for
malnLalnlna soluLlon LemperaLure aL around 100CŦCne Lhermocouple ls provlded
aL Lhe boLLom Lo lndlcaLe soluLlon LemperaLureŦvŴ4 Lop venL llne ls connecLed Lo
2
nd
venL sLack MLŴ16 and as such lL ls operaLed under aLmospherlc pressureŦ 1he
Lank ls provlded wlLh condensaLe connecLlonŦ urea soluLlon ls pumped bv urea
soluLlon pump (ÞŴ20A/8) Lo 1
sL
sLaaeŦ Cne 3lnch recvcle llne wlLh lsolaLlon valve ls
provlded from urea soluLlon pump(ÞŴ20A/8) common dlscharae llne Lo vŴ4ŦCne
vacuum breaker ls provlded aL Lhe LopŦvŴ4 operaLes aL 110Ŵ140C and aLmospherlc
pressureŦ lLs helahL ls 7320mmţlu ls 3900mmţLhlckness 3mm and lnsulaLlon
38mmŦlL ls manufacLured from AlSl304Ŧ


Ź.Ŷź. ast¢ at¢r Tank{V-Ź)
Suppllerť M/S vl[av 1anks And vessels
WaLer vapour alona wlLh small quanLlLles lf ammonla and carbon dloxlde ls
condensed ln vacuum condensers of 1
sL
and 2
nd
vacuum svsLem and ls reLurned Lo
wasLe waLer Lank (vŴ3) vla baromeLrlc leaŦ 1he Lank ls dlvlded lnLo Lwo
comparLmenLsŦ 1he baffle whlch dlvldes aL boLLom havlna 3mm Lhlckness and rlse
up Lo 1000mmŦ1he baffle ls placed aL a dlsLance of 1300mm from Lhe wall on Lhe
dlameLer of Lhe LankŦ 1he blaaer comparLmenL recelves soluLlon from draln
collecLlna Lank and wasLe waLer scrubberŦ 1he smaller comparLmenL recelves
waLer from condensers of vacuum svsLem wlLh Lhe plpes dlpplna lnLo Lhe llquld so
as Lo provlde Lhe waLer seal requlredŦ 1he Lank ls equlpped wlLh vacuum breaker
Lo avold pulllna vacuum ln Lhe Lank especlallv durlna shuLdownŦ Cne 3 lnch
Lapplna ls Laken from vŴ3 Lop for venLlna of vapours Lo venL sLackŦ lurLher 1lnch
LW condensaLe connecLlon ls provlded for fllllna up durlna lnlLlal sLarLŦ 1aplnas
are Laken for level lndlcaLor and LemperaLure lndlcaLorŦ 1ank vŴ3 ls equlpped wlLh
local level aauae and also wlLh hlah and low level alarmsŦ 1he Lank ls provlded
wlLh one 20lnch roof manhole and also one 24lnch shell manholeŦ WasLe waLer
ouLleL nozzle ls Laken ouL from blaaer comparLmenL whlch ls pumped bu ÞŴ4A/8
Lo Lhe dlsLlllaLlon column (CŴ2) vla soluLlon preheaLer(LŴ18)ŦvŴ3 operaLes aL 43C
and aLmospherlc pressureŦ lLs helahL ls 3490mmţlu ls 3000mm and Lhlckness ls
3mmŦlL ls manufacLured from AlSl 304Ŧ


Ź.ŶŻ. Hp CarTamat¢ Solution Pump{P-Ŷa]B)
Suppli¢r: ortbington, HamTurg
Ammonlum carbamaLe soluLlon from MÞ absorber CŴ1 ls boosLed up Lo svnLhesls
pressure and ls senL Lo Mlxer MLŴ1 bv Lhese PÞ carbamaLe pumpsŦ normallv one
pump ls requlred for conLlnuous servlce and Lhe oLher lnsLalled sLandbvŦ 1hls ls a
3 plunaer verLlcal reclprocaLlna pumpŦ lL ls moLor drlven Lhrouah a Lorque
converLer and speed reduclna aearŦ 1orque converLer varles Lhe speed over a
wlde ranae of 30Ʒ Lo 100Ʒ whenever requlredŦ 1he power end of Lhe pump ls
lubrlcaLed wlLh Lhe help of a aear pump whlch ls run bv a moLorŦ 1he crank case
serves as Lhe oll sumpŦ A pressure swlLch and a low pressure alarm are provlded
ln Lhls oll clrculL Lo save Lhe machlne from damaae ln case of anv oll fallureŦ 1he
oll pressure ls ad[usLed bv a pressure seLLlna rellef valveŦ 1he sLufflna boxes are
supplled wlLh LW condensaLe 10Ŧ0ka/cm
2
pressure or wasLe waLer from ÞŴ4A/8
dlscharae for seallna and lubrlcaLlnaŦ normallv wasLe waLer remalns ln llneŦ 1hls
waLer aoes ouL Lo Lhe closed draln svsLemŦ 1here ls a pulsaLlon dampener ln Lhe
sucLlon and dlscharae sldes of each pumpŦ SafeLv valves are provlded on sucLlon
dampenersŦ Lach safeLv valve has bvŴpass valveŦ ln sucLlon as well as dlscharae
slde of Lhe pump adequaLe flushlna waLer connecLlons have been provldedŦ 1he
pump ls provlded wlLh speed lndlcaLor and conLroller ln fleld as well as ln Lhe
conLrol roomŦ A hlah pressure Lrlp wlLh an alarm ls provlded ln dlscharae llneŦ A
pressure aauae and hlah pressure alarm are also provldedŦ 8efore Lwo dlscharae
valves a recvcle valve ls provldedŦ uurlna Lhe sLarL up of Lhe machlnes lL recvcles
Lhe soluLlon back Lo MÞ absorber CŴ1Ŧ
M¢cbanical D¢tails
noŦ of plunaers 3
Þlunaer dlaŦ 103mm
SLroke lenaLh 132mm
Þlunaer speed aL 126rpm 0Ŧ64m/s
SucLlon nozzle dlaŦ 4lnches
ulscharae nozzle dlaŦ 3lnches
valves Wlna Lvpe
lluld flow raLe 1Ŧ3m
3
/hr
ulrecLlon of roLaLlon Clockwlse when seen
lrom coupllna end
CÞL8A1lnC uL1AlLS
lluld handled CarbamaLe soluLlon
Mlnlmum CapaclLv 13M
3
/hr
normal CapaclLv 41Ŧ8M
3
/hr
ueslan CapaclLv 47Ŧ0M
3
/hr
Mlnlmum SucLlon 1empŦ 60C
normal SucLlon 1empŦ 73C
ueslan SucLlon 1empŦ 110C
nÞSP 8equlred 6Ŧ1m
nÞSP Avallable ƽ6Ŧ3m
Mlnlmum SucLlon Þressure 13ka/cm
2
normal SucLlon Þressure 17ka/cm
2
Maxlmum SucLlon Þressure 22ka/cm
2

Mlnlmum Speed 41rpm
normal Speed 112rpm
Maxlmum Speed 126rpm











ź. Ammonia Production

Ammonla ls svnLheslzed from hvdroaen (from naLural aas) and nlLroaen
(from Lhe alr)Ŧ naLural aas conLalns some sulfurous compounds whlch damaae Lhe
caLalvsLs used ln Lhls processŦ 1hese are removed bv reacLlna Lhem wlLh zlnc
oxldeţ eŦaŦ
nC + P2S lj nS + P2C
1he meLhane from Lhe naLural aas ls Lhen converLed Lo hvdroaenť
CP4 + P2C ƹ 3P2 + CC
CP4 + 2P2C ƹ 4P2 + CC2
CC + P2C ƹ P2 + CC2
Alr ls mlxed ln wlLh Lhe aas sLream Lo alve hvdroaen Lo nlLroaen raLlo of 3ť1Ŧ
WaLerţ carbon monoxlde and carbon dloxlde (all of whlch polson Lhe lron caLalvsL
used ln Lhe ammonla svnLhesls) are removedŦ 1he carbon monoxlde ls converLed
Lo carbon dloxlde for use ln urea producLlonţ and Lhe carbon dloxlde removedť
CC + P2C ƹ CC2 + P2
1he remalnlna Lraces of CC and CC2 are converLed Lo meLhane and Lhen
Lhe aases cooled unLll Lhe waLer becomes llquld and can be easllv removedŦ
1he nlLroaen and hvdroaen are Lhen reacLed aL hlah LemperaLure and pressure
uslna an lron caLalvsL Lo form ammonlať
n2 + 3P2 ƹ 2nP3

lllCC Þhulpur planL has been operaLlna ln Lwo separaLe unlLs wlLh common
offŴslLe planLsŦ Clder one ls known as unl1Ŵ1 and Lhe newer one ls known as
unl1Ŵ2Ŧ 8oLh Lhe unlLs have separaLe urea and ammonla planLsŦ 1he capaclLv of
unl1Ŵ1 ls 1213 M1 ammonla per davŤ suppller of Lhls planL ls M/sŦ Þullman kelloaţ
uSAŦ ln unl1Ŵ2ţ 1740 M1 ammonla ls belna produced per davŤ suppller of Lhe
process ls M/sŦ PŦ1ŦAŦSŦţ uenmarkŦ









Ż. Uff-sit¢s

Ż.ŵ.D. M. Plant
ln Lhe uM planL Lhe deep bore raw waLer conLalnlna varlous lmpurlLles ls
demlnerallsedţ lŦeŦţ feed from Lhe varlous mlnerals presenL ln lL Lo make lL 100Ʒ
free from parLlculaLe maLLer for lLs uses as boller feed waLer and process waLerŦ
SpeclflcaLlon of Lhe processed waLer ls as bellowŧŧŧ
1Ŧ pP ť 7Ŵ7Ŧ3
2Ŧ 1urbldlLv ť Ƽ 3n1u
3Ŧ Slllca conLenL ť 33 ppm maxŦ
4Ŧ 1oLal Pardness ť 348 ppm as CaCC3
3Ŧ Calclum Pardness ť 160 ppm as CaCC3
6Ŧ Maaneslum Pardness ť 188 ppm as CaCC3
7Ŧ MŦ AlkallnlLv ť 424 ppm as CaCC3
8Ŧ ÞŦ AlkallnlLv ť 0
9Ŧ SulphaLes ť 63 ppm as CaCC3
10ŦChlorldes ť 37 ppm as CaCC3
11Ŧlron ť oŦ06 ppm as le
12Ŧ1uS ť 630 ppm
8ecommended quallLv of uM waLer belna used ln hlah pressure boller ls as
bellowŧŧŦ
1Ŧ ConducLlvlLv mho/cm ť Ƽ 0Ŧ3 mlcro
2Ŧ Slllca ť Ƽ 0Ŧo13 ppm as SlC2
3Ŧ Pardness ť nll

Plant D¢scription
Dem|nera||zat|on Þ|ant
1he LreaLmenL scheme adopLed ln lllCC uM planL Þhase Ŵ2
nd
conslsL of unlL llke
Þressure Sand fller (ÞSl)ţ SLrona 8ase CaLlon (S8C )ţ ueaasser (uLC)ţ Weak 8ase
Anlon (W8A)ţ SLrona 8ase Anlon (S8A)ţ and flnallv mlxed bed (M8)Ŧ 1he seL of
Lhese unlLs consLlLuLe a sLream and Lhen are dlvlded lnLo Lwo numbers of such
sLreams(excepL ÞSl)ţ each havlna Lhe normal capeclLv Lo produce 140 m3 of hlah
purlLv uM waLer flL for boller feedŦ 1he operaLlonţ conLrol and monlLorlna of planL
ls ÞLC based semlŴauLomaLlc svsLemŦ uependlna on Lhe requlremenL of uM waLer
and avallablllLv of unlLs boLh Lhe sLreams can be Laken ln servlceŦ
R¢moval of Impuriti¢s
uemlnerallzaLlon process ls Lhe mosL efflclenL and rellable process of raw waLer
purlflcaLlon Lo produce hlah quallLv boller feed and process waLerŦ ueŴlonlzaLlon
uses Lhe exchanae of Lhese lons as a prlnclpal of purlflcaLlonŦ lL ls Lherefore called
an lon exchanae processŦ 1he solld Laklna acLlon ln Lhe exchanae processes have
mlcro porous sLrucLure llke flsh neL on whlch Lhe moblle lons are aLLached
Lemporarllvţ are called lon Lxchanae 8eslnŦ
1he exchanae of lons Lakes place beLween llke charaed lons and
equlvalenLsŦ 1hus demlnerallzaLlon process ocurs ln Lwo sLepsŦ ln flrsL sLep
dlssolved caLlons ln waLer are echanaed wlLh equlvalenL hvdroaen lons (for
Pvdroaen fromm caLlon resln) presenL on exchanae slLes of caLlons exchanae
resln whereas ln second sLep dlssolved anlos ln waLer aL on exchanae slLes of an
anlon exvŽchanae reslnŦ

Proc¢ss D¢scription
Excbang¢ of Cat-ions
When waLer conLalnlna dlssolved salLs ls passed Lhrouah a resln be whlch can
exchanae caLŴlon and whlch ls properlv charaed wlLh hvdroaen lonsţ llke sulphaLeţ
chlorldesţ carbamaLe eLcŦ Whlch form correspondlna mlnerals aclds llke P2SC4ţ
PClţ P2CC3 eLc respecLlvelvŦ
AfLer cerLaln reacLlons exLenL of exchanae of lons durlna servlce perlodţ Lhe
caLlon resln becomes poor ln sLock of hvdroaen lons and ls sald Lo be exasLedŦ ln
order Lo make Lhe resln bed acLlve so as Lo alve deslaned LreaLed waLer quallLv lL
ls reaeneraLed uslna dlluLe acld soluLlonŦ
8e2Ca + 2PCl ƹ 28eP + CaCl2
8e2Ma + 2PCl ƹ 28eP + MaCl2

Excbang¢ of Anions
When Lhls waLer ls passed Lhrouah Lhe bed of anlons Clţ CC3ţ SlC2 eLc comblned
wlLh resln maLrlx replaclna Lhelr hvdroaen lonŦ
ln Lhe uM planL Lhe exchanae of anlon ls performed ln Lwo sLaaeŦ llrsL ln
W8A where almosL sLrona anlons are removed and second ln S8A where almosL
weak anlon exchanae mav be represenLed as followsŧŧŧ

8eCP + PCl ƹ 8eCl + P2C
28eCP + P2SC4 ƹ 8e2SC4 + P2C
28eCP + P2CC3 ƹ 8e2CC3 + P2C
28eCP + P2SlC3 ƹ 8e2SlC3 + P2C

R¢g¢n¢ration.....
8eCl + naCP ƹ8eCP + naCl
8e2SC4 + 2naCPƹ28eCP + na2SC4
8e2CC3 + 2naCPƹ28eCP + na2CC3

Slnce ln Lhls planL have Lwo anlon exchanaer beds ln serlesţ W8Aţ S8Aţ Lhe
Lhorouah fares reaeneraLlon procedure ls adopLed ln whlch four Lo flve percenLs
causLlc soluLlon ls flrsL passed Lhrouah S8A and Lhe effluenL released from S8A ls
Lhen passed Lhrouah W8A for furLher dlluLlonŦ

R¢v¢rs¢ Usmosis
1he 8C planL ls aeneralv used for Lhe flnal purlflcaLlon of Lhe effluenL or
wasLe waLer for lLs reuLlllsaLlon for Lhe sake of envlronmenL conLrolŦ 1he waLer
from Lhe coollna waLerţ uM planL and waLer sofLenlna planLs are senL Lo Lhe 8C
planL for Lhe purlflcaLlonŦ 1he LreaLed waLer from Lhe 8C planL ls used for
lrrlaaLlonţ for caol spravlna Lo seLLle Lhe coal dusLţ for horLlculLure and Lhe lefL
over ls flnalv Lhrouwn awavŦ
8C ls done Lhrouah a membrane fllLer of Lhe ranae of anaesLrom(10
Ŵ10
)
scaleŦ 1he slze of Lhe lmpurlLles and Lhe dlssolved salLs ls of Lhe ranae of maxŦ 10
Ŵ9
ţ
and hence are sLoped buL Lhe membran and onlv waLer mollcules can pass
Lhrouah lLŦ 1he membran maLerlal ls splral wounded polvamlde buL Lhe exacL
speclflcaLlon are noL even Lold Lo lllCC bv Lhe manufacLureŦ
8efore sendlna Lo Lhe 8C planL effluenL waLer ls flrsL send Lo Lhe
preLreaLmenL planLŦ ln LhlsŴdolomlLe (43Ʒ CaC and 32ƷMaC) ls usedŦ Maaneclum
slllcon can noL be removed bv anv chemlcal LreaLmenLŦ 1he concnLraLlon of
maaneclum slllcaLe reduced from 17 ppm Lo 10 ppm ln Lhe preLreaLenL planLŦ
llnalv Lhls waLer ls senL Lo Lhe 8C planL for Lhe flanl LreaLmenLŦ
Ż.Ŷ.Cooling Tow¢r
ln snv process lndusLrvţ Lhe wasLe heaL aeneraLed durlna Lhe varlous
processes ls Lo be removed or uLlllzes Lhrouah exchanaer or some oLher
equlpmenL bv clrculaLlna coollna waLer whlch laLer becomes hoL on absorblna
heaLŦ So Lhe hoL waLer has Lo be cooled Lo a cerLaln requlred LemperaLure ln Lhe
coollna LowerŦ
1he prcess of coollna hoL clrculaLlna waLer ln coollna Lower ls a qulLe slmple
processŦ 1he hoL waLerţ when comes ln conLacL wlLh alrţ releases lLs heaL ln Lwo
wavsŧŧŦŦ
1Ŧ 1ransfer of senslble heaL due Lo Lhe dlfference ln Lhe LemperaLure of alr
and hoL waLerŦ
2Ŧ 1ransefer of laLenL heaL due Lo evaporaLlon of a parL of waLerŦ

varlous Lvpes of coollna Lower used now a davs areŧŦ
aŦ ALmospherlc coollna Lower
bŦ Sprav pond Lvpe coollna Lower
cŦ naLural urafL Coollna 1ower
dŦ Mechanlcal urafL Coollna 1ower
(Lhese are belna used aL lllCCŴÞhulpur)

Chemlcal LreaLmenL of Lhe waLer ls also done so as Lo overcum problem llke
corroslonţ scale formaLlonţ foullna ana bloloalcal foullna ( due Lo presence of
bacLerlaţ alaae and funal)Ŧ 1o avold corroslon Ŷ corroslon lnhlblLor are added and
dlspersanLs are used Lo avold scale formaLlon and foullnaŦ



Ż.ŷ. at¢r Soft¢ning Plant
ueslred quallLv of Lhe LreaLed waLer ln Lhe sofLenlna planL are as followsŦŦ
1Ŧ pP ť 10Ŧ4Ŵ 10Ŧ7
2Ŧ 1oLal Pardness ťƼ 30 ppm as CaCC3
3Ŧ Calclum Pardness ť Ƽ 40 ppm as CaCC3
4Ŧ 1urbldlLv ť Ƽ 12 n1u

Cold llme sofLener ls used for waLer purlflcaLlon and ls furLher used ln Lhe
coollna Lower as a makeupŦ PardnessŴ ln Lhls process ls reduced from 330Ŵ400
ppm Lo 30 ppm bv Lhe cold llmee processŦ

















8. ProTl¢m at IFFCU Du¢ To Corrosion

Corrosion of Ur¢a Plant Equipm¢nt
ln manufacLure of ureaţ Lhe corroslveness of Lhe svnLhesls mlxLure has
posed Lhe urea manufacLure Lo lav verv sLrlcL demond ln Lhe quallLv of
maLerlal of consLrucLlonŦ MosL severe corrosslon ln urea planL ls aL locaLlon
where urea and Lhe corbamaLe soluLlons are handled aL Lhe hlah LemperaLure
and pressureŦ
ln vlew of hlah pressureţ LemperaLureţ concenLraLlon and Lwo phase
mlxLure ln Lhe urea reacLorţ a llner of Lhe sLalnless sLeel 316L ls used ln Lhe
consLrucLlonŦ ln ealler vears of urea manufacLureţ lead and sllver were used Lo
llne Lhe urea reacLorŦ 1hese were aood onlv ln Lhe LoLal absence of oxvaenŦ lor
dav reacLor LlLanlumţ zlrconlum and sLalnless sLeel used as llner maLerlalŦ
Corrosion in Tb¢ H.P. S¢ction
ln Lhe Þhulpur planLŴ Lhe PÞ equlpmenLs are reacLorţ sLrlpperţ PÞ
condenserţ carbamaLe mlxerţ carbamaLe separaLor where soluLlon are handled
aL hlah LemperaLure and hlah pressureţ maLerlal ln conLacL aL hlaher raLe
unless proper maLerlal are selecLed and adequaLe proLecLlon ls provldedŦ
urea reacLor aL lllCC Þhulpur unlL ls llned wlLh Lhe modlfled 316L sLalnless
sLeelţ PÞ condenser and separaLors are also made up of sLalnless sLeelŦ 316L
sLalnless sLeel surfaces of all Lhese PÞ equlpmenL have passlve fllm of oxldeŦ
Corrosion in MP S¢ction
Severe corroslon condlLlon exlsLs ln MÞ decomposer and mlxer aL lnleL of
MÞ condenserţ where aaaresslve condlLlon prevalls due Lo hlaher operaLlna
LemperaLure whlch ls more Lhan 130
0
CŦ A maLerlal used ln Lhls secLlon ls 316LŦ
lrom PÞ secLlon carbamaLe are senL Lo Lhe MÞ decomposer boLLomŦ 1he
oxvaen helps Lo help Lo passlvaLe Lhe enLlre MÞ secLlonŦ
Corrosion in LP S¢ction
ln Lhls secLlon corroslon ls noL as severe as handled aL lower LemperaLure
and pressureŦ SLalnless sLeel 316L and 304L arade have been used as maLerlal
of consLrucLlonŦ

Corrosion in ast¢ at¢r Tr¢atm¢nt S¢ction
MaLerlals used ln Lhls secLlon are sLalnless sLeel 303L and 304LŦ ln
dlsLlllaLlon column chances of corroslon are due Lo Lhe hlah Lurbulence of
ammonla and CC2 vapors whlch ls sLrlpped bv means of vapor produced ln Lhe
rebollerŦ

Corrosion Du¢ To Ur¢a Dust
urea prllls and dusL belna hvaroscoplc absorb molsLure and corrode
concreLe and sLeel sLrucLure badlvŦ All sLrucLure and open elecLrlc lnsLallaLlon
LhaL mav come ln conLacL wlLh Lhe urea dusL musL be proLecLed elLher bv anLlŴ
corroslve palnLlna or bv provldlna sulLable coverŦ

Corrosion in Prill Tow¢r
lnslde walls and prlll Lower baseţ whlch are ln Lhe conLacL wlLh Lhe ureaţ
are sub[ecLed Lo corroslon due Lo reasons menLloned ln Lhe above problemsŦ
Þrllllna Lower walls ln conLacL wlLh urea are palnLed wlLh Lhe anLlcorroslve
palnLs such as epoxv palnLŦ 8uL ln Þhulpur unlL prlll Lower base are coaLed wlLh
l8Þ whlch has a beLLer corroslve reslsLance properlv Lhan epoxv palnLsŦ


9. Tb¢ ŷŵź-L {Modifi¢d) Stainl¢ss St¢¢l
Background
Crade 316 ls Lhe sLandard molvbdenumŴbearlna aradeţ second ln lmporLance Lo
304 amonasL Lhe ausLenlLlc sLalnless sLeelsŦ 1he molvbdenum alves 316 beLLer
overall corroslon reslsLanL properLles Lhan Crade 304ţ parLlcularlv hlaher
reslsLance Lo plLLlna and crevlce corroslon ln chlorlde envlronmenLsŦ
Crade 316Lţ Lhe low carbon verslon of 316 and ls lmmune from senslLlsaLlon
(araln boundarv carblde preclplLaLlon)Ŧ 1hus lL ls exLenslvelv used ln heavv aauae
welded componenLs (over abouL 6mm)Ŧ 1here ls commonlv no appreclable prlce
dlfference beLween 316 and 316L sLalnless sLeelŦ
1he ausLenlLlc sLrucLure also alves Lhese arades excellenL Louahnessţ even down
Lo crvoaenlc LemperaLuresŦ
Compared Lo chromlumŴnlckel ausLenlLlc sLalnless sLeelsţ 316L sLalnless sLeel
offers hlaher creepţ sLress Lo rupLure and Lenslle sLrenaLh aL elevaLed
LemperaLuresŦ
K¢y Prop¢rti¢s
1hese properLles are speclfled for flaL rolled producL (plaLeţ sheeL and coll) ln
AS1M A240/A240MŦ Slmllar buL noL necessarllv ldenLlcal properLles are speclfled
for oLher producLs such as plpe and bar ln Lhelr respecLlve speclflcaLlonsŦ
Composition
@ab|e 1Ŧ ComposlLlon ranaes for 316L sLalnless sLeelsŦ
Crade C Mn Sl Þ S Cr Mo nl n
316L
Mln Ŵ Ŵ Ŵ Ŵ Ŵ 16Ŧ0 2Ŧ00 10Ŧ0 Ŵ
Max 0Ŧ03 2Ŧ0 0Ŧ73 0Ŧ043 0Ŧ03 18Ŧ0 3Ŧ00 14Ŧ0 0Ŧ10
M¢cbanical Prop¢rti¢s
@ab|e 2Ŧ Mechanlcal properLles of 316L sLalnless sLeelsŦ
Crade
1enslle SLr
(MÞa) mln
?leld SLr
0Ŧ2Ʒ Þroof
(MÞa) mln
Llona
(Ʒ ln
30mm) mln
Pardness
8ockwell 8
(P8 8) max
8rlnell (P8)
max
316L 483 170 40 93 217
Pbysical Prop¢rti¢s
@ab|e 3Ŧ 1vplcal phvslcal properLles for 316 arade sLalnless sLeelsŦ
Crade
uenslL
v
(ka/m
3
)
LlasLlc
Modulu
s
(CÞa)
Mean CoŴeff of
1hermal Lxpanslon
(DŽm/m/¨C)
1hermal
ConducLlvlLv
(W/mŦk)
Speclfl
c PeaL

100¨C
(!/kaŦk
)
Llec
8eslsLlvlL
v
(nUŦm)

100¨
C

313¨
C

338¨
C
AL
100¨
C
AL
300¨
C
316/L/
P
8000 193 13Ŧ9 16Ŧ2 17Ŧ3 16Ŧ3 21Ŧ3 300 740
Crad¢ Sp¢cification Comparison
@ab|e 4Ŧ Crade speclflcaLlons for 316L sLalnless sLeelsŦ
Crade
unS
no
Cld 8rlLlsh Luronorm Swedlsh
SS
!apanese
!lS 8S Ln no name
316L S31603 316S11 Ŵ 1Ŧ4404
x2CrnlMo17Ŵ
12Ŵ2
2348
SuS
316L
noLeť 1hese comparlsons are approxlmaLe onlvŦ 1he llsL ls lnLended as a
comparlson of funcLlonallv slmllar maLerlals not as a schedule of conLracLual
equlvalenLsŦ lf exacL equlvalenLs are needed orlalnal speclflcaLlons musL be
consulLedŦ
PossiTl¢ Alt¢rnativ¢ Crad¢s
@ab|e 5Ŧ Þosslble alLernaLlve arades Lo 316 sLalnless sLeelŦ
Crade Whv lL mlahL be chosen lnsLead of 316?
317L
Plaher reslsLance Lo chlorldes Lhan 316Lţ buL wlLh slmllar reslsLance
Lo sLress corroslon cracklnaŦ
Corrosion R¢sistanc¢
LxcellenL ln a ranae of aLmospherlc envlronmenLs and manv corroslve medla Ŵ
aenerallv more reslsLanL Lhan 304Ŧ Sub[ecL Lo plLLlna and crevlce corroslon ln
warm chlorlde envlronmenLsţ and Lo sLress corroslon cracklna above abouL 60¨CŦ
Consldered reslsLanL Lo poLable waLer wlLh up Lo abouL 1000ma/L chlorldes aL
amblenL LemperaLuresţ reduclna Lo abouL 300ma/L aL 60¨CŦ
316 ls usuallv reaarded as Lhe sLandard ºmarlne arade sLalnless sLeel"ţ buL lL ls noL
reslsLanL Lo warm sea waLerŦ ln manv marlne envlronmenLs 316 does exhlblL
surface corroslonţ usuallv vlslble as brown sLalnlnaŦ 1hls ls parLlcularlv assoclaLed
wlLh crevlces and rouah surface flnlshŦ
H¢at R¢sistanc¢
Cood oxldaLlon reslsLance ln lnLermlLLenL servlce Lo 870¨C and ln conLlnuous
servlce Lo 923¨CŦ ConLlnuous use of 316 ln Lhe 423Ŵ860¨C ranae ls noL
recommended lf subsequenL aqueous corroslon reslsLance ls lmporLanLŦ Crade
316L ls more reslsLanL Lo carblde preclplLaLlon and can be used ln Lhe above
LemperaLure ranaeŦ Crade 316P has hlaher sLrenaLh aL elevaLed LemperaLures
and ls someLlmes used for sLrucLural and pressureŴconLalnlna appllcaLlons aL
LemperaLures above abouL 300¨CŦ
H¢at Tr¢atm¢nt
SoluLlon 1reaLmenL (Anneallna) Ŵ PeaL Lo 1010Ŵ1120¨C and cool rapldlvŦ 1hese
arades cannoL be hardened bv Lhermal LreaLmenLŦ
¢lding
LxcellenL weldablllLv bv all sLandard fuslon and reslsLance meLhodsţ boLh wlLh and
wlLhouL flller meLalsŦ Peavv welded secLlons ln Crade 316 requlre posLŴweld
anneallna for maxlmum corroslon reslsLanceŦ 1hls ls noL requlred for 316LŦ
316L sLalnless sLeel ls noL aenerallv weldable uslna oxvaceLvlene weldlna
meLhodsŦ
Macbining
316L sLalnless sLeel Lends Lo work harden lf machlned Loo qulcklvŦ lor Lhls reason
low speeds and consLanL feed raLes are recommendedŦ
316L sLalnless sLeel ls also easler Lo machlne compared Lo 316 sLalnless sLeel due
lLs lower carbon conLenLŦ
Hot and Cold orking
316L sLalnless sLeel can be hoL worked uslna mosL common hoL worklna
LechnlquesŦ CpLlmal hoL worklna LemperaLures should be ln Lhe ranae 1130Ŵ
1260¨Cţ and cerLalnlv should noL be less Lhan 930¨CŦ ÞosL work anneallna should
be carrled ouL Lo lnduce maxlmum corroslon reslsLanceŦ
MosL common cold worklna operaLlons such as shearlnaţ drawlna and sLamplna
can be performed on 316L sLalnless sLeelŦ ÞosL work anneallna should be carrled
ouL Lo remove lnLernal sLressesŦ
Hard¢ning and ork Hard¢ning
316L sLalnless sLeel does noL harden ln response Lo heaL LreaLmenLsŦ lL can be
hardened bv cold worklnaţ whlch can also resulL ln lncreased sLrenaLhŦ
Utb¢r Applications
1vplcal appllcaLlons lncludeť
· lood preparaLlon equlpmenL parLlcularlv ln chlorlde envlronmenLsŦ
· ÞharmaceuLlcals
· Marlne appllcaLlons
· ArchlLecLural appllcaLlons
· Medlcal lmplanLsţ lncludlna plnsţ screws and orLhopaedlc lmplanLs llke LoLal
hlp and knee replacemenLs
· lasLeners

 
 
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