Basic of Ultrasound Basic of Ultrasound Basic of Ultrasound Basic of Ultrasound

Dr.Shamim Rima Dr.Shamim Rima
MBBS,DMU,ICGP MBBS,DMU,ICGP
M.Phil (Radiology & Imaging) M.Phil (Radiology & Imaging)
Dr.Shamim Rima Dr.Shamim Rima
MBBS,DMU,ICGP MBBS,DMU,ICGP
M.Phil (Radiology & Imaging) M.Phil (Radiology & Imaging)
- Sound
- Wave parameter
- velocity of sound
- Pulse ultrasound
parameter
- Pizoelectric effect
TOP!C
- The frequency range of sound above
20kHz is known as ultrasound.
- These waves, inaudible to humans,
can be transmitted in beams and
used to scan the tissues of the body.
- Nedical uses of US ranges normally
from 2NHz to 10NHz.
What is ultrasound ?
Periodic motion causes
pressure waves in
surrounding physical media.
!n the diagram, when the
piston is shoved forward it
compresses the medium. The
compression travels through
the medium. As the piston
moves back and forth, it
creates more compressions
that travel through the
medium like cars down a
highway. The more quickly
the piston moves back and
forth, the closer one
compression is to the next
one.
- Ultrasound is produced through the
conversion of electrical energy into
mechanical energy, and is detected by
the reverse process, by converting
mechanical energy into electrical
energy.
- The transducer is a device that is both
a transmitter and receiver of the
ultrasound signal and it serves a dual
role in pulse echo imaging.
- The transducer contains a special
type of crystal with in it named
piezoelectric crystal.
- !n a electric field the alignment of
dipole with in the crystal changes,
which in turn causes the crystal to
change the shape.
- !f the voltage is applied in a sudden
burst the crystal vibrates and
generates sound.
- Ultrasound can be directed as a beam.
- Ultrasound obeys the laws of reflection and
refraction.
- Ultrasound is reflected by objects of small
size.
Advantages
Disadvantages
- Ultrasound propagates poorly through a
gaseous medium.
- The amount of ultrasound reflected depends
on the acoustic mismatch.
!ature of sound
- Sound waves are longitudinal in nature,
and require a material medium ( solid,
liquid or gas) for their transmission, they
will not pass through a vacuum.
- Sound must be generated mechanically
by an oscillating body of matter.
- The velocity of sound depends on
nature of medium.
- The velocity of sound is determined by
the rate at which the force is
transmitted from one molecule to
another.
- !t moves by producing band of
compression and rarefaction motion of
the molecule of conducting particle.
- The length of the wave is the distance
between two adjacent bands of
compression and rarefaction.
- The velocity of transmission is
independent of frequency.
- The velocity of transmission depends
upon physical make up of the matter
through which the sound is being
transmitted.
- !t transmitted rapidly through less
compressible material and slowly in
gases.
- The intensity of ultrasound varies
longitudinally along the length of the
beam.
#roperties of ultrasound
- Ultrasound obeys the wave equation.
- velocity = frequency x wave length.
- velocity= meter/ sec.
- Frequency= Hz (hertz= 1 cycle/ sec ).
- Wave= meter
Frequency
- !umber of cycles per second.
- Sound waves with frequencies ranging about 1SHz
to 20,000 Hz are audible to the normal human ear.
- Nedically useful ultrasound involves frequencies of 1
to 10 NHz.
- The duration of the pulse is about 1 microsecond
and the pulses repeated about 1000 times per
second.
- The higher the frequency, the longer the will be
cylindrical segment or near field ( fresnel zone).
- At the same time. The far field ( fraunhofer
zone) becomes less divergent at higher
frequencies.
- The best lateral resolution exists at the junction
of the near and far fields ( ie, ability to display
two closely spaced points in the same plane, as
two separate images).
- Depth resolution improves at higher frequencies
(points closely spaced in depth, displayed as two
separate images).
- As frequency is increased, greater absorption of
sound energy occures in the tissues, weakening
the beam intensity.
To summarise
- Correct depth = reasonable high frequency = reasonably
short wave length = reasonably good resolution.
- Too much depth = low frequency = long wavelength =
poor resolution
- Too little depth = Wont see structures of interest !
- Correct depth = reasonable high frequency = reasonably
short wave length = reasonably good resolution.
- Too much depth = low frequency = long wavelength =
poor resolution
- Too little depth = Wont see structures of interest !
- The term velocity refers to speed in a
given direction.
- !f direction is along a straight line, velocity
and speed are the same.
- velocity = distance / time.
- The of sound and ultrasound in particular,
depends on the density (gm/cm3) and the
compressibility of the conducting medium.
%efraction
- The waves pass through the
tissues at different speeds.
- various soft tissues are essentially
liquids, velocity of US is 1S40 m/s.
- Rapid conduction occur in bone.
- Slowest conduction occur in gas.
- The waves pass through the
tissues at different speeds.
- various soft tissues are essentially
liquids, velocity of US is 1S40 m/s.
- Rapid conduction occur in bone.
- Slowest conduction occur in gas.
Wavelength
- The length of a single cycle of the
ultrasound wave.
- !t is inversely proportional to the
frequency and determines the
resolution of the scanner.
- The length of a single cycle of the
ultrasound wave.
- !t is inversely proportional to the
frequency and determines the
resolution of the scanner.
!nteraction between ultrasound and matter
Types:
Reflection
Refraction
Absorption.
Reflection
- !n ultrasound the reflected portion of the beam
produces the image. Transmitted sound
contributes nothing to image formation but
transmission must be strong enough to produce
echo at deeper level.
- The percentage of the beam reflected at tissue
interfaces depend on·
1. The tissue acoustic impedance
2. The beams angle of incidence.
The tissue acoustic impedance
- The impedance of a material is the product of its
density and velocity of sound in the material.
- The velocity of sound in tissue is fairly constant over a
wide range of frequency , so a substance's acoustic
impedance is constant.
- As sound waves pass from one tissue plane to another,
the amount of reflection is determind by the difference
in the impedance of the two tissues.
- The greater the difference, the greater the percentage
reflected.
The beams angle of incidence
- The amount of reflection is determined by the
angle of incidence between the sound beam and
the reflecting surface.
- The higher the angle of incidence, the less the
amount of reflected sound.
- !n medical ultrasound, in which the same
transducer both transmit and receive ultrasound,
almost no reflected sound will be detected if the
ultrasound strikes the patient's surface at an
angle of more than 3

from perpendicular.
- When sound passes from one medium to another its frequency
remain constant but its wavelength changes to accommodate a
new velocity in the second medium.
- When the sound beam strikes the second medium at an angle,
the change in wavelength necessitates a change in direction.
- The beam finally emerges in the second medium with a
different wavelength and direction.
- This bending of waves as they pass from one medium to
another is called refraction.
%efraction
Snell's law
- Sin
1
/ Sin
2
= v
1
/ v
2 .
- Sin
1
= Angle of incidence
Sin
2
= Angle of transmission
v
1
= velocity of sound for incident
medium
v
2
= velocity of sound for transmitting
medium
ABSOR#T!O!
- The term absorption refers to the conversion of ultrasound or
ultrasonic to thermal energy.
- Absorption of ultrasound in fluids is a results of frictional
forces that oppose the motion of the particles in the medium.
The energy removed from the ultrasound beam is converted
into heat.
- Three factor determine the amount of absorption:
1. The frequency of the sound.
2. The viscosity of the conducting medium.
3. The relaxation time of the medium.
- The frequency of sound effects the amount of
absorption produced by the viscosity of a
material.
- The higher the frequency, the more its motion is
affected by the drag of a viscous material.
- Frequency also affects the amount of absorption
produced by the relaxation time.
- !n liquids, which have low viscosity, very little
absorption takes place.
- !n soft tissues where viscosity is higher and a
medium amount of absorption occurs.
- !n bone shows high absorption of ultrasound.
- The relaxation time is the time that it takes
for a molecule to return to its original
position after it has been displaced.
- The relaxation time is constant for any
particular material.
- A molecule with a longer relaxation time
may not return completely before a second
compression wave arrives.
Transducer
#ulse Cenerator
Amplification
Scan Cenerator
Scan Converter
!mage #rocessor
Display
THE ULT%ASOUND !NAC!NC SYSTEN
The Principal Functional Components of an Ultrasound
!maging System
Nodes of ultrasound display
- The ultrasound images is an electronic
representation of data generated from
returning echoes and displayed on a Tv
monitor.
- The image is assembled, one bit at a time.
Each retuning echo generates one bit of
data, and many bits together form the
electronic image.
The modes of ultrasound display are as follows
- A mode
- N mode
- TN mode
- B mode
A mode
- !n the A mode, echoes are displayed as
spikes projecting from a baseline. The base
line identifies the central aqxis of the beam.
- Spike height is proportional to echo
intensity, with strong echoes producing
large spikes.
A mode is used in:
- Ophthalmology
- Echoencephalography
- Echocardiography
- Ophthalmology
- Echoencephalography
- Echocardiography
N mode
- When an image is displayed as
dots instead of spikes is known as
N mode.
- Depth is proportional to time.
TN mode
- TN mode is similar to the A mode, except that the
echoes are recorded as dots instead of the spikes and
the TN mode used to study moving parts.
- TN mode is one dimensional image composed of dots.
- Depth is proportional to the height of the dots.
- Use : echocardiography.
B mode
- The B mode produces a picture of a slice of tissue. When
image is produce as a picture of a slice of tissue and result
is obtained by analyzing brightness of its different parts.
- Echo depth is determined by the time delay, as in A mode.
!n B·mode scanning, computed contact scanning is
necessary.
- Two types of B mode display -
* Cray scale image
* Real time image.
- Certain material (Lead Zirconate Titanate)
are such that the application of an electric
field causes a change in their physical
dimensions, and vice versa. This is called
piezoelectric effect.
- #iezoelectric materials are made up of
innumerable dipoles arranged in
geometric pattern.
#izoelectric effect
- An electric dipole is a distorted
molecule that appears to have a
positive charge on one end and a
negative charge on the other.
- The positive and negative ends are
arranged so that an electric field will
cause them to realign, thus changing
the dimension of the crystal.
- !f the voltage is applied in a sudden
burst, or pulse, the crystal vibrates like
a cymbal that has been struck a sharp
blow and generates sound waves.
- As the sound pulse passes through the
body, echoes reflect back towards the
transducer from each tissue interface.
- These echoes carry energy and
causing a physical compression on
the crystal element in the
transducer.
- This compression forces the tiny
dipoles to change their orientation,
which induces a voltage between
the electrodes.
- The voltage is amplified and serves
as ultrasonic signal for display on a
monitor.
- The compression forces and
associated voltage are responsible
for the name piezoelectricity,
which means 'pressure' electricity.

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