CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND SERVICE QUALITY (GAP MODEL

)

PRESENTATION OVERVIEW 
Measuring service quality 
ServQual model 

Gaps model of service quality 
Reasons for the gaps  Strategies for closing the gaps 

Measure customer satisfaction

What is service quality? 

What do we mean when we speak of service quality? Company personnel need a common understanding in order to be able to address such issues as the measurement of service quality, the identification of causes of service quality shortfalls, and the design and implementation of corrective actions.

Perspectives on service quality 
The word quality means different things to people according to the context. DEVID GARVIN identifies five perspectives on quality1. The transcendent view of quality is synonymous with innate excellence: a mark of uncompromising standards and high achievement. 2.The product-based approach sees quality as a precise and measurable variable.

Perspectives on service quality 
3.User-based definitions start with the premise that quality lies in the eyes of the beholder. these definitions equate quality with maximum satisfaction. 4.The manufacturing based approach is supply based and is concerned primarily with engineering and manufacturing practices. 5.Value-based definitions define quality in terms of value and price.

Measuring service quality: SERVQUAL Model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry 1985, 1988)
Reliability

Responsiveness

Assurance

Service Quality

Empathy

Tangibles

Servqual Dimensions 1. RELIABILITY 
Dependability Delivering on promises Accuracy Consistency
Get it right the first time!

Servqual Dimensions 2. RESPONSIVENESS 
Promptness Helpfulness

Servqual Dimensions
3. ASSURANCE 
   competence courtesy credibility security

I feel safe

Servqual Dimensions

4. EMPATHY 
Easy access Good communication Customer understanding Personalised attention

Servqual Dimensions 5. TANGIBLES 
Physical evidence Material (e.g., brochures or statements)
People look smart

The gaps model of service quality 
Where are things going wrong? 
What leads to poor service quality 

Gaps model of service quality Customer gap 
difference between customer¶s expectations and perceptions of performance 

Four provider gaps 
each may lead to the customer gap

THE GAPS MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY
Customer Needs And Expectations
1.The knowledge Gap

CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT

Management Definition Of These Needs
2. The standards Gap

Translation Into Design /Design Specs
3.The delivery Gap
4

4.The internal communication Gap

Execution Of Design/Delivery Specs

Advertising And Sales Promises
6.The interpretation Gap

5.the perception Gap

Customer Perceptions Of Product Execution

Customer Interpretation Of Communications
7.The service Gap

Customer Experience Relative To Expectations

1.THE KNOWLEDGE GAP 
Is the difference between what service providers believe customers expect and customers actual needs and expectations.

2. THE STANDARDS GAP 
Is the difference between management¶s perceptions of customer expectations and the quality standards established for service delivery.

3.THE DELIVERY GAP 
Is the difference between specified delivery standards and the service provider¶s actual performance on these standards.

4.THE INTERNAL COMMUNICATION GAP 
Is the difference between what the company¶s advertising and sales personnel think are the products features, performance, and service quality level and what the company is actually able to deliver.

5.THE PERCEPTION GAP 
Is the difference between what is, in fact, delivered and what customers perceive they received (because they are unable to accurately evaluate service quality).

6.THE INTERPRETATION GAP 
Is the difference between what the service communication efforts (in advance of service delivery) promise and what a customer thinks was promised by these communications.

7.THE SERVICE GAP 
Is the difference between what customer expect to receive and their perceptions of the service that is delivered.

Customer¶s expectations

Reasons for provider gap I 

Inadequate marketing research orientation  Lack of upward communication  Insufficient relationship focus  Inadequate service recovery

Company¶s perceptions of customer expectations

Translation of perceptions into service quality specifications 

Poor service design
Reasons for provider gap 2 

Absence of customer-defined service standards  Inappropriate physical evidence and servicescape

Management perceptions of customer expectations

Customer-driven service designs and standards

Reasons for provider gap 3 

  

Poor human resource policies Failure to match supply and demand Customer not fulfilling their roles Problems with service intermediaries

Service delivery

External communications to consumers

Reasons for provider gap 4 

Lack of integration of marketing communications  Inadequate management of customer expectations  Overpromising  Inadequate horizontal communications

Service delivery

Customer expectations

Reasons for Customer Gap 5

‡ Not knowing what customers expect ‡ Not selecting the right service standards and designs ‡ Not delivering to service standards ‡ Not matching performance to promised

Customer perceptions

CLOSING THE GAPS 
Gap 1: Learn what customers expect Gap 2: Establish the right service quality standards Gap 3: Ensure that service performance meets standards Gap 4: Ensure that delivery matches promises

Closing gap 1: Learn what customers expect 
Use research, complaint analysis, customer panels Increase direct interactions between managers and customers Improve upward communications Act on information and insights
listen to customers

Closing gap 2: Establish the right service quality standards 
Top management commitment to providing service quality Set, communicate, and reinforce customeroriented service standards Establish challenging and realistic service quality goals Train managers to be service quality leaders Be receptive to new ways to deliver service quality Standardise repetitive tasks 

Prioritise tasks Service Quality Awards Gain employee acceptance of goals and priorities Measure performance of service standards and provide regular feedback Reward managers and employees for achievement of quality goals

Closing gap 3: Ensure that service performance meets standards 
Attract the best employees Select the right employees Develop and support employees 
train employees  provide appropriate technology & equipment  encourage and build teamwork  empower employees  internal marketing
Can I take your order?

You are a Star Service Provider 

Retain good employees 
measure and reward service quality achievements develop equitable and simple reward systems

Closing gap 4: Ensure that service delivery matches promises 
Seek input from operations personnel on what can be done µReality¶ advertising 
real employees, real customers, real situations 

Seek input from employees on advertising Gain communications between sales, operations and customers Internal marketing programs Ensure consistent standards in multi-site operations 

In advertising, focus on service characteristics that are important to customers Manage customer¶s expectations 
What are realistic expectations?  Explain industry realities

Why do we always have to wait? 

Tiered service options 
Offer different levels of service - user pays

Service Satisfaction Information System 
Customer Complaints Surveys Employee Surveys Focus Groups µMystery shopping¶ research Competitive market surveys - benchmark

Measuring Satisfaction 

Qualitative Research Understand key drivers / determinants Questionnaire design Data analysis Service performance index (SPI) Importance - performance analysis

CONCLUSION 

Just as the SERVQUAL model is extensively used to assess external service quality, the instrument can also be modified to assess the quality of the internal service provided by departments and divisions within a company to employees in other departments and division.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful