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December 2000 North American Native Orchid Journal

December 2000 North American Native Orchid Journal

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NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL

Volume 6 Number 4 a quarterly devoted to the orchids of North America published by the

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December 2000

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5th ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE: Part 2. NEW NAMES FOR FLORIDA EPIDENDRUMS THE SACOILA SAGA CONTINUES RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGERED ORCHIDS IN NORTH AMERICA - Part 4…and more!

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NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL
(ISSN 1084-7332) published quarterly in March June September December by the

NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID ALLIANCE
a group dedicated to the conservation and promotion of our native orchids

Assistant Editor: Nathaniel E. Conard Editorial & Production Assistants: Philip E. Keenan Stan Folsom Nancy Webb The Journal welcomes articles, of any length, of both a scientific and general interest nature relating to the orchids of North America. Scientific articles should conform to guidelines such as those in Lindleyana or Rhodora. General interest articles and notes may be more informal. Authors may include line drawings and/or black and white photographs. Color inserts may be arranged. Please send all inquiries or material for publication to the Editor at PO Box 772121, Ocala, FL 34477-2121 (late May early Oct. Box 759, Acton, ME 04001-0759). 2000 Membership in the North American Native Orchid Alliance, which includes a subscription to the Journal, is $26 per year in the United States, $29US in Canada and $32US other foreign countries. Payment should be sent to Nancy A. Webb, 84 Etna St., Brighton, MA 02135-2830. Claims for lost issues or canceled memberships should be made to the editorial office within 30 days.

Paul Martin Brown

Editor:

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NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID JOURNAL
Volume 6 Number 4 CONTENTS NOTES FROM THE EDITOR 249 December 2000

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5th ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE Part 2

POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID: A Manitoba Research Project Lorne Heshka 251 THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE UNITED STATES Joe Liggio 262 SPIRANTHES PARKSII – NAVASOTA LADIES’-TRESSES Cliff Pelchat 268 THE NORTHEASTERN MEMBERS OF THE PLATANTHERA HYPERBOREA COMPLEX (ORCHIDACEAE). Charles J. Sheviak 280 SPECIES PAIRS Paul Martin Brown 287 th 6 North American Native Orchid Conference 299 NEW NAMES FOR FLORIDA EPIDENDRUMS Eric Hágsater 300

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Unless otherwise credited, all drawings in this issue are by Stan Folsom Color Plates: Plate 1, page 345 Sheviak: Platanthera hyperborea complex Plate 2, page 346 Pelchat: Spiranthes parksii etc. Plate 3, page 347 Pelchat: Spiranthes parksii etc. Plate 4, page 348 Pogonia ophioglossoides forma brachypogon; Sacoila squamulosa; Tipularia discolor forma viridifolia The opinions expressed in the Journal are those of the authors. Scientific articles may be subject to peer review and popular articles will be examined for both accuracy and scientific content. Volume 6, number 4, pages 249-348; issued December 20, 2000. Copyright 2000 by the North American Native Orchid Alliance, Inc. Cover: Vanilla dilloniana by Stan Folsom

RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGERED ORCHIDS IN NORTH AMERICA - Part 4 Anne B. Wagner, Ken Wagner & Paul Martin Brown 311 FRIGHTFUL EXPERIENCES The Slow Empiricist 321 CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS TO VOLUME 6 329 THE SACOILA SAGA CONTINUES Stanley N. Folsom 330 RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 8. Paul Martin Brown 333 A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA Paul Martin Brown 339 Book Review: Native Orchids of the Southern Appalachian Mountains 340 Flora of North America Volume 26 341 7th North American Native Orchid Conference May 2002 343

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NOTES FROM THE EDITOR
This final issue of 2000 contains a wide variety of articles including the conclusion to the series on Rare, Threatened and Endangered Orchids and the second section of proceedings from this past summers' conference. Two articles from the proceedings were not given at the conference, although they were scheduled. Those are the ones by Sheviak and by Brown. Take special note of the notices concerning both the 2001 and 2002 conferences, as well as the publication of several new books. We will start off 2001 in March with an issue devoted to the orchids of south Florida by Roger Hammer. Roger's many years in the swamps and prairies of that region assures us of both an interesting and informative issue. We are still soliciting articles for the rest of the year, so please keep sending them in. Several new books on the orchids of North America are due for publication in 2001/early 2002. These include Ron Coleman's Wild Orchids of Arizona and New Mexixo, Carl Munden's Orchids of Nova Scotia, and our field guide, Wild Orchids of Florida. All are works for areas that have not had recent publications and never in

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book format. The Journal will keep you notified of publication dates and ordering information. Work continues on the Volume 26 of the Orchidales of the Flora of North America. As soon as there is a publication date the Journal will have full ordering information. Paul Martin Brown, editor PO Box 772121, Ocala, FL 34477 352-861-2565 mid-May - late September: PO Box 759 Acton, ME 04001 207-636-3719 e-mail:naorchid@aol.com

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID: A MANITOBA RESEARCH PROJECT Lorne Heshka The western prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera praeclara, is found in a small portion of the tall grass prairie in southeastern Manitoba a few miles from the US border east of Provincial highway #59. In Manitoba and in Canada, this is the only location in which this orchid is found although it does occur in a number of states directly to the south of Manitoba. This orchid has been placed on the “endangered” species list in Canada. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Red River Valley was a vast sea of tall-grass prairie, a complex ecosystem of grasses, flowers and wildlife. As the most productive type of prairie in North America it was soon transformed by settlers into a thriving agricultural community. In 1987, the Manitoba Naturalists Society, in their search for remnants of the tall-grass prairie, found the largest tracts near the towns of Gardenton and Tolstoi in southeastern Manitoba. In 1989, the Critical Wildlife Habitat Program, a cooperative program involving seven conservation organizations, began securing land in this area for a prairie preserve. Over 2000 hectares of tall-grass prairie are now protected within this Preserve.

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

A tall-grass prairie meadow interspersed with poplar bluffs is the typical habitat of the western prairie fringed orchid in Manitoba. This orchid has been observed in 61 quarter sections in and adjacent to the preserve. Several areas of the preserve have a reasonably dense population. The count in one particular meadow in 1999 was 700 blooming plants. Counts from year to year are highly variable and this same meadow in 1998 had very few blooming plants. Total counts for the entire region of the 61 quarter sections were at a low of 1,818 flowering plants in 1995 to a high of 21,000 plants in 1996. There is considerable variation in the plants within this population. In ideal habitat the plants will grow to nearly a meter with up to 30 blossoms on an inflorescence. Some plants have a full fringed lip while others have a noticeably smaller lip with a sparse fringe. The blossom has a long spur, is white and fragrant at night. Considering the length of the spur, the position of the pollinia in relation to the spur opening, and the fact that the flower is white and fragrant at night leads to an assumption that this flower would be pollinated by a night flying insect with sufficient tongue length to reach the nectar at the base of the spur. Those who attended the 1998 NANOA Conference held at Itasca State Park, Minnesota, will recall our field trip to the Tall Grass Prairie Preserve in Southern Manitoba. During that field trip, we were

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

advised of a research project just underway, to determine the pollinators of the western prairie fringed orchid in this area. This project is being carried out under the direction of Dr. Richard Westwood of the University of Winnipeg. Dr. Westwood was unable to attend this conference and has provided me with his slides in order to provide an update of this project since the 1998 NANOA Conference. Dr. Westwood’s e-mail address is r.westwood@uwinnipeg.ca should anyone have questions or require further information. In 1994, prior to this study, approximately 290 plants were tagged in an effort to obtain data on specific plants over a number of years. The data gathered from these tagged plants revealed: a) The portion of dormant plants increased in number each year until by 1999 only 2 plants produced blossoms. b) seed pod production ranged from 10% to 25%, in 1999 the 2 surviving plants both produced seed pods In designing the research project the following factors were considered: - pollination by insects is required but in Manitoba, pollinators and mechanisms were unknown - U.S. research in southern part of the range indicated sphinx moths were responsible for pollination

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

- In Manitoba populations seed set was found to be low and this project was established to study the relationship between the orchid and its pollinators Methods used in this study include: visual observations in 1997 &1998 cone traps were used in 1997, 98 & 99 malaise traps used in 1997, 98 & 99 light traps used in study area 1998 & 1999 in 1999 U.V. dayglow powder was used on blossoms Visual observations – visual observation was used to attempt to determine any possible pollinators during daylight hours. No pollinators were observed. Cone traps – these traps are placed directly over the flowering plant. Insects are attracted to the blossoms and on contacting the sides of the cone, they fly upwards through the opening of the cone are collected in the trap. Malaise traps - this trap is designed in an H pattern. The trap is set up in an area where flowering plants are located on either side of the central barrier. As the insects contact the central vertical barrier, they fly upwards and are collected in the bottle at the top of the trap. Light traps - until now, these light traps were used to collect population information on night flying insects in

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

the region and have been used only where an electrical source is available. This year a portable power source will be provided and the light will be used to attract insects to the areas where malaise or cone traps are used. The lights will be used intermittently and it is hoped that insects attracted to the area will remain. Day-glow powder – this powder fluoresces under a UV light source. The powder is applied to the blossoms of plants adjacent to the cone and malaise traps. Specifically the powder is placed on the blossom around the spur opening. Insects visiting the flowers picks up the day-glow powder and provides a means of identifying insects caught in traps as having visited the flowers. Insects collected from Powder trials Diptera Mosquitoes Crane flies House and Stable flies etc Horse and Deer flies etc Gnats, Midges, etc. Coleoptera Weevils Fireflies June beetles Ground beetles Click beetles 2 12 5 8 2 55 26 873 4450 24

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

Flower beetles Lepidotera Skippers Anglewings Browns Loopers Micros Cutworms Tent caterpillars Snouth moths Hymenoptera Wasps Leaf cutters and Honeybees Parasitic wasps Sweat bees Bumble bees Sawflies Others Leafhoppers Plant bugs Mayflies Stoneflies Caddis flies Lace wings Grasshoppers Scorpion flies Mantisipids Dragon flies

1 10 5 2 18 74 34 15 8 3 13 137 5 6 3 18 2 2 1 6 5 2 2 2 3

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

Insects collected with powder Traces of powder were found on the wing tips or wing covers of: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! mosquitoes 2 stable flies 8 dance flies 1 fruit flies 1 sweat bee 1 fire fly 1 Hyles galli sphinx moth

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As you can see several insects did show evidence of day-glow powder indicating their association with the flowers. Counts of moths with pollinia and/or powder 1997 1998 1999

Sphinx drupifrearum (Wild Cherry Malais Jul 11 Jul13 None Sphinx) e trap Cone none Jul11 None trap Powde n.a. n.a. none r 1999

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

Hyles galli (Galium Sphinx)

Malais none none None e trap Cone Jul 11 none Jul 06 trap Powde n.a. n.a. Jul 06 r 1999

Apart from the Galium moth, none of the insects collected that had contacted the day-glow powder had pollinia attached. Number of species of macro moths collected in light traps ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Cutworms Tent caterpillars Tussock moths Notodontid moths Arctic moths Sphinx moths Loopers Silk moths Ctenucha moths 60 5 3 17 17 14 40 3 2

Sphinx moth total catches 1997-1999 1997 1 0 1998 2 9 1999 0 3

Sphinx drupiferium Pachyspinx modesta

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

Ceratomia undulosa Sphinx kalimae Sphinx lucitiosa Smerinthus jamaicensis Smerinthus cerisyl Poanes excaecatus Poanes myops Cressonia juglandis Drapsa myron Hemaris thysybe Hemaris diffinis Hyles galli

0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 5

1 0 1 25 12 11 7 4 3 4 4 4

tba tba tba 14 1 tba tba tba tba 2 5 3

Several species were collected in fairly high numbers, however, please note in particular the Wild Cherry Sphinx Moth (Sphinx drupiferium) and the Galium Moth (Hyles galli) species.

Sphinx moth flight period 1997 1998 1999

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

Peak Flowering Flowering range

July 2 na

July 4 June 19-20 July 13-20 June 11-17 June 17 June 18

July 7 June23-July 19 n.a. June 9-17 Tba

Sphinx drupiferium July 1 Pachyspinx modesta n.a Ceratomia undulosa n.a. Sphinx kalimae Sphinx lucitiosa Smerinthus jamaicensis Smerinthus cerisyl Poanes excaecatus Poanes myops Cressonia juglandis Drapsa myron Hemaris thysybe Hemaris diffinis Hyles galli n.a. n.a n.a. n.a. n.a.

Tba July 7 June 18 May2–July 18 June 9–July 7

May20– July7 Tba Jun11-July15 Tba n.a. Jun 9–July 3 Tba n.a. Jun17–Jun 25 Tba n.a. May17–July 7 Tba Jun5– Jun 8–July15 tba July 1 Jun10 May31–July 5 tba -Jul 1 Jul8 – May27–Jul 26 tba Jul 31

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

Again note flight periods for Wild Cherry Sphinx and Galium moths. Conclusions - two species of sphinx moth have been identified as pollinators - no other insect group or even other moths have been indicated as pollinators - the Wild Cherry sphinx is uncommon in Manitoba, the galium sphinx is more common but populations fluctuate. - breeding habitat and inadequate overlap of the moth flight periods with the orchid blooming may be limiting factors - further population and life cycle studies must be carried out on at least these two species of moths.
Lorne G. Heshka, 1204 de Graff Place, Winnipeg, Manitoba R2G 1Y8 Canada lheshka@escape.ca

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Liggio: THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE UNITED STATES
Joe Liggio The genus Hexalectris consists of seven species of mycotrophic orchids found primarily in the mountains of Mexico and the southwestern United States. Five species grow in the United States, with one species, Hexalectris spicata, ranging widely from the eastern United States to Arizona and northern Mexico. The crested coral root, Hexalectris spicata/a, thrives in leaf mold in the deep shade of hardwoods and conifers on well-drained knolls and stream banks, and has been found growing on rotting logs. Donovan Correll (1950) considered H. spicata to be " by far the most attractive saprophytic orchid in our region." This widespread and uncommon orchid is most frequent on wooded limestone hillsides and canyon slopes in juniper-oak woodlands of the Edwards Plateau of central Texas. Although known to prefer limestone soils, it sometimes grows in mineral-rich, slightly acidic soil in the Pineywoods Region of eastern Texas. Here it sometimes grows in rich beech-hardwood forests.

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED Liggio: THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE UNITED STATES ORCHID

Hexalectris spicata var. arizonica, a new variety of Hexalectris spicata was recently described in Lindleyana, the scientific journal of the American Orchid Society (Carling & Engel 1993). This rare variety, much less attractive than H. spicata var. spicata, has smaller pale creamy yellow to pinkish flowers that almost never open fully. The creamy yellow to pinkish petals and sepals, striped with purple, converge at their tips to form the somewhat closed flower. Flowers of this variety lack a rostellum, a structure on the column that separates the anther from the stigma and prevents selfpollination in cross-pollinating orchids. It is cleistogamous, which literally means self-pollinating with closed flowers. The vast majority of plants of this variety have closed flowers, but some plants with open flowers occasionally occur. This new variety was discovered in an oak-juniper woodland in southwestern Dallas County by Dale Williams and Victor Engel in 1982. Williams and Engel had observed this confusing variety of Hexalectris spicata for several years and considered it a hybrid between H. spicata and H. nitida. This odd Hexalectris orchid also attracted the attention of Canadian orchidologist Paul Carling, who determined there was insufficient evidence of pollen or seed sterility to indicate hybridization. Therefore, Carling proposed the varietal rank, Hexalectris spicata var. arizonica, for this closed flowered orchid.

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Liggio: THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

Hexalectris nitida, the Glass Mountain coral root, was once believed to be restricted to the Texas TransPecos, where it is found in moist canyons and on north facing slopes in oak-juniper-pinyon pine woodlands. Here, it thrives on leaf litter in the shade of oaks (Quercus spp.), madrones (Arbutus xalapensis ) and big tooth maple (Acer grandidentatum). In 1975, it was discovered in Abilene State Park on the Callahan Divide, a northern extension of the Edwards Plateau. Since that time, it has been found in several other locations on the Edwards Plateau, where it favors juniper-oak woodlands and is often associated with mature Ashe junipers (Juniperus ashei. In this region and in the Trans-Pecos it sometimes grows near the Texas purple spike orchid, H. warnockii. Most of the H. nitida orchids that grow on the Edwards Plateau appear to be self-pollinating,or cleistogamous, and only occasionally display open flowers. Its pollinator is perhaps scarce or entirely absent on the Edwards Plateau. If this is the case, self-pollination offers a significant advantage (Catling and Catling 1991). Hexalectris grandiflora, giant coralroot, is apparently restricted to the Texas Trans-Pecos where it thrives in the oak-juniper-pinyon pine woodlands in July and August after the summer rains begin. It is found mainly in the Davis Mountains where it is rather common. Although it is reported from the Chisos Mountains in Big Bend National Park, it is extremely rare. Hexalectris grandiflora favors humus-rich soil of moist canyons, especially in the shade of oak (Quercus

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Liggio: THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

spp.) and Texas madrone (Arbutus xalapensis) in Texas, and bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum) and basswood (Tilia floridana) trees in northern Mexico. The curly coral root, Hexalectris revoluta, is saprophytic, living on decayed matter in moist and dry oak-juniper-pinyon pine woodlands of rocky streams and canyons. Although it usually blooms in June and July, it sometimes blooms as early as May when spring rains are abundant. In the Chisos Mountains, it sprouts in the rich humus under oak trees, which are often Graves’s oaks (Quercus gravesii). In the Glass Mountains, it grows along side H. nitida in shady spots under lechuguffia (Agave lechuguilla) and shinnery oaks (Quercus havardit) on sunny slopes and ridges (wamock 1977). Hexalectris revoluta is very similar in appearance and no doubt closely related to H. spicata. Ronald Coleman (1999) has reported H. revoluta from Pima County, and possibly Cochise County, Arizona. Apparently first discovered in 1981, but misidentified as H. spicata for nearly 20 years. Hexalectris warnockii is the most frequent and widespread Hexalectris in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park (Luer 1975), appearing every year when there is enough rainfall. It also grows in other mountains of Trans-Pecos Texas and is fairly widespread in the Edwards Plateau. It has been found as far north as the Callahan Divide south of Abilene and the White Rock (Austin Chalk) Escarpment south of Dallas. In the mountains of Trans-Pecos Texas, H. warnockii is found on shaded slopes and dry rocky creek

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Liggio: THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID

beds. It grows in leaf mulch under oak, madrone, and pinyon pine in oak-juniper-pinyon pine woodlands. In the Edwards Plateau, it favors rocky limestone soils covered with leaf mulch in juniper-oak woodlands. Members of this genus are often associated with other plant species and have been reported to be firmly attached to the roots of trees (Correll 1950, Rasmussen 1995). While orchidologists debate whether mycotrophic orchids are parasitic on their mycorrhizal fungi, there may be an even more sinister side to these so called saprophytic orchids. It appears likely that their mycorrhiza may subsist on other living vascular plants either as a symbiot or as a parasite. Other species of mycotrophic orchids, such as Corallorhiza maculata are associated with Armillaria mellea, a virulent tree parasite (Rasmussen1995). Literature Cited Coleman. R. A. 1999 Hexalectris revoluta in Arizona, North American Native Orchid Journal 5(4): 312-316. Correll, Donovan Stewart. 1950 Native Orchids of North America. Waltham, Mass: Chronica Botanica. Luer, Carlyle A. 1975. The Native Orchids of The United States and Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. Rasmussen, H. N. 1995. Terrestrial Orchids: From Seed to Mycotrophic Plant. Cambridge University Press. Joe Liggio, 623 Woodland, Houston, TX 77009 JOE LIGGIO@HOTMAIL.COM

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Heshka: POLLINATORS OF THE WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED Liggio: THE GENUS HEXALECTRIS IN THE UNITED STATES ORCHID

267

Pelchat: SPIRANTHES PARKSII CORRELL – NAVASOTA LADIES’TRESSES

SPIRANTHES PARKSII CORRELL –
NAVASOTA LADIES’-TRESSES Cliff Pelchat Spiranthes parksii, the Navasota ladies’-tresses, is the only endemic orchid that Texas can claim and it has had an elusive history since its discovery in 1945, and was first described by Donovan Stewart Correll, (Correll 1947). In his 1950 book, Native Orchids of North America North of Mexico, Correll states that it was discovered in Texas in 1945 and that it had no close allies in North American orchid flora; "This species has no close allies in our flora. Its affinity seems to be with several Mexican and Central American species. It apparently occurs in moist habitat, and blooms in October." (Correll 1950) The specimens Correll used to describe the Navasota ladies’-tresses were collected by Haliburton Braley Parks along the Navasota River (Democratic Bridge) in Brazos County, (Correll 1947). For the next 30 years H. B. Parks was the only person to have seen a live specimen of this plant. Many of the herbarium specimens deposited by H. B. Parks contain short nonspecific descriptions for location (such as “Democratic Bridge”), which certainly contributed to the difficulty of locating existing populations of S. parksii. Carlyle Luer

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Pelchat: SPIRANTHES PARKSII CORRELL – NAVASOTA LADIES’TRESSES

along with Correll searched for the plants on 2 different occasions without finding them leading him to speculate on their origin; "The writer has thoroughly searched the type locality, along the Navasota River in eastern Texas, in two different years, once with Dr. Correll, but without success. Within a radius of a few miles, three familiar species of Spiranthes were discovered in flower: S. cernua, S. ovalis, and the robust Texan S. lacera var. gracilis . . .It is considered unlikely that a southern relict might survive in the western part of the Coastal Plain and the Eastern Woodland where no other localized endemic species of orchid is known to occur. However, endemic species of other plants are not infrequent. Very possibly Spiranthes parksii represents an aberrant or polyploid form of var. gracilis, or a non-persisting hybrid of var. gracilis and S. cernua." (Luer 1975) Nevertheless, S. parksii Correll was listed as endemic to Brazos County, Texas, (Correll 1950) and (Correll & Johnston 1970). In 1975 it was listed as an Endangered and Threatened Orchid of the United States, (Ayensu 1975). And, in 1982, it was listed as federally endangered (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1997). Throughout the 1980’s and 1990’s it has had a tendency to become newsworthy such as when it stopped the expansionof Texas highway 6 in 1983, (Liggio 1999), or when it became the focus of a conservation effort in 1990 that involved the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens and the San Antonio Botanical Gardens, when 500 plants were reproduced for planting back into the wild, (Houston Chronicle 1990).

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Pelchat: SPIRANTHES PARKSII CORRELL – NAVASOTA LADIES’TRESSES

Rediscovery
On October 25th, 1978 the Navasota ladies'tresses was rediscovered in Brazos county by Paul Catling and K. L. McIntosh in a Post Oak woodland northwest of the town of Navasota (Catling and McIntosh 1979). They located 7 plants along the banks of a temporary stream surrounded by scattered oaks (post oak, Quercas stellata and blackjack oak, Quercas marilandica) along with American beauty berry, Callicarpa americana. Another site with 13 plants was also discovered close by in an open oak woodland on the banks of another temporary stream. They reported that Spiranthes parksii occurred both on the tops of banks in open sand with a sparse cover of grass and on the sides of banks in the shade of tress and thickets. Since that time it has been documented in Lee, Leon, Freestone, Grimes, Burleson, Madison, Robertson, Fayette, Washington and Jasper counties, (Liggio 1999) and (Bridges and Orzell 1989). The Jasper county site represents a small disjunct population within the Piney Woods of Angelina County National Forest in East Texas 170 kilometers east of all other known populations. Recent surveys of the Jasper County Black Branch Barrens area of the Angelina National Forest have resulted in finding a few other plants (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1997).

Range/Habitat
Spiranthes parksii, with the exception noted above for Jasper County, inhabits the Post Oak Savannah

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Pelchat: SPIRANTHES PARKSII CORRELL – NAVASOTA LADIES’TRESSES

region of East Texas. The Post Oak Savannah is a region located northwest and west of Houston and occupies a space between the Blackland Prairies to the west and the Piney Woods to the east. To the south the Post Oak Savannah tapers out and mixes with the Blackland Prairies habitat, (Figure 11). This unique habitat is made up of an area of about 8,500,000 acres of gently rolling hills with elevations from 65 to 300 meters above sea level. It receives about 75 to 115 cm of rainfall annually with the peak rainfall occurring during the months of May or June. Vegetatively it consists of open fields dominated by tall grasses and spots of woodlands that are comprised mostly of post oak, Quercus stellata and blackjack oak. Quercus marilandica. Soils consist of acid loamy sands in the upland areas to acid loamy sands and clays in the bottomland areas. (Correll & Johnston, 1970) The area was extensively cultivated for grains, vegetables and fruit trees up through the 1940’s. (Wilson, unpublished) This cultivation may explain the rarity of S. parksii and the disjunctive nature of some of the populations. Within this range Spiranthes parksii is found mostly along drainage areas that represent naturally disturbed areas through the post oak woodlands leading to the Navasota River and is rarely if ever found in unnaturally disturbed areas such as roadsides, powerline right of ways or open fields (Wilson, unpublished). When I first began searching for this plant I looked in
1

See Color Plates 2 & 3, pages 345-347.

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Pelchat: SPIRANTHES PARKSII CORRELL – NAVASOTA LADIES’TRESSES

the open grassy areas near woods and along drainages areas [outside of woods] as described by others and as noted on herbarium sheets, e.g. Texas International Speedway. Though I found some plants, mostly at the beginning of drainage areas from the grassy fields leading into woodlands and adjacent to the edge of woods along hiking trails the most plants were found within the woods on the banks of the natural drainage ditches. This observation confirms that Spiranthes parksii does not typically inhabit open areas or areas disturbed by man. Today S. parksii is well documented growing in the Navasota region and one especially good and accessible (because it is not private property) location is Lick Creek Park located in College Station. I have observed it growing in this park along the banks of drainage streams and at the mouth of these drainage areas leading from the open grassy areas of the Post Oak Savannah. I have also observed it growing on the margins of the wooded forest near drainage ditches where hiking trails have been formed. This habitat lies in close proximity to Texas A & M University and Dr. Hugh Wilson, from the University, undertook a detailed study of S. parksii. Unfortunately this study was brought to an abrupt halt by the expansion of a recreational bike path.

Morphology
The genus Spiranthes is highly variable from the morphological point of view and, at times, it is difficult

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to differentiate between species in the field. The problem of field identification is compounded for the species S. parksii because it blooms at the same time and in the same range as two other species, S. cernua (L.) L.C. Richard and S. lacera Raf. var. gracilis (Bigel.) Luer, and is found in similar habitat as S. cernua mixed in with blooming populations. However, once one establishes a pattern of identification there is no mistaking S. parksii for either S. cernua or S. lacera var. gracilis, though there are some plants that seem to be intermediate between S. parksii and S. cernua and these are not easily resolved in the field. While photographing these plants with a 105mm macro lens many of the characters described by Correll (Correll 1947 and 1950) are apparent. The line drawing by G. Dillon that accompanies Correll’s description is extremely accurate, and looks as if it was drawn form a live specimen rather then an herbarium sheet. The plants I have observed are from 21 cm to 25 cm tall with the flowers taking up the top 7 cm - 8 cm of the spike (Fig. 2). They are in 4 ranked coils of 14 to 30 flowers that spiral counterclockwise looking down on the top of the plant. The plants tend to have the flowers concentrated more at the top of the rachis twisting, generally, in a CCW direction forming 4 ranks giving the rachis a symmetrical appearance. In contrast S. lacera var. gracilis tends to have a single rank forming a long spiral to the top for most of the length of the rachis. There are no leaves present at anthesis, but I have observed the leaves of plants in the springtime and

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they form basal rosettes of 2 to 3 lance like elliptic shaped leaves (Fig. 7). It should be noted that I find the number, size and dimensions of leaves for Spiranthes spp. to be quite variable depending on the time of year observed, the amount of moisture present and apparently the amount of nutrients in the soil. Plants of S. vernalis grown in pots and fed high nitrogen fertilizer have produced over 8 large grass like leaves along with one large bract like leaf on the spike that have sustained through anthesis compared to the 4 to 5 often observed in the field. These observations suggest that identification of S. parksii based on vegetative characteristics of the rosettes is highly unlikely unless the plants were specifically marked while in bloom. The flowers and most of the rachis are covered in a fine pubescence, the apex of which is tipped with a ball or club. The same pubescence is found on S. cernua but S. lacera var. gracilis is essentially glabrous. The characteristically obovate petals, (Correll 1947), are also easily seen in the field through the lens of the camera or with a 10x loupe. The lip is presented in such away that the apex has a cleft and the center leading inward to the column is padded on each side and creamy yellow in color, (this coloring is also described by Catling & McIntosh 1979). The margins of the lip are ragged and tooth like or in botanical terms dentate compared to the crenulate (scalloped or round toothed) and undulate (wavy) appearance of S. cernua. Small pubescent hairs can be observed in the throat of the corolla formed by the lip, dorsal sepal and petals, (Figure 3). The

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distinctive oval shape of the petals (Correll 1947) can be seen, in the field, under close observation with a loupe or through the lens of a camera. The floral bract is white tipped which is often referred to as a single identifying characteristic of this orchid, but (in this authors experience) cannot in itself be used as a single characteristic for identification because S. cernua can also show a tendency for whitening of the floral bracts. Overall the flower shape is quite distinctive in that it appears to be short and fat. When viewed from the side, the flower from the ovary to the tip of the dorsal sepal forms an arch giving the flower a humped shape in relation to its length and width and extends horizontally from the rachis instead of drooping or nodding as in the case of S. cernua. The dorsal sepal extends just beyond the petals, curls upward at the apex, and has a cleft at the apex. The lateral sepals hug the corolla tightly and look like 2 upturned horns following the lines of the upturned apex of the dorsal sepal and extending a little beyond it. The flower coloring is white with variations from creamy yellow to white in the center of the lip and yellow to light green coloring running through the petals from the base to the midpoint. In the same location and blooming simultaneously, as mentioned above, with Spiranthes parksii is S. cernua, (Fig. 4). These plants include examples of the sexual and asexual apomictic types, along with peloric forms as well as the “cleistapogamic” characteristic referred to by C. Sheviak, (Sheviak, 1982) (Fig. 5). I have also observed examples of S. parksii that

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appear to be apomictic, and exhibit some peloria, (Fig. 6). These plants have monstrous looking flowers that are tightly closed with the lip barely protruding pointing straight up parallel with the axis of the stem. On some of the flowers the lateral sepals are at an angle away from the corolla and many of the unopened flowers below at the bottom of the spike are already withering while the ovaries are swelling. Another most unusual characteristic was the almost completely white floral bracts. Close examination of these revealed fine green striping running lengthwise to the apex, but they were mostly white. I have observed the same white coloring in the ovaries of peloric forms of S. cernua. I have also observed plants that seem to be intermediate between S. cernua and S. parksii in that they have the general appearance of S. parksii with regards to general flower shape, presentation of the lateral sepals and white tipped floral bracts, however the lip margin is much more undulate and the lateral sepals are not as closely pressed to the corolla. C. Sheviak noted that S. parksii is linked to the S. cernua complex “by its reproductive mode and some morphological characteristics and indeed is likely related” (Sheviak 1982). I believe that further, more detailed, studies of S. parksii are required to understand its standing within the S. cernua complex and will lead to a clearer understanding of the origin of this plant.

Conservation
Earlier in this article I made mention of Lick Creek Park and the bike trails that destroyed the on going study being conducted by Hugh Wilson from the

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Texas A & M University. In this case the community of College Station wanted recreational mountain bike trails and the best habitat for this type of recreation happens to be prime habitat for Spiranthes parksii – humans 1, orchids 0. Repeated attempts by Hugh Wilson to have the area set aside as a preservation area fell on deaf ears, both at the community level and the national level, e.g. the Federal Government and the Nature Conservancy. Even Texas Highway 6 was allowed to proceed through prime S. parksii habitat once a so called mitigation plan, involving a preservation area now referred to as a weed lot, (Wilson unpublished), was built – humans 2, orchids 0. The most disturbing example of habitat destruction for S. parksii, however, is the clear cutting of trees in documented S. parksii habitat (remember it is essentially a woodland orchid) for the purpose of building the giant Texas A&M bonfire in the name of tradition and school spirit – humans 3, orchids 0, they [the orchids] are out! In 1994 Hugh Wilson made repeated attempts to save this habitat from destruction, both to the Texas A&M University administration, and to the Director, Office of Endangered Species for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. Of course all of the habitat destruction is well within the boundaries of the law and perfectly legal, but one has to question the ethical ramifications and hypocrisy of this situation. Ironically the only true protection of S. parksii is being afforded by the Texas Municipal Power Authority, (TMPA), as a result of strip-mining operations on leased land. This protection will also disappear as the mining operations

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wind down and the land leases expire removing them from the stewardship of the TMPA.

Summary
Spiranthes parksii is an interesting and unusual orchid. It is interesting because it has a limited range and therefore can teach us much about the conservation of orchid species as we continue to study its habitats. The general observations of the Lick Creek Park populations show that there are similarities between S. parksii and S. cernua and indicate that further more detailed studies will result in a better understanding of this relationship. Finally, I hope that greater awareness of this orchid and others like it will lead to better conservation efforts on the part of individuals that will insure that all of the natural wonders around us are available to future generations.

References: Ayenus, E.S. 1975. Endangered and Threatened Orchids of the United States. Amer Orchid Society Bulletin 44(5): 384 – 394 Catling, P. M. and K. L. McIntosh. 1979. SIDA 8(2): 188-193 Correll, D. S. 1950. Native Orchids Of North America North Of Mexico. Waltham, Ma. Chronica Botanica Correll, D. S. 1947. A new Spiranthes from Texas Amer. Orchid Society Bull. 16:400 Correll, D. S. and Johnston, M. C. 1970. Manual of The Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation,1970. Bridges, E. L. & S. L. Orzell 1989. Additions and noteworthy Vascular Plant collections from Texas and Louisiana, with historical, ecological and geographical notes. Phytologia 66: 12-69

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Houston Chronicle 1990, Kathy Huber. Lab Gardeners Try To Thwart Orchid Pirates. Houston Chronicle, Saturday 2/10/1990, P.1, 2 Start edition. Liggio, J. and Liggio A.O. 1999. Wild Orchids of Texas. University of Texas Press, 1999. Luer, C. A. 1975. The Native Orchids of The United States and Canada Excluding Florida. New York Botanical garden, New York. Evans, Robert E. and MacRoberts, Michael H. and Barbara R. 1997. Notes On Spiranthes parksii Correll (Orchidaceae) Deep In East Texas. Phytologia, 83(3) September 1997: 133-137 Sheviak, C. J. 1982. Biosystematic Study of the Spiranthes cernua Complex. New York State Museum Bulletin No. 448 1982. Wilson, H. D. unpublished. Spiranthes Parksii - Endangered Orchid of the Texas Post Oak Savannah, Texas A & M Website. Cliff Pelchat, 5222 Timber Quail Drive, Atascosita Park, TX 77346 cliffp@fl-orchid.com

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THE NORTHEASTERN MEMBERS OF THE PLATANTHERA HYPERBOREA COMPLEX (ORCHIDACEAE)
Charles J. Sheviak The Platanthera hyperborea complex is a taxonomically perplexing group that has defied satisfactory treatment for over 150 years. Despite repeated investigation by some of the world's leading systematists, the number, delimitation, and, indeed, the nature of species in the group has remained elusive. In recent years progress has been made through a synthesis of information obtained from continent-wide field study, cultivation of representative samples, and search for new characters. These efforts have now permitted the unambiguous application of the name P. huronensis (Nutt.) Lindl. The information that established the identity and status of this plant, however, remarkably also showed that the long-standing application of the name P. hyperborea (L.) Lindl. to a North American plant was incorrect, and that in fact our plant was a distinct and previously unrecognized species. The identities of the three species involved have recently been discussed (Sheviak, 1999); a summary of these findings is presented here.

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Among North American workers, the name Platanthera hyperborea has been rather uniformly applied for about half a century. It has been used for the transcontinental, particularly small-flowered plant with yellowish, rhombic-lanceolate lip and clavate spur shorter than the lip. A remarkable feature of these plants is their propensity to self-pollinate. The column is low, with the anther sacs wide-spreading and nearly lying atop the stigma. From them the pollinia literally fall onto the stigma below. Perhaps as part of this autopollination syndrome, flowers are commonly scentless. The flowers are still capable of out-crossing, however, as pollinaria are complete with orbicular viscidia. After years of familiarity with the plant in the Midwest and elsewhere, I moved to New York and found there a very different plant dominating the group’s typical fen habitat. Although this plant was commonly treated locally as Platanthera hyperborea, it was not the plant that went by that name in my experience, but was instead something I knew from the central Canada. This plant has larger, whitish green flowers with a lip commonly rounded-dilated at the base and a more slender spur about the length of the lip. Moreover, the flowers are intensely fragrant with a sweet-pungent scent. The plants are not selfpollinating, the column being much higher with the anther sacs more nearly parallel, and the pollinia are

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contained within them until removed by a pollinator. The viscidia are oblong. The color, fragrance, and shapes of lip, spur, and viscidia of these eastern plants all suggested hybrids involving Platanthera dilatata (Pursh) Lindl. ex Beck, with it’s brilliant white, intensely clove-scented flowers with strongly dilated lip, slender spur, and linear viscidia. Arguing against such an interpretation, however, was the dominance of these intermediate plants in large populations without the presence of other species. Cytology provides the key here, for the greenish white plants are tetraploids, whereas both Platanthera dilatata and the other green-flowered plant are diploids. Quite clearly, these intermediate-appearing plants arose through hybridization of P. dilatata and a green-flowered species, perhaps the plants that we’d known as P. hyperborea. Chromosome doubling then fixed the intermediate morphology and simultaneously reproductively isolated the tetraploids from their diploid progenitors. The biology, then, was reasonably clear, but what were we to call the plants? In 1818 Thomas Nuttall published Orchis huronensis Nuttall, describing a plant that he had encountered “on the islands of Lakes Huron and Michigan” while on an expedition to Fort Mandan. Unfortunately, he evidently lost the specimens, and a type is unknown. Given the complexity of the group and the difficulty of interpreting even living plants, his

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name understandably has been variously applied. With the information that has been gained in recent years, however, it is now possible to establish the identity of Nuttall’s plant. The color, lip shape, and spur length specified by Nuttall precisely agree with the tetraploid plants discussed here, and furthermore, no other plant known from the upper Great Lakes region fits his description. Additionally, sketches of the lip in his expedition journal emphasize the rounded-dilated base that clearly excludes the other green flowered plant of the region. Clearly the plants under consideration here are to be called Platanthera huronensis. It should be noted also that Platanthera ×media (Rydb.) Luer is commonly used for suspected hybrids, but Rydberg’s type is typical of P. huronensis and hence is to be treated as a synonym. This is a remarkably clear and precise resolution to a very old problem in this group, but, typically perhaps, it is not quite so clean as it first appeared. Consistent application of the data that had been obtained to delimit the two eastern green-flowered plants disclosed a contradiction: The North American plants treated as P. hyperborea are diploid, but in Iceland, from where the species was originally described, plants are reported to be tetraploid. Are Icelandic plants merely tetraploid derivatives of the North American species? Subsequent study of Iceland specimens disclosed that, in fact, Icelandic plants are

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morphologically very different from the American plants that had born their name. My interpretation of Icelandic plants is necessarily provisional, as it is based solely on study of herbarium specimens and on published photographs and descriptions. From these sources it is evident that considerable variability is present on the island. At one extreme, plants are rather tall and slender, with acuminate-lanceolate lips and slender spurs that together appear comparable to Platanthera huronensis in North America. The majority of plants are much shorter, however, with broad-segmented flowers commonly with rather short, broad lips abruptly angular-dilated at the base and a short, clavate spur. The flowers furthermore typically open widely and immediately, without the prolonged period during which the apex of the lip may be adnate to the apices of the dorsal sepal and petals, as is typical of American plants. Columns are rather low, the anther sacs widespreading, but not so extreme as in P. aquilonis; the column is intermediate between those of the two American species, yet the viscidia are very narrow, often linear and narrower than in P. huronensis. Published descriptions and photographs indicate that the flowers are whitish green or yellowish, and sweetly fragrant. From the literature and study of specimens it appears that some, but perhaps not all, plants are self pollinating, perhaps in the manner of P. aquilonis.

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It is not possible from the available sources to establish whether the Icelandic variability occurs within a single taxon or results from the presence of more than one. Clearly, however, nothing in Iceland exhibits the suite of characteristics seen in the North American Platanthera aquilonis; Icelandic plants are therefore not merely tetraploid derivatives of the North American plant. On the other hand, the larger Icelandic plants are very similar to P. huronensis, and thus raise the question of the relationship between P. hyperborea and P. huronensis. The smaller Icelandic plants, however, appear to be quite different, and, furthermore, the type of Linneaus’ Orchis hyperborea is very small and represents the smallest extreme of the range in variation. Given the differences between the majority of Icelandic plants and American plants of P. huronensis, in the absence of evidence to the contrary it appears best to maintain P. huronensis as distinct from P. hyperborea. Obviously, this isn’t the end of the story. The relationship of P. hyperborea and P. huronensis must be explored further. Does true P. hyperborea occur on the North American mainland, or is it truly limited to Greenland? Typical of the group, each time a question is answered new ones are raised that compel one to keep looking.

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Literature Cited: Sheviak, C. J. 1999. The identities of Platanthera hyperborea and P. huronensis, with the description of a new species from North America. Lindleyana 14: 193-203.

Charles J. Sheviak. Biological Survey, New York State Museum,
Albany, NY 12230. e-mail: csheviak@mail.nysed.gov. See color plate 1 for illustrations.

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SPECIES PAIRS
Paul Martin Brown Two species that have taxonomically be treated as a single species or as varieties and then revalidated as individual taxa are often referred to as species pairs. Because of their close similarities they can often be confusing, both in the field and in herbarium specimens. The following are examples of species pairs that are found in the United States and Canada. The most distinctive and critical character is cited to differentiate between the species. There may also be several other criteria that serve to differentiate between the two such as range, pollinator, fragrance etc. References are given for works that explain the differences in greater detail. Several other North American species could also be considered part of a species pair but the other species does not occur within our range. The accompanying drawings are of entire plants and do not necessarily illustrate the critical characters. Several species pairs are well illustrated in Luer's two volumes on the orchids of the United States and Canada and in Correll's Native Orchids of North America north of Mexico. These are noted with each description.

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Calopogon barbatus - petals widest below the middle Calopogon multiflorus - petals widest above the middle

C. barbatus

C. multiflorus

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Cleistes bifaria - column 13<n>19 mm long; lip 26 mm long; leaf and bract broadly lanceolate Cleistes divaricata - column 21<n>25 mm long; lip 34<n>56 mm long; leaf and bract narrowly lanceolate
Catling, P.M. & K.B. Gregg. 1992. Lindleyana 7(2): 57-73.

C. bifaria

C. divaricata

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Habenaria macroceratitis - anterior division of the lateral petal more than twice (20-24mm) the length of the posterior division (8-11mm); flowers, when view straight on, with a distinct rectangular aspect; spur often greater than 10 cm (in living material); plants of rich mesic hardwood hammocks Habenaria quinqueseta - anterior division of the lateral petal less than twice (10-18mm) the length of the posterior division (6-9mm); spur typically less than 10 cm (in living material); plants of open pinelands, hedgerows and fields

H. macroceratitis

H. quinqueseta

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Malaxis wendtii - inflorescence densely flowered, lip saggitate Malaxis porphyrea - inflorescence loosely flowered, lip triangular
Salazar, G. 1993. Orquidea(Mex.) 13(1-2): 281-284. Todsen, T. SIDA 1995. 16(3): 591. Todsen, T. SIDA 1997. 17: 637-638.

M. porphyrea

M. wendtii

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Platanthera macrophylla - spur; length 28 mm or longer, horizontal; petals upward spreading Platanthera orbiculata - spur length 28 mm or shorter, descending; petals wide spreading
Reddoch, A.H. & J. M. Reddoch 1993. Lindleyana. 8(4): 171-188.

P. macrophylla

P. orbiculata

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Platanthera psycodes - spur oriface a transverse dumbell Platanthera grandiflora - spur oriface round
Stoutamire, W.P. 1974. Brittonia 26: 42-58.

P. grandiflora

P. psycodes

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Platanthera leucophaea - plants primarily east of the Mississippi River; lobes of the lip on a flat plane Platanthera praeclara - plants primarily west of the Mississippi River; lobes of the lip bowl-shaped
Sheviak, C. J. & M. Bowles. 1986. Rhodora. 88: 267-290.

P. leucophaea

P. praeclara

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Platythelys querciticola - longest leaf proportions 4:1; capsule prominently ribbed; plants of central and northern Florida Platythelys sagreana - longest leaf proportions 6:1; capsule indistinctly ribbed; plants of southern Florida
Brown, P.M. 1998. NANOJ 5(1):3

P. querciticola

P. sagreana

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Ponthieva brittoniae - petals narrow lacking the green striping Ponthieva racemosa - petal broad, prominently striped with green
McCartney, C.L., Jr. 1995. NA Native Orchid Journal 1(2): 106-116.

P. brittoniae

P. racemosa

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Spiranthes brevilabris - rachis and inflorescence densely glandular Spiranthes floridana - rachis and inflorescence essentially glabrous

S. brevilabris

S. floridana

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Spiranthes amesiana - margin of lip crenulate Spiranthes torta - margin of lip ciliate-undulate

S. amesiana

S. torta

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Vanilla dilloniana - sepals and petals slender, c. 1 cm wide, 5+ cm long Vanilla barbellata - sepals and petals broad, c. 1.5 cm wide, less than 5cm long

V. barbellata

V. dilloniana

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NEW NAMES FOR FLORIDA EPIDENDRUMS
Eric Hágsater The genus Epidendum consists of some 2000 species ranging throughout the Neotropics from Florida to northern Argentina. Due to the similarity of many species, they were often lumped into one or another “variable” species, sometimes consisting of groups of over fifty distinct entities. Some of these groups are today better understood, though new material continues to shed light on the species diversity. The difforme group is one of these, mainly thanks to the work by Hágsater and Sánchez, of which there is a brief overview and key to species in Sánchez & Hágsater, (1996) as presented at the World Orchid Conference in Río de Janeiro. Among the many findings, some apply to several Florida orchids. Some of which have led to the description of one new species, and the recognition of earlier names or the recognition of species which had been lumped into synonyms.

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81. 1813.) is the earlier name of Epidendrum conopseum R. Brown ex Aiton, (Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 5: 219. 1813). Mühlenberg’s Catalogue was published in October, whereas Aiton was published in November of the same year. Rules of taxonomic priority require that the earlier name be used instead of the well-known name published by Robert Brown.

Epidendrum magnoliae Mühl. (Cat. Pl. Amer. Sept. p.

Epidendrum floridense Hágsater
The name Epidendrum difforme Jacq. was used until the late 1980’s for some 65 species which form the difforme group. In 1993 Hágsater and collaborators published several new species distinguishing the various entities found in the Antilles and Florida, which are distinct from the true Epidendrum difforme. This species is endemic to the Lesser Antilles, and is easily recognizable by the strongly laterally compressed, ancipitose stems, among other characteristics. Florida shares one species of this group with Cuba, recognized by the terete stems, cordate, emarginate lip, short, rounded calli, straight column with an obtuse tooth at each side of the apex, and the short, obconical clinandrium which has an erose margin. This species was described as Epidendrum floridense Hágsater (1993a).

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There are two other species in Cuba, namely Epidendrum umbellatum Sw. with large, succulent plants, the stems laterally compressed and ancipitose, narrowly oblanceolate petals, and a 3-lobed lip deeply bilobed at the apex. The other, with compact plants is Epidendrum orientale Hágsater & M. A. Díaz (1993), which has terete stems, a bilobed lip with the lobes semiovate and sometimes notched at the margin, giving the impression of a 4-lobed lip, deeply cordate base, apex widely emarginate, margin crenulate, with two short, wide, divergent calli, column arcuate and the clinandrium irregularly dentate. Key to the species of the Epidendrum difforme group in Florida and the Greater Antilles Stems laterally flattened Sheaths ancipitose (two-edged), midlobe of the lip subquadrate to transversely rectangular, plants robust, lip larger than 12 x 19 mm, column straight to slightly arched, clinandrium prominent, erose; widespread throughout the Antilles …………………..E. umbellatum Sheaths, rounded, midlobe of lip emarginate, less than 11 x 19 mm, column strongly arched, clinandrium upturned, entire; Puerto Rico and Hispaniola ………………………………E. boricuarum Stems terete Plants elongate, not vigorous, up to 26 cm tall, lip 5-9 x 9-18.5 mm, margin entire, clinandrium entire; southern Florida and Cuba…………E. floridense Plants compact, vigorous, 7-12 cm tall, lip 5-6.5 x 1011 mm, margin sinuous, clinandrium dentate; known

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from eastern Cuba, Hispaniola and Jamaica…………………………………E. orientale

Epidendrum amphistomum A. Rich.
The species which is commonly called the brown orchid in Florida, and has been identified as Epidendrum anceps Jacq. is not the widespread species of the Antilles, but rather, a species endemic to southern Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. It was described from Cuba by Achilles Richard as Epidendrum amphistomum in 1853. It is recognized by the tall plants and the lip bilobed, not deeply 3-lobed. The choice of the name brown orchid in Florida is unfortunate, as it is mostly greenish-yellow, and the name was probably taken from Epidendrum fuscatum Sw., a synonym of E. anceps. Though the plants are usually green and the flowers yellow-green, a reddish-leaved form has been described by P. M. Brown (2000). It is said to be scattered throughout the Fakahatchee Swamp. Garay (1974) suggested that the name Epidendrum secundum Jacq. should be used instead of Epidendrum anceps for the brown to green flowered species of the Antilles. This was due to his choice of type for either name. However, Hágsater (1993b) has discussed the typification of both names and lectotypified Epidendrum secundum Jacq. This name applies to the pink flowered species closely related to the brightly colored South American species common in cultivation.

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Key to the species of the Epidendrum anceps group in the Antilles and north of Nicaragua Petals oblanceolate-spathulate Lip bilobed, flowers greenish yellow, sometimes, copper brown, fragrance of over-ripe vegetables, Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola…..E. amphistomum A. Rich. Lip 3-lobed, the apical lobe emarginate, flowers brownish to green, widespread throughout the Antilles………………………………E. anceps Jacq. Petals filiform Lip 3-lobed, sepals olive-green, lip purple, southern Mexico to Nicaragua …………...E. galeottianum A. Rich.
REFERENCES: Brown, P. M., 2000. Recent taxonomic and distributional notes from Florida 5. North Amer. Native Orch. Journ. 6(1): 62-66. Garay, L. A. & H. R. Sweet, 1974. Orchidaceae, in R. A. Howard, Flora of the Lesser Antilles. pp. 156, 158, Fig. 56. Hágsater, E., 1993b. Epidendrum anceps or Epidendrum secundum? Orquídea (Méx.) 13: 153-158. 1993a. Epidendrum floridense Hágsater, Icones Orch. 2: 133. Hágsater, E. & M. A. Díaz, 1993. Epidendrum orientale Hágsater & M. A. Díaz, Icones Orch. 2: 167. Hágsater, E. & L. Sánchez, 1993. Epidendrum boricuarum Hágsater & L. Sánchez, Icones Orch. 2: 114. Sánchez, L. M. & E. Hágsater, 1996. Taxonomic study of Hágsater: NEW NAMES FOR FLORIDA EPIDENDRUMS Epidendrum difforme group (Orchidaceae). Proceedings of the 15th World Orchid Congress. pp. 235-244. Eric Hágsater Herbario AMO, Apartado Postal 53-123, México D.F. 11320, MEXICO

eric@internet.com.mx

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Wagner, Wager & Brown: RARE, THREATENED & ENDANGERED ORCHIDS OF NORTH AMERICA: Part 4. Canada

RARE, THREATENED AND ENDANGERED ORCHIDS OF NORTH AMERICA Part 4. Canada
Anne B. Wagner, Ken Wagner, Paul Martin Brown In continuing the four-part article on the listed orchids in North America, the data accumulated by Anne & Ken Wagner for Canada is presented. Several Provinces and regions have no listing for rare, threatened or endangered species. Please remember in reading this information it is essential to know that each state or province has its own criteria and definitions of rare, threatened and endangered. Unfortunately personal opinions and priorities often color the makeup of these lists. We are trying to give references wherever possible for the plants that are listed. Some states and provinces update continually, other as far apart as 10 years! Very few afford legal protection to the plants. Websites are given and a contact person when known. The nomenclature used is as it was received from the various sources and often does not agree with contemporary usage. In this installment a complete list of cross-reference for the names is given.

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If a given species is not listed for a given state or province it means that the status has not been determined - and that for any number of reasons. When available, the status within the state or province is given. Although abbreviations are not always consistent the following usually are reliable: (may be preceded by a S for state) E = Endangered S1 T = Threatened S2 R=Rare S3 SC= Special Concern S3 X= extirpated H = historical U = unknown For precise definitions and current status readers are encouraged to contact the sources listed for each state and province.
ABERTA Joyce Gould http://www.gov.ab.ca/env/parks/anhic/anhic.html Cypripedium acaule-- S2 Cypripedium montanum-- S2 Listera caurina-- S1S2 Listera convallarioides-- S2 Malaxis monophylla-- S2 Malaxis paludosa-- S1S2 Platanthera stricta-- S2 Spiranthes lacera-- S1 ATLANTIC CANADA Stefen H. Gerriets, Data Manager

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stefen.gerriets@ec.gc.ca no status given Amerorchis rotundifolia Arethusa bulbosa Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus Calypso bulbosa var. americana Coeloglossum viride var. virescens Coeloglossum viride var. viride Corallorrhiza maculata Corallorrhiza striata var. striata Corallorrhiza trifida Cypripedium acaule Cypripedium arietinum Cypripedium parviflorum Cypripedium planipetalum Cypripedium pubescens Cypripedium reginae Epipactis helleborine Galearis spectabilis Goodyera oblongifolia Goodyera pubescens Goodyera repens var. ophioides Goodyera tesselata Liparis loeselii Listera auriculata Listera australis Listera borealis Listera convallarioides Listera cordata var. cordata Listera x veltmanii Malaxis brachypoda Malaxis unifolia Platanthera albida var. straminea Platanthera blephariglottis Platanthera blephariglottis var. blephariglottis

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Platanthera clavellata Platanthera dilatata var. dilatata Platanthera flava var. flava Platanthera flava var. herbiola Platanthera grandiflora Platanthera hookeri Platanthera hyperborea var. huronensis Platanthera hyperborea var. hyperborea Platanthera lacera Platanthera lacera var. lacera Platanthera lacera var. terrae-novae Platanthera leucophaea Platanthera obtusata Platanthera orbiculata var. macrophylla Platanthera orbiculata var. orbiculata Platanthera psycodes Platanthera x andrewsii Platanthera x media Pogonia ophioglossoides Spiranthes casei var. casei Spiranthes casei var. novaescotiae Spiranthes cernua Spiranthes lacera var. lacera Spiranthes lucida Spiranthes ochroleuca Spiranthes romanzoffiana Spiranthes x intermedia

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BRITISH COLUMBIA Liparis loeselii s1 Malaxis brachypoda s2s3 Malaxis diphyllos s1? Malaxis paludosa s2s3 Platanthera dilatata var. albiflora s1? MANITOBA François Blouin www.gov.mb.ca/natres/cdc No status given Arethusa bulbosa Calopogon pulchellus Cypripedium arietinum Cypripedium candidum Cypripedium calceolus var. planipetalum Goodyera tesselata Listera auriculata Listera borealis Malaxis brachypoda Malaxis paludosa Malaxis unifolia Platanthera hookeri Platanthera lacera var. lacera Platanthera psycodes Platanthera praeclara Pogonia ophioglossoides Spiranthes magnicamporum ONTARIO Michael J. Oldham Michael.Oldham@mnr.gov.on.ca Aplectrum hyemale S2 Coeloglossum viride var. virideS2?

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Corallorhiza odontorhiza S2 Cypripedium arietinum S3 Cypripedium calceolus var. planipetalum S1 Cypripedium candidum S1 Isotria medeoloides S1 Isotria verticillata S1 Liparis liliifolia S2 Listera auriculata S3 Listera australis S2 Listera borealis S2 Malaxis paludosa S1 Platanthera blephariglottis S3S4 Platanthera ciliaris SX Platanthera flava var. herbiola S3 Platanthera grandiflora S1 Platanthera leucophaea S2 Platanthera macrophylla S2 Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis S1 Spiranthes magnicamporum S3 Spiranthes ochroleuca S2 Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata S1 Triphora trianthophora S1 QUEBEC Aplectrum hyemale T Corallorhiza odontorhiza var. pringlei T Cypripedium arietinum vulnerable SASKATCHEWAN Arethusa bulbosa s1 Calypso bulbosa s3 Coeloglossum viride var. virescens s3s4 Corallorrhiza striata s2s3 Cypripedium arietinum s1 Cypripedium candidum sh g4

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Cypripedium montanum s1 Cypripedium passerinum s2 Cypripedium pubescens s2 Cypripedium reginae s1 Goodyera oblongifolia s2 Liparis loeselii s1s2 Listera borealis s1 Listera cordata s2 Malaxis monophyllos var. brachypoda s1s2 Malaxis paludosa s1 Platanthera dilatata s2 Platanthera orbiculata s2s3 Spiranthes lacera s2s3 NWT: None listed as Rare, Threatened or Endangered CROSS-REFERENCES FOR SYNONYMS: Nomenclature always presents a problem with synonyms because different agencies use different sources for their lists. Apart from what one may think is a correct name, we have tried to cross-reference synonyms to make the list more usable. If a taxon is listed that does not occur in North America we have replaced it with the taxon that is generally accepted. The original spelling provided by the various agencies has been preserved and no attempt has been made to correct it. Calopogon pulchellus = C. tuberosus Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum = C. parviflorum var. makasin Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens = C. parviflorum var. pubescens Cypripedium calceolus var. planipetalum = C. parviflorum var. pubescens (planipetalum not a valid taxon) Cypripedium calceolus = C. parviflorum in variety (C. calceolus does not occur in NA)

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Epidendrum conopseum = E. magnoliae Habenaria dilatata = Platanthera dilatata Habenaria unalascensis = Piperia unalascensis Habenaria viridis var. bracteata = Ceologlossum viride Malaxis ehrenbergii = M. pophryrea Malaxis macrostachya = M. soulei Malaxis monophylla = M. brachypoda Orchis spectabilis = Galearis spectabilis Platanthera hyperborea = P. aquilonis Spiranthes brevilabris var. floridana = S. floridana Encyclia boothiana = Prosthechea boothiana var. erythronoiodes Encyclia cochleata = Prosthechea cochleata var. triandra Encyclia pygmaea = Prosthechea pygmaea Epidendrum difforme = E. floridanum Galeandra beyrichii = G. bicarinata (G. beyrichii does not occur in the US) Govenia utriculata = G. floridana (G. utriculata does not occur in the US) Leochilus labiatus does not occur in the US Oncidium bahamense = Tolumnia variagata Oncidium luridum = Lophiaris maculata (O. luridum does not occur in the US) Polyradicion lindenii = Dendrophylax lindenii Spiranthes adnata = Pelexia adnata Spiranthes costaricensis = Beloglottis costaricensis Spiranthes elata = Cyclopogon elatus Spiranthes lanceolata var. paludicola = Sacoila l. var. p. Spiranthes polyantha = Mesadenus lucayanus (M. polyanthus does not occur in the US) Triphora latifolia = T. amazonica Triphora yucatenensis = T. rickettii

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FRIGHTFUL EXPERIENCES
The Slow Empiricist This column is devoted to some of the problems that orchid enthusiasts have encountered in their field experiences. It is hoped that the wise will figure out some means of circumventing these occurrences better than what actually happened. Of course, many of the events were unhappy accidents that no one could have foreseen happening. For those situations it is hoped that the wise will understand what were the fortunate circumstances that insured a positive outcome. Let's start with the accidents that could befall anyone. I will relate an accident that happened to myself a few years back. I was with Paul Martin Brown in New Hampshire. We had driven to the base of Peaked Mountain, a smaller mountain that had a rare plant on it's upper slopes. No, it was not an orchid! Even the most avid orchid enthusiast usually has other species that interest him/her. We were looking for the White Mt. silverling, Paronychia Canadensis var. albimontana, which grew in this location. We had our dog, Brandy, with us and I was also outfitted with a warm jacket and the ubiquitous bug spray that I carry since the bugs love me as soon as I show my face in their proximity. Paul carried his photography equipment and off we went.

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The initial ascent was through a lovely copse that thinned as we climbed. When we broke out of the trees we were high above the wooded valley on some spectacular rocky slopes. They formed a broad pavement that was easy to traverse. Pushing ever higher, we finally came to the place where the silverling grew. Paul got his photographs and the dog and I enjoyed the view. As we started down, I stepped on a section of the slope that was darker than the surrounding pavement. It was in reality a moist patch of lichen that I ventured on. My feet went out from under me and I fell flat on my back against the granite pavement. It knocked the wind out of me and after I caught my breath and ascertained that I could move, I detected a sharp pain in my right shoulder. There was nothing for me to do but to struggle to my feet and work my way off the mountain. I certainly did not anticipate falling on those smooth pavements nor did I enjoy my descent. To make a long story shorter, I cracked my rib when I fell. Most likely I fell on my bug spray container, which was in my jacket pocket and must have twisted up and behind me as I fell. I would have fared better if I had carried a soft, plastic, squeeze-type container. Two days later, after a visit to the emergency room of the local hospital showed my problem to be a crack in my rib, I fractured it completely when I sneezed. This time I was alone in the woods near my summer home. I had decided I needed to get my strength back for a West Coast trip I was scheduled to take that week. I literally crawled home in agony. I

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ended up wearing a Velcro back brace for my trip to the Olympics in Washington State two days later. If I could have been more alert to what I was treading on up on that mountain, I could have avoided most of ensuing problems but I had not even thought in the terms of the rocks being wet. There was no clue that water had been seeping out of the rocks except for the darker color. I was still novice enough not to recognize that sign. It did make a good story for my companions on the trip to the Olympics and I got a lot of sympathy for my troubles. It is still not the way to go and I urge anyone who is venturing into mountain territory to be cautious of where they are stepping. It is interesting to what lengths a wildflower enthusiast will go to photograph a particular specimen. On that Olympic trip I saw many who clambered up sheer cliff sides to get close enough to photograph a particular plant or to inch just as precariously down a steep slope to reach another specimen. With my injury I was content to stay on the trail and I very often found the same specimens close to the trail. The plants had either washed down from their perch or had seeded in at a more convenient level. I remember Paul Martin Brown hanging over the side of a cliff with the ocean crashing against the rocks below to get a photograph of the giant rattlesnake orchid, Goodyera oblongifolia, up in the Gaspe of Quebec, Canada. If he leaned much further I had visions of him hurtling 150 feet to the rocks below. No orchid is worth

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risking your life for it but many people don't think they will have a problem and risk life and limb to catch that elusive photograph. Speaking of Paul Martin Brown, he had a terrifying experience this past spring while he was working his way back to the car from a very successful photographing session. He was in the Everglades in southern Florida and had completed his quest of photographing Oncidium floridanum. As he was walking over the rough terrain that was rocky limestone outcrops and dangerous solution holes (holes in the limestone substrata that could be anywhere from a few cm to several meters across) he caught his walking stick in a tiny hole and was thrown off balance when he lurched to the side and his foot went into another larger solution hole. He fell flat forward ripping his hands on the rough limestone and tearing up his leg. Blood shot up from his palm and he passed out. Fortunately the park biologist was with him and together they stemmed the bleeding and after ascertaining nothing was broken managed to walk the mile or so to the ranger's vehicle. At the research station Paul realized his leg was pretty badly damaged. He ended up in the emergency room and had over 38 stitches in the two wounds by the time the doctors were through with him. If Paul had been alone he could have easily died out there. People who venture into dangerous territory should have a companion with them. A lot of people think they can do it alone because they are young and strong. They also go alone because they take their cell

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phone with them, thinking they can call for help. That may work and then again it may not. There may be no cell service in that particular wilderness or as in Paul's case you might be unconscious. Then there are those people who wander off from their companions and get lost in the wilds. That has happened to me since I don't photograph and I like to explore. Once I walked for what seemed miles down a parallel path that gradually took me further away from the others until I got out on the road and realized I had wandered nearly a mile from where we went into the preserve. Now, I always take the time to note landmarks as I get out of sight of the others. I also turn around occasionally because things look entirely different going the other way. I related in an earlier column how Paul and I searched for Calopogons in the Everglades until darkness overtook us. That could have presented a serious problem if we were not near to the parking area when night fell. It was also advantageous that the trail was fairly smooth and easy to make out in the gloom. The area was also fairly civilized with campgrounds and facilities nearby. This meant we were not in much danger from night predators. Finding a dangerous animal or reptile on your excursions is another event you need to be aware of and have some idea of how you will react. In Florida there are creatures like alligators and snakes that can appear almost magically as you wend your way into their

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territory. Since it is their territory you should treat them with respect and get out of their immediate way. Walking sticks that sweep the area in front of you can send a snake slithering away or at least warn you that they are there as they bestir themselves to attack or to let you see them. I am told rattlesnakes have learned not to rattle as they have been killed off as they reveal their presence. At least Paul only heard a tiny sound that clued him to the presence of a large diamond backed rattler close to him. Alligators, I am told cannot turn quickly so you can avoid them by zigzagging away from them if you are on dry land. Water confrontations are not so easily avoided. But what are you doing in water that deep in the first place? My best advice is to be very alert and proceed slowly in such situations. Sometimes you get the wrong information and end up in a troublesome situation. Paul Martin Brown was at Schoodic Point in Maine and hoped to see a rare gentian that grows on an island that can be reached by a land-bridge at low tide, but is isolated by the sea at high tide. He stopped at the Coast Guard station to see if the tide was going out. He was assured it was, so he took his camera equipment and crossed the channel. He started his explorations and fortunately noticed that the tide was NOT going out, but was coming in. He barely managed to make the return crossing as the chilly water was rapidly coming up to his chest. A wet and angry Paul let the Coast Guard know they were wrong. The sailor said what did he know he was from Oklahoma.

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Lastly, people have had problems when they travel to a particular site for plants. When you are on your way to a new orchid site, are you familiar with the terrain? We were excited about traveling through the Smoky Mountains and going up the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia to see the spring wildflowers and orchids. The weather was less than cooperative and we encountered lots of fog and drizzle, which impeded our success in locating many plants. We had to leave the area because part of the Parkway was closed due to the weather and encountered a horrendous rainstorm with lots of wind and lightening. By judicially pulling into an area business and waiting out the storm we avoided running straight into a tornado that touched down along the area we would have been traveling through had we not stopped. We could not do much about the weather because we were scheduled to travel in that part of the country at that time but we certainly could do something about waiting out the problem. Another potential problem with travel occurs when you have more than one vehicle making the journey. Often people who are in a caravan of automobiles going to a new area don't take the time to make sure whoever is behind them has kept pace. Sometimes a traffic light will change and delay the people behind and sometimes other cars will infiltrate the caravan and make following difficult. It is a good idea for someone knowledgeable about the area to act as sweep; riding at the rear of the caravan to make sure everybody gets there.

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So how do you prepare for those miserable accidents and stupid miscalculations that land you in trouble? My best advice is to try to prepare wisely for your expedition. Try to get the most accurate information available. Check maps to ensure you know where you are going. Make sure your vehicle is in good traveling condition. Know what the weather is going to be like. If you are less than sure footed, carry a walking stick and use it judicially. Know your strengths and don't overreach yourself and your abilities. Try to always share your orchid expeditions with a fellow human who can act as helpmate if need be. Be prepared to do the same for them. Take items like the cell phone, extra food, water or compass that you may need to circumvent a problem. When a problem occurs, don't panic! Use all those abilities that have gotten you this far in your life to get you out of your predicament. Good hunting on no more terrifying experiences.
Your Slow Empiricist

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CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS TO VOLUME 6 Please make the following corrections and additions to Volume 6 number 1, March 2000.

ETYMOLOGY: rubrifolium for the coloring of the leaves forma nova Forma multifolius inter inflorescentia conspeciebus diversa;. TYPE: UNITED STATES: Florida, Alachua County. Holotype: off Williston Road c. 3 miles west of I-75. January 23, 2000. Brown 20123 (holotype, FLAS). Photo. NANOJ 2000 6(1): 74.

Epidendrum amphistomum A. Richard forma rubrifolium P.M. Brown forma nova

Page 61: should read:

Listera australis Lindley forma scottii P.M. Brown

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Folsom: THE SACOILA SAGA CONTINUES

THE SACOILA SAGA CONTINUES Stanley N. Folsom If you read my article about discovering a new color form for the red flowered ladies'-tresses, Sacoila lanceolata, in last year's Journal, which Paul Martin Brown described and named for me you may be interested in learning the latest about this species. As this orchid, the green and white form and the regular red colored ones started to bloom along the Florida turnpike, the authority in charge of the roadside continued its care of the orchids by carefully mowing around the plants. They do this while they are in bloom and wait until they have set seed before they mow them off. Paul Martin Brown flagged some of the rarer plants like the gold form, S. lanceolata forma folsomii, but as the turnpike had already been mowing around the plants they merely served as markers to facilitate finding them after they are out of bloom. Because of the turnpike authority's concern, it looks like they will be safe for another year. A new site for the red form of the plants was found this spring along SR 200 in Ocala, Florida. They were found on a stretch of the highway that is being 6 laned from 2 lanes. Paul thought the plants were far enough back from the widening to survive the

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roadwork. There were approximately 15 flowering stems. However, when Paul returned to Florida in August of 2000 to capture several species blooming then with photographs for our new book, The Wild Orchids of Florida, he thought that the roadwork had eradicated the site for the Sacoila lanceolata. We will not know for sure until we see if any come back after the work is finished. At the very least the heavy equipment was parked in that area or at the very worst the entire population was wiped out as they reshaped the berm of the roadway. I discovered another new roadside site nearly opposite a site on US 301 in Starke that Paul had found it spring. It appears to be safer as the roadwork there is completed and the lady who owns the property was thrilled to have it growing on the banking at the edge of her land. This summer while Paul was working on reviewing a new book on the orchids of the Caribbean, he came upon a notation of a Sacoila squamulosa listed for Florida among the references in the book. This intrigued him because he has been very hard at work putting the finishing touches on our new book. He had not heard of this orchid as being in Florida. He promptly went to work to find out if he could find the citations that put this orchid in Florida. The author, Mark Nir, e-mailed Paul right back with the two references in their original Spanish. One was published in 1910 and the other in 1946. As neither of us is fluent in Spanish the translation took a bit of time to unravel. I located a Spanish/English dictionary that we had picked up at a discount salvage store and we set out to decipher

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the meaning. Paul could understand the Latin words and the dictionary had most of the Spanish words translated in it. He read me the word and I looked it up as we slowly pieced together the description of the plant. We also took the paper to a neighbor who knew Spanish conversationally and her son who had traveled in Central America was also able to fill in several missing links. Paul's ability to recognize the implications of the text coupled with his curiosity about some Sacoila plants that had not been typical when he discovered them growing near our Florida home lead him to search out his photographs of these plants and compare them to the photo the author had e-mailed him. Checking out the descriptions from the Spanish references Paul determined that his photos most likely were of S. squamulosa. To be really sure of his suspicions, we made a hurried trip down from our summer home in Maine to Harvard University's Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames and botany library. Here he was able to get more information including colored drawings of the plant and a line drawing made by Oakes Ames in 1922. Things were definitely falling into place and just in time to make The Wild Orchids of Florida publication. Paul's following article will give more technical information on the species.

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RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 8.
Paul Martin Brown
In continuing the work for the Wild Orchids of Florida: a field guide, one new taxon, several notes of interest and three taxonomic transfers need to be made.

Sacoila squamulosa (H.B.K.) Garay

In Orchidaceae Antillinae (Nir, 2000) Sacoila squamulosa (as Stenorrhynchos squamulosa) has Florida listed in its range. After carefully comparing the literature from several West Indian works that list the species as distinct, as well as illustrations, it became evident that Sacoila squamulosa does indeed occur in Florida. In 1997 plants of Sacoila were found in Marion County and when they flowered in May of 1998 they were somewhat different from typical Sacoila lanceolata. Sacoila squamulosa is described as having scurfy white dots throughout the rachis and inflorescence, and, although still pubescent, lacking in the dense fine pubescence of S. lanceolata. Also the mentum is much more pronounced. Both of these characters were present in the Marion County plants. In addition, Sacoila lanceolata (at least in Florida) is apomictic and the plants identified

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as S. squamulosa appear to be sexual. Recent examination of herbarium specimens has reveal S. squamulosa in three other central Florida counties.

Sacoila squamulosa

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Mesadenus lucayanus (Britton) Schlechter

There has been much confusion over two species of Mesadenus to be found in the West Indies, Mexico and Florida. Mesadenus polyanthus (syn: Spiranthes polyantha Reichenbach f.) is the more frequently used name for these plants, and M. lucayanus (syn. Spiranthes lucayana (Britton) Cogniaux ex Urban) placed in synonymy. After extensive examination of herbarium material at the Orchid Herbarium of Oakes Ames at the Harvard University Herbaria of M. polyanthus I am satisfied that there are indeed two species and that the only species to be found in Florida is M. lucayanus. From notes taken at AMES, August 2000:

All of the high elevation, above 1600m - 6000+ m, plants are strikingly the same and labeled Mesadenus polyanthus. They are large and robust with a very thick scape (to 1 cm), with very prominent, divergent, stem bracts averaging 3.5 x 0.8 cm. These were one of the most noticeable features as compared to M. lucayanus of lowlands and West Indies and Florida which has a much more slender scape and appressed bracts. The inflorescence on all of the M. polyanthus was 'rat-tailed' and very congested, full and completely surrounded the stem unlike the plants seen in Florida which, although they are slightly spiraled, the arrangement is loose and all of the flowers are on one side of the stem. There were several specimens from "lava fields at 7300'" which all had long-petioled leaves. Most of the habitats noted were rocky, near xeric areas. Plants of M. polyanthus varied from 30 - 95! cm in height. Florally, the flowers of Mesadenus polyanthus were much larger overall than those of M. lucayanus and the sepals were longattenuate so as to give them a spidery look. Colors noted varied

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from green to yellow to copper so that really does not count for much. As to the lip shape: if the lip is ovate-oblong on M. lucayanus then it is clearly lanceolate on M. polyanthus. I examined the lips on 29 M. polyanthus specimens and they were very consistent and all were lanceolate and very slightly dilated at the base, whereas I examined the lips of 12 M. lucayanus specimens and they had more or less ovate-oblong lips - not as consistent as polyanthus but certainly not like the M. polyanthus specimens. Excellent photographs of the types of both were at AMES. In summary: Plants robust to 75+ cm high and inflorescence 1 cm+ thick; lip lanceolate to 7.5 mm long; lateral sepals spreading, slender, longacuminate to 1 cm long; lower stem bracts c. 3.5 - 7.5 cm, spreading; plants of high elevations in north central Mexico (1600-6300 m) growing in exposed rocky areas and lava flows….M. polyanthus Plants slender to 50+ cm tall and inflorescence 5 mm thick; lip ovate-oblong to oblanceolate up to 6.5 mm long; lateral sepals 4 6.5 mm long, falcate, lower stem bracts c. 0.5 - 2.5 cm, loosely appressed to stem; plants of scrub forest to 150 m, in Florida in Quercus/Juniperus limestone woodlands and shell mounds at lowest elevations…..M. lucayanus.

Tipularia discolor forma viridifolia P.M. Brown, forma nov.

TYPE: United States: Florida. Marion County. November 2000. (Holotype: N. A. Nat. Orchid J. 6(4): 438, plate 4(c). Forma viridis in superficiebus ambabus folii conspeicibus diversa

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Differing from typical Tipularia discolor in having the leaves green on both sides. Although the intensity of purple on the leaves of Tipularia can vary even within a population, few plants occur that have leaves entirely lacking in purple pigmentation. The Marion County plants represent the species at the southern limit of it range.

Basionym: Bletia purpurea var. alba Ariza-Julia & J. Jiménez Alm. Rhodora 62: 236. 1960.

Bletia purpurea forma alba (Ariza-Julia & J. Jiménez Alm.) P.M. Brown status nov.

To maintain consistency, color forms are being recognized at the forma level, rather than at the varietal level.

Lophiaris maculata forma flavovirens (P.M. Brown) P.M. Brown comb. nov.

Basionym: Oncidium undulatum forma flavovirens P.M. Brown N. A. Nat. Orchid J. 1(2): 132. 1995. The recognition of the genus Lophiaris for the muleeared oncidiums requires a new combination for the forma.

Basionym: Epidendrum conopseum var. mexicanum L. O. Williams. Ceiba 2: 152. 1951

Epidendrum magnoliae var. mexicanum (L.O. Williams) P. M. Brown comb. nov.

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Brown: RECENT TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES FROM FLORIDA 8.

With the recognition of Epidendrum magnoliae A. Richard as the prior name of Epidendrum conopseum (see Hágsater NANOJ 6(2): 299) a new combination is necessary for the variety mexicanum. Hágsater (pers. comm.) is not totally satisfied that the plants in Florida are the same as Williams' Mexican plants (or that the var. mexicanum sensu Williams is a valid taxon), but in recognizing var. mexicanum in Florida (Brown, NANOJ 5(1):3) I concluded that the Floridian plants met Williams' description and matched his type. Hágsater feels that these plants need further analyses to determine if they represent var. mexicanum or an undescribed taxon. At this time I am proposing the transfer to prevent these very distinctive Floridian plants from falling back into synonymy.

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Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA
Paul Martin Brown Fernald's description of Pogonia ophioglossoides variety brachypogon has often been a puzzlement to botanists as they have searched for plants in the type locality in Nova Scotia. Although Pogonia can easily be found, no plants conforming to Fernald's description have subsequently been found. His noting of the short, knobby beard and caespitose habit of the plants appeared to be very distinctive. In recent years I have found plants in both New Hampshire and Maine that conform to Fernald's description. These plants were growing in wet gravels, both in disturbed areas. The plants were very distinctive. This difference in the morphology and habit appear to be more one of an adaptation to habitat and nutrients than one of a permanent genetic change. This condition appears rather frequently in several other species in Northeastern North America. Platanthera orbiculata forma lehorsii and P. hookeri forma abbreviata are two examples. These ecological-induced variations are best treats as forma rather than varieties. I proposed the following transfer: Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Juss. forma brachypogon (Fernald) P.M. Brown stat. nov.
Basionym: Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Juss. variety brachypogon Fernald, Rhodora 23: 245. 1922.

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Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

Native Orchids of the Southern Appalachian Mountains
Stanley L. Bentley University of North Carolina Press 235 pages. $39.95 cloth, $24.95 paper ISBN 0-8078-4872-7

BOOK REVIEW:

This long-awaited book by Stan Bentley brings no disappointments. The informative narrative both educates and delights the reader. Bentley's details for each species cover a wide range of topics including the natural history of the species as well as the technical aspects. His photography is superb and the reproduction appears faithful. Although nothing appears to be lacking in the species accounts, it could only be wished that there were more information on each species, as Bentley's style is so readable. The work is the first general publication of information on Corallorhiza bentleyi, named for the author, with full color illustrations and the interesting hybrid Liparis xjonesii. I only have two criticisms of the book and the primary one is that of the publishers choice to put the page number in the inside gutter where they are very difficult to use. A curious design decision! The other is that Cypripedium calceolus is given as a synonym for Cypripedium parviflorum. It is not; it is a misapplied name for the plants in North America. This is a volume that all orchid enthusiasts will want for their library and will continue to use for many years. PMB

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Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

CHANTICLEER FOUNDATION FUNDS Flora of North America
An update on Volume 26 that contains the Orchidaceae The Flora of North America (FNA) project received the outstandingly good news in January 2000, that the Chanticleer Foundation of Wayne, Pennsylvania, had approved a major grant to support the production of the Flora. The Foundation has committed $432,000 for the year 2000, with the expectation that funding at that level, contingent on the publication of two volumes of the Flora per year, will continue for six years, for a total of nearly $3 million. Members of the FNA community are very grateful to Chanticleer Garden director Christopher Woods, whose vision and leadership made this grant possible. This may the first time that a foundation created to support a botanical garden has agreed to fund a major botanical research project in which it is not itself programmatically involved. On 18 March the FNA Management Committee met with Mr. Woods to review the conditions of the grant, to determine the most effective way to apply the funds to achieve the goals set forth in the award and to prioritize work on the next several volumes. It was determined that Volume 26, because of its advanced state of preparation, will be the first volume to go to press since the grant was received. Volume 26 contains the Liliales and Orchidales and is being readied for publication at the FNA editorial center at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation in Pittsburgh. Although it was hoped that the volume would be sent to the publisher by the end of this year, it has recently become clear that this will not be possible.

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Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

Significant progress has already been made, however, with only a few treatments still outstanding, and the volume is expected to be ready for publication in early 2001. In addition to supporting the Chanticleer Garden, the Chanticleer Foundation provides support for important local and regional horticultural activities and was seeking to support a horticultural and educational project of national and international significance. After several years of discussion between Nancy Morin and Chris Woods, Flora of North America was selected to fulfill this goal. Many of the plants treated in FNA are important horticulturally, while others are relatives of cultivated plants, have potential for ornamental horticulture, or contain genetic material that may be important in developing new horticultural varieties. More information on Chanticleer http://www.chanticleergarden.org. can be found at

Dr. David E. Boufford, Lead Editor, Taxon Editor, Northeast Regional Coordinator Harvard University Herbaria 22 Divinity Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138-2020 (617) 495-0794; boufford@oeb.harvard.edu Note: Some NANOA members who are contributing to the Orchidaceae include Lawrence Magrath, Charles J. Sheviak, Paul Martin Brown, Ron Coleman and John Beckner.

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Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

7th ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN NATIVE ORCHID CONFERENCE May 17-20, 2002 Greensboro, North Carolina Although North Carolina was originally scheduled for 2001, due to a conflict the site of the conference had to be changed. One of our members, Mark Rose and has taken the situation full on and completely arranged a conference for 2002. Save these dates now and plan to be with us. The conference will be held in Greensboro which is conveniently located in central North Carolina. With field trips to both the Green Swamp, near Wilmington, NC and then to the mountains we have the potential to seen well over a dozen species in full flower including the spectacular rosebud orchids, Cleistes divaricata and C. bifaria. Full details will appear in the September 2001 issue of the Journal.

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Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

Captions for Figure 1 (opposite on page 345): a: P. aquilonis. Clinton Co., New York. Sheviak 2011a [NYS] b: P. huronensis. Warren Co., New York. Sheviak 2397 [NYS] c: P. hyperborea. Reykjavik, Iceland. Guðfinnsson s.n. [ICEL] d-e: P. aquilonis. Brooks Range, Alaska. Sheviak & Sheviak 5474 [NYS] Note the very low anther with the anther sacs nearly horizontal and very wide-spreading from apices in virtual contact. Note also in ‘e’ a pollinium hanging loose from one anther sac. f: P. huronensis. Gilpin Co., Colorado. Sheviak, Sheviak & Pyrzynski 6281b [NYS]. Note the high anther with clearly separated anther sacs only slightly diverging. g: P. hyperborea. Grasbali, Iceland. Egilsson s.n. [ICEL]. Note broad lip and high anther (behind overlapping petal) with anther sacs appearing nearly parallel in this specimen. h: P. hyperborea. Reykjavik, Iceland. Guðfinnsson s.n. [ICEL] (same specimen as in ‘c’).

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Brown:Plate 1 - Sheviak: Platanthera IN POGONIA Color A NEW COMBINATION

345

Color Plate 2 – Pelchat:: Spiranthes parksii Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 3 Figure 4

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Color Plate 3 – Pelchat:: Spiranthes parksii Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

6 Figure 6 5 Figure 5

7 Figure 7 Fig. 1. Blackland Prairies to the west and the Pineywoods to the east Fig. 2-3 S. parksii Fig. 4 S. cernua typical Fig. 5 S. cernua “cleistapogamic” race Fig. 6 S. parksii exhibiting peloria Fig. 7: S. parksii; spike basal rosettes Photographs by Cliff Pelchat

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Color Plate 4 - Brown: Sacoila, Tipularia, Pogonia Brown: A NEW COMBINATION IN POGONIA

6

top left: Sacoila squamulosa top right: Tipularia discolor forma viridifolia
7

bottom left:: Pogonia ophioglossoides forma brachypogon

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