xto«6«

fc

I

lories* SP*'

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

rowNew Yoirlc
5ucceA5ors to the Book Departments of the

McGraw Publishing Company
Publishers of

Hill Publishing;

Company

Books for
American Machinist

Electrical

World

The Engineering' and Mining Journal

Engineering Record
Electric Railway Journal

Metallurgical and Oiemical Engineering
rrrtttasanswinrwtTinnrwTrrm

Coal Age Power

rs

MLMNG

WITHOUT TIMBEB

BY

ROBERT BRUCE BRINSMADE,
FORMERLY PROF. OF MINING
K

B.
,

S.,

E. M.

NGINEERING AT WEST VIRGINIA INI 7BB8ITY MEMHER OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING ENGINEERS, COAL MINING LNBT1TUT1 OF AMERICA, SOCIETY FOR PROMOTION OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, ETC.

McG RAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY
239

WEST 39TH STREET, NEW YORK
6

BOUVERIE STREET, LONDON,

I

1911

TW

m
Gas

Copyright, 1911

BT

McGraw-Hill Book Company

Printed and Electrotyped by The Maple Pres York, Pa.

CO

MY PARENTS
Tins BOOK
is

GRATEFULLY

DEDICATED.

PREFACE
The rapid depletion
axe
in recent
is

of the primitive

of

America by

years has raised the price of

wood so rapidly

industry

becoming alarmed

future supply of

and mining the big timber of
fires

thai the

which
of

it

lias

hitherto been such a prodigal consumer.

Economy

in the

timber has been essential to commercial success in European mining for several generations and it was to the Old World thai our operators went for their ms of timberless mining.
li

and masonry for the support of mine shafts and tunnels has long been practised in Europe not only because of dear timber but because most mines there are considered to be long-term investments rather than temporary speculations. As this replacement of timber supports by other material involves no new mining system and has been thoroughly covered by other writers, it will not be described in this Though most of the mining methods considered consume treatise. some timber, their economy in that respect is so marked as to justify the use of a title "Mining without Timber." The work is not intended for a complete treatise on mining, but is meant to deal only with the various systems of excavation with such additional matter regarding exploring, blasting, explosives, and the control of ground as is necessary for the elucidation of the main theme. The emphasis is placed on the peculiar problems of the miner and little space is given to those mining topics which fall chiefly within the

The use

of steel

provinces

of

the

mechanical,

constructing

or

electrical

engineer.

Aqueous excavation by hydraulicing, by dredging and by solution for such deposits as those of placer-gold, salt and sulphur has been omitted because that subject can be treated best in special treatises of which there are already several on the market. The examples of practice have been taken mostly from North AmerEuropean ica, supplemented by a few from Australia and South Africa.
practice has not been cited not only because
its

valuable

feal

be found in the examples given, but because the subject has recently been specially elaborated in Mayer's " liming Methods in Europe." Where timbering is involved in

modified to meet American conditions,

will all

the examplefor
all

its details have been condensed since framing diagrams purposes are available in such books as Storm's "Timbering and Mining." The costs of the mining are mentioned in many of the examples and in the final chapter is given an outline of the manner oi

X

PREFACE

But no attempt collecting and calculating the data for mine evolution. has been made to treat the financial side of mining in detail for that has been lately comprehensively done in modern works like Ingalls' "Economics of Mining," Hoover's "Principles of Mining" and Finlay's "Cost of Mining." As timberless mining systems are now in the course of development, It is this book is necessarily somewhat fragmentary and incomplete.
merely an attempt to chronicle the generally accepted theories and the
leading examples of practice so that the student
status,

may

learn their present
of
It

and the practising engineer may have access to the record

others' experience as a basis for the solution of his

own

problems.

aims to cover mining systems broadly, rather than particularly, in order
to be equally useful to both coal and metal miners.

where they have not been drawn from the in the mines concerned, have been adapted, as acknowledged in the Appendix, from articles published recently in the technical press. Thanks are due the editors of "Engineering and Mining Journal," "Mines and Minerals," "Mining and Engineering World," "Mines and Methods," "Mining Science," "Mining and Scientific Press," "Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers" etc., for permission to republish much valuable material and use many plates. The author also takes this opportunity to express his gratitude to the numerous mining men including mineowners, managers, engineers, accountants, foremen, and miners, whose unfailing courtesy to him, on his visits of investigation to their mines, alone has made this book possible. Robert Bruce Brinsmade. MORGANTOWN, W. Va.

The examples

of practice

author's

own

articles,

work and observations

'

November, 1911.

CONTENTS
Preface

CHAPTEB
Explosives and Their Use
in

I.

Mining

1

I

IIAPTER

II.

Principles of Blasting

Ground

18

CHAPTER
Compressed Air
for

III.

Mining

29

CHAPTER
Principles for Controlling Excavations

IV.

33
V.

CHAPTER
Principles of

Mine Drainage

47

CHAPTER
Surface Shoveling in

VI.

Example Example Example Example Example

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

— Moa and Mayari Mines, Cuba — Mesabi Range, Minn — Utah Copper Mine, Bingham, Utah — Nevada Con. Mines, Ely, Nev —Eastern Pennsylvania and
Illinois

Open Cuts

62 64
7_>

70

82

(IIAPTER
Surface Mining

VII.

Example
anple tmple

6.

7. 8. 9.

Example

—Peurtocitos Mine, Cananea, Mexico — Mesabi Iron Range, Minn —Traders Mine, Iron Mt., Mich —Alaska Treadwell Mine, Alaska
CHAPTEB
VIII.

84 84 85 87 88

Underhand Stoping Example 10. Lead Field of Southeast Missouri Example 11. Zinc-lead Field of Southwc-t Missouri Example 12. Calumet and Arizona Mines, Bisbee, Ariz Example 13. Section No. 21 Mine, Marquette I:. inge, Mich

— — — —

91

91
.

.

.

95 100
1<ij

xi

xii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER
Overhand Stoping with Shrinkage.

IX.
PAGE.

Example Example Example Example Example

14.

15. 16.
17.

18.

— Wolverine Mine, Houghton Mich So. Dak — Homestake Mine, Black —Gratz Mine, Owen Ky —Alaska Treadwell Mine, Alaska — Veta Grande Mine, Cananea, Mexico
Co.,
Hills,

No

Filling

Co.,

106 106 108 112 113 115

CHAPTER

X.
118-133 118
121

Overhand Stoping on Waste in the United States Example 19. South Range Mines, Houghton Co., Mich Example 20. Minnesota Mine, Soudan, Minn Example 21. Superior and Boston Mine, Globe, Ariz

— — — Ariz Example 22. —Metcalf Mine, Graham — Copper Queen Mines, Bisbee, Ariz Example
Co.,
2*.

124 128 130

CHAPTER

XI.

Overhand Stoping on Waste in Mexico and Australia Example 24. Los Pilares Mine, Nacozari, Mexico Example 25. West Australia Example 26.— British Mines, Broken Hill, N. S. Example 27. Proprietary Mine, Broken Hill, N. S.

— — —

W

W

134-154 134 143 145 152

CHAPTER

XII.

Overhand Stoping with Shrinkage and Delayed Filling Example 28.— Central Mine, Broken Hill, N. S. Example 29. King Mine, Graham Co., Ariz Example 30. Coronado Mine, Graham Co., Ariz Example 31. Los Pilares Mine, Nacozari, Mexico

— — —

W

155-614 155 156 158 162

CHAPTER

XIII.

Overhand Stoping with Shrinkage and Simultaneous Pillar-caving Example 32. Miami Mine, Globe, Ariz Example 33. Boston Con. Mine, Bingham, Utah Example 34. Duluth Mine, Cananea, Mexico

— — —

....

165-180 165
171 176

CHAPTER

XIV.
181-191 181 183 187

Back-caving into Chutes or Chute-caving Example 35. Hartford Mine, Marquette Range, Mich

Example Example

36.
37.

— —Pioneer Mine, Ely, Minn —Utah Copper Mine, Bingham, Utah
CHAPTER XV.

Block-caving System

Example 38. Pewabic Mine, Menominee Range, Mich Example 39 Mowery Mine, Santa Cruz Co., Ariz Example 40. Detroit Mine, Morenci, Ariz Example 41. Commercial Mine, Bingham, Utah Example 42. Inspiration Mine, Globe, Ariz
.

— — — — —

.

.

.

192-205 192 194 196 200 201

I

ONTBNTS

xni

CHAPTEB XVI
PAOE.

Slicing

— Example M.— Cumberland-Ely Mine Example 45. — Oversight Mine, Cananea,
tnple 43.
I

Under Mats

Timl n-r in Ban Old Jordan Kline, Bingham, Utah
of
ids

206
207

Mexico

210

CHAPTEB Wll.
slicing

Under Ore with Back-caving in Rooms Example 46. Goyebu, Mesabi and Menominee Example 47. Mercur Mine. Mercur, Utah Example 4S. Kimberley Mine, South Africa

214-227
I:

— — —

21

1

220
22
I

<

IIAPTKR XVIII.
228-237 228 229 231

Principles of Mining
(a)

Seams

(b)
(c)

Comparison of Longwall and Pillar Systems Comparison of Advancing and Retreating Mining by Roof-pressure

CHAPTEB
Advancing Longwall Systems
for

XIX.
238-259 238 242 245 250 255

Seams

.

.

Example Example Example Example Example

— Spring Valley — Montour Iron Mines, Danville. — Bull's Head Colliery, Eastern. Pa. — Vinton Colliery, Vintondale, Pa. 53. — Drummond Colliery, Westville, X
49.
50. 51. 52.
Collieries,
111.

Pa.

s.

CHAPTER XX.
Pillar

Systems

for
54.
55. 56.

Example Example Example Example Example

57. 58.

— Advancing System Layouts — Nelms' Retreating System — Nelms' Advancing-retreating System Western Pennsylvania —Connellsville Western Pennsylvania —Pittsburg
.

Seams

260-275 260
264

District,

District,

266 268 272

CHAPTER

XXI.
276-284 276

Flushing System for Filling Seams and Recovering PillarExample 59. Anthracite District, Eastern Pennsylvania Example 60. Robinson Mine, Transvaal

— —

CHAPTER XXII
Comparison
of Various

Mining Systems

285-293

CHAPTER
Principles of

XXIII
294 301 303

Mine Evaluation

Appendix Index

I

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEE
CHAPTER
1

EXPLOSIVES AND THEIB USE
An
explosion

IX

MINING
The

may

be defined as a sudden expansion of gas.
i

Bubstances which we call explosivi unstable when exposed to a suitable flame or shock that they suddenly change into many times
their original
a

volume

of gas

takes place in the open, there

with the evolul ion of heat. If the change to is a flame and a whiff or a report. It
drill-

is

only, however,

when

explosives are set off in confined spaces like

hole- that they do their chief

work

in

mining.

Consequently
in a

a blast or

explosion

may

be said to be a rapid combustion

confined space.

Explosives have two essential constituents,

namely, combustibles
Class I

and oxidizers.

They may be broadly divided

into three classes accord-

ing to the relation which the combustibles bear to the oxidizers.

includes the mechanical explosives, or those in which the ingredients
constitute a mechanical mixture; class II includes the chemical explosives or those in

which the ingredients are and an absorber.

in

chemical combination; class

III inc udes the mechanico-chemical explosives

which are formed of a

mixture

of class II

Methods of Firing Explosives
Explosives are set off by two means ignition and detonation. Because through ignition the combustion is transmitted by heat alone, it gives a slower explosion than one started by detonation which transmits the reaction by the rapidity of vibrant motion. By their nature
class
1

is

adapted to
is

ignil ion,

and

classes II

and III to detonation.
filling

[gnition
lib 16

commonly performed by

squibs, fuse or electric igniters,

really a self-impelling slow

match, made by

one-half of a

thin roll of paper with black

powder and the other

half with sulphur.

For their use in blasting, a drill-hole ab, Fig. 1, is loaded with an explosive be and before filling the hole with the tamping cd a needle ac is inserted into the explosive so that when it is withdrawn, a hole of a larger diameter than the squib is left through the tamping from n to c.
t
1

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

The squib is then inserted in this hole with the sulphur end out, and when lit the slow-burning sulphur allows time for the miner to escape before the powder of the squib takes fire and its reaction forces the squib along the holes to ignite the powder at c. A fuse is merely a thread of black powder wrapped with one or more
thicknesses of tape.

In loading the hole, Fig.

1,

the fuse would be

inserted in place of the needle ac.

A

fuse

burns commonly at the rate of 2 ft. a minute. Therefore a sufficient length should be used in the hole to allow the miner to retire in safety, after splitting and
lighting the outer end, before the

flame

reaches the explosive at

c.

The
Fig.
2,

electric igniter consists of a shell a,

enclosing a charge of fulminate mixture in b and of sulphur cement in e. The copper wires c pass through / and enter b where they are connected by a platinum bridge at d. For ignition, the shell a is made of pasteboard and the
igniter
is

outside the hole to a simply a small armature revolving between its poles and sending a current through the igniters in the All the common electriccircuit when its handle is shoved down. igniters on one circuit are exploded simultaneously, but a recent invention is a delay-action igniter which permits electric firing in sequence. Detonation is performed by fuse and cap or by electric caps. A blasting cap is simply a cylindrical copper cup with a small charge of fulminate mixture in its bottom, the fuse being inserted into the cup and fastened to it by crimping pincers. The cap is then inserted into one
blasting machine.

Fig.

1.

— Drill-hole

placed within the explosive while

section.

the wires extend
is

The

last

cartridge of the explosive
string,

and

its

attached fuse tied firmly to

it

by

a

in
is

order to

make

a primer
will

which

placed near or on the top of

the explosive.

The loaded hole

then resemble Fig. 1, the explosive being in be, the cap and primer at c, Fig. 2. — Electric exploder. and the fuse along ca. Lighting the fuse is the same as for ignition, only the fuse now fires the cap whose explosion detonates the explosive. The electric cap resembles the electric igniter, Fig. 2, but has a copper instead of a pasteboard case a and the quantity of charge of fulminate

mixture at

b is increased as

The

electric

cap

is

the sensitiveness of the explosive diminishes. inserted in and fastened to a primer-cartridge like

EXPLOSIVES
fuse

\M>

ilil.li;

USE

l\

minim,
battery
in

3

and rap, the

electric

cap being

fired

by

a blasting

the

same way

as the electric ignil
Li

i

\!u\.,

wi) T imping

mechanical explosive like black powder usually comes in hulk. it is poured into a cartridge (the Bize of the hole) which is made by rolling a piece of paper around a pick handle. For damp hole- the cartridge musl be oiled or soaped on the outside. This paper
\

For loading

is pressed down into the hole by a soft iron tamping bar whose should be an expanding copper cone grooved on the edge for the purpose of allowing the copper loading needle or fuse to pass. Tamping

cartridge
tip

with iron tips or iron needles are highly dangerous in formations containing pyrite or other hard minerals, on which the iron might strike a spark, and their use is therefore prohibited by law in many places.

A mining explosive of class II or III is handled in paper cartridges which can he ordered of a diameter to fit the hole. Before loading they are slit around lengthwise to permit of the explosive taking the shape of the hole when it is pressed down by a tamping bar which should he of for these explosives, instead of copper-tipped iron, on account of their being more sensitive to any shock than black powder. In coal mines, coal dust is commonly used for tamping black powder, but this is a very unsafe practice in dangerous mines, for a windy or blown-out shot will have its normal flame increased, both in length and duration, by the ignition of the tamping. The best materials for tamping are a fine plastic clay or loam and ground brick or shale, and although sand is too porous to do well for black powder, it answers for higher explosives but must he confined in paper cartridges for use in
i

uppers.

Water

is

used

a.-

tamping
it

for nitro-glycerine

and high explosives

in

wet down-holes, hut

is little

better than nothing.

The

fact that

higher

explosives will break rock without any tamping has caused
to

many

miners

abandon tamping them altogether on account of the ease of recapping ontamped charges in case of a misfire. Mechanical explosives must be tightly tamped, nearly to the collar of the hole, or they will blow out instead of breaking the rock, and although the tamping may be shortened with detonating explosives, as they become quicker and stronger, a short length of tamping adds to the efficiency of the highest explosivi Where only quick-acting explosives of classes II or III are at hand and it is desired to blast with the slow action of class I, the object can he partially obtained by special methods of loading. These methods provide an air cushion between the explosive and the rock and tamping
by either having the stick of explosive of considerably smaller diameter than the drill hole or by having a very porous cellular tamping to separate the tight tamping from the explosivi

;

4

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

Before examining the various mine explosives in detail, let us consider an illustration of the method of calculating, from the chemical equation of an explosive, its calorific power, its temperature, and the number of expansions and its consequent exploding pressure. Let us assume the simplest case of a mechanical mixture of hydrogen and oxygen at a temperature of 0° C. and at sea-level pressure of 760 mm. of mercury. Then the chemical equation for complete combustion is

the molecular weights
If
t

2H + = 2H,0. being 4 + 32 = 36.
2 2

(1)
(2)

= thermometer temperature in degrees centigrade of the explosion; T = absolute temperature in degrees centigrade of the explosion; 2 = sign for summation; iriT^TFj, etc. = weights in grams of various combustibles of the explosive; CCJ2 etc = calorific power in calories of various products of combustion
2,

of the explosive;
tvic 1

w

2,

etc.

= weights

in

grams

of various

products of combustion of the

explosive;

ss^,

etc.

= specific

heat in calories of various products of combustion of

the explosive;

V = volume of explosive originally F = volume of explosive due to chemical reaction alone; V = volume of explosive due to chemical reaction and resulting temperax

2

ture,

t;

P = pressure of explosive originally; P = pressure of explosive finally;
2

then we have from thermo-chemistry,
_,

l

— %WC = WC+W^ + Wfi* etc. — — zws ws + w s + w s etc.
-

{6)

1

1

2

2,

For the given problem we have from equation = 4 grams of H gas; w = 3Q grams of H 2 vapor. From thermo-chemistry we have,

(2),

W

s

C = 28,780 = 0.4805

cal. for

H;

cal. for

H,0 T=

vapor;

substitute in (3) and

4X28,780 =6660° 36X0.4805

—^—

('.

gases under like conditions occupy the
2 vols.
or

Then, from Avogardro's law, that the molecules of equal volumes of all same volume, we have from (1).

H+l
T^

vol.

=2

vols.

H

2

0,

= 2/3F.

(4)

BXPL08IVE8

wi>

liil.n;

USE

IN

MIMM,

5

From
lute

Charles' law, the volumes of gases vary directly as their absowre

temperature

have

t

hue
i

T
273

r,

ii

or
_

6660V,
273

substitute from (4) and we have

6660 X2V
I',
2

273X8

16.2 V

Prom
chamber

Boyle's law,

it'

the gas of

volume V a

is

prevented from expand-

ing beyond volume V,
I'.

we have

for the final pressure /', in the explosive

P
or

V

Substitute in
sq.
in.,

(6)

from

(5)

and, as

P

1

atmosphere = 14

.

7

lbs.

per

we have

l\=

IQ.2VP

=16.2 atmospheres
in.

or 238 lbs. per sq.

From
hence

physics,

T = + 273,
t

t

= T— 273 = 6660—273 = 6387°

(

!.

In practice, this theoretical pressure and temperature, resulting from
the explosion, would have to
radiation and leakage.

be multiplied by a fractional factor of

efficiency to allow for imperfect

combustion and

loss of heat

through

In large charges, these losses are proportionally This fact, coupled with the greater than in the case of small charges. likelihood of their meeting weak places in the blast's burden, accounts
for the

higher efficiency of the former.
useful
in

These theoretical calculations
relative
t

are

especially
t

comparing the
In France,

strength

of

different
t

hey are used extensively in be inspection of permissible explosives to determine if their final temperature is sufficiently low for U86 in dangerous coal mines
explosives of
he

same type.

The

practical usefulness of explosives depends
(2) their

upon

(1) their

cost of

manufacture;

safety and convenience as regards transportation

D

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

(3) method necessary for their loading and exploding; exploding pressure; (5) the rapidity with which they explode; These six factors will now (6) the length and temperature of the flame. be discussed seriatim. Factor (1), or the cost, is often the most impor(4) their

and storage;

tant factor in commercial operations like mining, although for purposes
of

war

it

is

often

little

considered.

Factor

(2)

or safety, affects the

desirability for all purposes, the

the freight rate
it

by

rail

more sensitive the explosive, the higher or boat, and if sensitive beyond a certain point,

cannot be shipped thus at all. Those explosives which, like dynamite, freeze at ordinary winter temperatures are at a disadvantage as are also those which, like black powder, are handled loose and can be easily ignited by a spark struck by a hob-nailed shoe on a floor spike. Some
explosives, like imperfectly washed guncotton, are liable to explode- by spontaneously generated heat, while others become dangerously sensitive if exposed to the sun during shipment. The desirability of explosives belonging to either of these last two mentioned classes is plainly

discounted because of these attributes. The next factor (3) or loading and exploding, is important in connection with conditions such as prevail
in dangerous coal mines (where an open light is prohibited), in subaqueous blasting (where both explosive and exploder must be unaffected b3'

water), or where misfires could not be corrected.
pressure,
is

Factor

(4),

or the

what determined the
it is

real effective breaking force of the
(5),

explosion, but explosion.

modified in practice by
fast explosives

or the rapidity of the

Slow and

are comparable to presses

and

hammers
gives

for forging steel.

The former

exerts

its

pressure gradually

until the strain exceeds the tensile strength of the material

and the rock

way along

a surface of fracture.

The

latter gives a sharp quick

blow which will shatter the surface of rock exposed to the explosive before any fracturing action is exerted on the blast's burden of rock. The slow explosive will detach the rock in large masses while the fast type may crush it to bits. Black powder is an example of the first and nitro-glycerine of the second. Explosives with all graduations of rapidity between these extremes are on the market. The fastest explosives are applicable where the rock is very hard to drill as, for example, in the case of certain Lake Superior hematites, or where a tremendous force must be exerted from confined spaces as in breaking the cut for development passages; also where a shattering rather than a fracturing action is needed, as in chambering the bottom of drill holes or in shootingoil wells. The slowest explosives are used in quarrying, for the purpose of detaching monoliths, or in consolidated or soft rock which can be fractured by a slow, pressing movement but only dented by a quick

hammer

blow.
(6),

Factor

or the flame

and temperature,

is

tion for blasting in gassy or dusty coal mines.

an important consideraThe so-called "permis-

EXPLOSIVES AND
Bibles" arc explosives

llll.li.

U8E

1\

MINING
legal

made

to

fall

b<

I

inimum

requirement
i~>.8 in.

gards length and temperature of flame.
permissible like carbonite gives,
in

When

one considers that a
heighl of

practice, a

Same

and
r

a

flame duration of
the permissible
Will

1

1

0.1500 Beconds

respectively, for
is

compared with 50.2 in. and black powder, we can see how much
conds, as

to iu

We

now consider
(

the properties of the three classes of explosi

!l

\aa

1.

ob Mecb inical ExpLOsr
of
this

The common representatives

class

are

black powder and

mechanical permissible explosives. Black powder was discovered before 600 A. 1). by the Chinese, and by Roger Bacon in 1270, hut it was not used for mining until Martin Weigel introduced it at Freiberg in 1613. It can be made from a single combustible, charcoal, mixed with an alkaline-nitrate oxidizer, but in order to lower its ignition temperature
'.. part of the charcoal is replaced by sulphur. about 275 For the cheaper blasting powders, the oxidizer is sodium nitrate which, being easily affected by dampness, is replaced in the higher »;rade powders by potassium nitrate. The ingredients are hist mound then mixed thoroughly while moist and finally pressed in cakes, dried, broken and Assuming the equation for the complete combustion of black sized.

for blasting to

'

powder

to be.

3C+S
We

_'K###BOT_TEXT###lt;) 8
its

= 3C0 + X + kV
2

(7)

have by calculation for

percentage composition,

carbon = 13.4 sulphur = 11.8

sodium

nit rate

= 74.
100.0
resulting gas,

and

for the percentage

composition by volume of

its

C0 = 75
2

N

=25
100

The theoretical exploding temperature is 4560 C. and the pressure is 5820 atmospheres. In practice' the composition is varied according to As the combustion is imperfect, poisonthe experience of each maker. ous and combustible gases like carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen and unpleasant vapors, like the sulphide, sulphate, hyposulphite, nitrate and carbonate of potassium, are given off by the explosion and sometimes render breathing or the carrying of open lights in In fact, Bunsen's experiments proved the fumes a dangerous procedure.

8

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK

that only one-third of the ignited
of equation (7).

gunpowder

really followed the reaction

Black powder is sold in grains which vary in size from the fine sportinggunpowder to the 2-in. balls of artillery powder. For blasting, the grains vary in diameter from one-eighth to one-half of an inch, and the rapidity of the explosion decreases with an increased diameter of grain. The grains should be of uniform size, quite dry and thoroughly tamped in the hole in order to get good results. The specific gravity of lightly shaken black powder is about the same as water. Its cheapness, nonfreezing, comparative safety for shipping and handling, easy explosion by ignition and slow action are the favorable qualities of black powder which cause its wide use. For coal mines free from dangerous gases and dust, it is a better explosive than detonating permissibles whose quicker action breaks up the coal and injures the roof more. Black powder is
rendered inefficient for
necessitating
is

many other purposes, however, because of its much tamping, its low power, the readiness with which it

by moisture and its long flame. Of the mechanical permissibles bobbinite has been extensively used in England. Its percentage composition is,
spoiled

Potassium nitrate = 65.0 Charcoal = 20.0 Sulphur = 2.0 Paraffin wax = 2.5 Starch = 8.0 Water = 2.5
100.0
It is

thus chemically very close to black powder excepting that
of

it

contains more charcoal and less sulphur and

by the addition

ignition temperature while the

wax, starch and water. wax forms a waterproof coating for the grains of powder. The starch and water absorb heat, shorten the flame and decrease the exploding temperature to under 1500° C. It is handled It has a central hole to in compressed cartridges with wax coverings. admit the fuse, for ignition by squib is not allowed in dangerous coal
mines.

makes up that discrepancy The lack of sulphur raises its

Class

II,

or Chemical Explosives

nitro-gelatin, fulminates

The five common explosives of this class are guncotton, nitro-glycerine, and picrates. They all contain nitryl (N0 2) and their detonation is made possible by the unstable quality of nitryl
compounds.
Guncotton.

little

This was discovered by Schonbein in 1846, but it was used until it was found that its dangerous instability was not

BXPL08IVE8

\M> mi.Il; USE

IN

MINING
in ita tissue

inherent but due solely to the surplus acid

left

washing methods during
it

its

manufacture.

The equation
»,

by impel for making

is,
1

il

cotton

+

nitric

acid

;HX0 = C II o NO = guncotton + water.
,

3

e

.:;!I.o.

T

(8)

The ingredients

are allowed to Btand
is

in

a cold place

for Borne

time

the washing out of the free acid
reaction on exploding

begun.

The

2C e H 7
Equation
(9)

5

(X0 2 ) 3 = 3C0 + 9CO, +3N, + 7B
2

K

S of

shows that the explosion gives ao solid product like the equation (7) and that the percentage composition by volume of
is,

the resulting gas

C0 =lo 7 CO =40.
2

N = 13.7
H,0=31.8
100.
(>

By the method of calculation already explained, it is found that guncotton theoretically has an exploding temperature of 5340° C. and a pressure of 20,344 atmospheres. The combustible qualities of the large percentage of carbon monoxide resulting from its explosion render guncotton unfit for use in coal mines, and its poisonous qualities make it unsuitable for any underground use. For surface work, it is very powerful, smokeless, does not freeze and is not
volatilized
It ignites or decomposed by atmospheric temperature. between 270 and 400° F. and if unconfined will then burn quietly. When dry, it is sensitive to percussion and friction, but under water it is insenImmersed, it absorbs from 10 to 15 per cent. sible to ordinary shocks. of water, but even then it can be exploded without drying by the use of an extraordinarily strong detonator. Its chief disadvantage above ground is its high cost and the fact that it comes in hard compn cartridges (specific gravity about 1.2) which fit drill holes only u For any destructive work without fectly and therefore lose in efficiency. the use of drill holes, like demolishing walls, dams and the like, the sharp. sledge-hammer blow of its explosion renders it very efficacious. tro-glycerine or " Oil." This was discovered by Sabrero in 1847, but did not become commercially valuable until 1863 under the direction

of Alfred Nobel.

The equation

for its

making
s

CsH8 0,+3HNO,=C,H,O
glycerine

(N0 1),+3H a O

(10

+ nit iic

acid =nitro-glycerine

— water.
I

Strong sulphuric acid is an ingredient of the mixture, bu1 it does doI lerate temperatake part in the reaction, which must take place at a

10

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

The resulting "oil" is much easier to wash than gunIt is a yellow, sweetish liquid cotton and consequently is cheaper. poisonous both to the blood and the stomach. Its specific gravity is 1.6. Its freezing-point is about 45° F. and to insure against freezing the temture to be safe.

perature must be above 52° F.
shocks, as
therefore,
is

When
it is

frozen,

it is

insensible to ordinary
It
is,

also the case

when

dissolved in alcohol or ether.

commonly shipped either in tin cans, packed in ice, or in It can be p ecipitated from the latter before so ution in wood alcohol. use by an excess of water. As it Nitro-glycerine does not evolve nitrous fumes until 230° F.
1

begins to vaporize at about 100° F., it is important in thawing it not to exceed this temperature. Thawing, therefore, is only safely done by heating the explosive over a water bath at less than 90° F., or by leaving The explosive it in a room of the same temperature for some time. ignites at only 356° F. and if then pure and free from all pressure, jar or These safe-igniting conditions, however, vibration, it will burn quietly. are difficult to obtain, for a small depth of liquid causes sufficient pressure Thus a film of it, heated on a tin plate, to explode it when ignited. burned without an explosion only if under one-fourth inch thick. The exploding temperature is 380° F. This 24° margin above the igniting temperature accounts for the numerous cases of conflagration without
explosion.

The

reaction of the explosion

is,

4C 3 H 5 O 3 (NO 2 ) 3 = 12CO 2 + O 2 + 3N 2 + 10H 2 O.

(11)
its

From equation
tage composition

(11) the explosive
is

product

is

gaseous and

percen-

by volume

co 2 =

EXPLOSIVES
is

\l>

MIKIK i-l

l.\

MINING
\
I

II

carried to the well

swung from the body
thi
is

of a spring

filling

the well with water,

to the
is

proper depths by a dropped onto the cap to cause the explosion. tro-gelatin.— This was discovered by Nobel
dissolving guncotton
in

topped with a rope, along which a weight, called
in

i

evil"
a

1875 and

is

yellowIt

ish jelly of considerable

toughness, bu1 easily cu1
oitro-glycerine.

with

a

knife.

is

made by
balance
of the

Authorities differ
7 per cent.

in

the proportion of guncotton,
all

some recommending only

To
rbon

the fn

en of the nitro-glycerine by the ei

of the latter

guncotton alone, takes s7.:> per cent, of the former and nixes the following equation:

to 12.7 per rent.

9C,B
product

i

+C,H 7 0,(N0 3),=33CO, + 15N
(12) the

J

_>,,n

<>.

u

From equation
is,

percentage composition of the solely gaseous

C0 3 =44.6 N = 20.2
II

u

35 2

By the theoretical calculation, the exploding temperature is 7080° C. and the pressure is 27,100 atmospheres. The last figure shows nitrogelatin to be only 7 per cent, weaker by weight than nitro-glycerine, while its somewhat higher cost is due to its guncotton ingredienl When used alone for military purposes, about 4 per cent, of camphor is dissolved in the nitro-glycerine along with the guncotton to make a product called military gelatin. The last explosive is so insensitive thai it can be punctured without effect by a rifle bullet. The common nitro-gelatin 1 is much less sensitive than No. dynamite, to shock or friction, and unaffected by a short immersion in water at I58c F. and by an 8-day immersion at 113° F. Ii will not exude nitro-glycerine under a high pressure or any atmospheric temperature. Its specific gravity is 1.6 and it can be set off only by a strong detonation. It ignites at 399° F. and will then only burn when unconfined. When it freezes, which is between 35 and 40° I"., it becomes more sensitive than normally owing probably to the partial
.

freeing of the nitro-glycerine ingredient.

explosive

mining wherever the highesl power to wet or subaqueous blasting, either alone or as "gelatin" dynamite. Fulminates. -.Men-uric fulminate is the common commercial Bait. It fa made as follows from mercuric nitrate and alcohol:
Nitro-gelatin
is

is

now used
is

for

needed and

especially adapted

Hg(N0 8) a +C 3H sO=Hg CNO),+3H,O+20.
The explosive
reaction
is

(13)

Hg(CNO) 2 =HgO

<

10

''

-2N.

(14)

12

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

(14) shows that mercuric fulminate is a poor explosive produces the poisonous fumes of HgO and CO as well as unburned carbon. If a little damp, it explodes very feebly and if quite wet, not at all. However, its non-freezing qualit}^ its quick hammerlike vibrant explosion and its uniform sensitiveness to ignition or shock cause its use as the chief ingredient of percussion-cap mixtures for detonIts exploding temperature is 305° F. ating other explosives. Picrates. These salts are founded on picric acid, which is made bj' mixing carbolic and nitric acid according to the equation,

Equation
it

because

-

C6H6

+ 3HN0 = C H (N0
8

8

3

2) s

O + 3H

2

0.

(15)

Its explosive reaction

is

C6
Picric acid cohol,

H

3

(N0

2) 3

=H

2

+ H + 6CO + 3N.

(16)

comes in yellow crystals which are soluble in hot water or aland melt at 230° F. It is used very largely in dyeing. It is expensEquation (16) indicates that it ive to make and difficult to explode. produces much of the poisonous carbon monoxide which shows incomplete combustion and consequently a decreased power. Picrates are the basis of the military explosive lyddite, but the recent commercial failure of the excellent mining picrate joveite may discourage future attempts to adapt them to blasting.
Class
III,

Mechanico-Chemical Explosives
(1)

This class will be considered under five groups:

guncotton;

(2)

nitro-glycerine; (3) nitro-gelatin; (4) fulminate; (5) nitro-benzol.

Deto-

fall mainly under groups (2) and (5) be considered last. Guncotton Group. The evaporating of guncotton, after it has been dissolved in a suitable solvent such as alcohol or acetone, produces a hard, honry material which is the basis of most modern smokeless gunpowder. Its chief blasting powder, however, is tonite which is formed by adding enough barium nitrate to guncotton to just completely oxidize

nating permissibles for coal mining

and

will

the gases caused

by the explosion
2) 3

as follows:
2 2

4C 6 H 7

5

(N0

+ 9BaN0 = 24C0 +21N+ 14H
3

+ 9BaO.

(17)

The percentage composition, by volume, of the gaseous product of equation (15) is,

C0 =
2

N= H 0=
2

45.7 20.0 34.3
iooTo

is

the exploding temperature is 3590° C. and the pressure atmospheres, which are two-thirds and one-half, respectively, 10,300

By calculation,

EXPLOSIVES
oi

\M>

l

II l.l l;

USE

l\

\IIM\«.

18

for guncotton. Ajb an on*se1 to lessened cheaper than guncotton and 50 per cent, denser Its harmless nunc- adapl it to underground use and, like dynamite, it U It packed in paper cartridges. has been extensively used in England,

the corresponding
is

figures

power tonite

plastic,

where
It

it

is

is

hard to ignite and when alight,
Tonite,
like

Bhipped under the same Bafety regulations as black bowder. it normally burns Blowly without
Btrong
non-freezable and is detonated has been used, instead of Potassium the oxidizer, in another guncotton mixture of similar

explosion.

guncotton,

is

only by

a

cap.

nitrate

bar uin nitrate, as
properties which
is

called potentite.

Nitro-glycerim

Group.

These
to

mixtures
lessen
its

are

called

dynamil

They were introduced by Nobel glycerine and at the same time
absorber of the "oil"
is

the sensitiveness of nitro-

retain

other

g

I

qualities.

The

called the "dope," which

may

be selected to be

either inert or active h> the explosion.

dynamite is thai of nitro-glycerine, as and its method for being safety thawed. frozen Dynamite that doe- not leak nitro-glycerine under the conditions under It should which it is to be used is one of the safest explosives known. not be -hipped, however, in rigid metallic eases, which accentuate shockfi and vibrations, hut in wooden boxes in paper cartridges packed in sawdust. Thus packed, it has failed to explode when dropped on the rocks from a considerable height or when struck by heavy weights. Dynamite can he heated with less danger than nitro-glycerine. If sel on fire, it will usually hum quietly unless, unfavorable condition- are If the dynamite is in a closed box, its smoke cannot escape and present. consequently the pressure may be raised enough to cause an explosion. If caps or gunpowder are present, the fire will explode them and the If the heat from the fire resultant shock will detonate the dynamite, the "oil" to exude from the cartilages, this "oil," if under a static causes head, will explode when ignited, as explained above. Again, the heal from the burning dynamite may heat the adjoining unlighted cartridge s to the exploding temperature of 380° F. before they gel sufficiently exposed to the air to ignite. Heated gradually in the open so much of the "oil" may be evaporated that a mere whiff ensue- when the exploding temperature is finally reached. In spite of all these dangerous contingencies, Beveral instances are on record where several ton- of dynamite have burned in conflagrations
freezing temperature of
all
i-

The

also its behavior

when

without exploding.
hut
if

If afire in

cartridges,

it

burn- Blowly

like sulphur.

loose

it

will
(ir-t

The dope

burn quickly like chaff. used was inert infusorial earth or kieselguhr, which
its

will

safely absorb three time-

kieselguhr dynamite

when

The resulting weighl of nitro-glycerine. It i- 8 strongest contain- 75 per cent, "oil."
mass
of a yellowish color with
a

pasty, plastic, unctuous, odorless

specific

14

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
1.4.

gravity of
greater.

The

effect of the

dope

is

to cushion the " oil" so that the

shock to explode it must be stronger as the percentage of dope becomes It is not possible to explode kieselguhr dynamites which contain under 40 per cent, of "oil" and even with 60 per cent, it takes a
strong cap.

on a

The disadvantage of 75 per cent, djuiamite is the exudation of "oil'' warm day or under water so that dangers majr arise from having to
its

deal with the sensitive "oil" before suspecting
ordinarily unsafe to ship or use

presence.

It

is is

thus

and the 60 per

cent, strength

now

commonly

sold as Xo.
its

1.

The strength

of kieselguhr

dynamite

is

almost

equal to that of

contained "oil."
limitations as the used, but the per-

The active-dope dynamites have no such narrow inert types and not only may numerous absorbers be
centage of nitro-glycerine
sives go

may vary from 4 to 70 per cent. These explounder various names. The common active absorbents are such combustibles as wood meal or fiber, rosin, pitch, sugar, coal, charcoal, or sulphur, and such oxidizers as the alkaline nitrates or chlorates. The chemical composition Of the oil-dope mixture should be such as to give only completely oxidized products on combustion. The strength of this type is equal to that of the "oil" plus that of the explosive dope when completely burned. In other words, black powder mixed with enough "oil" to detonate it would all burn as shown by the reaction of equation The (7), thus giving several times more power than when ignited alone. density and appearance, as well as the necessary strength, varies with the dope and the percentage of " oil. " The commercial method of rating dynamite, by its percentage of "oil," is misleading as no account is taken of the varying strength of the explosive dopes. Nitro-gelatin Group. A mixture of- this group is called a gelatin dynamite. Somewhat more expensive than nitro-glycerine, it is preferable wherever the highest power is desired and, being unaffected by It is more plastic and water, it is the best powder for subaqueous use. less sensitive than common dynamite and therefore easier to load and The safer to transport, but it requires a stronger cap for exploding. military powder gelignite, a favorite in England and Japan, and forcite come under this group. Fulminate Group. For percussion-cap filling, mercuric fulminate is mixed with a sufficient amount of some oxidizer to insure complete combustion on exploding. Alkaline-nitrate oxidizers may be used but potassium chlorate is the favorite. The latter gives the following

exploding reaction:

Hg(CNO) 2 + KC10 8 = HgO + KCl + 2C0 2 + 2N.
Equation
cent,
(18)

(18)

by weight

of the mixture,

shows that potassium chlorate should form 30 per which also contains a little gum to give

3I\

BS

\m»

nil.

li;

1-1.

in

MINING

•"'
I

coherence

I

designated by numbers or letters according to the

amount

of fulminate contained.

The common

-

16

MIXING -WITHOUT TIMBER
Detonating Permissibles.

—These

explosives practically

all

contain
nitrate
of

either nitroglycerine, nitro-gelatin, nnitro-bezol or
as the detonated ingredient

ammonium

and some contain two or more

them.

Their exact composition is usually kept secret by the manufacturers, but they must pass the government tests for temperature and flame. These explosives are made of various strengths and require stronger caps

than common dynamites. Detonation means a quick generation of a small quantity of hot gas while the ignition of black powder means the slow production of a large quantity of impure gases and vapors. A large quantity of fine, unstable salt like magnesium carbonate, of a steamgenerating salt like ammonium nitrate, or of a substance with much
hygroscopic moisture like wood meal, are the ingredients relied upon to cool the quick small flame of permissibles. The compositions of a few
typical permissibles are as follows:
Name.

Xitro-benzol.

NH4NO.:
90.0 88.0 73.0

Ground Wood.
5.0
...

Water.
0.50

Amvis Ammonite
Electronite
Westfalit,

4.50 12.00
19.0 (BaNo),.

7.5
...
. .

No.

1.

4.5 (rosin) 3 ..

Bellite, No. 3 Carbonite

25.0("

oil

")

.

.

.

5.25 0.50(sodaj

95.0 94.0 34.0

0.50 0.50 0.75

(NaNOs)

40.5

Misfires

of firing.
will

The cause of misfire depends upon both explosive and the manner The three classes of explosives with their methods of firing-

now be considered. Mechanical Powders of Class I. In breaking coal with igniting powders, it is inadvisable to attempt to use a missed hole if the tamping must first be dug out, therefore a new hole is bored, charged and fired alongside the first. In rock breaking, where boring holes is expensive, the tamping may be dug out safely if only copper tools are used when approaching the powder. However, if the explosives are well selected, and kept dry, and care is taken in locating and loading the holes, misfires will seldom occur. With squib-ignition misfires may be caused by (a) wetness of powder; (b) dampness of squib; (c) loss of powder from squib; (d) squib-hole clogged by dirt; (e) hole too long for squib to recoil and reach powder. With fuse-ignition misfires may be due to (a) damp powder; (6) cutting of fuse in tamping; (c) imperfect fuse; (d) damp fuse; (e) loss of powder from end of fuse. With ignition by electric igniter misfires may occur from (a) imperfect igniter; (6) damp igniter; (c) wire broken in tamping; (d) circuit im-

perfectly wired;

(e)

current leakage from poor insulation;

(J)

current

deficiency from imperfect or overloaded blasting machine.

The com-

BXPL08IVE8 AND
pleteness of the circuit can

uil.ii:

USE I\ MINING

17

1>. before the exploding by passing a galvanometer placed in the circuit. • 1> tonating Po of Classes 11 and III. -In breaking coal with powders il ia better, aa with igniting powders, to bore and load a new hole than to dig ou1 the tamping from a missed hole. In rock work, it is goo practice to dig out the tamping from a missed hole to within only half an inch of the powder and then insert a new primer cartridge with detonator and retamp. The excavation of tamping Bhould cautiously (lone when approaching the powder and care be taken not

feeble current through a
-

1

I

«•

to strike the cap.

Dynamite should
J,

not be allowed to remain long before firing in water

for th'

water

may
drill

displace the "oil" and perhaps cause a misfire

or the escape of "oil" into adjoining crevices

when

it

may

later be

and explode. Powder should never he when even partly frozen, for the thawed portion may explode alone and leave the frozen residue in the hole or blow it out into the muck to become in either cas a source of danger for the next shift of miners. In firing a round of holes in sequence, the explosion of one hole may blow off the primer of an adjoining hole whose remaining charge is therefore left unexploded in the hole-stump. Except for the last contingency, and that of two holes exploding simultaneously, the counting of the exploding reports gives a check on detonating in sequence which is lacking in simultaneously firing by electricity. An electric cap may be damp and the current through the circuit, without exploding itse'f, and a conduct missed hole will thus result. A fuse may have a broken thread of powder whose wrapping may catch fire and smoulder some time before igniting For all these reasons the stumps of the powder beyond the break should be carefully examined before resuming work, and ted holes where misfires are suspected a half-hour interval should elapse before revising the broken face.
struck by a pick or
!

/

!

given for fuse ignition and. in addition,
either

cap detonation has the last four causes of misfires already is liable to failure of the cap,
insufficient Btrength for the given

from dampness, imperfection, or

explosive.

The causes of misfires already given for electric ignition can be made read correctly as the causes with electric detonation by simply sul stito tuting the word cap for igniter ami adding the requirement that the cap
must
l>e

of

adequate strength.

CHAPTER

II

PRINCIPLES OF BLASTING GROUND
It is only in recent years that engineers have had much to do with the details of underground excavation, as it was thought that all the schooling necessary for the successful miner could be gained by practice

with a drill and shovel. It is evident, however, that where rock breaking forms such an important item of expense as it does in most mines, it will well repay study to ascertain if science cannot duplicate here the

same success

it has gained over empiricism in other departments. After an explosion of powder in the bore hole, Fig. 3, the sudden ex-

pansion of the resulting gases will exert its force equally in all directions on the bore hole, until either the enclosing rock or the tamping yields

*-~.

•'_''

fr

Sectioa
Fig.
3.

—Cones

Plan
of blasting rock.

and the gases escape. The rock will yield along what is called the line of least resistance, which would be be in the assumed homogenous rock of Fig. 3. It is evident that the angle 6, which the hole ab makes with the exposed surface or the free face of the rock, can vary from nothing to 90 deg. At = deg., there would be no hole and at 90 deg. the hole would be in the position be, the line of least resistance, and would give a blown-out shot. The quantity of rock thrown out by the explosion would have the volume of a cone with an altidue be or h, and a base with a radius ac, whose volume v = l/3 h-(ac) 2 and where 6 = 45 deg. (the usual condition for the

maximum

volume) ac = h and we have

v

= xh = (nearly) h
'

3

'

3
,

or

if

m

is

a

constant, depending on rock, then v
18

mlv

PRIN< [PLEfl "i
1

in.

U9TZN

-i-

I'J

or b case with

c with
for

the lines of

plosion will

one
-.

free

the powder di; laced at and em of equal Length, thi breakout two cones def and fek, or nearly double the volume It is similar for three or more free face, so that p=2mA a
free rock t'accs
it'

two
I

.

so thai
m/ilt
3
.

neral equation

we have,
:i

if

//

the

number

of free

From this formula it can be .-ecu that syatem of inining Bhould he adopted which utilizes as many free faces as possible in breaking. In development work for vertical, horizontal or inclined drives or
Sages,

We

.-tart

each round of holes with one

free face

and with
In

oil!-

cut

holes break out either a cone or a

wedge whose surface forms another
stoping
to
in

free face for the benefit of the other holes of the round.

work, which must be started from a drive,

maintain two and often three free faces in stratified formations sometimes four or more
is

we can always manage homogeneous rock, and
faces, as
;i

bedding plane

often nearly the equivalent of a (ice face.

In stratified formation- the correct principles of breaking are especi-

important for economy's Bake. The simpliest case is that of beds I ft. thick. Here the holes should be drilled in a plane parallel to the beds because it is evident 'hat we can more easily separate two wet coin- on a table by sliding one sideways than by trying to lift it off vertically. Also these parallel holes do not weaken the blast by Where allowing the powder gases to escape through the bedding seam. the bed- are thin, -ay under 8 in., we encounter the possibility, with holes parallel to the bedding, of having only the small bed blown out ha1
ally 2

to

I

contains the hole.

For

this reason

it

is

advisable to

iirst

make

a cut

by driving holes across the bedding planes and then break to the cut with the balance of the holes drilled parallel to the bedding plane, but which now exert their maximum force perpendicular in-had of parallel
to the beds.

The method number of hole-

of firing also affects the pointing
to drill for breaking.

and the necessary
in

There

is

a great advantage

simultaneous or electric firing wherever a weak roof or the greater danger from misfires w th unskilled miners do not militate against it. In Fig. ievident that only the cone abd and the double COM dek would be broken out by the charges a1 6 mid e fired separately, but if b and e are not too far apart and are fired together the line of detachment will be along the line- dbek instead of abdek and the extra volume /<</<
:;
it

will be broken with no extra powder or drilling. In any case of breaking, the pressure p produced by the explosive multiplied by the area of its ion " (taken along the axis of the hole) must equal the ultimate tensile or shearing strength T of the rock multiplied by the area of its

surface of fracture
Tf

S

or

pa

is

greater than

pa=TS. means T8
it

an excess of explosive over that

20

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
This excess causes a "windy"

required for detaching the burden.

shot, resulting in a greater air blast, a louder report

flame than from a normal shot.

A

and a longer, hotter normal charge leaves traces of the
in the rock

drill hole, but an insufficient charge leaves "candlesticks" and loose pieces of the burden have to be blasted off.

Underground Development
In illustrating we
drifts as the
will

take the case of driving horizontal headings or

same

principles of breaking apply equally well for inclined

and

vertical

arises

The practical difference in the latter shafts and raises. from the setting of the drills and the handling of the muck and the water, and the fact that the length of the section in shafts generally makes the central cut advisable.
;
.

Plan for

(a),(b)

&

(c).

We will also assume, to simplify the illustrations, a heading small and soft enough to allow its breakage by rounds of nine holes in three rows of three holes each, although often nine holes are more effective in four rows, one of three and the balance of two holes For longer headings with harder rock, the same each. principles would apply, but more holes must he added for breaking the round. On this basis we will now
consider the following six cases of formation.

Case I. Homogeneous Rock Free from Bedding Planes or Joints in the Face of the Heading. Since this formation breaks equally well in any direction,

the holes should be placed for the most convenient

and mucking. For setting the bar horizontis usual where it is desired to begin drilling before the muck from the last round is cleaned up, Sec. (c) the placing of Fig. 4 (a) is a favorite. Here the adFig. 4.— Holes for head- justable arm is unnecessary and the first setting of uigs with horizontal bar. .„ „ the bar is at A to drill the upper and middle rows with the machine above the bar. The second setting of the bar is at B and the machine is turned under it for drilling the bottom row 3 of lifters. The horizontal rows of holes are usually fired in the order
drilling
ally,

as

-

,

.

.

,

,

,

.

,

1, 2, 3,

Fig. 4 («).

side instead of the bottom cut is handiest if we wish to set the bar vertically. We first set up at A, Fig. 5, and drill row 1, then at B with the machine on one side to drill row 2 and on the other to drill row
3.

The

vertical rows of holes are fired in the order 1, 2, 3, Fig. In other to keep the passage straight, the cut holes of row 1 will be put for the next round on the opposite side to what is shown, so that the finished sides have a zig-zag appearance, alternately right and

Here the

5 plan.

PRIN(

IPJ

-

LA81 ING 0BO1 M»
5.

21

town
points horizontal row

in the

plan of Fig.
hole
c,

The middle
a

hole of vertical

row

1

downward,
1,
-

like

instead of flat-wise, like the

balance of

throw out
-

bottom

cut

inclination to the face too acute for rapid progress in a
1

and avoid a horizontal narrow heading.

•>!• ruare, in hard homogeneous rock, the large tunnel heading 3 cone or "Leyner" center-cul system has recently permitted of very

Plan


Section
I'p,.
o.


vertical bar.

— Holes for headings with

fast driving

It is especially adapted to the on account of the man}- upper holes used and the fact that th's drill is short enough to allow the sharp pointing of the For hard steel ore and jasper in a holes with two settings of the bar. Michigan iron mine, this system was thus applied. In Fig. .1 i- the bar in first position for two machines and from its

in

western metal mines.

water Leyner

drill

*'•.

a'o

1 -*

Front Kiev.
Fiq.
6.

Section
for

— Holes
'.».

Leyner tunnel

cut.

top the four back

hole.-.

Nos.

10,

are then tipped forward until the crank can just turn
or top of the drift for drilling

The machines back the top center cut holes Xos. 1 and 2,
11

and

12. are drilled.

and

clear the

while finally they are turned under the bar for side holes Xos.

5, 6,

7

and

8.

The bar is then changed to position J?, the machines
13

;pon

top and side holes Nos.

and

11 are drilled.

Then, after turning the

22

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

machines under the bar, they are tipped up in front so the crank just clears the bottom of the drift and holes Nos. 3 and 4 are drilled about to meet Nos. 1 and 2 in the center of the heading. The four lifters, Nos. In softer and better-breaking 15, 16, 17 and 18, are the final holes. ground, cut holes Nos. 5 and G, one lifter and one back hole can be left out, but the four cut-holes, Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, are nearly always used and are pitched up and down and in, to meet about in the center. The five remaining cases are given for regularly stratified rock, but the joints or cracks of massive rock may, like bedding planes, often be
utilized for breaking.

Case

II.

Rock in Horizontal Beds;

(a)

Medium

Thick Beds.

—Here

the best results from the powder can be got by two settings of the bar
vertically
for the
of

and following the drilling and firing directions given above method illustrated by Fig. 5. In the disseminated lead mines southeastern Missouri (Example 9, Chapter VIII), this method is

modified as follows:

For a drift 10 ft, wide by 6 1/2 to 7 ft, high, 12 to 13 holes are needed, The bar is set placed in three rows horizontally by four rows vertically.

up once to

drill

each vertical row of holes, four set-ups being necessary

to complete a round.

Each vertical row is fired separately by fuse and dynamite and as only three or four holes are fired at a time, not enough smoke or broken rock is produced to prevent the drillers from setting up again very soon after blasting. This method with three shifts of two drill men each allows an advance of 5 to 7 ft. in 24 hours with 2 3/4-in. drills. By the former center-cut system, two drills and four men were able to advance only 10 to 15 per cent, faster than by the one drill and the side-3ut method just described, all loading and tramming, in each case, having been done by muckers. Here, as already explained, the cut-holes must cross (6) Thin Beds. the bedding planes. A bottom cut is advisable. The bar is set horizon-

Often all three rows can be drilled direct although sometimes the use of the adjustable arm on the bar is necessaiy to get the correct pointing of the holes. The holes of row 1 are fired first and break out the cut to the bedding plane on the floor of the heading. Before loading the row of cut-holes, it is often helpful to stop up their bedding planes, around the powder, with clay but this precaution is unnecessary in the two upper rows where the holes are parallel to the bedsCase 777. Rocks in Vertical Beds Parallel to Heading; (a) Medium Thick Beds. This case requires the bottom cut of Fig. 4 (a) which has
tally at A, Fig. 4 (b).

already been described under Case I. The use of this method in the vertical copper veins of Butte, Mont,, is as follows: The placing of holes is shown in Fig. 7 for the 12-hole system, although for most rock nine
holes are ample, the center holes of rows
this

arrangement the

drill

For 2, 3, and 4 being omitted. bar (with adjustable arm) need only be set

PR1N( IPLE8 "1

BL

\-i

[NG OROI ND
of holes
1,

up once
fired at

vertically, as

shown.

The round

is

usually loaded and
3,

1. Borne of the miners regulate the explosions by cutting the fuse of differenl lengths

one time and goes

off in

the order of

2,

others by cutting

and Bpitting them simultaneously while held together in the hand, and all the fuse of the Bame Length and Bpitting them
in
t

separately
(b)

he required order.

Tfiin

Beds.
//

—The
'"

solution of

tl

follows Fig.
"t"

excepl that here the Bide instead

is

used.

With

<>ne Betting oi

the bar, the three vertical

5 and also bottom cut rows K, 2 and 3

the

may
along

be drilled and shot in the
a side

same order, row K breaking out the cut, bedding plane, mn, and rows 2 and 3 breaking to the cut.

— —

-e

»-„--©-

:

i.

Section

Bed.

A-B

Fig.

7.

— Holes for stoping.
(a),

Here

it

is

not so necessary for alignment, as in Case II
it

to alternate

the cut on each side of the heading, but

is

often an advantage especially

where the vertical bedding planes are ill defined. Case IV. Rocks in Vertical Beds Cutting the Heading at an Angle; (a) Mi ilium Thick Beds. If the cutting angle which the bedding plane makes with the side of the heading is 45 deg. or less, the method of Fig. 4 (a) is usually preferable. If the cutting angle is more than 45 deg., the choice between the methods of Fig. (a) and of Fig. 5 will often be merely a question of convenience in setting the bar horizontally

-1

or vertically, respectively.
(6)

Thin Beds.
is

— With
<

a cutting angle of 45 deg. or less the
is

of

Fig. 5

the best.

Where the cutting angle
4

the choice between the methods of Fig.
ting the bar as in
'asi
I

(a)

method more than 45 deg., and Fig. 5 depends on set-

V

24

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

Case V. Rocks in Inclined Beds Dipping Toward the Floor of the Heading. For either medium thick or thin beds the method of Fig. 4

Care must be taken, however, in the case of beds dipping over 45 deg. to stop the holes of the horizontal row 1 at the last beddingplane which intersects the face of the heading above the floor.
(a) is

the best.

Case VI. Rocks in Inclined Beds Dipping Away from the Floor of the Heading. For either medium thick or thin beds the method of Fig. 4 (c) should be used. The bar is set up at A for row 2 and at B for rows 1 and 3.

last bedding plane intersecting the face of the tunnel under the roof in order to utilize this plane as a free face in breaking.

The order of firing the horizontal rows of holes is 1, 2 and The end of the holes in row 1 should be stopped beneath the

finally 3.

Surface Excavation and Underground Stoping
In some kinds of deposits, especially the huge copper-bearing porphyry lanses and the Lake Superior iron mines, much time is often saved by drilling all the holes possible in the peripheiy of a heading in the ore from the same set-ups that are used in drilling the face. These paripaeral holes can then be left untouched until the stoping of that section begins, when they can be easily loaded and fired.
Hcles for stoping
groups,
(1)

may

be placed according to the direction in three

45 deg.

down holes (2) flat-holes, and (3) uppers. A dip of about downward and upward can be assumed to make the limit

between groups (1) and (2) and of (2) and (3) respectively, although the division between (2) and (3) is really marked by the angle of repose of the cuttings, that is, when the hole becomes self-cleaning, which may often mean a steeper dip than 45 deg. The speed of cutting with reciprocating drills depends on the removal of cuttings after each stroke to expose a fresh face. Therefore with these drills down holes drill easiest, then uppers, and lastly flats. Using the hammer drills with hollow bits cleaned by water or air-jets, there is less difference in drilling speed
for different directions of pointing.

Down

Holes; Underground.

— Down holes are used underground in the
To
start this system, a

underhand benches
heading ah, Fig. holes put in its

of tunnels or metal mines.

run at the top of the tunnel or stope and the down floor for the first bench. The depth of this bench is limited b}' the length of the bit which can be inserted in the hole and that depends on the height of the heading which is usually around 7 ft. so that the ordinary railroad tunnel, 20 to 25 ft. high, requires two benches and two settings of the tripod at a and b, Fig. 8 to reach the bottom. These bench holes point downward anyhow but often an advantage may be taken of the structure. Thus with horizontal beds, the holes of the first bench can be terminated at a bedding plane which the gases
8, is

PRINCIPLES 01

BLA8TING GROI ND

25

from the explosion tn be tut ken off.
i

will

enter and thus exert a lifting action on the mass

choice of plans, a heading can often be given in a take the maximum advantage of the bedding and direction that will In this principle, joint planes for breaking, both in driving and Btoping.
there
is

Where

a

I

perpendicular to the the rooms of coal mines are usually laid main joint planes of the coal seam or to the "face cleat." of the
<»ut

line

Down

Holes;

at

Surface.

—Above

ground the only

limit

to the

depth

of the hole

is the capacity of the drill. deep holes we have a choice of two methods (a) multi-charging, chambering. In the drill hole ab of Fig. 9, it is evident that a charge of explosive any point 6 will only break out a cone like cbd where eb is the line of at

In considering breaking from

h

a

-_

~^-~ __,

/

T~~
8.

Fig.

Hole-, for

underhand stope.

Fio. 9.

—Holes

for high bench.

least resistance.

ing, other charges of explosives as

In order to break the whole length ab by multi-charg/and g would be placed along the hole,
all

with tamping between, and

be set

off

by simultaneous

firing.

In this

way

the whole mass abd would be detached.

By chambering,
differently.

bench as
that
nc,

is

the breaking from a long hole would be achieved Instead of the hole being placed near the face hd of the the hole ab (because of its small section for developing

explosive pressure), the hole

mn would be placed back from the

face so

a little

the line of least resistance in homogeneous rock, would be only The shorter than the length of the hole above the chamber at n.

chambering is effected by shattering the bottom of the hole with highpower dynamite so that the final shape of the chamber approach
In France this chambering, in limestone, is performed with hydro?hlor'c acip, each dose of neutralized acid being washed out and a new one poured in until the chamber is of the required size. When the
sphere.

chamber

is filled

with gunpowder or low-power dynamite and exploded,

40
it will

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
exert nearly as

much

force

upward

as horizontally

and

will

break

out a mass along the surface of fracture

q?ip.

The choice between multi-charging and chambering depends on the varying conditions of formation, drilling and exploding. In a fissured formation, chambering has often an advantage because the explosive

maybe localized in a solid portion of the rock, although it often needs the use of two kinds of explosives, one for chambering and the other for breaking. Where it is desired to break off only a thin slice like hab, Fig.
from the cliff, it is evident that multi-charging should be resorted to. an even topography will allow the handling of the portable steam or electric churn drill for a3-in. to 12-in. hole (instead of the reciprocating
4,

When

drill for

a

1

1/2-in. hole), the multi-charging
of a

method

will

permit the

drilling

and breaking

much

longer hole than would be feasible

by

chambering.
Flat Holes;

Underground.
to
drill,

—Of

the three groups,

flat

holes are the

which are pointed above the horizontal for the reason that they neither hold water or discharge their
difficult

most

especially those

cuttings by gravit}^. This group is much used in the overhead stoping system with piston drills as the drill tripod can be set on the broken rock. Thus flat water holes which are easier to load than uppers and free from their dust can be drilled at a fair speed. In overhand stoping with a weak back, as in the vertical veins of Butte, Mont., flat holes have also an advantage over uppers as the timber sets can be carried next to the back and the drilling can proceed under the lagging. Thus in Fig. 7 at C rows 1 and 2 are water holes and only row 3 need be drilled dry. In the zinc district of Joplin, Mo., flat holes are used instead of the

usual

down

holes to break the benches below the heading of the underas described

hand stoping system

under Example 10

of

Chapter VIII.

-r—

:

-

II

IT
Iig. 10.

—Holes

tor seam.

In driving coal headings or rooms by " blasting
holes bored

off

the solid,"

flat

by augers

are generally used

and are placed similarly to
,

those shown for headings in flatly bedded rock in Fig. 5. In the location of the horizontal rows of holes, the character of the bedding planes between the coal seam and its roof and floor must be considered. If the
roof
is
is

"tight," the shot must exert a strong shearing force to separate

it.

This

achieved by slanting the row of holes sharply upward and ter-

I'lUNi

[PLE8 "l

KL.###BOT_TEXT###gt;i J\«.

GROI

\i'

27
is

ruinating

them

at the tight plane.
ia

A
cut

similar

remedy

applied to

a tight
j<

In mail}- Beams the coal

up into cubes by two
call*

Bets of

int-

planee perpendicular to the bedding planes,
cleats,

d the " faci

i

ad"

which condition makes breaking easy.
of a coal face, before shooting, takes the place
'»t'
t

The Bhearing

he

cm

holes in blasting off the solid

and the smaller charges allowable

for the

roof.

former method do1 only Bave explosive bul prevenl the shattering of the With coal sheared vertically alum: one rib of a heading, the hol< s

fur breaking

would he placed

like vertical
in

the shear

is

made

horizontally as

rows 2 ami the undercut .///.

'.'>.

Fig. 5.
it

Where
LS

Fig. 1".

CUStO//

inary in a thick

Beam

of coal to place the hist or "blister" shot at

in

order to break out the triangular prism of coal abc.

shattered strip gfh has been removed by the pick, ad of dl and cs for the line of least resistance from the corner

Then whin the we have '///' and en
holi S

d and e, by which last the balance of the undercut coal can now be easily shot down. For a thin vein of coal, the ''buster" shot would be located at K on a level with the coiner holes and it would break out the triangular prism tKs as thick as the
seam.
a

The undercut shown in Fig. 10 is that made by hand or power pick. Being a height of 12 in. or

so in front with a

downward

slope to 4

in.

in the

shape allows the "buster" shot to throw much of the coal out of the undercut, so that the strip gfh can be easily extracted by the pick to
back,
it-

prepare for the corner shots.

When
in.,

the undercut.
it is

however,
shot

is

made by
of only

a chain machine,

of uni-

form height

about 4

and the "buster"
It is

may

not throw the coal outward.

then
-50

often advisable to place an extra
.it

"snubbing" shot
><
.23

t

/to Batten down the detached prism abc so that he -hots d and c can be made effective without first
Flat

x

Section Wasting by FlG. 11.

cleaning out the broken coal underneath.
Hole; Surface.

tunuels.

— In

loosening huge banks of placer gravel in

California before hydraulicking, small adits have been used with cross-

cuts

at

their ends to hold the explosive.

From

a breaking stand-point,

these adits correspond to flat drill-holes with

chambered ends.

The

masses of rock in quarries or excavation.-. Often a shaft has been sunk as an cut ranee to Sometimes two cross-cuts the explosive chamber instead of an adit. from the adit may be made for explosive chambers, as shown in Fig. 11There only the crosscuts cd and nh would lie packed with gunpowder or low-power dynamite, while the adit itself would lie blocked with timber Elsewhere it would Or masonry bulkheads wherever it me1 the crosscuts.
also been

same method has

employed

for breaking great

28

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

be packed with sand.

For

firing, electric

fuzes or caps would be placed
ft.

in the explosive at intervals of about 10

Finally they would all be connected by wiring in order that they might be fired simultaneously by The chamber cd would electricity c k being the line of least resistance. break out the cone gc / 1 and the chamber ab would break out the prism ha l c l g, the plan of the line of fracture being mabn.
l 1
,

The same breaking equation, pa — TS,

applies as in the case of drill

holes, the factor a being the area of the cross section of the explosive

taken along the axis of the crosscut. Uppers. Uppers are seldom used on the surface but are common in underground work not only in tunnel headings and raises, but also in overhand stoping. In excavating overhand stopes with square-set timbering, it is sometimes more efficient to drill the back with uppers In the as at B, Fig. 7, instead of the flats at C used in Butte practice. great stopes of the Portland mine, at Cripple Creek, Colo., where the pay shoot was in places 120 ft. wide and 400 ft. long, the ore hard and the

back strong enough to stay up across the vein for several sets ahead of the timbermen, it was found that the fastest breaking was accomplished by drill ng uppers from piston drills set on tripods, one drill being used
in every set across the stope.

CHAPTER
COMPRESSED
In

111

All;

I

OR MINING
high pressure gives
a in

drilling with

piston

rock drills

a

stronger

fissured withdrawing force <>n the bit In hard, tough boring. ground and thus greatly increases the Etpeed of ground, like specular hematite or certain intrusives, a high air pressure is necessary, if it is desired to strike a blow, Bevere enough to cul the rock,

which tends to prevenl sticking

with

a light

portable machine.

In a certain

mine, using

1<>

drill.- in

hard

and fissured -round the rock broken per machine wasjiicreased aboul 20 per cent, by the simple expedient of advancing the air pressure from 7"> to Kio pounds. A low pressure system requires larger pipes to deliver the same power and heavier pumps and hoists in the mine to accomplish a given amount of work than an equivalent equipment working under
high pressure.

depends in a given case on commercial considerations, costs of fuel, labor and supplies, which in turn are governed in considerable degree by the mechanical efficiency of the plant. The high pressure limit, excepl for haulage purposes is aboul "JO pounds.
'The economical limit of pressure
1

30
retained in the
air,

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

we have
is

adiabatic compression and get the curve

a b

f,

the equation of which

r= pr ii)'
the value of y being 1.406 for dry air and somewhat less for the ordinary atmosphere, and p being the resultant pressure and v the resultant volume.
If the

temperature

is

the internal heat as fast as generated,

kept constant, during compression, by removing we have isothermal compression
is

and get the cruve a

cd,

the equation for which

p = PVl


J.

Finally,

the work lost by cooling the
that of the free
air, is

air, from the final adiabatic temperature to measured by the area a c dfb, the total work of

compression for one stroke of the piston being area

afm n.

Theory of the Intercooler
is the ideal, practical difficulties can be cooled in the compression cylinder by a water spray, but this method requires too slow a machine to compete with dry compression and external cooling. It can be easily shown, mathematically or by an indicator card, that water-jacketing the compression cylinder has practically no effect in cooling the air, although it is useful in keeping the bearing surfaces cool enough for

Although isothermal compression
its

prevent

attainment.

The

air

lubrication.

In Fig. 12, the adiabatic and isothermal curves get farther apart as the pressure increases, so that the work lost by adiabatic compression increases at a faster ratio than the pressure. To avoid this increase for high pressures, a compression in two stages, with a surface intercooler

between the high- and low-pressure cylinders,

is

frequently used.

Unfor-

tunately, few of the standard machines have a large enough intercooler to insure that the compressed air, entering the high-pressure cylinder, is
as cool as the free air entering the low-pressure cylinder
is

when the machine
is

running

full

speed.

It will aid

the intercooler,

if

the free air

sucked

from the coolest available place. In the diagram, Fig. 12, K is the pressure at which the air leaves the low-pressure cylinder to pass through the intercooler and enter the highpressure cylinder. The following cycle then takes place with a perfect intercooler. In the low-pressure cylinder the air is compressed adiabatically from a to b, reduced in the intercooler to the yolume at point c and then compressed adiabatically in the high-pressure cylinder from
into the low-pressure cylinder
to e, the total work of compression being the area ab c e m n. Thus the saving of work by the use of the intercooler is represented by the area cefb, from which must be deducted any work expended in circulating
c

IMPRESSED
the cooling water.
-

UK FOR MINING

31

of

the low-

In the design of the machine, the ratio of the diamcylinder and the high-pressure cylinder are
</

taken so that the area
litions.

h k

n

is

equal to area

C

(

///

I:

for

aV(

Th( be little difference in the efficiency "t the Bteam ends between high- and low-pressure compression. With ound air end, the steam end can also be compound ami finBingle-J end the machine can l»e tandem-compound. The air-pressure governor has now been perfected and for the usual variable load.- of mine work, is indispensable for any pressure, though it requires a duplex machine HI dead center with 110 load.
: i

;t

Preheaters
In the case of the air motor, the compression process
is

reversed.

on entering the motor in the mine has the pressure and volume of point d (Fig. 12) and in a simple, unheated motor cylinder will expand Should the air be preheated to the adiabatically along the line d g h.
air

The

volume
r L ain of

of point /it will then expand along the adiabatic line/6 with a work, over the unheated case, equal to area a h d f. With two-stage expansion, the air may be preheated before entering
'/

e, then expand adiabatically to c, next through an interheater so as to reach b on entering the high-prese cylinder and finally expand adiabatically to a. Heating during expansion, like cooling during compression, gains in its relative effect on t heefficiency, the higher the pressure. Aside from its gain in work, heating is often necessary to prevent freezing of the exhaust when the air i> damp and cold on entering the motor. Owing to the small size and portability of rock drills preheaters are for this service out of place, but for large hoists and pumps, with highpressure air, they are always to be recommended. In the operation of

the low-pressure cylinder to

the preheater the compressed air passes through a vessel containing heated tubes of sufficient radiating surface for the purpose. These tubes may be heated by a coal, coke or oil fire, but, since smoke

contaminates the atmosphere of the mine, steam-heating is often both In an air heater it is possible to utilize .-team more efficiently than in the best condensing engine, for both
convenient and economical.
the
latent and visible heat of the steam are absorbed by the air and turned into work without frictional losses greater than the motor would suffer with indicated air. With steam heating the only important loss is that due to radiation in the supply pipe from the boilers, and by proper covering this can be made small. In the 500-gal. Dickson pumps, installed in the Anaconda mines at Butte in 1899, tinair was successfully heated by steam in both the preheaters and the inter-

heaters for the

compound

cylind<

32

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

High-pressure pipe-lines, though smaller in diameter, require more them tight than lines for low pressure, and the velocity of exit of air from a leak varies directly as the square of the pressure.
care to keep

The loss of power from the common practice of blowing out powder smoke with the air hose is the greater the higher the pressure, for the
ventilating efficiency depends only on the quality of free air discharged.

With pipes properly proportioned

for the quantity of air to be delivered

if care be taken to avoid unnecessary bends and to use gate valves instead of globe

the frictional line losses will be moderate with either pressure,

valves.

The compressor should discharge
have in the mine, but keep it from entering the
will

its air

into a receiver the cooling
it

action of which will not only at cone reduce the volume to that which
will also precipitate

any extra moisture and

good device for the surface in which is water circulating through the boiler tubes, while the compressed air fills the Underground the receivers need only be plain steel shells for shell. storage, but they must be numerous and large enough to preserve the pressure constant under the variable power requirements. Preheaters
pipe-lines.

A

receiver

is

a

condemned

boiler, set in a

wooden tank

in use serve as receivers.

needs a special piping system to hold upward. This piping also serves as a receiver and accumulator of air between locomotive chargings so that the compressors can be run under a constant load. It is evident that the piping system will need a lesser proportionate capacity
air is

When

used for haulage

it

the requisite pressure of 1000

lbs.

as receiver the greater the number of locomotives supplied, for each charging will involve a less relative displacement of air. Under the usual traffic and air pressure a pipe line of 6 to 12-in. dia. is amply large, both for distribution and storage of air, without placing tank

receivers at the stations.

ends of compressors for haulage systems should be at least moderate speed and with ample intercooling surfaces; for Fig. 12 shows how fast the power loss due to inefficient cooling increases with the pressure. Until recently the locomotives were single-stage and had consequently a low efficiency and capacity; but the new compound. Porter locomotive obviates these troubles and gives air-haulage a chance for extension beyond its present special field of gaseous or dusty coal
air

The

4-stage, of

mines.

CHAPTEB

1\

PRINCIPLES FOR CONTROLLING EXl
The
art

W

\II<»###BOT_TEXT###gt;
<>t'

of

timbering

is

qoI

synonymous with

that

tin-

control

«»t

ground as any miner, but unless
rately jointed

Qter can frame timber better than
In;

e liable to

intended.

The
I.

subj<

two
tion.

topics:

Tin- control of
:'•

of the sides

and

directed by the latter, prove worthless for the purpose und control naturally divides itself under the roof of an excavation; II. The control "ion ami of the whole overlying forma-

Both topics
lie

will lie

will

discussed.

In

considered separately before their inter-relation practice, we have not only to consider the
q,

but their future conditions

-

ire to the weathering action of the

mine atmosphere.

(

'"vi

rol of the Roof

(o>

fi

ira in

tin-

i

-This case is the simplest ami H mining horizontal seams or beds. Let abb'a' Fig. 13, represent angular room excavated in a team of the thickf

;

-v

"\ A

mi

•>

-'

m
.-

y

a A *

'n* * *

*

'/'.

Then the support

of the roof

over the opening ab depends upon

the immediately overlying formation.

The structure
I)

of

the last falls
2

usually under one of the five folio?

horizontally bedded,

(3)

weakly-consolidated,

(4)

homogeneous, non-conformabL

broken.

With case

(lj

or a hon
ich,

atum, either mas
the lines of vertical pressun

in a

sufficiently thick bed

34

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

above ab tend to combine themselves into resultants which follow a downward pressure onto the walls at a and b. The resultant surface takes the form of an arch, over a tunnel, or of an
surface acb and throw the

arch with

domed

ends, in a
is all

sub-arch block acb

room of limited length. This means that the the weight that has to be supported to maintain
its stability its

the roof intact, and that

depends

first,

on

its

strength as a

beam

of continuous
its

width to bear

own weight

across the span ab and

second, on

being held in place by the tensile strength of the rock area

along the arch, or potential surface of fracture, acb.
natural arching
is

In case

(1)

the

usually sufficiently convex so that the sub-arch-block

has sufficient depth cf to make is self-sustaining as a beam across ab except in soft rocks like certain shales which may not only need the support of a cap like ab but also must be lagged. In old mine workings where the sub-arch block acb has fallen out so
that the shape of the natural surface of equilibrium acb can be discerned,
it

and the nature
If

appears as an arch whose proportions vary with the width of the room of the roof. Fayal gives as working rules for limited

areas like rooms:

w — width
A

of

room
ft.,

(as ab in Fig. 13);

= height
is is

of arch (as cf in Fig. 13)

If If

more than 6 ft., h may be as much as 4w (Fayol's second rule). In railroad or mine tunnels, a homogeneous roof can be made self-sustaining by excavating it, at the start, along the natural arch form. In the rooms of coal seams, however, or in iron-ore beds, the sub-arch block must be sustained intact until the mineral beneath is removed and the room abandoned. The tensile strength of the arched surface is seldom sufficient to accomplish this unaided, except in narrow rooms. In wider rooms, a cross-beam ab, or one or more props like ff must be put in whose strength, however, need only equal the difference between the weight of the sub-arch block acb and the tensile strength of the arched surface acb, provided that//*' is inserted before the surface acb has begun to fracture. Should the latter accident have taken place, the weight of the whole subarch block may have to be sustained by props and thus a heavy unnecessary expense be incurred.

w w

less

than 6

h

may

be as

much

as

2w

(Fayol's

first rule);

With case

(2)

or where the roof

is

in

beds thinner than the sub-arch
(Fig. 13) intersect the surface
(1).

block so that bedding planes like hk and
acb, a different condition arises

mn

from case

It

is

evident that
acb
is

now

the sub-arch block instead of being a single stone
into three stone

beam

divided

beams

ahkb, h'mnk' and m'dd'n' so that for a self-sustain,

ing roof, the lowest

beam ahkb must be
it,

strong enough to sustain the

we ght
the top

of the

two beams above

the central

beam h'mnk' must

sustain

beam

m'dd'n' and the tensile strength of the sub-arch surface acb

must

be, as before, sufficiently strong to hold

up the whole sub-arch

PBIN<

I!

•:

CON rBOLUNG

BX<

w

\

i

[(

block.

It

is.

therefore, likely that a
in

room would need stronger props

in

case (1) because the lowest sustaining beam of casi b depth at the middle of ha, which is only a fraction of the correspondth of a beam lepth <\f for case (1), and the cross breaking

than

Also we now do not have uniform tensile Btrength for one surface of fracture oc6, bul a different Hence for case Btrength for each of the three beds which acb intersects. e have to acsertain both the cross breaking and the tensile strengths of all beds in the sub-arch block before we can ascertain how much propincreases directly as the square of the depth.
a

ping

is

required to sustain the roof across a

room

of a given width.

roof of an elastic nature like slate

may

at first simply

A bow downward
This

from an
cause
it

i

1

of fracturing as a

beam.

may

by shear at the abutments. For the maximum strength of a roof it is important to exclude water from the bedding planes in order to prevent the slipping and weakness caused by its presence. se (3) often occurs in coal mines where the roof stratum is "clod"
to
fail

A or a kind of soft shale containing concretions of considerable size. common device is to leave the upper layer of the coal seam under it which
then acts as the lowest beam ahkb of case (2) to partially sustain the clod-stratum. Where all the seam must be removed beneath the clod, the roof can only be kept intact by excavating the mineral with little or no blasting and keeping the supports close to the working face. Props, If the clod stratum is ind lagging may all have to be used. thicker than the room's natural arch, masses may fall out from above
the surface acb, after the sub-arch block has been taken down, so that

must be arched higher than the clod in order to stand permanently unsupported. Where the roof is a weakly consolidated stratum of more uniformly sized stones, 1 ke a conglomerate, the problem of support is similar.
roofs

Practically the whole weight of the sub-arch block

by
so

artificial

supports, and in addition the

the roof stratum is weakly consolidated as to be incoherent it requires close lagging, and where quite loose an advance can only be made by driving fore-poles ahead of the timber sets right up to the working lace. Loose sand, if dry or only moist, can be sustained, like loose gravel, by close fore-poling, but if it is wet enough to flow freely like quicksand the case is hopeless except by the use of some such system as that of the pneumatic shield recently employed in the Hudson river tunnels at New York. It is evident, however, that while the quicksand roof of a railroad tunnel might be penetrated and sustained by the expensive pneumatic shield and its follower, a cast-iron tube lining, such a device would be commercially unpractical for ordinary ore deposits. For the latter the only hope for overcoming quicksand is Bufficienl drainage so that the
forced by cross-beams of props or

beam acb by both. Where

must be held in place itself must be rein-

30

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER.
its fluidity

sand loses
state.
If

and takes the compact condition
is

drainage of the quicksand covering

of its merely moist not feasible and the ore

body cannot be mined by some subaqueous method, it is worthless, as was recently proved for a huge hematite deposit under a swamp on the Mesabi range, Minn., which was abandoned after wasting a large sum in attempting to open a mine in it.

Even

if

the bed or pocket of quicksand does not rest directly on the

is separated from it by a rock stratum, great care has to be taken against it. The only safe plan is to open the mine excavations of small size and with sufficient support to keep the rock roof intact, for otherwise vertical cracks may develop reaching to the quicksand. When the quicksand once begins to flow into the mine, the results may

ore body, but

Fig. 14.

—Non-conformable
its

roof.

be far-reaching for
cover.

its

escape from

matrix

may mean
of the

the collapse of

the latter and consequent disastrous

movements

whole overlying

In case (4) the non-conformable roof strata may dip in any direction with reference to the underlying mineral seam. If the roof strata strike
along the long axis of the room as in the cross section of Fig.
14,

then

it is

evident that conditions will not produce an arch of fracture as in Fig. 13. The upper stratum g'gpv is entirely above the room opening and bridges

two lower strata, vpv'q' have their lower ends unsupported and projecting like cantilever beams. Then the natural surfaces of fracture will be normal to the bedding planes and will be qq' for the lowest and q'v for the middle stratum. The tensile strength of surface qq' must be enough to hold the weight of projection q'v'q and any unbalanced pressure from above, while surface vq' must hold its end vpv'q' and any weight above. A line of props at t strong enough to sustain the excess of strain over the resisting strength of surface qq', will hold up the roof without a second line at t provided that surface v'p' is strong enough to sustain the weight on it from the
it

slantingly from one side to the other, while the
q'v'q,

and

projection p'pv'.

I'KIM IPLE8
\s

the dip of the

la

incret

in

on the surface of

fracture qqfv becomes

more

tensile thai

reaking until with vertical
I

in is all tensile.
i.-

In the

1.

be weight to be sustained
-

its block below a natural arch of fractu by each stratum which is differently proportioned for vertical beds than ...

the

is

acb of

13 for horizontal beds.

Where
13

the strike of the inclined beds of the roof

is

across instead of

illustrated by Each bed can fire usidered separately as forming a single Bub-arch beam whose Bide elevation is acb in Fig. 13. Each bed must then be calculated separately both for the self-sustaining power of ib-arch beam, across the Bpan of the room, and for that of its tensile A bed may then be artificially supported if surface oc6, by prop jj" or cap <il>. It" Ii. for this case only, to be the longitudinal sect ion of the room u ;tion is Fig. 13, we see thai
a

along the room beneath,

we have

mixture

of tb<

and

I

I.

i

.

i.

bed

a cross bed like vpv q m&y have the Bame breaking-off action on a lower q'v'n as has just been discussed in the last paragraph, and supp
, /

be modified accordingly.

The

broki n rool of
If

"
i

may

arise

from planes

of faulting, fractur-

jointing, etc.

the breaking planes are parallel or in one general

Fir;.

15.

— Roof-over inclined room.
If

direction,

we can handle the

roof as suggested for case (4).

the pi

are in several directions so as to cut the roof into monoliths, the support
of each block will havi

eparately.

Where

a roof

monolith
le

indefinite height,

we may

illustrate

it

by

Fig. 13 with ah its

and acb the section

of its natural surface of fracture,

which

will

be of

dome
by

shape, bo that only the Bupport of the sub-arch portion acb has then

to be considered.

When, however, the

roof monoliths are broken also

a plane in a horizontal direction, like

mn

in

Fig.

13, bo as to

become

38
free blocks like

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

amnb, they can only be kept in the roof by sustaining and fore-poling will have to be used for excavating beneath a roof surface containing them. (b) Roof Over an Inclined Room. This case occurs in mining seams on a dip which may vary up to 90 deg. from the horizontal. Let abb'a' Fig. 15, represent the cross-section of a room in a seam of the thickness bb', which has the usual horizontal floor aa' for tramming. It is evident that the principles of roof support similar to the previous case of horizontal rooms apply here, but the action of the superincumbent weight in the roof is affected by the angle of dip. Thus in the diagram of Fig. 15, if = superincumbent weight; 6 = angle of dip; A7 = normal pressure on roof; T = tangential pressure on roof; then
their entire weight artificially,

,

W

N= IF cos 6
and

T= W

(1) (2)

sin 6

For homogeneous strata the weight of the overlying formation would be thrown onto the pillars at a and b and the potential surface of fracture would be the arch acb. Thus the span ab has only to sustain the normal pressure of the sub-arch block acb acting both in tension on the surface
acb

and

in cross-breaking strain

on the beam acb
b' .

as described for case (a)

in Fig. 13.

The back

of the ore should also fall

instead of a straight line from b to
in a line gfe

A

on the arch line bdb' prop to hold up the roof will

be subjected to the least pressure and be of shortest length if it is placed drawn normal to the hanging wall from the center of gravity of the sub-arch block at g. Because of possible shrinkage of prop or movement of ground, however, which would cause a normal prop to fall out, the usual practice is to incline it about 10 deg. downward from the normal line as ff. The sub-arch block acb can also be sustained by a cap ab from the back to the floor, or by both prop and cap. With the roof-strata bedded parallel to the seam, the surface of fracture assumes the stepped-arch form ahh'mm'k'kb. In comparing the strains and the support of the bedded roof, as well as of the weakly-consolidated, o_" the non-conformable and the broken roofs with those of the homogeneous
roof, the

same

differences arise as already explained for case (a).

Control of the Overlying Formations
It
pillars
is

evident that when part of a bed is removed, the balance left as must sustain the whole overlying formation. There are three

factors that enter into pillar calculations, the roof, the pillars or sides

and the
sound

floor. The stability of the room does not depend alone on the strength of the pillars as columns for an excess of pressure may force a

pillar into a roof or floor of insufficient

cause a settling.

compressive strength and This happens with materials like clay which are hard

I'KI.Nt IP]

H
soft

A\

U

I'

when dry and become
during mining, the
state.

when
on

moist, so unless they can be kept dry

pillar calculations

must guard against
cause

their
it

i.

An

excess of
rise

a plastic floor will

to sp

laterally

and

exerting a

from under the lower periphery of the pillar, thus horizontal rending force on the latter which tends to disrupl
of

an elastic roof over the rooms must be compensated for by an upward bowing over the interior of the pillars. the upper edges of the latter which This causes an oblique presE The obliquity tends to shear them off as the roof bends more and more.

Any downward bowing

I

of this roof pressure
floor.

on the

pillar

edges

is

also often increased

by

a rolling

Thus

a

mine

floor

and roof act not only

pillars, but also laterally, produces strains parallel to the strata that tend to separate them along their bedding planes, and thus weaken the cross breaking strength of the For these reasons, a mine pillar will stand best and can be made of roof. the minimum volume when its base and capital meet floor and roof in

contact with the

on the areas of while the bowing of the roof
vertically

broadly spreading tangential curves, which are concave in profile. Sometimes the roof and floor beds, in direct contact with the .-earn. are themselves quite hard, but so thin that they bend and transmit the
pressure on the pillars to an adjoining soft stratum and force it out through any fissures that may be in the roof or floor. When the pillars

themselves are too weak for the pressure, what
(failure of pillars) begins,

by

a .-helling off of

"squeeze" the outer surface, and later
is

called a

be a gradual sinking, with elastic Btrata like some coals and shales or a sudden fracturing in masses with hard blocky rock-like limestone or quartz. Some substances, like coal, pyrite and easily weathered rocks, loose strength on exposure to mine air and this fact must be considered if durable pillars are to be made of them.
a collapse occurs, which

may

The minimum
Let x
h

fraction of a bed necessary to leave for pillars

may

be

thus calculated:

=

fraction of area to be left in pillars;
of cover in feet;

= depth

w = s =

specific

weight of cover in pounds per cu. ft. ultimate compressive strength in pounds per square foot of

least resistant

stratum adjoining

pillar:

m =

factor of safe"
1

Then, weight held by
of corresponding pillar

sq.

ft.

of

seam =
Inr

/*//,

and compressive

Btrei

=

xms, hence

=

xnt8.
tv\ (o)

or

1=
If

hw

ms
is

excavation

inclined at

an angle

as in Fig. 15, then the pressure

is

40

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

hwcosO, so that

hw

cos 6

= xms

or x

=

hw

COS
(4)

It is difficult to get the real strength of the floor, pillar and roof beds because the beds themselves are seldom free from planes of weakness which would not be appreciable in the small blocks that must be used in the testing machines for compression, tension or shear. For this reason

m of equations (3) and (4) is taken at from 2 to 10, varying with the nature of the strata and of the mine layout. It is only by close watching on the changing conditions that movements of the formation over wide excavations can be prevented even in An incipient "squeeze" of pillars may sometimes well laid out mines.
the factor of safety

be checked by building up stone-filled wooden cribs along their edges. " but this remedy may merely shift the pressure and transfer the " squeeze Often it is better to localize rather than to attempt to support elsewhere. a squeeze and this can be affected by allowing the roof to cave over the disturbed section, assisting the fall where necessary by blasting the roof and pillars. The volume of roof thus made to fall will be that under the dome of fracture as acb of Fig. 13, the span ab in this case not being the width of a single room, but of the whole disturbed section. If the seam is thin in proportion to the height of the falling dome, the broken rock, as it occupies more space than when solid, will fill up the space under the surface of fracture and form a sufficient support to prevent any further
strain

on the overlying formation.
of the roof over the disturbed area
is

The caving

also a remedj^ for

"creep" (oozing of roof or surface is to remain intact a

but if the ground safer plan is to fill the excavation solid with Where a supply of fine material like mill tailing or sand can be rock. obtained cheaply, the filling is best done by mixing it with water and running it into the workings through pipes by the flushing system of the
floor into excavations),

Pennsylvania anthracite regions as described in Examples 53 and 59. The caving of the roof, locally, by blasting can be easiest affected by If pulling or reversing the methods already explained for roof support. blasting out all artificial supports does not bring down the roof, any rock pillars in the area should be drilled and blasted by simultaneous firing. The next procedure is to drill holes into the roof so as to cut a groove

around the springing line of the dome ach in Fig. 13. The work of the drill men around the edges of the excavation will be safe and the circumferential groove can thus easily be widened and carried higher until the central
bell of the

sub-arch
it

dome has

so

much

of its sustaining surface acb cut

away that

drops out.

Effect of Caving on Overlying Objects
In working superimposed beds simultaneously, it is necessary to determine the proper relative position of pillars in the various beds.

PRINCIPLES
Pillai
ilao

CONTROLLING
in

l-###BOT_TEXT###lt;

1VATIONS

II

caving mines, where it is desired to proIn modem coal mining, both the longwall and usually the room and pillar method involve thf caving of the
be located,
aluable surface structures.

excavations.

How
tion,

far

up an underground subsidence will reach depends on such ae area, height and manner of makii
prmation, presence of faults and dikes,

a

numcava-

natu

etc.

By

Fayol'a second rule, the height affected by subsidence would u< four times the width of the excavation, hut this only holds good for a
limited area whose sub-arch roof block can Bcale
off at

leisure.

When

areas are excavated, complex stresses arise which are apt to cause

Budden irresistible strains on the roof which cause it to develop long cracks and fractures analogous to faults. If the overlying -'rata contain many strong rock lied.-, these may act as beams which rest on the broken caved formation beneath them and prevent any effect above. Thus at Sunderland. England, where half of the strata are hard rock, coal .-earn- have

li..

10.

— Effect of excavation

on overlying

1

>e<

1

and mi surface

surface.

been mined and caved at the depth.- of L600 ft. without affecting the In the Transvaal gold beds, dipping at around 10 den., caves may vera! acres at depths over Hioo ft. without surface ir over an movement. With a formation of soft friable strata, like shale or glacial
drift,

however, there
effect

i-

nothing to arrest

a

BUCh roof- the

of caviliii COal mines.

subsidence beneath, and under 2000 ft. deep, has dep)<

Burface structure-.

i

and is •where Fayal's third rule applies to excavations of la: he area is infinite ami the beds are chiefly sandstone with a dip less than

12

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
cleg.,

40
6

the height of the zone of subsidence

height of the excavation."
ft.

is less than 200 times the This means that the caving of an excavation,

would not affect the surface if over 1200 ft. be'ow it. The third based on the height of excavation rather than on its width, like the other rules, and depends on the principle already mentioned that the strong strata tend to rest solidly, ultimately, on the caved ground below. Subsidence does not break strata perpendicular to their bedding planes. For defining the disturbed area over excavations under unbroken stratified formations two rules are used, the first for slightly and the
high,
rule
is

second for steeply dipping roofs.
if

Thus

in Fig. 16,

D = A =

dip of roof strata in degrees

dip of angle of fracture,
gives,
(5)

for roofs

under 30 deg. dip Richardson

A =90

deg.- 1/2

D

which signifies that the plane of fracture e f (Fig. 16) of bed ab lies half way between the vertical and the plane eg (normal to the dip line of the
roof)

For roofs over 30 deg. dip Hausse
tan

gives,
(6)

A =

cotan

2D +3

cosec

2D

Formula

(6) gives for a 30-deg. roof only a slightly larger angle of fracture than formula (5), but as the dip gets steeper the difference between the

two formulas steadily increases while a maximum A is reached with formula (6) when D is between 50 deg. and 60 cleg, as shown in the
following table:

Dip

I)

cleg.

10 deg.

20 deg.

30 40 50 60 70 80 90

deg. deg. deg.
deg.
cleg.

deg. deg.

These formulae can only be considered as general guides to the probmust be modified in practice by a consideration of the surface topography, of the structure of the formation and of natural breaks like joints and faults. Where thick
able location of the plane of fracture and they

dikes cut across the roof strata, the plane of fracture

is

more apt to follow

along the surface of the dike than to break

it.

PRINCIPLS8 FOB CONTROLLING EXCAVATION8
Protection of Surface.

I-.

The practical use of those formula is shown where it is desired to proteel the building at fb' when mining the veins ab and cd. Here h'j" and ///arc planes drawn parallel to the
in Fig. 16

plane of fracture './and their intersection \ ith the bedH defines the inside boundaries of the pillars <V and h'h. The margin <>i' safety to be left

around these inside limits of the pillars for "draw" varies with the importance of the building and how closely the strata have been observed
tu follow tlu- fracturing formulae.

Protection of Overlying JU<ls. Where the veins cd and ni, are being mined simultaneous y. it is evident that the pillars to be left in cd to protect pillar e'e must not he the ground vertically beneath, as hk, but that enclosed between the Bame planes of roof fracture as h'h with a due allowance added for "draw." In excavating, also, the direction of the roof fracture cf must be taken instead of the vertical plane as the guide to relative operations in the upper and the lower beds. Thus for safety the bed ab would be stopped "ahead" (measuring from the plane ef) of bed cd; except in the case where cd was being filled, when the Blight subsidence of the floor of ab, caused by the settling of cd (when " ahead") on its filling, would render the breaking of ab easier. In mining the superincumbent parallel anthracite seams of the Lehigh Valley Coal Co., by the room and pillar system, the pillars must overlay

«ach other

when

the parting
is

is

thin.

A

neglect of this precaution, with

the usual parting,

liable to result in the

squeezing of the overlying

pillars

seam below. When the parting is over 40 ft. thick, however, it is only necessary to have the panel pillars (at ten-room intervals) of adjoining seams superincumbent, and to lay out the entries and room axes of both seams approximately parallel to each other; in this way the work in different seams can be pursued more ndependently and just as safely. The same principles and formuke can be applied to Shaft Pillars.

down

into the

rooms

of the

I

lie

design of pillars for protection of shafts.

In Fig. 16 the vertical shaft

fd will need a pillar in each seam extending to the intersection with the plane of fracture passing through the shaft collar at/. Thus the mini-

mum upper limit of these pillars must be at e and h, which for considerable
depth, would

mean many hundred

feet

away from

the shaft.

But

this

involves only a moderate loss of ore because the pillar

may be narrow

and need extend only a short distance down the dip to b and d. The distances b'b, d'd and the width of the shaft pillar along the strike of the seam may be estimated by formula (4). For inclined shafts following the mineral Beam, the protecting pillars
should be continuous strips on each side with break-throughs only for the loading stations. The width of these strips, if estimated by formula (4),

should increase gradually from the surface downward.

Although

this

44
last

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER
requirement is seldom fulfilled in practice, maintenance of a stable roof.
it

gives the

minimum

loss

of ore for the

Support of Excavations
Curved Sections.
lining
1

— A tunnel section may be supported by the circular

from any direction since the portion of the ring taking the ground pressure will be an arch to transmit its load to the balance of the ring acting like arch abutments. If we
(Fig. 17) against external pressure

consider only the keeping open. of a given area with the least material, the
circular lining

may

be replaced with advantage by the

pressure

is

greater in one direction than in another,

axis of the ellipse parallel to the direction of

elliptical, when the by placing the long greatest pressure. Thus if

the greatest pressure comes from roof or
cal as 2 in Fig. 17,

floor,

the ellipse should be verti-

and

if

from the

sides, the ellipse

should be horizontal as

Fig. 17.

—Tunnel

sections.

most economical when the external pressure is equally distributed, or where it comes in an oblique direction, for an oblique ellipse would be generally unsuitable for use. The oblique presOther sure is apt to occur when driving along the strike of inclined beds.
in 3.

The

circular lining

is

considerations, besides

economy

of lining, usually prevail in practice so
fit

that circular sections are less used than elliptical ones, which

cars

more have a

closely in transportation tunnels, or egg-shaped ones, like 4,
lesser hydraulic gradient for

which

water conduits or drains. The material most used for curved linings is cast iron or some kind of masonry, though steel shapes are also formed to fit, and timber polygons to approximate curved sections. To merely support the ground, it is clear that only that part of the tunnel section need be lined which has weak walls so that we see in practice linings on the roof alone, on the roof and one

PRINCIPLES FOR CONTROLLING EX< OVATIONS
ride, or

I.-.

on three
S

Bides, tin-

ends

of the Lining resting in

each case againsl
in

abutments
Recto)

of solid rock.
'
i

available area

transportation

tunnels for the

minimum volume
of

<>t"

excavation

rectangular instead

the

curved section.
strength,
to
is

masonry, having
it

little tensile

is obtained by using the Ordinary brick or Btone unsuitable for lining any pari

of the rectangular section subject
is

cross-breaking strains.

Therefore
re-en-

imt used excepl for side walls.

Timber
"/'

or steel

beams and

With which is called a a 18), cap or a "quarter-se1 " is put in; with both roof ami one side weak the "half set. " arc needed with roof and both Cap ab and the posl be, called
forced concrete arc the

common

linings for rectangular sections.
t

weak

roof and

st

rong sides only

he piece

1

ig.

:i

:

1

].

18

-Tunnel lining with timber.

sides

weak

a cap

and two side
a

posts, or a "three-quarter set,"

is

used;
3<

while with four weak walls
is

cap.

two posts and

a floor sill,

or

a " lull

required.

The attempt
jure a

will not

he

made

here to discuss met hods of framing excepl
pressure.

iey are affected

by ground

With
is

a

-oud
b.

joint for sip ia re

timber

at

a (Fig. 18),

predominating verl ical and for around

timber

at

timber is can resisl pressure acting parallel to
is

Where the main pressure is horizontal a joint for square shown at d and one for round timber ai c. A rectangular frame
its sides,

hut tends in collapse under

I' stable under oblique pressure oblique pressure. that tunnel sets have outward-battered instead of vertical posts. In keeping open the large stopes of some metal mines Slope Sections. with the framed cubical cells of the square-set system, the same precau-

to

make them more

tions of properly designed joints

and

of uniformly spaced points of contact

Miners have found to their sorrow that it is useless to attempt to keep open square-set ed stopes under oblique pressure unless diagonal braces (like l»l) are inserted, part

with the surrounding rock must he observed.

46
allel

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER
to the direction of pressure, for transforming the unstable squares

of the

frame into stable

triangles.

Zones of Fracture and Flowage

Wooden

or steel frames will only keep the peripheral surface of
the-

excavations intact against
like acb in Fig. 13.

pressure of loose pieces or sub-arch blocks

For the support of the overlying formation, even masonry is only of limited commercial utility, therefore rock pillars or filling with waste must be relied upon. Beyond a certain depth, or below the "zone of fracture" of geologists, we have the "zone of flowage," where no opening can be maintained permanently owing to the inability of any fraction of the rock, left as pillars, to sustain the superincumbent
pressure.

Transposing formula
fracture)

(3)

we have

for h

f

(the depth of the zone of

h'

=

smx
,

w
and x are

but for the zone values we have

of flowage

both

m

=

1

and substituting these

h'=w

(7)

From equation (7) it is evident that the depth h' depends solely on the compressive strength of the basal rock and the specific gravity of the
overlying formation.
to be 150 lb. per cu.

rock to

Assuming the specific weight w of the earth's crust ft. and the compressive strength of the basal be 3,000,000 lb. per sq. ft., we have by substitution in (7)

h'=
In those

,,

3,000,000
-

-

=20,000

ft.,

or about 4 miles.

150
localities

considerable proportion of water,

where the surface rock is so porous as to contain a w might be less than 150 lb. and the

depth

of the

zone of fracture correspondingly increased.

CHAPTER

\

PRINCIPLES OF MINE DRAIN v.
Those miners who talk much
and neglect
of

resemble those old-fashioned doctors diagno-i.-. Instead of studying water conditions beforehand

pumping but little of drainags who spend all their time on remediee

as a basis for drainage

equipment, a too

common way

is

to try to

fit

the

pumping plant to the in-flow after it mean a drowned mine, and weeks of delay

has appealed.

This policy

may

for the installation of larger

pumps and the clearing from water; it may mean a set of makeshift pumps of the wrong size and of low efficiency which may really be wholly
unnecessary owing to the feasibility of natural drainage. Problems of drainage involve chiefly the four sciences of meteorology, From the first we may determine geology, hydraulics and mechanics. the quantity of rain likely to fall on our mine watershed; from the second the conditions affecting the behavior of underground water in
the rocks; from the third the laws governing the pressure and flow of

water; and from the fourth the mechanical methods of unwatering.

Estimate of Water to be Drained
There are multitudinous mineral deposits, each with a special problem which only some general features will be discussed here under three cases: I. Deposits in unconsolidated rock; II. Deposits in For any type the water stratified rock; III. Deposits in massive rock. encountered in mining operations will depend on four factors: (1) the area of contributory watershed; (2) the moisture falling on watershed;
of drainage of
(3)

for

the moisture percolating the surface of watershed; underground water to enter the mine.

(4)

the facilities

Case

I.

Deposits in Unconsolidated Rocks.

— In

Fig.

19

is

shown

a

cross-section of a gentle syndinal rock trough ab filled with alluvium up It is proposed to lower the " water table " or ground to the surface cd.

water level wt down to sump s in order to mine a placer deposil extending from a to 6. The conditions which determine the quantity of water to be handled depend on two items; namely, the quantity of ground water, and its velocity of entrance into the workings. For the first item we have to calculate the area, rainfall and percolatioE of the contributory
watershed, while for the second item the fact that it will be affected by The the method of drainage will have to be taken into consideration. area and rainfall are also the basis for the calculations of the water-supply
17

48

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBEE

engineer, but the latter reckons rather with the run-off than with the

percolation which concerns the miner.

With underground conditions
of the

as

represented in Fig. 19, the area
e

contributory watershed evidently extends in width from

to

/,

from the sump s to the head of the valley, if cd is a river trough, or to the bounding contour of the watershed if cd lies in a lake basin. In general the contributory watershed is all the ground area that drains toward the surface lying over the sump, wherever the surface The depth is connected with the sump by pervious strata as in Fig. 19.

and

in length

Fig. 10.

—Drainage

in

unconsolidated rock.

of current rainfall

is

recorded for most localities in civilized countries
stations;

at the

government meteorological

and

in

solving drainage

problems, these records should be scrutinized for the

and minimum rainfalls both by months and years. have the rainfall in the wettest year or season in contrast with that of drouths, but it is important also to note what part of the moisture falls as snow and the melting seasons of the latter. The whole rainfall, however, does not concern the miner. He is concerned only with that fraction of it which sinks into or percolates the ground after evaporation and run-off have taken their tolls. Then if
area of a Avatershed

maximum, mean From this data, we

=A

sq.

depth of moisture falling on a watershed volume of moisture falling on a watershed volume of moisture running off from a watershed volume of moisture evaporating from a watershed volume of moisture percolating a watershed fraction of moisture Q evaporating, or evaporation factor fraction of moisture Q running off, or run-off factor

=e =r

we have.

Q=E+R+P
and R = rQ so substitute in (1) and Q = eQ + rQ + P or P = Q
but

(1)

E = eQ

(I-e-r)

(2)

but hence

Q=AD
P = AD
(I-e-r)

(3)

(4)

Evaporation is dependent on the state of the atmosphere and the covering and texture of the soil. The atmosphere affects evaporation

PRINCIPLES

"i

Mi\

LGB

19

Both dryness and high by its changes in humidity and in movement. evaporation which is usually compared for differenl ati winds hasten Thus, in the United States the pheres by observing water surfaces. annual evaporation varies from l<> in. in the Middle Atlantic si mean >0 in. on the Gulf of .Mexico, and 95 in. at Yuma. Arizona. In the same locality the rate of evaporation which is approximately
equal for
is greatly increased by a cover <>i vegetation. Geneva, New York, with an average rainfall of 23.7 .- 0.64 for hare in., gave it > evaporative factor (e in Equation u Not cultivated soil, as 0.71 for bare undisturbed soil, and as 0.85 for sod.

all

bare

.-oils,

Thus

a

5-year

trial at

only the heat of

summer

hut

its

vegetation increases evaporation, while

the ground surface in winter acts

much
rate
less

like

bare

soil

unless covered

by
is

snow

or

ice,

the daily evaporation
.00 in.

of

which

in

New England

proportion of severe rains is evaporated than of drizzling rains, for as a given area has only a limited rate of evaporation any excess moisture must either run off or percolate. The common method of estimating the run-off is from measuremi
.02 in.

and

respectively.

A

of the quantity of

the bed of a stream
In ight

When water Bowing in the streams of the watershed. is once mapped in section, a record of its surfacea

readings renders possible

calculation of

its

sectional area winch,

combined with corresponding readings of a current meter, gives the data The percentage of rainfall found in streams, for computation of flow. evaporation being neglected, depends both on the slope of the surface and on its covering. For gently rolling land as in Iowa, the run-off factor (r in Equation (4)) is 0.33, for the rougher surface of the Middle Atlantic it i- 0.40 to 0.50, while in the mountain states of Colorado and Montana it is 0.00 to 0.70. The surface covering most favorable to a heavy flow is frozen snow over which over 90 per cent, of the rainfall may run into the streams, while the melting of the winter's snow by warm Where the surface is rains causes the freshets and floods of spring. irregular so that the rainfall collects in ponds ami swamps instead of reaching streams, the run-off i- lessened, and the evaporation and percorrespondingly increased. of surface streams must be relatively impervious, for if they were freely percolated by water, there would soon be no visible How. Where a stream's bed is is partially porous, much of the water sinks to the
colation
is

The beds

first

impervious stratum and there forms an invisible stream called the underflow which often contains more water than it- parent overhead. Where a Btream has not naturally a channel of impervious rock or clay, the tendency is for it to Mop the pore- of a sandy or other pervious bed
with sediment; especially
is

this bo in alluvial valleys like that of Fig.
/•

1'.',

not a where there mighl be no visible Btream at all had the river at lav-coated bottom. For our drainage problem of Fig. 19, we have now discussed how to
i

50

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

tive

ascertain the area of watershed A, the depth of rainfall D, the evaporaand run-off factors e and r, and by substituting these values in equa-

tion (4)
(4)

we have the percolation P. The result from solving Equation can be compared with the following table which gives for the percensand = 60 to 70 = 35 sandstone = 25
limestone
clay or granite

tage of total rainfall percolating various surfaces

chalk or gravelly loam

= 15 = 15 and

'ess

do not have to provide at s for the drainage of volume P, but only it which is not drained off elsewhere, does not reascend to evaporate at the surface or is not held in the pores of the subsoil. The drainage elsewhere would be nil in a lake basin with impervious bottom, but in the usual self-draining basin it would constantly tend to lower the water table. The lake-basin condition is well exemplified at both Bisbee and Tombstone, Arizona. These camps lying in the Mule Mountains, where the annual rainfall is under 12 in. and the evaporative factor large, would be casually reckoned as having dry mines, but the very opposite is the The ore bodies in each camp are found in limestone and shale case. beds which are so folded as to form, with the adjoining intrusive rocks, an impervious basin which catches all the rain percolating the surface over a large watershed. The present water in the basins represents the accumulation of years, so to lower it has taken more pumping than would be necessary in a very wet valley whose ground water was dependent solely on current rainfall. At Bisbee in 1906 the water level had been permanently lowered, for three years' pumping by several companies had reduced the inflow at the Calumet and Pittsburg shaft from 3000 to 1500 gal. per min.; but at Tombstone in 1911, where nine years of pumping of the Contention shaft had little affected the original flow of 3000 gal. per min., it was deemed unprofitable to struggle further and the pumps were pulled. The excess of water in the Tombstone basin probably comes from an adjoining watershed through underground
for that portion of

We

channels.

The loss of ground water by evaporation increases with a damp soil and a high water table. Consequently, in self-draining ground the evaporation is greater if the rainfall is evenly rather than sporadically distributed. Evaporation, however, usually affects the water table only slightly as compared with the capacity of the formation for the storage, surrender and passage of water. In Fig. 19, the section of the water-storage area between wt and bedrock is not the whole area wmnt, but this area multiplied by the factor

PRIN( [PLSS
for

I

)1

MINI.

DB

UN

.i.

."•

1

"voids" or the proportion of intergranular spaces in the formation. void factor depends less on the size of rock grains than on their uni^ el another item must be included, formity, and varies from 0.2 to 0.5. [mating the quantity of water thai must be drained to lower wt, and that is the factor for surrender or yield winch depends on the capillarity or fineness of the grain of the formation. The yield factor is almost nil to 0.6 for porous soil, 0.G to 0.7 for sand, and nearly 1.0 for for clay. A low yield factor means not only the retenclean gravel or boulders.
(>..")

tion of rainfall in a porous formation until

it is

saturated, but a long delay

before a heavy shower begins to be noticed underground.

From

the

above,

if

= volume sump s ll' = volume
II"

in

cu.

ft.

of water-bearing

formation tributary to

in cu.

ft.

of water the water-bearing formation yields
s

tributary to

sump

x = factor for voids in formation y = factor for water-yield of formation
then

W=xyW.

(5)

from water, it will not be necessary to lower the water table to the profile wmnt, but only to the profile whabgt where who, and bgi are the profiles of the hydraulic gradient toward the sump s. The hydraulic gradient increases with the fineness of grain, though very small in gravel, it is 30 to 50 ft. per mile in sand and in a large basin, it would thus considerably decrease the volume of water tributary to sump s. The hydraulic gradient for a given formation can be directly measured by digging two wells in the same line of water drainage, at some distance The hydraulic gradient apart, and then recording their water levels. vill then be the difference of water level divided by the distance between
free our placer ab

To

tae wells.

Hazen gives

as a formula for the velocity of passage of

ground water
(6)

V=KD*S

where V = velocity in ft. per sec. of flow through ground pores A' = 0.29 (a constant) D = diameter in mm. of sand grain " effective " (i.e., 90 per cent, of Formula (6) is inapplicable grains must be larger than D).

when

<!

is

less

than 3
in

£ = sine
Then
if

of slope of the hydraulic gradient

# = area

Bq.

ft.

of a vertical surface enclosing

mine

openings extending from water surface in pump to water table. Height of surface B should be small for use of formula (G) /= volume of water in cu. ft. entering placer per sq. ft. of area B F = total volume in cu. ft. entering placer over total are:. B

//= fractional

factor for voids in walls of area

B

52
It is

MIMING WITHOUT TIMBEK
evident that

f=k'V and F = k'BV
Substitute for

V

from Equation
2

(6)

and
(7)

F = kK'BD S

In practice the possibility of keeping the placer dry enough to permit miners to work would of course depend not only on the means of drainage available to keep sump s clear, but also on / or the rate of inflow at the mining face. As f increased beyond a certain figure, the miners would find themselves working in a heavy spray and standing in a gurgling pond.

In such a case, unless the inflow could be controlled by a cofferdam, subaqueous mining would have to be resorted to. Case II. Deposits in Stratified Rock. An example of this case is

shown

in Fig. 20, a cross-section of a coal
is

seam

A

in a synclinal basin.

Beneath the coal

a thin layer of clay

B

resting on a sandstone C,

and

Fig. 20.

—Drainage

in stratified rock.

above

it

are strata of sandstone D, shale G,

and limestone H.
soil.

Along the

surface runs a river r over a valley-filling of alluvial
lation into a coal

Then the perco-

mine at A will depend not only on the coal itself whose bedding and joint planes may be somewhat permeable, but on the nature
of the adjoining rocks.

Clay and shale are not only relatively impermeable but plastic, and tend to close tm any openings made inyaving aorogenic movements. Sandstones vary in their structure, some h duebh texture as porous as free sand, while the grains of others are closely cemented and almost

impermeable. Limestones, especially if dolomitic, abound in irregular channels and pot-holes, often large enough to contain underground rivers Should the rocks of Fig. 20 be subjected to metamorphism, or ponds. their permeability would be much diminished, or perhaps entirely destroyed, as pores and bedding planes were obscured, until we approached Clay and shale, when as the limit the massive formation of Case III.
fies

metamorphosed, become dense and strong slate or schist, sandstone solidiinto impermeable quartzite, and limestone changes into crystalline
marble.

at G, provided

it can be seen that the stratum of shale has not been pierced by orogenic movements or human hand, acts as a screen to keep out any water which may percolate into As the strata outcrop, however, the limestone from the watershed ef.

From

these considerations,
it

HUM
<

IPLSfl

0]

MINI

I'l;

UNAG1

beyond the summits and/of the synclinal basin, the coal seam will be exposed to percolation from watersheds ec and ia loi _ as the impermeable day floor of the coal is imcracked, the watersheds contributory to the coal Beam will extend only from to h and from / to />' and doI all of their percolation will reach tin' coal, because
/>'
i

shale Btratum

G

will seal off

any BUrface water
-

that

may

enter the

limestone layer
the floor
1>

// Net

ween the
<ir

crests

and/and

the roof of G.

Should

feathered OUt in places, it may be serious from a drainage standpoint, tor the coal seam will then be open to a flood from the hydrostatic water in Bandstone C. Tims in the rock formation of
lie

cracked

Fig.
l!t.

I'd.

the ground water would not occur in a connected

body

as in Fig.

but each porous zone would contain its own pool separated from the others by an impermeable Btratum. The equivalent of the water table
wt of Fig. l:» would be found here in the limestone //. but it would circulate there in irregular open channels instead of in intergranular pores.

tlit*fi

The contributory watersheds having been thus measured, we have only to gather the other meteorological and physical constants, as exI,

plained for Case
of Fig.
L'o.

in order to solve

Equations

(1) to (7) for

the drainage

Case III. Deposits in Massivi Rock. In Fig. 21, let cd be the crosssection through a fissure vein in massive rock, which is either of igneous

Kh
\
I

p.

_'l.

—Drainage

in

massive rock.

origin or so

metamorphosed
I

are practically obliterated.

porous like that of Case
ii-

its sedimentary pores and bedding planes This formation, then, instead of being quite or irregularly porous like that of Case II, i< in

that

more or less impermeable, but in mining regions it has usually been so cracked by earth movements as to abound in openwhich grade from wide fissures, both long and deep, to such minute fracture plane--' a.- those of the Bingham copper porphyry which scarcely
original condition,

seepage water.
Fig. 21,

When

rainfall

can only percolate the surface of

through irregularly spaced crevices or joints instead of through a porous zone, there can be nothing like a general ground water level except within areas whose crevices are all connected. Thus each crevice system has a In ight of water table varying according to the size and nature

54

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

of its contributory watershed. The mineral veins themselves have often trunk channels along their walls which receive water from numerous branch cracks and fissures. The watershed tributary to vein cd of Fig. 21 will not extend laterally from e to / as in Case I unless all the intermediate fissure systems lead to the vein, but it may cover a much wider area owing to the possible juncture of subterranean streams with cd, which streams in mountainous regions may be under a high hydrostatic head. In fact, only the mapping of the region's underground water channels, and this could seldom be done except in an extensively developed district, would enable an engineer to satisfactorily solve Equations (1) to (7) as in the two previous cases. In mining cd, care would have to be taken on the hanging side, for by the tapping of natural blind crevices or by allowing the hangwall to move and crack, the river r might be precipitated into the workings. It is probable that some of the hot water found in mining such igneous formations as the Comstock lode comes, not from rainfall, but directly from the occluded moisture of cooling magmas. According to the nebular hypothesis, all surface water had originally an igneous origin. The miner who operates in a region of magmatic water cannot estimate its quantity beforehand, as in the case of meteoric inflows, but must simply handle it as it appears. As mines get deeper and rock pressures become greater, fissures and other open spaces tend to close up and long before the bottom of the zone of crust fracture is reached, at a depth of something around 4 miles, there is little free water in the rocks. At the Calumet and Hecla Copper mine, Mich., in a conglomerate lode bedded between amygdaloids, the maximum water flow is at 1800 ft. along the 38 deg. dip, while at 3000 ft. the water flow is insufficient even to supply the drills.

Control op Water
This topic naturally divides
control.
itself

into surface

and underground

Surface Diversion.

It

is

much better to keep water out
its

use the most approved method of drainage after

of a mine than to unnecessary entrance.

kept out of a mine ditching around shafts and vein outOften it is best to refrain from stoping a vein out A quite up to the surface in order to keep rain out of the workings. stream above the mine, which seeps badly into its bed or whose bottom may be cracked by caving operations, can often be diverted to another
Surface run-off
crops as
is

C

in Fig. 21.

channel or carried in a flume over the dangerous stretch. Underground Diversion. In Fig. 20 the penetration of the impermeable shale layer G by the shaft AA' will eventually drain the wet lime-

stone layer

H into the

mine

at

A

unless

some precaution

is

taken.

Two

PRINCIPLES

«Ji

MINI. L>KA1.\
first,

remedies suggest them=elve«, the
Burface

a concrete shaft-lining from the
t

down

to a Bealed footing in the shale; the second,

lie

usual pervi-

shaft-lining provided with a water ditch or "ring" around the shaft, in the roof of the shale, which catches the water from above and leads it imp. which has means for drainage. OD the -aim- level. In ore deposits in hilly regions, an impervious floor sometimes has below it a sandstone or other porous stratum which dips toward an outIn such a crop, on a hillside at a lower level, and is thus self-draining. floor of the mine sump diamond-drill holes or a winze through the

the porous Btratum will effectively drain the workings.

Natural Dams.

— Rock

barriers are highly useful in the control of

As already explained, where tight strata cut off the mine from wet formations, such natural seals should be left undisturbed Pillars of mineral are often left between adjoining mines to if possible. keep their water systems distinct, and in many states a barrier about 50 ft. wide must be left unmined around the boundary of coal prope: The Lehigh Valley Coal Co. is now mining, near Hazleton, Pa., a synclinal trough containing parallel anthracite seams which extends for The several miles and dips for about 3000 ft. vertically in that distance.
water
in

mines.

trough has been divided into three drainage basins by leaving a transThe barriers are at versal barrier pillar of coal, 100 ft. wide, below each. altitudes of 1084, 1250, and 4000 ft. respectively and each has its own

unwatering system. Each barrier is pierced by boreholes lined with pipes whose valves can be opened to drain the basin above into the one below in case of an emergency. It is often necessary to penetrate water barriers in order to drain old mines, and where the dammedup water is under a high head it is best tapped by drilling. Boring long holes for tapping can be

done

A any direction by a diamond drill. J • i :nary safe-guard against heavy pressure is to bore the first few feet of the hole large enough for a pipe lining ck, Fig. 22, whose exterior is made to
in
.

22.— Tappin
ir.m >n. Mine

fit

the rock tightly

by a packing

of

lamp-wick,

wound

spirally, or of cement.
is

When
Such

it

is

38ary to regulate the flow from the hole, a valve lining pipe whose end must then be anchored to posts />.

put on the
a valve

on a drill-hole flow, small anyhow, allows the cautious emptying of old workings where a sudden release of water might damage the shaft or
other important
pillars.

For Bhort distances, tapping can be well performed with a percussive drill and a typical recent case can be cited al the Iron Mt. Mine. Montana, where the new drainage adit was connected with the old Bhaft-worl which contained some 100,000,000 gal. of water under a head of 900 ft.

56

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
the face of the tunnel
tc

When

ta,

Fig. 22, arrived near the old shaft

s,

a

was run for 30 ft., parallel to the shaft station, and from c a taildrift was carried back for 30 ft. to d. Next a 3-in. percussive drill was set up at c and a hole drilled in for 10 ft. to admit a 4-in. pipe lining ck which was then well cemented and anchored in. Drilling was proceeded beyond the lining with a 1 3 /4-in. bit when, at e, 23 ft. from
6x7-ft. cross-cut

the collar, the point holed through.

On

loosening the chuck, the bit

was shot back by the water pressure against the end c, and was followed by a swift stream of water, but as a low dam had been erected across the crosscut at t, the men climbed over it and safely reached the adit mouth, a mile and a half distant. Many dams are built underground: for making Artificial Dams. sumps out of old headings or stopes; for regulating the flow to the pumps; for isolating the water of abandoned workings; and for confining water to

m'i- v

:

-

.

,-T--zfk'^--,

Related Interests

j
Section x-y

Fig. 23.

Artificial

dams.

certain localities, as in the case of flooding

by the

flushing system.

Mine dams

differ

mine fires or of filling seams from those on the surface in

the fact that they often stop opsnings of small height relative to the pressure of water to be sustained. In such cases, mine dams must have a
solid footing all

sides like a river

around their periphery instead of just at the base and dam. Favorite materials for dams are wood, brick,

stone and concrete.

A diverting dam whose crest is higher than the water surface it sustains can be built light and like a surface structure; but precautions must be taken to successfully sustain a high water-head (which causes a pressure of 0.434 lb. per sq. in. for each foot of height), and the arch is a favorite form
purpose. Fig. 23 shows a composite plan and section of a dam, to back up water at y across a heading or shaft, which is made of two arches, ab and cd, with a filling between of puddled clay or concrete.
for this
It will be noticed that the heading walls are cut out to give indented skew backs for the arches except at e'f and g' h' where a plastic roof and floor
r

PRINCIPLES

"i

MINE DRAINAGE

57

might make indentation unnecessary if the Bwelling wood construction, were used. Both drain-pipe al m and air-escape at n are provided with valves and The manhole pipe xy is anchored to the sealed tightly to the structure.
to be described later,

(lam

and

is

a-

essential
..lie

during

construction
is

as

afterward.

With

enough; and to build it of WOOd, each piece should be the length of eh and tapered wedge-shape like an A tight joint can he made between wood and wall- by arch .-tone.
UK. derate pie-sure

aivh. like <h,

felt and .-mall wedges, and the pipes can be sealed in with wedges. hen of masonry, the arches are laid over wooden centers, the under one Masonry of which is left in permanently if the dam is across a shaft. dams are kept tight by a concrete or clay backing, and as the latter

tarred
\

need- to be confined under heavy pressure, the double arches of Fig. 23,

with

clay

between,

are then

especially suitable.

are often used and usually they are held

Flat wooden damby posts with ends hitched into

the walls.

The w

len Lining
its

is

made

of several layers of planks and,

support by posts at intervals in hitches, the lining itself may be extended into brick-lined hitches cut in the walls, and its central portion be backed by a timber set whose battered posts are set in the direction of pressure and rest in hitches cut in the heading's
with
w;ill-

too soft for

walls.

At the

(

Jhapin iron mine, Michigan,

trol of a big inflow of water.

appearing

in cross-section

dams have been helpful in the conThe Chapin ore-body is a hematite lense about like cd in Fig. 21. It is enclosed by slate
about 100 yards' distant on
his visit in 1908 that the flow at

walls but has an extensive dolomite formation

the hanging side.

The author found on

the IDOd ft. level had not been appreciably lessened in spite of pumping 2000 to 3000 gal. per nun. for the previous seven years. The water proceeds from channels, in the dolomite hangwall, which are believed to If the connect with two small lakes several mile- to the northeast. originally impermeable slate hangwall, that cut off the ore from the water-bearing dolomite, had not been cracked for over 300 ft. from the
surface (by the caving operations), the drainage problem could easily

have been solved by keeping shaft- and cross-cuts entirely in foot-wall. The No. 2 Hamilton, vertical -haft, then used for pumping, had been sunk in the hanging dolomite and great difficulty had been encountered in driving the 1000-ft. and Lower cross-cuts because of the water crevices
encountered.
In starting die 1000-ft. cross-cut a

compound

-tat ion

pump

was
We

first

installed; but, nevertheless,the first

water crevice struck had to

with masonry, and the pressure gauge showed a static head Next, a branch there from a water level within 300 ft. of ths surface. drift, some distance back from dam No. 1, was begun; but this also struck a crevice and had to be d imnied. A second branch drift was then -tarted and

dammed

dammed

(after only a

58
short advance)

MINING WITHOUT TIM BE II

and a second compound pump
fitted

This last
so

dam was

installed at the station. with a water-tight iron door opening outward,
it

when

drifting

was continued beyond

(to

make

a

chamber

for

drilling)

the excavated earth could be passed back in boxes.
drill,

diamond With the

diamond
cross-cut

the space yet to transverse to reach the vein was searched
finally to

for a cross-cut

had

opening free from crevices; but as none was found the be finished anyhow by the aid of strenuous

pumping.

Damming by Deposition
E. B. Kirby has devised a method (U. S. Pat. No. 900,083) of sealing the rock crevices of mine workings by the deposition therein of sediment. Finely divided clay is preferable but other materials may be used such as sand, mill tailing or slime, cement, saw-dust, horse manure,

chopped hay or
in suspension

fiber.

The

injection of the water bearing this material

or by stand-pipes extending enough toward the surface to furnish the necessary pressure. The suspended particles, when put in a cavity containing water in motion toward exits in the mine, are seized and carried toward such exits, settling, accumulating in, and choking at various points the confar

may be made by force-pumps,

tributory passages. The moving currents automatically select those passages which are discharging water into the mine and require sealing; they disregard other passages because the water is not in motion in

The choking which occurs in the outflowing passages is gradual most favorable points where the passages are smallest and the flow most diffused. In fact large passages cannot be thus choked but must by dammed.
them.

and

at those

When the flowing passages are choked the process ceases even though other passages are still open. If by the choking of one or more passages the current is deflected to others, the deposition is there automatically
resumed.
particles firmly in place

At any choked locality the water pressure holds the choking and produces a perfect seal by shutting off the

threads of water in every contributing passage.
Adits. These are tunnels run in from a low surface point to drain underground workings. In Fig. 21, it is evident that the adit ad would drain all of vein cd above level d and that adit bk would drain everything above level k. The water-bearing fissure mn cuts the vein at n, and to drive an adit at the level n would obviously be impractical with the given topography; but nothing would hinder the extension of adit bk to the fissure, and the running of a drift g along its footwall, as far as necessary, to intercept all the water drainage into the mine at n. This scheme was employed to supplement the lower adit of the Horn Silver mine in Utah. The following remarks apply to all drainways, whether adits proper, debouching at the surface, or merely interior tunnels emptying into a

PRINI [PLES "I

MINE

l'i:

w\

\«.i

sump.
ifl
1

I

The minimum grade for long modern adits with unlincd ditches of per cent. The carrying power of water channels can be thus
1

mated:
If

-lope of hydraulic gradienl of water flowing is

channel
a of

=s
ill

cr0SS-8ecti0D Of water flowing
in

channel

Velocity per Bee. of water flowing

channel

Wetted perimeter
face of channel

of the containing surface of channel

Constant, increasing with smoothness of containing sur-

Quantity of water flowing per sec. then from Merriman's " Hydraulics "

in

channel

aS

60
is

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
best placed along that side whose cutting-out, to give space for the

admit the least water from the walls. The tightness of the bottom rock against seepage should also be considered, if there are to be workings underneath it, and sometimes a wooden or
adit, will

ditch's

concrete lining

may

be necessary as commonly

it is

for

sumps.

Where

the adit can be placed between vein walls as ef and ed without cutting them, it is usually best to have the main ditch along the footwall at c;

and connect

it,

if e'

necessary,

by

cross ditches to an auxiliary ditch along

the hangwall at
of the

Both ditches and swamps should be covered in hot mines like those Comstock lode in order to prevent any unnecessary humidifying

of the air.

The new Roosevelt adit at Cripple Creek, Colo., will be over 3 miles long and used only for drainage. This gold mining district lies in an igneous formation, and as it occupies an area of about 8 sq. miles, it is
its ground water means 60,000,000 was started with a section like Fig. 24 (a), 10 ft. high and 6 ft. wide, but it has been changed to one 6 ft. high by 10 ft. wide to give space for a curved ditch, 6 ft. wide by 3 ft. deep, and a narrow

estimated that each foot in height of
gal. of water.

The

adit

track along one wall.

Where side ditches are inconvenient or inadequate, they can be replaced or supplemented by a central ditch nc' (shown dotted in Fig. 24 (a)) cut under the rails. For heavy flows, however, the whole bottom of the
adit

may

be utilized.

In that case,

it

Fig. 24 (b), in order to obtain the cheapest rock breaking

should be cut round, as ghh'k in and the maxi-

mum carrying power for a given sectional area; unless a flat-bedded formation makes the excavation of the larger square area gfk'k j ust as economical.
piers,

be spiked to stringers which are set on posts or brick keep the ties above the high-water flow. In double track adits, three rows of stringers on piers are sufficient if long ties are used. Where the track is far above the rock bottom and the adit is narrow, cross beams like gk, hitched into the walls, may be the cheapest supports for the stringers. Adits are especially advantageous in mountainous regions of steep slopes, where a great height can be drained with a short adit. The only drainage expense with adits is for interest and maintenance, and if well constructed, they are not subject to the breakdowns of mechanical appaties

The track

may

h and

h',

of sufficient height to

ratus at critical moments.

When

the adit

mouth

is

some distance higher

than the stream into which it drains, the escap'ng water can be effectively utilized for power. In a wet district of large producing mines whose drainways can easily be connected, it is often advisable to drive a very
long adit for general drainage.

Notable among such modern American adits are, in Colorado, the Roosevelt and the 5-mile Newhouse at Idaho Springs; and in the an-

PRIN< IPLES OF
tin-;.

MIM. DRAIN

\«.i.

Ill

onsylvania, the 5-mile Jeddo- Basic
1
l

in

Luzerni

the 1-mile Oneida in Schuylkill Co., and the

2-mile Lausanne near

Ifauch Chunk.

The

Last

named
flat

drains 13 miles of underground tunnels

and

14 different collieries.

coal and other Beams, convex rolls often gangways which dam up the drainage. It is >le to pass a low roll by deepening the water ditch; bu1 a high roll, to also cut the whole gangway through it to unless it is advai obtain a uniform haulage grade, is often better surmounted by a siphon. A siphon consists of a vertically-curved pipe with both ends se1 in Bumps, of which the outlet Bump must have the lowest water-level. Mine Biphons are usually made from welded iron pipe and water can be carried horizontally in them for considerable distances provide. they are tight. The limit of vertical lift, from surface of intake to highest point on the pipe of any siphon, is the height of the water barometer minus the total loss of water head, due to internal friction, etc., in the

!.—In mining

occur
r

in the floor of the

1

This limit is usually below 20 ft. Several rolls can be one siphon if escape valves for air are put on the pipe at the high point of each vertical bend. It is also possible to drain several sumps or
itself.

siphon

11 >y

along a gangway with one siphon, by running a branch pipe, its end. down from the main siphon into each swamp. A Biphon is best rigged with a valve at inlet and outlet: and with its
with a valve on
highest point joined by a small pipe, with valve, to a water-barrel from which it can easily be filled before a run.

mps"

Mechanical Ux watering
for mechanical drainage can be grouped into two classes. those moving water in buckets, and second, those moving water through pipes. In the first class, water-cars are moved horizontally by
First,

Apparatus

the

same

or slopes

tractors as ore-cars, while tanks or kibbles are hoist ed in by similar engines to those used for hoisting ore in skips.
all

.-;

The

second class includes
for

types of pumps.

The
if

first class is

often pre-

ferable for intermittent un watering, even

it

has a higher operating

where the existing ore-hauling and hoi-ting equipment can be utihzed to move the water-buckets, the heavy expense of installing

pumps

is

obviated.

CHAPTER

VI

SURFACE SHOVELING IN OPEN CUTS
Example
soil
1.

—Mo a

and Mayari Iron Mines, Cuba

Drag-line Excavators on Shallow Flat Placers Without Mantle.
surface exists over these ores; indeed, the ore itself
is

—No
upon The

the

soil,

which grow either pine
deposites at

forests or a characteristic tropical jungle.

Moa constitute a surface-mantle varying in thickness from mere film to 121 ft. and occupying an area of 60 sq. miles. The area a of more than 8000 hectares of ore drilled showed an average of 18.83 ft.; the Mayari deposit is a trifle thicker and shows an area sufficient The thickness to contain more than 600,000,000 tons of commercial ore. of the ore-mantle is affected by local causes, assisting or delaying the breaking-down of the serpentine bed-rock (which experts agree to be the mother of this ore), erosion by streams, and other causes. The ore lies directly upon the serpentine, and mining will be somewhat unfavorably affected by the fact that the gradation from ore to rock is not at all regular, but very rough so that in cleaning the bottom of an ore-body with any sort of automatic machine, chunks of serpentine are liable to be broken off and lifted with the ore, unless care is constantly exercised. This ore is a clayey limonite containing nodules of magnetite and hematite

near the surface. It shows, as chief constituents, Iron up to 46 per cent.

Alumina up to 15 per cent. Silica up to 7 per cent. Free water up to 30 per cent. Combined water up to 15 per
Prospecting.

— By

cent.

reason of the character and condition of these

ores exploration can be carried
rapid,

on by a process that

is

simple, accurate,

4-ft. and cheap. sleeve-nut, 5 or 6 in. sectional rods, and other being fitted to receive a As a hole is long, into which another 4-ft. section may be screwed.

Ordinary 2-in. auger-bits are forged on one end of

driven

down by

the auger-bit, additional threaded sections are screwed
it

on the rod, except where the

making

any desired length.

On each end

of

each rod,
hard,

bit

is

shaped, to a backing-nut screwed

down

in order to prevent the rods from working too tightly into the sleeve-nut

when turned

to release quickly.

would render it difficult In most cases ore can be bored by this simple tool with comparative ease, and when hard blocks and boulders are encouninto the resisting ground, which

62

-I

RF

###BOT_TEXT###lt;

l.

BHOA ELINQ

n

OPEN

I

I

VB

;.

they are sometimes cut by the substitution of a cutting chiselhole, experience

bit for the auger-point: in

and drive another
will usually

other cases the men will move a few feet away having shown that a very short distance
i I

through The hole on the surface, a little water i- poured in, the bit lifted and driven down by the combined Btrength of two men, and then turned in the ore. The work is a combination of churning and boring. Every few feel the tool is lifted, the ore adhering to the bil is cleansed off by pn -tick into the point of the bil and hen revolving
be sufficient to avoid a boulder.
the drier top soft ore or nodules
t

I

>rag-line

excavator

al

Ifayari,

Cuba,

the tool, and saved for analysis, and
the
of
bit
is

all

sludge that has collected above

soaped

off.

Were

it

not for the peculiarity of this clayey ore

ti m of drilling would be impossible, would be difficult for the engineer to follow and check the depth of holes by dropping down a measuring-rod, or by inserting a bit with which to test the materia] al the bottom. It is not uncommon to check

Btanding without caving,
it

and

by inserting bits in the old holes and reaming out a sample from the Bides of the hole. The price paid the borers begins with from 1.5 to 2 cents per foot for the first 10 ft. of depth, and increases by the addition of a like
grades, of properties previously drilled,

sum

In per foot for each succeeding 10 ft. of progress following. ordinary ground, each borer will earn from 12.50 to $3.00 per day; in other words, a pair of borers will complete from 10 to 13 holes, avi

64
ing 20
ft.

MINING "WITHOUT TIMBER
deep, per day.

One

81-ft. hole

was

drilled in

two long days

by two men.
In no other way it is possible to explore such an area except at great expense and in a long time. No system of tunnels, pits, or other openings It is well enough to sink pits occasionally, is so well suited to this work.
to check

by

actual observation certain facts that seem patent from the

drilling, or to

answer any questions that

may

arise.

To those accustomed
apart

to vein-mines or to the great replacement-

deposits of the Mesabi iron range, borings, varying from 100 to 300 m.

may seem utterly inadequate to prove grades and tonnages. In early examinations of the Mayari field original borings were spaced every 100 ft., but as the work proceeded the ore was found to be so
regular in analysis, texture, and thickness that holes were gradually spaced at intervals up to and even exceeding 1000 ft. Excavating. With no over-burden to be removed, the deposit situated close to the sea, with stream-valleys cutting through the ore-beds and running directly to deep water, and with an average thickness suitable for about one shovel-cut, these ores may be mined at low cost by ordinary steam-shovel. The drag-line excavator is being tried at Mayari

and has advantages there, as the deposit of ore is comparaand the floor quite rough. Also, its radius of action is far greater than that of a steam-shovel, which must be moved frequently. The is no question of the relative efficiency of the two machines if the shovel can get one or two full cuts in clean ore, but such opportunities
(see Fig. 25)

tively thin

are comparatively rare.

Example

2

Mesabi Iron Range, Minn
Examples 7 and
46.)

(See also

Steam Shovels on Rolling Lenses with Mantle of Glacial Drift. Hidden as the great deposits of the Mesabi are by a thick mantle of driftit is no wonder that new bodies are even to-day being discovered after 16 years of active exploration, when it is remembered that the produc, tive range is 100 miles long by one-fourth to two miles wide. The long, flat basins which hold the ore are the outcome of gentle folds, transverse to the range and cut up into basins by cross-anticlines. The ores are mostly soft, hydrated hematites with subordinate, soft limonite. In the great, open pits the occurrence of the ore in continuous beds of different colors and grades is noticeable. The beds differ much in texture; quite common are layers of broken joint-blocks of hard hematite from 1/4 in. to 2 in. thick, which
continuous layers of hematite sand or dust. The pore space is considerable, which is shown not only by the speed with which surface water sinks to the drainage shaft in an
generally occur alternated with

###BOT_TEXT###lt;

l.

-li<>\

ELING
to
ft.
is
l-l

l\

'

>PEN CUTS

open

pit,

but also from

l*J

cu.

ft.

cu.

ft.

per ton allowed for this ore
ft.

in place, as
I

compared with

8 cu.
it

to 9 cu.

for Bpecular hematite.
7">

If

the coarser joint-blocks

possible to use 60 per cent, to

per

cent,

iii

the blasl furnace mixture,

whileof the dusl

''<'>

per cent, haa been

the practical

maximum.

By

selection

per cent, of the high-grade ore mined can be loaded ae

and judicious mixing about 75 Bessemer, and

of the remaining high grade is utilized for Bessemer pig, after .Much mingling with Iran, low phosphorous ores from other ranges. of the lean non-Bessemer ore is necessarily removed in open-cul work.

much

and

this has

been stored

in

stock piles for

some

future use.

The

Rifesabi ore

deposits are enormous, and single bodies arc
tons.
of

from 20,000,000 to 40,000,000 great areas, and. owing to the drift mantle
contain

known The deposits cover
to

K)

ft.

150

ft.,

many

reensto".

Pig.

26.

Section of ore body, Mesabi range.

different adjoining
its

being known.
area and have a

in

mines might be on one continuous ore body without As a rule the important ore bodies are several acres thickness increasing from the periphery to a maximum
an
ore

of

200

ft.

at

the center.
of

The bottom
quartzite,

body, where
side.

resting directly
it

onPokegama
At the

may

be smooth, hut

when on taconite
" paint

is

generally irregular

and often stepped up on the trough
of .-<uec large deposits are

(SeeFig.26.)

bottom

beds of

rock" and
1

limoiiite.

forming an
directly on

impervious basement.

In

other eases the g

ore

rests

the porous taconite and the basement of the water circulation must bi

looked for farther down, as, for instance, some dense layer of quartzite. Of three prevalent methods of ore extraction on the Mesabi, i.e.,
open-cut. underground mining and surface milling, steam shoveling
easily
first,
is

underground mining second and milling last. In L902 th< second and ems produced 46 per cent, and 7 per cent, of the total output, respectively, bu1 they have since dwindled in relative importance, for in 1909 they only produced 15 per cent, of the yield of
!

29

1

I

million tons.

66

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

In a new mine the surface topography and the prospect drilling (which has previously prospected the deposit with holes at 200-ft. intervals) will enable an intelligent choice of systems to be made. With
suitable conditions the open-cut

method

is

cheapest, the milling second
is

and the mining
twice as

dearest.

The

cost of mining

about $1 per ton, or

much

as average open-cutting.

For open-cutting a deep mantle
is

proportionately thick, and the

of drift

can be removed for each

may be stripped if the ore beneath common rule is, roughly, that a foot foot of ore. With a desirable maximum

track grade of 3 per cent., and a possible one of 5 per cent., the proper

Fig. 27.

—Fayal open
the ore

pit.

layout of trackage to secure
side-hill

all

is

the

first

consideration.

A

body means an easy approach; if, also, it has an area in proper proportions as to total depth and width so as to allow for suitable benches we have an ideal condition. There must be an available and adequate dump ground, and the annual ore output must be sufficient to cover the extra interest on the
Lastl} r the lean laj-ers
,

increased investment of this over other systems.
in the ore

one is on the bottom it can be left, or if- on the top it can be removed with the strippiugs; but if intermediate, so that it cannot be separated in digging, it makes the system
situated.
If less practical.

must be harmlessly

>l

RI M

I.

8HO>

1.

1

IV.

I.N

OPEM mine
is

67
a

D
for a

—In
cage-way and

beginning
a

an

open-cut
At the

drainage shaft

u

generally sunk to the lowest point of the ore having two compartments

pump-way.

bottom

placed a station
a boiler a

pump
plant

of siae proportional to the of sufficient

water flow, and on the surface

capacity to furnish steam to run a small hoist,

dynamo

engine for electric lights and the surface
ipping.

pumps which are ocasionally needed to drain ponds formed on some impervious layer in the pit.

—The

general

layout

of

the

digging

operations

is

planned entirely from the results of prospect drilling. There are two Ible trackage Bchemes, one a cut longitudinally along the long axis of the deposit to be worked outward to both sides, and the other a cut in an elliptical ring, from which work proceeds both inward and outward.

Scale

28

Biwabik open

pit.

The topography determines the choice of methods, as in early plans of the Iayal and the Biwabik open-cuts which incorporate ideas from both system-. (See Figs. 27 and 28). Most stripping has been done by contract, but recently some of the operating companies have started doing it direct in order to better utilize ore-digging equipment The only different apparatus needed for stripping is the wooden dirt car, which has a shallow body set on a central longitudinal hinge on its truck so it can be
.

dumped

to either side. It holds 6 cu. yds., has automatic couplers but no brakes, and is made by the Russel Foundry Co. of Detroit. Though contractors often used a 3-ft. track gauge, it has been found feasible to

use the standard gauge for the dirt cars so as to be uniform with that of
the ore cars

and

shovels.

The contract price for the

i

Eveleth bodies

68

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

has been 30

cts. a cubic yard, which for a depth of 10 yds. would nearly $50,000 an acre.

mean

Locomotives.

60-ton

size,

Steam locomotives are used which are commonlj' of a with six drivers and 19-in. by 36-in. clyinders, made by the

American Locomotive Works.

four 25-ton or two 50-ton steel,

They handle 1 1 bottom-dump

of the 6-yd. dirt cars,

ore cars.

Some

larger

locomotives are in use, and it is planned at the Fayal mine to restrict the 60-ton size to service around the shovels. Longer trains will then be

made up

for haulage to the terminal yards

Shovels.

—For digging, the

by 100-ton locomotives.
is

favorite shovel
dirt,

the 90-ton

size,

with a

dipper handling 2 1/2 yds. of

or 4 1/2 tons of ore, either of the

Fig. 29.

—Openpit work, Mesabi range
This
is
ft.

Marion, Bucyrus or Vulcan make.
allows a cut of 30

mounted on two 4-wheeled

from the car track, which wide at the bottom (see Fig. 29). The shovel works best under a bench 20 ft. high, as higher ones are apt to cause trouble by caving. This makes it necessary to keep the shovel at considerable distance from the face, thereby sacrificing the digging efficiency. With work well arranged this shovel can dig and load 150 6-yd. dirt cars or 50 50-ton ore cars in 10 hours. Records much higher than this can be made, as one shovel timed by the author loaded 50 tons of ore in 4 2/3 minutes. After removing the bulk of the stripping the surface of the ore body must be cleaned before ore can be dug. Formerly this was done by hand shovels and barrows, but most of this hand cleanins; has now been
ft.

trucks on a standard-gauge track set 20

»l

i;i

1(

l.

—ii»

»

x

i.i.i.M,

i.\

OPSM CUTS

superseded by the following method: When the last .-nipping cut is g made a -roup Bcraper is chained to the shovel dipper, which d In the dirt on the ore surface over againsl the nexl stripping bench. 1909 Dearly 1!» million cu. yds. was Btripped on the Mesabi, of which

under
/.

o<>

per cent, was handled by contractors.
ing.

enough
benches

to be
first

Though much dug by the shovel
drills to
.">
1

of

both
it

overburden and ore

is

sofl

direct,

loosened by explosives.
the
to 20

makes quicker work to have the The holes are bored in gravel or ore
as the heighl of the shovel bench.

with hand churn They are placed
abreast.
chisel points,

same depth
ft.
1

ft.

apart along a bench and staggered, two
-

The drills are
In ore, 24

-in al steel, with of 1-in. to 3 1 ami are operated by two or four men. according
ft.

1

I

2-in.

to

depth

reached.

per
ft.

man

is

drilled in 10 hours, hut in the drift,

with
of

its

boulders, only Hi

The drill- are lifted by a movable, men. held to the shank by wedges.
is

steel cross-piece,

one for each pair

A -mall intercepting boulder may

be dislodged by a squib, hut the larger ones are drilled.

The

finished

hole

Bquibbed several times with 60 per cent, dynamite to ma 4-in. black powder, which chamber for three to eight kegs (25 lbs.) of
1

is

not loaded until the hole has been dried
S

'il-bu/iLs.
still,

—A

part of

many

of

by pouring in sifted sand. the open-cut mines was originally,

worked by caving, and the resultant surface depressions can The large often be utilized as convenient dump holes for stripping. area of wild, rolling land around the ore bodies makes it easy to find a dump for the balance without too long a haul. The common method is to lay the switch on a side hill and dump the dirt down hill until the dump becomes high enough to move the track sideways to the edge, where the dumping process is repeated. To keep the dirt from clogging the track is customary to level the dump by a plow-like scraper with a V-shaped mounted on a heavy truck and adjusted for different heights. At Coleraine the Oliver Co. has adopted a new scheme for disThe initial dump was n posing of dirt from the Canisteo mine. by d( o a height of 50 ft. along the shore of Trout lake, and a trestle resting on piles was then built to support the track on the edg
or
is
it

the

dump

facing the lake.

From

this ticstle the dirt cars are

dumped

sideways into the lake, and the dirt is kept from accumulating by the use The scheme saves removal of of water jet- played upon it from above. the terminal track, the only extra expense being for wash water, which i- raised by a special pump located below the dump. In open-cut t in g the following force i- employed: For shovel Labor. 9 (runner, craneman, fireman, four pitmen and two track cleam

for trains, 3 (engineer, fireman

and brakeman) then there are the blasting
;

and

dump

bosses and their helper-, also the engineer and

pumpman

at

the drainage shaft.

The general

force

comprises the superintendent,

70

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

day foreman and night foreman, the sampler, surveyors, assayers, accountants and clerks. Shops. For keeping the heavy machinery up to its work extensive repair shops are maintained by the different operators. For instance, the Oliver Company's mines at Hibbing have a blacksmith shop with sixforges and a steam hammer, a machine shop with planer, boring mill, drill and wheel presses, lathe, shaper, etc., large enough to handle any heavy repairs and renewals fur shovels or locomotives. There is

foundry for medium-sized castings; the large castings are shipped rough and finished to dimensions at the mine machine shop. Prospecting. The early mines of the Lake Superior iron ranges were started on ore out-crops showing through the glacial drift, which had been followed up by test-pitting. In the last few years, churn drilling has been in vogue in drift and soft ore, while in hard ore or rock,
also a
in the

the diamond

drill is

used.
it

On
is

the Mesabi range, prospecting has been very systematic, and

estimated that over 30,000 holes have been drilled from the surface. The unit of area is the 40-acre lot, and (where not adjoining ore-bearing ground) if nothing is found b}r drilling one hole near the center, and one

The surface at each of the corners, the lot is considered as barren. boundaries of the iron formation have now been so well mapped by the government geologist that there is no further excuse for wild-catting on impossible areas. If ore is penetrated, a hole is put down at each
200-ft. interval,
of the ore

and records are kept to determine not only the outlines body, but also the depth and assay of each of the rock and ore
a churn drill which
engine.
,

strata penetrated.

portable type run

The Mesabi prospecting is started with by a gasoline or steam

is

of the
is

A

boring sample

taken for every 5 ft. of depth and assayed for Si0 2 Fe, Mn, P, and Al. (The Al assay has lately been added to determine if the sample is from aluminous paint rock or from the ore proper.) The bit is only wide enough to go inside a 3-in. welded pipe casing, which is kept within When 5 ft. below the bottom of casing 5 ft. of the bottom of the hole. has been drilled, and the sample taken, the casing is forced down to the bottom. The sample it obtained by running the sludge through two settling boxes, from which the slime is saved and sent to the assay laboratory,
sis,

kept in a tubular box for reference. On reaching the hard schist, called Taconite (see Fig. 26), below an ore body, the hole's casing is seated there and the churn replaced by a
is

where it about 1 lb.

is

dried and cut

down

and, after taking enough for analy-

1 1/4-in.

diamond
is

drill,

taking a 7/8-in. core.
let
off

If ore is

again penetrated,

the hole

enlarged sufficiently to

the casing descend.

This

is

done

by
1

lifting

the casing

the rock and then blasting the top of the
fired elec-

1/4-in. hole

with a stick or two of 60 per cent, dynamite,

-I

i

BOVILXNO

IN

71

The pieces are then cleaned out by the churn-bit and sand illy. pump, and the blasting repeated until the hole is enlarged sufficiently nop the casing down to thi The churn drill lb then used until the bottom of the ore is reached. This alternating churu and diamond
drilling
is

kept up until the basal quartzite
core
ft.

is

reached, beneath which m>
or so of rep-

ore

is

ever found.
drill
is

The whole diamond

not Baved, but only

1

ft.

and this ed in cine \y packed in Bpecial cases along with the churn drill samples, in lire-proof vault in the office building. The drilling is done for the mining companies by contractors at a cost for churn drilling of 50 cents to SI a foot. The diamond drilling costs about twice as much per foot, but it is economical in taconite, owing to the slowness of the churn. To prevent the contractors using the faster and more profitable (to themselves) diamond drill in soft ore, they must show rock cores for all such work. Sampling and Assaying. One of the most complete systems is in vogue at the Oliver Co.'s mines on the Mesabi. For underground work, a grab sample is taken from each skip hoisted, and a day's hoist is Both underground and open-pit faces are abled and cut down. -an pled by the bosses (by grooving) frequently enough to insure intelliresentative rock for each 5
of core,
;t

i

gent stoping.

For open-pit shipments, a separate sample it taken from each 10 cars 30 to 50 tons each. This is done by grabbing 10 to 12 handfuls off the surface of each car, from spots spaced equally along diagonals or
of
i

wo

longitudinal parallel lines.

The assembled samples from
lbs.

10 cars are

then reduced in the pit by the sampler to 10

(by coning and quarter-

and sent
a

in a sack to the 'assay laboratory.
it first

In the laboratory the 10-lb. sample

2-mesh

sieve,

and then cut down on

oilcloth

bucked by hand to pass by coning to 1 kg., and
1

the balance used for determining moisture.
dried,
All

The

kg.

is

crushed in a
is

Laboratory jaw crusher and quartered to 100 grams, which

finally

bucked by hand

to 100-mesh,

shipments are analyzed for

and stored in a sample bottle. Si0 2 Fe, Mn, and P, and the drillings
,

for Al in addition.

The sampling and

analysis of a Mesabi shipment

before the train reaches

Two

must be completed Harbors, which often allows only four hours.

The

result can then be telephoned to the
its

the shipment to

dock master ami he can assign In this way. care appropriate pocket on the dock.

of different grade- to make a desired compound can be dumped into the same pocket, ami by the time the furnace is reached, the several tran-

have produced a uniform mixture. the Mesabi open pits, the olivet- Co. pursues the following survey system: Before the contractors begin stripping, the whole area is blacked out in 100-ft. Bquares and stake- set across the
shipments
will

Surveying.

— For

72

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

The level of each station then taken, and, by holding a tape between neighboring stakes to make the longitudinal 20-ft. marks, the remaining levels can be observed at When the drift has been removed the corners of each 20-ft. square. down to the ore, the new level of each 20-ft. point is observed, and then
deposit on the 100-ft. lines at 20-ft. intervals.
is

Recently the total volume of stripping can be accurately calculated. the company has started doing some stripping on company account,

and here levels are taken only at 4Q*ft. intervals. Subsequently the ore removed during any given period can be easily calculated by securing new elevations of the same points used in the The ore reserves were formerly computed from the stripping survey. Owing to the fact drill-hole records by treating each body as a whole. that the Mesabi ore runs in thick layers of large area, but differing analyses, it has been found possible, with the same drill records, to estimate the volume of each ore layer separately, and this has made the results of the reserve calculations much more instructive and useful.

Example

3.

Utah Copper Mine, Bixgham, Utah
and A3.)
with Rock Capping.

(See also Exam-pies 37, 41

Steam Shovels on Steep

Sidehill Lenses

— The
is

Bingham orebody seems

to

owe

its

existence to the impregnation of the

shattered zones in a monzonite-porphyry intrusion that was forced up
vertically through the surrounding quartzites.

The mineralization

not confined entirely to the porphyry, for in the Ohio Company's ground and in the Starless group shattered areas in the quartzite itself have been strongly mineralized. In the course of time this porphyry ore succumbed to erosion and oxidation more rapidly than the less shattered
quartzites,

and so

it

now forms

the bottom of a gulch and extends up to

Bingham and Carr Fork canyons. In the upper part of the sulphide ore at Bingham the copper in the ore has been leached from the walls of the seams, while between the seams in the unreached center of the porphyry the ore is unaffected and assays fairly well in copper. This fact would indicate that the
the top of the divide between Main
ore approached the present richness before secondary enrichment.

Some-

what deeper the ore becomes
until
it

richer

and then

in turn drops in grade

falls

below workable value.
is

The

principal copper mineral in the

sulphide ore

chalcocite, disseminated in extremely fine particles.

Leaching has progressed concomitant with erosion, and so the oreis covered with a capping of oxidized porphyry from which some Still much of this of the copper has been carried away in solution. carries well above 1 per cent, and in places as much as 2 and even 2.5 per cent. This copper of course occurs in oxidized form, and therefore At present is not so amenable to concentration as the sulphide ore.

body

-i

l;i

###BOT_TEXT###lt;

l.

8HO> ELING

IN

OPEN
1

I

i

I

-

all

the capping

may

contain.
it

distinct, but

is Looked upon as waste r how much copper it This line of demarkatioo between capping and ore ia aot roughly parallels the surface, causing difficulty in Btei m-

shoveling the ore on account slope, which ia too flat to permit the loosened capping to run down to the shoveling terrace.- and too steep
t<>

allow easy ace.

--

w

it

houl

many

terrace

b.

'1

he capping averages

7<>

ft

thick.

underground mining, the Utah Copper company 'earn shovels. by mi But, owing to the fact that the property is cut in two by a gulch whose sides approximate a slope of 30 deg., the orebody is nol especially adapted to steamIndeed, because of the rough topography, already 16 shovel mining. miles of track have been necessary even when a switch-hack Bystem for entering the terraces and gradea varying from 2 per cent, to 6 per cent, are used. Besidt s, on ci "tint of the slope of the gulch and the line of merger between capping and ore, there ia much mixing of overburden and ore. In addition, the disposal of this capping has necessitated the purchase of dump ground involving a maximum haul of 1 1/2 miles. The difference in elevation from the creek level to the highest ore is that nine terraces have bet n necessary and a tenth is now being surveyed. The elevation of these are: /. 6825 ft.; //. 6750; G, 6687; F, Stripping tracks are placed at E, 6536; C, 6415; and .1. 6340 ft. whatever elevation the lay of the ground dictates. Stripping is done on ail of these levels, hut all the ore above the F line ia to be shoveled down to the A pit and loaded there, it being cheaper to handle the ore twice than to load it into cars on the upper terraces. Indeed, in .1 pit much of the ore ia being shoveled from a bank 230 ft. high (see Fi^ a condition quite dangerous for the shovelmen. Both the ore and the capping require blasting in order to loosen them This is done in three different ways, according for the .-team shovel. to the varying conditions. In case there is sufficient room a "gopher" '-ting of a drift, 2 2 ft. square', driven into the bank for 45 ft. and with a cross drift about 15 ft. long, driven to each side at its end. This is loaded with black powder, some dynamite being used to explode the charge. In caae thai there ia not quite so much room
1

wing to

tl

i

now obtains mosl

of its ore

i

i

I;

1

for blasting,

churn-drill holea are resorted to.

In drilling these holes

Keystone churn drills are used. There are two of these, one working on capping and the other on ore. The holes have a diametei A crew consists in. and are cased generally only down to solid rock.
No. 3
of a driller at
'.

$5 per 12-hr.
cent.-

.

and

a

man
:;

shift, a tool sharpener, as the helper is called, to get coal, water, etc., at s i 7.">, and drilling and loosen.

ing costs about

1

per ton.
their spacing
ii

The depth of these holes varies considerably, as well as from the bank, but when a hole ia to be drilled 50 ft. deep

is

generally

74

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEH

placed so as to have a burden of 35 ft. at its bottom. In some cases holes 85 ft. deep have been used; these are loaded generally in three In case the bank is low, horiplaces, the bottom only being sprung.
in. piston machine to a depth of 25 to These are sprung 2 or 3 times so that they will hold Almost all blasting is done with three boxes of 30 per cent, dynamite. Still misfires occur even with a battery, and three or four caps are used. Most of the capping and ore breaks these precautions, but they are rare. quite fine, owing to the fracturing that has occurred throughout the mass

zontal holes, drilled with a 3 1/2
ft.,

26

are used.

Fig. 30.

—Shoveling

230-ft.

bank, Utah Copper mine.

of

porphyry, but occasional bulldozing of boulders

is

necessary.

This

is

cheaper than block-holing the boulders. After each blast the bankmen, by means of ropes, climb down the These men also do all blasting and sides and dress down the bank. Their work is especially dangerous, and they are paid S3 75 gophering.
.

for 10-hr. shifts.

The

difficulty of their

work can be seen

in Fig. 31.

The men work with a rope near at hand to grab in emergencies. The banks in capping are carried at an angle of about 40 deg., as this is the best slope for working it; the ore bank 230 ft. high is carried The capping is shoveled into 4 1/2-cu. yd. at a somewhat steeper angle.

lump can and run

in trains to the
ci

directly into 50-tOD railroad

waste dumps, while the ore is she for hauling to the mill at Garfield,

routine of handling thi [uite similar to that in Example and bo will not be described. A 65-lb. rail is used :m<l a Btandard broad-gauge track; in advancing the Bhovel 6-ft. Lengths of track joined ovel ere Iman at $175 by fish plates per month, a craneman al $125 per month, a fireman al $2.50 day, and six pitmen al v 75. Four of the pitmen work od the track and odd jobs, while two tend the jack screws and help advance the shovel.
_'.
;i
!

opper mine

The Bhovels work from 60 to 65 per cent, of the time. The is taken up mainly in waiting for cars, blasting and other similar delays. As yet, few Bhovels have been buried by caves, and there are not many break-downs. The company bus 10 shovels; eight weigh ns and have 3 1/2-cu. yd. dippers, while two weigh 65 tons and
r<

the time

have3-cu. yd. dipp<

rs.

Seven arc Marion Bhovels, two Bucyrus and one
first

Vulcan, the latter being one of the

bought.

The shovels work

two
per
"ii

The and the smaller ones, - tons. Seven of the Bhovels are working capping all the time; two shovels on ore, and one partly on ore and
10-hr. shit'is.
shift

Large Bhovels consume about 2 1/2 tons of coal

/

I >

MINING WI T H U T TIM BEH

partly on capping.

About 6500 tons

of ore (2

1/4 to 7 per cent, moisture)

and 8000 to 10,000 tons of capping were mined in a day in June, 1909, with about 650 men at this work which cost 19 cents per ton of ore and 34 cents per cu. yd. of capping removed. In 1911 with 19 shovels, ore and capping are handled at the rate of 50,000 tons daily.

Example
Steam

4.

Nevada Consolidated Mines, Ely, Nevada
(See also

Example

44.)

Shovels

on Rolling Lenses With
is

Rock

Capping.

—The
as

ore

occurrence at Ely

not nearly so similar to that at

Bingham

many

seem to think.
of a dike. It

laccolithic in character, while at

intrusion of monzonite porphyry was Ely the intrusion was more in the nature cuts persistently across the bedding planes of the different

At Bingham the

horizons of the limestone country.

The whole area has been subject
the monzonite has been

to

much

mineralizing action, and
it is

much

kaolinized in places so that

much

weaker than at Bingham. In fact most drifts in the Ely monzonite have to be timbered, while at Bingham the drifts stand without any need of support. The orebodies at Ely are due essentially to secondary enrichment, as is clearly indicated by the sudden change, within a vertical distance of 5 ft. from capping carrying only a trace of copper to ore carrying This secondary enrichment occurred at water 1.5 per cent, copper. level, and so the top of the orebodies is fairly flat, rarely undulating through a vertical height as great as 30 ft. in the orebodies near enough to surface to be worked by steam shovels, but being somewhat greater in the deposits covered by capping 30 ft. or more thick.
This
flat

character of the top of the orebody, the fact that
of the surface

it

bears

immediately above it, and the general rolling character of the surface at the places where the capping is thin enough to permit economic stripping with steam shovels, makes Ely, an ideal camp for the use of shovels. The depth of the capping varies throughout the district, being only 30 ft. thick in some places and over 700 ft. in others, depending partly upon the height of the local ground-water level when that particular orebody was formed, but mainly upon the amount of erosion that has occurred subsequently to the formation of the orebody. The principal ore mineral is chalcocite, but some bornite and some melaconite is also found. The original mineral seems to have been chalcopyrite. Owing to the important influence of secondary enrichment, most of the copper minerals occur along the fracture planes and in the more porous rock. The orebodies occur where there are shattered zones in the porphyrj^ and also where kaolination has allowed surface water to filter easily

no relation to the undulations

SURFACE
through
the

-»l!i »\ 1.1.

i

M.

IN

OPEN

<l

l-

Because of the direcl connection be1 and richness of underlying orebody, it would appear that there Lb much less likelihood of finding orebodies under the limestone capping than where the porphyry comes to the surf; The Nevada Consolidated Copper company has three No. 5 Keystone churn drills busy in prospecting one at the Boston-Montana-Liberty orebody and two at the Ruth, all in ore. The holes are placed 200 ft. The entire pulp is dried apart ami are Bampled in 5-ft. sections. without decanting any of the water, a sample from a 5-ft. depth
porphyry.
facility for leaching

generally

requiring

four

tubs.

After

drying,

all

the

pulp

is

The depth of capping at the mixed and then quartered down. Ruth is 300 ft., and at the Boston and Montana, from 80 to 100 ft. Few of the holes require casing. At the Ruth the holes vary from in depth, while on the Boston and Montana they ft. to 71 In holes deeper than 350 ft. about are only 200 to 250 ft. deep. are drilled in 12 hours, but in the shallow holes more than 110 ft. have been drilled in 12 hours, the amount ordinarily varying between 40 and C»0 ft. in holes 200 ft. deep. In deep holes the first casing used is a 4-in. casing, but in 4 in. and finally if required 4 7 5 8-in., next 6 shallow holes or in ground the nature of which is known generally
1

1

an

8-in. hole
'

is

started.

The

cost of drilling in the Ely district varies
drilling cost

lerably, but at one
ft.

mine churn

$1.87 a foot for 44
of the

holes averaging 250

in depth.

This included the cost of changing

set-ups, pulling casing, repairs, lost tools, etc.

Complete records

character of the ground penetrated, the amount of depth drilled each shift, and the cost are kept. The holes are plotted, and on sections the
of

each

5-ft.

section

is
it

recorded.
is

A

double record

is

kept of each

hole.

From

these sections

possible to estimate the respective ad-

vantages of steam-shovel and of underground mining. The Copper Flat orebody is admirably adapted to Bteam-shovel work as the capping is only from 35 to 160 ft. deep (the average being about 90 ft.), the orebody 210 ft. deep, and the topography gently rolling. lor the bencha vertical height of 50 ft. has been found most admirable
for safety

and

for intensive Bhoveling, while
is

50

ft.

the loading track

not so likely to be buried
delay.-,

avoiding serious and costly
ried, a height of L'MO
ft.

with a horizontal width of by the blast, thus of course, higher banks can be car-

more being possible, but this would necessitate tunnel-blasting, requiring a heavy tonnage of explosives, a much wide: bench, and more care to avoid exposing tin- shovel and crew to danger from a treacherous bank. A study of an actual section [Fig. 32), through a bank of the steamshovel Ore-pit, shows that the slope between the benches from the Upper
or
to the toe of the talus

below

i-

a little

greater than
1.

1

to

l,

varying

between

1

.

04 and

1

.

43, or

an average

of

1

18 to

The talus, or broken

78

-MINING

WITHOUT TIMBER

Fig. 32.

— Bench-diagram, easy

slope,

Nevada Consolidated open

pit.

69SC-S-

Fig. 33.

— Bench diagram, steeper

slope,

Nevada Consolidated open

pit.

-I Kl A'

i:

-IK

>\

1. 1.1

M.

IN

iU'l.N

'II-

79

material, that has

become

loose

ami has

fallen to the
at

bench belo¥

shown
ground.

in

the diagram, will always be found
in

the foot of a hank, the

quantity varying

amount according

to the condition of the Btanding
I

Bhown in ig. 33, the somewhat less, varying between Thesteepesl L8, or an average for the four banks of 0.99 to 1. ad hank in the shovei-pi1 is one in the zone of Bulphide ore, shown above This bank in 2 9 ft. high, and standing at a ratio of 0.6 to 1. eshly cut and will stand at this ratio for only a short time, when
In the analysis of a steeper Bection, as

ratios of the corresponding hank.- are
I

I

disintegration will cause

It will he seen, then, that an it to crumble. average slope for this height of bank and material will average closely the ratio of 1 to 1, a little steeper in the zone of sulphides and a little

Batter in the oxidized material above.

The general
is,

slope from the

of course,

much

larger since the

bottom to the upper edge of the excaval ion added width of the bench on which

In Fig. 32 the shovel operates nearly doubles the horizontal distance. this ratio over all from the edge of the top to the toe of the bottom 76 to 1 for four bench, will lie seen to be 1.92 to 1, and in Fig. 31
1

more benches the ratio will not remain Using the ideal the same, hut will mow larger by a decreasing amount. section (Fig. 20), with 1 to 1 slopes, 50-ft. benches and 50-ft. heights, the table and formula below are suggested by E. E. Barker.
benches.

With the addition

of

Nunber

SO

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

In the selection of the width of bench, the deciding factor is the slope taken by the blasted bank. Ordinary broken material will repose at a slope of about 1 1/2 to 1, but the impetus given the broken rock in a

approximately the ratio of 2 ft. from the edge and the blast loosens the ground for about 10 ft. more, the bank, when blasted, lying at a slope of 2 to 1 assumes the position of the dotted line at the top of Fig. 34, still leaving 20 ft. clear on the bench below, which gives ample room to safely accommodate the loading track without danger of being covered. From the data at hand and with conditions as given
blast usualty causes the slope to
1.

form

at

to

Since the drill-holes are placed about 10

APPROXIMATE POS/r/OH rOf BIASTCD BANK Slope e to /
-

Fig. 34.

— Bench-diagram,

ideal slope,

Nevada Consolidated open

pit.

above, the section with the

minimum bench and

the

maximum

height

economical operation, is the one shown in Fig. 34, with a general slope of 1.75 to 1, or a corresponding ratio for the number of terraces required. Already the steam-shovel operations cover an area of many acres. The pit is roughly oval in shape and the tracks are extended in ovals around the sides, so that only in starting a terrace is it neces-

and slope

for

sary to load the cars singly.

LOOSENING ORE FOR SHOVELS
and the capping require blasting to loosen it, but on the east side the ground is almost soft enough to shovel without blasting. Only churn drills are used in preparing the bank for blasting. After the ground along the terrace has been roughly evened, so as to permit
ore

The

BT

i;i

ki

i-

>ii"\

ELING

in

OP]
ip

81

the drills to
••

move

readily from
10

to another, drillii.

holes an- drilled aboul
tlic

ft.

deeper than the Bteam-shovel terrace
1 -

bottom will surely be loosened. The holes arc place. to 50 ft. of ground at their bottom, according have burden of from t<> the nature of tin' ground, and the hoi.'- aic Bpaced approximately the same distance apart as they have burden on them. At present there -ven distinct kinds of -round to he blasted. This variability also
BO that
t<>

a

) •_

">

ts
I

the loading of the hole.

The hole
4:i

is

first

Bprung or chambered,
5

times with

4:)

to 100 lb. of

per cent, dynamite, then the hole
of

is

loaded with from 750 to 2000
of

lb.

explosr

eral

different

ground Dupont FF black powder, in harder ground Champion powder (a mixture between black powder and dynamite), and is still harder ground 40 per cent. dynamite (in winter 40 per cent. Trojan powder is used); but more 40 per cent, dynamite is used than other kinds of explosive. The blasting is done with electricity, and three X X X X X detonatorgrades
explosives
are
soft

used — in

placed iii each hole. The placing of these holes requires considerable experience and judgment; so the nature of the face is studied and ex-

From L500 to 3000 cu. yd. are and aboul 1500 to 3000 tons of ore when blasting in moved ore. A churn drill will sink from 40 to 70 ft. of (i-in. hole in a !_'hour shift in preparing the bank for blasting, and at times as high as 120 ft. has been drilled in a shift. The boulders are bull-dozed. Two Xo. 5 Keystone churn drills work on capping, and only one on ore. Standard-gauge equipment is used in steam-shoveling. The capping Two sizes are used is loaded into dump cars of the Oliver type. 6-cu. yd. and a 12-cu. yd. car according to conditions. The larger car- are equipped with standard air-brake apparatus, while the G-cu. yd. are not. The larger cars are therefore better for long runs aid require less "spotting" while being loaded; the small cars are better on curves and where much dumping on trestle is done. The large ears are handled in trains of five, and the small ones in trains of eight. The cars by actual measurement hold 5.4 and 10.9 cu. yd., respectively. Bucyrus shovels are used entirely. There are three 95-ton shovels with 5-cu. yd. dipper.-; one 95-ton, with 3 1/2-cu. yd. dipper; ami one
amined
for slips before being drilled.
a blast,
at

on

Two of these shovel- ale Working 70-tOU shovel with 3-CU. yd. dipper. ore, and the rest on capping. Aboul 1') min. are required to load a
50-ton car when running regular, but numerous delays increase this to a much lower average. The ore is run directly to the mill in these same car.-,

time some way of BCreening he ore before he mill bins are reached i-. the mining expense is increased conhave to be arranged. As siderably owing to the want of storage capacity at the mine and mill. per cent, grade and in The tracks are laid at from 3 per cent, to mile- of track are used. mining the onOver this single-track

but
will

in

I

t

it

1

i

6

82

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

system 220 to 230 trains a day are run. The ore-train yard is at the mouth of the pit, but the capping has to be hauled some distance. Formerly this was nearly 1 1/2 miles, but at present the dumps are much nearer and one is within a quarter of a mile of the pit. In steam-shovel operations the company used six 16x24-in., saddletank American Locomotive Works locomotives and one 14x22-in., saddle-tank locomotive of the same make. These locomotives use about Locomotive engineers are paid $4.25 3 tons of coal in nine hours. for 9 hours; firemen, $3 for 9 hours; switchmen, $3.25 for 9 hours. Trackmen and common labor is paid $2 for 9 hours. The powder boss Shovel and churn-drill crews are alike in number gets $5 for 9 hours. and cost to those of Example, 3. About 5000 tons of ore and about 3000 cu. yd. of capping are being moved a day, or 150,000 tons of ore and 90,000 cu. yd. of capping per month. On the pay roll there are 267 men, including men in the machine shop, repair men, in short every one connected with steamAt present about 12 acres of ground have been stripped, shovel mining. but this particular ore body has an area of 18 acres. In 1910 the Company's average cost of shoveling ore was 15.4 cents Of the stripper ton and of removing waste was 40. 6 cents per cu. yd. ping cost 15 cents was apportioned to each ton of ore extracted so that the total cost of mining the ore was 30.4 cents per ton including repairs, maintenance, and general expenses.

Example

5.

Eastern Pennsylvania and Illinois
Example
49, 51

(See also

and

59.)

Clam-shell Cranes and Wheeled Dipper-dredges on Coal Seams with Thin Mantles. There are a number of places in the anthracite fields of Eastern Pennsylvania where flat coal beds outcrop so near the surface that they may be stripped for 100 feet before the cover attains an unThe Hilldale strippings have a section from the profitable thickness. surface down about as follows:

Soil, 4.5 ft.; coal

A, 4.5 /«; rock 3

ft,;

coal B,

I ft.;

rock 5

ft.;

coal C,

2 ft; rock 3

ft.;

coal D, 12 ft.

Coal bed

A

has been exposed so long

it is

worthless, except where

it

Bed B is a somewhat rusty good coal. Bed C is has a rock cover. almost 2 ft. thick and could not be worked at a profit underground; in the stripping operations, however, it is, like bed B, a source of income. Bed D is the coal aimed for, and is as good as coal can be, although
carrying a slate parting.

The method
as follows:

of stripping followed

First,

rock by means of

by Mr. Kinsley, the contractor, is the top soil and poor coal A is removed from the top The boom a clam-shell bucket and locomotive crane.

-i

i;i

i(

I.

8H01 BLING

IN

OPEN CUTS
it

on this cram
it

! can place the top material where

will

of the

way once

for

all.

The

dirt

is

first

removed ahead

of the

crane in the direction it is moving; next from the side of the crane where The rock and coal are then broken down the mining i- t<> be carried on.
I) by blasting. The coal from />' ami C is picked nut by hand, while the lock [a wasted and piled back by the buckel t<> form the The coal bed l> is next broken by powder and track for the coal car. loaded into the buckel by hand. The bucket is then raised by the crane

to the coal lied

and the coal dumped in the car. Anthracite coal is so brittle it breaks in handling, and while it was at first intended to use the bucket to pick up the coal, it was found inadvisable to do bo. This met hod of >t ripping
divalent to making a side cut along the crop for the crane track, then excavating below this cut. and filling in. The fill will furnish the road for the next side cut when coming hack from the boundary line of

the property, as

it

does for the coal car-

in

going forward.

Near Danville. 111., there was a 35-acre bituminous coal Led, s ft. This coal bed outcropped thick, which was approximately horizontal. (•n all sides of a flat-topped hill, and had an overburden from :;s to hi ft. thick, composed of -oil, clay, gravel, and about 20 ft. of shale. It was decided to strip to the coal with a single Cllt and to take a wide cut BO as er to provide for the efficient mining of the oal. The plant decided on v earn shovel, made by Bellefontaine (Ohio) .Machine Co., having a dipper of 2 cu. yd. capacity, and mounted on a movable platform, provided with a Jeffrey belt conveyer for disposing of the material. The platform, which was 30 ft. wide, was mounted on four trucks that were moved as desired on two tracks. The machine, as it appeared in operation, is shown in the frontispiece. After excavating the material above the coal with the bucket, it was swung to a large hopper and discharged. From the bottom of the hopper the material arried on a steel cross-feeder to the lower end of the belt conveyer. The Latter was a 40-in. wide belt traveling on a steel arm 103 ft. long. The arm was supported by wire ropes from a tower built above the platform to a height <f 4S ft. By this arrangement the waste clearance at the outer end of the arm was about 00 ft. above the racks. The machine Lb said to have had no difficulty in excavating heavy piec-. Btumps, and log8, and depositing them in the space where the coal had been mined. After the overburden had been removed the coal was quarried and loaded into cais on a track laid in the place from which coal had been taken previously. As the .-hovel made a cut, the debris deposited in the cavity made by removing the coal. The tracks tor the machine wee laid on top of the coal, which was mined bo a- to leave a bench for the .-hovel to come back on.
i

t

CHAPTER

VII

SURFACE MINING
Example
G

Puertocitos Mine, Cananea, Sonora, Mexico
(See also

Examples

18,

34 and

45.)

Quarrying Sidehill Lenses with Rock Capping. The ore deposit is on a sidehill (see Fig. 35) and consists of streaks of malachite through a bedded limestone. On the surface the metallic contents have been leached so that a worthless limestone capping must first be removed before attacking the ore of which two-thirds can be rejected during sorting. The capping and waste are dumped from small cars down

.^wm
&£*^
«3&

3*

VI

i^K

/**>*"*<»,

#^ium^

Fig. 35.

—Openpit mining at Puertocitos.

chutes into pockets above the railroad whence it can be hauled to nearby dumps or used as filling. The ore is dumped into similar pockets and is then hauled 10 miles downhill to the smelter for about 12 cents per ton.

In removing the capping, drill holes are put down only to its bottom, but in the ore regular benches are laid off, 22 ft. high. The drilling is by hand with three men to a crew. Down to a depth of 9 ft. the hole is This takes about drilled by hammers, there being two hammermen. half a day. As that is the limit of economic work with hammers, from 84

-i

1:1

\.

1

MINING

churned down by the three men to a depth of 22 ft. a halt" more, "i' two days to complete a b deep. tth dynamite, and then Loaded with These hoi ll>. each, of black powder, since tin- holes are from four to generally drilled with a toe of ground at the bottom aboul equal t<> The holes are also spaced about equally, although the manner the depth. of breaking of the holes previously Masted determines the position of the next hiii,-. Each Mast breaks, mi an average, aboul 600 tons of Electric blasting is used in firing these hole-, and several are rock.
that point the hole
a
is

This takes

day and

blasted

at

a time.

The tramming
up the pieces

distances are short, but owing to the large

amount

of

sorting accessary, the block-holing and the sledging required in breaking
for sorting, the cost of placing ore

on the cars
Still, if

is

about $1

7')

a ton, including stripping

and

all

other charges.

much powder

that

were used so as to avoid the sledging, the rock would be broken so fine much ore would be lost that might otherwise be sorted out, and the fines mighl become too low grade to be sent to the smelter. The mine i- sending to the smelter an average of 140 tons of ore per
day, and employs about

hard
this

175 men. These are all Chinamen, as it is Mexicans to work outside during the winter months, for at altitude the climate is rigorous and there is often snow.
to get

Example
e

7.

Mesabi Iron Range, Minn
Examples
'2

also

and

46.)

(Vertical Chutes).

Milling or "Glory-hole" System for Flat Lenses under Glacial Drift The milling system, having little machinery, costs

than open-cutting by steam shovels, but the cost of is greater on account of underground development, tramming, hoisting and lighting. It is adapted to dep< where the overlying mantle is not so deep as to uecessitate underground
less to start

much

ore per ton in the extraction

ore

approach and the general shape of the Like the latter, milling cannot be worked so cheaply in winter and is, therefore, best adapted to deposits which need only make shipments during the open season on the lakes. Milling can often be used as an auxiliary to opcn-cuttii remove such parts of the stripped ore body which are so deep or so
mining and where
facilities

of

body

are

unsuitable

for

open-cutting.

obstructed as not to allow of easy railroad grades from

I

be

pit

's

approach.

opened on a small scale by milling have since been extended for open-cutting by steam-shovels. In starting a mine on this system it is only uecessary to strip sufficient area so that the top diameter of the final tunnel-like ore pit will be adequate to allow the base of the ore to be reached by a scries of conWhile centric, descending benches of economical heighl and width.

Many mines

first

86
stripping, a

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

working shaft s (Fig. 36), with two skip compartments and one cage compartment, is sunk in the wall rock alongside the ore and a crosscut c run from the foot wall to a point under the proposed By extending a mill, where a vertical raise r is made to the surface. drift d from the foot of this raise along the ore body and raising from it at appropriate intervals (50 ft. to 100 ft.) as many mill holes can be
started as the area stripped will permit.
circling it with an undergoverned by the depth of the hole that can conveniently be bored with the piston air drill used; usually between 10 ft. and 20 ft. The width of a bench depends upon the
of of a mill

The stoping begins at the top hand bench b. The height of

by

a

bench

is

Surface of Ore Bodj
bl

i-f-t-ri i
i

«—i—l-t
,

Ore

"

% Brokeu"
ija.a
J--

A

A

A,

A

A A A A

AA
Fig. 36.

—Milling or glory-hole system.
line of holes will carry

economical burden that one
squibbing, and also

when chambered by

upon the width that can

clear itself after blasting,

mostly by gravity. "When the benches have reached the bottom of the ore body and the funnel is completed along line f-q-m-n-g-h-k-t-x-y (if there is only one mill) the broken ore, if the benches are cut clown much farther, will no longer slide. Then the benches have to be cleared, and for this purpose In Fig. 27 the great a steam shovel can sometimes be efficiently used. "mill pit" was formed by cutting down and uniting a number of mill funnels. At the bottom of each mill is a chute gate, from which the ore is drawn into cars to be trammed to the shaft, whence it is hoisted in a skip to the surface. As the Mesabi ore is friable, there is seldom trouble from the clogging of chutes by boulders. In other districts where steam shovels for stripping are not so easily available as on the Mesabi or where the topography or repair facilities are unsuitable for their operation, the surface waste over the ore body can be removed by several other methods. The first to suggest itself would be to carry the raise of each millhole up to the surface and drop all the waste through it for disposal on a

dump, near the

exit of shaft or adit, before attacking the ore beneath.

1

ACE MINING

This would involve handling all the waste in adil or Bhafl and ofti cheaper w;iy of stripping would be by sucli rapid methods scrapers, drag-line excavators, hoist-cableways or hydraulicing. - imetimes the broken ore is hoisted from the bottom of the open
pit by a clam-shell or other self-filling bucket suspended from a hoistcableway stretched between derricks on the Burface, and as this Bystem Saves the C0S1 Of tunnel and Bhafl it is often cheaper for .-mall deposits.

Example

8.

Traders' Mine, Menominee Range, Mice
also

Examples 38

<m<l 4G.)

MiUing or "Glory-hole" System for Vertical Widi Vein Without Mantle {Vertical Chides). This ore body is 100 ft. to 200 ft. thick and It extends conformably to the enclosing has little or no overburden. beds of the Traders' formation (named from the mine) for over a mile, and dips 60 deg. south, the foot wall being of greenish and the hangwall of reddish slate. Though a icw high-grade pockets have been extracted, the bulk of the mines' output of 1,500,000

tons has been low-grade ore of 41 per cent.

and 0.015 per cent, to 0.018 per cent. The iron mineral is high grade. but it occurs only in bands in a hard jaspilite matrix. The annual output is but 125.000 ton.-, as work goes on only during the season of open lake navigation. The Antoine Ore Co. is the operator. For a daily output of 900 tons to 1,000 tons there are 125 men, of whdm 64 are machine men (16 drills on each shift), and most of the balance are trammers. The low mining cost of 30 cents per ton is less than that for steam shoveling on the Mesabi Fro. 37.--Chute for milling where the stripping is heavy. Development. The open pit was opened by a 4-compartment shaft in the foot wall, whose sump is 150 ft. from the collar and 225 ft. below It is 7 ft. by 23 ft. inside of timbers and the apex of the vein's outcrop. has a 5-ft. by 7-t't. cageway, two 6-ft. by 7-ft skipways and a 3-ft. by From 7-ft. pipeway, all dividers and wall plates being 12 in. by 12 in. main drift, winch this shaft a crosscul runs on the 80-ft. level to the extends for 1,450 ft. along the center of the vein. From the main drift and where they strike the are turned off crosscuts at 100-ft. intervals, foot wall a vertical raise 6 ft. square is pui up to the outcrop (as in Fig.
iron

phosphorus.

for the

beginning of a mill hole.
drifts, crosscuts or raises
/,'

No timber is used in The bottom of the raise

(Fig. 37)

is

rock-filled

excepl for the chu and floored with poles

88
p,

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK

which are set to as to leave a loading orifice 2 ft. by 5 ft., controlled by a steel bar b resting in cramps c. Two drift sets, S, are inserted opposite the raise to complete the chute with 8-ft. caps and posts. For each mill hole there are two 3 1/4 in. Rand drills on tripods, which bore down holes 8 ft. to 14 ft. long and are supplied with air by small pipes from the top of the pit. As the ore is broken in big chunks these have to be reduced to prevent choking the chutes, and this is done by bull-dozing rather than block-holing, as the extra powder is found less expensive
than the extra labor for boring block
holes.

Either the chute-raise

must be kept full of ore or the entrance of each chute at the base of the underhand benches must be covered over by a log-grizzly to arrest the descent of the boulders into the chute until they can thus be broken. The tram cars t are handled by two men and hold two tons, or one skipload.

Example

9.

Alaska Treadwell Gold Mine, Douglas Island, Alaska
(See also

Example

16.)

Milling or "Glory-hole" System for Sub-vertical Wide Veins Without Mantle (Hour-glass Chutes). The orebodies her occupy a huge syenite dike that has intruded the slate country rock for several miles. The dike is irregular in width, varying from 420 ft. at the Treadwell mine to 150 ft. at the Mexican and 300 ft. at the Ready Bullion, a half mile to the southeast, while in the interval between these three miles the dike is a mere stringer. The mineralization of the syenite was due to a subsequent intrusion of barren gabbro which now forms the hangwall of the syenite orebodies and in places is badly schattered. There is also a third intrusion of barren basalt which is found in the orebodies as a single dike above, but as several smaller ones at depth. The chief ore is of two varieties: first, stringers of quartz and calcite occupying fracture planes in the syenite; second, crushed and broken syenite which has been saturated by mineral-bearing solutions. The largest orebody is the Treadwell shown in section in Fig. 38, which dips 70° and has a gabbro (greenstone) hangwall and a black slate footwall. The climate is wet but mild enough to permit continuous outdoor mining, so that the main openpit finally reached a depth of 220 ft. below the adit level and 450 ft. from the surface with a maximum width of 420 ft. and a length of 1700 ft. The large slides of waste rock from the footwall and the need of a thick pillar of rock to protect the underground workings from surface water caused the stoppage of the openpit at the 220-ft.

level.

To develop the Treadwell mine below the Adit Level, a four-compartment vertical shaft (see Fig. 38) was sunk in the hangwall and stations A as wide as the shaft and 40 to 60 ft. long were cut at each level.

SI

111

A<

I.

MINIM.
ft.

89

main
the

croj

C,
ft.

ifl

run on each level to the footwall, 20
ft.

wide

for

first

100

and

1-'

in

width

for the

balance of the distance.

Be-

neath the floor of the Btation an ore bin, B, is cut oul in the ruck with a capacity of 500 to 1500 tons, to afford ample storage. >n the main ut. on its hangwall end, is cut a Btation for the winding engini
< -

tail rope system of haulage. Directly opposite the sinking compartment, on alternate levels, a station is cut for the sinking hoist.

the

]

[q.

38.

—Alaska Treadweil mine,

cro^s section.

main crosscut has reached the footwall, parallel drifts. D, at right angles and about 00 ft. apart, to follow the strike of the vein. At intervals of 25 ft., raises are now put up on alternate -ides of both crosscut C and drifts D. These raises are 15 ft. high,
the
are turned
off,

When

have

a slope of GO deg., so that the ore will run freely, and arc fitted with special finger-chutes so the large quantities of ore can be easily

run into the nunc cars. At the same time as these drifts and raises, there are being run intermediate drifts (as E) directly above each drift D but separated from its back by a rock pillar, 10 ft. thick. V\ hen a pit P is to be opened, a raise is put up from the nearest level and connected with the surface. This raise is started from an intermediate drift E, in general directly over a chute-raise.

The

chutes, 25

ft.

90

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

distant on each side, then serve as
erection,

and the broken rock

is

man-ways for the raise in course of drawn off through the middle chuteThus the of the bottom. an hour-glass, the top being formed

raise into cars.

When

the raise has been connected, the machine-drills

are put to
raise

work cutting out a small stope
finished has the shape of

when

by the open pit P and the bottom by a drawing-off stope G, coveringthree chutes and from 20 to 30 ft. high, the two being joined by the raise. The object of cutting out the pit-raises in this manner is, first,
to obtain chute-capacity in case of their being hung up by large pieces of rock or by blasting; and, second, to afford an opportunity to break

up any large piece of rock that may have been overlooked in the pit, which would stop up the chute unless it were broken to pieces small enough to pass through it.
Machine-drilling
is

seen at

its

best in these pits.

The

3 1/4-in. di-

on tripods, are used in all the pits at present. The average number of feet drilled per machine in 10 hours is 36.35. The holes are drilled to an average depth of 12 ft., and each machine will break 69.69 tons of ore per shift of 10 hours. When the pits were smaller and the difficulty of setting up was not so great as at present, the average number of feet drilled was much higher, and the breaking capacity of a machine-drill was from 150 to 200 tons of ore shift of 10 hours. The pits are worked by drilling and blasting the ore from a series of benches or terraces around the chute-raise as a center, and when the ore is blasted the broken rock rolls down to the bottom. The small pieces are then broken by sledges, and the larger ones by placing sticks of powder on the surface of the rock, tamping with a little fine dirt, and blasting. For blasting holes, No. 2, or 40 per cent., dynadrills, set
1, or 70 per cent., is best. the rock has been broken to the required size, it is drawn off, through the raises and chutes described above, into cars. These cars

ameter Ingersoll-Sergeant

mite

is

used, while for " bulldozing" No.

When

are hauled to the station ore-bins

by
is

horses, or

by endless-rope haulage,

where they are dumped.
to the surface.

The

ore

then loaded into skips and hoisted

CHAPTER

\

III

UNDERHAND STOPING
Example LO.—Disseminated Lead Field
I'

01

Soi

im.wr Missouri
Limestone.

ml,

rground Quarrying with

Down
is

Holes

in Flat L< nses in
in

Topographically the country 500 to 1000
feel

hilly,

even rugged

traversed by a network of small streams.

and is The elevation varies from
places,
is

above the

sea

level.

The surface

well

wooded with

predominating. The surface formation is of Cambrian sediments which abul againsl The Cambrian consists here of the St. Francois hills of Archean granite.
oak. hickory, ash, and yellow pine, the
firsl

limestone, which in places

is 700 ft. thick, resting conformably on the Mine LaMotte Sandstone. The ore bodies lie entirely within this limestone, and its base n ts the lowest points to which .-hafts have been sunk; the shaft de] ths varying from 90 ft. at Doe Run and Mine La Motte, The great< st proved run of pay ore is that ai to CC0 ft. at Flat River. Bonne Terre, whose length is over half a mile, width up to 200 ft., and height 25 to 100 feet. The great development since 1890 has been entirely Prospecting.

based upon
drill,

result- obtained
at

which was introduced

by systematic prospecting with the diamond Bonne Terre by the St. Joe bead Co.. in 1869.

The lead areas, underlying the country horizontally under shallow depths of homogeneous limestone, make conditions unusually favorable for this form of prospecting. The gently undulating topography offers no difficulty to the movement of the drills, while the warm climate permits A portable drilling outfit is used, out-of-door work for most of the year.
with the
drill

and pump attached

to a "agricultural" boiler
is

on wheels.

The distance
vein practice.

drilled in a shift

very large compared with vertical

age for holes
coring
is

Sixty feet of uncored hole in 10 hours is a common aver500 ft. deep, and as mucli as ICO ft. is often run. The not begun until the lead-bearing zone is approached, and then

20 to 30
2 1/8
the
solid,
in.

ft.

bit.
is

The bit used is set to cut a hole per shift is commonly done. diameter, with usually four diamonds outside and four inside of 2 in., to make the bit The filler, with inside diameter of
1

with four diamonds more of two to three carats apiece. rounded carbons being prefered. As much of the sludge never reaches the surface, being filtered ofl
set

through cracks, sampling it would be of no value; so the core is entirely relied on. both for Locating the deposit < vertically and for giving the
'.il

92

MINING WITHOUT. TIMBER

assay yield.

The

sludge, however, gives the drill

man warning
ft.,

of the

approach

of the lead horizon.

The

cost of drilling 500
.

with dia-

at $40 a carat, is not far from $0 50 per foot at Flat River. In locating the first hole in a virgin tract an endeavor is made to locate the extension of the axis of an adjoining lead run. If there are no nearby ore runs, surface crevices and ancient diggings are looked for as a guide to the occurrence of a possible ore body underneath. If neither

monds

adjoining runs or surface indications are present, the only recourse
lay the area off in
of finding ore,
5, 10,

is

to

or 20 acre squares, according to the probability

strikes

and bore a hole in the center of each square. If one hole an ore body, a circle of 209 ft. radius is struck off, and holes bored
209
ft.

on

this circumference

apart to determine the axis of the lead run.

For traversing the surface broken ground which is sometimes 100 ft. deep, the St. Louis Prospecting Co. used a portable steam churn-drill outfit
in the following
is

way

:

To penetrate the

surface

soil,

the bit's cutting edge

diameter to be used that is The drilling is then pushed downward until a rock suitable for diamond drilling is encountered, with a bit of 5 1/2 in. diameter. This diameter gives room for the placing of an inserted joint casing of 5 in. inside and 5 3/8 in. outside diameter at the upper end, in case mud channels or opinings are struck so large as to make progress without the casing impossible; a speed of 10 ft. in 11 hours was the average made in this kind of work. Development. The more thoroughly the ore has been drilled the easier it is to lay out the shaft and drifts advantageously. The problem is similar to that of a coal seam development, but unlike the usual bituminous seam, the lead run is irregular both in thickness and in the level of its floor. The shaft is located from three considerations: 1, the lowest point of the ore body; 2, the center of the pay ore body; 3, the propinquity to a good mill site. The customary way of horizontal advance is breast stoping, but drifting is used to reach pockets separated from the main run of ore, or to traverse barren places. To reach the top of the ore body to start a
7 inches.

made

This allows a casing of 5 5/8 inserted 2 ft. into the bed rock.

in. inside

Fig. 39 shows the method excavated above the floor the two stulls are put in, a floor of poles laid on them, and the raise then continued in two compartments to the top, the chute being separated from the ladder-way by a pole partition. The broken rock is left in the chute for the men to stand on, the drill bar is wedged horizontally against the walls and the surplus broken rock is thrown down the ladderway. When the raise is fin'shed, the floor is blasted out and the rock loaded. A gate is only put in the chute at the bottom, if the chute is to be used for the lowering of rock after the completion of the raise, which

stope, either vertical or inclined raises are used.
of vertical raising.

As soon

as

enough

is

often occurs in exhausting ore bodies above the

main

level in operation.

I

NDLlillAND STOPING

93

The
as
tla'
i-

inclined raises are run the

same

as drifts and as steep (45 deg.)

possible without using timbers to hold

up the broken rock that

men

stand upon.

Whether the

vertical or the inclined rait

'Upends on the shape of the ore body. is no timbering in the drifts or excepl The roof is hold up _s for supporting piping, and no filling system. q be laid out on no regular plan as in coal by pillars which, how. As far as possible, pillars consist of lean ore. The width of mining. the stope between pillar depends on the strength of the roof and varies
to open U]
niitij.

— There

Dril't

Long. sect.

Track
Plan
Fig. 39.

— Raise.

S.

E.

Mo

-

E

Ho

from 40 ft. at the Desloge and Bonne Terre mines, to 15 or 20 ft. at the Theodora, and other eastern Flat River mines. The underhand stoping system is used. A breast 6 ft. high is run from the top of raise along the roof of the ore body, which is tested for ore above- by driving an upper air-drill bole into it occasionally, and as many benches quarried out beneath it as are necessary to excavate tinore to the level below.

There are two systems
other for the wide
s

of breast stoping,

one for narrow and the

In Fig. 40 a breast 15 ft. wide is shown, the holes are G to 8 ft. deep and are nine or ten in number in three or Each row is fired in order 1, 2, 3 and four vertical and horizontal rows.
opes.
4,

and causes an advance of but 2 kept on the same side of the br<

ft.

in tha breast,

urn

off a

each side-cut being round pillar. Two

94

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK
with a machine can drill the blast a round of nine holes in a 10 hour the drill bar being set up once for each vertical row of holes. For the wider stopes a similar method is used; but an advance of
ft.

men

shift,

3 to 5

instead of 2

ft.

is

scored for each round, the holes for this

being placed nearer across the breast, the rows A, B, C, etc., Fig. 40, breaking from 2 to 4 ft. each. The machine men drill complete as many

rows as possible and blast them before going off shift. the face of the breast stop'- is 10 to 12 ft. from the side of the The drills for this are set on a tripod raise, a bench stope is started. and the holes are 6 to 10 ft deep. The holes take off 2 to 4 ft. of burden; and they are placed from 4 to 8 ft. apart along the bench, the center one being fired fiist and then the sides. The bench holes are farther apart in the wide stopes.
vertical

W hen

Fig. 41.

— Ladder

scaffold,

Ducktown, Term.

In

firing a stope the

lower bench

is

fired

of all; the holes being ignited simultaneously at the

and the bench holes the last end of the shift.

The

fuses are cut of graded lengths. One drill can bores six to eight bench holes in a shift, and in the 15 ft. stope of Fig. 39, two bench drills can keep pace with three breast machines which ratio does not alter appreciably for wider stopes, for breast as well as bench stoping gains in speed in them. A pound of powder will break three times as much rock on a bench as in a breast stope. One air drill in a Flat River producing mine with stopes 12 to 20 ft. high will drill enough to break 20 to 30 tons of rock in two shifts, while at Bonne Terre in stopes 20

i

\l>l.l;ll \l>

STOPING
i<»

95

to

80

ft.

high, one drill

will

break over
mt.

tons

in

the
l

Bame
will

time.

The expl
from
1

dynamite and
4

lb.

break

ton of rock, in a narrow breast, to
the roof
is

tons on a wide and deep

bench.

Though
that a roof

self sustaining,

man

is

Qecessary to bar

down
is

pieces arc liable to shell off bo the louse piece- vnrith gad and

and broken down, loaded, and put on the surface dump as it seldom convenient to store it underground. In the similar system of Tennessee. iffold, Ducktown, underhand stoping in the Tennessee Copper Company's mines, where the miners practically never see the hack, which in an open stope squently from 70 to 90 ft. above them, it is evidently necessary keep the roof well trimmed of all heavy, or "balk ground." to To insure this, a crew of men is continually kept at work, looking
barred down.

pick; the sides of the Bhaft

have

also to be occasionally inspected

The waste

1

mist.

me

after the

condition of the roof.
is

This work

is

extremely dangerous
to

and ready resource
the back.
Fig.
41

required to enable the

men

gain

access

shows the method of rigging ladders to reach the roof over the benches of an underhand stope, open to its full height and for a width of from 50 to 150 ft. The ladders are securely lashed together, and, as shown, stayed by ropes secured to the drill steels set
into the rock lace.

A

small stoping

drill is

ladder and used to put holes in the roof where
be Blabbed down.
as shattered rock
is

frequently slung from the much balk ground must

Shooting the roof, is, however, a dangerous practice, apt to be left to fall later, when the face of the stope
is

dvanced and the back

inaccessible.

Example

11.

Davey Mines, American Zinc, Lead, and Smelting Company, Joplin, Southwest Mo

Underground Quarrying with Horizontal Lenses, in Limestone. The and lead ores of this typical sheet-ground formation vary from Hi ft. to 20 ft. in thickness, and underlie continuously a large area. The depth of the deposit is about l'40 ft. The upper (i ft. is considerably 'he richest portion of the sheet or bed and carries most of the "jack" or The lower portion contain- mosl of the lead, which occurs sphalerite.
zinc
in

pockets

oi-

in

irregular sheets.

The shaft of Davey No. 3 mine is 256 ft. deep ami is 9x18 ft. all the way down. This size i- larger than necessity, the shafts later sunk being 7x12 ft. To sink a 7x12 ft. shaft in limestone costs about 120 per
foot.

compartment
I

No. 3 shaft has two 9x5 3-ft. hoi-ting compartments, and a pipe The timbering is very simple, consisting of at each end. 4\!)-in. stullsset centered every 5 ft. in., over which is nailed a lining of
1

1

\ 12-in.

boards.

96

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

The

chert rock of the ore-bearing sheet formation breaks quite
its

and compactness. The system used for machine drill set-up is made next the roof of the sheet, as shown in Fig. 42, so as to advance a heading face about 7 to 8 ft. in height, leaving beneath an untouched bench which will vary from 10 to 14 ft. in thickness to the bottom of the sheet. When the heading is advanced about 18 ft. the bench beneath is drilled and blasted. The placing of the holes in the heading face is shown in Fig. 43 (a), the firing being in the order designated by numbers. All the holes are 8 ft. deep, numbers 1, 2, and 4 being drilled horizontally, and No. 3 bedded at the junction of the roof and the ore. No. 5 is given
readily because of
brittleness

breaking ground

is

as follows:

A

Fig. 42.

— Blasting sheet ground,
Placing
3, 4,

S.

W. Mo.

and 5 as shown will usually good set-up. The drilling is done with a 3 1/4-in., type E 24, Ingersoll-Rand drill set on a 7-ft. column. The long bench holes are put in with the drill mounted on a tripod; they will average from 16 to 18 ft. in length and are placed as shown in Fig. 42. The hole is then squibbed three or four times with 40 per cent, dynamite and finally the resulting chamber is filled with 50 to 100 sticks of the same explosive and fired by a fuse and cap. Only the most expert drillmen can put in these long holes but they have been found highly advantageous because they can follow one of the compact rock beds. On the contrary, vertical holes across the bedding planes would be difficult to drill on account of cracks and pockets. For the same
a slightly
pitch.

downward

give a break which leaves

room

for a

I

M'l.KH
is

WD

STOPING

''7

'ii

they would be
-

aa to render their exploding inefficient.
a
I

three of these long horizontal holes to break off
ft.

14
Is

ft.

high across a stope 40
[iribbed only at nighl

widi

B<

' •

en two squibbings the hole

and cooled by blowing out with compressed air. Holes and those Bquibbed one night are blasted the next at the end of the shift. A drill on the bench can break BS fas four drills above on the heading, even though only one and one-half of the flat bench holes can be drilled in eight houi The illustration shows a hole after squibbing, when it is loaded with from An av< to 150 11). of 40 per cent, dynamite and fuse-find. 5 tons are broken per 50 lb. of powder, giving a cost per ton of 12 cents.
cleaned
-

.")()

Stope

plat

is shoveled into tubs, pushed to the shaft, and hoisted in manner, using 30x32-in. tubs holding about 9.50 lb. The hoisting is done by friction-geared hoisters placed on the floor of the These are G.-in. engines derrick, one above each shaft compartment. with 24-in. drums, of the English Samson pattern, manufactured by the It takes 4.") seconds for a car to English Iron Works, Kansas City. make a round trip with a travel of about 280 ft. from the derrick floor to the shaft bottom. The average rope speed is about 1,300 ft. per minute, so that dumping a bucket requires about 20 seconds. The total cost of mining for the past few months has averaged 67 per ton hoisted including the pumping-cost of 3 cents per ton. There is no timbering as the roof is supported by pillars of ore 25 ft. in diameter. se1 at tO-ft. intervals as seen in the plan of the mine work-

The

"dirt

*'

the

usual

3

98
ings, Fig. 43;

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK

no definite pillar system is employed, as the pillars are set where the conditions of the roof demand. As a rule the roof consists of a solid flinty bedded rock averaging from 18 in. to 3 ft. in thickness. It seldom causes trouble except where pitted with large pockets known as "sand holes." Plans are now afoot to make a very radical change in the method of handling the mine dirt. An automatic traction shovel made by the Thew Automatic Shovel Co., of Dayton, Ohio, will be installed with a dipper of 1/2 cu. yd. capacity, which will clean up anything within a circle of 20 ft. without moving the shovel. Power will be supplied by compressed air. Cars will be used instead of cans, and will be hauled to the shaft in trains by mules instead of hand tramming. Here at the shaft it is intended to put in an underground hopper which will discharge
into 3-ton balanced skips.

The

hoisting engine will be

moved

to the

ground and steel head-frames substituted for the present wooden ones. At present the average daily mine output (two shifts) is about 725 tons at No. 3, with a total from the four shafts of about 2,250 tons. Hoistingis now done both day and night, but it is hoped that the new hoisting system will get out enough dirt in one shift to run the mill for two shifts.

At the author's

visit,

the labor for the day's output of 1850 buckets

(879 tons) was as follows:

Day shift.
32 machine drillers. 20 muckers.
6

Nightshift.

machine

drillers.

14 Muckers.
2 shot-firers.

The high average output
tained

of 26 tons apiece for the
ft.

included an average tram of 150

to the shaft bottom)

muckers (which was only at-

by allowing them

Pillar-Robbing.

to earn high wages under individual contracts.

It

is

generally the practice in this district to leave

the poor ore as pillars and not attempt to recover

it; but in one mine, where the roof was heavy and a large amount of timber had to be used to enable even half the ore to be extracted, the followingmethod was used for robbing the pillars. Beneath the ore was a solid, compact limestone stratum. The shaft was sunk a few feet into this, and a sub-drift extended beneath the ore pillars with a 7- or 8-ft. roof. A raise was put up in the center of each pillar and the ore shot down into the drift below, and trammed to the shaft. This method gave a safe place in which to work and at the same time allowed nearly all the ore to be recovered from the pillars.

with rich

ore,

Gobbing and Saving Timbers
Theoretically the gob should be let in at either end of the section, at
the center,

making

it

possible to

remove the

stringers.

The saving

of

i

NDERHAND BTOPING
I

stringers

into depends od how the ground on the Bection, and h«- condition of timber than it would coal it. attempt would
t

th<
thi
is

hi

of the

i:

worth.

It

such a case no

I

In general, an average of perha]

cent, of the stringers can be
1

tope, while in an oxide stope with
«-nt.

lt

1 1

1

i

re

75 to 90

of the Btringi
]

i.

The

-

ire

not gobtx

they arejised in the mining of the
is

ion.

Only the central portion
.1 is

filled.

When

the next section toward the main drift
sliced
is

mined, the

pillar of ore to

be

15x21

Requirements tor Application of Method
be seen that the requirements in (1) There must be a solid back which can be easily supported. (2) The ore must contain little or no te, as everything goes into the chutes, permitting of no selection. (3) Lateral and vertical pressure must be small in order to prevent the square sets from buckling before the stringers are put in; also to allow the mining of the whole section before the gobbing is commenced.
the
described,
it

From

method

will

order to work such a body of ore are:

Cost of Mixing Reduced
In regard to the reduction of the cost,
it is

best to compare this
It is

method

with that which employs square sets alone.
is

evident that less timber

used with this system.

With the saving

of 75 per cent, of the stringers,
it

the working of several sections alongside of each other makes
to run only one

necessary
is

row

of square sets for

each section mined.

There

a

saving of perhaps 50 per cent, of the timber of that used
system.

in square-set

The mining of the ore in the square sets B and D' would cost approximately the same as by the regular square-set system. The cost of mining a lead row of sets is higher than mining corner sets in a square:ope, but this increased cost is offset by the fact that the ore from
falls

the lead row of sets

directly into the chutes,

making shoveling

into a

wheelbarrow and wheeling to a chute unnecessary. In mining the core, the amount of powder used is reduced to about one-half. The cost of timber and timbering is also reduced to one-half,
while the cost of breaking ore
is

reduced to one-third of squi

ing.

-

lVing in
this

Labor
in the

There
in the

is

a greater saving
of timbering.

by

system

handling of the ore than
is

method

A

large percentage of the ore

shot directly

into the chutes

and requires
tori

little

or no handling except the breaking of

boulders which arc

large to pass through the grizzlies.

100

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

In square setting it is often difficult to place the chutes so that the miner can shovel directly into them. With the Mitchell slicing system the wheelbarrow is never used and shoveling is reduced to a minimum. In working out the sill floor, the ore is handled by the ordinary method, as here the ore must be shoveled directly into the mine cars, unless worked frcm the level below, which is often done.

Increased Tonnage Obtained

The amount

of

ground broken per
is

man

per eight-hour

shift,

when

using the regular square-set system,

In mining the
25 tons per

pillars

from 5 to 6 tons. with the Mitchell system in sulphide
per
shift,
is

ore, 12 to

15 tons are broken per

man
is

while in oxide ore in auger ground

man

per shift

not unusual.

When

once the mining of the

core commences, the

work

carried on rapidly, a core often being

worked

been found convenient to mine these cores when there is any sudden demand for an increase in the output of a certain kind of ore, which is another valuable feature of the method.
out in 8 or 10 days.
It has

Conclusion

The system can be worked on any
tains no waste,
is

section of ore provided that
is

it

conis

not too heavy, and

as large as

20x30

ft.

There

flexibility in this

method

as

it

may

readily be switched to square-set

stoping in mining irregular portions of the orebody. It has not been found practical to mine a section more than 50 ft. thick. The system is new, and Mr. Mitchell is adding improvements which will make it a still

more valuable method of mining. The method has been a success, but owing
its field is

to its rigid requirements,

quite small.

and therefore will of mining there.

few of the orebodies in Bisbee not become an important factor in reducing the cost
It will suit only a

Example

12.

Calumet and Arizona Mine, Bisbee,
(See also

Ariz.

Example

23.)

Underground Quarrying of Panel-cores* or the Mitchell System for Because of the peculiar conditions under which most of the orebodies in Bisbee exist, square-set stoping in panels, as described in Example 23, has been the chief method of extraction. In 1908 at the Calumet & Arizona mine, while working a heavy sulphide stope by the square-set method, a large mass of ore broke away from the back, and in order to mine it, long timbers were thrown across the top of the ore to support the back, after which the ore was taken out. From this slight incident a combination of the square-set and underhand
Flat Lenses in Limestone.

I

Mil.lillAMi STOPING

HI

systems was worked out by II. W. .Mitchell, the foreman Calumet A: Arizona company. The system has given excellent where tin' conditions have been favorable.
Recently Borne bedded ore deposits have been found
a-

of the results

in

the Calumet

Chalcopyrite, bornite and pyrite have replaced the limestone, the ore following the original bedding of the limestone and
little

Arizona property

including

waste.

in thickness.

The limestone hanging-wall
It
is

These bedded deposits rarely exceed 50 or 60 ft. is well defined, solid and easily
deposits that the Mitchell system has
success,

supported.

in these

been

employed.

however, has been attained mining of the oxide ore- when they contain little or no waste.
greatest

The

in the

Method of Blocking Out the Obe
The orebody
direction, size,
suitable.

thoroughly prospected to ascertain its general determine whether this method is The theory of this system of stoping is to outline a block of
is

first

and

limits, in older to

.1

102

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

up to the limits of the ore above the end sets and B' These sets now include on three sides a block of ore 15x45 ft. and as high as the ore extends. Fig. 45 illustrates the method of framing used for the square-set timbers. The posts and caps are usually 10x10 in. with 8x10 girts. In the rows B and B' the ties or girts are put in across the drift with caps running parallel to B and B'
10-in. stope sets are carried

C and above

the sets

B

.

1
.

03
to

In milling the second bench, and those below, the best practice

is

mount the downward.

drill

column between the

stringers

The

Btringers on the top floor

and are 10x10

drill
in.

vertical holes
like

and framed

second floor SxlO-in. 5-in. may be used on floors below provided that the ground B Segmei e put in on the t<>p floor only to support heavy. re alone are used with perhaps On the remaining floors the back. an occasional stull or spreader to reinforce them. The rows of square

B and

/;

grizzlies

boulders from clogging the

mouth

of the chutes
sill

being put in to prevent large which are merely small
floor as

openings cut back of every other set on the

openings are cut jusi lame enough for a chute,
run.

shown in ig. when the sill-floor
1
1

With
ehi

a

small

amount

of barring, the cars are easily

Loaded from these

Waste

ui;—

.

-

...

,_.-

-

HP
J

S,

Us

So us.

aS qSj aS
t

t

i

Section

A-B

.

Section
Fig.
if.

C-D

-Plan uinl Bection of Mitchell slicing system.

Placing of Timbers

The plan
employed.

in Fig.

4b'

illustrates

some

of the details of the

method

Xo.

1

shows

the stringer in place.

braces to hold the square sets in position.
blasted.

Xo. 2 shows diagonal Xo. 3 shows temporary

which are sometimes used to reinforce the stringers when the ore is The method of putting in stringers is shown by No. it in against the posts and the caps of the square set in the Bame way an ordinary girt is put in. At A" <>ne cap of the square set is cut down 2 in. to permit the 2-in. tenon of the stringer to go into position. When in place a small piece of plank is spiked to the cap to hold the stringer. When the section is worked out and is ready for gob vertical planking is put on at the end of the section at No. 5 in Fig. 46, and the When this has inside of the square sets is lagged, as shown by No. 6.
1

104

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
level or to the

been done with the ore worked out to the orebody the stope is ready for gob.

bottom

of the

Example

13.

Section

—21 Mine, Ishpeming, Marquette Range, Mich
(See also

Example

35.)

Underground Milling in Sub-vertical Vein with Back Caving. The is 3 miles south of Ishpeming adjoining the Whitby open pit, which was exhausted some years ago by surface milling, and used an inclined skip for hoisting the ore. The west end of the present mine is a large trough of continuous non- Bessemer soft ore, which is worked by the room-caving system of Example 46. On the east
Section 21 mine (Oliver Co.)

Plan

i

:::::> a

/-

vS

.^

o ^ ^

^y

:

Ot©'v?fr

-Jrj!^

Loag. Sec.
Fig. 47.

—Stoping

at.

Section— 21 mine.

end the ore

is

mediumly hard and has a thickness

of 15

ft.

to 50

ft.,

lying

in a highly inclined lense on a diorite footwall with a jaspilite hangwall and is worked by underground milling. In Fig. 47 the drift d of the new level should be completed as soon as the stope above level D (60 ft. higher) has reached the contour mnpqr. Raises b and e (50 ft. apart) are then put up from d to D. After

i

NDERHAND 3TOPING
level

L05
s -s
2

leavi]
.a

pillar

K

under

D

breast stopes, as s-s l and

3

are

under the pillar K in each raise in order to start the ordu annular underhand benchi etc., of milling, these being nit down till the limiting contour for self-clearing (a ached.
l>
<

The robbing of the pillars
putting upraises
»'
it

///

p

r still

above
//

l<

vel l>

can then begin by

and q l q into the highest portions and milling down around these raises into the chutes and e, which spout into a As such ore pillars, when cut by a dike, are liable to train car c in <l.
slip

along the plane of contact
at
///.

the end of the lense
Finally, only

in

it i- aecessary to begin their extraction at order to minimize the danger to the miners

of a collapse of the hangwall.

enough of a pillar remains above level 1) to sustain the and this pillar is drilled, as is also the pillar A'. The next step is to blast both these drilled pillars (continuously by fuse-firing) until all the ore remaining above the contour a b c /'has sunk into chutes b and e. It is true that the filling also descends, but mosl of the ore can be drawn from the chutes before the filling appears. In one case an ore lense extending 150 ft. above the level was worked as one mill by putting a raise to the top and starting the mill at that point. Asthe d.ip of the footwallhada pitch of 45 deg. it was easy to stand on it and inspect the hangwall to guard against accident to the miners who were cutting down the benches. This system can only be safely worked where the ore and hangwall are strong enough to sustain themselves over the width of the vein and for the height and length required for economical milling. A weak back, however, could be sustained over the underhand stope by a V arch of heavy stulls or "saddle back" which was formerly used with success at the Fayal mine on the Mesabi to cover rooms 23 ft. wide and 60 ft. high, wdiose sides were untimbered. The footwall must also be steep enough to clear itself by gravity. Several levels can often be worked simultaneously by postponing the robbing of the pillars until later. The ventilation is good and little or no timbering or shoveling is required. The ore is not broken as ordinarily in caving systems, chiefly by hangwall pressure, but the next cheapest method, i. e., underhand stoping, is employed, which requires few expensive development openings. In suitable ground the chief objection is in the loss of ore through contamination by the filling; but this does not preclude its use in the mining of many iron ores. It is, also, only adapted to orebodies that are homogeneous, as no sorting can be conveniently done underground.
filling,
<

CHAPTER IX

OVERHAND STOPING WITH SHRINKAGE. NO FILLING
Example
14.

Wolverine Copper Mine, Houghton County, Mich
(See also

Example

19.)

Stoping Amygdaloid Beds with Strong Walls (Ao Chutes). For the amygdaloids and conglomerates of this district, the mining problem is to excavate practically the whole contents of beds, from 3 to 30 ft. thick, of indefinite depth, and of a length along the strike, depending on the mineralization, but seldom less than several hundred yards. Usually the beds have a greater dip than the angle of repose between broken rock and footwall.

Fig. 48.

—Shaft station

in

Wolverine mine.

In developing the Wolverine (Fig. 48) amygdaloid with its strong hangwall the drifts are at 100-ft. intervals, and are carried 20 ft. high across the vein, for the length of the payshoot, which, including barren An overhand stope is then started above a drift (see spots, is 3000 ft. Fig. 49) and extends up to the 10-ft. longitudinal rib, under the level above. In the excavation, the only hanging wall support is a pillar p ft. diameter), for each 75-ft. room; which is formed by cutting around (15
until only a 10-ft.

round
panel

of drill holes.
pillar,

neck of ore is left which can be pierced b}^ a single In long ore shoots it is best to also leave a 15-ft. along the dip from level to level, every three or four rooms.
106

OVERHAND 8TOPING

uilli

8HRINKAG1

L07

A room
air drill)

is let on contract to four men (two on each Bhift with one with quarterly settlements, the monthly advance to each man

To Bimplify the calculation of contract-excavation, the assumed to have an average width of 2 fathoms, so that only the dist iped along the drift and up the footwall need he ctional area of 2 sq. fathoms is deducted measured. For drift: from the Btope, and this is paid for at the rate of $5 to I
being
vein

$65

is

per lineal foot, while the Btoping

itself

is

let

at $7 to

$9 per cubic

At these prices, everything is furnished by the company except explosives (the powder heing charged $17 for a One-third the wages ($30 a month) of the nipper boy 50-lb. box).

fathom (216

cu. ft).

and the wear
each

man

drills

wear of steel. of steel is also paid by the contract oi charged Si a month, and in the quarterly settlement, any ate put in at the rate of 25 cents'per lb.
is

Fig. 49.

— Stoping at Wolverine mine.

Shaft-sinking is also let on similar contracts, the price being around To prevent sub$16 per lineal foot for a section 8x17 ft. in the clear.
letting, all contractors are

paid individually.

The muckers
having
in _'-ton

are paid S2.30 a shift, and

work

in pairs,

each pair

a stunt of

loading and tramming, from stope to shaft -station.
shift.

cars

per

The footwall
roll into
in.

slope of 40 deg.

is

sufficient to

cause the coarser broken ore to
into
i

:.«>

chutes are put

the drift, whence it is shoveled The waste from dead work is dumped
little

into old stopes, though recently a
to

-upport some weak hanging wall. need be rejected in the rock-house above, as too poor for the mill. The stopes are cut out in the usual horizontal benches I> (Fig. 49) and water holes are drilled wherever possible. Six or seven of 8- to 10-ft. This holes can be bored per shifl with the No. '> Rand drill in use.

has been used lor dry-walling Only a small percentage of broken

108

.MINING

WITHOUT TIMBER

permits an excavation of 35 to 50 cubic fathoms per month per machine, Twelve pounds of 40 per cent, or about 1000 tons of broken ore.

dynamite

will

break a cubic fathom of

ore.

A

raise

R

is

put through the

longitudinal rib at each

room

for ventilation.

At my visit, 37 drills were used on the day, 26 on the night shift. The drills are sharpened by a Ward Bros, machine, with a coke-heater and a forge blown by a special fan made by the Garden City Fan Co. The bits have + points up to 4-ft. length, and beyond that, of Chicago. The drills are generally run from tripods, set on a scaffold, chisel-points. or partly on a stull in the wider stopes. For executives there are a captain and assistant (both on day shift) and a night shift boss, whose chief duties are to see that only good ore
broken down. Unprofitable portions of the vein are left as extra but the stope contractors are allowed something extra at the settlement for their consequent loss in volume, as is also the case if the stope has exceeded the assumed average thickness of 2 fathoms. For the muckers, there is a boss on each shift at every working shaft. This mining system as described is suited to an ore-bed comparatively free from waste and having a hangwall strong enough to stand alone over wide areas and a footwall sufficiently steep to be self-cleaning.
is

pilars,

Example

15.

Homestake Mine, Black

Hills,

South Dakota.
Chutes.

Sub-vertical

Wide Vein With Strong Walls.

No

— Many
there

of

the early miners at the Homestake were from Virginia City, Xev., and as in a great many other camps, the early mining is a record of Comstock

methods

—a

desire
still

to

square-set everything.

Even to-day

are

and which will stand open, no doubt, longLater, when the system after the square-set timbers rot and fall apart. of "open-stope" for filled-stope mining was adopted, still clinging to the old idea of putting in the timber, the entire sill floor was square-set, supposedly for the purpose of keeping the haulage gangways from swingWith this method no lagging was used over the timbers, except to ing. protect the gangways, and it is said that the amount of timber that was crushed and broken in filling the sill floor was enormous. AVhen the
timbered stopes
unfilled,

stope was drawn, this timber caused endless trouble. The uselessness of timbering anything other than the haulage

ways on

soon evident, so the next change in method was to break out the sill floor, then shovel through the necessary gangways, timbering and lagging them, and packing rock around them as a This method is still used in protection; the stope was then carried up.
the
sill

floor was, of course,

many

places,

but the

last stage in the

development

of the stoping practice

has been to do away with the use of even this timber wherever possible. The main ledge is so wide throughout most of its extent that the stopes

<>\

i.kh

\D 8TOPING Willi
'In'

-iii;i\ K

###BOT_TEXT###lt;.i.

10<l

must

in-

carried across

orebody instead
-

of along

it

>

strike.

In other

hanging-and-foot walls arc the ends of the stopes instead of The width to which e besi worked parallel to their side wall-. the Strike varies with the nature of the wall rocks, hut it may he stated
winds,
tin."

that as a general thing
it

when the

ledge attains a width of more than 80

ft.,

In has been considered besi to lay out the stope across the orebody. North stope many places the orebody is over 400 ft. wide. The No.
l

on the 700-ft. level was 60x520 ft. on the .-ill floor. This stope was worked with square Bets. In working the level above the 900, Btopes ft. wide from foot- to hanging-wall, and pillars of 60-ft. carried
»'>(>

width were

left

and

42-ft. pillars

is beiiiLT laid

between stopes. More recently, however, 60-ft. slopes have been adopted; the 1500 level from the Ellison shaft To a depth of 1100 ft., levels were carried out on this plan.
ft.

K)-ft.

intervals; below that, they are 150

apart.

Present Stoping Scheme
The usual method of approaching these cross stopes through timberThe ore is drawn into these scuts is shown in Figs. 50 and 51. 3cuts, shoveled into cars and trammed out in timbered drifts.

Fig. 50.

—Cross-section
off a1

of .stope,

Homestake mine.

Tin-

orebody

is

first

developed by
sills

a drift,

as

cuts, aic

then turned

102-ft. centers

Lateral-, or shown. and run through to the

wall-.

Simultaneously, the stope
pillar crosscuts
-

being cut out by drivu
to the full 60-ft. width.

between the

and breaking out

The
cent

i

pass through the center of the pillars, and at 30- to
are connected with the footwall drifts, serving as

civ-

connections to -rive as draw holes are broken through tothestope.
its

main enough ore being drawn so a- to keep the drillers within reach of the back. One or more manways, depending upon the condition-, i- carried up with each stope.
haulage ways.

The stope-

are then

worked up.

jusl

110

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER
the footwall drifts and tapping stopes through crosscuts
is

By maintaining
The stopes

first mining stage. up to within 20 ft. or so of the level above; the back, or crown, being removed after the stope has been comThe crowns are taken up pletely emptied of ore and filled with waste.

in the pillars, timbering

practically eliminated in the

are usually carried

in small sections of 24 or 30
level,

ft.,

using square-set timbers.

On

the 300

was being taken out at t'he time of my visit. This stope is about 100 ft. wide and 200 ft. long, and the crown was probably 30 ft. thick. A hole was broken through on the footwall, where the ore is generally of better grade and the rock benched back
No.
1

Pierce stope, the crown

\^

i/

Porphyry

Permanent Foot Wall Drift
iSlate-

Fig. 51.

—Plan of stope, Hornestake mine.

toward the hanging. Finally about three sets of timber were put in next and under the remainder of the crown, which was then carefully worked out to the hangingwall. In breaking out the crown, the ore is left across both ends of the stope so as to form a supporting arch, This work is until the timbers are under the hangingwall portion. dangerous and requires careful watching. It is planned to take out the pillars, even in the lower workings, by working them in small sections of square-set timbered stopes. This will be the second stage of mining at the Homestake. After the ore is drawn from the primary stopes the sides against the pillars are laced up with A lagging set vertically, to which slabs laid horizontally are nailed. section of lacing is put up, then waste run in from above until this section
to the footwall,

OVERHAND 8TOPING WITH SHRINKAGE
is

111

filled;

another BeotioD

of

Lacing

is

placed,

more waste run

in,

Doubtless, by the time the pillars are removed the Blabs will
-

in

many
-

arc be rotted, bul they serve to catch up the we put in the pillar or secondary stopes. In all cases the crown over the
original stopes must be taken out before the pillars an- worked, or else
this ore

would probably be
t

losl

by caving, there being no supporl on the

3lde6 of

lie

-tope.

Breaking the
I

<

Ire

p to (late, only large piston drills have been used for breaking ore in

Bomestake mine. (Trials are now being run with several makes of stoping, air-hammer drills.) By putting in long holes and picking favorable places, huge masses of rock ore slabbed down. It is this tendency of the ore to break large that accounts for the great amount of shoveling
the
SSary.

The ore

will

not run through chutes, and

at

each gate block-

busy drilling and breaking the About lb. of No. 2 dyna30 that it can be handled into the cars. mite is consumed per ton of ore placed in the mine-car. Labor at the Hotnestake costs *:; per day for trammers and shovelers, and 13.50 for machine men. The labor union is not recognized.
holers with 'Map'' plugger drills are kept
:;

stopes, the ore being

Conditions at the Homestake are ideal for the operation of shrinkage tough enough to present a back under which the
safety and the walls being good

men may work with
is

the only other mining

and tight. Caving method that might seem applicable for working
profit.

such an immense low-grade deposit at a
feasible as the ore
is

This, however,

is

not
is

too tough and hard.

On

the lower levels the ore

ahornblendic schist containing

much

fine

disseminated iron pyrite and

this so increases its specific gravity that only 10 cu. ft. weigh a ton. In places near'the surface immense portions of the orebody have been

broken away, and after years of crushing and packing, are not yet suffibroken up so that the ore will run in chutes. In these places a small square-set stope is run up a few sets, a grizzly put in at the top and rock-blasted down, being run for waste or ore, according toils character.
ciently

I)i>cussion of System

The objection to this method is the excessive amount of shoveling Every bit of broken ore is mucked into cars by hand, and The this alone means a cost of close to 20 cents per ton of rock handled. cost of Labor amounts to almost three-fourths of the total mine-operating
uecessitated.

Many efforts have been made to overcome this excessive labor cost. consumption for shoveling, but, as yet no satisfactory solution has been reached. However, just now over one-half of the ore is recovered wit houl timbering, whereas formerly everything was worked with square sets.

112

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

Example

16.

Gratz Lead Mine,
with

Owen County, Kentucky
Walls,
Rill

Sub-vertical

Narrow Vein
is

Strong

Chutes.

—The

geological formation

the Cincinnati of the lower Silurian period and around the mine comprises a limestone, horizontal and thinly bedded. The vein dips nearly vertically and appears to be a fissure crack due

to folding,

strike rather

the

first

and faulting, if it took place, must have been along the than along the dip. The filling is barite, calcite, and galena: occurs in typical white or brownish orthorhombic prisms, the
is

second in translucent white or yellow tablets, while the galena
either in thin

in cubes,

bands

parallel to the walls or in isolated crystals.

The vein
the
filling is

walls exhibit no slickensides or other signs of

movement, but

frozen to

them

as

when

first

deposited.

Fig. 52.

—Stoping at Gratz mine.

where the stoping is almost continuous for 500 ft., the vein thickness varies from 6 in. to 6 ft., with an average of above 15 in. A 3-ft. width of stope, however, must be excavated for machine drilling and all the broken rock is run through the mill. The mine is opened by three levels, placed 100 ft. apart on the For 5x8-ft. vertical shaft, that is only timbered through the surface soil. 3/4-in. Rand drills and the stoping drilling the stopes there are three 2
the
first level,

On

system

is

shown

in section along the vein in Fig. 52.

a, b, c, and d, from 40 to 50 ft. apart, hopper-shape, as shown, so as to leave and the stope bottom carried up pillars or "rills" like a bf to protect the drift and to avoid the use of

Wooden

chutes are placed at

These chute pillars can be finally recovered by underhand In order to save set-ups, the stope back is attacked by the stoping. sawtooth system. In stope 1-6, a 3-ft. drill bar would be set up for a
timber.

OVERHAND STOPING WITH 8HRINKAQ]
certain round only at points
1.

113

2,

and
all.

6,

and the

drill at 2

would bon
''>,

holes above and two holes below the bar in direction 2-7, and then four

more

in

direction 2

B,

or eight in

Holes from points
Bel

4. etc.,

would
7. v

ut in similarly.
r

the next
11.

upward round the bar would be

up

at

[mints

10,

and
-

with eight holes to be bored from cadi.

In this

way

all

the

arc self-cleaning upper- and a 6-ft. depth can he leached without

sticking.

With the

flat

and down holes

of usual

overhand benches,
t

the

chipped out, would tend to wedge the bit and cause delay. !nough broken ore is left in the stope to support the men at he back, for whose ingress plank mainways a-2, h-5, etc., are carried up, with entrances next the dune gates. For stoping the 30 to 40 per cent. dynamite, used in development, has been replaced by 15 per cent
calcite cubes,
I

the latter

only runs a 10-hour day

The mine and the drillmen only bore, all loading and firing being done by an extra gang at night. This Bystem is well adapted to narrow, steep veins with hard walls where no BOrting of waste need be done in the stopes. The rills at the chutes save timber and the breaking of the back in sawtooth profile is iied for boring the most holes with the fewest set-ups of the air-drill bar where upward-pointing holes are the most advantageous.
is

slower and makes less galena fines for the mill.
shift

3

Example

17.

Alaska Treadwell Mine, Douglas Island, Alaska (See also Example 9.)
Walt

Related Interests

iln

Heal

with

Strong Walls.

Bill

Chutes.

—For

the

underground work the main crosscut C

(Fig. 38)

and the

drifts /; are

arranged as for the opencut Bystem. In addition, at the ends of crosscuts C and 200-ft. to 500-ft. intervals along the deposit, the different leveldrifts

by raises for manway and ventilation purposes. The and crosscuts are 10x7 ft. and the raises are 6x8 ft. in the clear, no limber being needed for either in this hard formation, which is so free from seams and so difficult to break that cut-holes for the drives must be
are

connected

pulled with 70 per cent, dynamite.

Stoping System.
or
filling,

—As the value
E,
is

of the ore does not permit of timbering

the present successful system dispenses with both.
to

The

object

of the intermediate drift,

chutes and to furnish a large facial upon, in cutting out or under-cutting the ground-floor for the stopes. When the intermediate has advanced about 50 ft. the work of cutting

open communication with the orearea for the machine-drills to work

out the stope
high,

This consists of mining out a chamber 7 ft. and with a width varying with the width of the orebody. In the past it has been customary to cut the stopes with a level floor, but experience has shown that it is more economical to cut the floor so thai it slope- up from drifts I) at an angle of about 30 dcg.
is

started.

from

1.10

to

300

ft.

long,

114

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

This does

away with
ore

a large
left

amount

of shoveling,

stope-floor of

thus

at

H

is

ultimately obtained

and the sawtooth through the

stopes from the next lower level.

When
the ore
is

the stope-floor has been cut out, the work of stoping upon immediately begun. The roof of the stope is arched across
lode, thus serving the double

from wall to wall of the
machine-drills.

purpose of sup-

porting the back and offering a better surface for the attack of the

The ore is shot combined with much as possible. The pieces of chutes are broken by hand and
shock of
falling,

down

in large, thin slabs, so that the
it

that of the blasting, breaks

up

as

rock too large to pass through the ore-

"bull-dozed" with powder to the

re-

quired

size.

When

starting from the floor, the machine-drills begin in

the drift

midway between

the lode walls and cut out a trench along the
its

center of the back to form the apex of the arch,

height varying with

the character of the rock.

Two

sizes of machine-drills are used: the

3 1/4-in. and 3 5/8-in. Ingersoll-Sergeant, and the holes are drilled to an

average depth of 8 ft. A machine-stoping will drill an average of 28.69 per shift of 10 hours and break 34.96 tons of ore with the consumpThe cost of blasting up the rock tion of 12.53 lb. of No. 2 dynamite. after it has been blasted down is a large item in the expense of stoping.
ft.

0.85

One rock-breaker is usually required to each machine, and it takes lb. of powder in "bulldozing" for each ton of rock broken. As no timber is used, it is compulsory that a sufficient quantity of
left in

broken ore be
miners.
It

the stopes to form a solid working-floor for the

has been found that one-third of the broken ore can be drawn off while the stope is being worked, and the surface of the broken ore kept within working distance of the back. In other words, by the above

methods, two-thirds of the ore broken must be left in the stope, and cannot be drawn off until the stope is worked up to the next higher level and finished. In the Treadwell mine the slate-horse forms a natural The division between the stopes of the north and the south orebodies. Avails of the orebody are supported by vertical pillars, or ribs, 15 ft. For means of communication and thick, and from 200 to 300 ft. apart. ventilation, man-way raises are put in these pillars and connected with the levels. At intervals of 25 ft., short drifts are run in opposite directions

from the man-way

raise; so that, as the working-floor of the stope
is

used successively when the workings connect with the main raise, and in turn abandoned and closed up as connecThe levels are protected by horition is made with the next higher one. Heretofore, these pillars have been zontal pillars from 20 to 30 ft. thick. left in place; yet, even with this saving, fully 20 per cent, of the ore must
advances, each of them

remain in the mine in the shape of pillars and ribs to support the ground and to prevent caving. Close attention is paid to sampling and recordSam-pies and Mays.

OVERHAND BTOPING
ing

Willi

SHRINKAGE

116*

As a drift, raise, cross-cut, <>r other tin- assay value of the ore. -ample is taken after each round lias development-work is in pi been blasted. These Bamples are taken either by the shift-boss or the foreman, and their description and location are recorded on a BpeciaJ with the sample in the sack. At intervals of 15 ft., and closer there is any doubl as to the valu< imples—each sample being !•» ft. long and varying with the ore, the nature of the ore—are taken across the back of the stopes at rightangles to the Btrike. These samples are taken by cutting trenches, usually 10 ft. long, 4 in. wide across the strike of the ore, and 5 ft. apart, for the entire length of the new work. A hand-sample is taken from each ear at the ore-bins, and again at the crushers a grab-sample is taken by means of large dippers, before the ore goes to the mill. "When the minesample reaches the assay office, it weighs from 50 to 150 lb. A complete set of maps is kept, showing in detail the underground and surface workings of the mini the value and position of each sample taken ami the quantity of broken ore and reserve-. Labor. On account of the system adopted for working the mines, due to the character of the walls and vein-material, it is necessary to employ
it'
1

only skilled labor in the shafts,

drift, raises, etc.

About 60 per cent, of the machine-men ami helpers on the island came They are preferred b) as laborers ami have learned their trade here. the foremen and seem on the average to break more rock than miners who have learnt the trade elsewhere. Machine-men get from 82.50 to •S3. 00 and muckers S2.00 per 10-hour day with board and lodging. This mining system is suitable for wide, steep veins with strong back and walls where no waste need be sorted out in the stopes.

r

Example

18.

— Veta
(Sec
in

Grande Mine, Cananea, Sonora, Mexico
Examplesd, 34 and 45

ills,,

Sub-vertical

Lenses

Chutes.

— This

system

stoping on ore.
-

of drifts at

Porphyry {Panel Cores with Pyramidal Rill combines square setting and overhand On the main level the ore is first blocked out with a right angles to each other, one way the drifts being 40
of stoping

and the other way 50 ft. apart, center to center. The general appearance resembles a checkerboard. All the drifts are timbered with regular sill-floor stope square sets. Chutes are put in every other
ft.

apart,

in

On the next floor above the drift regular stope squart put and the square-eel chutes are carried up one floor. On the third floor, that i- 16 ft. above the rail, the Bquare sets are put in above the row in the drifts only and the included rectangle is mined out on this floor. From here up this continues with the square sets and the chutes carried up slightly in advance of the central portion of the rectangle. Enough ore is drawn off through the chutes to give the miners sufficient

116

MIXIXG WITHOUT TIMBER

head-room to work on the ore. In this way these different rectangles outlined by square sets are carried up to the limits of the orebod}'. There are several kinds of chutes that can be used, and it is not necessary A simple beveled plank chute to cany up a regular square-set chute. In mining one of these rectangles is just as good and uses less timber. the back is filled with holes and all fired together. If there is a horse of waste in the ore it can be easily removed and dropped into the chutes and trammed away. A large amount of waste is left in pillars. The rows of square sets are lagged on the outside, holding the ore in the center of the rectangle until the drawing commences.

Drawing the Core
ore

the whole body has been worked out in this way, the drawn from the chutes. A certain amount has to be blasted again as it packs. The ore broken in the stopes before the recent shutdown was not drawn for nearly two years after it was mined. In this case a considerable amount of powder had to be used to loosen the packed

After
is

ore,

on which account only a few of the square-set timbers could be saved. However, if the ore could be drawn soon after being broken, the amount

I

I

3HE

3HE
=

I
i i i I

I

I

i

I

Ls-i

1

J
Partly
__

W=W=

Waste

Waste

m
3HE

....

BE
Waste

BEE
Solid

Ore

Plan of

Sill

Floor
The Engineering
J

P
Mining Journal

The Engineering ^Mining Journal

Fig.

53.

—Plan Panel-core stopes, Veta mine.

Grande

Fig. 54.

section Panel-core stope, Veta — VerticalGrande mine.

of the

powder needed would be
all

less

and a large percentage

of the timbers

could be saved.

drawn from the chutes is removed, remain a pyramid-like mass in the center of each rectangle which cannot be removed in this way. It was from this fact that the system received its name. The pyramid of ore is later drawn by chiving a drift into the center of the block and with a raise one set above the sill the remaining ore is drawn. The stoping proper does not commence until 16 ft. above the level, the object in this being to preserve
After
the ore that can be
there will
still

OVERHAND 3TOPING WITH SHRINKAGE
the level drifts with
niiii'
• I

117

0V6 the

rails

which would be

he level below.

<>n the level directly below Tin' method of mining the bloc to which would depend entirely upon the condition of the wasl ion had beeo mined. the If the roof were treacherous :m<l and the remain: >uld be mined by the unsafe, it would
I I

slicii

-how.- the actual method of blocking out A- shown, chutes are pul in every other set with no two The chutes ih other, as this would obstruct the drift. chut' are merely small openings cut in the solid ore with a couple of chute Fig. 54 shows a -ect ion across 3 and a door attached to the timbers.
:.

I'ii:.

53

iy.

one of the rectangles.
irried all the

agular blocks One after the other of thes way up to the waste roof and the drawing of the ore not commence until all have been mined out.

Thi
to loosen and

uch timber, and where so large a mass of broken
it

ore stands before being drawn,

takes considerable labor and powder
chief disadvantage.
It requires solid

draw

it.

This

is its

ore and a strong roof which will stand over the core.

The

cost for the
a ton.

labor and timber used

in

placing ore in the chutes

is

SO to 90 cents

CHAPTER X

OVERHAND STOPING ON WASTE
Example
19.

IN

THE UNITED STATES

South Range Mines, Houghton County, Mich
(See also

Example

14.)

Dry-walled Drifts.
Wall.
of that of the

—The Quincy mine practice
South Range.

Sub-vertical

Amygdaloid Beds with Weak Hanging
will first

be reviewed, as the prototype

The Quincy amygdaloid, proper, is overlaid by a shaly seam and, to avoid this, the main drifts follow the footwall and leave the lode rock overhead. In stoping out all the lode, the weak hanging wall must be supported, and this has been done, with little use of timber, by a system of dry-walling. The present South Range mining system was first developed at the original mine, the Baltic. The first system at the Baltic was that of its

jmmjMMMgg

;.

J.N

THE UNITED

119

level,

the withdrawal of

its

content of broken ore was begun.
laced between the walls

During

this
.•it

i

by the

tiinbc:

dangerous places: but, nevertheless, considerable hanging wall would and contaminate the ore. The net resull was thai 20 per cent. «if the on- was waste and, a- all sorting had to be done al the Burface, this Also, the stull system hoisting capacity I'm- mill-ore. caused <: required a regular width of -tope and, in the irregular Baltic lode, this waste "r the missis meanl either an unnecessary breaking down
peel off
<>t'

bulges
Tlt>

Champion.
B
it

— This

thick was
25-ft.

mine was first opened by "arching," by which left above each main drift, with chutes cut
This arch corresponded to the
lagj

through

at

intervals.

stull roof of

the Altantic system; and enough of the broken ore was

3

iping

;ii

Champion mine.

the drillers up to the face of the overhand stope above. had the same disadvantages at the Champion as "longStulling" had at the Baltic, and has now been superseded by "drywalli' adapted by the Baltic in 1900. The Champion mine's "dry-walling" will be described as typical of the present South Range
in
it

to hold

"Arching*

system.

The main
i

Levels are driven

100

ft.

are cut out the whole width of the ore, whether 10 or 60

apart on the 70 deg. toot wall, and The rock is ft.

where broken, the ore being hoisted, and the waste used tor walling, The side walls of drift I). (Fig. 56) are laid iii Figs, 57 and 58. dry and 4 ft. thick at the base. The walls are topped with 2-in. plank, on which are laid (at 5-ft. centers) the unbarked, round caps (', of 8 to The drift is 10-in. diameter, which supporl the lagging A of 3-in. poles. located near the loot wall, but alloy- -pace lor the ore ehute N, set every
as

diown

Tie drift, with hinged, Bteel troughs for

gj

As soon as the drift-lining is well advanced and well backed by wa (i, the overhand benches are begun behind it. In Fig. 50 two machines are Btoping, while the sorters are handling the freshly broken lode,

120

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK

throwing the ore into chute N, and piling the waste at G and F. The chute N is kept just above the stowing, and is built (4 ft. inside diameter) of waste rubble, which has proved superior to the poles and old railroad ties formerly used. Should the waste prove insufficient for filling the stope, some can be blasted from the walls, or a raise can be put through to the next level, and waste run down from the old filling above. When the exhausted upper level is reached, the floor-pillar can be extracted by caving, if the level need no longer be kept open for tramming. A small self-dumping car is often used in a stope to facilitate the stowage of waste. By this system, a total of 1100 to 1200 men (above and below ground) produce 2500 to 2800 tons in two shifts. Owing to the irregular stopewidth, miners work by day's pay, earning about $2.50, while muckers get $52 to $54 a month. Only development is let on contract. The advantages of the South Range system are, the complete exhaustion of the ore, the saving in timber, and the decreased use of shafts for lowering timber and hoisting waste, all accompanied by safety and good ventilation. A little copper is lost in the stored waste and many men are needed for dry-walling; though with the large output, this only means an expense of about 8 cents per ton of ore hoisted.

Tramming
It is only in the South Range mines, with their steep footwalls, that the ore broken in the stopes can all be drawn direct from chutes; in the

rest of the district,
floor,

it is

either shoveled off a sollar, placed

on the

drift-

or on a platform at one side, so that the car can pass to stopes
-3-1
"2

~V

.
|

2"piank

LA
12

Loose Wheel-^t

H

-3-9

-Gauge

v

Fixed Wheel'
Fig. 57.

—Car at Champion mine.

L

beyond. In capacity, the cars vary from 2 to 3 tons; the latter size is unusually large for man-power, but there seems to be no difficulty in handling it with two men on a track of 3-ft. gauge at the Champion mine; but for longer hauls electric trains are cheaper, and are used at the Quincy with 3-ton locomotives. In such cars as the Wolverine and the Champion (Fig. 57), the ideal
design for capacity and ease of loading seems to have been attained.

The
is

car

body
ft.

is

only 2

high, for easy loading

placed low (just above the rim of the 12-in. wheels), and from the track level, while capacity

OVERHAND BTOPING OH WASTE
I

W

THE UNITED 3TA1

L21

of 7 ft. for the first and 9 ft. for the second. low car-body, a truck with a turn-plate is barred; so dumping is achieved t'<>r the Wolverine car by rotating it.- body around the front axle, while the larger Champion car must be run on a tipple to
.

by the extreme length

be emptied. The Wolverine car has Loose wheels, bul the Champion has one loose and one tight wheel on each axle, which gives bel ter Lubrication and Leas wear. The copper region has been fortunate in having a bedded formation

had been much faulted have been pursued, and consequently the pooler lodes could not have been profitably worked. Nevertheless, there is a limil to even the stability of these formal ions, and this fact has been forcibly emphasized by recent ev< For many years some of the older mines, notably the Quincy, had been bothered with subterranean disturbances due to settling of the hanging wall in the old stopes; but it was only recently that a calamity resulted. In May. 1906, the main workings of the Atlantic on the Ash-bed lode collapsed, and subsequent movements soon rendered

at

continuity, uniformity and strength;

if it

nerally brittle, the system of great open stopes could not

the 5000-ft. shafts useless for further hoisting.
tried to

on

its

The company has not reopen the shafts, but has been fortunate in finding a new mine holdings along the Baltic lode.

One explanation of such general caves is that the adherence of the hanging wall to the stope-pillars is so lessened by the great area of nearly continuous excavation that it begins to slip along its sustaining pillars, and thereby so crushes and distorts Them that they no longer offer
support to the superincumbent weight. The hanging wall of an isolated stope can be considered as a beam fixed around its circumferential supports; but when many stopes are connected, the hanging wall is then only like a beam resting on its supports, and has consequently
sufficient

diminished stability.
increased
strain of an

Also, a pillar, that
is

is

strong enough to sustain the

roof of the single original stope,

not necessarily able to sustain the

added

line of

contiguous stopes.

Example

2<».

Minnesota Mine, Soudan, Vermilion- Iron Range, minnesota
(See also

Example

36.)

Overhand Stoping on Wash with FiUingfrom a Descending Hangwatt. Wide Vein with Weak Hangwall. These iron ore deposits occur in lenses 200 ft. to 1000 ft. long and 5 to 80 ft. wide, and stand at an ai: 5 to 75 deg., with a vertical beighl of 250 ft. to 500 ft., other lenses occurring below. A number of the deposits were firsl worked asopen pit.-, which in some cases were carried to depths of 150 ft., when, owing to the weakness of the walls, underground ruining was adopted. While
Sub-vertical

122

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEB

the ore was being removed from the open pit, shafts were in several instances sunk into the foot-wall, the intention being to mine the ore with
breast-stopes of an approximate height of 20
ft.,

followed by underhand
of the necessary thick-

stopes of the

same

hight, leaving pillars

between

As work progressed, however, it was found that the chlorite walls' were too weak to permit the working of breaststopes 20 ft. high, there being frequent heavy falls of ground from the hanging wall, and sometimes from the foot. The plan of following breast-stopes with underhand stopes was therefore abandoned, for by working breast-stopes only, but little more than one-half of the ore could be removed, and that only at an excessive cost, the ore being one of the
ness to support the walls.

hardest known, to

drill.

The Rand 3
6
ft.

1/8-in. piston
7

type

is

used, with 60

lb. of air,

which

drills
1 ft.

per shift as a

3

early average, but in certain places will only make

in

During a shift's work each drill dulls 45 to 50 bits, and even then powder must be used as an aid by exploding a half stick of 50 per cent, in the hole for every few inches of advance, to enlarge the bottom and prevent the bit sticking. Often 10 sticks of powder are used in boring
10 hours.
sticks more necessary to chamber the bottom for the breaking charge of 20 to 50 sticks. Fuse and cap firing is in vogue. The holes are 6 ft. to 10 ft. deep. For a time diamond drilling was employed to bore 20-ft. to 40-ft. holes for breaking ground, but the present high price of diamonds has made this method unprofitable. The greenstone walls are easy to drill, and as much as 130 ft. per month has been drifted in them with two drill shifts daily. But in the jaspilite " horses" encountered the same men could only make one-third this distance. In the sinking of the main shaft below the 1,150-ft. level, with three machines, the monthly advance in jaspilite with three eight-hour shifts was only 12 ft. to 18 ft. Mining. The present system here may be called hangwall filling. To develop it an incline was sunk in the foot wall, and from it, at about 100-ft. vertical intervals, were driven crosscuts in the vein. The ore is then attacked in all directions by overhand stoping until the excavation is 16 ft. by 20 ft. high the whole length and width of the ore body

a hole and, in addition, there are 5 to 10

(see Fig. 58).

d are set up and spiked together the whole length of caps and posts, but no sills. At 25-ft. intervals on the footwall side chutes c, 5 ft. square inside, are built along the drift sets, and opposite every third chute is placed a similarly constructed manway. The chutes rest on the floor, so they must be filled with waste up to their false bottom of rails, which is high enough to deliver through a hinged, steel spout into the ore car. Above the false bottoms
drift sets

Xext

the stope with

9-ft.

the chutes are lined with 2-in. planks placed vertically.

O/ERHAND 8T0PING ON WA8T1
Mean?
\:ill.

[M

Mil

NITED STATES

have been driven at 75-ft. intervale in the from the stope to the level above. foot ju8l under the ore, ml from the open pit to all the opened level.- and are waste ra: in front bo thai waste can be thrown at any point by removing cribbed up Borne cribbing and Leaving the part below full, or making a temporary
hfle,

waste raises

10

'I

false

bottom

of

wood.

Raises
in

/

are also put
fire.

through between Levels

for use as extra

manways

ease of

When
floor

the timbering and waste raise- are completed to the lowesl
filling

the

level

The waste for the first of excavation E is begun. open cut is obtained from the hangwall either by its below the

Cross Sec.'
I

p..

58.

— .-topniK
If

at

Minnesota mine.

lower level is not Deeded can he drawn from the filling of the latter, as in winter the ov< riving waste on pillar P is frozen hard enough to prevenl its breaking through. Wherever obtained, the waste is drawn down from raises w and
natural caving or by blasting.

waste
of

for a

till

the

first

level

is

all

stuped,

much

it

han

lied

in

wheelbarrows to
height.

fill

the whole stope to a depth of 14

ft.,

the drift sets being Lagged and the chutes and
to the
to

manways being extended
filling

same
cut
is

The

drills are

then

set

up on the

and a

14-ft

to the baek worked from a scaffold. Filling can begin behind the breaking, the ore being thrown into the chutes ahead and the waste brought from the raise w behind and piled to within 6 ft. of the new back, while the chutes and manways are correspondingly heightened.
Hi-f't.

made

to start a

new

breast stope, for which

the

drill

to be

124

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

This overhead slicing is continued till the next level is nearly reached, under which a pillar P is left from 6 ft. to 10 ft. high, according to ground. During the ascent any weak parts of the back are supported by cribs on top the filling, which can be removed on stoping the next slice. When all ore above is removed and the filling in the open cut has settled on pillar P, it can be removed by beginning at each end of the ore body and holing through by blasting. The balance of the pillar is then cut off while retreating, and though the filling follows the broken ore down, the latter comes first, and can thus be recovered and thrown into the chutes. During the recovery of P it is liable to cave from the pressure of the waste above, but as P is always supported by a number of cribs on the filling, and gives plenty of advance warning of independing disaster,
the

men

are in

little

danger.
it is

In case

pillar

P

does cave
it is

allowed to settle and

its

ores recovered

by
of

drifting.

For
apart.

this

necessary to drive spiling ahead, which are

sharpened poles, 4
ft.

placed 3

in. by 16 ft., driven over three-quarter drift sets To advance the spiling it often requires considerable

blasting of the

many

boulders encountered.

Application of Hangwall Filling System. The following are favorHighly inclined, hard, wide veins, which will stand able conditions:

without timbers when excavated across their whole width, but whose hangwalls are weak and friable. It allows good ventilation and requires little timber and no hoisting of waste. Several levels can be worked simultaneously and, development being confined to the soft walls, the hard ore can be broken in wide stopes with minimum expense for drilling and explosives, as most of the filling comes from the natural shelling of the hangwall, much of which can be reused, there is no expense for mining or freight, the only cost being in keeping the waste raises clear and in wheeling and stowing the filling in place. For narrower veins it is sometimes cheaper to break part of the filling from the hangwall of the stope.

Example

21.

Superior and Boston Copper Mine, Globe District, Arizona
(See also

Examples 32 and

42.)

Sub-vertical

Wide Vein with Weak Hanging-wall;
is

Rill Chutes.

—The

present mine production
level.

made mainly from

the stopes of the 550-foot

Here the vein dips about 58 deg. and varies in thickness from The foot-wall is hard and ft., but averages from 9 to 10 ft. smooth, but on the hanging wall the ore is "frozen" and there is no defined wall. This method of mining was devised by Supt. John D. Wanviz, and is similar to one in use at Zaruma, Ecuador.*
7 to 15
*Trans. A.
I.

M. E., Vol.

XXX,

p. 248.

HAND STOPING ON
Until

w V8TE IN

THE

i

NITE1

1

25

recently
in the

the ore has been

mined by thecommi
trial of

few months since the firsl both the timber and labor, not to mention log
m, but
materially reduced, and the reduction
'.

the nev

ave been
has been 60 per cent.
:

in costs

ill

make
1(1!)

clear the following data
ft.

Drifts

5x7

ft.

are carried

apart vertically or aboul

117

ft.

along the 58-deg. dip of the vein.
drifts;

Two-compartment raises are put up at 100-ft. intervals to connect the the chute compartment is 4x4 ft., and the ladderway 3x4 ft.
re on the foot-wall and are timbered only by two lines of with head-hoards and one se1 of lagging.
;

stulls

The

division between the

line of stulls

which

is

plank lagged.

two compartments The second

is

formed by the
is

first

line of stulls

carried

5>7 0r/ffs

/OOopar/

a

20ft

-

iperior

and Bostoo mine.

on the other side

The outer

ladderway compartment, but this is unlag is thus constituted by a rock wall unstulled and unlagged and the outer wall of the ladderway is likewise constituted by a rock wall, but this is stulled. The main drifts are all timbered with drift Bets .-paced on 5-foot centers and heavily lagged. Chutes 4 ft. wide are spaced on 15-ft. centers, the chute gates all being placed at once, but the chutes themselves are put up one by one as stoping The chute mouths afford one n

Related Interests

the ways eeds above. pe as es, since there is always 'an irregular space to 3 ft. high between the ore back and the top of the drift lagging. Stoping is started at the lower corners of two adjacent blocks formed by the intersection of a raise with a drift. These two blocks are simultaneously stoped up along the raise and retreating from it horizontally
of the

wall of the chute

i1

1

;

12(3

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK

At such a corner the back is drilled with stoping drills and as shown. broken down on to the drift lagging for a distance of 8 to 10 ft. The broken ore is at first discharged into mine cars standing in the drift below by pulling out the lagging and letting it run down. The first chute, 1, is then placed. This chute is formed by carrying up two lines of stulls 4 ft. apart along the strike of the vein and lagging them on the outside with plank. The stulls are placed inside the plank lagging instead of outside, The reason for this is found in the fact that as in ordinary practice. when the chutes are abandoned they are not filled with waste, so that empty they have to stand the pressure of the waste filling on all sides. The entire width of vein from foot to hanging wall is broken out between the rows of stulls. With the first chutes in place, the timber in the lower part of the raise b is taken out and waste c for filling dumped down the chute from the drift above. This waste assumes a natural slope of about 37 deg. from the horizontal, and it accordingly spreads out from the foot of the raise into the stopes on each side of it at that angle, running farther and farther horizontally into the stopes as they are advanced and the pile of waste increases in height. In the first stage of the work, however, advancing toward chute No. 1, the waste is dumped down till the foot of its slope almost reaches the chute. Dumping waste then ceases for the time being. With sloping floor of the waste now brought within 5 to 7 ft. of the ore back, a sloping wooden floor d is laid down on top of the waste extending from the top of the chute to the manway of the raise. Its purpose is to receive the ore broken from the back and discharge it into the chute, thus serving the double purpose of separating the ore from the waste and eliminating all shoveling and tramming in the slope. It will be evident that since the waste will run at an angle of 37 deg., the ore will certainly run on the wooden planks which are laid over the waste on the same angle. The width of the plank floor d is everywhere made that of the vein from wall to wall, and its length, of course, increases up to a maximum of about 60 ft. in extending from the center chute of the block up to The floor consists of 2-in. plank and 15-ft. the raises on either side of it. lengths nailed together by cross-pieces to form sections about 2 ft. In laying down these sections over the waste, the ends are made wide. With to form a butt joint in order to insure a clean run-off of the ore. the floor laid down, the stope drills are put at work to break down the new back, stulls and planks being placed where necessary to afford When drilling operations are a good secure footing next to the back.
The chute
completed, the stulls are pulled, thus recovering them for further use. at the foot of the sloping floor is always kept nearly full of

After drilling and ore so that wear upon it may be kept at a minimum. shooting the back, the ore is at once drawn down to the top of the chute,

OVERHAND 8TOPING OK WASTE
thus clearing the
floor.

IS

mi. UNITED

m.ui,
...

127
...

A aumber

of stulls are uext pul

sections thua disposed conveniently at hand for their uexl period of use, the top of the chute is uow buill up and more waste dumped down the raise til] the fool -.t ita si,,,,, has nearly reached the level of the chute top. The laying ol <•"• fl "«"- and the mining of another diagonal slice now proceeda as before pven chute can be "*d at the foot of the sloping platform only \ .„ , tm the angle oi slope carries down the ore in line with the center of ita '"!'• ***** ,h:U the top is lagged over, the chute emptied ... it* but not filled with wast,., and it is abandoned. Fig 59 shows chute No. just abandoned and buried in wast, with the use of chute No. 2 just begun. The illustration also makes is evident that of the seven chutes raised in a 100-ft. block, all but the one in the center are limited to a height of about 10 ft., as at that height the angle of waste slope carries the flow past to the bottom of the next adjacent chute which .s likewise built up. By working from the two opposite lower corners of the block simultaneously, and thus advancing the diagonal slices toward the center line of the block, they finally intersect at the bottom oi the centrally placed chute No. 4. From this point on chut, No ' n the block. " »" fche ore It is built up from tin,,, to time }UB fcne other chutea ™*e, with the exception that it is more heavily ] and completely lagged by placing 2-in. lagging outside th, stulls and 4-in. plank lagging inside the stulls which bear th, wear of the chute* height, as shown in dotted lines, is limited only by the f, ''- drift above. ""<; "» It will likewise be evident from the illustration that when the top of the waste filling has reached the approximate position of the dotted line f, g, h, the drift e
I

back as possible and the sections of the platform are then raised and one ach placed seesaw fashioD over the Mulls B0 thai the weight of a erend ol a given section causes the smaller end to press up against the ore back and thua be firmly held. With the platform

as close

the

'

M

7

m

^

i

for

supported on stulls. From this point on the raises cannot be utilized for throwing down filling, so that waste is dumped from points along th, drift itself advancing toward
its floor

through traffic or

must be abandoned

me

ot

!

mined and filled. During th, mining of th, lower portion of the block, access ia had to "1»- from the manwaya of th, raises or from th,. chute mouths in fcne lower drift roof. After th, diagonal slices have connected at th, centra] chute, No. 1. however, accesa is had only from th, drift above by descending through th, raise manwaya int.. th, stop,. \ ()
is

entirely

the center the block " n the centra] chute reaches th, drift and the block

,

objection

been found in several montl found desirable, however, the floor on one side or the other could always be kept down and over it th, men could pass in and out to avoid danger of starting the loose waste.
work.
It

to thia limitation of accessibility has yet

128

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

the loose nature of the hanging wall, it will be evident that working the mine by "shrinkage stoping" would be inadvisable, because waste. caves from the hanging wall would seriously dilute the ore with system adopted, as described above, therefore, seems the next The

From

method of reducing the use of timber to a minimum, eliminating tramming and shoveling in stopes, and recovering all the fine ore. The the system has the advantage over "shrinkage stoping" of making all
best
to 40 per cent, ore broken available at once instead of only about 25 time as the stope is finished. Another advantage over until such

"shrinkage stoping" is that the drift timber sets and chutes once placed require no reinforcement
during the drawing of ore as is frequently the case in drawing a stope completed by the shrinkage

method.

Example 22.— Metcalf Mine, Graham County, Ariz.
(See also

Examples

29, 30

and

40.)

Irregular Lenses in Porphyry; Auxiliary Milling and Square SetAt this mine, bodies of oxiting.

dized ore form a conspicuous out-

crop on the hilltop, (Fig. 60) and were the source of the high-grade
ore
of

Fig. 60.

—Metcalf mine and ore

The hill is a mass mined. porphyry, capped by the lower members of the sedimentary rock series. Development has demonstrated the existence of four parallel vein systems or stockworks in the granite porphyry, along which oreshoots of varied
first

granite

bins.

magnitude are found.

The vein

systems have suffered severe cross faulting, subsequent to the formathat has tion of the primary ore, but prior to the surface enrichment
occurred.

mass of blocks of quartzite, completely shale and granitized limestone lying on and in other places imbedded in the intruded porphyry. The oreshoots are generally found at the junctions of the cross faulting of the with the vein systems. Although, as before mentioned, some an overoreshoots outcropped, the majority of them are found beneath

The surface presents

a chaotic

[HAND BT0PINC OH WASTE

l\

Tin:

DNITBD STATES

L29

burden of barren rock of varying thickness. The horizon on which these shoots occur is variable and their discovery necessitates extensive prospecting from h-v.-ls of ii..t more than 40 to 50 ft. apart.

Where an oreshool has been proved in depth and is covered by a he :i \y overburden of waste, underground mining is employed. The ground in mosl cases stands well without tiinl.ei-iu.tr; stopes up to 75 ft.
width having been worked without difficulty. In ore of moderate mode of working is as follows: >n the loweel level on which the ore is exposed, the oreshool is opened to its full width and length. When the shape of the orebody has been determined, raises are made from the roof of the stope to the surface,
in

hardness, the
<

the

number depending on
to a height of

the dimensions of the stope.

The

ore

is

then

above the level and a timbered roadway with the necessary chutes and ladderways erected. The overburden of waste is now milled down the raises and leveled off, filling the stope and forming a compact working floor, 15. ft. above the level.
20
ft.

mined

" v V

A
'l/

^

vv

/*

^,

A/ V
Fk;. 61.

A/*
at

Underground milling

MetcaU mine.

15 to
i-

afterward broken by overhand stoping in ascending slices high; depending on the condition of the roof. As each slice removed, the overburden is milled down for filling material and to
ore
ft.

The

is

25

working floor. When all the overburden has been maimer, the back of ore remaining is -Mined by open-cut or milling method. The cost of breaking the ore in sloping is necessarily higher than in open-cut work, but the more economical removal of overburden compensates for this increase. When the ore is hard and stands exceptionally well the method
provide
the next
utilize.) in this

of extraction

is

shown

in Fig. 61.

A

raise

is

made

to the top of the ore

130

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBEK

and extended to the surface or to an upper working for air. At a height the of 50 ft. above the level, mining is started from the raise outward, always left sloping so that the ore will run directly into the floor being When the extremities of the ore have been reached or the chute. of roof is as wide as will stand with safety, the bench forming the floor now mined. Deep holes, charged with black powder, are the stope is
used and the ore is broken as freely as in open-cut work. The slower action of the black powder does not jar and weaken the roof of the stope to the same degree as the rapid action of dynamite. When the first bench, 50 ft. in height, has been worked out, the chute and ladderway are timbered to within 5 ft. of the roof and the stope is leveled and the filled with waste from the surface; the filling material is

next block

of ore

above

is

attacked in a similar manner.

Stopixg w^ith Square Sets
In some parts of the mine, the ore is too soft and friable to permit Ordinary squareof any system of stoping without the use of timbers. timbering is employed in such cases to support the roof and walls. set The stopes are kept full of waste to within one set of the back of ore, timbered chutes and ladderways alone being left open. The waste is obtained from the surface workings and is distributed from a small chute placed in one corner of the stope. This position of the chute
is

advisable

as

point, the

filling

by commencing the mining of each floor from this can be kept close to the working breast without interworked
as rapidly as the

fering with the shovelers.

Every

floor

is

working faces allow, to avoid

excessive weight settling

on the timbers.

The timbering

is

arched to

compensate for the sinking of the sets in the center of the stope due to the greater weight of roof. This is accomplished by introducing one center of the floor of sets, the posts of which step upward 2 in. to the
stope,

and descending in like manner to the opposite wall. Should this arch effect at any time be lost by excessive weight, causing the timbers

to settle, or

by the loosening
it,

of the side blocking,

posts

is

put in to restore

another floor of special Further details are given in example 23.

Example

23.

Copper Queen Mines, Bisbee, Ariz.
(See also

Example

12.)

Clayey Lenses in Limestone; Panel System and Square Sets.—Oi the gangue minerals, the silica is not vein quartz, but fine grained aggregates, and in some stopes it runs like pulverulent sand; while the silicates occur interspersed throughout the altered limestones around the ore. Clay is prevalent, it may be white, gray, or yellow
Irregular

OVERHAND STOPING

<>\

WASTE

l\

till.

UNITED STATES
chief

131

and red from limonite admixture, and it tonus the ind make- their Bupport difficult.
["he ore

gangue

of the

horizon

is

the Escabrosa limestone with occasional offshoots

into the

Naco above.

The

ore occurs

in

greal

tables

and lenses that

follow the bedding planes of the beds.

Within the limestone the bodies
in

pinch and swell and

many

of

them, particularly

the central belt, are

connected by seams and

pip<

Definite walls are exceptional; the oxidized ores grade into clay and the Bulphides often into oxides within a hard limestone casing. A Btope outline depends upon the juice of copper as compared with the cost of ore

extraction ami in proportion to the clay matrix the volume of ore may be only a fraction. The ore masses ace rarely greater than 200 ft.

square horizontally by 100
in the

ft.

thick, hut occasionally they are larger, as

Holbrook big stope, which is 600 ft. wide by 800 ft. long on the dip. The ore lenses are not distributed haphazard in the Escabrosa limestone, but favor the line of certain faults and the porphyry contact.

Mining
-Much of the ground is soft enough to be removed by a pick alone, but has been found quicker to loosen it by auger bores and blasting. The aimer is of the common earth type with a fixed wooden handle and 4 ft.

it

long.
if

The cutting diameter
is

a boulder

is the same as that of hand drills, so that, struck, the hole can be finished by single-jacking. For

harder ground single jacks are usual, but experiments are now in progress with the hand-hammer air drills. F.or hard rock 3-in. air drills requiring

two men are
cent,

in

vogue.

The

blasting

is

always done with 35 or 40 per
ore horizon.- there are no tunnel

dynamite.
flat

With the gentle topography and
at the 100-ft. levels
is

so vertical shafts are compulsory.

To discover

the ore, the ground

exposed by

drifts,

following faults or ore stringers

where they

otherwise tie: area is divided into more or less recThe volume of ground to be searched is much greater than in vertical veins, as is shown by the annual driving of around 5 miles apiece by the Copper Queen and Calumet & Arizona companies, and in like proportion by the others, besides considerable diamond drilling.
exist,

tangular blocks.

Drifting.— By arching the roof,
timbering, but
in
in.

many

bad ground
per foot

full sets

of the drifts will stand without with inclined posts S to 12 in.
t

-quare and 2
mine.-,
will join

when the

drifts

batter are put in. In he Calumet & Arizona penetrate ore, their sets have verlical posts that
(

drift sets are kept in, until replaced

is

in the lopper Queen the inclined by the square sets of stoping. In the Calumet & Pittsburg mine 50 to 00 ft. advance in 7 daymade by Using a 3-in. drill to get in a round of 9 to 12 holes, in the

with the stope square sets; but

132

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

8-hour shift from 7 a. m. to 3.30 p. m., which is then blasted. Muckers then come on and begin to throw the muck back, so as to have the face ready for a new set up, when the night shift drillers arrive at 6 p. m. Tramming the mucking can then continue without interrupting the drillers and when they leave at 2.30 a. m., the clearing of the face again
begins as before.

Stoping— Except

for the Mitchell

system and the

stulls

used in the

thin beds of the Pittsburg

Duluth, the square-set system is universal here for timbering stopes. For the soft, irregular, and patchy stopes of It permits of the Bisbee, the square-set system has many advantages. easy omission of barren spots, gives the best ventilation and allows the
re-entering of an old stope at

&

any time

for the

removal

of filling,

now

• IMS

"0

KKEB1'.'.

Fig. 62.

—Panel-stoping

at Copper

Queen mine.

valuable but not previously, or for the extension of the sets into lowergrade ground. A junction with an old stope's timbers can readily be affected from any direction and this is especially useful, when approaching from below, for the timbers tend to prevent that sliding of filling, which will occur with untimbered systems. When worked in small

panels and closely
Bisbee.

filled,

square sets are safe even in the soft ground of
100-ft. levels.

The Copper Queen Mines have 14 posts between the The upper floor square sets are framed 7 feet vertically by
but the
settling.
sill

5 feet square,

floor sets are 9

ft.

high to allow space for extra caps and for

kept level in spite of ground movement by cutting the posts of the exact length necessary to keep their tops even with that of the corresponding raise post. The width of a panel from across an ore body depends on the hardness of ore, but varies

The stope

floors are

5 to 12 sets.

The method
is

of

mining

is

illustrated

driven from the

sill

floor drift a b

by Fig. 62. A cross-cut c d and two-compartment vertical raises

OVBBHANS 8TOPING Oh WASTE
e

IN

illi.

UNITED BTA1

and d are driven to the top of the ore body. One compartment is used an ore chute, the other a man and timberway. Pani aken out floor by Boorfrom the top down, the ore being thrown down the to be loaded from chutes at it- base into cars on the -ill floor, the
for

received from the level above through the raise before mentioned. 'Hie ore descending from a floor is prevented from mixing with the waste coming to the floor from above by a partition in the
filling
is

waste for

raise, or

nt.

by the use of an adjoining vertical line of square seta for the ore Only BUch sets an- kept unfilled as are necessary for the free

movement of the miners. Where there are no level, already existing above, to which a raise can be joined, a cage is put in the manway and operated by an electric hoist set to one side on the level below. A car of waste can then be raised on this cage to the desired floor. A number of floors of panel A can be worked simultaneously in
benches by overhand stopinu: when A is extracted and filled, panel B can be attacked similarly. Cross-cut e J and raises e and/ should then be ready for beginning panel C. Aboul 25 board feet of timber
are lost

per ton of ore extracted; the lagging is 2-in. plank, which is largely recovered. The timber comes sawn, from the Pacific Northwest, and costs around $25 per M.

Most of the cars, of 16 cubic ft, capacity, are of the vertical shaft type having a hinge and turn plate to enable them to dump from one end
in

any

direction.
it

in the drifts;

The Copper Queen Co. employs simple turn sheets has installed electric traction and hoists most of its out-

put through one shaft.

CHAPTER XI

OVERHAND STOPING ON WASTE
AUSTRALIA
Example
24.

IN

MEXICO AND

— Los

Pilares Mine, Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico
(See also

Example

31.)

Irregular Lenses

in Porphyry.

Two Methods

of

Sill

Flooring.

The mine is at Porvenir, five miles from Nacozari, where there is an immense pear-shaped "horse" of rock 2000 ft, long and having a maximum width of 800 ft. The horse a, as shown in Fig. 65, is surto 200 ft. rounded by ore deposits b, which vary in thickness from interior of the horse has been shattered and at the core there are The
c, one of which is 300x300 ft. capped by a brecciated, rhyolitic, iron-stained gossan, The horse varying in thickness from 20 to 75 ft, and carrying little or no copper.

mineralized areas
is

Below the gossan

is

the enriched mineral zone, also of variable thick-

In this zone, the copper mineral ness, but averaging about 100 ft, pseudomorphic chalcocite after pyrite, to pyrite and changes from It is seldom, however, chalcopyrite with a slight coating of chalcocite. replacement of pyrite or chalcopyrite by chalcocite has that a complete taken place. Below the enriched zone are found the primary sulphides consisting Throughout the entire ore body, entirely of chalcopyrite and pyrite.

from the surface to the lowest workings, the character of the deposit is the same; a shattered rock with the ores existing as the cementing mateBoth the brecciated rhyolite near the surface, and the brecciated rial. andesite below it contain copper minerals. There is a dike x, y, z, Fig. 63, approximately bounding the southeastern portion of the ore body, but more and more approximately
traveling the center of the ore deposit as it is followed to the northwest This dike of disintegrated diabase has a width varying in different places

from a knife edge to about 30 ft. Near the surface this dike has a slight dip to the eastward, making it a hanging wall of the ore body, but at the 300-ft. level it changes its direction and dips to the west with increasing flatness from about 70 deg. on the 300-ft. level to about 50 deg. on the 600-ft. level. In the northern portion of the deposit, large spurs and splits from the main dike, varying in width from 1 to 25 ft. and in length from small to great
134

>.I(!1AM>

STOPIN'G

ON WA-ll

|\

Ml.\l<n

\M>

\l.MKALM

135

distances arc found running into the eastern country rock.
difficulty in the

This dike
ariee

lirection

ami

its

tendency

to

mining operations, owing slough and cave from above.
I

J

.

i

———
i ;

:

r-

~—....»•—

T

*

''
IIHCS

,'

/t

»ND MINERALS

'

Fig. 63.

—Plan of ore body,
will

Loa Pilarea mine.

From
definite
lie

the

foregoing

it

and

fairly regular exterior

be understood thai the ore body has a boundary. The richest ore is apt to

very close to this boundary, the grade of the ore getting poorer toward
is

the center of the pear-shaped horse until the limit of commercial ore

136
reached.

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

In what follows, the term "width" refers to the distance from the exterior boundary along a line at right angles to the same to the point at which the commercial ore ceases. This width of ore varies in different
parts of the mine, and on different levels, from a few feet to

more than

200

ft.

Mining Methods. Two main working shafts, d and e, have been sunk in country rock about 50 ft. outside the deposit from which it has been developed. The width and length of the orebody, the kind of ground found in the deposit, the excessive cost of timber at the mine, the cheapness of common labor, and several smaller items, were the considerations which determined the method of ore extraction. The pillar-and-stope method is in use throughout the workings. The whole deposit, or rather the commercial ore area, is divided up into a series of stopes and pillars, the widths of which vary according to the width of the ore and the character of the ground to be worked. Pillars and Pillar Lines. The pillars are bounded by imaginary vertical planes extending from the surface to the bottom of the workable ore. Separate maps like Fig. 03 are kept up to date for each level. On each of these maps, the pillars are accurately plotted, thereby showing the location of every stope and pillar, its dimensions, and also the courses

of the several pillar lines.

When

a stope

is

to be " sill-floored," the engineer will set pillar plugs

on each side of the stope that calls for a pillar. The position of these plugs will be calculated with reference to their distances from their corpillar lines. The distance from the pillar plugs to the pillar then be given to the stope boss, and it is his duty to see that the pillar line in question is carried forward and the plugs cared for. For a height

responding
will

by the eye by the stope by the engineer and carried on as before. These pillars vary in width from 25 to 60 ft. and are placed approximate^ at right angles to the country wall. Thus, each stope is bounded on two sides by pillars, while the wall rock on one end and the end of the commercial ore on the other constitute the respective third and fourth sides.of
slices,

two or three

these plugs will be changed

boss; they will then be checked

ft., the above statement vary from 100 to 150 ft. in length along the length of the ore zone, and pillars vary from 25 to 60 ft. in length also, measured along the length of the zone, depending on the nature of the ground. When the commercial ore zone is much wider, say 250 ft., the length of the stope is either lessened and that of the pillar increased, making a stope 50x250 ft. and the pillar the same size, or, in case of excessive width of ore, a third pillar is introduced running at right angles to the other two pillars and practically making two stopes between one set of pillars, whereas if the ore had not been so wide, only one stope would have been excavated.

When

the ore zone

is

narrow, say from 40 to 100
will

applies

and the stope

OVERHAND STOPING ON WA8TB
Flooring.

IN

MEXICO INO AUSTRALIA

1

o

.1

and B.

floor,

The stopes may lie "sill-floored" by two methods, By method .1 the stope area is cut out on the level while by method a floor arch i"> ft. thick is left above the floor
/»'

level,

and from the top
-1

of this arch the full stope area

is

carried up.

permanent drift in the pillar with ci running to the stopes and ending in Bhovelways or chutes, or qi sitates the driving of permanent drifts outside; the ore with cross-cuts run to chutes or shovelways in be stope; or both classes of drifts nay be Method .1 is generally used in bodies of highused for the same stope. In method B a permanent drift must be grade ore, or in weak ground. maintained through the Btope and for that reason the drift is protected by the floor arch. This is the method used in the case of wide and long Btopes, where the main development drift has been driven along the country wall and must be maintained in order to extract the ore. With method B when the ore is 75 or 100 ft. wide, an auxiliary permanent level is driven from the main level through the length of the stope and protected by the floor arch. Three different methods of stoping are in vogue in this mine. Fi square setting; second, overhand stoping on waste of this example, and third, the overhand stoping with shrinkage and dela}'ed filling of
necessitates either a
t

Method

Example
here, so

31.
is

Square-set timbering and stoping
it

well

known and
It is

also

but

little

used

will

not be taken up in detail.

adopted

in soft

ground

that is liable to cave. After extracting the ore and timbering with square sets, permanent levels ma}- be either driven through the pillar or maintained through the center of the stope by lagging over the

through the center line of the stope. The stope is then filled with waste up to the top floor of the square sets. Chutes and manways are cat tied up by lining a given timber set all the way up with 3xl2-in. plank and dividing it into chute and man way compartments as in Example 23. )vei hand stoping on waste may be used after a stope has been started by either of the two sub-methods (A and B) of sill flooring. Sub-method A. As an illustration of this system with method A assume a stope a, Fig. 64, 50 ft. along the orebody and 200 ft. wide. Corresponding pillars b will also be 50 ft. in length. At 50-ft. intervals. cross-cuts c will be driven into the stope from the pillar drifts d on both -ides of the stope in question. Working from the ends of these pillar drifts the entire area of ore within the pillar lines is removed by blasting to a height of 15 feet. This broken ore is trammed over tracks laid through the several cross-cuts from the pillar drifts and by extending temporary tracks from them into the center of the stope. The broken ore is shoveled into cars and taken out via these tracks. After cleaning cut all of the ore, the temporary tracks will be removed. Fifteen feel from the pillar b inside the stope, and adjacent to the extension of the
(

138
pillar, cross-cuts

MINING WITHOUT TIMI3EK
c, are built up the chute and manways e. This 15 ft. of timbered after extracting the ore. The stope will then be with waste from the mill holes / to within a distance of 5 ft. from

cross-cut
filled

is

:j5

w*i^--~--|-

I

via

Ca//cne
•I

fWa/^J^pAzcuA

p&!v
e

-B

|

e

— 50L/m/f Co/nmerc/a/ Ore

Section on
Fig.

d-B
Pilares mine.

64.—Stoping by submethod "A", Los

OVERHAND 8TOPING ON WA8TJ
the
root",

IN

MEXICO

\l>

tUSTKALIA

L3S

the work of leveling off the waste from the different mill holes

being done by shoveling and wheelbarrow work.

These
cuts.

mill
I'

holes/
is,

(see Fig. 6

adjacent to the ends of the pillar

therefore, obvious that

they are raised to the level
first

above simultaneously with blasting out the
not only for

slice.

They thus

-

dumping down waste for filling, but to ventilate the stope. Chutes and manways are kepi built up sufficiently above the v.: packing bo as t<» prevent the filling from running into them. The chuteare generally cribbed with 6x6-in. timbers with a 4-in". notch on each This leaves a 4 2-in. opening in the crib between each correend. sponding pair of timbers. Large rock from the packing is built up around the outside of the chute to keep it in place, and the inside is lined with 3xl2-in. plank. The manway, usually about 2 1/2x0 ft., is carried up along <>ne side of the chute and is built out of 2x1 2-in. plank. A manway is sometimes deemed unnecessary for a chute, in which case the latter alone is carried through the fill. In the manway, a3-in. diameter pipe LS placed with its top level with the top of the manway and its bottom
.']
1

about
steel

7 or

8

ft.

above the

floor.

This serves the purpose of letting

drill

down without
result
off to its

cutting the

manway

lining

and breaking ladders

from throwing down the steel. After the filling has proper height, a not her .-lice varying from 6 to 12 ft. in height at the breast is blasted from the stope. This slice is started by driving blind raises to the proper height and enlarging these till they

which would
been leveled

intersect, this

method enabling the
slice will

drilling of fiat

water holes.

It is

often

the case that the same
of the stope

be started in three or four different parts

from blind raises. The ore broken in this method of slicing is put into the nearest chutes by shoveling and wheelbarrow tramming. After the slice has been finished, the stope is cleaned of its ore and waste filling is run in again and the same procedure followed as before.
-method B.

— When
shown

the ore shoot

is

narrow, say 30 to 50
is

ft.

in

width, for quite a length along the country wall, and the ore

of

com-

paratively low grade, the same

method

of extraction

is

used, but with

the sill-flooring of method B.

For
t,

this the

by a

floor arch, as

at

Fig. 65.

main drift is usually protected The main drift is generally run

along the country wall or close to it as at 6. Cross-cuts c are driven every 30 or 40 ft. at right angles to the main drift in the ore, the two opposite
in the ore,
If the drift to be maintained is be driven at the stated intervals on either side of the drift, generally alternating from the left to the right side. Offset from each cross-cut and set out 8 ft. from the center of the

term

rial

ones being on the pillar

lines.

then these cross-cuts

may

main-drift track a 6
in

ft.-sq. raise is driven to a height of 22 ft. After raising each cross-cut the stated height, intermediate drifts and cross-cuts 7 ft. high are run from each raise making the floor of each drift 15 ft. above 'lie floor level. These intermediate drifts are connected together

140

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER.
first floor of

and the
is

blasting both

is then excavated by enlarging them by they intersect. All the ore between pillar lines extracted to the country rock wall in one direction and to the com-

the stope

ways

till

mercial ore limit in the other.
or

Should the ore prove to extend

for 20

ft.

more in width from the center of the main drift, an 8-ft. pillar is left between the main drift and the ore, and an auxiliary drift d from the crosscuts is driven parallel to the main drift. From this auxiliary drift the
ore
is

sliced back, the

broken materia) being trammed out of the various

NCS AND MIHERA15

h

h
Fig. 65.

a

h

Sec7'/on on 4-B

"

—Stoping by submethod "B", Los Pilares mine.
from the main haulage drift. This work leaves a wide on each side and 8 ft. thick over the main

cross-cuts first driven
solid arch of rock 8

ft.

haulage drift to protect it. When this method is followed chutes are cribbed up from convenient points about 50 ft. apart. For such small stopes two manways / usually suffice, which are placed adjacent to the two chutes at opposite ends of the stope. After the stope is completed and cleaned of ore, waste is let into the excavation and operations proceed as in the previous case. If the width of the ore is too narrow to admit leaving the ore pillars to protect the

OVERHAND BTOPING OK WASTE
drift,
I

IN

MEXICO and AUSTRALIA

Ml

tern musl be follow it is, of course, obvious that the which the drift is timbered and waste filled in over it. For the filling of stopes one main fill hole is raised to the surface from This main a level located 100 to 200 ft. above the stopes to be filled. From the fill hole then serves for from three to five stopes or more. to be filled, up to the level on which this main fill chute is located, stopes

from two to four fill holes are driven for each stope. These fill holes are placed either beneath the center of the track or inclined over to the center from one side. Bearer timbers are laid over these holes and the track run over the bearers. A 5-horsepower electric motor, with a train of 10 cars of 1 ton capacity pulls the fill rock from the main fill chute to the particuInthismain fill hole at a lar stope and fill hole where waste is called for. distance of 75 to 125 ft. below surface (distance varying according to the point of approach or entrance) a grizzly station is cut and a grizzly put This grizzly is variable in size, ranging from in over the fill hole. The mouth of the fill hole is chambered out to a conveft. to 10x10 ft. Bearers nient size on a side away from the hole leading to surface. of 12xl2-in. timber spaced about 3 ft. apart are placed across this hole. On them are bolted 40-lb. rails so as to form openings of 15 in. square. All rock falling on the grizzly must be broken fine enough to pass through When boulders come down larger than 15x15 in., they these openings. catch on the grizzly and are broken up. This prevents the hole from •'hanging up" between this grizzly point and the chute below, and also eliminates any trouble at the chute in the loading of the cars. Ore Transportation. On the main tunnel level, and located so as
5

to reach
Fig. GO,

all

stopes advantageously, six ore pockets or bins, similar to

have been cut out of the rock within the ore zone, each having a capacity of from 1,000 to 10,000 tons. Each one of these bins is provided with from one to three sets of two chutes each, one set of chutes filling a 30-ton Ingoldsby bottom-dump ore car. Two 10-ton
General Electric traction motors running in tandem pull a train of from six to eight of these cars to the main tunnel mouth. Porvenir, which is
the terminal of the mine railroad.
of the succeeding levels

From

here a 60-ton Baldwin locomo-

tive takes a train of 14 cars to the concentrator at Nacozari.

On each

above the main tunnel level as far up as the 200-ft. level, continuous connections have been made to each ore bin as shown in Fig. 66. With dump stations provided for each bin on each mine level, the ore from each working finds its way into the nearest

dump.

This does

away with the

hoisting of the ore, a costly item.

Compensating Mexican Labor. All work underground is done by contract. All development work such as sinking, raisins:-, drifting, and cross-cut t in is contracted to the native Mexicans at so much per foot driven; the company furnishing steel, powder, fuse, caps, etc., the contractor only having to keep his working up to regulation size and in
r
.

142

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
his dirt to the chute.

In case of encountering waste be dumped into a fill stope. Prices of the work per foot vary with the kind of rock and also depend on whether the drilling is preformed by machine or hand. In the stopes both machine and hand
in a working,
it

some cases rnnning

will

per foot drilled with a In the stopes the supervision of the holes is not limited to the number drilled but they must be drilled as "pointed" by the stope boss to the stipulated depth. Car men receive so much per car trammed, the price varying with distance traveled and whether the ore is shoveled from sheet iron, or a rough
drills

are used, the miner being paid so

much

machine, or so

much

per foot with hand

steel.

Fig. 66.

—Ore bins and chutes, Los Pilares mine.

bottom, or drawn from a chute. In the stopes, shovelers dump wheelbarrows into chutes and are paid by the number of cars drawn from the chutes, which are counted up at the end of the day. As a check, the height of the ore in the chute is taken before starting to work and after finishing; the number of inches in the chute to the car being known. In filling stopes men are given a task of so many wheelbarrow loads per day for a certain wage. All wheelbarrow loads over or under this number are figured and paid for in proportion of the task to the wage. About 1,200 men are usually on the monthly pay roll with an average daily working force of 800 men. From 1500 to 2000 tons of ore is sent to the mill dailv from the whole mine.

OVERHAND BTOPING ON WASTE

IN

\!l.\I<<>

wi> AUSTRALIA

143

Example

25.

Wesi Australia

ticcd Wins in Cryatalliru Schists; Rill Chides. When working under ideal conditions, the ore body, if continuous, is divided into blocks by equidistanl levels, about '2(H) ft. apart, and by equidistanl winzes on The reason for the hangwall ride of the lode at l">o ft. to 200 ft. apart. having the winzes on the hangwall side is thai the stopes are thus filled The diagram of Fig. 67 shows how a mine with the leasl handling. thus blocked nut. is assumed in it that only one winze is connected It with the surface as a pass for filling, but the number of through p is purely a matter <>f convenience. The filling usually consists of fresh residue, which may be of .-and. or of
i.-

ed
5

"

slimed

" <>re or of

raw

,-

slimed " ore, and which
the residue contains too

per cent, of moisture.
is

If

may contain up much moisture

there

to stack

danger of it clogging the passes, so that sometimes it is neceon the surface for a short time previous to delivery to the mine, and by this means also much of its residual cyanide content is oyed. No chemical treatment whatever of the residue to destroy anide contents is practised in Western Australia. The residue received from the Burface can be distributed to the various winzes by means of a belt conveyor system along a disused level above the stopes. The methods of stopim: and filling on the rill system are as follow-:
a
it

On any particular level a leading stope is taken out below the ore be mined, when the drive is timbered usually, either by single stulls, or when the lode is over 14 ft. wide, by saddlebacks, at intervals of 5 ft. The latter consist of pairs of stulls sloping toward one another like the
to

and bearing upon a longitudinal ridging of sawn timber stulls are lagged with poles about 4 in. in diameter of a local wood called gimlet wood, or with old iron pipes. The lagging is in turn covered with old filter cloths, or the sides and linings of cyanide or any other inexpensive material which serves to prevent the residues from falling through. Two alternative methods of stoping the ore are shown at .1 and B on the diagram of Fig. 67. In the former all the holes are " down " hole.- and can be drilled wet, which is an important consideration in view of the
rafters of a roof,
2 in. thick.

The

necessity of reducing du.-t production.

In this method the benches are

taken out
In

at

an inclination slightly flatter than that of the natural slope

of the filling

which

in

the case of residues
at

the Less
cut.-,

Common method
and some
<>)'

horizontal
drilled dry.

about 45 deg. is mined by a series of the holes drilled must be "uppers" and
is

B

the ore

Usually during the timbering of a drive ore chutes are put in at disft., one (P) midway between the Winzes (lb), the others (Q) being intermediate \s stoping proceeds pa-scs about ivl
tances of about 50

144
ft.

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
in the clear are built
of

above these chutes, usually of 7-in. logs, but Each winze is also "cribbed" up except when it will not be required later on for passing " filling" to lower workings or for ventilation. In such a case the timbering of the level below the winze can be closed up and the winze filled up.

sometimes

9x3

in.

sawn timber.

Fig. 67.

—Stoping system, West. Australia.
and the
filling of

The breaking

of the ore

the stopes with residues

succeed one another alternately.

Before the benches of ore are blasted

eucalyptus saplings or slabs are laid on the sloping surface of the residue filling. These serve to keep separate to a great extent the broken ore

from the residue, and

assist in its "rilling" into the passes,

very

little

BBHAND 8TOPING
labor being then required.
I

\

MEXICO and AU8TBALIA
re

14")

working faces and covered ovi and the poles <>r -lal >s arc removed.
the winzes into th
filling

then built up close to the riduea from entering them,
i.s

the faces.
all

When
l>e

a

lue M then dumped down them up to a convenient distance from -tope has assumed the appearance shown at C, when

ore can

rilled to

the passes P, the intermediate pas

Ltirely

necessary.

re no As Btoping proceeds the appearance of the

•nilar to that

shown

at I).

It is

usual to stope a series

on the same level simultaneously, bo that the filling of the stopes with residue on both Bides of the winzes and the building up of the n be carried on symmetrically. When the stopes are nearly
of blocks
in

out, as

shown

at E.

it

is

usual to sink subsidiary winzes

R

in the

triangular blocks of ore left below the level above, through which the
les for filling

can be dropped.
rill

The
is

lodes in Western Australia are

usually very steep, and this
to them.

system

generally particularly applicable

Generally, as the dip of the lodes decreases below 45 deg., more and more shoveling is necessary to assist the rilling, and the method becomes inapplicable when the dip is less than about 35 deg. Filling with residue in Western Australia has been in use for about 13 years, and its present cost is about lOd. per short ton of ore mined.

Example

20.

British and Other Mixes.
District, X.
(See also
S.

Broken* Hill

W.
28.)

Examples 27 and

Rill Chutes. Cribs under a The Broken Hill district is situated in a Sa mpso desert country about 300 miles west of Sydney. The great silver lead lode occurs in the Barrier range which runs north and south through the Tertiary plane north of the Murray river and its outcrop forms a narrow rocky line of hills about 11/2 miles long. The main lode is 270 ft. thick in places (average about 60 ft.), and it stands nearly vertical and forks in depth into two slightly diverging branches separated by a horse of wall rock. The present primary ore, now mined in depth, consists of argentiferous galena and zinc blende in a gangue of garnet, rhodonite and fluorite of varying hardness and texture and lies between walls of garnetiferoue The surface oxidized ores have been extracted n. by huge open pits. The debris from these is now allowed to descend the - to fill the stopes in the present underground workings. Mill tailing and sand are also used for filling. The square em, using timber from Pugel Sound, was in vogue

Heal Vein in Crystalline Schist.
.

Weak Back.

stracting the enriched oxidized ores, which extended to a depth of 300 to 400 ft., but for the leaner sulphides below methods of stoping which are cheaper in timber and less liable to conflagrations have been
in

146
introduced.
to stand

.MIXING

WITHOUT TIMBER

At present, square-setting is only used in the ore too friable and as an auxiliary to the systems of Examples 25, 26, and 27 to be described. The Sampson system of the British mine is worked in the following way After the cross-cut from the shaft cuts the lode, it is driven across to the further wall and then opened out on each side till the ore is all taken out on the sill floor from wall to wall to a height of about 11 or 12 ft. The face is carried along in this operation by taking out the ore in two stages, the bottom 5 or 6 feet by drilling from the sill, then rigging the machine on a low bulk, or crib, to drill the

by

itself

:

upper 6 feet. As the face progresses, the drive timbers of the level are put along the footwall side, the leading set always far enough from the With the exception of cribs here face to be unaffected by the blasting.

r

4?: ';--->
Fig. 68.

—Cribbing back of stope, British mine.

and there the back will stand unsupported. The cribs, built up from the floor and also from the drive timbers, as shown in Fig. 68, are built up with lOxlO-in. Oregon timbers, 6 ft. or 7 ft, long. When within a foot
out
or so of the back, long stringers of 10x6 in. or 10x10 in. are cantilevered ground near top of the (if necessary on every side) to take in any bad

'crib,

the top is blocked and wedged tightly against the rock back, and the whole crib finally tightened by driving in wedges between its lower timbers, with a spalling hammer. The drive timbers are shown at the right in Fig. 68, and by the drawing Fig. 69. The sills and struts are 15 ft. long, taking three sets The sills butt midway between the sets, while spaced on 5-foot centers.

0VBRHAND BTOPING

0*i

\

l8T ,

1N

MIXI

,

,,

VN „

A

,

M| AU
.

I

I

cap while I0x6-in. top laths, laid close together from stringer to stringer town, give support to the filling placed on them. It will be seen that there is an 8-in. space below the top laths, this being intended to prevent the weight -.! the filling from coming od the cap, throwing it instead on toth. andlegs. The weight is thus kept to the sides of the drive cap merely taking part of the side pressure. On the
a

the strut.- meet over a leg. The [eg tennoned int., the sill and rtrul and below the sill at each leg a good block is put into the Bolid bol rhecapia jointed into the Btruta and legs. Ahm. :i( -h ,.nr lOxlO-m. stringer is laid, thus giving 20x10 in. of strut timber; these agers being properly spread by a 10x2 in. spiked to the top of the
ifl
,

vertical
-

10x4

in.

is high the necessary to put in extra ipport the strut between the sets, and as the side pressure causes the to bulge inward, the 10x4 will allow it 4 in play (this has been found no more than sufficient) before the lagging trespasses the plane oi the hack of the legs. Thus, extra legs can be put in without cuttmg away the bulged-in lagging or coming within the drive space rhe lower I0x4-in. spreader butts 2 in. on the leg.and 2 in. on the sill U packed underneath, and its top side forms, with 10x2-in pieceslaid from sill to sill, the floor on which the rails are laid. Outside the sets over the whole of the sill floor are laid, parallel

ten 8 th

rhe

outside of the takes the I0xl2-in. horizontal lagging IS ft in
in.
is,

weight

oi

!v:,s "" for this 10x4 the filling becm

that
it

when the stope

that

is

.

to drive. I0x4-in.

pi,

on which the filling is laid' It will thus be s,,.,, that when coming up with a stope from below the miners will have no timbers shorter than IS ft. long to catch up, when the last bit of ground is being taken out. A, intervals of from 80 to 100 ft. cross-cuts are put out from the main dnv,- along the foot to the hanging wall. At 30-ft. interval- along the tode drives, the two-compartment timber sets,Fig. 69, are put in butting On the drive.-. A set forms the bottom for the ladderwav and or,, chute built up from the sill as the height of the stope increases, the top set beina
_

15 or 16

ft.

long, butting againsl one another,

kept level with the
01

filling.

The

<•«

he

sets of JOxlO-in. pieces are laid
filling.

and hdd toget her by the

one upon

When

a stop,,

frp aboul 50 ft., the ore chute is by then very much hidderway ami chute are interchanged.

has been carried wo,„. and so the
is

to within a few feet of the rock back then start,,,, from the winzes (sunk aboul 100 ft. apart), another horizontal .-trip is taken off in the same way for 10 or 12 ft. in height the

When all these timbers are in found them and the -tope filled

on the

.-ill

floor, tin- filling

run

in all

back being supported where accessary with cribs. The waste filling'senl the winzes from the level above is built out around the timbering by trucking from the winze chute. i„ cars running on temporary tracks Intending from the winze-. When the filling ,.„•,, \,

iown

comefl to

.,

nntIlfl|

.

148

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

low crib is built on the new filling as near as possible to the old one and the and over latter then pulled down, and the crib timbers are used over The chutes and ladderways are built up level with the filling as again. the stope progresses as before stated. In this way the ore is taken out from wall to wall till the back is 60 ft, above the sill. horizontal It is then not considered safe to carry the back further up by but instead, starting from the winzes, the ore is taken out in stripping, diagonal strips or " rills," illustrated by Fig. 70, the slope of the back

By this method being approximately that of the filling 's slope of rest. the only weak place is the part where the top of the stope of stoping meets the level above. This point has to be well supported by an extra number of cribs, also the points over the edge of the filling which will by
/Q"/6" Top Laths

fv=r

I0"A2" Spreader^
/0"A/0"A/S"

1

^

SMnger

A /O" 10" Cap

-s'-e'

E
Fig. 69.

/O "A 4 " Spreader

.

<S///

/5'A/0"A5"J Piece

—Drift timbering, British mine.

this

have reached within 6 or 7 ft. of the level. The old 10x4-in bottom 10-ft. centers timbers are caught up by a line of cribs spaced on about supported extending from wall to wall, the bottom timbers being directly

by long

way

the

In this lOxlO-in. stringers laid across the tops of these cribs. are left in, old bottoms are all supported by the cribs, which
filling

shoveled up around them as close as possible. Thus, the of ground pracore is all taken out, even the last pyramid-shaped piece special difficulty. tically unsupported by the walls not presenting any

and the

The lode In the British mine this method has been very successful. other mines, its there does not attain as great a width as in some of the not more than greatest width being 130 ft., while the average width is throughout of a consist70 or 80 ft, The walls are both firm and the ore

OVERHAND BTOPZNG OK WA8TI
ently compact

I

.\

UBXICO

\l>

umkai.m

149

character, bo thai no other method has been required. used which was formerly mil] tailings is now zinc plant residues. Placed in a damp condition and having greater mobility than wast tetter and finds its way into the far corners, bo thai shrinka* reduced to a minimum. On these accounts the British nine has mined cheaper than any of the ethers, the underground cosl »me years going aboul 9 shillings per ton.

The

filling

adopted, bul
J,

other mines open stoping with temporary cribs has been the other details usually have bsen modified, In -some struts in the drive Bets are short, only reaching from leg to leg, and
•'11

'1"'

the

sills

are pul across the drive instead of parallel with

it.

In the Block

10 mine,
is

when coming up under
<>ut

taken

old bottoms, the whole of the last 40 ft. by square sets started off the filling, the old bottoms on level
sets.

above being caughl up from the top

Leve/

«].i

•••

hie. 70.

— Longitudinal section of stope,

British mine.

In the Proprietary mine there are several big differences i„ the worksome of them due to the greater width of the lode worked. In the instance described here, the lode has a width of 200 ft, In the fir,t place a drive is put in the footwall alongside the lode about 20 or 30 ft. in the country rock and cross-cuta at 20-ft. intervals off this
in- of this system,

The sill floor is taken out in the manner already described, and eventually these cross-cuts tap the main timb Bnve which runs down the middle of the lode. The drive in the country
fa

drive, as .shown in Fig. 70.

an advantage in case the timbered drive collapses The chute.- and ladderways. formed by a double
it.

at

any
e

point.

square
[

set,

are placed
all

M>ou1 30

apart along the drives. The double •round outside with horizontal I0x2-in. pieces,

,et

close lagged

and the

insi le

of the ore-

chute set is lined with vertical L0x4-in. hard wood (stringy bark) butting and spiked at the caps and struts of the sets. This is the only ca other than Oregon timber is used below ground. The hardwood makes

150

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER
lining, as the
is

an excellent chute
face soon acquired

of benefit,

wear is very slight and the polished surwhereas the Oregon timber is soon cut

If one of the chips give trouble in the concentrating mill. the outside 10x2-in. lagging prevents lining pieces is knocked away, It should be mentioned that during the filling from running into chute.

away and the

few years the Proprietary has used for the major part of its mine These necessitate close filling the sand residues from the zinc plant. mentioned, the filling is waste. lagging; where spaced lagging is On account of the width of the lode, part of it, in section somewhat pillar except less than half the width as shown in Fig. 71 is left as a solid sill floors and only the lode on the where cross-cuts, etc., cut it on the
last

Fig. 71.

—Cross-section of stope, Proprietary mine.
for the time being.
pillar.
is

footwall side

is

worked out

A

line of chutes
is

the boundary of the stope at the usual way by cribs, etc., till the back

The stope
ft.

forms taken up in the
sill.

75

above the

When

the

stope is being filled, vertical 10x4-in. timbers are placed 6 ft. apart against " the pillar and across these as the filling rises are placed 5x2-in. paddock

laths" a few^ inches apart, the intervening spaces being covered with waste pieces of candle boxes and saw-mill "flitches." The remaining 25 ft., up to the level* above, is removed in the manner
illustrated

by Fig. 72. At each of the waste winzes, which are about every 100 ft. apart, cribs, is a cross-cut, 16 ft. wide by 8 ft. high, untimbered except for to pillar and is then tightly filled taken out across the block from wall
from the winzes. On this filling another cross-cut is driven about 8 ft. down high and 7 ft. wide and also filled, the sides being first chamfered
to the sides of the 16x8-ft cross-cut.
8x7ft.
is

Above this cross-cut another one with " clap-me-down sets," wmich driven, this time timbered

OVERHAND 8TOP1NG ON WASTE

1\

MEXICO \M> VLBTKAUA

15]

oatch up and Bupporl on their tops the bottom of the level above as

shown

in

l

[g

72,

l

are

now

filled

up
is

to the

under side
left

of level
unfilled.

a.<

possible, only the Bel
In filling the sets,
a

alongside the pillar being always

L0x2-in. board

pu1 along each Bide of the

drive againsl
vertical

the bottom of the legs, and the struts take the ends of
laths,

paddock
filled as

as

before

explained,

the

intervening

between
filling.

before with candle-bos pieces, which serve to hold the

Stoping across the block

now

censes,

bu1

is

resumed

in

the

direction of the lode'.- Btrike, by blasting
72
_'.")-t't.

down with

a sloping bi

from the Bide of this top run of sets to the under side of the deep block. The breasts, which extend righl across the block

ipper level)

Fig. 72.

— Long, section of stope, Proprietary mine.
wall, are carried along
is

and are worked from chute to
stope to another
till

from one crossthe case at the

the block

worked
is

out.

As
part,

in

British mine, the top of the stope

the

weak

supported by the
3sary.

sets, cribs also

being put in

and has to be well under the back whenever

When
Bets

the breast has advanced sufficiently, another crossis

run of timber
sets

put in alongside the

first.

The
is

filling for

the

first

now

has to he

dumped down where
next the
is

the drive above crosses the top of
out. there

the stope.

The

set

pillar,

as bet ore.

that when the footwall block

worked

is

always left open, so just below the level
all

alongside the pillar an open drive of Bets which connects

the middle

By this mean.-, openings are left for attacking ladderways and chutes. the pillar which will probably be removed in a somewhat similar manner, depending on conditions existing when the time (not yet arrived) comes for working hem. If, at any place, the In-east is too broken to be worked safely by the open method, he lower face of the block is caught up on 3-CUtS timbered with " clap-me-down sets," stepping them up and
I

i

backward

to the top run

i

In som<
horizontal slices,
it

instead of working out the ore to a certain height
is

by

worked out by the sloping breasts

entirely.

This

advantages in that nearly all the drill hole- reand the waste being on the slope, the filling is Where the ore lies in flat layers, the back will easily and cheaply done.
great

quired ate

method has two down

holes

152

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
itself

probably support

better

when worked by
the other hand,

slopes than
it is

when

it

is

mined

in horizontal slices.

On

more

difficult to

support the sloping back by cribs. A place has first to be prepared on the waste sill for laying the first timbers, and the sloping back does not

come squarely on the top
so tightly

of the crib. The waste probably does not set on the sill as in other cases where much trucking has to be done, but still where the walls are firm and the back is good and does not require much support, this method can be advantageously adopted. It has been used extensively in the South Mine where conditions are favor able. Here an extra number of ore chutes are put in, and the cribs are often built up from the tops of some of these.

Example

27.

Proprietary Mine, Broken Hill, N.
(See also

S.

W.

Examples 26 and
in
Crystalline

28.)

Sub-vertical

Panels.

— In

Broken

Vein

Schist.

Cross-cutting in

the Proprietary Mine a class of ground was

met with

in

which the hard sulphide ore was found to be broken up into big and little boulders. It was impossible to work this by the open method, and if square sets were used, the sudden loosening of a big boulder would be likely to knock over a dozen or more sets, with disastrous results. A system was therefore adopted in which as small an area of the back as possible was left unsupported while working out the ore. The piece of ground worked in this way was approximately 60x60 ft. To illustrate this method we will consider that one floor shown in Fig. 73, is just finished, A, B, and C are the jump-off s of ladderway and chute, while is the waste winze. A is first raised one floor and a drive started off toward B connecting on its way with C. When drive Fig. 73. — Plan of Gross-cut stope, A B is complete a cross-cut is put out to the Proprietary mine. waste chute. Two men are then started at say a to cross-cut toward the wall, and when about a third of the way in,

M

another pair start at say b. When a is two-thirds of the way in, a third party starts at c. When the cross-cut a reaches the wall, the miners are withdrawn to start another cross-cut and the filling gang is put in. This consists of two truckers and one shoveler, the three working on contract, The crosstogether with one man on wages to look after the packing.
is
is filled in a manner similar to that previously described. The filling shoveled up as tightly against the rock back as possible, and by the time this cross-cut a is filled, cross-cut 6 will be ready and so on. Toward

cut

the end the corss-cuts will be put in alongside the

filled ones.

Usually

OVERHAND BTOPING ON WASTE
the cross-cute on the
th."ii

i\

MEXICO AND IU8TRALU

153

.1 Bide of the waste chute are finished before tilother Bide, and while those on the B side are being finished, the drive the .1 side is filled up, the jump-off .1 is raised asel and the drive

start. -.I

un

floor
all

above toward
the drive
a floor

/>'

as before.
filled

When
is

the cross-cuts on the

B
1/

side are
is

filled,

is

and

lastly the

waste cross-cul to

filled

and thus

about 8

feel

thick

completely taken out.
l<

The drive
the
Bel

sets used in this method are shown in Fig. 71. The an- al.out 7 feet long, are tapered, being Kim', in. at top, and

rZ-~-±±*7

7

-t

J

I.

Jill Piece " \e/0"A4

(a)

•/
Fig.
<4.

'/„

7" /'
<>f

/ '/*

/'

-Timbering

cross-out stops, Proprietary mine.

in. at
I

bottom and have a hole of l-in. diameter about 6 in. from the top. hese legs fool on to a 10x4 in. scrap piece about 18 in. long. The cap is
in.,

10x10
caps
at
is

its

laid
is

times

cap and

leg

ends Bimply laid on the tops of the legs, while across the whatever timber is uecessary to support the rock hack (this a fairly high crib). A 10x2 in. spreader butting half on the is held up by rough cleats uailed to the top of the legs. When
in,

the cross-cul timbers arc put
sides of the cross-cut,

the drive cap, are extended along the
as

-vera 10x4
are laid

Across the struts, 10x10 in. caps with timbers on these to catch up the hack. \., spreader ie used

in.

becoming struts, corbel on top of the leg.

shown

in Fig. 71

(6),

and butt

154
in the cross-cut,

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBEH

and where the pressure

at

end

of

one

is

considerable,

approximately 6 ft. wide and 6 ft. apart, but there dimensions are not strictly adhered If a boulder bulges into to, as the sets are onlj- of a temporal character. the drive the set may be made narrower to suit, or if available timbers
diagonals are put in between sets as shown.
sets are

The

are longer or shorter than necessary, the sets are built to suit, the size of When the sets being always subordinate to the ground and timber. opening out a new floor, some of the timber is recovered from the floor

below usually all the caps and some of the legs and other parts being saved, the hole in the tapered leg being used to put in a drill or bar to About two-thirds of all the timber used is reassist in withdrawing.
In this system it is desirable to drill by hand labor, using shallow holes and light charges, on account of the unst ability of the ground. By the above means, this difficult ground is not only safely worked, but
covered.
at a cost little

more than

for ordinary

ground with square-setting.

CHAPTEB

XII

OVERHAND STOPING WITH SHRINKAGE AND DELAYED FILLING
imple
28.

Central Mine, Broken Hill,
Examples 26 and
Schists.
27.)

X.

S.

W.

(See also
Sub-vertical

Veins

Square-setting.

— In

this
it

constanl width, ami

orebody, 2 per cent,

Cribbing and mine the lode reaches its greatesl and mosl was not considered feasible to work the inn: solid ore, by the ordinary systems in vogue at
in

Crystalline

— Auxiliary

Bmken

Hill.

The method adopted,

as illustrated in Tig.

75, Wi

divide the lode up into 50-ft. sections by vertical planes running across the lode and working out every alternate section as a stope, leaving the

These nlled others as pillars ti.l the stopes are worked out and filled. l his stopes act then as pillars while the former pillars are worked out. A main drive, timbered by SxOxOft. is carried out in the followingway:
r

sets

is

first

driven approximately

down

in section lines

and

this drive

the center of the orebody to afterward connected by cross-cuts

to a waste drive in the footwall.

At every stope block the whole of the sill floor is taken out, using square sets from wall to wall. A winze is sunk from level above about in the middle of the side of each stope. half the winze in the pillar and
half in stope,
as

shown

at

IT,

Fig.

75.

The

cross-cut,
r

or gangway,

timber sets next the pillars are left open and the row of sets joining the ends of these are also left unfilled. All the other inside sets are filled with waste excepting the chute sets which are started in the rows next The slope is then taken up from the top of these sets by the gangways. the overhand stope and crib method of Example 26 with the difference that the gangway row of sets is carried up on each side of the stope and
left unfilled,

acting as

a

barricade to keep the waste clear of the

pillar,

and also as a place from which the pillar may be attacked. The rock pack of the Btope is given a slight slope downward from the winze side to the opposite side. When the back has a height of 60 or 70 ft. above :<• started on the -ill, squai the waste, and the rest of the stope So great are the ore resources of this mine ken out in this way. that only a few of the stopes have been worked out and no necessity has yet arisen for working the pillars on a large scale. The intended method for working them out, however. i~ indicated
155

15b'

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK

in Fig. 75, at

M.

Starting from the hanging wall, the part furthest from

put in against the wall up from one level to the one above. This is done from every level and at every pillar simultaneously as nearly as possible. These sets are all filled except the last set of the row on the winze side. This one is made the waste finite from which to fill the next row taken out. In this way the pillars are gradually sliced away from top to bottom by vertical strips parallel to the drives, working from hanging to footwall till only worked-out ground is left behind. Enough work has been done in this way to
of sets is
is

the country drives and the shaft, a
filled

row

from one

stope to next, and this row

carried

.Mf~_

Hanging IA/a//

Fig. 75.

—Plan of stoping, Central mine.

demonstrate that under ordinary circumstances the pillars can be successfully worked in this way, but on account of the heavy moving ground characteristic of the lode at this part of it, it is probable that the system when worked on a large scale will have to be modified. The room-cavieg system of Example 46 seems to the author more applicable for mining these pillars, as slicing horizontally could be more easily controlled than slicing parallel to a steep and heavy hang wall.

Example

29.

King Mine, Graham County,
Examples
22, 30

Ariz.

(See also

and

40.)

Irregular Lenses in Porphyry: Auxiliary Back-caving

Stoping.

—The two lenticular oreshoots
fill

of the

long respectively and

a fault-fissure in

and Underhand mine are 700 and 500 ft. The a granite porphyry hill.

OVERHAND STOPING WITH SHRINKAGE
faulting has been Bevere, bul in the absence

\i>

DELATED PILLING

157

of

any sedimentary rocks, the

amount

of displacement

cannol be determined.

The

ore

is

chalcocite

and chalcopyrite in a gangue of brecciated granite porphyry and varies in width up to 30 ft. The vein dips at an angle of 70 deg. and the walls are Btrong and well denned. The Bteep Blope of the mountain permits
of the v.-in
a vertical

being worked from adit
ft.

levels,

the lowesl

of

which gives

depth of 600

below the outcrop.

Haulage Roads
Main haulage roads are driven iii the foot- and hanging-walls, parallel with the vein, hut at a distance of from 15 to 20 ft. from it. From these
roads, cross-cuts are
Fig. 76.

made

at intervals of 25

ft.,

those
in

in

the hanging-wal]
in

being staggered or spaced

midway between

those

the foot-wall as

77 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777T77777777777777T

Plan
Tfic

Section.
Engineering A Mining Journal

I'm;.

78.-

S toping at King mine.

then broken from wall to wall for the whole length of the ore is at first shoveled out, but as stoping progresses it is allowed to accumulate, sufficient being removed to allow a working space of 6 ft. between the broken ore and the roof. Two-thirds of the broken ore is left till the stope is worked out. theme serving working floor for the miners and also prevents caving of the walls.
ore
is

The

ore-shoot.

The broken

<

)verhand Stoping
al

Access to the stope
vals of 100
ft.

is obtained from raises made in the roof and connected to an upper level. From tin

inter-,

the

roof

is

broken

in

horizon!

.-d

Blices of

from 10

to

15

ft.

in

thickness.

b

158

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

the miners work outward from the raises, the sag or belly of ore between generally breaks off, leaving the roof sufficiently arched to allow the

block to be broken from on top.
the walls.

Large horses

of hard, barren
pillars,

ground

frequently occur in the vein and these are

left in as

to support

Occasionally, parts of the vein are too soft to be mined safely by overhand stoping and the mode of attack is changed. From the two raises between which the ore is softer than usual, a drift is made 20 to 30 ft. above the back of the stope and connecting the raises. Midway in As these holes this drift down-holes are drilled in the floor and sides. are blasted and break down the shell of ore between the floor of the drift and the stope, mining is continued back to the raise until the whole of the In using this shell has thus been broken by underhand stoping. method, the roof of the drift which connects the raises must be sufficiently high to allow the handling of the long jumper drills needed in breakingdown the floor. When approaching an upper level, the ore is always broken by underhand stoping. When the top of the orebody is reached in stoping, the remainder of A certain admixture the broken ore is drawn off through the cross-cuts. of wall rock and ore is unavoidable when the last portion of the ore is drawn, but this is easily removed on the sorting platform over which the The switches at each cross-cut on the road-way allow the ore is passed. The shovelers to load their cars without interfering with the haulage. ore is sledged and loaded by contract, and when a car is full it is pushed A few miners are into a side track, where the mule train is made up. required to block-hole the larger pieces of ore as they appear at the shoveling openings. The advantages of this method are obvious; one worthy of special notice is the security in which the shoveler works.

Example

30.

Coronado Mine, Graham County, Ariz.
Examples
22, 29

(See also

and

40.)

Subsequent Pillar-caving.

and most important holdings of the Arizona Copper Company, lies on the southern slope of the Coronado mountain, a granite massif, whose precipitous sides form a conspicuous landmark in the district. The great Coronado fault is at the base of these granite bluffs. It strikes east and west and can be traced for a length of two miles. Its movement has been downward and westerly at its eastern extremity, resulting in a vertical displacement of 1200 ft. between the basal quartzite on the south of the fault and of that resting upon the granite on the north. The vein, which fills the fault-fissure, is followed on the south side by an intrusion of fine-grained green diabase, varying in width up to 70 ft.
Irregular Lenses in Porphyry; Auxiliary Back-caving of Rooms,

— This mine, one

of the

OVERHAND BTOPING WITH SHRINKAGE \n DELAYED PILLING
The
:,Vr:

I

159

lo '"

oreshool
It

is

approximately 2000
a
is

width. to a depth of .on ft.
is

has been opened by

ft. long and will three-compartment

The vein
ft.,

practically vertical.

The north

»ot-wall
is

of slightly altered granite
a

of quartzite to

depth of 150

and the south or hanging-wall below which the vein enters the
is

granite fissure.

The zone

of sulphide ore

reached

300

ft.;

above

this level, small bodies of oxidized ore

a1 a depth of 250 have been found.

to

ore of the sulphide zone is chalcocite, in some places entirely replacing and in others forming a coating on pyrite and chalcopyrite. The gangue consists of crushed and altered granite and diabase; in this ect the vein differs from mosl of the others of the district.

The

Horses

of granite are occasionally found in the vein, the outer Bhells of whirl, will be typical ore, gradually merging to an interior of slightly altered Ite, showing do line of demarcation.

Mining Methods

The orebody is contained between walls of granite, the foot-wall is exceedingly hard and the hanging wall is hard, though liable to slab off in large pieces. The greater par tof the ore is of medium hardness and, nol being frozen to either wall, parts readily from them. A
Lack of ore
is

will

generally Btand well without support

if

properly arched;

it

advisa-

however, to work it out rapidly to prevent "air slaking." No Budden change in the width of the orebody has been found, and do sulphide occur in the walls as is often the case in the
ble,

porphyry deposits.
in

The system

of

Example 22 was formerly employed
waste
filling

hard

ore.

when

overcome in the presenl system in which the shovelers work outside the stope, the miner is kept bo close to the back of ore as to allow constant scrutiny and the
handling of waste In preparing a
,

being easily obtained. The expense of breaking and leveling waste for each slice and the exposing of unskilled laborers undera high roof, were the vital objections '" the continuance of this system. These defects were

sufficiently close to surface to allow of

is

reduced to

level for

stoping by the

"' ,

'

n

employed.

In the
ia

firsl

minimum. new system, two methods have method shown in Figs. 77 and 78, all of the
a

bre between the wall•J<)

for a length of 7:> ft. and to a h< ight of This Bpace after being floored with 2-in. plank is filled with v. from the old Stopea above to within 5 ft. of the Lack. New roadare dow driven in the toot- and hanging-walls, paralleling the vein at' distance of 15 ft.
ft.

removed

Chute raises are carried up at intervals of 25 ft. along these roadways jnd connected to the Mope by crosscuts. The broken ore from the stope runs through the cross-cut; the grizzly allows the finer material to pass into the chute and the larger pieces are broken by a
laborei

160

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

stationed on the grizzly.

The chutes are all connected on the level of the from which a ladderway extends to the level. grizzlies by small drifts, floor of the In the second method shown in Figs. 77, 79, and 80, the sill

Fig. 77.

— Vertical section.

Cross-section of Fig. 78. stope at A-B.

Fig. 79.

—Crossat C-D stope

section of

.///M///////////////////////////////////^///^

Wmw7M/7mW77777777777MMMm^
Temporary
pillar at section E-F.

Pillar to

be removed
section

Fig. 80.

by

slicing:

G-H.

Stoping System at Coronado Mine.

stope

above the tramming level. This level is in th. high for the whole length center of the vein and is timbered two sets the top of the timber and the of the stope, leaving a shell of ore between
is

started 15

ft.

OVERHAND STOPING
floor
'"'

Willi

SHRINKAGE and DELATED PILLING

16]

ll "' rtope above. to cadi altera of fche upper Bets, infunnel-shaped raises communicate with the stope, the floor of which, viewed from inside the Btope, consists of two rows of hoppers. rhe broken ore passing through these openings falla
<

clined

-n- with which

upon the 6x8-in!

the floor of the

upper seta

is

lagged.

By opening

the

center lagging, the ore is raked into the cars placed beneath. -' '"" the rh preparatory work is less in this
lie

oul ol

system than in Fig. loading of the cars being direct is cheaper, but the rapid cleaning the Btope,which is an important matter, is subject to more delays.

Pill irs

Two classes of pillars are employed to support the roof and walls, small temporary stoping pillars and larger pillars to be removed later by top slicing. A section along the vein in Fig. 77, shows a pillar of ore 30 It. long, a stope of 75 ft., a temporary pillar of 10 ft. in length, another
ft., and again a pillar 30 ft. in length. The 30-ft. pillar is provided with a chute and ladderway, from which drifts at intervals of 15 ft. give entrance and ventilation to the stopes. The smaller pillar is 10 ft. long by the width of the vein and contains a ladderway with
"•

small drifts, as in the larger pillar.

'

Overhand Stopixg

broken by overhand stoping, Waugh drills being used. kept full of broken ore, sufficient only being drawn to leave a working space between the floor of broken ore and the back of the stope. Vn ork is confined almost entirely to the ends of the stope adjacent to the pillars with the purpose of leaving a sag or belly of ore hanging between, rhis eventually breaks down by its own weight and is block-holed from on top. In an eight-hour shift, of which two hours are consumed in blasting and picking down, each machine will drill from 90 to 110 it
is
1

The

ore

he stope

is

of holes.

Should the back of ore turn soft and render it inadvisable to work beneath, the ore can be broken down underhand by connecting drifts from the raises and breaking the floor as described in connection with the

King .Mme

,,i

Example

29.

200 ft. apart, and when a stope is within 15 ft. of an upper level, the breaking of ore ceases. Two raises are then made from the roof of the stope beneath the waste filling of the level above.
small temporary pillar is broken by first undercutting and then blasting from inside the ladderway. The roof of the stope is now carefully dre and the stope emptied f its broken ore as rapidly
as possible.

The

levels are

The

162

mining without timber
Filling and Extracting Pillars

The waste filling from the level above is now allowed to run into the empty stope and, when full, a working floor is leveled off. To extract As the ore is the shell of ore left, square-set timbering is employed. in the pillars, the sets are caved and removed by retreating to the chutes
the waste allowed to follow.'

between the stopes, work is commenced beneath the upper level. Square sets are employed and a mat laid, upon which the waste is caved. The ore is then removed from beneath the

To extract the

pillar left

mat by descending

slices 11 ft. thick,

using posts to support the over-

hanging mat, as in Example 43. When the broken ore is drawn from the stope by chutes in the walls, there must necessarily be a " hog back " of broken ore left along the center This is removed by spiling a timbered roadway through of the stope. As soon as the waste appears, it and withdrawing the broken ore. blasted out, retreating in this manner to each another set of spiling is

end

of the stope.

above the roadway as in Figs. 79 and 80, the from below is carried up to this level and the stope which next ascends The system has been satisshell of ore removed as before described.

Where the

sill

floor is

factory and has resulted in a substantial reduction in the cost of mining.

Example

31.

— Los

Pilares Mine, Nacozari, Mexico

(See also

Example

24.)

Irregular Lenses in Porphyry; Slicing
this

and Delayed
is

Filling.

— Where

same by this system of stopas method B in Example ing has a better grade than that mined in Example 24, and for that reason no chance is taken of mixing it with the waste filling. The
system
is

employed the

sill

flooring of a stope

practically the

24.

The

ore extracted

ground

is

also

much
main

firmer, allowing a large stoping area without

danger
cross-

of caving

and

thus losing the stope.
drift

At

intervals of

from 12 to 20

ft.

cuts from the

(which
ft.

the ore for a distance of 20

generally on the wall) are driven into from the center of the main drift. If the
is

orebody

is

not wide, these cross-cuts will suffice to

draw the broken

ore

of the stope, as there will not be too much space between the far side of the stope and the end of such a cross-cut which, because of its purpose,
is

termed a shovel-way. If the orebody is wide, as in Fig. 65, an auxilis driven through the ore at approximately right angles to the pillars and located about two-thirds the distance between the country Cross-cuts g are then driven at intervals of wall and the limit of the ore. from 12 to 20 ft. from this auxiliary drift to both the left and the right, 15 ft. long, and after leaving a 15-ft. pillar between the side of the drift and the end of the cross-cuts, the remaining area of the stope is "silled''
iary drift d

OVBBHAND BTOPING WITH BHHINKAGI AND DELAYED FILLING
on the
'''

163

pillar thus left forma the base of the floor arch pierced by thi uts which serve a Iwaya lu then placed in the main drift in front ---/.,„ ll S of track laid each cross-cut. A platform A raised T; above the raila la then placed in the cross-cul al the far end of the kand aflat iron sheet placed on top of it, at the same time raising the roof above the platform about ft. This track arrangement allows the car to be turned into the shovelway, leaving the mam track open The broken ore runs down on to the iron sheet over the platform from which n is shoveled, thua giving the car man an easier task in filling hia car Fifteen feet above the level floor, the stope ia cut out back over each drift, leaving it protected by the pillars and floor arch i as seen in the section shown in Fig. 65, but thua acquiring the whole area between the

level floor.

The

tbe drift,

and

is

T

m

1

Fig.

81.— Town

of

Los

Pilares.

piUars overhead for stoping. From the top of the arch up, the atope ia worked by two and three slices being carried forward at the same time The broken ore accumulates in the stope and only enough ia drawn from belowthrough the shovelwaya to allow the miners to drill by standing on ore. Manways/are carried up through the center of the pillara limiting the stope on each side. From one manway 20 ft. above the level floor an intermediate cross-cut is driven to the stope and at each succeeding

From the pillar manway on the other intermediate cross-cut to the stope is driven 30 feet above the level floor, and others at intervals of 20 ft. above it. These manand their connecting cross-cuts give an inlet and outlet to the stope tor every 10 ft. By this method, a stope may be carried up 100 ft or even 200 or 300 ft., before being drawn and filled. Again a stope may be worked from two or three levels at the same time, each level being driven up till only a thickness of 12 to 15 ft. of solid ground separates two stopeside

20

ft

siimlar cross-cuts are driven.
first

the

164

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
this point the

At

uppermost stope

is

drawn through
haulage

its

shovelways, after

down. ground separating the two stopes, one over the other, is then drilled with a large number of holes, say 50 to 60, from the top of the broken ore, the holes heavily loaded and shot down, thus making the two
floor arches, etc., protecting the
drift are shot

which the
solid

The

By this method all the ore left for floor arches, etc., is eventually recovered except that on the lowest level worked. These great stopes may or may not be filled with waste rock soon after drawing off the ore. When the mine was first opened they were
stopes one.

In recent drawing the stopes. As illustrative of the standing qualities of the rock, no better example can be cited than that of the old No. 1 stope worked out during
left

sometimes

standing empty for months without accident.
is

years, however, the tendency

to

fill

as soon as possible after

the

first

years of mining.

This was located near the Pilares shaft
in floor plan

(Fig. 81),

was 100x100

ft.

and was worked up from the

280 ft. Although the capping was here only 25 to 30 ft. thick, the empty stope stood for 18 months without caving before it was filled. Filling the Stopes. In filling stopes mined by this system, fill holes are run direct to the surface over the stope where they are widened out to a size of 12x12 ft. On the surface this 12xl2-ft. hole is then further enlarged to a roughly funnel shape by churning holes from 12 to 30 ft. in depth above the edge of the fill hole. These churn drill holes are sprung with dynamite, and shot with black powder, the rock breaking from su ch shots falling directly into the stope. By having the fill hole of this large size, it is seldom choked with large rock.

400-ft. level clear to the oxidized capping, a vertical distance of

I

HAPTEB

XIII

OVERHAND STOPING

Willi

OUS PILLAR-CAVING
Example 32.—Miami
(See also
/
.

SHRINKAGE AND SIMULTANEGlobe District, Arizona
42.)

.Mine,

Examples 21 and

""'" // '"

/"

»* ™
8

t

-

pre.,nt the
It

Parphyry.-RUl Chutes and Slicing of Pillars main prospecting shaft, Xo. 1, has been sunk to a depth
0r

-

encountered at 22 ft., its thickness at the shaft Phe area of th ^ orebody (see Fig. 81) is about 10 acres and it is covered by 60 to 250 ft. of porphyry capping Below the 220-ft level sub-levels have been driven at 25-ft. vertical mtenals down to the 370-ft. level, and on these sub-levels the orebody has been almost completely blocked out into 50-ft. squares by drifts 7 ft /«"«< high and from 4 1/2 to 5 ft. wide.
is
1

r'n '.I U st 5 °° f
'

^' aS

,

The 50-ft interval of ore between the 370-ft. level and the 420-foot °r main-haulage, level has been left solid to protect the haulage level ^"le mining the ore above it. Before detailing the method of mining, a word as to the character of the
ore.
'

tende ?* *' °- Lawton thc ^viser of this mining system, sa } s Fhe ennched schist of the spheroidal-shaped orebody has been greatly fractured, crushed, and later softened or altered by percolating

® UP

water, so that in its present form I he fractured condition will

it

is

quite easily drilled and broken.

facilitate

break into pie

mining by causing the ore to
shove] Qr

easily handIed

by

tJu

.

unsuitable.

the ore will break in so large pieces as to necessitate rebreaking or block-holing to avoid choking the chutes. Most of the ore caves easily so that to avoid timbering except at soft places, the levels are driven the narrow width of 2 to 5 ft. by 7 ft. high, mththe roof carefully arched." System of Mining.—h is apparent from the above description of the ore that, because of its sofl .rush,,! nature, which causes it to quickly <*ve wherever excavations of any mdth are left untimbered, a system 01 caving practical where the ore is hard and stands well, would here be

^ ^ ^^ ^^

M

The accompanying illust rations, Figs. 82 to 85, will make clear the following description. Fig. 82 is a plan of the orebodv showing method of rectangular system for tramming levels located 50 ft. below floor of stopes. Fig. 83 is a cross-section through rooms and pillars. Fig. 84 165

166
is

MIKING WITHOUT TIMBER,

a plan of first mining level, showing method of cutting-out room preparatory to stoping. Fig. 85 is a detail plan of sub-levels, showing method of stoping rooms. On the first main-haulage level, the 420-ft. haulage drifts have been

driven spaced on 50-ft. centers, as shown in Fig. 82. The ground is to be excavated by a series of rooms 60 ft. wide alternating with
40-ft. pillars

as best understood

by

reference to Fig. 83.

Every

alter-

nate haulage drift is to be provided with a mill hole to draw the broken ore from the rooms while the other drifts will come beneath the

50' 100

'

150' 200'

Fig. 82. First haulage level,

Miami mine.

drifts 4x5 ft. raises e have been put up so as both the rooms and pillars. This spacing arrangement has necessitated the carrying of the pillar 25 ft. thick on one side of a pillar drift, and only 15 ft. on the other, as shown in the plan Fig. 84. The haulage drifts beneath the rooms have chutes spaced on 25-ft. centers, while the drifts beneath the pillars have chutes every 50 ft. It will be noted on Fig. 83 that the raises to the rooms are branched from a point 25 ft. above the haulage level in order to make them effective in drawing the broken ore all the way across the room. As previously stated, the orebody has been already completely blocked out preparatory to starting caving in the near future.
pillars.

From these haulage

to

come

in the center of

OVERHAND MOPING WITB SHRINKAGE UtD PILLAR-CAVING

167

its will be carried high by s ft wide The roof of these cross-cuts will then be drilled with upper holes, using hammer-dnl] rtopers, and shot down to a height of 7 ft. more, making the tol a) height oi the cross-cuts 14 ft. Then starting again at the drift a sli, dnvage will he taken ca.-h way in a similar manner, breaking to the previous excavation a. el then shooting to obtain the height of 14 ft In

Operations will start on the first mining level, Fig. 83, 50 ft above the haulage level. The top line of ] 54 9 ts the limit of cornMining will commence at this limiting li 1: hom Starting then at the end of the drift cross-cuts will be driven both ways along the limiting line to the pillar lines.
,

Thes.
7
ft.

ide

and high as found practical, say

Flo. 83.

—Cross-section

of etope,

Miami mine.

slice by slice from the limiting li ne the ore above the room is broken to a height of 14 ft., although at no point do the miners work under a roof higher than 7 ft. The ore thus

'hi.-

way. retreating

floor of the

the branched raises of Fig. 83, previously driven; but only as much ore as necessary will be drawn, as it is desirable that it shall pack under the solid bark as closely as possible, thus supporting its weight The mmers are then transferred to the first submining level located
will
1.11

broken

above. A. 14 ft, of ore has been broken below, the thickm -round underfoot is now but 11 ft. Reference to Fig. 83 will make clear the method of procedure to break up this n ft. Starting at a central raise down holes are placed all around it and shot through to the broken ore in the room beneath. Simultaneously work is started at the next raise and the floor likewise broken down. Drill men then

25

ft.

-

solid

168
drill

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

the floor and roof of the drift which connects the two raises blasting them both simultaneously in 4- to 5-foot sections, retreating, from the holes started at the raises, toward each other till they meet about in the

'////////A

Fig. 84.

—Plan

of first

mining

level,

showing chutes, Miami mine.

This work breaks the floor of the drift through into drift. room full of broken ore below, and breaks up its roof to a height of 14 ft. The drill men now start again at the raises, and leaving in the solid floor to work on, slice back the walls for a width of about 7 ft. but
center of the
the

'////////) *///////""

!T77ft-

rrrrr\t//>////,/\ 1777

Fig. 85.

—Plan showing rooms during stoping, Miami mine.
broken through to the room

only 7

ft.

high, thus paralleling the slot

below and again meeting in the middle of the block as before. The floor and roof are now simultaneously drilled and shot, breaking through into

OVEBHAND BTOPINQ WITH BHBINKAOl and PILLABH kVING
room below, and raising the roof to a height of slice after alice ia worked back parallel with the
the
pillar-line limits are reached,
1-1

L6fl

ft.

In this

manner

original drift until the

thus breaking up the entire 25-ft. block submining level, ami likewise demolishing the lower n "f ili«' block below the Becond Bubmining level. The miners are then transferred to the Becond submining level, ami the breakin repeated from sublevel to sublevel until the leached capping is

below the

first

i

l

reached.

fad that the soft, erushed nature of the rock makes work under, it will be noted that the method always provides Bafety by keeping the height of the roof under which miners work at only 7 ft. and affording ample ways of ingress and egress.
it

In spite of the

a

had n.of

,o

Owing

to the shattered condition of the rock there should 1' ivakmg it fine enough to avoid choking of the

be no difficulty in

chutes.

For placing the side and down holes, light 2 1/4-in. one-man piston drills will probably be used, and for uppers the air-hammer drill. It will be readily apparent that quite a number of men can be worked in a room when it is once started from several points, and to that end the compressed-air pipe system now being installed has been designed to furnish air to a large number of drills per level without reducing the desired pressure. The main air pipe is 10 in. in diameter down the shaft, ami from it two S-in. diameter pipes are branched off at the main haulage levels, the 420- and 570-ft. On each haulage level the 8-in. pipe is hooped completely about the rectangle of Fig. 82. Each of the haulage drifts I branching from the rectangle is to have a 4-in. main
pipes are tapped

and carried up the

into which 2 1/2-in. pillar raises to the various sublevels

where 1 1/2-in. pipes connect with the drills. By this system of piping, an ample supply of air at the proper pressure is provided. Draining the Broken Ore.—As the ore runs about 12 cubic feet to the ton solid and about 10 to 17 cubic ft, broken, it will be understood that as the breaking up of the rooms proceeds, enough of the ore is drawn through the chutes to allow a sufficient space before blasting for a free breaking. Yet at all times the top of the broken material is kept close under the solid back in order to prevent the falling of the large masses Mich would have to be block holed under it. a roof of dangerous height to prevent choking of the chutes. After two adjoining rooms have been broken the length of the ore body, or, say, 200 to 300 ft. back from the limiting line of Fig. 82, the intermediate pillar may be mined

Example 43, as shown at the top of Fig. 76 be understood that the irregular dome-shaped masses of comparatively small horizontal area are best
(6).

by the method

of slicing of

It will, of course,

same

mined by

this

method, before the rooms are broken up to the level where the width of the ore is fairly uniform across the whole ore body. This Blicing system breaks the capping to the surface and gets its weigh! on

slicing

170

MINING WITHOUT

TIMBJSi:

the ore body before the rooms reach the top submining level
Fig. 82.

shown

in

broken up to the top submined until the broken ore is encountered. The level of the broken ore in the rooms is then lowered to that of the top of the solid pillar, thus allowing the mat of timbers and

With the rooms on each
level,

side of the pillar

mining

the

first slice of

the pillar

is.

broken materials n to come down and bringing the weight of the roof on the timbers above the pillar, thus crushing them flat to form the mat. A second slice of the pillar is then mined, the ore in the rooms drawn down to the new top of the pillar, and so on. Eventually the ore is all broken and drawn down to the first mining level. The main haulage system of the mine, which up to this time has been on the 420-ft. level, will then be transferred to the 570-ft. level, and mining will proceed
level.

starting on the first mining level 50 ft. above, or the 520-ft. In this way the 50-ft. block between the 420-ft. and the 370-ft. level will ultimately be mined. By getting a thick mat of timbers on the top submining level before the drawing of the rooms commences, and as the capping comes down keeping it at as uniform a level as possible by drawing the chutes uni-

above

it,

formly,

it is

expected that

little

ore will be lost
420-ft.

by mixing with waste.

Tramming.—The
with 30-lb

drifts

on the

rails set to a 24-in. gauge. into cars of 2 1/2 tons capacity and hauled in trains to the shaft chutes by electric locomotives. At the shaft the cars will discharge into a 700-ton pocket, below which will be a skip filler holding exactly a skip

haulage level have been laid The ore will be drawn from the

load.

The

beneath the
the Miami

With a skip placed skips will be of 7 1/2 tons capacity. filler, a lever will discharge the filler into the skip.
of

Mining Conditions. Thanks to the compact nature of body and the character of the ground, ore can be mined with the use of little or no timber and a minimum of explosive. A force of but comparatively few men can break and handle enough ore to mainWith the ground thoroughly tain a steady output of 2000 tons per day. out and with the present equipment as it is, the doubling of the blocked output would be simply a matter of increasing the number of miners. The management has established the cost of. mining the present ore body at $1.25 per ton, but the average cost should eventually closely approximate SI per ton, including hoisting to the surface. The method and of mining seems well adapted to insure both the safety of the miners

Summary

ore

the extraction of at least 85 per cent, of the ore body.

Exclusive of

the present development justifies an expectation of hoisting at least 14,000,000 tons, which is said to average 2.75 per cent, copper as determined by systematic churn-drill prospecting. As the development plan for this system is similar to that of several

mining

losses, therefore,

others, like the

room-caving of Example

46,

or the block-caving

of

OVERHAND 3TOPING WITH BHRINKAGE
i-'.
:

v\i>

PILLAR-<

WING

171

'•ins at

any time thai
33.

the Btoping could be altered to follow one of these similai it might Beem desirable

1

cample

Boston Consolidated Mine, Bingham, Utah
also

Examples

3, 37,

1

1

and T;

Irregular Lenses in Porphyry. Block Caving of Pillars.—A caving system has been devised and adopted here. Briefly, this consists in weakening the block of ore by means of a Beries of ore-filled moms, and then, when the remaining pillars are shattered, the ore is drawn evenly from under a large area of capping and the surface allowed

to settle

gradually.
is opened up by two levels, one about 2(J0 ft. below the Bteam-shovel workings near the top of the hill and the other, the main haulage level, 150 ft. below the first. On this lower level there .-ire two main haulage drifts. From these a system of parallel .^ide drifts are turnd offal intervals of 120 ft. At distances of 200 ft. along these drifts, raises

Tne mine

ft. square, inclined a1 an angle of (iO deg., are driven to connect with dntts on tla- level above, and from these main raises, or chutes, as they become later, a series of branch raises or chutes are driven so that the collecting of ore may be concentrated as much as possible. These raises are equipped with air-operated sector gates, which have 24-in. openings,
•')

and work admirably as a train of ten 8-ton cars can be loaded in 4 min! The tops of these raises and branch raises hole into the center of
drifts

the

on the level above, so that they have to be fenced off by means of guard rails nailed to four upright Bprags. A series of knotted ropes, hanging from the guard rails like the low-bridge signals on railroad tracks, permit the placing of the guard rails high enough not to interfere with the dumping of a car. This arrangement prevents any one from walking into the chutes.

Blocking out the Rooms

On the upper level (as in Fig. 86) the orebody is blocked on! by a series of drift, 60 ft. apart and a series of cross drifts 400 ft. apart, since that is the length of the room used wherever the size of the orebody permits. These drifts are 6 1/2x7 1/2 ft. in the clear and are driven
on
$2 to $2.25 per foot, making their total cosl S3 to s.'J.l'o per foot. In driving these drifts a 5-ft. round is drilled each shift by one man using a 2 1/2-in. Sullivan piston drill, but rarely does the round over f t. in the dear. The powder consumption is about 2 lb. to the foot. These drifts in the future pillars are laid with double track, so as to permit rapid tramming.
'

contract

at

At

intervals of 30

ft.

along the

pillar drifts,

drifts

30

ft.

long are

172

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

driven in both directions. The mouths of the drifts are staggered, so as not to come opposite to each other, thus possibly weakening the pillar too much. In addition the tracks in these short drifts are arranged so that the cars are run out to the nearer cross drift. The ends of these short
the pillar
pillars.

then connected with each other by means of drifts parallel to The short drifts at the end of each pillar are not driven within 15 ft. of the main cross drifts, in order not to weaken their
drifts are
drifts.

ilH^a
|<_

II

_60- - -4*-

-

-60- - -^j<- - -60- -

->k -60-

->j

Fig. 86

—Stoping system, Boston Con. mine.

As soon as these short drifts are all connected, this central drift, which marks the middle of the future room, is slabbed out by means of two flat These holes are holes, one near the floor and the other near the roof. By blasting drilled from 16 to 18 ft. deep and are parallel to the drift. two rows of holes on each side of the room drift, the room is enlarged to Model 9 Water Leyner drills are used, and in drilling a width of 30 ft. these long holes a 2 1/2-in. starter and a 1 1/2-in. finisher bit is employed.
water pipe is carried along the pillar drift to water these drills. In alternate pillars, at the same time that the room drifts are being driven, raises are put up at the middle of the pillar drift and also near each end where the pillar drift meets the main cross drifts. These serve
1-in.

A

OVERHAND BTOPING
iture

w

II

H BHBINKAQE AND

PILLAB-CAVING

L73

mining the rooms. They are driven merely large and an air pipe. the room has been enlarged to a width of 30 ft and the mucked out, a chute havinga mouth 24 in. wide is built across the end of each ahorj cross drift. These chutes are used in drav of broken ore from the room. Miners then begin to drill the roof of the room full of uppers, using Leyner air-hammer drills. These holes arc drilled bo as to look forward about 75 deg. and toeing out to the sides so to keep the walls of the room vertical. These holes are drilled about deep and in rows of 5 holes across thestope, these rows being 8 to 9
in

manways

Ugh

for a ladder

ft.

aP art
bit

-

II

taki

.",

drills to

a hole, the start, •

.

a

1

1/2-in.
solid

and the finishers a 1-in. bit. These Leyner hammer drills use and drill from 100 to 120 ft. in a shaft, the air pressure

being only

80
a

lb. per sq. in. at the receiver. This low pressure is used because with higher pressure the bits cut too fast to permit them to turn freely. These holes are not loaded until half the length of the stope has

been

Then they are loaded with about 4 sticks of 30 per cut. Hercules dynamite and blasted all at once. About 0.45 lb. of dynamite is required per ton of ore broken. One man, by using a nicked fuse, spits
drilled.

about 50

holes, a 7-ft. fuse that

burns at about 45

sec.

Thus the stope is carried up in alternate hah The ore, which amounts to about 40 per cent, of the total ore broken, is drawn off before each blast, so that there is 12 ft. of open space below tl„- roof when the holes are spit. The ore at firsl awn off
at

per foot being used.

only one side, but this
it

left

the pile slanting toward that side and necest

and is merely enough to allow a man to pass through it after the air pipe has been put in. The men climb the cribbing of split timber, a vertical pole beinlarge

center of the side of the pillar having the raise in it, are carried up through the ore. Th< are made by blasting out a triangular notch in the pillar and cribbing it off on three sides. This man way is about 3x3 ft. in size

each time before drilling began. To avoid this he tapping drifts are driven from each side and the ore drawn off on both sides so that it keeps a fairly level surface for the men to work upon. Three manways, one at each end and one in the
off

sitated leveling

nailed to the cribbing for the men to hold to when climbing. Tic manways are carried up through the ore for only 50 ft., since at 50 ft. a drift is driven to the stope from the three raises in the pillar. The ore is drawn off in cars having a capacity of 28 cu. ft. and is run by two me, to the main chutes. Only 4 or 5 men work in a rtope, and one of these i 8 busy all the time picking down the back of the room and the roofs of the different drifts in the pillar connecting with that room. The rooms are carried up until the ore becomes too to
i

poor

ent

when

pay—at
is
is

pres-

it

carries about

].i:>

per cent, copper.

The room

doned, and as soon as the stope on the other side of the pillar

then abancompleted,

174

MINING WITHOUT TIMBEK

the air pipes and tracks in the raises and drifts in the pillar between the

two stopes are removed.

Caving the Ore

As the area undermined by rooms

increases, the roof gradually settles,
is

but as the top of the broken ore in the rooms

when

the rooms are abandoned, the capping cannot drop

within six feet of the roof This far.

undercutting throws weight on the pillars, and after an area 200 by 400 ft. has been undermined, they begin to crush without any further weakening.

At present
level.

five stopes are

being worked on the upper, and three

on the lower

After the orebody on the upper level has been undercut by rooms, mining on the lower level begins under that area. On the lower level the rooms are placed so as to come directly under the pillars on the level above. These rooms are mined in the same manner as on the level above, with the exception that their floors are 30 ft. above the level, so as to leave This a pillar 30 ft. thick to protect the main transportation drifts. necessitates the driving, from the main level, of inclined raises, 30 ft. apart, to tap the rooms on each side so as to draw off the excess ore. The manways in the pillars are also dispensed with in the lower blocks of ground, for it has been found, owing to the weight on the lower pillars, to be cheaper to drive drifts to the different rooms at intervals of 50 ft. vertically from a raise placed in a part of the lower level not being undermined than to maintain the manways in the pillars. After the whole of the orebody has been cut up by rooms and the lower pillars have been weakened by raises put up to tap them, drawing will begin throughout the whole orebody, the ore being removed evenly under the area so that the capping will settle regularly. Thus the mixing When this is of ore and capping will be prevented as much as possible. completed, the ore below this level and the pillar above it will be mined by a similar method of undercutting by means of rooms. The company is mining 2600 dry tons of ore a day at its porphyry mine, and employs 351 men underground and on surface. This gives an average of almost 7 tons to a man and from 8 to 8 1/2 tons to a man employed underground. This is remarkable when one considers that only ore broken in the rooms is being taken out at present. The wages of the men per 8-hr. shift are: Machineiren and timbermen, $3; helpers and muckers, $2.50; trainmen, $3; helpers, $2.50; blacksmiths,
$4; toolsharpeners, $3.50; shift boss, $4.

The

cost of driving the large 9x9-ft. haulage drifts

is

about $8 per

foot, as the cost of

such a

drift

1600
1

ft.

long, one-third timbered,

was

$8.08 per foot, inclusive of the cost of laying track and of putting in the
trolley wire.

The

cost of driving a 6

/2x7-ft. drift

is

for labor (contract),

$2 to $2.25 per foot, making the total $3 to $3.25.

For driving

5x5-ft.

0VSRHAND BTOPING WITH BHRINKAGI \M» PILLAR-CAVING
raiscs th<
i

175

for rale

l

ft.

labor (contract), 11.75, making the cost per foot high 12.25 to $2.50 per f.
of
is

At

present
of
a

the

cost

mining
2

the per

ore

ie

it

centa

per

ton.
in

The

coal

development
pillar,

centa

ton

of ore
thia
a
at

developed

a

room and

for

the

company chargea
is

the rate of
to only

10

centa per ton to the ore, thai

drawn
in a

off

from

room; or

10

P«» cent, of the total ore

equal

in size.

and

drifts in

The rooma and pillars arc Therefore, diaregarding the ore removed from the raiaes the pillars, which work cornea under the head of develop-

broken

room.

that needs only to be
\-

ment, then- remaina, afterthe whole area La caved. 80 per cent, of the ore drawn through chutes and trammed to aurface.
preaent
it

draw the ore from the rooma, bo drawing the 60 per cent, left in the rooma and pillara ought not to cost more than 20 cents per ton. Consequently the c< mining figures out aa follows: Forty tons of ore mined at 44 cents per ton, $17.60; 160 tons of ore mined at 20 cents per ton, 832; development coat
coats 17 centa a ton to

that the coat of

###BOT_TEXT###

tons at 10 cents per ton, $4.

60; or 26.8 cents per ton.

The

Total cost of extracting 200 tons, cost of superintendence, taxes, etc..

of ore are mined a day, will amount to about 2 cents per Allowing a factor of safety of 25 per cent., or cents per ton, to cover unforeseen difficulties in mining the lower pillars of ore, it appears that by this system the ultimate cost of mining a block of ore will probably approximate 35 cents per ton, the same as steam-shovel mining. ton.

when 2600 tons

This method of mining is quite bold, but from the results obtained on the small area already caved, it appears that the ore breaks in a fairly perpendicular plane to surface. This will greatly decrease the tendency of the ore and capping to mix when it becomes necessary to cave
section of the orebody before an adjacent block
is

touched.

main difficulty from mixing of the ore and capping will unequal settling of different portions of the block that is being caved. The Bingham porphyry ore, from the nature of its formation. is mU ch broken up by small fracture seams. Owing to this fractured nature
the orebody on caving, it breaks up into fairly fine ore, and bo there will be few large boulder, to block the chutes or to cause the ore to hang up above the chute mouth and form a grizzly through which only line ore could pass, aa would be the case if large masses followed down that were crushed but little by the weighl thrown upon them by the

one But the come from

of

undermining

a system of recording the approximate tonnage drawn from each chute is used, there Bhould be no great difficulty in drawing the ore evenly from under the capping in each
if

of the block.

It therefore

appears that,

block, and consequently no trouble in causing the capping to follow evenly af er the ore with little intermixing of capping. The advantages of this method of caving are many: The ore is broken in large rooms; the method ofatoping is adapted to the use of air-hammer

176
drills;

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER
the blasting
is

done over large areas so that as

little

time

is

con-

sumed by blasting as is possible, and the air vitiated only between shifts; the work is done sj^stematically throughout an area, so that one can tell when all portions of the block have been reached; the ore is only dropped a few feet at a time and over large areas, so as to diminish the amount of ore mixed with capping; the ore is drawn systematically so that there is little danger of leaving ore behind; the amount of drifting and raising
is very small; the gathering of the rendered cheap by concentrating it at a few chutes equipped with easily and rapidly operated gates.

required in mining a block of ore
ore
is

readily,

ore

Ground to be adapted to this method must be weak enough to cave and yet strong enough to stand in rooms 20 or 30 ft. wide. The must break up into small chunks when the weight of the capping

causes the pillars to cave, or otherwise difficulty will be experienced in drawing ore from the caved area. Apparently there should not be much difficulty in drawing the ore on the lower level, as the pillar 30 ft. thick ought to be amply strong enough to protect the haulage drifts.

Example

34.

Duluth Mine, Cananea, Mexico
Examples
6,

(See also

18 and 45.)

is is

Irregular Lenses in Porphyry; Block-caving of Pillars. Pillar-caving a combination of overhand stoping on ore and a caving system. As

necessary is nearly all caving methods, the first step is to prospect and thoroughly outline the orebody by means of drifts and raises. Fig. 87 shows an orebody on the 200 level which extends above the 100 level. After sufficient prospecting work has been done, the size of the sections to be mined and the pillars of ore to be left were decided upon. Pillars are usually about 50 ft. wide, with sections from 75 to 100 ft. wide extending across the body. Because of the irregularity of the upper portions of these bodies it is necessary that they be mined by means of square sets in order to follow rich stringers. At the Cananea-Duluth the orebody is mined by square sets from the 100 level to the top of the ore. These sets are then all removed and
the pillar-caving system proper begins.

be mined
raise set
ticall}'

is

In the meantime the section to blocked out on the 200 level by means of drifts and regular

square-set raises are put in at intervals, as
is

shown
is

in Fig. 87.

8

ft.

5

in.

high and the second set
rail to

7

ft.

4

in.,

The sill making prac-

16

ft.

from the

the top of the second

set.

This completes

the regular raise

sets, for at

the top of the second set drifts are run con-

These drifts are then widened from which they are carried up vertically by means of overhand stoping, the miners working on ore, only enough ore being drawn
necting
all

the raises in the section.
after

12 to 15

ft.,

off so as to

permit them to be within easy reach of the back.

RHAND BTOPING
These

Willi

BHRINKAGE

\i.

PILLAB-CAY1NG

177

up to the level above, cutting out a which have been cu1 loose from the waste above by the Bquare-sel Btope and are now partially supported by the ore Burrounding them.
drifts are finally carried

number

of small pillars

1

0NS1

Rl

<

i

i-»\

OF

(

'in

TES

Formerly, cribbed chutes of 8x8-in. timbers were carried up in the en ore with a manway compartment, 2 1/2x5 ft., and

5x5
with

ft.

a

a chute, has been found that a 3-in. plank chute is practically as good,' saving of considerable timber. The inside dimensions of the
[1

i^^^^^a
130 Level

Next
Section

Pillar

Pillar

Next
Section

Supporting

Supporting

Roof
This
Pillar

Roof

Mined bj Caving
L After Drifts have- : _ 'been carried up, fciF= (hatched portion blffi

]ted out to facilitate drawing ore.
:

200 Level

Drift with Inclined Raise to Mine Pillar

TJie

Engiiutring i Mining Journal

87.— Vertical

section of stope, Duluth mine.

combined chute and manway are 3
clear
is

ft.

3

in.

by
2
ft.

6

3

ft.

3

in.

square, with a

manway

6

planks are placed on edge, with ends beveled at partition is a 3-in. plank which fits into a notch cut in the side pieces. As the back advances, the chutes an- carried up, surrounded with ore.

The chute in the wide. The 3-in. 45 deg. The dividing
ft.

in.

Horse of Waste
The matter of handling a horse of waste is not difficult, as can be broken and easily drawn off through one or more of the raises that are carried up from the level. It has been found possible in mining by this system to place the raises close together, thus almost
it.

the wheelbarrow
12

by shoveling

entirely eliminating directly into a chute.

178

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

Drawing the Ore
The next operation is to draw the ore. This is accomplished by drilling holes in the solid ore which surrounds the second square set in each These holes, after raise, as shown by the hatched portion in Fig. 89. In this way the ore is blasted, form a mill-hole around the raise. being

The off with the occasional use of a small amount of powder. chute planking comes out with the ore. The short pieces are usually unbroken, while perhaps 50 per cent, of the side pieces are unbroken and can be used again. By this means all the ore is drawn from the section
drawn
and the small
pillars are left standing.

Mining the Pillars

The
pillar

pillars

crush

down and

break, due their

small slips that usually exist in this class of

does not break down, a drift

is

own weight and a few porphyry ore. In case a run on the level underneath it and
^\\n.nx^

Pillar

Next-

Supporting

Next
Section

Section

Roof

A
These Drifts carried up to

B

Level above cutting out Pillars

.e

The Engineering $ Mining Journal

Fig.

88.—Plan

of stope, -16

ft.

above level.'Duluth mine.

run up a short distance into the bottom of the pillar. One out and side of this raise is filled with holes, the base of the pillar is blasted
a raise
is

the pillar
16-ft.

falls.

From

this drift a

new
off

set of inclined raises in the

block of ore are used to draw

the ore in the pillars.

bottom These raises

are merely flat sloping floors of

out so that a man and into the car.

heavy timbers, with head room blasted stand up and bar and draw the rock down the chute can The chute bottom is made almost flat, so that the ore

OVERHAND BTOPING
cannot run down
easily plugged
it,

Willi
piles
at

SHRINKAGE AND PILLAR-CAVING
up
at

7'.'

J

but

the bottom.

Large boulders are

and blasted

the

mouth

Any waste can be Borted before it is loaded into the cars need not be mixed with the ore. The small boulders are broken with hammers before being loaded into the cars.
the timbers.
"'
1

of the chute without injury to

:l

Further Developments
The next
step
is

large supporting pillars

has been worked

...it

If the back and the pillars supporting it are be possible to mine out another section directly under the first., from the 300 level to the 200. Again, it may be possible to mine the supporting pillar by caving it, as in the mining of the smaller pillars, provided that the waste roof will stand without any support. If, however, the main pillar could not be mined in this way, the back over the sections on either side of the pillar would be made to cave in and the pillar itself would be mined by the slicing system. If this last were done, the remaining ore below the 200 level would be mined by slicing. The method has been considerably changed from that first employed.

with great interest. in the subsequent mining.
it

mine out the sections on the other side of the and A', Fig. 88. This is as far as the method and therefore future developments will be watched There are Beveral courses which can be followed
to
.1

sufficiently strong,

may

Originally the section was mined without leaving the small pillars. It was then simple overhand stoping on ore. The back then was usually quite unsafe, not because of any great weight, but merely due to large masses of ore breaking away on small fractures, which are common in almost all kinds of porphyry. After one of these stopes caved, burying
several

was evolved. Since then it has given the greatest satisfaction and as now employed is quite safe, as the men always work near the back and when mining pilars are well protected.
as described

men, the system

Cost of Pillar Caving

method requires practically no timber and the greater part that necessary can be used again. In practically every step in this method the breaking of the ore is done with the least possible amount of powder and labor, while the ventilation can easily be kept good and it is comparatively safe. For its application it is absolutely necessary to have a strong, solid ore and a strong roof; and both the ore and the waste roof should require no support with the exception of a few stulls to hold up small slabs and loose boulders. It is also necessary the
is

The

that ore have and be large enough for advantageous work. The body should be large so that it can be divided into sections and be blocked out as shown in Fig. 88, preferably extending from one level to the next. The amount of waste in the ore must always be small. \ definite boundaries

180
small

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

amount of sorting can be done in stopes and the waste drawn off through chutes, but the proportion of ore to waste must always be large. Again, if the ore were inclined to pack, it could not be economically drawn and would practically have to be mined over again. This system has such rigid requirements that its application is limited. With the exception of this its disadvantages are few and unimportant, while on the other hand it is the cheapest method of mining at Cananea. The cost at the Duluth mine (which is new and presents favorable conditions) is only 40 to 50 cents, for the labor and timber to place a ton of ore in the chutes, as compared with 75 to 85 cents per ton at the nearby The Elisa is worked by the system of "overhand stoping Elisa mine.
on waste" as described
in

Example

22; its orebodies are also irregular

lenses but are in limestone instead of porphyry.

CHAPTER XIV
BACK-CAVING [NTO
I

HUTES OB CHUTE-CAVING

Example 35.—Habtfobd Mine, Negaunee, Marquette Range,
Michigan
(See also

Example

13.)

Caving into RUl Chutes 01 1, ds, in Sub-vertical Wide Vein.— The Hartford mine (Oliver Co.), lying a short distance northeast of Xegaunee, has a jaspillite hangwal] and a soft, hematite ore. On the lower levels the ore shoot is 100 ft. wide by 300 ft. long, and its method of development and extraction is shown in Fig. 91. Drift d is first driven in the foot wall, 150 ft. above the next level above, with cross-cuts b to b 3 and c to c 3 turned off from it in both direc-

Loiig-. Sec.

Fig. 89.

—Stoping at Hartford mine.
r

tions at 50-ft. intervals. The foot-wal] raises as needed. Stoping is started from a30-ft.

are put

up

to the stopes

raise as

K, the most advanced

stope being at the end of the lense at K*. In stope IO the original raise has been widened by breast stoping al the top, from which it was cut down by underhand benches to a funnel shape. Next, the back of the stope is attacked by driving a raise n into it around the periphery,
leav-

181

182

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

ing enough broken ore in the funnel to form a footing for the tripod of the stoping drill.
as the raising continues, will
1 Th's peripheral raise leaves a hanging core v 1 in the back of which, become so heavy as to break off by its own 2 weight with the effect shown in stope In 3 height has been gained
,

K

K

.

K

by

several such breaks.

in one stope,

and as its no danger from its downfall.
Cross-cuts
e

Only one drill is worked at peripheral-raising two runners are never under the core, they run

are driven to connect the peripheral raises with a foot3

wall raise r in order to provide an entrance into a stope after the core has

should not be holed through to the next level the ore there, corresponding to the sill-floor pillar and to wedges w,
fallen.
'

Stope

K

D

till

w

l

0-:.<U-'S--.--'.f'JO'.--.-

.

Side El.

-Chute at Hartford mine.

and w 2 on level d has been removed. This is accomplished by putting up a raise from K 3 to D, and from this attacking these pillars by the roomcaving system of Example 45, and throwing the broken ore down into
chute

K

3
.

As stopes

K K K
3
2
,
,

1

and

K
;

get higher their diameters increase and

are merged, so that the miners from there on
1

work the peripheral

raise

mostly along the foot and hang walls. In wide veins two mills should be but these also will merge on ascending. placed abreast as m and m When nearing the upper level D the ore is kept near the back so that, when holed through, any debris in D from the walls of the emptied stope above will not descend far. By withdrawing the ore gradually from adjoining completed mills the debris can be kept mostly above the ore and a mixture avoided. The caved ore is not drawn through the usual spout-gates into tram cars, but falls into a car from a central slot in the roof of the haulage

&-CAVING 1M<> CHUTES
drift.

"J.

CHI FE-CAVING

over two adjoining drift caps c and c (Fig re omitted to give space for two 12-in. poles a 1 and a the opening between which is covered with 6-in. poles b, which can be easily taken up when loading a tram car beneath. T and 8 1 are placed as a screen over this Blotgate for the purpose of regulating the passage of the broken ore sliding down from the stope abovi

To arrange
l

this

enough lagging

poles,

,

/

,

at

x

in Fig. 89.

With

this screened slol

there

is

no chute to be choked by the huge

jes thai

often

fall

off the core above, as these are held hack until they
is

can be broken up.

The core
off in

often drilled and Masted,

when

there

is

danger of
dropping.

its

breaking

chunks too large to be easily shattered after

a nearly vertical and a strong hangwall, but when somewhat triable, as a dense, tough ore the ore is best adapted would tend to hang up and cave only in large masses, very difficult to The vein must be wide enough to permit of cutting a break up below. which is large enough to pay for the raising around it. This method takes no more timber and much less (billing and powder than the underground milling of Example 12, as considerable of the ore is crushed in the

This method requires

Ventilation is good, and wide lenses can be stoped with a minidevelopment work. The -v-tem does not permit of underground of sorting, and some ore is consequently lost by contamination when the
caving.

mum

filling finally falls into

the stope mill.

Laijok

sively

The Hartford mine, at the time it was visited, was producing, excluby back-caving, 1000 tons in two shifts, employing 24 air drills and

nen above and below ground. This force included 20 men on dead work, 16 on four diamond drills and 12 men on the stock-pile loading. For each shift there was a general mine foreman and a stope boss on each
of the four levels.
is

The development work

of sinking, raising

and drifting
let let

contracted by the foot and stoping by the ton, one mill hole being to a relay of four men for each air drill. Stope contracts were being
at 15 cents or 1G cents a ton, the total

mining cost being under $1 and

often as low as 80 cents.

Example

30.

Pioneer Mine,
-

Ely,

Vermilion Range, .Minn.
20.)

e

also

Exam [ill
into

Sub-vertical

Wide Vein: Caving

Chutes from, Sub-levels.

— The

Vermilion

is

the most northerly of the Minnesota ranges and strike- \

70 deg. E. along the 48th parallel, and, though the ron formation extends here disconnectedly for 80 miles, the only important mines yet located are

184

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

local productive

near the towns of Ely and Soudan, which are 20 miles apart. The zone is the Soudan iron formation of Archaen age, which rests on the Ely greenstone (a basic igneous rock), and is covered

by

layers of intrusive granite and porphyry. The Soudan contains the typical iron formation rocks, and of these jaspilite is especially

abundant.

The ores include very hard, specular hematite and softer reddish hematite, more or less hydrated; but neither of these are "paint" ores in the sense of easily staining the skin red, like those of the paint ranges, the Gogebic and the Marquette. The iron contents vary from 60 to 70
per cent., the phosphorous averages 0.06 per cent, and the silica and moisture about 5 per cent. each. The ore bodies lie near the bottom of the Soudan formation and follow pitching troughs of folded Ely greenstone.

A

typical deposit

is

that of the Chandler-Pioneer mine at Ely,

which follows an east-west trough and

is covered with a thick layer of barren iron formation, except at the west end, where the bare outcrop first revealed it to mankind.

The Pioneer mine produces at full capacity 1,000,000 tons yearly and has two working shafts, A north and the newer B south of the ore body.
and 20 1/3 ft. by 7 ft. inside of timbers, the ft. and the two skip and ore-cage compartments each 5 ft. long. The 5-ton skip is of the car type and its four wheels run between two 7-in. by 8-in. wooden guides on each side of a
is

Of these

A

vertical

pump compartment

being 4

In the skipways are also central cage-guides for the doubledeck cages, which are placed temporarily over the skip when handling men. When idle this auxiliary cage rests on a truck running on a track, supported by the head-frame. The truck can be moved to and fro by an
skipway.
endless rope device

worked by a small hand windlass.
is

To enable the

cages to be slid into the shaft there

a slot through both decks to pass

the skip rope.

Shaft A is lined with wood, but shaft B is supported by a steel frame and is inclined at 53 deg. It has three compartments, a pumpway and two skipways. At the stations the skip track is spiked to 12-in. square

but elsewhere to longitudinal plank only. Two 30 h. p. Goodman electric locomotives handle 1500 tons in 10 hours at shaft B on one level, with an average haul of 400 ft. The track has 24-in. gauge, 30-lb. rails and 0.5 per cent, grade toward the shaft. A locomotive goes out in one, and returns in the other, of the two parallel drifts along the ore body. One motorman for each train and two dump-men at the shaft pocket is the operating
stringers,

Tramming.

force.

Breaking Ground.
8-in.

pipe for
Little

The air is conveyed at 65 lb. pressure through an 11/2 miles from the central compressor at the Sibley mine.
drills are

The

Giant 3 1/8-in.

used with

4-

bits

made

of octago-

BACK-CAVING INTO CHUTES OB CHUTBh WIM.
nal
stool

185

ft.

and operated on counter-weighed tripods. The powder is dynamite and is fired by fuse and cap. In the diagrams of Fig. 91, the main levels. .1 and D, arc spaced 100 apart vertically with two sub-levels, B and C, equi-distanl between
nt.
<

out 50-ft. by 75-ft. pillars, made Large t<> prevenl a premature squeeze, which On sub-levels l'> and C drifts are run lonmight close the haulage-ways. gitudinally near the foot wall, and off from them are turned parallel These are connected by vertical raises r, which are t. apart.

them.

>n

the floor

l>

Bee plan. Fig.

!)1

1

drifts are run to block

put through

to level

.1

at

25-ft. intervals.

Between C and

D

some

of

To Shutt

•;.©.

-^ .&

\f.

~

.

-

-q :»>;.-•.
.~i$ : .:i>?

Ca-ved

^7

I>

Long,

a

Fig. 91.

—Stoping layout at Pioneer mine.
number
of

the raises are inclined in order to reach the gates in a fewer
drifts.

Block D is finally removed by breaking it down into the level 100-ft. below with the aid of extra raiAfter blocking out, the caving is begun in slices, and first the slice i>ove the abandoned level) is attached, next B and finally C. To be

safe, the first

cave-panel of level .1 must be kept at least 50 ft. horizontally back from where the men are working at the first panel of sub-level />', and the hang wall is drawn down uniformly from the farther end inward, along the whole ore body before attacking the next panel behind the
first.

The attack on

a slice

is

begun from a

raise

by driving

at the sub-

level

B

a drift for the length of two sets in three directions, one toward
(See Fig. 92.)

the hang wall and two longitudinally.

The

face

is

then

186

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

(n, g, and h) of the drifts, and open spaces, like f m n and h k p, are blasted out. The domed back is then bored with a pointed bar and blasted to excavate another shell like / m' n and h k' p, and the boring and blasting of the back is continued until the dome becomes too large and dangerous to work

attacked beyond each of the three end sets

large

beneath.
If the

dome

caves partly and then hangs up

it

can often be started

again by exploding 8 to 10 sticks of powder, held below the cave on a

long stick.

Should any uncaved wedges be left above level B they can be recovered when caving C by raising through them from below. In drawing down a slice while caving care is taken to draw equally from all the chutes, so that the caved waste above will settle equally and not mix with the ore. Caved <) c When the ore falls from the dome in big masses has to be blasted to allow it to pass the it raises. Much ore runs into the raises by gravity, but at the start of a dome it has to be shoveled. Timbering. The greenstone walls need little support, but all the development openings in ore must be closely timbered to resist the heavj pressure of caving. The main haulage ways are supported by three-quarter sets, having caps and posts, 8 ft. long by 1 ft. to 2 ft. diameter, The with the latter battered 2 in. per foot. raises are cribbed closely with round sticks, halved at ends and 6 in. to 10 in. by 5 ft. The Fig. 92. — Enlarging stope at Pioneer mine. caving pressure often crumbles the drift sets, but seldom before their usefulness is about over. Little timber is recovered from the caved ground, and that saved is only good for cribbing.

7-

Application of Sub-level Chute-caving System.

Its success is

favored

by the following conditions: The deposit should be large, with regular and well-defined boundaries and with a uniform and yielding hang wall on not too steep a pitch. The ore should be soft enough to crush under moderate pressure, and should be all of the same shipping grade, as no sorting is practised underground. The value per ton should not be high, for some ore is unavoidably mixed with the caved waste and lost. Where applicable it is a cheap system, being easily ventilated, safe, and requiring no t mber and but little powder in stoping. Even the
development openings are not proportionately numerous, so the total powder used per ton of ore is small in amount, counting both surface and underground force. The output per shift is about four tons for each man employed.
timber, drilling and

..-•

W1.nl.

IMu CHUTES

OH CHUTE-CAVING

Example 37.—Utah Copper Mine, Bingham, Utah
(See also
Irregtu

Examples

3,

33, 41

and

43.)
I

Tlic

levels. phyry. Caving into Chut< underground workings of the Utah Copper Company are opened by two main levels, one even with the bottom of the gulch and the other 200 ft. Formerly the caving method was used on both side- of above. Kig. 93 but now underground mining is confined to tin- ground to the northeast of the creek, it bein<: the intention to use steam shovels- for minim: all the ore on the other side. The lowest, or transportation level, is cut up into irregular panels about 75 ft. square, although lately the tendency is to increase the size of these panels somewhat. These drifts
I

-W?

Fig. 93.

—Caved

surface,

Utah Copper mine.

ft. in the clear for single track, and 5x11 ft. These drifts rarely require timbering as the ground stands well, but where weak, 8x8-in. sets with a cap 5 ft. in the clear, and posts 7 ft. 3 in. long, having a batter of 1/2 in. to the ft., are used for single track, and lOxlO-in. timbers, 11 ft. cap and same length In driving these drifts 3 1/8 in. drills are used. post for double track. Back holes are drilled about 4 1/2 ft. deep and cut holes about 5 12 ft A 4-ft. round is broken It takes from 7 to 10 holes to break the ground. in a shift, and the cost is from S3 to $3.50 per foot.

and
i"i-

cross drifts are driven 5x7

double-track service.

ore is hauled in trains of eight or nine 2 1, 2-ton bottom-dump A direct current of 500 volts is used, by 5-ton electric locomotives. but as the trolley wire is placed about (i 1/2 ft. from the rails there is little danger, especially as at chutes and low places where a person might touch the trolley wire it is enclosed in an upside down trough (about G in. wide and having 4 to 6 in. sideboards) nailed to the sprags that

The

188

MINING WITHOUT TIMBER

support the trolley wire. The wire is strung from 4x4-in. sprags placed about 30 ft. apart. A thirty-pound rail is used. The main loading chutes are fitted with double rack doors so as to facilitate loading.

5x7 ft. in hard ground, but only 4x6 ft. ground they widen out with use only too quick. In driving the raises a 2 1/4-in. drill run by one man is used, and it takes six to nine holes to break a round 3 1/2 to 4 ft. deep. These main raises are driven on contract at a cost of S2 a foot, the contractor furnishing labor only. These main raises are driven vertical for 30 ft. and then are turned so as to have an inclination of 60 deg. in wet ground and 50 deg. in dry ground in the direction of the surface slope. This enables the raise to serve more ground, while the change in angle breaks the fall of the ore and prevents its packing in the chute. The 30 ft. at the bottom that is vertical has proved quite sufficient to insure an even feed at the mouth of the chute. In extremely soft ground the chutes are cribbed. The branch raises are driven approximately 5 ft. square and on company account, 2 1/4-in. machines being used. These branches are sometimes advanced on a slope as low as 45 deg. it is said. All these raises are driven without a manway, and later, when mining of
raises are driven

The main

in soft ground, since in such

the ore begins, become blind chutes.

Occasional raises are put up to serve as manways; these are driven
in size so as to be large enough for air pipe, ladder and These ladders are made with wooden legs and half-inch round iron for rungs so that they will not be broken by drills that may occasionally slip out of the chain when being hoisted or lowered. All timbers and drills are hoisted through these manways by hand.
ft.

about 5x7

timber-slide

Sub-level Interval

From the main raises sub-levels are driven, and most of them are connected with the surface so as to provide excellent ventilation. These
sub-levels drifts are driven 4x7
ft.

in the clear, and,
ft.

where

it is

necessary,

are timbered with round sets having caps 4
7
ft.

in the clear

and posts

In mucking out the drifts, wheelbarrows are used unless the run is greater than 75 ft. Then tracks are put in and cars used. The level interval was 17 ft. at first. This was increased to 25 ft.; then to 30, and finally to 33 ft. In a few places an interval of 50 to 60 ft.
long.

was

tried, but with so high a back of ore it was impossible to control the caving satisfactorily so a great deal of ore was lost. From this exper-

ience
in the

it

seems that 35
it is

ft. is

the limit of economic caving

by

this

method

Bingham porphyry.
desired to begin caving,
all

with ordinary chute mouths, and at the same time a grizzly made of lOxlO-in. timbers, spaced to give openings 18 to 20 in. wide, is placed over the top of the raise in the slice below. The bulkfitted

"When mine are

the raises in that part of the

B

###BOT_TEXT###lt;

K->

\

[NG INK)

'

ill

TB8 OH

'

<

189

heads are necessary not only to prevent large boulders from getting into the main chute and blocking them, but also in order that the chutes can !.( bulk-headed in case capping begins to run from al ove.
After tin- raises have been so equipped, the tops are widened until caving is almost imminent. Then holes arc .hilled until it is certain
that the roof will cave when they arc blasted. Adjacent raises are similarly widened out and blasted, and the panel caved. This begins at the boundary and progresses away from it as the different chutes inn

capping and have to he bulk-headed. All these raises are put up on an angle of about 50 deg. by one man using a cross -bar and a 2 4-in. machine. He Btages up with a couple of sprags. By driving the raises in1

work is rendered easier, less dangerous, and cheaper. The bottoms of these raises are placed within 25 ft. of each other on the sub-level and when caving begins they are almost together at the As can be seen, a pyramid of ground with a base 25 ft. square is top.
clined the
left

standing.

and a

raise driven in the block.

In order to start this to caving a chute mouth is built One hole is kept 2 ft. ahead of the

other holes so that the miner will know when he approaches loose ground. So long as this hole does not show solid ground above, the holes are blasted, the broken ore drawn off, and drilling begun again. But

shows the ground to be crushed and broken, the sides and then all are blasted at the same time, caving the raise. This is called by the miners a "general fire or general blast." The drilling of one hole 2 ft. deeper than the others
this hole

whenever

of the enlarged top of the raise are drilled,

insures against the round's leaving only a shell of a roof to catch the miner when he begins to pick down the back, for it has been learned by

experience that a raise with a solid roof 2 ft. thick will not cave. The "general fire" in this raise usually caves the whole pyramid, but in order to get the ore near the base it is necessary to put in along the drift chute mouths quite near together, so as to draw off all the ore. This is especially the case where, as it sometimes happens, a drift has to be driven to tap a pillar that has caved before all the ore could be drawn
off.

The

ore from these secondary chutes
12-lb. track

is

drawn

into 1200-lb. cars

and trammed to the nearest branch chute. Finally before abandoning that portion of the mine, branches from the branch raises in the block below are driven so that their tope are
within 15 ft. of one another. The tops of these are widened out into a funnel shape by means of water holes, and the bases of the pillars drilled

running on a

when all the ore that can be obtained from the ground above has been drawn, these pillar-' can be blasted and the stope caved. The ore then run- into the chute in the block below and is drawn off through
so that,
it.

Thus the ground above each sub-level is caved working back from the boundary, care being taken not to undermine any portion that has not yet been caved on the Bub-level above.

190

MIXING WITHOUT TIMBER

nized

Toward the end each chute runs mixed ore and capping, easily recogby its reddish, oxidized appearance. Drawing continues and the
is

can no longer run 20 to 25 small cars Someis abandoned. times the chutes get hung up, but a stick of dynamite soon starts them In case the hang-up occurs well up in the chute, a lighted primer again.

capping
(1200

sorted out until one

man

lb.,

capacity) in a shift.

Then the chute

fastened to a long pole

is

placed against the hang-up.

Disadvantages of Utah-copper Caving Method
There are many drawbacks to the caving method used by the Utah Copper Company. The ore is broken mainly in drifts and raises. By this method the amount of development on each sub-level is excessive, for each raise must be met by a drift on each sub-level, so as to block it off whenever capping begins to run into a chute. Indeed, a more expensive system of undercutting a block would be hard to devise. Again, instead of making use of light air-hammer drills, these raises are driven by means In blocking out the ground, of heavy piston drills mounted on a bar. wheelbarrows in some cases are used, although it is known that through

some ore will have to be trammed in cars. For successful caving it is necessary to have the surface settle as regularly as possible, and to drop it over as wide areas as feasible, so as to avoid mixing the ore and overburden at those places where the capping Even in systems where this is done, the loss slides down past the ore. But with this chute-caving method the ore and of ore is considerable. capping mingle together throughout the height of ore caved, a distance of about 33 ft. for, as the ore is drawn off through each chute, the capping follows down, rubbing past the rough sides of the ore whose fracture planes have been opened up by the weight thrown on the pillars in the
all

the drifts

;

block.

This mixes some ore with the waste. Drawing continues until the chute is filled with a mixture of ore and waste too low in grade to pay for mining. Then this chute is blocked chute, and off, another raise is put up to cave the pillar adjacent to this becomes still the process is repeated. This mixing of ore and capping greater as the caved ore is drawn clown past the capping that fills the chutes that have already been drawn. The percentage of ore lost can only be approximated, but considering that to mine the ore, said to be 310 ft. thick, nine sub-levels are necessary, it would amount to at least
7 per cent., and where only three or four sub-levels are caved 15 per cent, to 20 per cent., if not more. Another disadvantage of the Utah Copper method is that it is not
systematic.

A raise is put

up

to cave a

pyramid

of ground, the
until,

which is not known. Ore is pulled from the chute mouth mixture with capping, the grade becomes too low to pay for mining.

shape of owing to

BACK-CAVING INTO

-III

i

19

Then similar raises are put up to cave other pillars having unknown shapes To decide upon whether all the ore or even most of
tained
is

the ore has been ob-

impossible.

Besides the

boring Ohio Copper

Company
Co>r

is

Utah Copper Company, -n.lv the neighusing this method of mining.
be System

01

i

1

At the time observed, the Utah Copper company was mini..- 1500 to ? tons of ore per day by caving and was working

225

men underground

for caving as mined, this would indicate an average of almosl 7 tons to tin- man underground. The average pay of these men is probably a b0li ,1;iv B0 ,ll: " l"»>or alone costs 38 cents per ton. Assuming u thai labor makes up 60 per cent, of the cost, this would indicate a mining expense of 03 cents per ton. This cost represents the cost of caving the ore and does not include the cost of blocking the ore out which item is very high, owing to the numerous drifts that have to be' driven on each sub-level and because of the large number of raises. Besides it is known that when the ore was mined by the older system, in which the caving was done by enlarging rooms, the cost of mining was at firsl •1.26 a ton and later it was reduced to 81. 10. Considering that considerable timber is necessary in obtaining the last ore in each slice, the total cost of caving probably exceeds 80 cents per ton.

id

that as

much ground was being prepared

being

'

CHAPTER XV
BLOCK-CAVING SYSTEM
Example
38.

Pewabic Mine, Menominee Range, Mich.
(See also

Examples 8 and

46.)

Blocks Cut Off by Underhand Stoping. located just northeast of Iron Mountain and The is operated by the Mineral Mining Company of Milwaukee, Wis. main orebody is a deep lense, about 2,000 ft. long by 200 ft. thick, with
Sub-vertical

No. Chutes.

—This mine

Wide Vein.
is

a soft talc-slate footwall

ward 76

deg. to 90 deg.

Superior sandstone.
like that of the

and a silicious-slate hangwall. It dips northand is overlaid by horizontally bedded Lake The bulk is hard, low-grade, silicious hematite,
is

Traders mine; but within the walls

also a large shoot of

high-grade, blue hematite resembling Chapin ore.
Slicing. The high-grade shoot is soft and is stoped by slicing, but with only five sub-levels between the levels (125 ft. vertically apart). This gives a distance between sub-levels of nearly 21 ft. and a back to Since no floors are laid down cave, above the room cap, of over 12 ft. before caving, as in other mines, it might be thought that the resulting contamination would be disastrous; but, as the high-grade shoot lies entirely within the vein, it is not waste but low-grade ore which follows

a caved back onto the 2-in. plank sollar, from which the shovelling

is

done.

Block-caving. This system is always used for the low-grade ore, but within the length of the high-grade shoot the former ore is not touched until the latter has first been removed by the slicing of Example 45. Block-caving is diagrammed in Fig. 94. A block is 250 ft. long on the vein and 125 ft. high between the levels. The block is laid out by driving a wide footwall drift /and four cross-cuts Next c to c'" about 80 ft. apart to the hangwall, connected by drift h. raises r are put up at 50-ft. intervals along cross-cuts c and c'" to within 20 ft. of the filling above. Cross-cuts b and b'" are then driven, over c and c'", at the top of these raises and wooden chutes put at their bot-

toms

to allow gravity loading.

From down to

and b'" underhand stopes of 8-ft. width are then cut and c'". Simultaneously the block has been undercut by breast-stoping from the cross-cuts c and c'" and from drift h until it is only supported by small round ore pillars p (dash and dot in the plan,
cross-cuts b
c

192

BLO<

K-<

\ i\«,

BYgi km

193

ept alongside c
are
left,

and

c"'

where transversal
to be

and these are hard no timber need be used

drilled,
in this

The
n,i
;'
-

strips K dash and broken later. \. the ore is development of a block

250-ft. block
:

is
:i

now
,h -

free al the top

B0 tna1
.

" B00n

^

BuppoHing

pillars

crushing
ly

ctions the caving can begin. But settling is slow, and a month •re the block has reached the .sill floor and half a year before

and practically free at each p and K are blasted out

may
self

reduced the ore to for removal.
of the
to run

has

first-size

Drawing
allowing
it

caved ore is then begun by from the face of the seven

drifts d, which, like the reopened croe and r"', h; lV o been driven (closely timbered) through the broken ore at 25-ft. interval..

ore

falls

onto plank sollars, to be shoveled

into tram cars,

and when any face
filling,

c<

inward set is blasted out to get its superincumbent ore, and the withdrawal is continued until the <"'and c'" are reached. To exhaust
the block
it

run ore and shows

the next

nil

.

Plan

is

now only
c

/, to be attached to the endless-rope haulage system. The stoping only conducted during the open season, the winter being occupied Ut^g OUt the Mock, For an output of tom (l:( lv r>r(] 31 au-dnDs are required; but, as a large portion

and c"' half way between the caved drifts d, and recover their superincumbent ore by the same withdrawing process and finally withdraw the crosscuts themsel During this drawing there is at each drift face a crew of one miner and four muckers. The miner keeps the ground open by Cross. Sec. blasting Fig. 94.— Stoping at Pewabic any scaffolds, and watches the mine. safety of the shovelers Two muckers load and the others shove the tram car to drift
is
it,

new

necessarv to drive

drifts

from

hm

.

22 is

Jgot by room-caving)
It is

of the extraction

rich

this give,

however, that the total cost of mining th, lean is only 65 cents to 75 cents a ton hoeently, in starting a top block just under the sandstone capping it failed to part well from the sandstone when dropped, so inclines haTto be put down from the footwall drift and raises put up from their ends to recover the huge masses adhering to the sandstone Such mischances aV ° ided CUtti ftW8y thG °' e fr ° m adhering sd of a block by a narrow stope before dropping it. Here the ore usuallv parts easily from its slate walls, so the isolating nee d onlv be cut
'"- Jlone

alone

no average output

estimated

for block-caving

by block^aving

™.

«Th

^

"

«J

194
at the block's ends;

MINING WITHOUT TrMBER

but in other veins it might be necessary to cut stopes This system can be also applied to soft ore b)* the use of some timber during development. Block-caving is adapted to any long-bedded body of brittle homogeneous ore with tough definite walls if the ore parts easily from the walls; if not, the bed must be of sufficient width to allow the space and expense for cutting an isolating stope on the clinging wall. If a wall is not tough it will peel off and mix with the ore, if such wall is a hangwall
along either or both walls.
or a highly inclined footwall.
will also
If

a wall

is

indefinite a
is

contamination

take place, unless a regular isolating stope the block of good ore and the t