Root-Mean-Square value
When a time-varying voltage V(t) is applied to a resistor, the power dissipated in it, V2/R is also time-dependent. The average power is the energy consumed in a cycle over the time of one period. If we were to use a steady d.c. voltage to give the same average power, then this “d.c. equivalent steady voltage” is called the root mean square voltage of the a.c.

I. Complete sinusoidal waveform:
A sinusoidal a.c. is applied to a resistor V = V0 sin ωt V

The instantaneous power dissipated in R is P =

V 2 V0 = sin2ωt R R




The average power ,
2 0 2 0


1 T 1V Pdt = T ∫0 T R



sin 2 t =

1V = 2 R


V0 2 R


The power of a steady d.c. voltage Vdc is
2 Vdc P= R


but in the reverse order. Taking the mean of the squared V over a cycle.netfirms. CKNg If (2) is exactly equal to (1). voltage. This implies Vdc = V0 2 This “d. 3. Taking the square root of the mean. 1.c. because it is calculated from the procedures “root”. 2. Squaring the time-depending a. P = rms R II.c. Half sinusoidal waveform: V V0 Vrms = V0 2 . Vrms = V 2 2 Vrms = I 2 R = Vrms I rms In a pure R. then 0 2 2 Vdc ( 2 ) = R R V .ngsir. equivalent steady voltage” Vdc is called the root-mean-square voltage (Vrms) of the a. “mean” and “square”.c.

netfirms.http://www. Square waveform: V Va t -Vb T 2 T Vrms = Va2 + Vb2 2 .com CKNg III.ngsir.

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