1.

MayIlower Compact
1620 - The Iirst agreement Ior selI-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mavflower and set up a government Ior the Plymouth colony.
2. William BradIord
A Pilgrim, the second governor oI the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out oI debt. He helped the colony
survive droughts, crop Iailures, and Indian attacks.
3. Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church oI England could not be reIormed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims Iled to
America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reIorms to puriIy the Church oI England. They received a right to settle in the
Massachusetts Bay area Irom the King oI England.
4. Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political Ireedom and a representative
government.
5. Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders oI the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control oI the
government oI the colony.
6. Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated Irom England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population oI the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its
earlier population.
7. Church oI England (Anglican Church)
The national Church oI England, Iounded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
8. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his belieIs
1629 - He became the Iirst governor oI the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity Irom 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious belieIs. He
opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group oI skillIul leaders. He helped organize the New England ConIederation in 1643 and
served as its Iirst president.
9. Separatists, non-separatists
Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church oI England could be puriIied through reIorms. Separatists (which included the Pilgrims) believed
that the Church oI England could not be reIormed, and so started their own congregations.
10. Calvinism
Protestant sect Iounded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be
saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation oI church and state.
11. Congregational Church, Cambridge PlatIorm
The Congregational Church was Iounded by separatists who Ielt that the Church oI England retained too many Roman Catholic belieIs and practices. The Pilgrims were
members oI the Congregational Church. The Cambridge PlatIorm stressed morality over church dogma.
12. Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were selI-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan belieIs. Only those members oI
the congregation who had achieved grace and were Iull church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public oIIice. Other colonies had diIIerent
styles oI government and were more open to diIIerent belieIs.
13. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
she preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead oI through the church elders. She was Iorced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her Iollowers
(the Antinomianists) Iounded the colony oI New Hampshire in 1639.
14. Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635 - He leIt the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land Irom a neighboring Indian tribe to Iound the colony oI Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony
at that time to oIIer complete religious Ireedom.
15. Covenant theology
Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God`s covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant oI grace between God and man through Christ.
16. Voting granted to church members - 1631
1631 - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
17. HalI-way Covenant
the HalI-way Covenant applied to those members oI the Puritan colonies who were the children oI church members, but who hadn`t achieved grace themselves. The
covenant allowed them to participate in some church aIIairs.
18. Brattle Street Church
1698 - Founded by Thomas Brattle. His church diIIered Irom the Puritans in that it did not require people to prove that they had achieved grace in order to become Iull
church members.
19. Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one oI the Iounders oI HartIord. Called "the Iather oI American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
20. Fundamental Orders oI Connecticut
Set up a uniIied government Ior the towns oI the Connecticut area (Windsor, HartIord, and WethersIield). First constitution written in America.
21. Saybrook PlatIorm
It organized town churches into county associations which sent delegates to the annual assembly which governed the colony oI Connecticut.
22. Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more Iamilies had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 Iamilies had to
Iound a grammar school.
23. Harvard Iounded
1636 - Founded by a grant Irom the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan belieIs.
24. New England ConIederation
1643 - Formed to provide Ior the deIense oI the Iour New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
25. King Philip`s War
1675 - A series oI battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chieI known as King Philip. The war was started when the
Massachusetts government tried to assert court iurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help oI the Mohawks, and this victory opened up
additional Indian lands Ior expansion.
26. Dominion oI New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies oI Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal
governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
27. Sir Edmond Andros
Governor oI the Dominion oI New England Irom 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and Iorced him to return to England.
28. Joint stock company
a company made up oI a group oI shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share oI the company`s proIits and debts.
29. Virginia: purpose, problems, Iailures, successes
Virginia was Iormed by the Virginia Company as a proIit-earning venture. Starvation was the maior problem; about 90° oI the colonists died the Iirst year, many oI the
survivors leIt, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They oIIered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company
eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successIul colony until the colonists started rising and exporting tobacco.
30. Headright system
Headright was parcels oI land consisting oI about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the
Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
31. John Smith
helped Iound and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the diIIicult Iirst winter.
32. John RolIe, tobacco
He was one oI the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successIully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it Ior export, which
made Virginia an economically successIul colony.
33. Slavery begins
1619 - The Iirst AIrican slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
34. House oI Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House oI Burgesses Iormed the Iirst legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses oI burgesses.
35. Cavaliers
in the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
36. Bacon`s Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley Ior trying to appease the Doeg Indians aIter the Doegs attacked the
western settlements. The Irontiersmen Iormed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which deIeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The
rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died oI an illness.
37. Culperer`s Rebellion
Led by Culperer, the Alpemark colony rebelled against its English governor, Thomas Miller. The rebellion was crushed, but Culperer was acquitted.
38. Georgia: reasons, successes
1733 - Georgia was Iormed as a buIIer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven Ior the poor, criminals,
and persecuted Protestants.
39. James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor oI the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were Iorbidden in his colony. Many
colonists Ielt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist`s dissatisIaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down
and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
40. Carolinas
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay oII a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern
region oI the Carolinas grew rich oII its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly oI Iarmers. The conIlicts between the regions
eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
41. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution Ior the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into eIIect. The constitution would have set
up a Ieudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most oI the land.
42. Charleston
1690 - The Iirst permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor oI King Charles II. Much oI the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) reIugees.
43. Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
44. Pennsylvania, William Penn
1681- William Penn received a land grant Irom King Charles II, and used it to Iorm a colony that would provide a haven Ior Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania,
allowed religious Ireedom.
45. Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven Ior persecuted religions.
46. Holy experiment
William Penn`s term Ior the government oI Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide Ireedom Ior all.
47. Frame oI government
1701 - The Charter oI Liberties set up the government Ior the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to Iorm their own
colonies.
48. New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke oI York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who
hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
49. Patron system
Patronships were oIIered to individuals who managed to build a settlement oI at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this.
50. Peter Stuyvesant
The governor oI the Dutch colony oI New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
51. Five Nations
The Iederation oI tribes occupying northern New York: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Senecca, the Onondaga, and the Cayuga. The Iederation was also known as the
"Iriquois," or the League oI Five Nations, although in about 1720 the Tuscarora tribe was added as a sixth member. It was the most powerIul and eIIicient North
American Indian organization during the 1700s. Some oI the ideas Irom its constitution were used in the Constitution oI the United States.
52. Crops in the Middle Colonies
The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.
53. New York and Philadelphia as urban centers
New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center Ior trade. Piladelphia was a center Ior trade and craIts, and
attracted a large number oI immigrants, so that by 1720 it had a population oI 10,000. It was the capital oI Pennsylvania Irom 1683-1799. As urban centers, both cities
played a maior role in American Independence.
54. Leisler`s Rebellion
1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William oI the Netherlands, the colonists oI New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia
oIIicer, governor oI New York. Leisler was hanged Ior treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly which he Iounded remained
part oI the government oI New York.
55. Beniamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One oI the Iew Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in
the Iield oI electricity.
56. John Bartram (1699-1777)
America`s Iirst botanist; traveled through the Irontier collecting specimens.
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - Iounders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection Ior Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be Iree Irom persecution.
Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven Ior all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak oI religious Iervor that
swept through the colonies. One oI the Iirst events to uniIy the colonies.
59. Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angrv God. a Careful and Strict Inquirv Into...That Freedom of Will
Part oI the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments oI Hell.
60. George WhiteIield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader oI the "New Lights."
61. William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college Ior the training oI Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
62. Gilbert Tennant
William Tennant`s son. Developed a theology oI revivalism.
63. Old Lights, New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements Iormed during the Great Awakening and broke away Irom the congregational church in New England. The "Old
Lights" were the established congregational church.
64. Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony oI Maryland and oIIered religious Ireedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members oI his own religion (Catholicism)
would be a minority in the colony.
65. Maryland Act oI Toleration (Act oI Religious Toleration)
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore aIter a Protestant was made governor oI Maryland at the demand oI the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed
religious Ireedom to all Christians.
66. Deism
The religion oI the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that aIterwards He leIt it to run by its own natural laws.
Denied that God communicated to man or in any way inIluenced his liIe.
67. Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict oI Nantes (1598) Ireed them Irom persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds oI thousands oI
Huguenots Iled to other countries, including America.
68. SPG - Society Ior the Propagation oI the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts oI the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
69. Mercantilism: Ieatures, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy oI Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national
strength and economic security comes Irom exporting more than is imported. Possession oI colonies provided countries both with sources oI raw materials and markets
Ior their manuIactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and Iorced the colonies to buy them.
70. Navigation Acts oI 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
British regulations designed to protect British shipping Irom competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods iI they were shipped on British-owned
vessels and at least 3/4 oI the crew oI the ship were British.
71. Admiralty courts
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations oI the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try
American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by iudges without a iury.
72. Triangular Trade
The backbone oI New England`s economy during the colonial period. Ships Irom New England sailed Iirst to AIrica, exchanging New England rum Ior slaves. The
slaves were shipped Irom AIrica to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded
Ior sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
73. Merchants / Markets
A market is the area or group oI people which needs a product. Colonial merchants took goods produced in the colonies to areas oI the world that needed those goods.
Also, the colonies served as a market Ior other countries` goods.
74. Consignment system
One company sells another company`s products, and then gives the producing company most oI the proIits, but keeps a percentage (a commission) Ior itselI.
75. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported Irom countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New
England colonies, which imported a lot oI molasses Irom the Caribbean as part oI the Triangular Trade. The British had diIIiculty enIorcing the tax; most colonial
merchants ignored it.
76. Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
77. Hat Act, 1732
Declared that hats made in the colonies could not be exported.
78. Iron Act, 1750
Declared that no new iron Iorges or mills could be created in the colonies.
79. Currency Act, 1751
This act applied only to Massachusetts. It was an attempt to ban the production oI paper money in Massachusetts, but it was deIeated in Parliament.
80. Currency Act, 1764
This act applied to all oI the colonies. It banned the production oI paper money in the colonies in an eIIort to combat the inIlation caused by Virginia`s decision to get
itselI out oI debt by issuing more paper money.
81. Salem witch trials
Several accusations oI witchcraIt led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chieI iudge. 18 people were hanged as
witches. AIterwards, most oI the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
82. Primogeniture, entail
These were the two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance oI property. Primogeniture requried that a man`s real property pass in its entirety to his oldest son.
Entail requried that property could only be leIt to direct descendants (usually sons), and not to persons outside oI the Iamily.
83. Quitrents
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) oI proprietary colonies.
84. Indentured servants
People who could not aIIord passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured
servant would serve that person Ior a set length oI time (usually seven years) and then would be Iree.
85. !oor Richards Almanack, Iirst published 1732
Written by Beniamin Franklin, it was Iilled with witty, insightIul, and Iunny bits oI observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise,
makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," Iirst appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
86. Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
An AIrican domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
87. Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692)
A Puritan and the Iirst colonial poet to be published. The main subiects oI her poetry were Iamily, home, and religion.
88. Magna Carta, 1215
An English document draw up by nobles under King John which limited the power oI the king. It has inIluenced later constitutional documents in Britain and America.
89. Petition oI Right, 1628
A document drawn up by Parliament`s House oI Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending Parliament`s powers while limiting the king`s. It
gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that Iree citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes
without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
90. Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality oI his arrest or conIinement, called the Writ oI
Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on iudges who reIused to issue a writ oI habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on oIIicers
who reIused to comply with the writ.
91. Bill oI Rights, 1689
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights oI the British people. It also limited the king`s powers in taxing and
prohibitted the maintenance oI a standing army in peacetime.
92. Board oI Trade (oI the Privy Council)
Advisors to the king who regulated British trade during the 1600s and 1700s.
93. Robert Walpole
Prime minister oI Great Britain in the Iirst halI oI the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
94. "Salutary neglect"
Prime Minister Robert Walpole`s policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British aIIairs and believed that unrestricted trade in
the colonies would be more proIitable Ior England than would taxation oI the colonies.
95. The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientiIic method. Writers oI the
enlightenment tended to Iocus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members oI the Enlightenment reiected
traditional religious belieIs in Iavor oI Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention oI God.
96. Theories oI representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political belieIs and goals. Actual representation mean
that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
97. Rise oI the Lower House
Most oI the colonial legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people oI the colony and an upper house appointed by the governor. Over time, the lower
house became more powerIul because it reIlected the needs and desires oI the people, while the upper house was merely a Iigurehead.
98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were Iounded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were Iounded by a government
charter granted to a company or a group oI people. The British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or crown) colonies were Iormed by the king,
so the government had total control over them.
99. Colonial agents
These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England and the colonies.
100. Town meetings
A purely democratic Iorm oI government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent Iorm oI local government in New England. In general, the town`s voting
population would meet once a year to elect oIIicers, levy taxes, and pass laws.
101. John Peter Zenger trial
Zenger published articles critical oI British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but Iound not guilty. The trial set a precedent Ior Ireedom oI the press in the
colonies.
102. Glorious Revolution, 1688
King James II`s policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series oI repressive trials known as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintianing a standing army, so
outraged the people oI England that Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William oI the Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take
over the throne. King James II leIt peaceIully (aIter his troops deserted him) and King William II and his wiIe Queen Mary II took the throne without any war or
bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed "glorious."
103. John Locke (1632-1704), his theories
Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to liIe, liberty, and property, and
that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and iI the
government Iailed to uphold its end oI the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government.
104. A democratic society or not?
The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right Iorm oI government Ior America. They Ieared anarchy and the rise oI Iactions whose policies would
not represent the true will oI the people. Hence, the government which they designed contains many aspects oI a republic; that is, an indirect democracy in which the
people do not vote directly on the laws, but instead elect representatives who vote Ior them.
105. Land claims and squabbles in North America
The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French held the land around the Mississippi and west oI it. Both the British and the French laid claim to
Canada and the Ohio Valley region.
106. DiIIerences between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started Iarms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole Iamilies emigrated. The British colonies had
little interaction with the local Indians (aside Irom occasional Iighting). The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the Iur trade. Most oI the French
immigrants were single men, and there were Iew towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them Ior Iurs and
sometimes taking Indian wives.
107. Queen Anne`s War, 1702-1713
The second oI the Iour wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out oI issues leIt unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part oI a
larger European conIlict known as the War oI the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, deIeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even
though the British had suIIered deIeats in most oI their military operations in North America.
108. Peace oI Utrecht, 1713
Ended Queen Anne`s War. Undermined France`s power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, NewIoundland, and Nova Scotia.
109. War oI Jenkin`s Ear (1739-1743)
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes Irom
a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut oII by the Spanish.
110. King George`s War (1744-1748)
Land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne`s War). The war ended with a treaty restoring
the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia).
111. French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Part oI the Seven Years` War in Europe. Britain and France Iought Ior control oI the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who Ieared British expansion into the
Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also Iought Ior the French while the rest oI the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies Iought under
British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control oI all oI the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with
France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.
112. Francis Parkman (1823-1893)
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain Ior North America.
113. Albany Plan oI Union, Beniamin Franklin
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal Ior a uniIied colonial government, which would operate under the authority oI the British government.
114. General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army deIeated in a battle at the intersection oI the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers,
known as the Battle oI Fallen Timbers. AIter his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British Iorces.
115. William Pitt (1708-1778)
British secretary oI state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started draIting colonists, which led to
riots.
116. Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne became one oI the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort
Necessity, aIter Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
117. WolIe, Montcalm, Quebec
1759 - British general James WolIe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, Iought oII the initial attack, but the British recovered and took
Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, 1759.
118. Treaty oI Paris, 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east oI the Mississippi,
some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west oI the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it Ior ceeding Florida to the
British.
119. Pontiac`s Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising aIter the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chieI named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and
began destroying British Iorts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
120. Proclamation oI 1763
A proclamation Irom the British government which Iorbade British colonists Irom settling west oI the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already
living west oI the mountains to move back east.
121. Writs oI Assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed oIIicials to search houses and ships Ior smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search.
The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as oIten as desired. The oIIicials did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subiect to
the search had committed a crime or might have possession oI contraband beIore getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonies.
122. James Otis
A colonial lawyer who deIended (usually Ior Iree) colonial merchants who were accused oI smuggling. Argued against the writs oI assistance and the Stamp Act.
123. Paxton Boys
A mob oI Pennsylvania Irontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group oI non-hostile Indians.
124. Navigation Acts
A series oI British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies Irom places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade.
Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated aIter the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay oII debts incurred
during the war, and to pay the costs oI maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
125. Grenville`s Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help Iinance the cost oI maintaining a standing Iorce oI British troops in the colonies.
He believed in reducing the Iinancial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
126. Sugar Act, 1764
Part oI Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act oI 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New
England colonies imported to make rum as part oI the triangular trade) Irom 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but Ior the Iirst time adopted provisions that would insure that
the tax was strictly enIorced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal Ior the colonies to buy goods Irom non-British Caribbean colonies.
127. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported Irom countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the
New England colonies, which imported a lot oI molasses Irom the Caribbean as part oI the Triangular Trade. The British had diIIiculty enIorcing the tax; most colonial
merchants did not pay it.
128. Currency Act, 1764
British legislation which banned the production oI paper money in the colonies in an eIIort to combat the inIlation caused by Virginia`s decision to get itselI out oI debt
by issuing more paper money.
129. Vice-admiralty courts
In these courts, British iudges tried colonials in trials with no iuries.
130. Non-importation
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods Irom Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
131. Virtual, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political belieIs and goals. Actual representation mean
that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
132. Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part oI Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or oIIicial documents used in the
colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most oI the
stamped paper sent to the colonies Irom Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because oI this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non-
importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
133. Virginia Resolves
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry`s speech which condemned the British government Ior its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's
resisitence to the British policies, 5 oI which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies Iollowed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end oI
1765.
134. Stamp Act Congress, 1765
27 delegates Irom 9 colonies met Irom October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list oI declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member oI the Virginia House oI Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to Iight Ior
independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state oI deIense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most Iamous speech which ends with the words, "Give me
liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor oI Virginia Irom 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill oI Rights to be adopted as
part oI the U.S. Constitution.
136. Sons oI Liberty
A radical political organization Ior colonial independence which Iormed in 1765 aIter the passage oI the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses
where the stamped British paper was kept. AIter the repeal oI the Stamp Act, many oI the local chapters Iormed the Committees oI Correspondence which continued to
promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
137. Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out oI activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal
transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen Ielt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
138. External taxes
Taxes arose out oI activities that originated outside oI the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on
goods imported into the colonies Irom overseas. Many colonists who obiected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies Ielt that Parliament had the authority to
levy external taxes on imported goods.
139. Declatory Act, 1766
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had
absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
140. Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide Iood, lodging, and supplies Ior the British troops in the colonies.
141. Townshend Acts, reaction
Another series oI revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor oI the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including
paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instutited another movement to stop importing British goods.
142. John Dickinson
DraIted a declaration oI colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series oI "Letters Irom a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts.
Although an outspoken critic oI British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776,
reIused to sign the Declaration oI Independence.
143. Massachusetts Circular Letter
A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston,
New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was Iollowed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which
did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
144. Sam Adams (1722-1803)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical Iighter Ior colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons oI Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which
protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as
Governor oI Massachusetts Irom 1794-1797.
145. The Association
A military organization Iormed by Beniamin Franklin which Iormed Iighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries on the Delaware River.
146. Repeal oI the Townshend Acts, except tax on tea
1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts, except Ior the tax on tea.
147. Boston Massacre, 1770
The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the worked Ior very low wages and took iobs away Irom colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group oI
colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and Iired their muskets, killing a Iew colonials. This outraged the colonies
and increased anti-British sentiment.
148. Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
He was one oI the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the Iirst to die. He became a martyr.
149. John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot
groups. As a delegate Irom Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draIt and pass the Declaration oI
Independence. Adams later served as the second President oI the United States.
150. Carolina Regulators
Western Irontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government oI North Carolina, and whose organization
was crushed by military Iorce by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups oI vigilantes who organized to Iignt outlaw bands along the Western Irontier in
1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.
151. Battle oI the Alamance
May 1771 - An army recruited by the North Carolina government put down the rebellion oI the Carolina Regulators at Alamance Creek. The leaders oI the Regulators
were executed.
152. Gaspee Incident
In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspee ran around oII the colonial coast. When the British went ashore Ior help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They
were sent to Britain Ior trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread Iormation oI Committees oI Correspondence.
153. Governor Thomas Hutchinson oI Massachusetts
A Boston-born merchant who served as the Royal Governor oI Massachusetts Irom 1771 to 1774. Even beIore becoming Governor, Hutchinson had been a supporter oI
Parliament's right to tax the colonies, and his home had been burned by a mob during the Stamp Acts riots in 1765. In 1773 his reIusal to comply with demands to
prohibit an East India Company ship Irom unloading its cargo percipitated the Boston Tea Party. He Iled to England in 1774, where he spent the remainder oI his liIe.
154. Committees oI Correspondence
These started as groups oI private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating inIormation about opposition to British trade
measures. The Iirst government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange
inIormation and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active Iollowing the Gaspee Incident.
155. Lord North
Prime Minister oI England Irom 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards
the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped Ior an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned aIter Cornwallis` surrender in
1781.
156. Tea Act, East India Company
The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal Ior the colonies to buy non-British tea, and Iorced the colonies to pay the tea
tax oI 3 cents/pound.
157. Boston Tea Party, 1773
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and reIused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest oI the Tea Act and
would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night oI December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard.
They did so because they were aIraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
158. Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts
All oI these names reIer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor;
the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itselI); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide
provisions Ior British soldiers; and the Administration oI Justice Act, which removed the power oI colonial courts to arrest royal oIIicers.
159. Boston Port Act
This was one oI the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company Ior the lost tea.
160. Massachusetts Government Act
This was another oI the Coercive Acts, which said that members oI the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king.
In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior oI the colony.
161. Quebec Act, First Continental Congress, 1774
The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament, alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman- Catholic Church in Quebec. Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain
was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies. The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissoltions oI the New York (Ior
reIusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (Ior the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress reiected the plan Ior a uniIied
colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration oI Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to
enIorce a new non-importation agreement through Committees oI Vigilence. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.
162. SuIIolk Resolves
Agreed to by delegates Irom SuIIolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8, 1774. NulliIied the Coercive Acts, closed
royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead oI the royal government, and prepared local militias.
163. Galloway Plan
A plan proposed at the First Continental Congress which would have created an American parliament appointed by colonial legislatures. It was deIeated by one vote.
164. Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enIorced the non-importation oI British goods by empowering local Committees oI Vigilence in each colony to Iine or
arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
165. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1774
General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British marched on Lexington, where they believed
the colonials had a cache oI weapons. The colonial militias, warned beIorehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempeted to block the progress oI the troops and
were Iired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the
colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them Irom behind cover on the sides oI the road. This was the start oI the
Revolutionary War.
166. Paul Revere, William Dawes
They rode through the countryside warning local militias oI the approach oI the British troops prior to the Battles oI Lexington and Concord, although Revere was
detained by the British shortly aIter setting out, and never completed his portion oI the planned ride. Thanks to the advance warning, the militias were able to take the
British by surprise.
167. Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and draIted and signed the Declaration oI Independence, which iustiIied the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent oI
Britain.
168. George Washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessIully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chieI
oI the Continental Army, and was much more successIul in this second command.
169. Battle oI Bunker Hill (Breed`s Hill)
At the beginning oI the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to IortiIy the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so
the Continental Army IortiIied Breed`s Hill, north oI Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessIul attempts to take this hill, beIore he
Iinally seized it with the third assault. The British suIIered heavy losses and lost any hope Ior a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around
Breed`s Hill, it was mistakenly named Ior nearby Bunker Hill.
170. Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a Iinal oIIer oI peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government iI it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive
Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was reiected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act Iorbidding all
Iurther trade with the colonies.
171. Thomas Paine: Common Sense
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unIair treatment oI
the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in Iavor oI the Revolution.
172. Natural Rights Philosophy
Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to liIe, liberty, and property.
173. John Locke, Second Treatise oI Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to liIe, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He reiected the theory oI the Divine Right oI
the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social contract" that existed between a government and its people. II the government Iailed to uphold its
end oI the contract by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
174. George III
Became King oI England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
175. Richard Henry Lee`s Resolution oI June 7, 1776
Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the Iirst step towards independence.
176. Thomas JeIIerson
He was a delegate Irom Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration oI Independence. He later served as the third President oI the United
States.
177. Beniamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livington
These men, along with John Adams and Thomas JeIIerson, made up the committee which draIted the Declaration oI Independence.
178. July 4, 1776 and the Declaration oI Independence
The Declaration oI Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies` ties with Britain, listed grievances against King
George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
179. Somerset Case (in Great Britain)
A slave named James Somerset was purchased in Virginia, then taken to London by his master. In London, he tried to escape. Judge MansIield ruled that a slave who
escaped in England couldn`t be extradited to the colonies Ior trial.
180. Quock Walker case, Massachusetts
1783 - Helped end slavery in Massachusetts.
181. Abigail Adams
WiIe oI John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing liIe on the homeIront. She urged her husband to remember America`s
women in the new government he was helping to create.
182. Mercy Otis Warren
A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history oI the American Revolution.
183. Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who Ielt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He also
opposed the early Ieminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal oI the highest order."
184. LaIayette
Marquis de LaIayette was a French maior general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two
maior Ioreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
185. George Rogers Clark (1752-1818)
Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians Irom the Illinois territory in May, 1798.
186. Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak oI the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories Ior the
colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. AIter becoming Commander oI
Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River Iortress oI West Point to the British in exchange
Ior a commission in the royal army. He is the most Iamous traitor in American history.
187. Robert Morris (1734-1806)
A delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He agreed that Britain had treated the colonies unIairly, but he didn`t believe that the colonies should dissolve ties with
Britain. He argued against the Declaration oI Independence.
188. John Paul Jones (1747-1792)
Revolutionary War naval oIIicer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control oI the
Serapis.
189. Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis
The Bonhomme Richard was John Paul Jones` ship, which was named Ior Beniamin Franklin's pseudonym, Poor Richard. The Serapis was the British ship he captured.
190. Conway Cabal
The name given to the New England delegates in the Continental Congress who tried to wrest control oI the Continental Army and the Revolution away Irom George
Washington. Named aIter Maior General Thomas Conway.
191. French Alliance oI 1778, reasons Ior it
The colonies needed help Irom Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain`s rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American
colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news oI the American victory at the Battle oI Saratoga.
192. Maior battles: Saratoga, Valley Forge
In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward Irom Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in New York
City, thereby cutting the colonies in halI. Burgoyne was deIeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777, at the Battle oI Saratoga, surrendering the
entire British Army oI the North. Valley Forge was not a battle; it was the site where the Continental Army camped during the winter oI 1777- `78, aIter its deIeats at
the Battles oI the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suIIered Iurther casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington chose the site
because it allowed him to deIend the Continental Congress iI necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania aIter the British capture oI Philadelphia.
193. Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
Because oI their lack oI success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series oI
campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessIul, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While
marching Irom Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops IortiIied the town and
waited Ior reinIorcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. AIter a series oI battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on
October 19, 1781, which ended all maior Iighting in the Revolutionary War.
194. League oI Armed Neutrality
Catherine I oI Russia declared that the Russian navy would deIend neutral trade throughout the world. They were not successIul.
195. Treaty oI Paris, 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence oI the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory Irom the southern border oI
Canada to the northern border oI Florida, and Irom the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
196. Beniamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty oI Paris in 1783.
197. French and British Intrigue over U.S. boundaries
The Treaty oI Paris set the colonial boundaries as being the southern border oI Canada, the northern border oI Florida, the Atlantic coast, and the Mississippi River.
198. Social impact oI the war
The Revolutionary War saw the emergence oI the Iirst anti-slavery groups, and many oI the northern states abolished slavery aIter the war. Women gained a small
status increase Ior their eIIorts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers oI Iuture patriots.
199. Disestablishment, Virginia Statute oI Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas JeIIerson, this statute outlawed an established church and called Ior separation oI Church and State.
200. New state constitutions (Massachusetts adopted by popular vote)
The Iirst set oI constitutions draIted by the individual states placed most oI the government`s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to
promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership oI the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn`t get
anything done. AIter the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the
legislative and the executive.
201. Newburgh Conspiracy
The oIIicers oI the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. UnIortunately, the
American government had little money aIter the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control oI the new government, but the plotting
ceased when George Washington reIused to support the plan.
202. Articles oI ConIederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles oI ConIederation delegated most oI the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draIt troops) to the individual states, but leIt the Iederal
government power over war, Ioreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles` weakness was that they gave the Iederal government so little power that it couldn`t keep
the country united. The Articles` only maior success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned Ior the
Constitution.
203. Constitution
The document which established the present Iederal government oI the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
204. Constitution: Preamble
"We the people oI the United States, in order to Iorm a more perIect union, establish iustice, insure domestic tranquility, provide Ior the common deIense, promote the
general welIare, and secure the blessings oI liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution Ior the United States oI America."
205. Constitution: Legislature
One oI the three branches oI government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House oI Representatives and the Senate.
206. Constitution: Logrolling
This reIers to the practice oI representatives or senators exchanging votes Ior each others' pet bills.
207. Constitution: Riders
Separate, unrelated clauses added to a bill in the legislature, either in order to ensure that the bill passes or to ensure that it Iails.
208. Constitution: Quorum
The minimum number oI members oI Congress who must be present in order to hold a session. In Congress, this number is more than halI oI the members.
209. Constitution: Seniority
Part oI the committee system. A member oI Congress in a committee moves up in rank in that committee as long as he is reelected.
210. Constitution: Committee system
AIter a bill is introduced in Congress, it is assigned to a small group oI legislators Ior review and consideration, and the committee must vote to approve the bill beIore
it is returned to the Senate or the House Ior a vote.
211. Constitution: Maiority leader
The person elected, by the maiority party oI Congress, to be leader oI the maiority party in Congress.
212. Constitution: Maiority whip
The person who tells members oI the maiority party in Congress how they should vote.
213. Constitution: Minority leader
The person elected, by the minority party oI Congress, to be leader oI the minority party in Congress.
214. Constitution: Minority whip
The person who tells members oI the minority party in Congress how they should vote.
215. Constitution: Gerrymander
The practice oI drawing the boundary lines oI Congressional voting districts to give a particular political party an advantage when electing representatives. First used
during Eldbridge Gerry`s second term as governor oI Massachusetts, the term comes Irom a combination oI Gerry's name and a reIernce that the shape oI the distict
boundary resembled a salamander.
216. Constitution: Bills become law
In order Ior a bill to become a law, it must be introduced to committee and be approved. Then it must be voted on by the House oI Representatives, and then voted on
by the Senate, or vice versa, depending on the branch in which the bill was Iirst introduced. Finally, it must be signed by the President.
217. Constitution: House oI Representatives
One oI the two parts oI Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number oI representatives Ior each state
determined by the state`s population.
218. Constitution: Senate
The other oI the two parts oI Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the
people. Each state has two senators.
219. Constitution: Executive branch
One oI the three branches oI government, the executive enIorces laws. It is headed by the president, who has the power to veto legislation passed by Congress.
220. Constitution: Judiciary branch
One oI the three branches oI government, the iudiciary interprets laws. The highest authority in the iudiciary is the Supreme Court, which determines the
constitutionality oI laws.
221. Constitution: Interstate relations
No state is allowed to Iorm a compact with another state or with a Ioreign power without the consent oI Congress.
222. Constitution: The amendment process
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed iI 2/3 oI the members oI Congress or 2/3 oI state legislatures vote Ior it. The amendment may then be added to the
Constitution by a 3/4 vote oI state legislatures, or special state conventions elected Ior that purpose.
223. Constitution: Supremacy clause
Article VI oI the Constitution, which declares the Constitution, all Iederal laws passed pursuant to its provisions, and all Iederal treaties, to be the "supreme law oI the
land," which override any state laws or state constitutional provisions to the contrary.
224. Constitution: RatiIication
The Constitution had to be ratiIied (approved) by at least 9 oI the 13 original states in order to be put into eIIect.
225. Constitution: Checks and balances
Each oI the three branches oI government "checks" (ie, blocks) the power oI the other two, so no one branch can become too powerIul. The president (executive) can
veto laws passed by Congress (legislative), and also chooses the iudges in the Supreme Court (iudiciary). Congress can overturn a presidential veto iI 2/3 oI the
members vote to do so. The Supreme Court can declare laws passed by Congress and the president unconstitutional, and hence invalid.
226. Constitution: Separation oI power
The powers oI the government are divided between three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the iudiciary.
227. Maryland, cession oI western land claims
AIter the Revolutionary War, many states claimed all oI the western land between their northernmost and southernmost borders, which meant that many strips oI land
were claimed by more than one state. The Continental Congress was trying to get the states to ratiIy the Articles oI ConIederation, but Maryland reIused to ratiIy it until
all the states gave their western land claims. Maryland held out, and the western land claims were abandoned.
228. New state constitutions during the Revolutionary War and aIter
The Iirst set oI constitutions draIted by the individual states placed most oI the government`s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to
promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership oI the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn`t get
anything done. AIter the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the
legislative and the executive.
229. Pennsylvania militia routs Congress, 1783
Unpaid Revolutionary War veterans staged a protest outside Congress` meeting hall, Iorcing Congress to move to Princeton, New Jersey.
230. Northwest posts
British Iur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conIlicts.
231. Land Ordinance oI 1785
A maior success oI the Articles oI ConIederation. Provided Ior the orderly surveying and distribution oI land belonging to the U.S.
232. Northwest Ordinance, 1787
A maior success oI the Articles oI ConIederation. Set up the Iramework oI a government Ior the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would
be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population Ior statehood.
233. Proposed Jay-Gardoqui Treaty, 1785
This treaty between the U.S. and Spain would have given the U.S. special privileges at Spanish ports in exchange Ior giving Spain exclusive rights to the Mississippi
River. The U.S. needed access to the Mississippi more than they needed privileged trade with Spain, so this treaty was never signed.
234. Shay`s Rebellion
Occurred in the winter oI 1786-7 under the Articles oI ConIederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the
government Irom arresting or repossessing the property oI those in debt. The Iederal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles
oI ConIederation weren`t working eIIectively.
235. Annapolis Convention, 1786
A precursor to the Constitutional Convention oI 1787. A dozen commissioners Iorm New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss
reIorm oI interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to Iind a way to repay the Iederal government`s debts to Revolutionary War veterans.
Little was accomplished, except Ior the delegates to recommend that a Iurther convention be held to discuss changes to the Iorm oI the Iederal government; the idea was
endorsed by the ConIederation Congress in February, 1878, which called Ior another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
236. 1780's Depression
Caused by a post-war decrease in production and increase in unemployment, and also caused by tough interstate commerce rules which decreased trade.
237. Noah Webster (1758-1843)
Wrote some oI the Iirst dictionaries and spellers in the U.S. His books, which became the standard Ior the U.S., promoted American spellings and pronunciations, rather
than British.
238. Philadelphia Convention Ior the Constitution (Constitutional Convention)
Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All oI the states except Rhode Island sent delegates,
and George Washington served as president oI the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution oI the
United States, which was draIted largely by James Madison.
239. Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws
He believed that the government`s power should be divided into separate branches, that the government should be close to the people, and that laws should reIlect the
will oI the people.
240. John Locke, Second Treatise oI Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to liIe, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that a contract existed between a
government and its people, and iI the government Iailed to uphold its end oI the contract, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
241. Hobbes (1588-1679)
English philosopher who believed that people are motivated mainly by greed and Iear, and need a strong government to keep them under control. He developed the
theory that kings are given their position by divine right, and thus should have absolute power.
242. James Madison, "Father oI the Constitution"
His proposals Ior an eIIective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis Ior the Constitution. He was responsible Ior draIting most oI the language oI
the Constitution.
243. Great Compromise
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to Iollow the Virginia Plan, which based each state`s representation in Congress on state population. Smaller
states wanted to Iollow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number oI representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the
Senate, and using both oI the two separate plans as the method Ior electing members oI each.
244. Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Plan
The Virginia Plan called Ior a two-house Congress with each state`s representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called Ior a one-house Congress in
which each state had equal representation. The Connecticut Plan called Ior a two-house Congress in which both types oI representation would be applied, and is also
known as the Compromise Plan.
245. North-South Compromises
The North was given Iull Iederal protection oI trade and commerce. The South was given permanent relieI Irom export taxes and a guarantee that the importation oI
slaves would not be halted Ior at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the South. Slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 oI a person when
determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number oI representatives in the House.
246. Slavery and the Constitution: slave trade, 3/5 Clause
The South`s slave trade was guaranteed Ior at least 20 years aIter the ratiIication oI the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 oI a person when determining the state
population.
247. Procedures Ior amendments
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed iI 2/3 oI Congress or 2/3 oI state legislatures vote Ior it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by
a 3/4 vote oI state legislatures or state conventions.
248. Beard thesis, his critics
Charles Austin Beard wrote in 1913 that the Constitution was written not to ensure a democratic government Ior the people, but to protect the economic interests oI its
writers (most oI the men at the Constitutional Convention were very rich), and speciIically to beneIit wealthy Iinancial speculators who had purchased Revolutionary
War government bonds through the creation oI a strong national government that could insure the bonds repayment. Beard`s thesis has met with much criticism.
249. Fiske, The Critical !eriod of American Historv
He called the introduction oI the Constitution the "critical period" because the Constitution saved the nation Irom certain disaster under the Articles oI ConIederation.
250. AntiIederalists
They opposed the ratiIication oI the Constitution because it gave more power to the Iederal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual
rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles oI ConIederation. The AntiIederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage oI the Bill oI Rights as a prerequisite to
ratiIication oI the Constitution in several states. AIter the ratiIication oI the Constitution, the AntiIederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply
Republican) party.
251. Supporters oI the Constitution
Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist !apers in support
oI the Constitution.
252. Opponents oI the Constitution
Known as AntiIederalists, they were mostly commoners who were aIraid oI strong central government and being taken advantage oI. They included Patrick Henry and
Samuel Adams.
253. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
One oI the main opponents oI the Constitution, he worked against its ratiIication in Virginia.
254. Sam Adams
He was opposed to the Constitution until the Bill oI Rights was added, and then he supported it.
255. George Mason, Bill oI Rights
He opposed the Constitution because it didn`t protect individual rights. His opposition led to the inclusion oI the Bill oI Rights.
256. The ratiIication Iights, especially in Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia
Massachusetts Iarmers opposed the Constitution because they Ielt it protected trade more than agriculture, but Massachusetts became the 6th state to ratiIy. New York
was opposed to the Constitution; the Federalist !apers were published there to gain support Ior it. Virginia and New York would not ratiIy until the Bill oI Rights was
added to the Constitution.
257. The Federalist !apers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison
This collection oI essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance oI a strong central government. It was published to convince
New York to ratiIy the Constitution.
258. "The Federalist, # 10"
This essay Irom the Federalist !apers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems oI a large democracy (anarchy, rise oI Iactions which disregard public
good).
259. Bill oI Rights adopted, 1791
The Iirst ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
260. President George Washington
He established many oI the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove Ior political balance in
government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
261. Vice-president John Adams
A Federalist, he had little say in Washington`s administration.
262. Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the Iederal court system, allowed the president to create Iederal courts and to appoint iudges.
263. Sec. oI the Treasury Hamilton
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay oII the U.S.`s early debts through tariIIs
and the excise tax on whiskey.
264. Sec. oI State JeIIerson
A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton`s ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so JeIIerson resigned.
265. Sec. oI War Knox
A Revolutionary War hero, Henry Knox had served as Secretary oI War under the Articles oI ConIederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part oI Washington`s
cabinet.
266. Attorney General Randolph
Edmund Randolph had been General Washington's aide-de-camp at the outbreak oI the Revolution, and served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental
Congressand as Governor oI Virginia Irom 1786-1788. He submitted the virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention. From 1789-1794 he served as U.S. Attorney
General, and then succeeded JeIIerson as Sec. oI State. In 1795 he resigned Iorm oIIice aIter being Ialsely accused oI receiving money Irom France to inIluence
Washington`s administration against Great Britain, although his name was eventually cleared by the Irench government.
267. Hamilton`s Program: ideas, proposals, reasons Ior it
Designed to pay oII the U.S.`s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His
programs included the creation oI the National Bank, the establishment oI the U.S.`s credit rate, increased tariIIs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that
the Iederal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
268. TariII oI 1789
Designed to raise revenue Ior the Iederal government, resulted in a government surplus.
269. Bank oI the U.S.
Part oI Hamilton`s Plan, it would save the government`s surplus money until it was needed.
270. National debt, state debt, Ioreign debt
The U.S.`s national debt included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid Ior their Revolutionary War services, plus Ioreign debt to other
countries which had helped the U.S. The Iederal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton`s program paid oII these debts.
271. Excise taxes
Taxes placed on manuIactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue Ior Hamilton`s program.
272. Report on ManuIactures
A document submitted to Congress, which set up an economic policy to encourage industry.
273. Implied powers, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause
Section 8 oI Article I contains a long list oI powers speciIically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all
laws which shall be necessary and proper Ior carrying into execution the IorIegoing powers." These unspeciIied powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers.
There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes reIerred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched"
to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
274. Loose, strict interpretation oI the Constitution
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not speciIically Iorbid it Irom doing. Strict interpretation Iorbids the government
Irom doing anything except what the Constitution speciIically empowers it to do.
275. Location oI the capitol: Washington D.C., circumstances surrounding it
The South was angry that the whole country was assuming state debts incurred primarily in the North, and that slaves were not being counted as Iull persons Ior
purposes oI assigning the number oI representatives that each state would have in the House. As part oI the Compromise Plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention,
it was agreed that the nation`s capitol would be located in the South.
276. Residence Act
Set the length oI time which immigrants must live in the U.S. in order to become legal citizens.
277. Maior L`EnIant, Beniamin Banneker
Architects oI Washington, D.C.
278. Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, Iarmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several Iederal oIIicers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve
arrest warrants on the oIIenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the
Constitution could react swiItly and eIIectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability oI the government under the Articles oI ConIederation to deal with Shay`s
Rebellion.
279. Washington`s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers oI political parties and Ioreign alliances.
280. Election oI 1796: President Adams, Vice-president JeIIerson
The Iirst true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist, but JeIIerson was a Democratic-
Republican.
281. New states: Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee
AIter the western land claims were settled, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee (in that order) were added to the United States under the Constitution.
282. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
The Iirst two political parties. Many oI the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members oI the AntiIederalists, which had never organized into a Iormal political
party.
283. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Party leaders and supporters
The leading Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The leading Democratic- Republicans were Thomas JeIIerson and James Madison.
284. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Programs
Federalist programs were the National Bank and taxes to support the growth oI industry. The Democratic-Republicans opposed these programs, Iavoring state banks
and little industry.
285. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Philosophies
Federalists believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation oI the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans believed in a weak
central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation oI the Constitution.
286. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Foreign proclivities
Federalists supported Britain, while the Democratic-Republicans Ielt that France was the U.S.`s most important ally.
287. Society oI the Cincinnati
A secret society Iormed by oIIicers oI the Continental Army. The group was named Ior George Washington, whose nickname was Cincinnatus, although Washington
himselI had no involvement in the society.
288. Democratic societies
Clubs which met Ior discussion, designed to keep alive the philosophies oI the American Revolution. They were sometimes called Jacobean clubs because they also
supported the French Revolution.
289. Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist oI Iour laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period Ior an
immigrant to become a citizen Irom 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which
allowed Ior the arrest and deportation oI citizens oI countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish deIamatory statements about the
Iederal government or its oIIicials. The Iirst 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ AIIair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered
subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stiIle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the
law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept oI "nulliIication" oI Iederal laws were written in response to the Acts.
290. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by JeIIerson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nulliIy Iederal laws that the states considered
unconstitutional.
291. Doctrine oI NulliIication
Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nulliIy Iederal laws.
292. Election oI 1800, tie, JeIIerson and Burr
The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas JeIIerson and Aaron Burr deIeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The Iinal decision went the House oI
Representatives, where there was another tie. AIter a long series oI ties in the House, JeIIerson was Iinally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to
the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president oI the same party to run on the same ticket.
293. Revolution oI 1800
JeIIerson`s election changed the direction oI the government Irom Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
294. JeIIerson`s Inaugural Address
Declared that he would avoid Ioreign alliances.
295. 12th Amendment
Brought about by the JeIIerson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. BeIore that time, all oI the
candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
296. Second Great Awakening
A series oI religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy oI salvation through good deeds and tolerance Ior all
Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
297. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
American painter, most Iamous Ior painting the portrait oI Washington which was copied Ior the one dollar bill.
298. Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827)
An American naturalist painter.
299. French Alliance oI 1778
France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France iI the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the
French Revolution, the U.S. didn`t do anything to help. The U.S. didn`t IulIill their part oI the agreement until World War I.
300. French Revolution
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, aIter the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either
side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series oI unsuccessIul democratic governments until Napoleon took over as
dictator in 1799.
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301. Citizen Genêt
Edmond Charles Genêt. A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the
French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Genêt aIter Genêt began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later
relented and allowed Genêt U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Genêt.
302. Neutrality Proclamation
Washington`s declaration that the U.S. would not take sides aIter the French Revolution touched oII a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily oI
England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation oI the Franco-American Treaty oI 1778.
303. XYZ AIIair, Talleyrand
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out oI the U.S.'s reIusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty oI 1778.
President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break oII relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French Ioreign
minister Talleyrand in the hopes oI working things out. Talleyrand`s three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange Ior
a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" Ior the names oI the three
French agents in his report to Congress.
304. Undeclared naval war with France
Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had began seizing American vessels in retaliation Ior Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack
any French ships on the American coast. The conIlict became especially violent aIter the X,Y, Z AIIair. A peace convention in 1800 with the newly installed dictator,
Napoleon, ended the conIlict.
305. Convention oI 1800
A conIerence between the U.S. and France which ended the naval hostilities.
306. British seizure oI American ships
France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars oI the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American
merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports.
307. "Rule oI 1756"
A British proclamation that said that neutral countries could not trade with both oI two warring nations; they had to chose sides and only trade with one oI the nations.
This iustiIied Britain`s seizure oI neutral American ships during the war between Britain and France in the early 1800s.
308. Northwest posts
British Iur-trading posts in the Northwest territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conIlicts.
309. Jay`s Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes oI settling the growing conIlicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It
was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain Ior the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the
U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights oI neutrals.
310. Washington`s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers oI political parties and Ioreign alliances.
311. Pickney`s Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port oI New
Orleans.
312. Spanish intrigue in the Southwest
During the late 1700s/early 1800s Spain was exploring and settling the region which is now the Southwest U.S. The Spanish used the Indians oI Florida and Georgia as
spies and encouraged the tribes to raid U.S. settlements, which contributed to the outbreak oI the War oI 1812 . Zebulon Pike used his expedition to the West as an
opportunity to spy on the Spanish and map out their land.
313. James Wilkinson (1759-1825)
Wilkinson had been an oIIicer in the Continental Army, and later held several positions relating to the Army, such as secretary oI the board oI war and clothier general
to the army. He was one oI the Commissioners appointed to receive the Purchase Louisiana Irom the French, and served as Governor oI Louisiana Irom 1805-1806. He
inIormed Pres. JeIIerson oI Burr's conspiracy to take over Louisiana, and was the primary witness against Burr at his treason trial, even though Wilkinson was himselI
implicated in the plot.
314. "Mad" Anthony Wayne, Battle oI Fallen Timbers
Wayne had been one oI the leading generals oI the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the deIeat oI Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the early 1790's, the
British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans deIeated the Miami Indians
in the Battle oI Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way Ior American settlement oI the Ohio Valley.
315. Treaty oI Greenville, 1795
Drawn up aIter the Battle oI Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange Ior a reservation and $10,000.
316. Barbary pirates
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast oI North AIrica who demanded tribute in exchange Ior reIraining Irom attacking ships in the
Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states Ior protection against the pirates. JeIIerson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. Iought the Barbary
Wars (1801-1805) against the countries oI Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
317. Rutgers v. Waddington, 1784
In 1783, the New York State Legislature passed the Trespass Act, which allowed land owners whose property had been occupied by the British during the Revolution to
sue Ior damages. Rutgers sued in the Mayor`s Court over the seizure oI her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane, declared the Act void because it conIlicted with a
provision oI the Treaty oI Paris. It was the Iirst time a U.S. court had declared a law unconstitutional, and was an important precedent Ior the later U.S. Supreme Court
decision in Marbury v. Madison.
318. Trevett v. Weeden, 1786-1787
Occurred under the Articles oI ConIederation, when each state had a diIIerent type oI currency. Acts passed by the Rhode Island Legislature imposed heavy Iines on
those who reIused to accept the state`s depreciated currency at Iace value. Weeden was acquitted on the grounds that the acts were unconstitutional.
319. Bavard v. Singleton
1787 - First court decision in which a law was Iound unconstitutional based on a written constitution.
320. Supreme Court: Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs oI Alexander Chisholm (a citizen oI South Carolina) sued the state oI Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right oI citizens oI one state to sue another
state, and decided against Georgia.
321. Supreme Court: Ware v. Hvlton, 1796
A treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain required that all debts owed by the U.S. to Britain had to be paid in Iull. However, a Virginia statute said that American
debts to Britain could be paid in depreciated currency. The Supreme Court upheld the treaty, proving that Iederal laws take precedence over state laws.
322. War oI 1812 (1812-1814)
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment oI American sailors by the British, the British seizure oI American ships,
and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western Irontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts
and to annex Florida Irom Britain`s ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada Irom Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C.
Calhoun) argued Ior war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and Irontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point
the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty oI Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida.
Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson`s troops deIeated the British at the Battle oI New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war
strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth oI industry.
323. Clay`s American System
Proposed aIter the War oI 1812, it included using Iederal money Ior internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariII to
Ioster the growth oI American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
324. Was Jacksonianism an attack on privilege?
To some extent, it was. Jackson opposed monopolies and the privileged class oI society; he attacked the national bank Ior this reason. He advocated increased popular
participation in government and greater opportunity Ior the common man.
325. Bank war: its enemies and deIenders
During Jackson`s presidency, this was a struggle between those who wanted to keep the national bank in operation and those who wanted to abolish it. Jackson and
states` rights advocates opposed the national bank, which they Ielt imposed discriminatory credit restrictions on local banks, making it more diIIicult Ior Iarmers and
small businessmen to obtain loans. The bank was deIended by Nicholas Biddle and Henry Clay, the National Republicans, the wealthy, and larger merchants, who Ielt
that local banks credit policies were irresponsible and would lead to a depression.
326. Bank war: Veto message by Andrew Jackson
1832 - President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
327. Bank war: laws Irom 1800 to 1865 on banking
These laws moved away Irom Iavoring the national bank towards Iavoring state banks.
328. Changes in Iederal land laws and policies
The Land Acts oI 1800 and 1820, and the Preemptive Acts oI the 1830s and 1840s lowered the price oI land and made it easier Ior prospective settlers to acquire it. This
encouraged people to move west.
329. Changes and improvements in transportation and its eIIect
These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was Iaster trade and easier access to the western Irontier. It aided
the growth oI the nation.
330. Revolution oI 1800
JeIIerson`s election changed the direction oI the government Irom Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
331. President JeIIerson
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce Iederal spending and government interIerence in everyday liIe. He was a Democratic-Republican
(originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation oI the Constitution.
332. Vice-President Burr
Aaron Burr was one oI the leading Democratic-Republicans oI New york, and served as a U.S. Senator Irom New York Irom 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent
oI Alexander Hamilton`s Federalist policies. In the election oI 1800, Burr tied with JeIIerson in the Electoral College. The House oI Representatives awarded the
Presidency to JeIIerson and made Burr Vice- President.
333. Sec. oI Treasury Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was a Swiss immigrant who was a Iinancial genius and served as U.S. Secretary oI the Treasury Irom 1801 - 1814 under Presidents JeIIerson and
Madison. He advocated Iree trade and opposed the Federalists` economic policies. Gallatin was a member oI the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty oI Ghent,
and later served as Ambassador to France and to Britain.
334. JeIIerson`s Inaugural Address, "We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans"
JeIIerson (a Republican) declared that he wanted to keep the nation uniIied and avoid partisan conIlicts.
335. Federalist control oI courts and iudges, midnight iudges
On his last day in oIIice, President Adams appointed a large number oI Federalist iudges to the Iederal courts in an eIIort to maintain Federalist control oI the
government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much oI Congress to the Republicans.) These newly-appointed Federalist iudges were called midnight iudges
because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments.
336. Justice Samuel Chase
A Federalist iudge appointed by Washington to the Supreme Court. Chase had been a Revolutionary War hero, and was a signer oI the Declaration oI Independence.
JeIIerson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached Ior publicly criticizing the JeIIerson administration to the Maryland grand iury. Chase was acquited by the
Senate, and the impeachment Iailed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.)
337. Tripolitan War (1801-1805)
Also called the Barbary Wars, this was a series oI naval engagements launched by President JeIIerson in an eIIort to stop the attacks on American merchant ships by the
Barbary pirates. The war was inconclusive, aIterwards, the U.S. paid a tribute to the Barbary states to protect their ships Irom pirate attacks.
338. Treaty oI Sam IldeIonso
1800 - In this treaty, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (France had lost it to Spain in the Seven Years War).
339. Louisiana Purchase: reasons, JeIIerson, loose construction
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land Irom the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains Irom Napoleon Ior $15 million. JeIIerson was interested in the territory because
it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable Ior trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he
needed money Ior his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea oI New World colonies. The Constitution did
not give the Iederal government the power to buy land, so JeIIerson used loose construction to iustiIy the purchase.
340. Toussaint L`Overture
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control oI Haiti, the most important island oI France`s Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to Ieel that New
World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
341. Federalist opposition to the Louisiana Purchase
Federalists opposed it because they Ielt JeIIerson overstepped his Constitutional powers by making the purchase.
342. Hamilton-Burr duel
AIter Burr lost to JeIIerson as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran Ior governor oI New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successIul
Federalist politician) oI making deIamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
343. Burr expedition, treason trial
AIter the duel, Burr Iled New York and ioined a group oI mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico.
Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico, but the U.S. believed that they were actually trying to get Mexican aid to start a secession movement in the
territories. Burr was tried Ior treason, and although JeIIerson advocated Burr`s punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr.
344. Lewis and Clark expedition and its Iindings
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by JeIIerson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis,
Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the PaciIic Ocean. It produced extensive maps oI the
area and recorded many scientiIic discoveries, greatly Iacilitating later settlement oI the region and travel to the PaciIic coast.
345. Pike, Maior Long, their observations
Zebulon Pike explored (1805-1807) Minnesota and the Southwest, mapped the region, and spied on the Spanish whenever his exploration took him into their territory.
(He was eventually captured by the Spanish, but the U.S. arranged Ior his release.) Maior Long explored the middle oI the Louisiana Purchase region (Nebraska,
Kansas, Colorado) and concluded that it was a worthless "Great American Desert."
346. Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807)
These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War oI 1812. The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to
ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports.
347. Polly case, Essex case
These dealt with the impressment oI sailors.
348. Orders-in-council
British laws which led to the War oI 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment oI sailors and Iorbade neutral ships Irom visiting ports Irom
which Britain was excluded unless they Iirst went to Britain and traded Ior British goods.
349. Impressment
British seamen oIten deserted to ioin the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and oIten seized any
sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
350. Chesapeake-Leopard AIIair
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake reIused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look Ior deserters. In response, the Leopard Iired on the Chesapeake. As
a result oI the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships Irom its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Notecards 351-400
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351. Embargo oI 1807, opposition
This act issued by JeIIerson Iorbade American trading ships Irom leaving the U.S. It was meant to Iorce Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral
vessels by depriving them oI American trade. It was diIIicult to enIorce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon
international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
352. Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo oI 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which Iorbade American trade with all Ioreign nations, this act only Iorbade trade with France and Britain.
It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon`s Bill No. 2.
353. Erskine Agreement
1809 - The U.S. oIIered to cease all trade with France and resume trade with Britain iI the British would stop the impressment oI American sailors. The British did not
agree to this, so this proposal never went into eIIect.
354. Macon`s Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but oIIered to resume trade with whichever nation liIted its neutral trading restrictions Iirst. France quickly changed its
policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
355. Tecumseh (1763-1813)
A Shawnee chieI who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league oI
tribes was deIeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle oI Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed Iighting Ior the British during the
War oI 1812 at the Battle oI the Thames in 1813.
356. War Hawks
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain`s northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they Ielt the
British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the Irontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
357. Causes oI the War oI 1812
These included: British impressment oI sailors, British seizure oI neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the
Indians on the Irontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
358. Why war against Britain rather than against France?
Britain practiced impressment and was believed to be supplying weapons to the Indians on the Irontier and encouraging them to attack the U.S. Also, Britain held land
near the U.S. which the Americans hoped to acquire, and a war with Britain would allow the U.S. to seize Florida Irom Britain`s ally Spain. Although France had also
seized American ships, France had agreed to liIt its neutral trading restrictions, and the U.S. had resumed trade with France.
359. Federalist opposition to the War oI 1812
The Federalist party was mainly composed oI New England merchants, who wanted good relations with Britain and Iree trade. New England merchants met at the
HartIord Convention in protest oI the war and the U.S. government`s restrictions on trade.
360. Naval engagements in the War oI 1812
The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but Iailed to break the British blockade oI the U.S.
361. Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key, "Star Spangled Banner"
Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry hold out during the night against a British attack. He wrote the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about the experience oI seeing the
U.S. Ilag still Ilying above the Iort in the morning, and the poem was later set to the tune oI an old English bar song.
362. Events oI the War oI 1812: Perry, Lake Erie, D.C., New Orleans
Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie. Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814. The Battle oI New Orleans
was a great victory Ior the U.S. in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks aIter the signing oI the Treaty oI Ghent had ended the war.
363. Jackson`s victory at New Orleans
January, 1815 - A large British invasion Iorce was repelled by Andrew Jackson`s troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details oI the British army`s battle
plans by the French pirate, Jean LaIIite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that
the Treaty oI Ghent had ended the War oI 1812 two weeks beIore the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
364. New England`s merchants, critics oI the War oI 1812, Essex Junto
New England`s merchants opposed the War oI 1812 because it cut oII trade with Great Britain. Critics oI the war were mainly Federalists who represented New
England. The Essex Junto was a group oI extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England`s secession Irom the U.S.
365. HartIord Convention, resolution
December 1814 - A convention oI New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War oI 1812. They proposed some
Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right oI states to nulliIy Iederal laws. They also discussed the idea oI seceding Irom the U.S. iI their desires were
ignored. The HartIord Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise oI the party.
366. Treaty negotiators: John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, Henry Clay
These three were among the American delegation which negotiated the Treaty oI Ghent.
367. Treaty oI Ghent, provisions
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War oI 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set
up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
368. Neutral rights issues end with the deIeat oI Napoleon
Napoleon`s deIeat ended the war between Britain and France, and thus ended the need Ior restrictions on neutral trading.
369. War oI 1812 increased nationalism and economic independence
The U.S.`s success in the War oI 1812 gave Americans a Ieeling oI national pride. The War oI 1812 had cut oII America`s access to British manuIactured goods and
Iorced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
370. Second bank oI the U.S., a reversal oI JeIIersonian ideas
As a Republican, JeIIerson opposed the National Bank. The Second Bank oI the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank oI the
U.S. Bank loans were used to Iinance the American industrial revolution in the period aIter the War oI 1812.
371. TariII oI 1816 -- Protective
This protective tariII helped American industry by raising the prices oI British manuIactured goods, which were oIten cheaper and oI higher quality than those produced
in the U.S.
372. Bonus Bill veto
March, 1817 - Madison vetoed John C. Calhoun`s Bonus Bill, which would have used the bonus money paid to the government by the Second National Bank to build
roads and canals. Madison believed in strict interpretation, and using Iederal money Ior internal improvements is not a power granted to the Iederal government in the
Constitution.
373. Rush-Bagot Treaty, Great Lakes
1817 - This treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided Ior the mutual disarmament oI the Great Lakes. This was later expanded into
an unarmed Canada/U.S. border.
374. Convention oI 1818
Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also aIIirmed U.S. rights to Iisheries along NewIoundland and Labrador.
375. Panic oI 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand Ior goods aIter the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
376. West Florida, 1810
The U.S. wanted this region, which now Iorms the southern parts oI the states oI Alabama and Mississippi, because it bordered the Mississippi River. The U.S. seized
West Florida aIter an uprising by American settlers in the region.
377. Jackson in Florida
1817 - The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series oI raids into the U.S. President J. Q. Adams ordered Andrew Jackson, whose
troops were on the U.S./Florida border, to seize Spanish Iorts in northern Florida. Jackson`s successIul attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not deIend Florida
against the U.S.
378. Purchase oI Florida
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
379. Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)
Spain gave up Florida to the U.S. and the U.S./Mexico border was set so that Texas and the American Southwest would be part oI Mexico.
380. Quadruple Alliance, Holy Alliance
The Quadruple Alliance was signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king oI
England, and the sultan oI Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
381. George Canning (1770-1829)
Led the House oI Commons in Parliament. Cut Great Britain Irom the Holy Alliance in 1823. First leader to recognize the independence oI the Spanish colonies in
America and support the Monroe Doctrine, which helped restore good relations between the U.S. and Great Britain.
382. Monroe Doctrine: origins, provisions, impact
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interIere in the aIIairs oI the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interIerence by a European power would be seen as a
threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many
South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly iust a show oI nationalism,
the doctrine had no maior impact until later in the 1800s.
383. Era oI Good Feelings
A name Ior President Monroe`s two terms, a period oI strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved aIter the War
oI 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conIlicts.
384. ChieI Justice John Marshall: decision
Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted Iederal power over state power and established the iudiciary as a branch oI
government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marburv v. Madison he established the Supreme Court`s power oI iudicial review, which allows the Supreme
Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
385. Missouri: Tallmadge Amendment, Thomas Amendment
When Missouri applied Ior statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a Iree state. The Tallmadge Amendment was a bill which
would have admitted Missouri with its existing slave population, but would Iorbid the introduction oI additional slaves and Iree all slave children at age 25. The Thomas
Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but Iorbid slavery north oI the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region. Neither bill
was put into eIIect.
386. Missouri Compromise, provisions
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a Iree state. Declared that all territory north oI the 36°30" latitude would become Iree states,
and all territory south oI that latitude would become slave states.
387. Growth oI industry in New England, textiles
The industrial revolution had occurred in England in the 1700s, but it was not until the period industrial growth aIter the War oI 1812 that the U.S. began to
manuIacture goods with the aid oI Iactories and machines. New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manuIacturing center because New England had many
rivers to supply water power, plus a better system oI roads and canals. The Iirst maior industry in New England was textiles.
388. Samuel Slater (1768-1835)
When he emigrated Irom England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English Iactory. With these plans, he helped build the Iirst Iactory in
America.
389. Robert Fulton, Clermont
A Iamous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America`s Iirst steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the Iirst practical submarine.
390. Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short Ior "engine")
1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton Iorm its seeds. This invention made cotton a proIitable crop oI great value to the Southern
economy. It also reinIorced the importance oI slavery in the economy oI the South.
391. Interchangeable parts
1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manuIacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. BeIore this, each part oI a
given device had been designed only Ior that one device; iI a single piece oI the device broke, it was diIIicult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was
easy to get a replacement part Irom the manuIacturer. Whitney Iirst put used standardized parts to make muskets Ior the U.S. government.
392. Boston Associates, Lowell, Massachusetts
The Boston Associates were a group oI Boston businessmen who built the Iirst power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a Iactory run by Lowell.
Their Iactory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
393. Daniel Webster (1782-1852)
A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, Iirst as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a maior representative oI the North in pre-Civil War
Senate debates, iust as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative oI the South in that time.
394. National Road (also called Cumberland Road)
The Iirst highway built by the Iederal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched Irom Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a maior overland shipping route and
an important connection between the North and the West.
395. Internal improvements
The program Ior building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the Iederal government should Iund internal
improvements, since it was not speciIically given that power by the Constitution.
396. Erie Canal, Dewitt Clinton
1825 - The Erie canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The canal was approved in 1817 with the support oI New York`s
Governor, Dewitt Clinton. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.
397. New states, 1815-1840
The government tried to maintain a balance between slave states and Iree states. The new states admitted were: Indiana (1816, Iree), Mississippi (1817, slave), Illinois
(1818, Iree), Alabama (1819, slave), Maine (1820, Iree), Missouri (1821, slave), Arkansas (1836, slave), and Michigan (1837, Iree).
398. Federal government`s land policy: 1796, 1800, 1804, 1820
In 1796, land was sold in 640-acre tracts or more Ior no less than $2 per acre. In 1800, the minimum lot size was reduced to 320 acres. In 1804, the minimum lot size
was 160 acres, and the minimum price $1.64 per acre. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 80 acres, and the minimum price $1.25 per acre.
399. New England`s opposition to cheap land
New England was opposed to the Iederal government`s liberal land policy because they did not Ieel that their region was beneIitting Irom the money made oII the land
sales.
400. John Quincy Adams as Sec. oI State: Florida, Monroe Doctrine
He served under president Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange Ior the U.S. dropping its claims to
Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams` work.
401. Election oI 1824: popular vote, electoral vote, house vote: Jackson, Adams, CrawIord, Clay
Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42°), Adams - 115,626 (32°), Clay - 47,136 (13°), CrawIord - 46,979 (13°). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99, Adams - 84, CrawIord -
41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson - 7, CrawIord - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a maiority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the
House oI Representatives, where Adams won.
402. "Corrupt Bargain"
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return Ior the oIIice oI Secretary oI State. Clay
knew he could not win, so he traded his votes Ior an oIIice.
403. Panama ConIerence
Summoned by the Venezuelan revolutionary leader, Simon Bolivar, in 1826 to discuss commercial treaties, adopt a code oI international law, and arrive at a common
Latin American policy toward Spain. Two delegates were sent by the U.S., but were delayed so long that when they got there the meeting was over. They were
uncomIortable about black and whites mixing at the meeting. Showed the good relations between U.S. and South America.
404. TariII oI Abominations
1828 - Also called TariII oI 1828, it raised the tariII on imported manuIactured goods. The tariII protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariII was
economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England Iavored high tariIIs.
405. Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition and protest, nulliIication
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny oI the maiority by
asserting the right to nulliIy an unconstitutional act oI Congress. It was written in reaction to the TariII oI 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped
the South oI its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede iI the tariII was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nulliIication as a more peaceIul solution.
406. Jacksonian Revolution oI 1828
When Andrew Jackson was elected president Irom humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common
people to government positions. JeIIerson's emphasis on Iarmers` welIare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and Iarmers. Jackson was
the Iirst non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution oI the "Common Man".
407. Age oI the Common Man
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age oI the Common Man. He Ielt that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on selI-suIIicient
middle class with ideas Iormed by liberal education and a Iree press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
408. Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reIorms: Iree public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in Iactories, and the rise oI the Abolition
movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked Ior his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial
college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
409. Franchise extended, spoils system
Franchise extended - more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system - "To the victor go the spoils" - the winner oI the election
may do whatever they want with the staII. Jackson made more staII changes than any previous president, Iiring many people and replacing them with his own.
410. National Republicans
AIter the 1824 election, part oI the Democratic - Republican party ioined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They Iavored
nationalistic measures like recharter oI the Bank oI the United States, high tariIIs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by
Northwesterners and were not very successIul. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they ioined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
411. Caucus System, Nation Nominating Conventions
In the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results oI a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and
the public had little say in the process.
412. Kitchen Cabinet
A small group oI Jackson's Iriends and advisors who were especially inIluential in the Iirst years oI his presidency. Jackson conIerred with them instead oI his regular
cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring oIIicial procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
413. Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail oI Tears"
A minority oI the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest oI the maiority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty oI New Echota. During the winter oI 1838 -
1839, troops under General WinIield Scott evicted them Irom their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the iourney
became known as the "Trail oI Tears".
414. Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Worchester v. Georgia: 1832 - The Supreme Court decided Georgia had no iurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia reIused to enIorce decision and President
Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: 1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic
nations which could be regulated by the Iederal government. From then until 1871, treaties were Iormalities with the terms dictated by the Iederal government.
415. Whigs: origins, policies
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came Irom the National Republican Party, which was once largely
Federalists. They took their name Irom the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay,
Daniel Webster, and, Ior a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support oI industry, protective tariIIs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class
in origin.
416. Maysville Road Veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at Iederal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van
Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid Ior their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation oI the Constitution by
saying that the Iederal government could not pay Ior internal improvements.
417. Election oI 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran Ior re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto oI the recharter oI the U.S. Bank, which he said was a
monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the Iirst election with a national
nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or
upper-class men oI the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism oI the Masons, and the new party took votes
Irom the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
418. Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
The Bank oI the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government Iunds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank
was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out oI business and Iavored the rich, but Clay Iavored it. Nicholas
Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testiIied that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The
bank went out oI business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
419. Veto message
1832 - Jackson, in his veto message oI the recharter oI the Second Bank oI the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by
the wealthy and by Ioreigners.
420. Jackson's removal oI deposits, Roger B. Taney, pet bank, Loco-Focos
Angry because Biddle used bank Iunds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed Iederal deposits Irom the bank in 1833, Iiring the secretaries oI treasury
who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse oI power. Roger B. Taney was ChieI Justice oI the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank oI the U.S.
Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited Iederal Iunds in 1833, aIter he vetoed the recharter oI the Second Bank oI the U.S., so called because people
thought they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos (1835) were Democrats who wanted reIorm and opposed tariIIs, banks, monopolies, and other places oI
special privilege.
421. Chestnut Street to Wall
Name change oI the street in New York in 1800s.
422. Foote Resolution, Webster-Hayne debate
The Webster-Hayne debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale oI public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic
speech, showed the danger oI the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide Ior itselI which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil
war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
423. Peggy Eaton AIIair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary oI War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors oI his aIIair with Peggy
Timberlake even beIore her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the aIIair
helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
424. Calhoun resigns as vice-president
1832 - Calhoun, Irom South Carolina, wrote the doctrine oI nulliIication, expressing his views in support oI states' rights. His views were so disputed and so diIIerent
Irom Jackson's that Calhoun resigned and was appointed senator in South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
425. South opposes protective tariIIs (TariII oI Abominations)
The North wanted tariIIs that protected new industries, but the agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports oI manuIactured goods and only wanted tariIIs
Ior revenue. The South strongly opposed protective tariIIs like the TariIIs oI 1828 and 1832, and protested by asserting that enIorcement oI the tariIIs could be
prohibited by individual states, and by reIusing to collect tariII duties.
426. NulliIication crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
When Iaced with the protective TariII oI 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that Iederal tariIIs could be
declared null and void by individual states and that they could reIuse to enIorce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, aIter the revised TariII oI 1828
became the TariII oI 1832, and passed an ordinance Iorbidding collection oI tariII duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.
427. JeIIerson Day Dinner: toasts and quotes
April 13, 1830 - At the JeIIerson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, "Our Iederal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nulliIiers that
he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nulliIy the tariII law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we
always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the beneIits and burdens oI the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (Ior states'
rights) in public, but he didn't succeed.
428. Clay: Compromise TariII oI 1833
Henry Clay devised the Compromise TariII oI 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the TariIIs oI 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw
the ordinance nulliIying the TariIIs oI 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
429. Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the TariIIs oI 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance oI
nulliIication had declared these tariIIs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by
Congress the same day as the Compromise TariII oI 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nulliIied the Force Act.
430. Calhoun splits with Jackson
1832 - Calhoun resigned as vice-president when his views on states' rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section oI the country to share Iederal power
equally, and he wanted independence Ior the South iI they were to be controlled by the maiority.
431. Martin Van Buren, the Albany Regency
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator Irom New York, rallied the Iactory workers oI the North in support oI Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. aIter
Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique oI wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, oI which Van Buren became the
leader.
432. Specie Circular
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie
(gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase oI public lands be paid Ior in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale oI public lands went
down sharply. The panic oI 1837 Iollowed.
433. Charles River Bridge Decision, ChieI Justice Roger B. Taney, General Incooperation Laws
1837 - The Charles River Bridge Decision, delivered by Roger B. Taney, modiIied C.J. Marshall's ruling in the Darmouth College Case oI 1819, which said that a state
could not make laws inIringing on the charters oI private organizations. Taney ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage oI
the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a Iree bridge where it had been chartered
to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could
build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot iniure the public welIare.
434. Panic oI 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn Irom the Bank oI the U.S. These banks issued paper money and
Iinanced wild speculation, especially in Iederal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to Iorce the payment Ior Iederal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks
collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank oI the U.S. Iailed, cotton prices Iell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and
distress.
435. Dorr's Rebellion
In 1841, Rhode Island was governed by a 1663 charter which said that only property holders and their eldest sons could vote (1/2 the adult male population). Thomas
Dorr led a group oI rebels who wrote a new constitution and elected him governor in 1842. The state militia was called in to stop the rebellion. Dorr was sentenced to
liIe imprisonment, but the sentence was withdrawn. Dorr's Rebellion caused conservatives to realize the need Ior reIorm. A new constitution in 1843 gave almost all
men the right to vote.
436. Independent Treasury Plan
Idea that Iederal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.
437. Election oI 1840: candidates, characteristics
William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0 votes. Panic oI 1837 and
a coming depression kept Van Buren Irom being reelected. Whigs reiected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They
depicted Van Buren as living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which wasn't entirely true.
438. Rise oI the Second Party System
Since the 1840's, two maior political parties have managed to eliminated all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems
since the 1840's.
439. Pre-emption Act, 1841
This was to help settlers who occupied land and improved it beIore surveys were done. Without it, settlers could be outbid Ior the land. Some speculators used "Iloaters"
to pre-empt land Ior them.
440. TariII oI 1842
A protective tariII signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level oI duties to about where they had been beIore the Compromise TariII oI 1833. Also banned
pornography by increasing its cost.
441. Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need
Ior organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part oI the Great Spirit, and each person is part oI
a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, selI-reliance, and Ireedom Irom social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
442. Transcendentalists
Believed in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the movement) and Thoreau. Many oI them Iormed cooperative communities such as Brook
Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and Iarmed together with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in the hope that the Iuture will not
always be as the past." It was more literary than practical - Brook Farm lasted only Irom 1841 to 1847.
443. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing Ireedom and selI-reliance in essays which still make him a Iorce today. He had an international reputation as a
Iirst-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalI oI the Abolitionists.
444. Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), "On Civil Disobedience"
A transcendentalist and Iriend oI Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year Irom 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil
Disobedience," he inspired social and political reIormers because he had reIused to pay a poll tax in protest oI slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a
night in iail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
445. Orestes Brownson (1803-1876)
Presbyterian layman, Universalist minister, Unitarian preacher and Iounder oI his own church in Boston. Spent his liIe searching Ior his place and supporting various
causes. As an editor, he attacked organized Christianity and won a large intellectual New England Iollowing. Then turned Roman Catholic and became a strong
deIender oI Catholicism in Brownson's Quarterly Review, Irom 1844 until his death.
446. Margaret Fuller (1810-1815), The Dial
Social reIormer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), which was the puplication oI the transcendentalists. It appealed to
people who wanted "perIect Ireedom", "progress in philosophy and theology . . . and hope that the Iuture will not always be as the past."
447. James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851), The Spv, The !ioneers
American novelist. The Spv (1821) was about the American Revolution. The !ioneers (1823) tells oI an old scout returning to his boyhood home and is one oI the
Leatherstocking Tales, a series oI novels about the American Irontier, Ior which Cooper was Iamous. (Leatherstocking is the scout.) Cooper later stayed in Europe Ior
seven years, and when he returned he was disgusted by American society because it didn't live up to his books. Cooper emphasized the independence oI individuals and
importance oI a stable social order.
448. James Fenimore Cooper, Last of the Mohicans
1826 - It is about a scout named Hawkeye during the French and Indian War, while he was in his prime. It is one oI the Leatherstocking Tales, about a Irontiersman and
a noble Indian, and the clash between growing civilization and untamed wilderness.
449. Herman Melville (1819-1891), Mobv Dick
Wrote Mobv Dick (1851) about a Captain Ahab who seeks revenge on the white whale that crippled him but ends up losing his liIe, his ship, and his crew. Wasn't
popular at the time but now highly regarded. Melville reiected the optimism oI the transcendentalists and Ielt that man Iaced a tragic destiny. His views were not
popular at the time, but were accepted by later generations.
450. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet Letter
Originally a transcendentalist; later reiected them and became a leading anti-trascendentalist. He was a descendant oI Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the
hypocrisy and insensitivity oI New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is Iorced to wear a scarlet "A".
451. Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849)
Author who wrote many poems and short stories including "The Raven," "The Bells," "The Tell-Tale Heart," and "The Gold Bug." He was the originator oI the
detective story and had a maior inIluence on symbolism and surrealism. Best known Ior macabre stories.
452. Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend oI Sleepy Hollow." He was the Iirst American to be recognized in
England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
453. Henry Wadsworth LongIellow (1807-1882)
Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value oI tradition and the impact oI the past on the present.
454. Walt Whitman (1819-1892), Leaves of Grass
Leaves oI Grass (1855) was his Iirst volume oI poetry. He broke away Irom the traditional Iorms and content oI New England poetry by describing the liIe oI working
Americans and using words like "I reckon", "duds", and "Iolks". He loved people and expressed the new democracy oI a nation Iinding itselI. He had radical ideas and
abolitionist views - Leaves of Grass was considered immoral. Patriotic.
455. Hudson River School oI Art
In about 1825, a group oI American painters, led by Thomas Cole, used their talents to do landscapes, which were not highly regarded. They painted many scenes oI
New York's Hudson River. Mystical overtones.
456. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracv in America
De Tocqueville came Irom France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses
the advantages oI democracy and consequences oI the maiority's unlimited power. First to raise topics oI American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy,
and the conIlict between the masses and individuals.
457. Millennialism, Millerites
Millerites were Seventh-Day Adventists who Iollowed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or
1844, and waited Ior the world to end. The Millennial Dawnists, another sect oI the Seventh-Day Adventists, believed the world was under Satan's rule and Ielt it their
obligation to announce the Second Coming oI Christ and the battle oI Armageddon.
458. "The Burned-Over District"
Term applied to the region oI western New York along the Erie Canal, and reIers to the religious Iervor oI its inhabitants. In the 1800's, Iarmers there were susceptible
to revivalist and tent rallies by the pentecostals (religious groups).
459. Charles G. Finney (1792-1875)
An immensely successIul revivalist oI the 1800's. He helped establish the "Oberlin Theology". His emphasis on "disinterested benevolence" helped shape the main
charitable enterprises oI the time.
460. Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance oI an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to
an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book oI Mormon and died a martyr.
461. Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah
1847 - Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they Iounded the Mormon republic oI Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong
social order. Others Ieared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
462. Brook Farm
An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted Ior six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
463. New Harmony
A utopian settlement in Indiana lasting Irom 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack oI authority caused it to break up.
464. Oneida Community
A group oI socio-religious perIectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising oI children.
465. Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and
conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
466. Amana Community
A German religious sect set up this community with communist overtones. Still in existence.
467. Lyceum Movement
Developed in the 1800's in response to growing interest in higher education. Associations were Iormed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientiIic
demonstrations, and entertainment. This movement was directly responsible Ior the increase in the number oI institutions oI higher learning.
468. Some reIorms successIul, some not, why?
In the 1800's, it was usually because the general public either didn't vocally support the reIorm or was opposed it. Not all people wanted change. In general, reIorms
Iailed iI they were too Iar out on the political spectrum.
469. Dorothea Dix, treatment oI the insane
A reIormer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible Ior improving conditions in iails, poorhouses
and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility Ior the care oI the mentally ill. She served as the
Superintendant oI Nurses Ior the Union Army during the Civil War.
470. Rise oI labor leaders
During the 1800's, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included
reduction in the length oI the workday, universal education, Iree land Ior settlers, and abolition oI monopolies. Labor unions were the result oI the growth oI Iactories.
471. National Trade Union
Unions Iormed by groups oI skilled craItsmen.
472. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the Iirst iudgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions
and that strikes Ior a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible Ior the illegal acts oI their members.
473. Criminal Conspiracy Laws and early unions
For a time in the 1700's and 1800's, these laws were directed at early labor unions. The organized stoppage oI work by a group oI employees in a strike could be iudged
a criminal restraint oI trade. This approach largely ended aIter Commonwealth v. Hunt.
474. Oberlin, 1833; Mt. Holyoke, 1836
Oberlin: Iounded by a New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. First coed Iacility at the college level. The Iirst to enroll Blacks in 1835. Mt. Holyoke: Iounded
in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Became the model Ior later liberal arts institutions oI higher education Ior women. Liberal colleges.
475. Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary oI the newly Iormed Massachusetts Board oI Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model Ior the nation. Started the
Iirst American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
476. American Temperance Union
The Ilagship oI the temperance movement in the 1800's. Opposed alcohol.
477. "Ten Nights in a Bar-Room," Timothy Shay Arthur
A melodramatic story, published in 1856, which became a Iavorite text Ior temperance lecturers. In it, a traveller visits the town oI Cedarville occasionally Ior ten years,
notes the changing Iortunes oI the citizens and blames the saloon.
478. Maine Law, Neal Dow
In 1838, Dow Iounded the Maine Temperance Union. As mayor oI Portland, Maine, Dow secured in 1851 the state's passage the Maine Law, which Iorbade the sale or
manuIacture oI liquor.
479. Irish, German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower Ior canal and railroad construction. German: also
came because oI economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many oI its morals. Both groups oI immigrants were heavy drinkers
and supplied the labor Iorce Ior the early industrial era.
480. Nativism
An anti-Ioreign Ieeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the inIlux oI Irish and German Catholics.
481. Samuel F.B. Morse, Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the U.S. Through Foreign Immigration. and the !resent State of the Naturalization Laws
He was brieIly involved in Nativism and anti-Catholic movements, asserting that Ioreign immigration posed a threat to the Iree institutions oI the U.S., as immigrants
took iobs Irom Americans and brought dangerous new ideas.
482. Women, their rights, areas oI discrimination
In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held iobs.
483. Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
An early Ieminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suIIrage. Her home was a station on the
underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the Iirst women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
484. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suIIrage movement, she helped organize the Iirst women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the
militant Ieminist magazine Revolution Irom 1868 - 1870.
485. Seneca Falls
July, 1848 - Site oI the Iirst modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration oI Sentiment listing the many discriminations
against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one oI which called Ior women's suIIrage.
486. Emma Willard (1787-1870)
Early supporter oI women's education, in 1818 she published Plan Ior Improving Female Education, which became the basis Ior public education oI women in New
York. In 1821, she opened her own girls` school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women Ior college.
487. Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalI oI household arts and education oI the young. She established two schools Ior women and emphasized better teacher
training. She opposed women's suIIrage.
488. "Cult oI True Womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness
While many women were in Iavor oI the women's movement, some were not. Some oI these believed in preserving the values oI "true womanhood": piety, domesticity,
purity and submissiveness. These opponents oI the women`s movement reIerred to their ideas as the "Cult oI True Womanhood."
489. Women's movement, like others, overshadowed by anti-slavery movement
In the 1800's, the women's movement was oIten overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalI oI the women's movement
worked Ior the abolition oI slavery once it became a maior issue.
490. American Peace Society
Founded in 1828 by William Laddit. Formally condemned all wars, though it supported the U.S. government during the Civil War, WWI, and WWII. It was dissolved
aIter the United Nations was Iormed in 1945.
491. Prison reIorm: Auburn system, Pennsylvania system
Prison reIorm in the U.S. began with the Pennsylvania system in 1790, based on the concept that solitary conIinement would induce meditation and moral reIorm.
However, this led to many mental breakdowns. The Auburn system, adopted in 1816, allowed the congregation oI prisoners during the day.
492. Supreme Court: Marburv v. Madison
1803 - The case arose out oI JeIIerson`s reIusal to deliver the commissions to the iudges appointed by Adams` Midnight Appointments. One oI the appointees,
Marbury, sued the Sect. oI State, Madison, to obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not deliver the commissions because the
Congressional act that had created the new iudgships violated the iudiciary provisions oI the Constitution, and was thereIore unconstitutional and void. This case
established the Supreme Court's right to iudicial review. ChieI Justice John Marshall presided.
493. Supreme Court: Fletcher v. !eck
1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interIere with a
person`s property rights. Since the land grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even iI corruption was involved.
494. Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
1816 - This case upheld the right oI the Supreme Court to review the decisions oI state courts.
495. Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune Iorm impairment by states' legislative action. It Ireed corporations Irom the states
which created them.
496. Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Marvland
1819 - This decision upheld the power oI Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
497. Supreme Court: Cohens v. Jirginia
1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's iurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking Iederal laws.
498. Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 - This case ruled that only the Iederal government has authority over interstate commerce.
499. Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court reIused to hear a suit Iiled by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not Ioreign
nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility Ior their welIare.
500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state
oI Georgia ignored the ruling.
501. Supreme Court: River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837 - Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage oI the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested
when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a Iree bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the
Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge.
502. Supreme Court: Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the Iirst iudgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions
and that strikes Ior a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible Ior the illegal acts oI their members.
503. Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great
American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been
coined by Maior Long during his exploration oI the middle oI the Louisiana Purchase region.
504. ManiIest Destiny
Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness oI continued expansion oI the U.S. to the PaciIic.
505. Horace Greeley (1811-1873)
Founder and editor oI the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the
Iortunes by going west.
506. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858)
A zealous supporter oI western interests, he staunchly advocated government support oI Irontier exploration during his term in the Senate Irom 1820 - 1850. A senator
Irom Missouri, but he opposed slavery.
507. Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
In 1822, Austin Iounded the Iirst settlement oI Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government Ior Texan
indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander oI the settlers` army in the Texas Revolution.
508. Texas War Ior Independence
AIter a Iew skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it
aIter the massacre oI the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In respone, Texas issued a Declaration oI Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiItly put down the rebellion, but
Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his Iorces and captured him in the Battle oI San Jacinto, and Iorced him to sign a treaty
granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
509. Santa Ana
As dictator oI Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later deIeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
510. Alamo
A Spanish mission converted into a Iort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out Ior thirteen days, but in the Iinal battle, all oI the
Texans were killed by the larger Mexican Iorce.
511. San Jacinto
A surprise attack by Texas Iorces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner
and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
512. Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former Governor oI Tennessee and an adopted member oI the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas aIter being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with
the local Indians. Appointed commander oI the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President oI the
Republic oI Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas ioining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor oI Texas, but was removed
Irom the governorship in 1861 Ior reIusing to ratiIy Texas ioining the ConIederacy.
513. Republic oI Texas
Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month aIter the battle oI San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop
relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conIlicts and renewed threats Irom Mexico led Texas to ioin the U.S. in 1845.
514. Annexation oI Texas, Joint Resolution under President Tyler
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses oI Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly beIore leaving oIIice.
515. Election oI 1844: Candidates
James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party.
516. Election oI 1844: Issues
ManiIest Destiny Issues: The annexation oI Texas and the reoccupation oI Oregon. TariII reIorm.
517. Election oI 1844: Third party's impact
Third party's impact was signiIicant. James G. Birney drew enough votes away Irom Clay to give Polk New York, and thus the election.
518. Election 1844: Liberty Party
The Iirst abolitionist party - believed in ending slavery.
519. Reoccupation oI Texas and reannexation oI Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark Irom 1804 to 1806 and American Iur traders set up there, but during the War oI 1812,
the British essentially took control oI Oregon and held it iointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty oI 1846, supported by Polk.
520. 54º40' or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's
slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled Ior the 49º latitude in 1846.
521. James K. Polk
President known Ior promoting ManiIest Destiny.
522. Slidell mission to Mexico
Appointed minister to Mexico in 1845, John Slidell went to Mexico to pay Ior disputed Texas and CaliIornia land. But the Mexican government was still angry about
the annexation oI Texas and reIused to talk to him.
523. Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory
Texas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles noth oI the Rio Gannde. U.S. and Mexico
agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement.
524. General Zachary Taylor
Commander oI the Army oI Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk`s orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio
Grnade Rivers and built a Iort on the north bank oI the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the Iort, Taylor`s Iorces engaged in is a series oI
engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and deIeat oI Santa Ana made him a national hero.
525. Mexican War: causes, results
Causes: annexation oI Texas, diplomatic ineptness oI U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840's and particularly the provocation oI U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The Iirst
halI oI the war was Iought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second halI oI the war was Iought in central
Mexico aIter U.S. troops seized the port oI Veracruz, with the Army being led by WinIield Scott. Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected
president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts oI the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and CaliIornia, to the U.S.
526. Spot Resolutions
Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to Iind the exact spot where American troops were Iired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into
Mexican territory.
527. Stephen Kearny
Commander oI the Army oI the West in the Mexican War, marched all the way to CaliIornia, securing New Mexico.
528. John C. Fremont
Civil governor oI CaliIornia, led the Army exploration to help Kearny. Heard that a war with Mexico was coming, thought he could take CaliIornia by himselI beIore
the war began and become a hero. He Iailed, so he ioined Iorces with Kearny.
529. General WinIield Scott
Led the U.S. Iorces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
530. Nicholas Trist
Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.
531. Treaty oI Guadelupe Hildago provisions
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and CaliIornia, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico
$15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
532. All Mexico Movement
Benito Juarez overthrew Mexican dictator Santa Ana. Mexico began blocking American immigration (Mexico Ior Mexicans only).
533. Mexican Cession
Some oI Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. aIter the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, CaliIornia, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty oI Guadelupe Hildago)
534. Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries oI the Great Lake states.
535. Carolina and Creole AIIairs
A group oI Canadian malcontents determined to Iree Canada Irom British rule made looting Iorays into Canada Irom an island being supplied by a ship Irom Carolina.
The Canadians burned the vessel and killed an American on board. The Creole AIIair involved slaves who mutinied and killed a crewman, then sailed to the Bahamas,
where the British let them all go. The U.S. wanted the slaves back, but Britain reIused. The ship stolen by the slaves was the Creole.
536. Aroostook War
Maine lumberiacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in Irom both sides until the Webster Ashburn -
Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
537. John Jacob Astor (1763-1848)
His American Iur company (est. 1808) rapidly became the dominant Iur trading company in America. Helped Iinance the War oI 1812. First millionaire in America (in
cash, not land).
538. Oregon Fever
1842 - Many Eastern and Midwestern Iarmers and city dwellers were dissatisIied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This
Iree land was widely publicized.
539. Willamette Valley
The spot where many settlers travelling along the Oregon trailed stopped.
540. Oregon Territory
The territory comprised what arenow the states oI Oregon and Washington, and portions oI what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the
U.S. and Britain and was held iointly under the Convention oI 1818.
541. 49th Parallel
The Oregon Treaty oI 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended Irom the Rocky Mountains
to the PaciIic Ocean.
542. Election oI 1848: Cass, Taylor
Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue oI slavery and allowed his military
reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
543. Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill oI 1846 requesting Congress' approval oI the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty oI
Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery Irom the territory acquired. The South hated the
Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one oI the Iirst debates on slavery at the Iederal level, and the
principles oI the Proviso became the core oI the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
544. Gadsen Purchase
1853 - AIter the Treaty oI Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally leIt portions oI the southwestern stagecoach routes to CaliIornia as
part oI Mexico. James Gadsen, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide Ior the purchase oI the territory
through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts oI
Arizona and New Mexico.
545. Hegemony
Domination or leadership - especially the predominant inIluence oI one state over others. Northern states seemed to be dominating Southern states.
546. "Transportation Revolution"
By the 1850s railroad transportation was Iairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time.
This linked cities' economies together.
547. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the Iirst iudgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions
and that strikes Ior a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible Ior the illegal acts oI their members.
548. Boston Associates
The Boston Associates were a group oI Boston businessmen who built the Iirst power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a Iactory run by Lowell.
Their Iactory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
549. Lowell Factory
Francis Cabot Lowell established a Iactory in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the Iirst Iactory in the world to manuIacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a
building.
550. Factory girls
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house Ior the girls who worked in his Iactory. He hired girls because they could do the iob as well as men (in textiles, sometimes
better), and he didn't have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted Irom their work by
domestic duties.
551. Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaper
McCormic built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make Iarming more eIIicient. Part oI the industrial revolution, it allowed Iarmers to substantially increase the
acreage that could be worked by a single Iamily, and also made corporate Iarming possible.
552. Elias Howe (1819-1869)
Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing Iaster and more eIIicient.
553. Ten-Hour Movement
Labor unions advocated a 10-hour workday. Previously workers had worked Irom sun up to sundown.
554. Clipper ships
Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. They were developed in the second quarter oI the 1800s. These ships were unequalled in speed and
were used Ior trade, especially Ior transporting perishable products Irom distant countries like China and between the eastern and western U.S.
555. Cyrus Field (1819-1892)
An American Iinancier who backed the Iirst telegraph cable across the Atlantic. AIter Iour Iailed attempts in 1857, 1858 and 1865, a submarine cable was successIully
laid between NewIoundland and Ireland in July, 1866.
556. Robert Fulton, steamships
A Iamous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America`s Iirst steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the Iirst practical submarine.
557. Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
558. Walker TariII
1846 - Sponsored by Polk's Secretary oI Treasury, Robert J. Walker, it lowered the tariII. It introduced the warehouse system oI storing goods until duty is paid.
559. Independent Treasury System, Van Buren and Polk
Meant to keep government out oI banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government Iunds in gold and silver. Proposed aIter the
National Bank was destroyed as a method Ior maintaining government Iunds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
560. American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract oI land in Liberia and returned Iree Blacks to AIrica.
561. Abolitionism
The militant eIIort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a maior issue in the 1830s and dominated politics aIter 1840. Congress
became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery Iorces Irom the 1830's to the Civil War.
562. Sectionalism
DiIIerent parts oI the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conIlict.
563. William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
A militant abolitionist, he came editor oI the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national Iame and notoriety due to
his quotable and inIlammatory language, attacking everything Irom slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
564. The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison Irom 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to
Garrison's strong arguments.
565. American Anti-slavery Society
Formed in 1833, a maior abolitionist movement in the North.
566. Theodore Weld (1802-1895)
Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as It Is"
(1839) was the inspiration Ior Uncle Tom´s Cabin.
567. Theodore Parker (1810-1860)
A leading transcendentalist radical, he became known as "the keeper oI the public's conscience". His advocation Ior social reIorm oIten put him in physical danger,
though his causes later became popular.
568. The Grimke sisters
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reIorm causes such as prison reIorm, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
569. Eliiah Loveioy (1802-1837)
An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked Iour time and Loveioy was killed deIending it. His death was an example oI violence against abolitionists.
570. Wendell Phillips
An orator and associate oI Garrison, Phillips was an inIluential abolitionist lecturer.
571. Nat Turner's Insurrection
1831 - Slave uprising. A group oI 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to Iree his people, killed almost 60 Whites in South
Hampton, Virginia. This let to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more
united in their support oI Iugitive slave laws.
572. David Walker (1785-1830), "Walker's Appeal"
A Boston Iree black man who published papers against slavery.
573. Soiourner Truth
Name used by Isabelle BaumIree, one oI the best-known abolitionists oI her day. She was the Iirst black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
574. Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800)
A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state Ior Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night oI August 30, 1800. They had
planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were Ilooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner Iound out about it. Twenty-Iive men were hanged,
including Gabriel.
575. Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group oI slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one oI them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven Iollowers were hanged
beIore the revolt started.
576. Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
A selI-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
577. Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia
An iron mill in Richmond. It was run by skilled slave labor and was among the best iron Ioundry in the nation. It kept the ConIederacy alive until 1863 as its only
supplier oI cannons. It was also the maior munitions supplier oI the South and was directly responsible Ior the capitol oI the ConIederacy being moved to Richmond.
578. Mountain Whites in the South
Rednecks. Usually poor, aspired to be successIul enough to own slaves. Hated Blacks and rich Whites. Made up much oI the ConIederate Army, Iighting primarily Ior
sectionalism and states' rights.
579. !rigg v. !ennsvlvania
1842 - A slave had escaped Irom Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a Iederal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent Ior
kidnapping under the Iugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional Ior bounty hunters or anyone but the owner oI an escaped slave to apprehend
that slave, thus weakening the Iugitive slave laws.
580. "King Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators beIore the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance oI the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed
the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".
581. Free Soil Party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
582. John Sutter (1803-1880)
A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement oI CaliIonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern CaliIornia through a
Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching oII the CaliIornia gold rush.
583. Forty-Niners
Easterners who Ilocked to CaliIornia aIter the discovery oI gold there. They established claims all over northern CaliIornia and overwhelmed the existing government.
Arrived in 1849.
584. CaliIornia applies Ior admission as a state
CaliIornians were so eager to ioin the union that they created and ratiIied a constitution and elected a government beIore receiving approval Irom Congress. CaliIornia
was split down the middle by the Missouri Compromise line, so there was a conIlict over whether it should be slave or Iree.
585. Compromise oI 1850: provisions, impact
Called Ior the admission oI CaliIornia as a Iree state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adiustment oI the Texas/New Mexico border,
abolition oI slave trade in District oI Columbia, and tougher Iugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat oI national division.
586. Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided Ior the return oI escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enIorcing the 1793 law, with
irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
587. Anthony Burns (1834-1862)
A slave who Iled Irom Virginia to Boston in 1854. Attempts to return him led to unrest in Boston. He was successIully returned at a cost $100,000. He was bought a
Iew months later by a Boston group intent on setting him Iree.
588. Ablemann v. Booth
1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a Iederal court Ior assisting in a Iugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme
Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality oI the Fugitive
Slave Act and the supremacy oI Iederal government over state government.
589. Webster's 7th oI March Speech
Daniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke beIore Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned thatg the legacy oI the Iugitive slave
laws would be to divide the nation over the issue oI slavery.
590. Nashville Convention
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
591. Henry Clay (1777-1852)
Clay helped heal the North/South riIt by aiding passage oI the Compromise oI 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
592. John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace.
He was a spokesman Ior the South and states' rights.
593. Underground Railroad
A secret, shiIting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly aIter 1840.
594. Harriet Tubman (1821-1913)
A Iormer escaped slave, she was one oI the shrewdest conductors oI the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to Ireedom.
595. Uncle Tom´s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom´s Cabin. It helped to crystalize the riIt between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda
novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
596. Election oI 1852: end oI the Whig party
By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into oIIice by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part oI the new
Republican party.
597. Perry and Japan
Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trade between it and the U.S. In 1853, his armed squadron anchored in Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese were so
impressed that they signed the Treaty oI Kanagania in 1854, which opened Japanese ports to American trade.
598. Ostend ManiIesto
The recommendation that the U.S. oIIer Spain $20 million Ior Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North Ieared Cuba would become another slave state.
599. Kansas - Nebraska Act
1854 - This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine oI congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote oI the
people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or Iree states.
600. Birth oI the Republican Party
A coalition oI the Free Soil Party, the Know-Nothing Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to Iorm the Republican Party, a liberal, anti-slavery party. The party's
Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured one-third oI the popular vote in the 1856 election.
601. Stephen A. Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea oI popular sovereignty.
602. Popular Sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people oI a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide
whether a territory allowed slavery.
603. Thirty-six, thirty line
According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was Iorbidden in the Louisiana territory north oI the 36º30' N latitude. This was nulliIied by the Kansas-
Nebraska Act.
604. Election oI 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party
Democrat - James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican - John Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig - Millard Fillmore. First election Ior the
Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic inIluence. They answered questions Irom outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".
605. "Bleeding Kansas"
Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage oI the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery Iorces Irom Missouri, known as the Border RuIIians, crossed
the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers Irom Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious oI which
was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued Ior Iour years beIore the antislavery Iorces won. The violence it generated
helped percipitate the Civil War.
606. Lawrence, Kansas
1855 - Where the pro-slavery /anti-slavery war in Kansas began ("Bleeding Kansas or Kansas Border War).
607. "Beecher's Bibles"
During the Kansas border war, the New England Emigrant Aid Society sent riIles at the instigation oI Iervid abolitionists like the preacher Henry Beecher. These riIles
became known as "Beecher's Bibles".
608. John Brown's Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and Ireeing their slaves.
He was captured and executed.
609. Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown let a part oI six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
610. New England Emigrant Aid Company
Promoted anti-slavery migration to Kansas. The movement encouraged 2600 people to move.
611. Sumner-Brooks AIIair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate Iloor. He denounced the South Ior crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks oI South
Carolina Ior extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the Iirst Republican martyr.
612. Lecompton Constitution
The pro-slavery constitution suggested Ior Kansas' admission to the union. It was reiected.
613. Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued Ior his Ireedom, claiming that his Iour year stay in the northern portion oI the Louisiana Territory made Iree land by the Missouri Compromise
had made him a Iree man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in Iederal court because he was property, not a citizen.
614. ChieI Justice Roger B. Taney (pronounced "Tawny")
As chieI iustice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power oI states and asserting the principle oI social responsibility oI private
property. He was Southern and upheld the Iugitive slave laws.
615. Lincoln-Douglas debates oI 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaign
A series oI seven debates. The two argued the important issues oI the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas
won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
616. Freeport Doctrine
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't Iorce a territory to become a slave state against its will.
617. Panic oI 1857
Began with the Iailure oI the Ohio LiIe Insurance Company and spread to the urban east. The depression aIIected the industrial east and the wheat belt more than the
South.
618. George Fitzhugh, Sociologv for the South. or the Failure of Free Societv
The most inIluential propagandist in the decade beIore the Civil War. In his Sociologv (1854), he said that the capitalism oI the North was a Iailure. In another writing
he argued that slavery was iustiIied when compared to the cannibalistic approach oI capitalism. Tried to iustiIy slavery.
619. Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South
Hinton Helper oI North Carolina spoke Ior poor, non-slave-owing Whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written with sympathy Ior
Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belieI that the economic system oI the South was bringing ruin on the small Iarmer.
620. Lincoln's "House Divided" speech
In his acceptance speech Ior his nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased Irom the Bible: "A house divided against itselI cannot stand." He
continued, "I do not believe this government can continue halI slave and halI Iree, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to Iall - but I do
believe it will cease to be divided."
621. John Brown, Harper's Ferry Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and Ireeing their slaves.
He was captured and executed.
622. Election oI 1860: candidates, parties, issues
Republican - Abraham Lincoln. Democrat - Stephan A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge. Constitutional Union - John Bell. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln
opposed adding any new slave states).
623. Democratic Party Conventions: Baltimore, Charleston
The Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in Charleston. Douglas was the Northern
candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they disagreed on slavery).
624. John Bell
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. AIter Southern states seceded Irom the Union, he urged the middle states to ioin the North.
625. John Breckinridge (1821-1875)
Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded Irom the Democratic convention, he was strongly Ior slavery and states' rights.
626. Republican Party: 1860 platIorm, supporter, leaders
1860 platIorm: Iree soil principles, a protective tariII. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Shulz.
627. Buchanan and the Secession Crisis
AIter Lincoln was elected, but beIore he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem Ior Lincoln
to take care oI.
628. Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator Irom Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill oIIered a Constitutional amendment
recognizing slavery in the territories south oI the 36º30' line, noninterIerence by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners oI Iugitive slaves.
Republicans, on the advice oI Lincoln, deIeated it.
629. Border states
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
630. South's advantages in the Civil War
Large land areas with long coasts, could aIIord to lose battles, and could export cotton Ior money. They were Iighting a deIensive war and only needed to keep the
North out oI their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most oI the existing military equipment and supplies.
631. North's advantages in the Civil War
Larger numbers oI troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming Iinancial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually
outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
632. Fort Sumter
Site oI the opening engagement oI the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded Irom the Union, and had demanded that all Iederal property in the
state be surrendered to state authorities. Maior Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took oIIice on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one
oI only two Iorts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinIorce the Iort, on April 11, 1861, ConIederate General
Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was reIused. On April 12, 1861, the ConIederate Army began bombarding the Iort, which surrendered on April 14,
1861. Congress declared war on the ConIederacy the next day.
633. Bull Run
At Bull Run, a creek, ConIederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops Iled back to Washington. ConIederates didn't
realize their victory in time to Iollow up on it. First maior battle oI the Civil War - both sides were ill-prepared.
634. Monitor and the Merrimac
First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion oI the Cheasepeake Bay known as Hampton Roads Ior Iive hours on
March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor - Union. Merrimac - ConIederacy. Historians use the name oI the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad
was constructed, even though the oIIicial ConIederate name Ior their ship was the CSS Jirginia.
635. Lee, Jackson
General Robert E. Lee and General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were maior leaders and generals Ior the ConIederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.
636. Grant, McClellan, Sherman and Meade
Union generals in the Civil War.
637. Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox
Battle sites oI the Civil War. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Vicksburg - besieged by Grant and
surrendered aIter six months. Antietam - turning point oI the war and a much-needed victory Ior Lincoln. Appomattox - Lee surrendered to Grant.
638. JeIIerson Davis, Alexander Stephens
Davis was chosen as president oI the ConIederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.
639. Northern blockade
Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to Iorce the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be
completely blockaded.
640. Cotton versus Wheat
Cotton was a cash crop and could be sold Ior large amounts oI money. Wheat was mainly raised to Ieed Iarmers and their animals. The North had to choose which to
grow.
641.Copperheads
Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get him.
642. Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham
An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South.
643. Suspension oI habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be inIormed oI the charges against him and be given an
opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested Ior disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to
be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
644. Republican legislation passed in Congress aIter Southerners leIt: banking, tariII, homestead, transcontinental railroad
With no Southerners to vote them down, the Northern Congressman passed all the bills they wanted to. Led to the industrial revolution in America.
645. Conscription draIt riots
The poor were draIted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.
646. Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 - Lincoln Ireed all slaves in the states that had seceded, aIter the Northern victory at the Battle oI Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enIorce the
law.
647. Charles Francis Adams
Minister to Great Britain during the Civil War, he wanted to keep Britain Irom entering the war on the side oI the South.
648. Great Britain: Trent, Alabama, Laird rams, "Continuous Voyage"
A Union Irigate stopped the Trent, a British steamer and abducted two ConIederate ambassadors aboard it. The Alabama was a British-made vessel and Iought Ior the
ConIederacy, destroying over 60 Northern ships in 22 months. The Laird rams were ships speciIically designed to break blockades; the English prevented them Irom
being sold to the South.
649. Election oI 1864: candidates, parties
Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had Iired McClellan Irom his
position in the war.)
650. Financing oI the war eIIort by North and South
The North was much richer than the South, and Iinanced the war through loans, treasury notes, taxes and duties on imported goods. The South had Iinancial problems
because they printed their ConIederate notes without backing them with gold or silver.
651. Clara Barton
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the Iield.
652. Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former ConIederate states would be readmitted to the Union iI 10° oI their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratiIy the 13th Amendment which
outlawed slavery. Not put into eIIect because Lincoln was assassinated.
653. Assassination oI April 14, 1865
While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth.
654. John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others Ior six months to abduct Lincoln at the start oI the war, but they were Ioiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14,
1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he iumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the
American Ilag draped over the balcony and he Iell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and Iled town. He was Iound several days later in a barn. He
reIused to come out; the barn was set on Iire. Booth was shot, either by himselI or a soldier.
655. Ex !arte Milligan
1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials oI civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshall law.
656. Radical Republicans
AIter the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
657. Wade-Davis Bill, veto, Wade-Davis ManiIesto
1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction oI the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power oI the president. Lincoln vetoed
it. Wade-Davis ManiIesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
658. Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee oI FiIteen)
Six senators and nine representatives draIted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose oI the committee was to set the pace oI Reconstruction. Most
were radical Republicans.
659. Reconstruction Acts
1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into Iive military
zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
660. State suicide theory
The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in eIIect, was suicide. This theory was used to iustiIy the North taking military control oI the
South.
661. Conquered territory theory
Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part oI the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however they like.
662. The unreconstructed South
The South's inIrastructure had been destroyed - manuIacturing had almost ceased. Few banks were solvent and in some areas starvation was imminent. General
Sherman had virtually destroyed large areas on his "march to the sea".
663. Black codes
Restrictions on the Ireedom oI Iormer slaves, passed by Southern governments.
664. Texas v. White
1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution Ior a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to
undergo reconstruction.
665. Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments Ior the South. Leader oI the radical Republicans in Congress.
666. Charles Sumner
The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate aIter the outbreak oI the Civil War. He was the Iormulator oI the state suicide
theory, and supporter oI emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment oI Andrew Johnson.
667. Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)
A Southerner Iorm Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto.
The Iirst U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
668. Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid Iormer slaves in adiusting themselves to Ireedom. It Iurnished Iood and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get iobs.
669. General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director oI the Freedmen's Bureau.
670. Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group Iormed by six Iormer ConIeredate oIIicers aIter the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek Ior "Circle oI Friends". Group eventually turned to
terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
671. Civil Rights Act
1866 - Prohibited abridgement oI rights oI blacks or any other citizens.
672. Thirteenth Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
673. Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
1866, ratiIied 1868. It Iixed provision oI the Civil Rights Bill: Iull citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including Iormer slaves and immigrants.
674. FiIteenth Amendment
RatiIied 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account oI race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states Irom amending their constitutions to
deny black suIIrage.
675. Tenure oI OIIice Act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it Iorbade the president Irom removing civil oIIicers without consent oI the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson Irom removing
radicals Irom oIIice. Johnson broke this law when he Iired a radical Republican Irom his cabinet, and he was impeached Ior this "crime".
676. Impeachment
To bring charges against a public oIIicial. Johnson was impeached, but was saved Irom being taken out oI oIIice by one vote.
677. ChieI Justice Chase
ChieI Justice in 1868, he upheld Republican Reconstruction laws and ruled that paper money was not a legal substitute Ior specie.
678. Secretary oI War Stanton
As Secretary oI War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy Ior the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal oI Stanton let
to the impeachment oI Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure oI OIIice Law.
679. Scalawags
A derogatory term Ior Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land Irom desperate Southerners.
680. Carpetbaggers
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage oI opportunities to advance their own Iortunes by buying up
land Irom desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
681. Purchase oI Alaska
In December, 1866, the U.S. oIIered to take Alaska Irom Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the Iur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting Iriction with
Great Britain, they preIerred to see deIenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 Ior $7,200,000
and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources oI Iish, timber, oil and gold.
682. Secretary oI State William Seward
1867 - An eager expansionist, he was the energetic supporter oI the Alaskan purchase and negotiator oI the deal oIten called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not
Iit Ior settlement or Iarming.
683. Napoleon III
Nephew oI Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor oI France Irom 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans Irom French
bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He reIused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. AIter the Civil War, the U.S. sent an
army to enIorce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
684. Maximillian in Mexico
European prince appointed by Napoleon III oI France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. AIter the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a
demonstration oI the enIorcement oI the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.
685. Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interIere in the aIIairs oI the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interIerence by a European power would be seen as a
threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many
South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly iust a show oI nationalism,
the doctrine had no maior impact until later in the 1800s.
686. Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero oI the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting oI Iriends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very
honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
687. Treaty oI Washington
1871 - Settled the Northern claims between the U.S. and Great Britain. Canada gave the U.S. permanent Iishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.
688. Secretary oI State Hamilton Fish
A member oI the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peaceIully settled conIlicts with Great Britain through the Treaty oI Washington.
689. Election oI 1872: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley
Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular Republicans
renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory Ior Grant.
690. Election oI 1876: Hayes and Tilden
RutherIord B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes
that Hayes, and 184 oI the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - Iraud
was suspected.
691. Compromise oI 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern Ior Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange Ior the Democrats accepting the Iraudulent election results. He took Union
troops out oI the South.
692. Solid South
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system oI the South Iollowing the Civil War. For 100 years aIter the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every
presidential election.
693. Sharecropping, Crop Lien System
Sharecropping provided the necessities Ior Black Iarmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the Iarm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a
mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share oI the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage oI. The results, Ior Blacks, was not unlike
slavery.
694. Segregation
The separation oI blacks and whites, mostly in the South, in public Iacilities, transportation, schools, etc.
695. Hiram R. Revels
North Carolina Iree black, he became a senator in 1870.
696. Blanche K. Bruce
Became a senator in 1874 -- the only black to be elected to a Iull term until Edward Brooke in 1966.
697. !rigg v. !ennsvlvania
1842 - A slave had escaped Irom Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a Iederal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent Ior
kidnapping under the Iugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional Ior bounty hunters or anyone but the owner oI an escaped slave to apprehend
that slave, thus weakening the Iugitive slave laws.
698. Dred Scott v. Sandford
A Missouri slave sued Ior his Ireedom, claiming that his Iour year stay in the northern portion oI the Louisiana Territory made Iree land by the Missouri Compromise
had made him a Iree man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in Iederal court because he was property, not a citizen.
699. Ablemann v. Booth·br~ 1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a Iederal court Ior assisting in a Iugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released
by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the
constitutionality oI the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy oI Iederal government over state government.
700. Mississippi v. Johnson
Mississippi wanted the president to stop enIorcing the Reconstruction Acts because they were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court decided that the Acts were
constitutional and the states must obey them.
701. Texas v. White
1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution Ior a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to
undergo reconstruction.
702. Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero oI the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting oI Iriends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very
honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
703. Whiskey Ring
During the Grant administration, a group oI oIIicials were importing whiskey and using their oIIices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out oI millions
oI dollars.
704. "Waving the bloody shirt"
The practice oI reviving unpleasant memories Irom the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved beIore the House a bloodstained nightshirt oI a carpetbagger Ilogged
by Klan members.
705. Liberal Republicans: Carl Schurz, Horace Greeley
Schurz and Greeley were liberal republicans - they believed in civil service reIorm, opposed corruption, wanted lower tariIIs, and were lenient toward the South.
706. Panic oI 1873, depression
Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inIlation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses Iailed and 3 million people were out oI work.
Federal troops were called in to end the strike.
707. Election oI 1876: candidates, electoral commission
RutherIord B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes
that Hayes, and 184 oI the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - Iraud
was suspected.
708. Compromise oI 1877
Hayes promised to show concern Ior Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange Ior the Democrats accepting the Iraudulent election results. He took Union
troops out oI the South.
709. Greenbacks
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable Ior
gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inIlate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inIlation bill and greenbacks
were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the Iederal government Iinally made greenbacks redeemable Ior gold.
710. Ohio Idea
1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.
711. Legal Tender cases
The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional Ior the Iederal government to print paper money (greenbacks).
712. Species Resumption Act
1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable Ior gold, but no one wanted to redeem them Ior Iace gold value. Because paper money was much more
convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.
713. Greenbacks - Labor Party
Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed oI prairie Iarmers who went into debt during the Panic oI 1873. The Party Iought Ior increased monetary circulation
through issuance oI paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inIlationary programs in the belieI that they would beneIit
debtors, and sought beneIits Ior labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support oI several labor groups and they wanted the
government to print more greenbacks.
714. Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 - The Iirst Iederal regulatory commission. OIIice holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were Iit Ior duty. Brought about by the assassination
oI GarIield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government iob. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen Ior civil
service iobs.
715. Chester A. Arthur
Appointed customs collector Ior the port oI New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as GarIield's running mate. GarIield won but
was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
716. Election oI 1884: James G. Blaine, Grover Cleveland
Democrat - Cleveland - 219 electoral, 4,911,017 popular. Republican - Blaine - 182 electoral, 4,848,334 popular. Butler - 175,370 popular. St. John - 150,369 popular.
Cleveland was the Iirst Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He beneIitted Irom the split in the Republican Party.
717. Stalwarts
Republicans Iighting Ior civil service reIorm during GarIield's term; they supported Cleveland.
718. Roscoe Conkling (1829-1888)
A Stalwart leader and part oI the political machine.
719. HalI-breeds
Favored tariII reIorm and social reIorm, maior issues Irom the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members oI either party.
720. Mugwumps
Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election Irom Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word Ior "chieI" and was used in a N.Y.
Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance oI the renegade Republicans.
721. "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
James Gillespie Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people oI "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It oIIended many people and cost Blaine the election.
722. High tariIIs
Levied against imported and manuIactured goods, once again hurting the South and the economy to raise money Ior the Iederal government and help Northern
industries.
723. Treasury surplus
During the Reconstruction, the treasury was in deIicit, so it cut back spending to build up the treasury and ended with a surplus.
724. Pensions, GarIield
Congress granted pensions to all veterans with any disability Ior any reason. Cleveland vetoed it, which contributed to his not being reelected. He didn't think
ConIederate veterans should receive pensions.
725. Secret ballot / Australian ballot
First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates names were to be printed on the same white piece oI paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in
private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting Ior their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.
726. Cleveland's 1887 Annual Address
Emphasized civil service reIorm, and Iought high tariIIs.
727. Election oI 1888: candidates, issues
Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would
protect American industry with a high tariII. Issues were civil service reIorm and tariIIs.
728. Beniamin Harrison (1833-1901), Billion Dollar Congress, Czar Reed
Harrison: Republican, ran against Cleveland, became the 23rd president. Billion Dollar Congress: The Iirst session where Congress spent over $1 billion. Czar Reed:
The nickname oI Thomas Braket, Speaker oI the House 1889-1891. He tried to increase the power oI the Speaker.
729. McKinley TariII
A highly protective tariII passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
730. Election oI 1892: candidates, issues
Democrat - Grover Cleveland and V.P. Adlai E. Stevenson - 5,554,414 popular; 227 electoral votes. Republican - Beniamin Harrison and V.P. Whitecar Reed - 145
electoral votes. National Prohibition Convention - John Brownwell and V.P. James B. CranIil. Socialist Labor Convention - Simon Wing and V.P. Charles H. Machett.
Republicans wanted a high protective tariII, but Democrats opposed it. Democrats secured a maiority in both houses.
731. Morgan bond transaction
John Pierpont Morgan took over the Susquehanna and Albany railroads. He won the conIidence oI European investors and used them Ior investment capital. He then
took over steel companies and bought Carnegie's interests in steel. This was the largest personal Iinancial transaction in U.S. history. Morgan combined the companies
to Iorm the U.S. Steel Company, the world's Iirst billion dollar corporation. Eased the Panic oI 1873.
732. Wilson - Gorman TariII
Meant to be a reduction oI the McKinley TariII, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.
733. Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company, 1895
The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which speciIically allows taxation oI income (ratiIied 1913).
734. Dingley TariII
Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariII in U.S. history with an average duty oI 57°. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman TariII, and was replaced by the Payne -
Aldrich TariII in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.
735. Laissez-Iaire
A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
736. Adam Smith, The Wealth oI Nations
Promoted laissez-Iaire, Iree-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.
737. Union PaciIic Railroad, Central PaciIic Railroad
Union PaciIic: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central PaciIic: Went east Irom Sacramento and met the Union PaciIic Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on
May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the Iederal government and used substandard materials.
738. "Credit Mobilier"
A construction company owned by the larger stockholders oI the Union PaciIic Railroad. AIter Union PaciIic received the government contract to build the
transcontinental railraod, it "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging the Iederal government nearly twice the actual cost oI the proiect. When the
scheme was discovered, the company tried to bribe Congress with giIts oI stock to stop the investigation. This percipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history,
and led to greater public awareness oI government corruption.
739. "Robber Barons"
The owners oI big businesses who made large amounts oI money by cheating the Iederal government.
740. John D. RockeIeller
Joined his brother William in the Iormation oI the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
741. Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. RockeIeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court oI Ohio in 1899.
Replaced by the Standard Oil Company oI New Jersey.
742. Horizontal consolidation
A Iorm oI monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control oI one aspect oI an entire industry or manuIacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto
assembly lines or on coal mining, Ior example.
743. Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick
Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.
744. Vertical consolidation
A Iorm oI monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control oI every step oI the manuIacturing process Ior a single product, such as an auto maker that
also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs oI production and drive its
competition out oI business.
745. Charles Schwab (1862-1939)
Founder and president oI the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president oI the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
746. Thomas A. Edison
One oI the most proliIic inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
747. Alexander Graham Bell
1876 - Invented the telephone.
748. Leland StanIord (1824-1893)
Multimillionaire railroad builder, he Iounded StanIord University in memory oI his only son, who died young. He Iounded the Central PaciIic Railroad.
749. James J. Hill, Great Northern Railroad
Empire builder, he tried to monopolize the northern railroads.
750. Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York Central Railroad
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.
751. Bessemer process
Bessemer invented a process Ior removing air pockets Irom iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding,
construction, etc.
752. U.S. Steel Corporation, Elbert H. Gary
Gary was corporate lawyer who became the U.S. Steel Corporation president in 1898. U.S. Steel was the leading steel producer at the time.
753. Mesabi Range
A section oI low hills in Minnesota owned by RockeIeller in 1887, it was a source oI iron ore Ior steel production.
754. Pierpont Morgan
Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's Iirst billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich.
(Vertical consolidation).
755. Gustavus SwiIt
In the 1800s he enlarged Iresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and reIrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
756. Phillip Armour (1832-1901)
Pioneered the shipping oI hogs to Chicago Ior slaughter, canning, and exporting oI meat.
757. James B. Duke
Made tobacco a proIitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.
758. Andrew Mellon (1855-1937)
One oI the wealthiest bankers oI his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
759. "Stock watering"
Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers oI the late 1800s. The term Ior selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.
760. Jay Cooke Company
The Panic oI 1873 was caused by the Iailure oI this company, which had invested too heavily in railroads and lost money when the railroads cheated the Iederal
government.
761. Jay Gould and Jim Fiske
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law oI President Grant, they made money selling gold.
762. Pools
Agreement between railroads to divide competition. Equalization was achieved by dividing traIIic.
763. Rebates
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its Iavored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear
to be charging a Ilat rate Ior everyone.
764. Trusts
Firms or corporations that combine Ior the purpose oI reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these
monopolies.
765. Holding companies
Companies that hold a maiority oI another company's stock in order to control the management oI that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
766. Fourteenth Amendment's "Due Process Clause"
No state shall deny a person liIe, liberty, or property without due process oI law. (The accused must have a trial.)
767. Munn v. Illinois
1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates Ior grain was a constitutional exercise oI the state's power to regulate
business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.
768. Wabash. St. Louis and !acific Railroad Companv v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive iurisdiction over
interstate commerce.
769. Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission
A Iive member board that monitors the business operation oI carriers transporting goods and people between states.
770. Long haul, short haul
DiIIerent railroad companies charged separate rates Ior hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile Ior
a short haul than a long one.
771. Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 - A Iederal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint oI trade.
772. E.C. Knight Companv case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production oI sugar had no direct eIIect on commerce, the company couldn't be
controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manuIacturing weren't aIIected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power oI
Congress.
773. National Labor Union
Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.
774. William Sylvis
Leader oI the National Labor Union.
775. Knights oI Labor: Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret Iraternal order and noted as the Iirst union oI all workers. It was Iounded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah
Stephens and a number oI Iellow workers. Powderly was elected head oI the Knights oI Labor in 1883.
776. American Federation oI Labor (AFL)
Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a Iederation oI diIIerent unions.
777. Samuel Gompers
President oI the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
778. Collective bargaining
Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.
779. Iniunction
A iudicial order Iorcing a person or group to reIrain Irom doing something.
780. Strikes
The unions' method Ior having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very eIIective Iorm oI attack.
781. Boycotts
People reIuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.
782. Closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers Irom cheap labor.
783. Black list
A list oI people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were reIused iobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
784. Yellow Dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not ioin a union while working Ior the company.
785. Company unions
People working Ior a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours.
786. Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number oI railroad workers went on strike because oI wage cuts. AIter a month oI strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst
railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
787. Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. AIter the police Iired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded,
killing or iniuring many oI the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant Ieelings.
788. John Peter Altgeld
Governor oI Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims oI the "malicious Ierocity" oI the courts.
789. Homestead Strike
The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, Iorcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked Ior
Iive months, then gave in to peace demands.
790. Pinkertons
Members oI the Chicago police Iorce headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were oIten used as strike breakers.
791. American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly oI railroad workers.
792. Pullman Strike, 1894
Started by enraged workers who were part oI George Pullman's "model town", it began when Pullman Iired three workers on a committee. Pullman reIused to negotiate
and troops were brought in to ensure that trains would continue to run. When orders Ior Pullman cars slacked oII, Pullman cut wages, but did not cut rents or store
prices.
793. Eugene V. Debs
Leader oI the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was iailed Ior six months Ior disobeying a court order aIter the strike was
over.
794. Richard Olney
Attorney General oI the U.S., he obtained an active iniunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement oI trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman
strike.
795. Danbury Hatters Strike
Workers in a hat-making Iactory went on strike.
796. George Washington Plunkitt
He was head oI Tammany Hall and believed in "Honest GraIt".
797. "Honest GraIt"
JustiIied bribery or cheating.
798. Boss Tweed
Large political boss and head oI Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest GraIt".
799. Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
800. Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey Ior the political parties. He nearly
brought down Boss Tweed.
801. "New Imigration"
The second maior wave oI immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily Irom
Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly Irom Southern and Eastern Europe, Ileeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural
diIIerences produced mistrust by Americans.
802. Dillingham Commission Report
1911 - Congressional commission set up to investigate demands Ior immigration restriction. It's report was a list oI complains against the "new immigrants."
803. Streetcar suburbs
The appearance oI the streetcar made living within the heart oI the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges oI the cities and commuting to work by
streetcar. Led to growth oI suburbs.
804. Tenements
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing Ior poor Iactory workers. OIten poorly constructed and overcrowded.
805. Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reIormer who worked to improve the lives oI the working class. In 1889 she Iounded Hull House in Chicago, the Iirst private social welIare agency in the U.S., to
assist the poor, combat iuvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
806. Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Fransicso and Iought Ior workers rights. He led strikes in protest oI the growing number oI imported Chineseworkers who worked
Ior less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
807. Chinese Exclusion Law 1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and Iorbid Iurther immigration oI Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried
about losing their iobs to Chinese immagrants who would work Ior less pay.
808. American Protective Association
A Nativist group oI the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
809. Literacy tests
Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant
to discourage immigration.
810. James Bryce, The American Commonwealth
Opposed the Nativist sentiment and promoted the "melting pot" idea oI American culture.
811. John A. Roebling (1806-1869), Brooklyn Bridge
Roebling pioneered the development oI suspension bridges and designed the Brooklyn Bridge, but died beIore its construction was completed.
812. Louis Sullivan (1856-1914)
Known as the Iather oI the skyscraper because he designed the Iirst steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor oI Frank Lloyd Wright.
813. Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than Iollowing classical
designs.
814. Ashcan School
Also known as The Eight, a group oI American Naturalist painters Iormed in 1907, most oI whom had Iormerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying
scenes Irom everyday liIe in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the Iirst art show in the U.S.
815. Armory Show
1913 - The Iirst art show in the U.S., organized by the Ashcan School. Was most Americans Iirst exposure to European Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, and
caused a modernist revolution in American art.
816. Anthony Comstock (1844-1915)
Social reIormer who worked against obscenity.
817. Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
Presented the theory oI evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species.
Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue oI creation.
818. Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory oI natural selection and "survival oI the Iittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as Iit to survive. Used as an
argument against social reIorms to help the poor.
819. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums oI money Ior public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to
give something back to society.
820. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
British, developed a system oI philosophy based on the theory oI evolution, believed in the primacy oI personal Ireedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a
system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientiIically.
821. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
Economist and sociologist.
822. Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1889)
Minister who worked against slavery in Kansas Border War, promoted civil service reIorm.
823. Rev. Russel Conwell, "Acres oI Diamonds"
Baptist preacher whose Iamous speech said that hard work and thriIt would lead to success.
824. Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899)
Evangelist who preached the social gospel.
825. Rev. Josiah Strong
Enivisioned a "Iinal competition oI races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
826. Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dvnamic Sociologv.
827. Social gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means oI salvation.
828. Salvation Army, YMCA
Provided Iood, housing, and supplies Ior the poor and unemployed.
829. Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
830. Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who Iollowed the social gospel and supported social reIorm. A proliIic writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a
national leader oI the Social gospel movement.
831. Rerum Novarum
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
832. Charles Sheldon, In His Steps !roofed Through Here
A very popular collection oI sermons which encouraged young people to emulate Christ.
833. Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910)
Founded the Church oI Christian Scientists and set Iorth the basic doctrine oI Christian Science.
834. Chautauqua Movement
One oI the Iirst adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program Ior Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and
adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
835. Johns Hopkins University
A private university which emphasized pure research. It's entrance requirements were unusually strict -- applicants needed to have already earned a college degree
elsewhere in order to enroll.
836. Charles W. Elliot, Harvard University
He was the president oI Harvard University, and started the policy oI oIIering elective classes in addition to the required classes.
837. Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)
America's greatest theoretical scientist, he studied thermodynamics and physical chemistry.
838. Morril Act
1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used Ior building colleges.
839. Land grant colleges: A&M, A&T, A&I
These were colleges built on the land designated by the Morril Act oI 1862.
840. Hatch Act
1887 - Provided Ior agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve Iarming techniques.
841. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards. 2000-1887
1888 - Utopian novel which predicted the U.S. woudl become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means oI production and would
unite all people under moral laws.
842. Henry George, !rogress and !overtv
Said that poverty was the inevitable side-eIIect oI progress.
843. The single tax
A Ilat tax proposed by Henry George. (A Ilat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless oI whether they are rich or poor.)
844. "Gilded Age"
A name Ior the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious liIestyles it allowed
the very rich. The great industrial success oI the U.S. and the Iabulous liIestyles oI the wealthy hid the many social problems oI the time, including a high poverty rate,
a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
845. Nouveau riche
French Ior "new rich." ReIered to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich Iamily. The nouveau riche made up
much oI the American upper classoI the late 1800s.
846. William James
Developed the philosophy oI pragmatism. One oI the Iounders oI modern psychology, and the Iirst to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.
847. Pragmatism
A philosophy which Iocuses only on the outcomes and eIIects oI processes and situations.
848. Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902), editor oI The Nation
Political writer who Iounded The Nation magazine, which called Ior reIorm.
849. William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
Editor oI the Atlantic Monthlv, and a champion oI the realist movement in Iiction writing.
850. Henry James (1843-1916)
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme oI the conIlict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption,
with an emphasis on the psychological motivations oI the characters. Famous Ior his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn oI the Screw."
851. Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Writer who introduced grim realism to the American novel. His maior work, The Red Badge of Courage is a psychological study oI a Civil War soldier. Crane had
never been near a war when he wrote it, but later he was a reporter in the Spanish-American War.
852. Hamlin Garland
His best-known work is Middle Board, an autobiographical story oI the Irustrations oI liIe. One oI the Iirst authors to write accurately and sympathetically about Native
Americans.
853. Bret Harte
Wrote humorous short stories about the American West, popularized the use oI regional dialects as a literary device.
854. Mark Twain
Master oI satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberrv
Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog oI Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
856. James McNeill Whistler
(1834-1903) A member oI the realist movement, although his works were oIten moody and eccentric. Best known Ior his Arrangement in Black and Grev. No.1, also
known asWhistler´s Mother.
857. Winslow Homer
A Realist painter known Ior his seascapes oI New England.
858. Joseph Pullitzer
A muckraker who designed the modern newspaper Iormat (Iactual articles in one section, editorial and opinion articles in another section).
859. William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible Ior igniting the Spanish-American War.
860. Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader oI the women's suIIrage (right to vote) movement, co-Iounded the National Women's SuIIrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in
1869.
861. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suIIragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the Iirst convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration
oI Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote Ior women. Co-Iounded the National Women's SuIIrage Association with
Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
862. Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suIIragette who was president oI the National Women's SuIIrage Association, and Iounder oI the International Woman SuIIrage Alliance. Instrumental
in obtaining passage oI the 19th Amendment in 1920.
863. Alice Paul
A suIIragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
864. Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
A group oI women who advocated total abstinence Irom alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
865. Francis Willard
Dean oI Women at Northwestern University and the president oI the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
866. Carry A. Nation (1846-1901)
A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known Ior attacking saloons herselI with a hatchet.
867. Clara Barton
Superintendant oI Nurses Ior the Union Army during the Civil War, Iounded the American Red Cross is 1881. See card # 651 Ior more inIormation.
868. Mississippi Plan
1890 - In order to vote in Mississippi, citizens had to display the receipt which proved they had paid the poll tax and pass a literacy test by reading and interpreting a
selection Irom the Constitution. Prevented blacks, who were generally poor and uneducated, Irom voting.
869. Bourbons / Redeemers
A religious movement in the South.
870. "New South," Henry Grady (1850-1889)
1886 - His speech said that the South wanted to grow, embrace industry, and eliminate racism and ConIederate separatist Ieelings. Was an attempt to get Northern
businessmen to invest in the South.
871. Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908)
Wrote the "Uncle Remis" stories, which promoted black stereotypes and used them Ior humor.
872. Slaughterhouse cases
A series oI post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the Iirst iudicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these
amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights oI Ireed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights oI other citizens against deprivations oI
due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
873. Civil Rights Act oI 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
874. Civil Rights cases
1883 - These state supreme court cases ruled that Constitutional amendments against discrimination applied only to the Iederal and state governments, not to individuals
or private institutions. Thus the government could not order segregation, but restaurants, hotels, and railroads could. Gave legal sanction to Jim Crow laws.
875. Lynching
The practice oI an angry mob hanging a percieved criminal without regard to due process. In the South, blacks who did not behave as the inIeriors to whites might be
lynched by white mobs.
876. Booker T. Washington (1857-1915), Tuskegee Institute
(1856-1915) An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he
Iounded the Iirst Iormal school Ior blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
877. "The Atlanta Compromise"
Booker T. Washington's speech encouraged blacks to seek a vocational education in order to rise above their second-class status in society.
878. George Washington Carver (1860-1943)
A black chemist and director oI agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented many new uses Ior peanuts. He believed that education was the key to
improving the social status oI blacks.
879. W. E. B. DuBois (1868-1963)
A black orator and eassayist. Helped Iound the National Association Ior the Advancement oI Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's
theories, and took a militant position on race relations.
880. "Talented Tenth"
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent oI the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks.
881. !lessv v. Ferguson, "Separate but equal"
1886 - Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to reIuse to ride in the train car reserved Ior blacks. The NAACP hoped to Iorce a court decision
on segregation. However, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated Iacilities Ior whites and blacks were legal as long as the
Iacilities were oI equal quality.
882. Jim Crow laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks Irom voting and those which created segregated Iacilities.
883. DisenIranchisement, Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenIranchisement"), were
legal.
884. GrandIather clause
Said that a citizen could vote only iI his grandIather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandIathers oI black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote.
Another method Ior disenIranchising blacks.
885. Niagra Movement
A group oI black and white reIormers, including W. E. B. DuBois. They organized the NAACP in 1909.
886. SpringIield, Illinois riot
1908 - A riot broke out between blacks and whites over racial equality.
887. National Association Ior the Advancement oI Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 by a group oI black and white intellectuals.
888. "The Crisis" The NAACP's pamphlet, which borrowed the name Irom Thomas Paine's speech about the American Revolution.
889. Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great
American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been
coined by Maior Long during his exploration oI the middle portion oI the Louisiana Purchase region.
890. Homestead Act
1862 - Provided Iree land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
891. Oliver H. Kelley
Worked in the Department oI Agriculture and lead the Granger Movement.
892. Granger Movement
1867 - Nation Grange oI the Patrons oI Husbandry. A group oI agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power oI Iarmers. They
opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relieI Ior debtors. Although technically not a political party, local granges led to the creation oI a
number oI political parties, which eventually ioined with the growing labor movement to Iorm the Progressive Party.
893. Barbed wire, Joseph Glidden
He marketed the Iirst barbed wire, solving the problem oI how to Ience cattle in the vast open spaces oI the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the
American West.
894. Indian Appropriations Act
1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
895. Plains Indians
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians Irom early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed riIles and horses.
896. Chivington Massacre
November 28, 1861 - Colonel Chivington and his troops killed 450 Indians in a Iriendly Cheyenne village in Colorado.
897. Battle oI the Little Big Horn
1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition oI Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
898. ChieI Joseph
Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men
killed in the Iighting.
899. Battle oI Wounded Knee
1890 - The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
900. Helen Hunt Jackson, A Centurv of Dishonor
A muckracker whose book exposed the uniust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
901. Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to Iorestall growing Indian proverty, it resulted in many
Indians losing their lands to speculators.
902. Frederick Jackson Turner, Frontier Thesis
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The Irontier provided a place Ior homeless and
solved social problems.
903. SaIety Valve Thesis
Proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner to explain America's unique non-European culture, held that people who couldn't succeed in eastern society could move west Ior
cheap land and a new start.
904. Comstock Lode
Rich deposits oI silver Iound in Nevada in 1859.
905. "Crime oI 1873"
ReIerred to the coinage law oI 1873 which eliminated silver money Irom circulation. Name given by people who opposed paper money.
906. Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage oI a limited number oI silver dollars and "silver certiIicate" paper money. First oI several government subsidies to silver producers in
depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth oI silver. Created a partial dual coinage system reIerred to as "limping bimetallism."
Repealed in 1900.
907. Serman Silver Purchase Act
1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts oI silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inIlated prices. The introduction oI large quantities oI overvalued
silver into the ecomony lead to a run on the Ierderal gold reserves, leading to the Panic oI 1893. Repealed in 1893.
908. Bimetalism
Use oI two metals, gold and silver, Ior currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment oI
the Gold Standard Act.
909. "Coin" Harvey
Proposed a plan Ior bimettalism with a standard oI 16 to 1, with gold worth 16 times as much as silver.
910. Free Silver
Movement Ior using silver in all aspects oI currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.
911. Depression oI 1893
ProIits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss oI business conIidence. 20° oI the workIorce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
912. Coxey's army
1893 - Group oI unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched Irom Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight oI workers and to ask Ior government
relieI. Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.
913. Repeal oI Serman's Silver Purchase Act
1893 - Act repealed by President Cleveland to protect gold reserves.
914. Farmer's Alliance
Movement which Iocused on cooperation between Iarmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successIul.
915. Ocala Demands
1890 - The leaders oI what would later become the Populist Party held a national convention in Ocala, Florida and adopted a platIorm advocating reIorms to help
Iarmers.
916. Populist Party platIorm, Omaha platIorm
OIIically named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was Iounded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wrote a platIorm Ior the 1892 election
(running Ior president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called Ior Iree coinage oI silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election
oI senators; regulation oI railroads; and other government reIorms to help Iarmers. The part was split between South and West.
917. Tom Watson
A leader oI the Populist Party in the South.
918. James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate Ior president in the election oI 1892; received only 8.2° oI the vote. He was Irom the West.
919. "PitchIork" Ben Tillman
A senator Irom South Carolina, he compared Cleveland's betrayal oI the Democratic party to Judas' betrayal oI Jesus.
920. Mary Ellen Lease
A speaker Ior the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One oI the Iounders oI the Populist Party.
921. "Sockless" Jerry Simpson
A rural reIormer who ran against Mary Lease in the Populist Part election in Kansas.
922. Ignatius Donnely
A leader oI the Populist Party in Minnesota.
923. Williams Jenning Bryan
Three-time candidate Ior president Ior the Democratic Party, nominated because oI support Irom the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist
in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson's Secretary oI State (1913-1915).
924. "Cross oI Gold" Speech
Given by Bryan on June 18, 1896. He said people must not be "cruciIied on a cross oI gold", reIerring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a
strict gold standard.
925. Election oI 1896: candidates and issues
William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariIIs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, Iarmers and low tariIIs. The main issues were the coinage
oI silver and protective tariIIs.
926. Marcus Hanna
Leader oI the Republican Party who Iought to get William McKinley the Republican nomination Ior president.
927. Gold Standard Act
1900 - This was signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case
people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver CertiIicates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to
circulate.
928. Supreme Court cases
Legal Tender cases, Minor vs. Happensett. Wabash. St. Louis & !acific Railroad Companv v. Illinois, E. C. Knight Companv case, !ollock v. Farmer´s Loan & Trust
Companv, and In Re Debs.
929. Supreme Court: Legal Tender cases
1870, 1871 - A series oI cases that challenged whether the paper "greenbacks" issued during the Civil War constituted legal tender, i.e., whether they were valid
currency. The Supreme Court declared that greenbacks were not legal tender and their issuance had bee unconstitutional.
930. Supreme Court: Minor v. Happensett
1875 - Limited the right to vote to men.
931. Supreme Court: Wabash. St. Louis & !acific Railroad Companv v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states can control trade in their states, but cannot regulate railroads coming through them. Congress has exclusive iurisdiction over
interstate commerce. States cannot regulate or place restrictions on businesses which only pass through them, such as interstate transportation.
932. E. C. Knight Companv case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production oI sugar had no direct eIIect on commerce, the company couldn't be
controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manuIacturing weren't aIIected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power oI
Congress. It gave E. C. Knight a legal monopoly because it did not aIIect trade.
933. !ollock v. Farmer´s Loan and Trust Companv
1895 - The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which speciIically allows taxation oI income (ratiIied 1913).
934. In Re Debs
1894 - Eugene Debs organised the Pullman strike. A Iederal court Iound him guilty oI restraint oI trade, stopping US mail, and disobeying a government iniunction to
stop the strike. He later ran Ior president as a candidate oI the Social Democratic Party.
935. James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism
The 1884 nomination Ior the Rebublican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans aIIected the U.S. and we thus had reason to
intervene.
936. Venezuelan boundary dispute
Dispute between the U.S. and Britain involving the point at which the Venezuela / Columbia border was drawn. Britain eventually won the dispute.
937. Bering sea seal controversy
A dispute between the U.S. and Russia involving who could hunt seals in the Bering Sea.
938. "Yellow iournalism"
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings oI the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most Iamous yellow iournalist was William
RandolI Hearst. Yellow iournalism was considered tainted iournalism - omissions and halI-truths.
939. Josiah Strong, Our Countrv
In this book, Strong argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon.
940. Captain AlIred Thayler Mahan
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea !ower upon Historv. He was a proponent oI building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the
international trade America depended on.
941. Pago Pago, Samoa
1878 - The U.S. gained the strategic port Pago Pago in Samoa Ior use in reIueling U.S. warships overseas. It was part oI building an international military presence.
942. Jirginius
1873 - Spain and U.S. government got into a squabble over the Cuban-owned Jirginius, which had been running guns. Spain executed several Americans who had been
on board. The telegraph was used to negotiate a truce. The incident was played up by the yellow iournalists.
943. Reconcentration Policy
When Cubans started to rebel, Spaniards begain to reorganize prisoners into labor camps.
944. De Lome Letter
Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, it was stolen Irom the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. It was
played up by the yellow iournalists.
945. Maine explodes
February 15, 1898 - An explosion Irom a mine in the Bay oI Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain Ior the incident and used it as an excuse to go
to war with Spain.
946. Assistant Secretary oI Navy Theodore Roosevelt
In charge oI the navy when the Maine crisis occurred, he had rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
947. Commodore Dewey, Manila Bay
May 1, 1898 - Commodore Dewey took his ship into Manila Bay, in the Philippine Islands, and attacked the Spanish PaciIic Ileet there. The U.S. had been planning to
take this strategic port in the PaciIic. Dewey caught the Spanish at anchor in the bay and sank or crippled their entire Ileet.
948. Cleveland and Hawaii
President Cleveland did not want to Iorcibly annex Hawaii, so he waited Iive years to do so. McKinley Iinally did it. Cleveland Ielt the annexation overstepped the
Iederal government's power.
949. Queen Liliuokalani
Queen oI Hawaii who gave the U.S. naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887. Deposed by American settlers in 1893.
950. Annexation oI Hawaii
By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use oI Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, Ior the use oI the islands as naval ports.
951. Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt Iormed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to Iight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle oI
Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
952. Treaty oI Paris
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
953. American Anti-Imperialist League
A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to diIIerences on domestic issues. Isolationists.
954. Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba
The U.S. acquired these territories Irom Spain through the Treaty oI Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
955. Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow Iever and developed a cure. Yellow Iever was the leading cause oI death oI American troops in the Spanish-American
War.
956. Insular cases
Determined that inhabitants oI U.S. territories had some, but not all, oI the rights oI U.S. citizens.
957. Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba Iree Irom Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
958. Platt Amendment
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill oI 1901, it speciIied the conditions under which the U.S. could intervene in Cuba's internal aIIairs, and provided that Cuba
could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions where later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
959. Protectorate
A weak country under the control and protection oI a stronger country. Puerto Rico, Cuba, etc. were protectorates oI the U.S.
960. Aguinaldo, Philippine Insurrection
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader oI the provisional government
but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent beIore the U.S. Ielt it was ready Ior independence.
961. Secretary oI State John Hay, Open Door notes
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to oIIer assurance that they would respect the principle oI equal trade opportunities, speciIically in
the China market.
962. Spheres oI inIluence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion oI all others. Spheres oI inIluence appeared primarily in the East, and
also in AIrica.
963. Boxer Rebellion
1900 - a secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a Iist revolted against Ioreigners in their midst and laid siege to Ioreign legislations in
Beiiing.
964. Extraterritoriality
In the 1920's, China wated an end to the exemption oI Ioreigners accused oI crimes Irom China's legal iurisdiction.
965. Most Favored Nation Clause
Part oI RTA Act in 1834, allowed a nation to make a special agreement with another nation and give them a preIerential low tariII rate.
966. Election oI 1900: candidates, issues
Republican, William McKinley deIeated Democrate, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
967. Roosevelt's Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt said, "walk soItly and carry a big stick." In international aIIairs, ask Iirst but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use Iorce, act as
international policemen. It was his Ioreign policy in Latin America.
968. U.S.S. Oregon
Warship involved in Spanish-American blockade in Cuba in 1898. Went Irom Cuba to the Philippines by going around the Southern tip oI South America. Showed that
we need a better route between the Atlantic and the PaciIic.
969. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus oI Panama. Abrogated by
the U.S. in 1881.
970. Hay-PaunceIote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere oI InIluence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itselI remained neutral. U.S. given Iull control over
construction and management oI the canal.
971. Hay-Herran Treaty
Kept the purchase price oI the canal strip in Panama the same but enlarged the area Irom 6 to 10 miles.
972. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence oI the newly-created Republic oI Panama.
973. Panama Revolution
The Isthmus oI Panama had been part oI Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia reIused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to
revolt. Example oI Big Stick diplomacy.
974. Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and PaciIic oceans easier and Iaster.
975. Goethals and Gorgas
1906 - Army colonels who supervised the construction oI the Panama Canal.
976. Venezuelan Crisis
1902 - England, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries Iailed to make payments on debts owed to Ioreign banks. U.S.
invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back oII.
977. Drago Doctrine
Argentine iurist, Luis Drago, proposed that European countries could not use Iorce to collect debts owed by countries in the Americas. They could not blockade South
American ports. Adopted as part oI the Hague Convention in 1907.
978. Roosevelt Corollary
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
979. "Colossus oI the North"
1906 - Relations between U.S. and Canada including a reciprocal trade agreement. Tight relations made the U.S. and Canada a "Colossus."
980. Dominican Republic
In 1905, the U.S. imposed Iinancial restrictions upon this Caribbean nation. Part oI making sure Latin America traded with the U.S. and not Europe.
981. Russo-Japanese War, Treaty oI Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian PaciIic Ileet over Russia's reIusal to withdraw its troops Irom Mancharia aIter the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War Iought mainly in
Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end oI the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize Ior the
mediation.
982. San Francisco School Board Incident
1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because oI anti-oriental sentiment in CaliIornia.
983. Elihu Root
Secretary oI War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador Ior the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.
984. Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration oI its nationals to the U.S.
985. Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
986. Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the PaciIic and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
987. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the Ieuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere oI inIluence in China in exchange Ior Japan's continued recognition oI the
Open Door policy in China.
988. Democracy, eIIiciency, pragmatism
Three characteristics that the U.S. Ielt made them superior to other countries. Many U.S. cities in the 1900 to 1920 instituted modern "scientiIic" political systems, such
as the use oI proIessional city managers, to replace ineIIicient traditional machine politics. The U.S. tried to spread there ideas abroad.
989. "Muckrakers"
Journalists who searched Ior and publicized real or alleged acts oI corruption oI public oIIicials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
990. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), Wealth Against Commonwealth
American writer, he won Iame Ior revealing illegal business practices in the U.S. in the late 1800's. Said many corporations put their interest above the good oI the
workers. Muckraker novel.
991. Thorstien Velben, The Theorv of the Leisure Class
An economist, he believed that society was always evolving, but not that the wealthiest members oI society were the "Iittest." Attacked the behavior oI the wealthy.
Muckraker novel.
992. Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
993. Lincoln SteIIens (1866-1936), The Shame of the Cities
A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
994. Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Octopus
A leader oI the naturalism movement in literature, he believed that a novel should serve a moral purpose. Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about how railroads controlled the
lives oI a group oI CaliIornia Iarmers. A muckraker novel.
995. Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), Historv of the Standard Oil Companv
This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices oI the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement Ior outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
996. John Spargo, The Bitter Crv of the Children
Journalist and novelist, he wrote oI the unIair treatment oI children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
997. David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate
A muckraker novel, it publicized corruption in the Senate aIter doing research on government leaders.
998. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Women and Economics
She urged women to work outside the home to gain economic independence. Attacked the traditional role oI homemaker Ior women.
999. John Dewey (1859-1952): the school and society, "progressive education", "learning by doing"
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. InIluenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could
be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reIorms.
1000. Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr.
A Iamous iustice oI the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition oI national regulations and
standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
1001. Margaret Sanger (1883-1966)
American leader oI the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections oI New York City, she had seen the suIIering caused
by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the Iirst birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
1002. Edward Ross (1866-1951)
Sociologist who promoted "social psychology," the belieI that social environment aIIected the behavior oI individuals. He believed that practical solutions to current
problems should be derived through the united eIIorts oI church, state and science, and that the citizens should actively try to cure social ills rather than sit passively and
wait Ior corrections.
1003. Richard Ely (1854-1943)
He asserted that economic theory should reIlect social conditions, and believed that the government should act to regulate the economy to prevent social iniustice.
1004. Initiative, reIerendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. ReIerendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reIerence to the people Ior approval/veto. Recall: the people
can petition and vote to have an elected oIIicial removed Irom oIIice. These all made elected oIIicials more responsible and sensitive to the needs oI the people, and part
oI the movement to make government more eIIicient and scientiIic.
1005. Direct Primary
An election where people directly elect their party's candidates Ior oIIice. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and
undemocratic. This made elected oIIicial more accountable to the people.
1006. 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously
been appointed by the legislatures oI their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manuIacture and sale oI alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave
women the right to vote.
1007. Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948)
Started government regulation oI public utilities. He was Secretary oI State under Harding and later became ChieI Justice oI the Supreme Court. He was the Republican
candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1° oI the vote.
1008. Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
A Iire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high
Ior them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to Iederal regulations to protect workers.
1009. Anti-Saloon League
National organization set up in 1895 to work Ior prohibition. Later ioined with the WCTU to publicize the eIIects oI drinking.
1010. Square Deal
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to saIeguard the rights oI the workers.
1011. Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902
Authorized the use oI Iederal money to develop the west, it helped to protect national resources.
1012. Forest Reserve Act, 1891
First national Iorest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas oI land Ior national Iorests.
1013. Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902, George F. Baer
Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time.
1014. Elkins Act, 1903, rebates
This strengthened earlier Iederal legislation that outlawed preIerential pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns oI parts oI the amount paid Ior goods or services,
serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads Irom transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying
goods and transporting them as iI they were their own.
1015. Hepburn Act, 1906
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers oI the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
1016. Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
Signed by TaIt, it bolstered the regulatory powers oI the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reIorms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own
inquiries into violations oI its regulations.
1017. "Trustbuster"
Nicknamed Ior Teddy Roosevelt, this is a Iederal oIIicial who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enIorcement oI antitrust laws.
1018. Northern Securities Company case
The Supreme Court ordered this company to dissolve because it was a trust.
1019. Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules Ior sanitary meat packing and government inspection oI meat products crossing state lines.
1020. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors oI Iood productions in 1906, the bad quality oI meat and the dangerous working conditions.
1021. Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manuIacture or sale oI mislabeled or adulterated Iood or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the saIety and eIIicacy oI drugs in
order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
1022. Conservation ConIerence, 1908
An environmental conIerence to study the nation's natural resources and how to conserve them.
1023. Panic oI 1907
Caused by mistrust Ior and lowered conIidence in bankers.
1024. Election oI 1908
TaIt, Republican, won over Byran, Democrat, because oI his support oI Roosevelt.
1025. Mark Hanna (1839-1904)
Prominent Republican senator and businessman, he was Republican campaign manager.
1026. Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor
1911 - Increased industrial output by rationalizing and reIining the production process.
1027. Wisconsin, "Laboratory oI Democracy"
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory oI Democracy" because many oI the reIorm ideas oI the Progressive era came out oI Wisconsin, speciIically Irom Robert M.
LaFollette.
1028. Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reIorms, he was a maior leader oI the Progressive movement Irom Wisconsin.
1029. Regulatory commissions
Formed to set saIety standards and to enIorce Iair practices oI business competition Ior the sake oI the U.S. public.
1030. Florence Kelley, consumerism
Founded the National Consumer's League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers Irom being cheated or harmed by big business.
1031. Home Rule Ior cities
The idea was that the people oI a city should decide how the city is run.
1032. Tom Johnson, Sam (Golden Rule) Jones, Brand Witlock, Hazen Pingree
Mayors Ior social reIorm, they wanted a reIorm oI values over more legislation.
1033. City Manager Plan, Commission Plan
Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management oI cities with trained proIessional urban planners and managers.
1034. William Howard TaIt
27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President oI the U.S. and ChieI Justice oI the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president
to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
1035. Department oI Labor
Originally started in 1903 as the Department oI Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau oI Corporations in 1913 to create the Department oI Labor
1036. Payne-Aldrich TariII, 1909
With the Iear oI Ioreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38°. Democrats Ielt it did not go Iar enough and passed the Underwood TariII in 1913 to Iurther lower
taxes.
1037. Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
Cabinet members who had Iought over conservation eIIorts and how much eIIort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head oI the
Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary oI the Interior, oI abandoning Iederal conservation policy. TaIt sided with Ballinger and Iired Pinchot.
1038. Uncle Joe Cannon (1836-1926), Old Guard
Speaker oI the House, he could make or break legislation Iorm 1903 to 1910. He represented the Old Guard, which controlled Congress, and his arbitrary tactics led to
the adoption oI resolutions in 1910 limiting the power oI the Speaker.
1039. Senator George Norris (1861-1944)
Congressman Irom Nebraska, he was a reIormer Republican who helped lead the rules change oI 1910 which ended the arbitrary power oI the Speaker. Known as the
Iather oI the Tennessee Valley Authority, he was author oI the 20th Amendment. Later, while in the Senate, he was an isolationist who tried to keep the U.S. out oI WW
I.
1040. Rule oI Reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case
1911 - Supreme Court allowed restrictions on competition through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
1041. "Dollar Diplomacy"
TaIt and Knox cam up with it to Iurther Ioreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving
Ioreign countries monetary aid.
1042. Secretary oI State Knox (1853-1920)
Developed dollar diplomacy with TaIt, he encouraged and protected U.S. investment abroad.
1043. Manchurian Railroad Scheme
The U.S. planned to build a railroad to transport American products into China. It would have allowed the U.S. to corner the China market.
1044. Roosevelt's Osawatomie, Kansas speech
Teddy Roosevelt's speech given in Kansas on his Square Deal and "Big Stick" Ioreign policy. Roosevelt said, "speak soItly and carry a big stick."
1045. TaIt-Roosevelt split
They split over idealogy. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. TaIt opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more
involvement in Ioreign aIIairs, and TaIt was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against TaIt in 1912.
1046. Bull Moose Party
The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican TaIt, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow
Wilson.
1047. Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New
Freedom."
1048. Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism
A system win which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
1049. Herbert Croly, The !romise of American Life
Editor who wrote The !romise of American Life about government authority being used to balance economic activity. This was the basis Ior Theodore Roosevelt's
"New Nationalism."
1050. Election oI 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, TaIt, Debs, issues
Wilson, Democrat beat Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose), TaIt, Republican and Debs, Socialist. The issues were the economy and growing conIlict in Europe.
1151. Sacco and Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe Iactory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted Irom
1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been Iramed Ior the crime because oI their anarchist and pro-union activities.
1152. Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted oI killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago iust to see iI they could get away with it. DeIended by Clarence
Darrow, they got liIe imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perIect murder. The Iirst use oI the insanity deIense in court.
1153. Billy Sunday (1863-1935) Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister oI the time. Part oI the
Fundamentalist revival oI the 1920's.
1154. Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan
1925 - Prosecution oI Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, Ior violation oI the Butler Act, a Tennessee law Iorbidding public schools Irom teaching about
evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the Iamous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, deIended
Scopes. Scopes was convicted and Iined $100, but the trial started a shiIt oI public opinion away Irom Fundamentalism.
1155. Henry Ford, the Model T, AlIred P. Sloan
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an aIIordable price. It pioneered the use oI the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers
wages and instituted many modern concepts oI regular work hours and iob beneIits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped Iound proiect.
1156. Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)
Motion picture producer and director, he was Iamous Ior Biblical Iilms and epic movies.
1157. The Jazz Singer
1927 - The Iirst movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the liIe oI Iamous iazz singer, Al Jolson.
1158. Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Charlie Chaplin
Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one oI the most popular dramatic stars oI silent Iilms. Chaplin was a popular star oI silent slap-stick comedies.
1159. New Woman, Flappers
1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual Ireedom. They began to abandon traditional Iemale roles and take iobs usually
reserved Ior men.
1160. Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
Hughes was a giIted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center Ior black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
1161. James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
American poet and part oI the Harlem Renaissance, he was inIluenced by iazz music.
1162. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and Iinancial independence Ior Blacks, he started the "Back to AIrica" movement. He believed Blacks would not get
iustice in mostly white nations.
1163. Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974), Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh Ilew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the Iirst transatlantic solo Ilight.
1164. Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record oI 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
1165. Twenty-One Demands
Name Ior Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty
which tried to settle diIIerences between the U.S. and Japan.
1166. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the Ieuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere oI inIluence in China in exchange Ior Japan's continued recognition oI the
Open Door policy in China.
1167. Versailles ConIerence, Versailles Treaty
The Palace oI Versailles was the site oI the signing oI the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
1168. Washington Disarmament ConIerence, 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They Ielt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start oI WW I. They created quotas Ior
diIIerent classes oI ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size oI existing navies.
1169. Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part oI the Washington Naval ConIerence, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension oI construction oI large
ships and set quotas Ior the number oI ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in
the PaciIic. Nine Powers Treaty: ReaIIirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
1170. 5-3-1 ration
Tonnage ratio oI the construction oI large ships, it meant that Britain could only have 1 ship Ior every 3 ships in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships Ior every 5
ships in the U.S. Britain, U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
1171. World Court
The iudicial arm oI the League oI Nations, supported by several presidents.
1172. Reparations
As part oI the Treaty oI Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay Iines to the Allies to repay the costs oI the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe
depression in Germany.
1173. Dawes Plan, Young Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany leIt it unable to pay reparation and Germany deIaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes
Iormulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modiIied in 1929 by U.S. Iinancier Owen
Young.
1174. Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
"Pact oI Paris" or "Treaty Ior the Renunciation oI War," it made war illegal as a tool oI national policy, allowing only deIensive war. The Treaty was generally believed
to be useless.
1175. Causes oI the depression
Much debt, stock prices spiralling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's deIault on reparations caused European bank
Iailures, which spread to the U.S.
1176. Depression as an international event
Europe owed money. Germany had to pay, but did not have the money.
1177. Fordney-McCumber TariII, 1922
Pushed by Congress in 1922, it raised tariII rates.
1178. Hawley-Smoot TariII, 1930
Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manuIactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread oI the international
depression.
1179. Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency Iunds to help businesses overcome the eIIects oI the
Depression. It was later used to Iinance wartime proiects during WW II.
1180. Bonus Army
1932 - Facing the Iinancial crisis oI the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill
authorizing immediate assurance oI $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the
veterans out oI there.
1181. "Hooverville"
Name given to the makeshiIt shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.
1182. Clark Memorandum
1928 - Under Secretary oI State Reuben Clark, 286 pages were added to the Roosevelt Corollary oI 1904.
1183. London Naval ConIerence
1909 - International Naval ConIerence held in London to adopt an international code oI conduct Ior naval warIare.
1184. Hoover Moratorium
June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments Ior one year.
1185. Manchuria, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
1932 - Japan's seizure oI Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary oI State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to
China's territory, nor any impairment oI China's sovereignty.
1186. Mexico's nationalization oI oil
1938 - Mexico nationalized oil Iields along the GulI oI Mexico which had been owned by investors Irom the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands because the companies
reIused to raise the wages oI their Mexican employees.
1187. Ambassador Morrow
Dwight Whitney Morrow served as the U.S. Ambassador to Mexico Irom 1927 to 1930, during the Mexican-American diplomatic crisis.
1188. Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his Ioreign policy as that oI a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries oI Latin
America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
1189. Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Iniunction) Act, 1932
Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Iniunction Act, which protected the rights oI striking
workers, by severely restricting the Iederal courts' power to issue iniunctions against strikes and other union activities.
1190. Election oI 1932: candidates, issues
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running Ior reelection. FDR promised relieI Ior the unemployed, help Ior Iarmers, and
a balanced budget.
1191. Twentieth Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date Irom March 4 to January 20 Ior president and vice president,
and to January 3 Ior senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
1192. Wickersham Commission
National Law EnIorcement Commission, so named aIter its chair, George Wickersham, it was a national commission on law observance and enIorcement created by
Hoover in 1929. Its 1930 report recommended the repeal oI Prohibition.
1193. Twenty-First Amendment
Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took eIIect December, 1933. Based on recommendation oI the
Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had lead to a vast increase in crime.
1194. "Bank Holiday"
March 11, 1933 - Roosevelt closed all banks and Iorbade the export oI gold or redemption oI currency in gold.
1195. Hundred Days
March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reIorm laws submitted by the President Ior Congressional approval. It
actually lasted only 99 days.
1196. "RelieI, recovery, reIorm"
The Iirst step in FDR's relieI program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chieI measure designed to promote recovery was the
National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most oIten classiIied as reIorm measures were those designed to guarantee the rights oI labor and limit the powers
oI businesses.
1197. Brain trust
Many oI the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him aIter he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described
the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more inIluential than the Cabinet.
1198. Emergency Banking RelieI Act, 1933
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were Iailing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management.
The Emergency Banking RelieI Act provided Ior government inspection, which restored public conIidence in the banks.
1199. Glass-Steagall Banking ReIorm Act, 1933
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts oI depositors oI its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
1200. Gold Clause Act, 1935
It voided any clause in past or Iuture contracts requiring payment in gold. It was enacted to help enIorce 1933 legislation discontinuing the gold standard and outlawing
circulation oI gold coin
1201. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
A Iederal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking ReIorm Act oI 1933.
1202. National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA)
The chieI measure to promote recovery was the NIRA. It set up the National Recovery Adminstration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production Ior each
industry. Based on theory that regulation oI the economy would allow industries to return to Iull production, thereby leading to Iull employment and a return oI
prosperity.
1203. National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA)
Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans oI the National Industry Recovery Act to Iight depression. It established code authorities Ior each branch oI industry or buisness.
The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards oI quality that must be observed.
1204. National Recovery Administration, "The Blue Eagle"
The NRA Blue Eagle was a symbol Hugh Johnson devised to generate enthusiasm Ior the NRA codes. Employers who accepted the provisions oI NRA could display it
in their windows. The symbol showed up everywhere, along with the NRA slogan "We Do Our Part."
1205. Hugh Johnson
Director oI the NRA.
1206. Agricultural Adiustment Act (AAA), Second AAA
1933 - The AAA oIIered contracts to Iarmers to reduce their output oI designated products. It paid Iarmers Ior processing taxes on these products, and made loans to
Iarmers who stored crops on their Iarms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
1207. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
1936 - The second AAA appropriated Iunds Ior soil conservation paymnets to Iarmers who would remove land Irom production.
1208. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Created in April 1933. Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation and 300,000 men between ages 18 and 25 worked Ior the reconstruction oI cities. More
than 2.5 million men lived and/or worked in CCC camps.
1209. Federal emergency RelieI Administation (FERA)
Appropriated $500 million Ior aid to the poor to be distributed by state and local government. Harry Hopkins was the leader oI FERA.
1210. Civil Works Admnistration (CWA)
Hired unemployed workers to do make-shiIt iobs like sweeping streets. Sent men ages 18-24 to camps to work on Ilood control, soil conservation, and Iorest proiects
under the War Department. A small monthly payment was made to the Iamily oI each member.
1211. Public Works Administration (PWA), Harold Ickes
Under Secertary oI the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments Ior building schools, highways, hospitals, ect.
1212. Works Progress Administration (WPA), Harold Hopkins, Federal Arts Proiect
The WPA started in May 1935 and was headed by Harold Hopkins. It employed people Ior 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed). The Federal Arts
Proiect had unemployed artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians, and dancers perIorming in poor neighborhood; and writers compiling guide books
and local histories.
1213. Home Owners' Local Corporation (HOLC)
Had authority to borrow money to reIinance home mortgages and thus prevent Iorclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners.
1214. Federal Housing Authorities (FHA)
1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages Ior home construction and repair.
1215. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish Iraud in sercurities trading.
1216. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Senator Norris
A public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration proiects Ior Iarmers, and engaged in reIorestation to rehabilitate
the area.
1217. Rural ElectriIicaion Committee (REA)
May 1936 - Created to provide loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies.
1218. National Youth Association (NYA)
June 1935 - Established as part oI the WPA to provide part-time iobs Ior high school and college students to enable them to stay in school and to help young adults not
in school Iind iobs.
1219. Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership oI lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans Ior economic development.
1220. Recognition oI the U.S.S.R.
November 1933 - In an eIIort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The Iinancial results were disappointing.
1221. Section 7A oI the NRA
Provided that workers had the right to ioin unions and to bargain collectively.
1222. Wagner Act
May 1935 - Replaced Section 7A oI the NIRA. It reaIIirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unIair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.
1223. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Created to insure Iairness in labor-managment relations and the mediate employers' desputes with unions.
1224. Fair Labor Standards Act, maxium hours and minimum wage
June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
1225. Congress oI Industrial Organizations (CIO), John L. Lewis
Originally Iormed by leaders within the AFL who wanted to expand its principles to include workers in mass produciotn industries. In 1935, they created coalation oI
the 8 unions comprising the AFL and the United Mine Workers oI America, led by John L. Lewis. AIter a split within the organization in 1938, the CIO was established
as a separate entity.
1226. Sit-down strikes
The strikers occupied the workplace to prevent any production.
1227. Dust Bowl, Okies, John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
1939 - Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was about "Okies" Irom Oklahoma migrating Irom the Dust Bowl to CaliIornia in the midst oI the Depression.
1228. Secretary oI Labor Frances Perkins
The nation's Iirst woman cabinet member.
1229. Elanor Roosevelt
A strong Iirst lady who supported civil rights.
1230. Keynesian Economics
The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out oI a depression by increasing government spending, thus
creating iobs and increasing consumer buying power.
1231. DeIicit spending
FDR's admnistration was based on this concept. It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions oI
dollars oI Iederal money into the economy even iI the government didn't have the Iunds, and had to borrow money.
1232. Monetary policy, Iiscal policy
In monetary policy, government manipulates the nation's money supply to control inIlation and depression. In Iiscal policy, the government uses taxing and spending
programs (including deIicit spending) to control inIlation and depression.
1233. Revenue Act
1935 - Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gIt, and capital gains taxes.
1234. Liberty League
Formed in 1934 by conservatives to deIend business interests and promote the open shop.
1235. Coalition oI the Democratic Party: Blacks, unions, intellectuals, big city machines, South
Union took an active role providing campaign Iunds and votes. Blacks had traditionally been Republican but 3/4 had shiIted to the Democratic party. Roosevelt still
recieved strong support Irom ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern Iarmers.
1236. Huey Long, Share the Wealth, Gerald K. Smith
The Share the Wealth society was Iounded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long oI Louisiana. He called Ior the conIiscation oI all Iortunes over $5 million and a 100° tax on
annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head oI the society.
1237. Father Charles Coughlin
Headed the National Union Ior Social Justice. Began as a religious radio broadcaster, but turned to politics and Iinance and attracted an audiance oI millions Irom many
Iaiths. Promoted inIlationary currency, anti-sematism.
1238. Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension oI $200 a month (about twice the average week's
salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
1239. Election oI 1936: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rebublican - Governor AlIred Landon, Union Party - William Lemke
Issues were the New Deal (which Landon criticized as unconstitutional laws), a balanced budget, and low taxes. Roosevelt carried all states but Maine and Vermont.
1240. Literary Digest Poll
1936- An inaccurate poll taken on upcoming the presidential election. It over-represented the wealthy and thus erroneously predicted a Republican victory.
1241. Second New Deal
Some thought the Iirst New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deIicit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most
oI the 1933 legislation was ineIIective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series oI initiatives in 1935, reIerred to the Second New Deal.
1242. Social Security Act
One oI the most important Ieatures oI the Second New Deal established a retirement Ior persons over 65 Iunded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and
employer.
1243. Court-packing plan
Because the Supreme Court was striking down New Deal legislation, Roosevelt decided to curb the power oI the Court by proposing a bill to allow the president to
name a new Iederal iudge Ior each who did not retire by age 70 and 1/2. At the time, 6 iustices were over the age limit. Would have increased the number oI iustices
Irom 9 to 15, giving FDR a maiority oI his own appointees on the court. The court-packing bill was not passed by Congress.
1244. ChieI Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Began to vote with the more liberal members in the liberal-dominated Supreme Court. In June a conservative iustice retired and Roosevelt had an opportunity to make
an appointment, shiIting the Court's stance to support oI New Deal legislation.
1245. "Conservative Coalition" in Congress
1938 - Coalition oI conservative Democrats and Republicans who united to curb Iurther New Deal legistators. Motivated by Iears oI excessive Iederal spending and the
exspansion oI Iederal power.
1246. Robinson-Patman Act
1937 - Amended Iederal anti-trust laws so as to outlaw "price discrimination," whereby companies create a monopolistic network oI related suppliers and vendors who
give each other more Iavorable prices than they do others.
1247. Miller-Tydings Act
1937 - Amended anti-trust laws to allow agreements to resell products at Ixed retail prices in situations involving sales oI trademarked good to a company's retail
dealers.
1248. Hatch Act
1939 - Prohibited Iederal oIIice holders Irom participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
1249. Adkins v. Children´s Hospital
1923 - The hospital Iired employees because it didn't want to pay them what was reqired by the minimum wage law Ior women and children.
1250. Gitlow v. New York
1925 - Beniamin Gitlow was arrested Ior being a member oI the Communist party. The New York court upheld the conviction.
1251. Schecter !oultrv Corp. v. U.S.
May, 1935 - The U.S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. It held that Condress had improperly delegated legislative
authority to the National Industrial Recovery Administration and that the Iederal government had exceeded its iurisduction because Schecter was not engaged in
interstate commerce.
1252. Butler case
1936 - Declared AAA unconstitutional because it involved Congress levying a tax against the general wellIare.
1253. NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.
April 1937 - Sumpreme Court upheld the Wagner Act, ensuring the right to unionize, in a 5 to 4 decision. This decision signaled a change in the Court's attitude towards
support oI the New Deal and lead FDR to abandon his court-packing plan.
1254. West Coast Hotel v. !arrish
1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Washington state minum wage statute.
1255. Darbv Lumber Co. case
1941 - Overruled the Hamme case oI 1918 by upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act oI 1938.
1256. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. case
1936 - Upheld embargo impossed on arms destined Ior nations at war in the "Chaco War" that had broken out in 1932 between Bolivia and Paraguay.
1257. Montevideo ConIerence
The Iirst oI several Pan-America conIerences held during the period between World War I and World War II concerning mutual deIense and corporate between the
countries oI Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the aIIairs oI Latin American countries.
1258. Rio de Janeiro ConIerence
1933 - Delegation oI 21 Latin American leaders, including Summer Will and Aswalina Avanna. Led to the break in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Latin
American powers.
1259. Buenos Aires ConIerence
1936 - The U.S. agreed to submit all disputes Irom the Americas to arbitration.
1260. Lima ConIerence
1938 - Last oI the Pan-American conIerences held beIore the outbreak oI World War II. Issued the Declaration oI Lima asserting the unity oI the Latin American
nations and their determination to resist al Iorms oI Ioreign agression.
1261. Declaration oI Panama
1939 - Latin American governments drew a security line around the Western hemisphere and warned away Ioreign agressors.
1262. Act oI Havana
1940 - Approved by the 21 delegates oI the Pan-American Union. Declared that any Latin American nation was permitted, in the name oI deIense, to take over and
administer any European possession in the New World.
1263. Jones Act
1916 - Promised Philippine independence. Given Ireedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite oI the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized Ior 30 years.
1264. Tydings-McDuIIie Act, 1934, Philippines
In 1933 the U.S. had proposed granting the Philippines independence in 12 years while retaining its military bases there. The Philippines reiected the oIIer and asked Ior
immediate commonwealth status with independence by 1946. The U.S. accepted their oIIer in the Tydings-McDuIIie Act.
1265. Nye Committee
Gerald Nye oI North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out oI Ioreign wars.
1266. "Merchants oI Death"
Liberal isolationists' term Ior companies which manuIactured armaments. They Ielt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting agressor
nations.
1267. Neutrality legislation
1935 - Upon the outbreak oI war, all American exports would be embargoed Ior 6 months.
1936 - Gave the president the authority to determine when a state oI war existed and prohibited loans to beligerents.
1937 - Gave the president the authority to determine whether a civil war was a threat to world peace and prohibited arms sales to beligerents.
1268. Spanish Civil War (1936-1935), Franco
Spain had established a leItist, democratic government in the 1930s. In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-
wing Iascist government, touching oII a civil war between loyalist Republican Iorces (aided by Russia) and Franco's Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler).
1269. Ethiopia
Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League oI Nations Iailed to take any eIIective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. iust looked on.
1270. Mussolini (1883-1945)
Fascist dictator oI Italy Irom 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.
1271. Japan attacks China, Chiang Kai-Shek
Chinese leader Kai-Shek deIeated the Communists in China, sending them back to Russia and instituting the Kuomintang government. Then in 1931, Japan seized
Manchuria Irom China.
1272. Panay Incident
1937 - On the Yantze River in China, Japanese aircraIt sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's appologies.
1273. Quarantine Speech
1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.
1274. AdolI Hitler (1889-1945), Nazism
German Iacist dictator. Leader oI the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor oI Germany in 1933, he quickly established himselI as an absolute
dictator.
1275. Munich ConIerence, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain
1938 - Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion oI Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and
Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain iustiIied the pact with the belieI that appeasing
Germany would prevent war.
1276. Austria annexed
March 12, 1938 - AIter the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union oI
Germany and Austria.
1277. Nonagression pact between Germany and U.S.S.R.
August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second Iront in the West without worrying about deIending
against Russia. Granted Western Poland ot Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.
1278. Invasion oI Poland, Blitzkrieg
September, 1939 - Germany used series oI "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
1279. Axis Powers
A series oI treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereaIter reIered to
as the Axis Powers.
1280. "Cash and carry" revision oI neutrality
Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. BeneIitted the Allies, since German ships
could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
1281. Fall oI France
Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
1282. America First Committee
1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who Ieared the U.S. going to war.
1283. Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh, known Ior making the Iirst solo Ilight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
1284. Committee to DeIend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the Iorm oI supplies and money to the Allies, who would Iight the
war Ior us.
1285. Smith Act
Required Iingerprinting and registering oI all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow oI the U.S. government.
1286. Toio (Hideki)
Prime Minister oI Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate oI Japanese military conquest during World War II.
1287. Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were maior warships that made up the bulk oI most countries' navies.) Signaled the end oI
U.S. neutrality in the war.
1288. Election oI 1940: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Republican - Wendel Wrillkie (lost by almost 5 million votes). The issue was the New Deal, about which there was a maior debate.
1289. "Lend lease" March 1941 - Authorized the president to transIer, lend, or lease any article oI deIense equipment ot any government whose deIense was deemed
vital to the deIense oI the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.
1290. Atlantic Charter
August 1941 - Drawn up br FDR and Churchill with eight main principles:
O Renunciation oI territorial agression
O No territorial changes without the consent oI the peoples concerned
O Restoration oI sovereign rights and selI-government
O Access to raw material Ior all nations
O World economic cooperation
O Freedom Irom Iear and want
O Freedom oI the seas
O Disarmament oI agressors

1291. Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. PaciIic Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200
aircraIt. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
1292. Japanese relocation
The bombing oI Pearl Harbor created widespread Iear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all
Japanese and people oI Japanese descent living on the west coast oI the U.S. into internment camps in the interior oI the U.S.
1293. Bond drives
Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds ot raise money Ior the war eIIort. Extremely successIul in raising Iunds.
1294. War Production Board
Converted Iactories Irom civilian to military production. ManuIacturing output tripled.
1295. War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court Ior labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
1296. OIIice oI Price Administration (OPA)
Government agency which successIul combatted inIlation by Iixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.
1297. General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1870-1969)
Served as the supreme commander oI the western Allied Iorces and became chieI oI staII in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U.S. commander in Europe.
1298. General Douglas MacArthur
Military governor oI the Philippines, which Japan invaded a Iew days aIter the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed
supreme commander oI the Allied Iorces in the PaciIic. Recieved the Medal oI Honor.
1299. Genocide, "Final Solution"
Genocide is destruction oI a racial group. Hitler's "Final Solution" was the genocide oI non-Aryan peoples.
1300. Second Iront
The Russians were suIIering heavy casualties Iighting the German invasion oI Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second Iront" in the west to relieve the pressure
on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only aIter a long delay.
1301. D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion Iorce in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process oI re-taking
France. The turning point oI World War II.
1302. Stalingrad
Site oI critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian Iorces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the
German Sixth Army surrendered. First maior deIeat Ior the Germans in World War II.
1303. Winston Churchill
Prime minister oI Great Britain during World War II.
1304. Casablanca ConIerence
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the Iuture strategy oI the Allies Iollowing the success oI the North AIrican campaign. They decided to
launch an attack on Italy through Sicily beIore initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less
than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
1305. Cairo ConIerence
November, 1943 - A meeting oI Allied leaders Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek in Egypt to deIine the Allies goals with respect to the war against Japan, they
announced their intention to seek Japan's unconditional surrender and to strip Japan oI all territory it had gained since WW I.
1306. Tehran ConIerence
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination oI military eIIorts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in
the earlier Moscow ConIerence to create the United Nations aIter the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
1307. "Unconditional surrender
It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender.
1308. Okinawa
The U.S. Army in the PaciIic had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north Irom Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa,
only 300 miles south oI the Japanese home islands. By the time the Iighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
1309. Battle oI the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - AIter recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter oI 1944, Germany staged a
massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back
across the Rhine with heavy losses.
1310. Manhattan Proiect
A secret U.S. proiect Ior the construction oI the atomic bomb.
1311. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)
Physics proIessor at U.C. Berkeley and CalTech, he headed the U.S. atomic bomb proiect in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He later served on the Atomic Energy
Commission, although removed Ior a time the late 1950's, over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer.
1312. Atomic bomb
A bomb that uses the Iission oI radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the Iorce oI thousands oI pounds oI regular explosives.
1313. Hiroshima, Nagasaki
First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed aIter Japan reIused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on
August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
1314. Yalta ConIerence
February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make Iinal war plans, arrange the post-war Iate oI Germany, and discuss the proposal Ior creation oI the
United Nations as a successor to the League oI Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones oI occupation, although a Iourth
zone was later created Ior France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange Ior the Kuril Islands and halI oI the Sakhalin Peninsula.
1315. Potsdam ConIerence
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones oI control and to inIorm the Japanese that iI they reIused to surrender at
once, they would Iace total destruction.
1316. Partitioning oI Korea, Vietnam, Germany
The U.S. played a role in dividing these countries into sections, each oI which would be ruled by diIIerent authority Iigures and managed by one oI the Allied powers.
1317. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)
He Iormed the French resistance movement in London immediately aIter the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President oI the Free French government in
exile during the war and he was the Iirst provisional president oI France aIter its liberation.
1318. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), "Iron Curtain" speech
March, 1946 - He reviewed the international response to Russian aggression and declared an "iron curtain" had descended across Eastern Europe.
1319. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
AIter Lenin died in 1924, he deIeated Trotsky to gain power in the U.S.S.R. He created consecutive Iive year plans to expand heavy industry. He tried to crush all
opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator oI the U.S.S.R. until his death.
1320. Bretton Woods ConIerence
The common name Ior the United Nations Monetary and Financial ConIerence held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world
bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery oI Europe.
1321. Dumbarton Oaks ConIerence
In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held Irom August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draIt the constitution oI the United
Nations.
1322. San Francisco ConIerence and U.N. Charter
1945 - This conIerence expanded the draIts oI the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conIerences and adopted the United Nations Charter.
1323. United Nations: Security Council, General Assembly, Secretary-General
Only the Security Council could take action on substantive issues through investigation. The General Assembly met and talked. A secretariat, headed by a Secretary-
General, was to perIorm the organization's administrative work.
1324. Atomic Energy Commission
Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production oI atomic power.
1325. Superpowers
The name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. because oI their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle Ior world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by
the late 1940's and 1950's.
1326. Socialism, Communism
Socialism is the social theory advocating community control oI the means oI production. Communism is the social system based on collective ownership oI all
productive property.
1327. Satellites
Eastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
1328. Nuremberg trials
19 out oI 22 German civil and military leaders were Iound guilty oI "war crimes." 12 were sentenced to death, 3 to liIe sentences and the rest to Iive to twenty year
sentences.
1329. Department oI DeIense created
Headed by McNamara, it succeeded in bringing the armed services under tight civilian control.
1330. Voice oI America, CARE
Established in 1942 as part oI the OIIice oI War InIormation, since 1953 it has been the international radio network oI the U.S. InIormation Agency.
1331. Yugoslavia, Marshall Tito
An election was held in 1945 in which the moderate candidates were not allowed to run. On November 29, 1945, the Federal People's Republic oI Yugoslavia was
proclaimed. Following the adoption oI a new constitution, the assembly reconstituted itselI into a parliament. Tito was the Premier oI the cabinet.
1332. Czechoslovakian coup
1948 - Czechoslovakia succumbed to Soviet subversion. Although moderates and Communists shared power aIter WWII, in 1947-1948, Iearing a loss oI popular
support, the Communists seized control oI the government and the moderates gave in to avoid civil war.
1333. Containment, George F. Kennan
A member oI the State Department, he Ielt that the best way to keep Communism out oI Europe was to conIront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.
1334. Truman Doctrine
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
1335. Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary oI State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European
economies aIter WWII and help prevent the spread oI Communism.
1336. Point Four
Program proposed by Truman to help the world's backwards areas.
1337. Israel created
1948 - In 1947 the UN General Assembly had approved the creation oI a Jewish homeland by ending the British mandate in Palestine and partitioning it into two states:
one Jewish and one Arab. On May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the State oI Israel, and all oI the surrounding Arab nations declared war and invaded. AIter a short
war, the Israelis gained control oI the country.
1338. Berlin blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in Iood and
supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air liIts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every Iew minutes. West
Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
1339. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Chartered April, 1949. The 11 member nations agreed to Iight Ior each other iI attacked. It is an international military Iorce Ior enIorcing its charter.
1340. Warsaw Pact
To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets Iormed this military organization with the nations oI Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an excuse Ior garrisoning troops in
these countries.
1341. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) September, 1954 - Alliance oI non-Communist Asian nations modelled aIter NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't
establish a military Iorce.
1342. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)
Members were the U.S., Great Britain, Turkey, Iran and West Pakistan. Treaty to improve U.S. relations and cooperation with Latin and South America. Fairly
successIul, similar to ANZUS.
1343. Australia, New Zealand, U.S. (ANZUS)
Security alliance ratiIied in 1952 to protect against Communist China, Soviet Power, the war in Korea and Asia/PaciIic decolonization.
1344. Collective security
An Article 10 provision oI the League charter, it stated that iI one country was involved in a conIrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is
agreements between countries Ior mutual deIense and to discourage aggression.
1345. Fall oI China, Mao Tse-Tung (Mao Zedong)
Mao Tse-Tung led the Communists in China. Because oI the Iailure to Iorm a coalition government between Chiang Kai-Shek and the Communists, civil war broke out
in China aIter WWII. The Communists won in 1949, but the new government was not recognized by much oI the world, including the U.S.
1346. State Department White !aper
1949 - Set Iorth the State Department's eIIorts and Iuture plans to stoop Communism. With regard to China, it declared the historic policy oI the U.S. to be one oI
Iriendship and aid to the Chinese people, which would be maintained both in peace and war.
1347. Chiang Kai-Shek, Formosa
Chiang and the nationalists were Iorced to Ilee to Formosa, a large island oII the southern coast oI China, aIter the Communist victory in the civil war. Throughout the
1950's, the U.S. continued to recognize and support Chiang's government in Formosa as the legitimate government oI China, and to ignore the existence oI the
Communist People's Republic on the mainland.
1348. Quemoy, Matsu
Small islands oII the coast oI China occupied by the nationalists and claimed by the People's Republic. Late in 1954, the U.S. hinted at deIending them because they
were considered vital to the deIense oI Formosa, even though they were not expressly covered by the mutual deIense treaty.
1349. Korean War, limited war
AIter WWII, Korea had been partitioned along the 38th parallel into a northern zone governed by the Soviet Union, and a southern zone controlled by the U.S. In 1950,
aIter the Russians had withdrawn, leaving a communist government in the North, the North invaded the South. The U.N. raised an international army led by the U.S. to
stop the North. It was the Iirst use oI U.N. military Iorces to enIorce international peace. Called a limited war, because the Iighting was to be conIined solely to the
Korean peninsula, rather than the countries involved on each side attacking one another directly.
1350. Truman-MacArthur Controversy
Truman removed MacArthur Irom command in Korea as punishment Ior MacArthur's public criticism oI the U.S. government's handling oI the war. Intended to
conIirm the American tradition oI civilian control over the military, but Truman's decision was widely criticized.
1351. Mahatma Gandhi
Great revolutionary who led India to independence Irom Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience based upon Henry David Thoreau's doctrines.
1352. Dien Bien Phu
France had exercised colonial control oI Indochina until WWII. AIter Japan's deIeat in 1945, the Viet Minh seized Hanoi and declared the North an independent
republic. War with France broke out in 1946. In the Spring oI 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French Iortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien
Phu. Lead to the withdrawal oI France Irom Indochina.
1353. Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end oI the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial
government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President oI the North Vietnamese government established aIter
the French withdrawal. OIten called the George Washington oI North Vietnam.
1354. Bricker Amendment
Proposal that international agreements negotiated by the executive branch would become law iI and only iI they were approved by Congress and didn't conIlict with
state laws. Isolationist measure, didn't pass.
1355. John Foster Dulles
As Secretary oI State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conIlict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
1356. Massive Retaliation
In the 1950's aIter Stalin died, Dulles and Eisenhower warned the Soviets that iI aggression was undertaken, the U.S. would retaliate with its Iull nuclear arsenal against
the Soviet Union itselI. However, the U.S. would not start conIlicts.
1357. Brinksmanship
The principle oI not backing down in a crisis, even iI it meant taking the country to the brink oI war. Policy oI both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
1358. Preemptive Strike
The doctrine oI attacking an enemy Iorce beIore they can attack you.
1359. Nikita Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conIerence with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva,
Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceIul coexistence could be achieved.
1360. Hungarian Revolt
1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
1361. Abdul Nasser, Suez Crisis
Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a Iormer army oIIicer who had led the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked
by British, French and Israeli Iorces. The U.S. intervened on behalI oI Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.
1362. PeaceIul coexistence
Khrushchev's proposal that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. could compromise and learn to live with each other.
1363. Eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a ioint resolution Irom Congress authorizing the use oI U.S. military Iorces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to Iall to
communism. Used in the Middle East.
1364. Common Market
Popular name Ior the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries oI Western Europe and to
lower tariIIs on trade between its members.
1365. Organization oI American States (OAS)
Founded in 1948 by 21 nations at the Ninth Pa-American ConIerence, now consists oI 32 nations oI Central and South America and the U.S. Settled disputes between
its members and discouraged Ioreign intervention in American disputes.
1366. Castro's Revolution
1959 - A band oI insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government oI Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.
1367. Bay oI Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates leIt Irom Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay oI Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a
popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace reIused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also Iailed to materialize, the invaders were
easily killed or captured by the Cuban Iorces. Many oI the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. Ior $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.
1368. Alliance Ior Progress
1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own aIIairs.
1369. Cuban Missile Crisis
October 14-28, 1962 - AIter discovering that the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine oI Cuba, which was
really a blockade, but couldn't be called that since blockades are a violation oI international law. AIter 6 days oI conIrontation that led to the brink oI nuclear war,
Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.
1370. ICBM
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable oI being Iired at targets on the other side oI the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile
Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites Ior ICBM's in Cuba.
1371. Revenue Act oI 1942
EIIort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost oI WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income
earners began to pay tax.
1372. G.I. Bill oI Rights 1944 - Servicemen's Readiustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill oI Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid Ior Iormer servicemen, ranging Irom
educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readiustment to society aIter demobilization.
1373. OIIice oI War mobilization and Reconversion
1944 - Directed by James F. Byrnes. Determined whether any prime contract Ior war production scheduled Ior termination aIter WWII should be continued in Iorce.
1374. Extension oI OPA vetoed
OPA had controlled wartime prices and a watered-down version was approved by Congress to stay in eIIect aIter the war, but Truman vetoed it.
1375. Postwar InIlation
The high volume oI U.S. spending during the war, which reached an estimated $341 billion, and pent up consumer demand caused by war-time rationing led to inIlation
aIter the war.
1376. Baby Boom
30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.
1377. Employment Act oI 1946
Started because oI the Ilood oI available workers aIter WWII. Established the Council oI Economic Advisors. declared that the government was committed to
maintaining maximum employment.
1378. TaIt-Hartley Act
1947 - Senator Robert A. TaIt co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National
Labor Relations Act oI 1935 and imposed certain restrictions oI the money and power oI labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
1379. Senator Robert A. TaIt
A key Republican leader in the Senate and a supporter oI Joseph McCarthy.
1380. Right-to-Work laws
State laws that provide that unions cannot impose a requirement that workers ioin the union as a condition oI their employment.
1381. Election oI 1948: candidates, issues
Democrat - Harry Truman
Republican - John Dewey
States' Rights Democrat (Dixiecrat) - Strom Thurmond
Progressive - Henry Wallace
The Democratic party was torn apart by the dispute between the liberal civil rights platIorm oI the maiority and the conservative, states' rights views oI the southern
membership, and the Progressive party pulled away liberal votes as well. Although everyone expected Dewey to win, Truman managed a surprise victory.
1382. Dixiecrats, J. Strom Thurmond
Southern Democrats disgruntled over the strong civil rights proposals oI the Democrats' 1948 National Convention. Formed the States' Rights Democratic Party and
nominated Thurmond (governor oI South Carolina) Ior president.
1383. Progressive Party, Henry Wallace
Former vice-president under Roosevelt, Wallace ran Ior president with the Progressive Party, a branch oI the Democrats who opposed the Cold War and the policy oI
containment. He lost but became secretary oI commerce under Truman.
1384. Fair Deal
Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage Irom 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security beneIits to cover 10 million more people, and provided
government Iunding Ior 100,000 low-income public housing units and Ior urban renewal.
1385. Americans Ior Democratic Action (ADA)
An organization Ior the advancement oI liberal causes in the 1940s.
1386. National Security Acts
1947 - Created the cabinet post oI Secretary oI DeIense, the CIA, and the National Security Council. 1949 - Created NATO.
1387. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Committee in the House oI Representatives Iounded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities oI Ioreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During
World War II it investigated pro-Iascist groups, but aIter the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series oI sensational
investigations into supposed communist inIiltration oI the U.S. government and Hollywood Iilm industry.
1388. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), McCarthyism
Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been inIiltrated by Communists. In 1953 became
Chair oI the Senate Sub- Committee on Investigations and accused the Army oI covering up Ioreign espionage. The Armv-McCarthv Hearings made McCarthy look so
Ioolish that Iurther investigations were halted.
1389. Alger Hiss
A Iormer State Department oIIicial who was accused oI being a Communist spy and was convicted oI periury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
1390. McCarran Internal Security Act
1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them Irom working Ior the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a
response to the onset oI the Korean war.
1391. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer oI 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted oI conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans Ior the atomic bomb to the Soviet
Union.
1392. Twenty-Second Amendment
Proposed in 1947 and ratiIied in 1951. It limited the number oI terms that a president may serve to two. Was brought on by FDR's 4-term presidency.
1393. Election oI 1952: candidates & issues
Republicans - Eisenhower/Nixon, Democrats - Adlai Stevenson
Issues were conservatism and containment oI Communism. Republicans won by a landslide.
1394. Ike (Eisenhower) and Modern Republicanism
Conservative about Iederal spending, liberal about personal Ireedoms. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid oI existing social and
economic legislation.
1395. Fiscal Management
Starting in 1950, the Iederal government controlled expenditures by regulating the budget, including the deIicit.
1396. Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)
A Protestant minister who, in the 1940's, eIIected and inIluenced religion, society and politics in the U.S. Known Ior liberal philosophy, he believed that each individual
had the primary responsibility Ior creating a good society. Founded the Liberal Party in 1944 and received the Presidential Medal oI Freedom in 1964.
1397. Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead
She wrote this novel in 1943 to express her extreme conservative views and her belieI that communism was inherently unworkable. Her philosophy was that society
Iunctions best when each individual pursues his or her own selI-interest, called obiectivism.
1398. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act
1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act oI 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas Ior persons displaced by WWII
and allowed increased immigration oI European reIugees. Tried to keep people Irom Communist countries Irom coming to the U.S. People suspected oI being
Communists could be reIused entry or deported.
1399. Department oI Health, Education and WelIare (HEW)
Created by Republican Congress members under Ms. Overta Culp Hobby oI Texas. Regulated through committees.
1400. Interstate Highways Act
1944 - Began Iederal Iunding Ior an interstate highway system.
1401. St Lawrence Seaway
Waterway to connect Great Lakes on the U.S./Canadian border to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River, it allowed better shipping and transportation, and
improved international relations and trade.
1402. Landrum-GriIIin Act
1959 - Specially tailored to make labor oIIicials responsible Ior the union's Iinancial aIIairs, to prevent bully-boy tactics, ensure democratic voting practices within
unions, outlaw secondary boycotts, and restrict picketing.
1403. Jimmy HoIIa
Leader oI the teamster's union, he was anti-AFL/CIO. He threatened to deIeat Ior reelection an Congressman who dared to vote Ior a tough labor law.
1404. AFL-CIO merger
In 1955 at a New York City Convention, these two once-rival organizations decided to put aside their diIIerences and unite. Had a total membership oI over 15 million.
1405. Alaska, Hawaii
McKinley had purchased Alaska in 1867 Ior nine cents an acre and it was admitted to the Union in 1959. Alaska had great natural resources, including gold and oil
reserves. Hawaii became the 50th state in 1959.
1406. Sputnik
October, 1957 - The Iirst artiIicial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
1407. National DeIense Education Act (NDEA Act)
1958 - This created a multi-million dollar loan Iund Ior college students and granted money to states Ior upgrading curriculum in the sciences and Ioreign languages.
1408. "Military-Industrial Complex"
Eisenhower Iirst coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State oI the Union Address. He Ieared that the combined lobbying eIIorts oI the
armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
1409. Philip Randolph
President oI the Brotherhood oI Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.
1410. Fair Employment Practices Committee
Enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25, 1941 to prohibit discrimination in the armed Iorces.
1411. Detroit race riots
June 25, 1943 - Outright racial war broke out between Blacks and Whites and the government did not send help.
1412. Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma
He wrote this to increase White awareness oI the awIul discrimination against Blacks.
1413. Rural South vs. Urban North
Southern communities were more rural and Northern communities more urban.
1414. To Secure these Rights
A report by the President's Committee on Civil Rights, it was given a year aIter the Committee was Iormed, and helped pave the way Ior the civil rights era. It
recommended that the government start an anti-lynching campaign and ensure that Blacks got to vote.
1415. Desegregation oI the Armed Forces, 1948
In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy oI racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into eIIect as rapidly as possible." He also created a
committee to ensure its implementation.
1416. Korean War (1950-1953)
At the end oI WW II, Korea had been divided into a northern sector occupied by the U.S.S.R. and a southern sector occupied by the U.S. who instituted a democratic
government. On June 25, 1950, the North invaded the South. The United Nations created an international army, lead by the U.S. to Iight Ior the South and China ioined
the war on the side oI North Korea. This was the Iirst time the United Nations had intervened militarily.
1417. "Separate but Equal"
In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in !lessv v. Ferguson that separate but supposedly equal Iacilities Ior Blacks and Whites were legal.
1418. Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka. Kansas
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled !lessv v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated Iacilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1419. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
In 1967, appointed the Iirst Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal deIense Iund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka.
Kansas case beIore the Supreme Court.
1420. Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, she reIused to give up her bus seat Ior a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement
and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
1421. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968)
An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, he earned a Ph.D. at Boston University. The leader oI the Civil Rights Movement and President oI the Southern Christian Leadership
ConIerence, he was assassinated outside his hotel room.
1422. Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students Irom entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S.
paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
1423. Civil Rights Act, 1957
Created by the U.S. Commission oI Civil Rights and the Civil Rights division oI the Justice Department.
1424. Civil Rights Act, 1960
It gave the Federal Courts the power to register Black voters and provided Ior voting reIerees who served wherever there was racial discrimination in voting, making
sure Whites did not try to stop Blacks Irom voting.
1425. Literacy tests, grandIather clause, poll taxes, White primaries
Literacy tests: Voters had to prove basic literacy to be entitled to vote. Because oI poor schools, Blacks were oIten prevented Irom voting. GrandIather clause: Said that
a person could vote only iI their grandIather had been registered to vote, which disqualiIied Blacks whose grandparents had been slaves. Poll taxes and White primaries
were other methods used to keep Blacks Irom voting.
1426. West Jirginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 1942
Decided that a state can require student to salute the Ilag in school.
1427. Korematsu v. U.S., 1944
Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II.
1428. Smith v. Allwright, 1944
Outlawed White primaries held by the Democratic Party, in violation oI the 15th Amendment.
1429. Dennis v. U.S., 1951
In 1948, the Attorney General indicted two key Communist leaders Ior violation oI the Smith Act oI 1940 which prohibited conspiring to teach violent overthrow oI the
government. They were convicted in a 6-2 decision and their appeal was reiected.
1430. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Companv v. Sawver, 1952
Supreme Court decision which restricted the powers oI the president and the executive branch.
1431. Sweatt v. !ainter, 1950
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation oI civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
1432. Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka. Kansas
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled !lessv v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated Iacilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1433. Montgomery Bus Boycott
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks reIused to give up her bus seat Ior a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights
Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
1434. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968)
An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, he earned a Ph.D. at Boston University. The leader oI the Civil Rights Movement and President oI the Southern Christian Leadership
ConIerence, he was assassinated outside his hotel room.
1435. Southern Christian Leadership ConIerence
Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition oI churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.
1436. National Association Ior the Advancement oI Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions Ior inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights Ior Blacks.
1437. Urban League
Helping Blacks to Iind iobs and homes, it was Iounded in 1966 and was a social service agency providing Iacts about discrimination.
1438. Congress oI Racial Equality (CORE)
1941-42 - Interracial until 1962, when it became predominately Black, aIter 1964, only Blacks were allowed to ioin. It concentrated on organizing votes Ior Black
candidates and political causes, successIul even in states like Mississippi and Alabama.
1439. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Organized in the Iall oI 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the
back roads oI Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
1440. Sit-ins, Ireedom rides
Late 1950's, early 1960's, these were nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, oIten braving attacks by angry White mobs.
1441. "I have a dream" speech
Given August 1963 Irom the steps oI the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
1442. March on Washington, 1963
August - 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support Ior the civil rights movement.
1443. Medgar Evers
Director oI the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who deIended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member oI the Ku Klux Klan.
1444. Adam Clayton Powell
Flamboyant Congressman Irom Harlem and chairman oI the House and Labor Committee, he was elected to the House oI Representatives in 1968, but removed Irom
oIIice Ior alleged misuse oI Iunds.
1445. H. Rap Brown
A proponent oI Black Power, he succeeded Stokely Carmichael as head oI SNCC. He was indicted by inciting riot and Ior arson.
1446. Malcom X
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At Iirst urged Blacks to seize their Ireedom by any means necessary, but later changed
position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
1447. Stokely Carmichael
In 1966, as chair oI SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
1448. Black Panthers
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part oI the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, selI-styled revolutionaries Ior
Black Power.
1449. Black Muslims
Common name Ior the Nation oI Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism Irom White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chieI source oI evil in the
world.
1450. Angela Davis
Black Communist college proIessor aIIiliated with the Black Panthers, she was accused oI having been involved in a murderous iail-break attempt by that organization.
1451. Black Power
A slogan used to reIlect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerIul, organized
Black community.
1452. Twenty-Fourth Amendment
1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an eIIort to remove barriers to Black voters.
1453. Watts, Detroit race riots
Watts: August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest oI a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 iniured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages. Detroit:
July, 1967, the army was called in to restore order in race riots that resulted in 43 dead and $200,000,000 in damages.
1454. Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders
In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the Iormation oI two diIIerent American cultures: inner-city Blacks and
suburban Whites.
1455. De Facto, De Jure segregation
De Facto means "it is that way because it iust is," and De Jure means that there are rules and laws behind it. In 1965, President Johnson said that getting rid oI De Jure
segregation was not enough.
1456. White Backlash
Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.
1457. Robert Weaver (b. 1907)
InIluential Black economist, he served in the Department oI the Interior and was Secretary oI Housing and Urban AIIairs under Lyndon B. Johnson, becoming the Iirst
Black Cabinet oIIicial in the U.S.
1458. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
In 1967, appointed the Iirst Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal deIense Iund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka.
Kansas case beIore the Supreme Court.
1459. Civil Rights Act oI 1964, Public Accommodations Section oI the Act
This portion oI the Act stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis oI
race.
1460. Voting Rights Act, 1965
Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed Ior supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote beIore.
1461. Civil Rights Act, 1968
Attempted to provide Blacks with equal-opportunity housing.
1462. Geography: North and South Vietnam
North and South Vietnam were split at the 17th parallel. North Vietnam is bordered by the GulI oI Tonkin on the east and Laos on the west. South Vietnam is bordered
by Laos and Cambodia on the west. West oI Laos and Cambodia lays Thailand.
1463. Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end oI the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial
government. He had traveled in Europe, was an ardent Communist, and became President oI the North Vietnamese government established aIter the French withdrawal.
OIten called the George Washington oI North Vietnam.
1464. Viet Cong
Name given to the guerilla Iighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.
1465. Dien Bien Phu
In 1946, war broke out between communist insurgents in North Vietnam, called the Viet Minh, and the French Colonial government. In the spring oI 1954, the Viet
Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French Iortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. The deIeat was so disastrous Ior the French that they decided to
withdraw Irom Vietnam.
1466. Geneva ConIerence, 1954
French wanted out oI Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, conIining Minh's government to the North. In the
South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
1467. National Liberation Front (NLF)
OIIicial title oI the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
1468. GulI oI Tonkin Resolution
August, 1964 - AIter the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was Iired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to
Vietnam to protect against Iurther North Vietnamese aggression.
1469. Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
An area that both militaries are required to stay out oI in order to create a buIIer between nations. In Vietnam, a Iive mile wide DMZ was established between the North
and South along the 17th parallel.
1470. Domino Theory
1957 - It stated that iI one country Iell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would Iall, producing a domino eIIect.
1471. Tet OIIensive
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding Iorces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the
U.S. embassy Ior a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
1472. Kent State Incident, Jackson State Incident
Kent State: May 4, 1970 - National Guardsmen opened Iire on a group oI students protesting the Vietnam War. Jackson State: Police opened Iire in a dormitory.
1473. Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers
Papers were part oI a top-secret government study on the Vietnam War and said that the U.S. government had lied to the citizens oI the U.S. and the world about its
intentions in Vietnam.
1474. My Lai, Lt. Calley
March, 1968 - An American unit destroyed the village oI My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later.
Lt. Calley, who led the patrol, was convicted oI murder and sentenced to 10 years Ior killing 20 people.
1475. Hanoi, Haiphong
The Declaration oI Independence by the Vietnamese was proclaimed in Hanoi on September 2, 1945. Haiphong is Hanoi's harbor.
1476. Senator Fullbright
Anti-Vietnam War Senator Irom Arkansas, he was head oI the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. In 1966 and 1967, he held a series oI hearings to air anti-war
sentiments.
1477. Bombing oI Laos and Cambodia
March, 1969 - U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral, but done because North
Vietnam was itselI illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned oI by the American public until July, 1973.
1478. Vietnamization
The eIIort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops, it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese.
1479. Paris Accord, 1973
January 7, 1973 - U.S. signed a peace treaty with North Vietnam and began withdrawing troops. On April 25, 1975, South Vietnam was taken over by North Vietnam,
in violation oI the treaty.
1480. Election oI 1960: issues, candidates, "Missile gap"
Kennedy, the Democrat, won 303 electoral votes, Nixon, the Republican, won 219 electoral votes, Byrd, the Independent, won 15 electoral votes. Kennedy and Nixon
split the popular vote almost 50/50, with Kennedy winning by 118,000. The issues were discussed in televised debates. The "Missile gap" reIerred to the U.S. military
claim that the U.S.S.R. had more nuclear missiles that the U.S., creating a "gap" in U.S. deIensive capabilities.
1481. "Impeach Earl Warren"
ChieI Justice oI the Supreme Court, Earl Warren used the Court's authority to support civil rights and individual liberties. He authored Brown v. The Board of
Education of Topeka. Kansas and Roe v. Wade decisions. His liberal attitudes led conservative groups to brand him a communist and lobby Ior his impeachment.
1482. Miranda Decision, Escobedo Decision
1964 - Miranda held that a person arrested Ior a crime must be advised oI his right to remain silent and to have an attorney beIore being questioned by the police.
Escobedo held that an accused can reassert these rights at any time, even iI he had previously agreed to talk to the police.
1483. Baker v. Carr, 1962
The Supreme Court declared that the principle oI "one person, one vote" must be Iollowing at both state and national levels. The decision required that districts be
redrawn so the each representative represented the same number oI people.
1484. Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
The Supreme Court held that all deIendants in serious criminal cases are entitled to legal counsel, so the state must appoint a Iree attorney to represent deIendants who
are too poor to aIIord one.
1485. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
An American marine biologist wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering the Iood chain and eventually concentrating in higher animals,
caused reproductive dysIunctions. In 1973, DDT was banned in the U.S. except Ior use in extreme health emergencies.
1486. New Frontier
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
1487. Kennedy and the Steel Price Rollback
Angry at steel companies Ior cutting wages and increasing prices in the Iace oI his low-inIlation plan, Kennedy activated the Iederal government's anti-trust laws and
the FBI. Awed, steel companies cut their prices back Ior a Iew days, then raised them again slowly and quietly. Kennedy "iawboned" the steel industry into overturning
a price increase aIter having encouraged labor to lower its wage demands.
1488. Peace Corps., Vista
Established by Congress in September, 1961 under Kennedy, dedicated Americans volunteered to go to about 50 third-world countries and show the impoverished
people how to improve their lives.
1489. Berlin Wall
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people Irom Ileeing Irom the East, aIter Kennedy asked Ior an
increase in deIense Iunds to counter Soviet aggression.
1490. Common Market
Popular name Ior the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries oI Western Europe and to
lower tariIIs on trade between its members.
1491. Trade Expansion Act, 1962
October, 1962 - The Act gave the President the power to reduce tariIIs in order to promote trade. Kennedy could lower some tariIIs by as much as 50°, and, in some
cases, he could eliminate them.
1492. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
Reacting to Soviet nuclear tests, this treaty was signed on August 5, 1963 and prohibited nuclear testing undersea, in air and in space. Only underground testing was
permitted. It was signed by all maior powers except France and China.
1493. Lee Harvey Oswald, Warren Commission
November, 22, 1963 - Oswald shot Kennedy Irom a Dallas book depository building, and was later himselI killed by Jack Ruby. ChieI Justice Earl Warren ruled that
they both acted alone.
1494. Bay oI Pigs, 1961
A small army oI ant-Castro Cuban exiles were trained and Iinanced by the U.S. in the hope their invasion would lead to a popular uprising to overthrow the Communist
government. The invasion Iorce landed at the Bay oI Pigs in Southern Cuba, but received no popular support and were quickly wiped out by Castro's Iorces.
1495. United Nations in the Congo, 1960
A Black uprising against the Belgian colonial government in the Congo became increasingly violent with White settlers being raped and butchered. The U.N. sent in
troops to try to prevent civil war.
1496. "Flexible Response"
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory oI massive nuclear war in Iavor oI a military that could respond Ilexibly to any situation at any time, in diIIerent ways.
1497. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1963
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used Ior a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until
the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
1498. Alliance Ior Progress
1961 - Formed by Kennedy to build up third-world nations to the point where they could manage themselves.
1499. Dominican Republic, 1965
President Johnson sent 20,000 American troops to the island to keep a leItist government Irom coming to power.
1500. Salvador Allende
President oI Chile Irom 1970 to 1973, a member oI the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number oI democratic reIorms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown
and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
1501. Panama Canal treaties
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called Ior the gradual return oI the Panama Canal to the people and government oI Panama. They provided Ior the transIer oI
canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
1502. Students Ior a Democratic Society (SDS)
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies oI large corporations, racism and poverty, and called Ior a participatory
Democracy.
1503. "Flower Children"
Hippies who were uniIied by their reiection oI traditional values and assumptions oI Western society.
1504. Charles Reich, The Greening of America
Written in 1970, it predicted a coming revolution with no violence. It oIIers an interpretation oI how the U.S. went wrong and predicts a rebirth oI human values
through a "new" generation.
1505. Election oI 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Barry Goldwater
Goldwater alienated people and was believed to be too conservative. He was perceived as an extremist who advocated the use oI nuclear weapons iI needed to win the
war in Vietnam. LBJ won by the largest margin ever.
1506. Great Society
PlatIorm Ior LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress.
1507. OIIice oI Economic Opportunity
1965 - Part oI the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineIIective due to the complexity oI the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training,
VISTA, and educational programs.
1508. War on Poverty
1965 - Johnson Iigured that since the Gross National ProIit had risen, the country had lots oI extra money "iust lying around," so he'd use it to Iight poverty. It started
many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.
1509. Elementary and Secondary Act
1965 - Provided Iederal Iunding Ior primary and secondary education and was meant to improve the education oI poor people. This was the Iirst Iederal program to Iund
education.
1510. Medicare
Enacted in 1965 - provided, under Social Security, Ior Iederal subsidies to pay Ior the hospitalization oI sick people age 65 and over.
1511. Abolition oI immigration quotas
1965 - Amendments to Immigration and Nationality Act abolished national origin quotas and instead, based immigration on skills and need Ior political asylum.
1512. Department oI Housing and Urban Development
Created by Congress in 1965, it was 11th in cabinet oIIice. AIro-American economist Dr. Robert C. Weaver was named head, and the department regulated and
monitored housing and suburban development. It also provided rent supplements Ior low-income Iamilies.
1513. John Birch Society
Right-wing group named Ior an American missionary to China who had been executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies oI the Great Society
programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren Ior his liberal, "Communist" actions in the Supreme Court.
1514. New LeIt
Coalition oI younger members oI the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, Iree speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood,
and opposed the war in Vietnam.
1515. Senator Robert F. Kennedy
Attorney General under his brother, JFK, he was assassinated in June 1968 while campaigning Ior the Democratic party nomination.
1516. Election oI 1968: candidates, issues
Richard M. Nixon, Republican, won by a 1° margin against Hubert Humphrey, Democrat. The issues were the war in Vietnam and urban crisis oI law and order.
1517. Czechoslovakia invaded
1968 - Liberalization oI Czechoslovakia was crushed by the Soviet Union invasion.
1518. Chicago, Democratic Party Convention riot
August, 1968 - With national media coverage, thousands oI anti-war protestors, Blacks and Democratic supporters were clubbed by Maior Daley's police.
1519. Richard Nixon's "Southern Strategy"
His political strategy oI "courting" the South and bad-mouthing those Northerners who bad- mouthed the South. He chose Spiro Agnew, the Governor oI Maryland, as
his running mate to get the Southern vote.
1520. Governor George Wallace oI Alabama
1968 - Ran as the American Independent Party candidate in the presidential election. A right- wing racist, he appealed to the people's Iear oI big government and made a
good showing.
1521. Moon race, Neil Armstrong
July 20, 1969 - Armstrong becomes the Iirst man to walk on the moon, beating the Communists in the moon race and IulIilling Kennedy's goal. Cost $24 billion.
1522. Sunbelt versus Frostbelt
A trend wherein people moved Irom the northern and eastern states to the south and southwest region Irom Virginia to CaliIornia.
1523. Betty Frieden, The Feminine Mvstique
1963 - Depicted how diIIicult a woman's liIe is because she doesn't think about herselI, only her Iamily. It said that middle-class society stiIled women and didn't let
them use their talents. Attacked the "cult oI domesticity."
1524. National Organization Ior Women (NOW)
Inspired by Betty Frieden, a reIorm organization that battled Ior equal rights with men by lobbying and testing laws in court. NOW wanted equal employment
opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion.
1525. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling Ior equal rights Ior both sexes. DeIeated in the House in 1972.
1526. National Women's Political Caucus
Established by Betty Frieden, encouraged women to seek help or run Ior political oIIice.
1527. Ralph Nader, UnsaIe at Any Speed
1965 - Nader said that poor design and construction oI automobiles were the maior causes oI highway deaths. He upset Congress by asking Ior legislation regulating car
design and creation oI national auto saIety board, NATSA.
1528. Nixon, "New Federalism"
Slogan which meant returning power to the states, reversing the Ilow oI power and resources Irom states and communities to Washington, and start power and resources
Ilowing back to people all over America. Involved a 5-year plan to distribute $30 billion oI Iederal revenues to states.
1529. Spiro T. Agnew, his resignation
October, 1973 - Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges oI tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor oI Maryland. He
was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
1530. "Revenue Sharing"
1972 - A Nixon program that returned Iederal Iunds to the states to use as they saw Iit.
1531. Wage and price controls
1971 - To curb inIlation, President Nixon Iroze prices, wages, and revenues Ior 90 days.
1532. Nixon versus Congress
January, 1973 - Republican party operatives who had broken into the Democratic party Iacility at the Watergate Hotel convicted oI burglary. Investigation oI possible
White House involvement disclosed existence oI Nixon's tapes oI meetings, but the President reIused to turn over the tapes to Congress. Opposition to Nixon created
unity in Congress that allowed passage oI legislation Nixon had opposed.
1533. Watergate
June 17, 1972 - Iive men arrested Ior breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel. Two White House aides were
indicted; they quit, Senate hearing began in May, 1973, Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary. In July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, so he resign with a
disbarment.
1534. Committee Ior the Reelection oI the President (CREEP)
Established in 1971 to help Nixon get reelected. Involved in illegal activities such as the Watergate break-in.
1535. Election oI 1972: candidates, issues
People Ieared that George S. McGovern, the Democratic candidate, was an isolationist because he promised cuts in deIense spending. Richard M. Nixon, the
Republican, promised an end to the Vietnam War and won by 60.7° oI the popular vote.
1536. White House "Plumbers"
Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its iob was to stop the leaking oI conIidential inIormation to the public and
press.
1537. Senator George M. McGovern
Democratic nominee Ior the 1972 election, Irom South Dakota. Somewhat oI a radical, many voters thought he was a hippie and too supportive oI women and militant
Blacks. Ran an unsuccessIul campaign, hampered by lack oI Iunds.
1538. Senator Edmund Muskie
Senator Irom Maine, although he was Iavored to win the Democratic candidacy, he lost to McGovern.
1539. Watergate tapes
Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at Iirst, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings oI the
plans Ior the cover-up oI the scandal.
1540. H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman, John W. Dean and John Mitchel
Men involved in the Watergate scandal, who took the Iall Ior Nixon. Mitchel was Attorney General at the time.
1541. Impeachment proceedings
Special committee led by Ervin began impeachment talks about Nixon. Impeachment hearing were opened May 9, 1974 against Nixon by the House Judiciary
Committee. The Committee recommended 3 articles oI impeachment against Nixon: taking part in a criminal conspiracy to obstruct iustice, "repeatedly" Iailing to carry
out his constitutional oath, and unconstitutional deIiance oI committee subpoenas. Nixon resigned on August 9.
1542. SALT I Agreement
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks by Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. Limited Anti-Ballistic Missiles to two maior departments and 200 missiles.
1543. Detente
A lessening oI tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed Ior trade relations
and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
1544. China visit, 1972
February 21 - Nixon visited Ior a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung Ior improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played
ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
1545. Recognition oI China
Nixon established a trade policy and recognized the People's Republic oI China, which surprised many because China had been an enemy during the Korean and
Vietnam Wars.
1546. War Powers Act, 1973
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so Ior 90 days beIore being required to oIIicially bring the
matter beIore Congress.
1547. Six Day War, 1967
Israel responded to a blockade oI the port oI Elath on the GulI oI Aqaba by Egypt in June, 1967, by launching attacks on Egypt, and its allies, Jordan and Syria. Won
certain territories Ior deIense.
1548. Yom Kippur War, 1973
Frustrated by their losses in the Six-Days War, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel during the Jewish holiday oI Yom Kippur on October 6, 1973. Israel
counterattacked, won a decisive victory, and had even occupied portions oI northern Egypt.
1549. Henry S. Kissinger, "Shuttle Diplomacy"
Policy oI this Secretary oI State to travel around the world to various nations to discuss and encourage the policy oI detente.
1550. Twenty-FiIth Amendment
Made the replacement oI a vice president the same as Ior a Supreme Court iustice, i.e., the president nominates someone and Congress decides.
1551. Twenty-Sixth Amendment
Lowered voting age to 18.
1552. Chicanos
Name given to Mexican-Americans, who in 1970, were the maiority oI migrant Iarm labor in the U.S.
1553. Cesar Chavez
Non-violent leader oI the United Farm Workers Irom 1963-1970. Organized laborers in CaliIornia and in the Southwest to strike against Iruit and vegetable growers.
Unionized Mexican-American Iarm workers.
1554. Warren E. Burger Appointed, 1969
A conservative appointed by Nixon, he Iilled Earl Warren's liberal spot.
1555. American Indian Movement (AIM), Wounded Knee
Formed in 1968 by urban Indians who seized the village oI Wounded Knee in February, 1973 to bring attention to Indian rights. This 71-day conIrontation with Iederal
marshalls ended in a government agreement to reexamine treaty rights oI the Ogalala Sioux.
1556. Multinational Corporations
Most were American business Iirms whose sales, work Iorce, production Iacilities or other operations were worldwide in scope. They represented the latest
development in the continuing growth oI corporate organization.
1557. Arab oil embargo
October 6, 1973 - Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. Moscow backed Egypt and both U.S. and U.S.S.R. put their armed Iorced on alert. In an attempt to pressure America
into a pro-Arab stance, OPEC imposed an embargo on all oil to the U.S.
1558. Organization oI Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab maiority, ioined together to protect themselves.
1559. Balance oI Trade
1973 - U.S. tried to balance its trade to make American goods cost less Ior Ioreigners, in order to encourage them to buy more American products. Resulted in a
devalued dollar.
1560. Alaska pipeline
Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 Ieet in diameter used to pump oil Irom the vast oil Iields oI northern Alaska to the tanker
station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships Ior transport to reIineries in the continental U.S..
1561. The Imperial !residencv
A book written in the later days oI the Richard M. Nixon presidency by Arthur M. Schlensinger, Jr.
1562. Gerald R. Ford
Nixon's vice president aIter Agnew resigned, he became the only president never to be elected. Taking oIIice aIter Nixon resigned, he pardoned Nixon Ior all Iederal
crimes that he "committed or may have committed."
1563. "StagIlation"
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suIIering Irom 5.3° inIlation and 6° unemployment. ReIers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suIIering
both Irom inIlation and Irom stagnation oI its industrial growth.
1564. SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry oI the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too
competitive. Set limits on the numbers oI weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation Ior U.S.S.R.'s invasion oI AIghanistan, and later superseded by the
START treaty.
1565. Election oI 1976: candidate, issues
Jimmy Carter, Democrate deIeated Gerald Ford, Republican. The issues were energy, transportation, and conservation. Carter had no Washington ties. Ford appealed to
the upper- middle class, but Carter won by 1.7 million votes.
1566. Jimmy Carter
Elected to the Senate in 1962 and 1964, in 1974 he became the 39th President, with Vice President Walter Mondale. He secured energy programs, set the Iramework Ior
Egypt-Israel treaty, and sought to base Ioreign policy on human rights.
1567. Amnesty
A general pardon by which the government absolves oIIenders, President Carter oIIered amnesty oI Americans who had Iled to other countries to avoid the draIt Ior the
Vietnam War.
1568. Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called Ior the gradual return oI the Panama Canal to the people and government oI Panama. They provided Ior the transIer oI
canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
1569. Camp David Accords
Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
1570. Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty: Menachem Begin, Anwar Sadat
Product oI the Camp David Accords, Sadat represented Egypt and Begin represented Israel. Israel returned land to Egypt in exchange Ior Egyptian recognition. Earned
both men the Noble Peace Prize.
1571. Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO), Yassar AraIat
Led by AraIat, it was organized to liberate Palestine Irom Israelis in the late '70's and early '80's. Its guerilla warIare and terrorist tactics were not eIIective.
1572. Humphrey-Hawkins Bill
Proposed that detention centers be set up Ior suspected subversives (Communists) who could be held without a trial, it was known as the "concentration camp bill."
1573. Department oI Energy
1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the importance oI energy conservation.
1574. Department oI Education
1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the changing role oI the Iederal government in education.
1575. AIghanistan, 1979
The Soviet Union sent troops into neighboring AIghanistan to support its Communist government against guerilla attacks by Iundamentalist Muslims.
1576. Olympic Boycott, 1980
The U.S. withdrew Irom the competition held in Moscow to protest the Soviet invasion oI AIghanistan. About 64 other nations withdrew Ior this and other reasons.
1577. Iranian Crisis, the Shah, the Ayatollah Khomeini
1978 - a popular uprising Iorced the Shah to Ilee Iran and a Muslim and national leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini, established an Islamic Republic based on the Koran.
President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. Ior medical reasons. Young Iranian militants broke into the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and kept the staII hostage Ior
444 days, releasing them January, 1981.
1578. Election oI 1980: candidates, issues
Ronald Wilson Reagan, Republican deIeated Jimmy Carter, Democrat and John B. Anderson, Independent. The issues were government spending and traditional
values.
1579. Reaganomics
Reagan's theory that iI you cut taxes, it will spur the growth oI public spending and improve the economy. It included tax breaks Ior the rich, "supply-side economics,"
and "trickle down" theory.
1580. Supply side economics
Reaganomics policy based on the theory that allowing companies the opportunity to make proIits, and encouraging investment, will stimulate the economy and lead to
higher standards oI living Ior everyone. Argued that tax cuts can be used stimulate economic growth. Move money into the hands oI the people and they will invest,
thus creating prosperity.
1581. Sandra Day O'Connor
(b. 1930) Arizona state senator Irom 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court oI Appeals in 1979. Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the
Iirst Iemale Justice oI the Supreme Court.
1582. Lech Walesa, Solidarity
President oI Poland in 1990, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. He Iormed the Iirst independent trade union in Poland, called Solidarity, and eventually brought
down the Communist government and instituted democratic government. Credited with initiating the end oI Communist domination in Eastern Europe.
1583. Three Mile Island
1979 - A mechanical Iailure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape oI radiation over a 16 mile radius.
1584. "Moral Maiority"
"Born-Again" Christians become politically active. The maiority oI Americans are moral people, and thereIore are a political Iorce.
1585. Iran-Iraq War
Fought over religious diIIerences, this war lasted many years, Irom 1980 to 1988.
1586. El Salvador
Three U.S. nuns Iound shot in El Salvador in December, 1980. President Carter had stopped aid to El Salvador's right-wing dictator, but President Reagan started it
again.
1587. Falkland Islands War
Between Britain and Argentina, centered around their claims to control over these islands.
1588. Supreme Court: Mapp v. Ohio, 1961
Ms. Mapp was aIIirmed convicted having pornography "on her person" even though Ohio police obtained the material without a warrant. The Supreme Court ruled that
there must be a warrant to search.
1589. Supreme Court: Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
Court decided that state and local courts must provide counsel Ior deIendants in Ielony cases at the state's expense in any serious Ielony prosecution. BeIore, counsel
was only appointed iI the death penalty was involved.
1590. Supreme Court: Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964
Court ruled that there was a right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter Iorced conIessions given without the beneIit oI counsel.
1591. Supreme Court: Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
Court declared that police oIIicers must inIorm persons they arrest oI their rights: the right to remain silent and the right to counsel during interrogation.
1592. Supreme Court: Engel v. Jitale, 1962
Local and state laws requiring prayer in public schools were banned on the grounds that such laws violated the First Amendment.
1593. Supreme Court: School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, 1963
Held that it should not be necessary to require prayer be said in school. School district was said to be violating the First and Fourteenth Amendments.
1594. Supreme Court: Baker v. Carr, 1962
Declared that the principle oI "one person, one vote" must prevail at both state and national levels. Decision required that districts be redrawn as that each representative
represented the same number oI people.
1595. Supreme Court: Wesberrv v. Sanders, 1964
Supreme Court required states to draw their congressional districts so that each represented the same number oI people. "As nearly as practical, one man's vote . . . is to
be worth as much as another's".
1597. Supreme Court: Revnolds v. Sims, 1964
Supreme Court created the one person, one vote grounded in the Equal Protection Clause.
1597. Supreme Court: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S., 1964
Supreme Court said that there would be penalties Ior those who deprived others oI equal enioyment oI places oI accommodation on the basis oI race, color, religion, or
national origin.
1598. Supreme Court: Swan v. Carlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education, 1971
A unanimous decision that the busing oI students may be ordered to achieve racial desegregation.
1599. Supreme Court: Bakke v. Board of Regents. Universitv of California at Davis, 1978
Barred colleges Irom admitting students solely on the basis oI race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to
admit.
1600. Supreme Court: Reed v. Reed, 1971
Equal protection: the Supreme Court engaged in independent iudicial review oI a statute which discriminated between persons on the basis oI sex, making it clear that
the Supreme Court would no longer treat sex-based classiIications with iudicial deIerence.
1601. Supreme Court: Doe v. Bolton, 1973
Supreme Court Iound that physicians consulted by pregnant women had standing to contest the constitutionality oI the state's abortion later

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