ICND

Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices
Volume 1
Version 2.3

Student Guide
Text Part Number: 97-2321-02

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents
Volume 1 Course Introduction
Overview Learner Skills and Knowledge Course Goal and Objectives Course Flow Additional References Cisco Glossary of Terms Your Training Curriculum

1
1 2 3 4 5 5 6

Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations
Overview Module Objectives

1-1
1-1 1-1

Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions
Overview Objectives Functions of Ethernet Switches and Bridges Frame Transmission Modes How Switches and Bridges Learn Source MAC Addresses Example: MAC Address Learning Example: MAC Address Learning (Cont.) How Switches and Bridges Forward and Filter Frames Example: Filtering Frames Example: Filtering Frames Through a Hub Summary

1-3
1-3 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-10 1-11 1-13

Identifying Problems that Occur in Redundant Switched Topologies
Overview Objectives Redundant Switched and Bridged Topologies Broadcast Storms Example: Broadcast Storms Multiple Frame Transmissions Example: Multiple Transmissions MAC Database Instability Example: Instability of the MAC Database Summary

1-15
1-15 1-15 1-16 1-18 1-18 1-20 1-20 1-22 1-22 1-23

Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol
Overview Objectives Spanning Tree Protocol Spanning-Tree Operation Example: Spanning-Tree Operation Root Bridge Selection Example: Selecting the Root Bridge Spanning-Tree Port States Example: Spanning-Tree Port States Example: Spanning-Tree Operation Spanning-Tree Path Cost Example: Spanning-Tree Path Cost Spanning-Tree Recalculation Example: Spanning-Tree Recalculation Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol RSTP Port States Summary

1-25
1-25 1-25 1-26 1-27 1-27 1-29 1-29 1-30 1-32 1-33 1-34 1-34 1-35 1-35 1-37 1-38 1-40

3 2-21 2-21 2-21 2-22 2-24 2-25 2-29 2-31 2-33 2-34 2-35 2-39 2-40 2-40 2-41 2-41 2-42 2-48 2-51 2-52 2-55 © 2006. Moves. Inc. Cisco Systems. and Changes for VLANs Adding VLANs and Port Membership Changing VLANs and Port Membership Deleting VLANs and Port Membership VLAN Troubleshooting Summary Module Summary Module Self-Check Module Self Check Answer Key ii Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.Configuring a Catalyst Switch Overview Objectives Catalyst Switch Default Configuration Verification Catalyst Switch IP Address and Default Gateway Configuration Duplexing and Speed Duplex Interface Configuration Example: Showing Duplex Options MAC Address Table Management Example: Setting a Static MAC Address Port Security Configuration Adds.1Q Trunking Configuration ISL Trunking Configuration VLAN Creation VLAN Name Modification VLAN Port Assignment VLAN Configuration Verification Example: Verifying STP for a VLAN Adds. and Changes for Access Layer Catalyst Switches Catalyst Switch Configuration File Management Summary Module Summary Module Self-Check Module Self-Check Answer Key 1-41 1-41 1-41 1-42 1-44 1-47 1-48 1-49 1-50 1-51 1-52 1-56 1-59 1-61 1-63 1-64 1-68 Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs Overview Module Objectives 2-1 2-1 2-1 Introducing VLAN Operations Overview Objectives VLANs Defined VLAN Operation VLAN Membership Modes 802. . Moves.1Q Trunking Example: Per VLAN Spanning Tree + Inter-Switch Link Protocol and Encapsulation VLAN Trunking Protocol Features VTP Modes VTP Operations VTP Pruning Example: VTP Pruning Summary 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-10 2-12 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-18 2-18 2-19 Configuring VLANs Overview Objectives VTP Configuration Example: VTP Configuration 802.

Cisco Systems. Inc.Determining IP Routes Overview Module Objectives 3-1 3-1 3-1 Introducing Routing Overview Objectives Routing Overview Static and Dynamic Route Comparison Static Route Configuration Example: Static Routes Example: Configuring Static Routes Default Route Forwarding Configuration Static Route Configuration Verification Example: Verifying the Static Route Configuration Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview Features of Dynamic Routing Protocols Example: Administrative Distance Example: Routing Protocol Comparison The ip classless Command InterVLAN Routing Example: Router on a Stick Example: Subinterfaces Summary 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-6 3-7 3-7 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-11 3-12 3-15 3-15 3-19 3-20 3-21 3-21 3-22 3-25 Introducing Distance Vector Routing Overview Objectives Distance Vector Route Selection Example: Distance Vector Routing Protocols Example: Sources of Information and Discovering Routes Routing Information Maintenance Example: Maintaining Routing Information Routing Inconsistencies with Distance Vector Routing Protocols Example: Inconsistent Routing Entries Count to Infinity Prevention Example: Count to Infinity Example: Defining a Maximum to Prevent Count to Infinity Techniques to Eliminate Routing Loops Example: Routing Loops Example: Split Horizon Example: Route Poisoning Example: Poison Reverse Implementation of Techniques to Eliminate Routing Loops Example: Techniques to Eliminate Routing Loops Summary 3-27 3-27 3-27 3-28 3-28 3-29 3-31 3-31 3-32 3-33 3-36 3-36 3-37 3-38 3-38 3-39 3-40 3-41 3-44 3-44 3-50 © 2006.3 iii . Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

Inc.Introducing Link-State and Balanced Hybrid Routing Overview Objectives How Routing Information Is Maintained with Link State Link-State Routing Protocol Algorithms Example: Link-State Routing Protocol Algorithms Benefits and Limitations of Link-State Routing When to Use Link-State Routing Protocols Balanced Hybrid Routing Summary 3-53 3-53 3-53 3-54 3-58 3-59 3-60 3-61 3-64 3-65 Enabling RIP Overview Objectives RIP Features RIPv1 and RIPv2 Comparison Dynamic Routing Configuration Tasks Dynamic Routing Configuration RIP Configuration Example: RIP Configuration RIP Configuration Verification Example: Verifying the RIP Configuration RIP Configuration Troubleshooting Example: debug ip rip Command Summary 3-67 3-67 3-67 3-68 3-69 3-70 3-71 3-72 3-73 3-74 3-75 3-77 3-78 3-79 Enabling EIGRP Overview Objectives EIGRP Features EIGRP and IGRP Comparison EIGRP Configuration Example: EIGRP Configuration EIGRP Configuration Verification show ip eigrp neighbors Example show ip eigrp neighbors detail Example EIGRP Configuration Troubleshooting Summary 3-81 3-81 3-81 3-82 3-84 3-85 3-86 3-87 3-89 3-90 3-94 3-95 Enabling OSPF Overview Objectives OSPF Features OSPF and Distance Vector Routing Protocol Comparison Hierarchical Routing Example: OSPF Hierarchical Routing Shortest Path First Algorithm Single-Area OSPF Configuration Example: OSPF Configuration Loopback Interfaces OSPF Configuration Verification OSPF Configuration Troubleshooting Summary 3-97 3-97 3-97 3-98 3-99 3-101 3-101 3-102 3-103 3-104 3-105 3-106 3-111 3-113 iv Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3 © 2006. . Cisco Systems.

Implementing Variable-Length Subnet Masks Overview Objectives VLSM Benefits VLSM Calculations Example: A Working VLSM Route Summarization with VLSM Example: Route Summarization Example: Summarizing with an Octet Route Summarization Implementation Considerations Route Summarization Management Example: Summarizing Routes in a Discontiguous Network Summary Module Summary Module Self-Check Module Self-Check Answer Key 3-115 3-115 3-115 3-116 3-118 3-120 3-121 3-121 3-123 3-125 3-126 3-127 3-128 3-129 3-131 3-137 © 2006. Cisco Systems.3 v . Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc.

Inc.3 © 2006.vi Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. . Cisco Systems.

and troubleshoot the various Cisco networking devices. Upon completion of this training course. you will be able to configure. verify.to medium-sized network sites.3 is an instructor-led course presented by Cisco Systems training partners to their end-user customers. This five-day course focuses on using Cisco Catalyst switches and Cisco routers connected in LANs and WANs typically found at small. .ICND Course Introduction Overview Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

Learner Skills and Knowledge This subtopic lists the skills and knowledge that learners must possess to benefit fully from the course. The subtopic also includes recommended Cisco learning offerings that learners should complete in order to benefit fully from this course. Inc. Inc. ICND v2. Cisco Systems. Learner Skills and Knowledge • • • • • • • • Network Components Network Cabling LAN Topologies and Technologies WAN Topologies and Technologies Remote Access Technologies OSI Reference Model TCP/IP Protocols and Applications IP Addressing © 2006 Cisco Systems. .3 © 2006.3—3 2 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. All rights reserved.

EIGRP. Cisco Systems. ICND v2. routers. and throughput by implementing VLANs Configure and troubleshoot RIP. interoperability. All rights reserved. Course Goal “To implement and operate a simple Cisco network that includes switches. Inc. you will be able to meet these objectives: Configure a Catalyst switch for basic operations Improve the scalability.Course Goal and Objectives This topic describes the course goal and objectives. and remote access routers” Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices © 2006 Cisco Systems.3—4 Upon completing this course. Course Introduction 3 . Inc. and OSPF Configure different types of IP ACLs in order to manage IP traffic Establish a serial point-to-point connection using PPP and HDLC Configure Frame Relay Configure DDR between two routers with BRI or PRI © 2006.

) Module 5: Establishing Serial Point-to-Point Connections P M Module 3: Determining IP Routes (Cont.Course Flow This topic presents the suggested flow of the course materials. Inc. Course Flow Day 1 Course Introduction Day 2 Module 2: Extending Switched Networks with VLANs (Cont.) Module 2: Extending Switched Networks with VLANs Module 4: Managing IP Traffic with Access Control Lists (Cont. 4 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. .3 © 2006. Inc. Cisco Systems. The exact timing of the subject materials and labs depends on the pace of your specific class.) Module 7: Completing ISDN Calls © 2006 Cisco Systems.) Module 3: Determining IP Routes (Cont.3—5 The schedule reflects the recommended structure for this course. All rights reserved. This structure allows enough time for the instructor to present the course information and for you to work through the lab activities.) Module 4: Managing IP Traffic with ACLs Module 6: Establishing Frame Relay Connections Lunch Module 1: Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations (Cont.) Module 3: Determining IP Routes Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 A M Module 1: Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations Module 3: Determining IP Routes (Cont. ICND v2.

refer to the Cisco Internetworking Terms and Acronyms glossary of terms at http://www.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ita/index. © 2006.htm. as well as information on where to find additional technical references. Cisco Systems.Additional References This topic presents the Cisco icons and symbols used in this course.cisco. Course Introduction 5 . Inc. Cisco Icons and Symbols © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2. All rights reserved. Inc.3—6 Cisco Glossary of Terms For additional information on Cisco terminology.

Inc.cisco.com/go/certifications © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.html.cisco. CCNA®. CCDA®.com/en/US/learning/le3/le2/le41/learning_certification_level_home. or CCSP®). It provides a gathering place for Cisco certified professionals to ask questions and share suggestions and information about Cisco Career Certification programs and other certification-related topics. For more information. a discussion forum open to anyone holding a valid Cisco Career Certification (such as Cisco CCIE®. 6 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Cisco Career Certifications Expand Your Professional Options and Advance Your Career Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) CCIE Expert Required Exam CCNA Recommended Training Through Cisco Learning Partners Cisco Certified Network Associate CCNP Professional CCNA Associate INTRO and ICND Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies & Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices http://www.Your Training Curriculum This topic presents the training curriculum for this course. CCDP®. ICND v2.3 © 2006. CCNP®. Inc.3—7 You are encouraged to join the Cisco Certification Community. visit the website at http://www. . CCIP™. All rights reserved.

If you have specific network needs. you will be able to configure a Catalyst switch for basic operations. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the basic operation of LAN switches and bridges Describe how problems occur when using a redundant topology in a switched or bridged network Describe the functionality of STP Configure a Catalyst switch . you can configure and monitor the switch on an individual basis or as part of a switch cluster through its various management interfaces.Module 1 Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations Overview The Cisco Catalyst 2950 series switches are designed for plug-and-play operation: You need only to assign basic IP information to the switch and connect it to the other devices in your network. Module Objectives Upon completing this module. This module shows you how to configure a Catalyst switch for basic operations.

1-2 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc. Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. .

This lesson explains the basic functions provided by LAN switches and bridges. LAN switches and bridges can also build a MAC address table that enables them to make intelligent forwarding decisions at Layer 2. You need to be familiar with general LAN switching and bridging functions before configuring a Catalyst switch. LAN switches and bridges are more intelligent than hubs because they can actually listen in on the traffic and can examine the source and destination MAC addresses. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the function of Layer 2 switches and bridges Describe the primary LAN switch and bridge frame transmission modes Explain how a LAN switch or bridge associates a MAC address with a port Describe how switches and bridges forward and filter frames . you will be able to describe the basic operation of LAN switches and bridges. Objectives Upon completing this lesson.Lesson 1 Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions Overview Layer 2 LAN switches and bridges operate at Layer 2 of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model. whereas hubs operate at Layer 1.

Inc. Ethernet Switches and Bridges • Address learning • Forwarding based on the learned addresses • Loop avoidance © 2006 Cisco Systems. Because of their high-speed internal architecture and large number of ports. Ethernet switches and bridges also make intelligent frame-forwarding decisions by examining the source and destination MAC addresses of incoming frames. Ethernet switches and bridges operate at Layer 2 of the OSI reference model. the frame is transmitted on only that port identified as the destination in the frame. Inc.3—1-3 Ethernet switches and bridges increase the available bandwidth by reducing the number of devices contending for the segment bandwidth. 1-4 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. The MAC address-toport mappings are stored in a MAC database. Ethernet switches offer much higher throughput than a traditional bridge. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. . If the destination MAC address is not found in the MAC database. ICND v2. When an Ethernet switch or bridge receives a frame. often called the MAC address table or the content-addressable memory (CAM) table. The following describes the functions performed by switches and bridges: An Ethernet switch or bridge learns the source MAC addresses of the devices that are attached to each of its ports by listening in on the incoming traffic.Functions of Ethernet Switches and Bridges This topic describes the basic functions of Ethernet switches and bridges. If the destination MAC address is found in the MAC database. the switch or bridge consults the MAC database to determine which port can reach the station identified as the destination in the frame. the frame is transmitted on all outgoing ports except the incoming port.3 © 2006.

Transmitting Frames Cut-Through • Switch checks destination address and immediately begins forwarding frame Store and Forward • Complete frame is received and checked before forwarding Fragment-Free • Switch checks the first 64 bytes. In some switches and bridges. Some switches and bridges continue to read the CRC and keep a count of errors. It combines the low-latency advantage of cut-through and the error protection offered by store-and-forward. Cisco Systems. either manually or automatically. Latency through the switch or bridge varies with frame length. only the destination addresses are read. Cut-through: In the cut-through mode. All rights reserved. the switch or bridge receives the complete frame. if the error rate is too high.3—1-4 The following three primary operating modes are used to handle frame switching: Store-and-forward: In the store-and-forward mode.Frame Transmission Modes This topic describes the three primary LAN switch and bridge frame transmission modes. because this switching mode starts to forward the frame as soon as the switch or bridge reads the destination addresses. the frame is discarded. ICND v2. and the frame is forwarded. The delay in cut-through switching remains constant regardless of frame size. Inc. the switch or bridge checks the destination address (DA) as soon as the header is received and immediately begins forwarding the frame. If the CRC is bad. the switch or bridge can be set. There is a significant decrease in latency compared with the store-and-forward mode. This is known as adaptive cut-through. The destination and source addresses are read. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-5 . Inc. then immediately begins forwarding frame © 2006 Cisco Systems. Although the switch or bridge will not stop an errored frame. to use the store-and-forward mode instead. © 2006. then forwards it. the relevant filters are applied. the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is performed.

The fragment-free mode has higher latency than the cut-through mode. Inc. . Usually. By reading 64 bytes. 1-6 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.Fragment-free (modified cut-through): In the fragment-free mode. the switch or bridge will read the first 64 bytes (the minimum Ethernet frame size) before forwarding the frame. a fragment (a frame less than 64 bytes) is created. in contrast to cut-through. the switch or bridge can filter out collision (fragment) frames. Cisco Systems. which forwards fragment frames if the destination address exists.3 © 2006. When a collision occurs. Fragment-free can detect fragment frames and discard them rather than forwarding them. collisions happen within the first 64 bytes of a frame.

Flooding is the least efficient way to transmit data across a switch or bridge because it wastes bandwidth. © 2006.How Switches and Bridges Learn Source MAC Addresses This topic describes how a LAN switch or bridge associates a MAC address with a port. Switches and bridges implement buffering memory so that they can receive and transmit frames independently on each port. the Catalyst 2950 series can hold up to 8192 entries. When a switch or bridge is first initialized. All rights reserved. Inc. With an empty MAC address table. the MAC address table is empty. Cisco Systems. Inc. the switch or bridge must forward each frame to all connected ports other than the one on which the frame arrived.3—1-5 A switch or bridge maintains a MAC address table to track the locations of devices that are connected to the switch or bridge. Forwarding a frame to all connected ports except the incoming port is called flooding the frame. The size of the MAC address table varies depending on the switch or bridge. ICND v2. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-7 . © 2006 Cisco Systems. For example. MAC Address Table • The initial MAC address table is empty.

which stays in the MAC address table up to the age time. The age time also accommodates station moves. Because the MAC address table has a limited size. wants to send traffic to station C.8c01. The following describes the actions performed when the switch receives this frame: The frame is received from the physical Ethernet 0 port and stored in temporary buffer space. Aging allows the switch or bridge to forget an entry about a station that has been removed. . While flooding the frame from station A. 1-8 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. the age time helps to limit flooding by remembering the most active stations in the network. the switch will flood the frame through all other ports. • The switch caches the MAC address of station A to port E0 by learning the source address of data frames. Inc. with MAC address 0260. the switch or bridge will immediately learn the new location of the station as soon as that station begins to transmit frames to the switch or bridge on the new port. Because the switch does not yet know which interface connects it to the destination station. Cisco Systems.3—1-6 Example: MAC Address Learning In the example. that entry will not be refreshed and will be removed from the MAC address table.3 © 2006.Learning Addresses • Station A sends a frame to station C. with MAC address 0260. All rights reserved. • The frame from station A to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E0 (unknown unicasts are flooded).8c01.2222. ICND v2. If station A does not transmit another frame to the switch before the age time expires. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. the switch notes the source address of the frame and associates it with port E0 in a new MAC address table entry. If a station is moved from one port to another port. station A. A MAC address table entry is created.1111. assuming store-and-forward frame transmission.

) • Station D sends a frame to station C. is added to the MAC address table. The following describes the actions performed by the switch. station C. sends traffic to station C. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-9 . These entries are then used to make intelligent Layer 2 forwarding and filtering decisions. the frame is flooded to all ports other than the one on which the frame arrived. The destination address from the transmitted frame.) The learning process continues when each station sends frames to the others. station D. Cisco Systems. © 2006 Cisco Systems. with MAC address 0260. When station C sends a frame back to station A. As long as all stations send data frames within the MAC address table entry lifetime. When the switch or bridge determines that no port-to-MAC address mapping yet exists for this destination. Inc. © 2006.4444. All rights reserved. • The switch caches the MAC address of station D to port E3 by learning the source address of data frames.4444.8c01. is compared with entries in the MAC address table. The source address.8c01. • The frame from station D to station C is flooded out to all ports except port E3 (unknown unicasts are flooded). the switch can also learn the station C MAC address at port E2. Inc. a complete MAC address table is built.Learning Addresses (Cont.3—1-7 Example: MAC Address Learning (Cont.2222. ICND v2. with MAC address 0260. In the figure.8c01. 0260.

Filtering Frames • Station A sends a frame to station C.How Switches and Bridges Forward and Filter Frames When a frame arrives with a known destination address. When the destination station C MAC address exists in the MAC address table.3 © 2006. Inc. the switch transmits the frame only on the port listed.8c01. When the switch or bridge determines that the destination MAC address can be reached through port E2. This action is known as frame filtering. • The destination is known. The switch does not transmit the frame on ports E1 or E3 to preserve bandwidth on these links. station A sends a frame to station C. Cisco Systems. is compared with entries in the MAC address table. All rights reserved. 1-10 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. The following lists the steps that the switches and bridges perform when forwarding and filtering frames. . 0260. the frame is forwarded only on the specific port connected to the destination station. Step 2 Note Step 3 The switch refreshes the MAC address table entry for the source MAC address. it transmits the frame to port E2 only. Inc. the frame is not flooded. This topic describes how switches and bridges determine where to forward incoming frames. ICND v2.3—1-8 Example: Filtering Frames In the figure. Step 1 The destination MAC address from the transmitted frame.2222.

3—1-9 Example: Filtering Frames Through a Hub The figure shows station A and station B connected to the same switch port through a hub. © 2006 Cisco Systems. • The switch has the address for station B in the MAC address table.) • Station A sends a frame to station B. The switch will not forward the frame from station A to any ports. Inc. Cisco Systems. station A is sending a frame to station B. © 2006. The switch has learned the addresses of station A and B. All rights reserved. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-11 . In this case. ICND v2.Filtering Frames (Cont. Inc.

Because broadcast and multicast frames may be of interest to all stations.Broadcast and Multicast Frames • Station D sends a broadcast or multicast frame.3—1-10 Broadcast and multicast frames constitute a special case. Inc. 1-12 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. A switch or bridge never learns a broadcast or multicast address because broadcast and multicast addresses never appear as the source address of a frame.3 © 2006. ICND v2. . the switch or bridge normally floods broadcast and multicast to all ports other than the originating port. © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. • Broadcast and multicast frames are flooded to all ports other than the originating port.

Summary • Ethernet switches and bridges increase the available bandwidth of a network by creating dedicated network segments and interconnecting the segments. • Switches and bridges maintain a MAC address table to store address-to-port mappings so that they can determine the locations of connected devices. and fragmentfree. Cisco Systems. cut-through. the frame is forwarded only on the specific port connected to the destination station. ICND v2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. • When a frame arrives with a known destination address. • Switches and bridges use one of three operating modes to transmit frames: store and forward. Inc.3—1-11 © 2006. Inc. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-13 .Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.

1-14 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3 © 2006. . Cisco Systems. Inc.

This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Identify the problems that can occur with redundant switched and bridged topologies Explain how broadcast storms are created Explain how multiple frame transmissions occur Describe how MAC database instability occurs . This lesson describes the problems that can be caused by using a redundant topology in a switched or bridged network.Lesson 2 Identifying Problems that Occur in Redundant Switched Topologies Overview Most complex networks include redundant devices to avoid single points of failure. Although a redundant topology eliminates some problems. You need to know what problems can arise from a redundant switched topology so that you can recognize them when they occur. it can introduce other problems. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. you will be able to describe how problems occur when a redundant topology is used in a switched or bridged network.

Cisco Systems. you must consider problems that redundant designs can cause. each switch or bridge will flood broadcasts endlessly. All rights reserved.3—1-3 While redundant designs may eliminate the possibility that a single point of failure problem will result in loss of function for the entire switched or bridged network. .3 © 2006. Data forwarding may be impaired when the switch consumes the resources that are coping with instability in the MAC address table. Inc.Redundant Switched and Bridged Topologies This topic describes the problems that can occur with redundant links and devices in switched or bridged networks. Some of the problems that can occur with redundant links and devices in switched or bridged networks are as follows: Broadcast storms: Without some loop avoidance process in operation. MAC database instability: Instability in the MAC address table content results from copies of the same frame being received on different ports of the switch. Redundant Topology • Redundant topology eliminates single points of failure. This situation is commonly called a broadcast storm. Multiple frame transmission: Multiple copies of unicast frames may be delivered to destination stations. Inc. and MAC address table instability problems. 1-16 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Multiple copies of the same frame may cause unrecoverable errors. ICND v2. multiple frame copies. Many protocols expect to receive only a single copy of each transmission. • Redundant topology causes broadcast storms.

Inc. A loop avoidance mechanism is required to solve each of these problems. Lacking such a mechanism. © 2006. Some Layer 3 protocols implement a Time to Live (TTL) mechanism that limits the number of times a packet can be retransmitted by a Layer 3 networking device. such as Ethernet. Cisco Systems. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-17 . lack a mechanism to recognize and eliminate endlessly looping frames.Layer 2 LAN protocols. Layer 2 devices will continue to retransmit looping traffic indefinitely.

3.Broadcast Storms This topic describes how broadcast storms are created. . • Switches continue to propagate broadcast traffic over and over. Inc. Example: Broadcast Storms The figure illustrates the problem of a broadcast storm. ICND v2. All rights reserved. the frame will be received by switch A. The following describes the sequence of events that start a broadcast storm: 1. these frames travel around the loop in both directions. such as an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for its default gateway (router Y). Cisco Systems. the process repeats and a copy of the frame is transmitted onto the top Ethernet.3 © 2006. 1-18 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. segment 1 near switch B. 2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. When host X sends a broadcast frame. Inc. Broadcast Storms • Host X sends a broadcast. When this copy of the frame arrives at switch B. Switches flood broadcast frames to all ports except the one on which the frame was received. 4. even after the destination station has received a copy of the frame.3—1-4 A broadcast storm occurs when each switch on a redundant network floods broadcast frames endlessly. Because the original copy of the frame also arrives at switch B via the top Ethernet. Switch A examines the destination address field in the frame and determines that the frame must be flooded onto the bottom Ethernet link. segment 2.

therefore breaking the loop. © 2006. A loop avoidance mechanism eliminates this problem by preventing one of the four interfaces from transmitting frames during normal operation. thus.A broadcast storm can disrupt normal traffic flow. Cisco Systems. It can also disrupt all the devices on the switched or bridged network because broadcasts must be processed by the CPU in each device on the segment. a broadcast storm can lock up the user PCs and servers that are trying to process all of the broadcast frames. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-19 . Inc.

Router Y receives a copy of the same frame for the second time. protocols that make use of a sequence numbering mechanism will assume that many transmissions have failed and that the sequence number has recycled. 3. In general. Multiple Frame Copies • Host X sends a unicast frame to router Y.3 © 2006. 1-20 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Other protocols attempt to hand the duplicate transmission to the appropriate upper-layer protocol. • Router Y will receive two copies of the same frame. with unpredictable results. segment 1. Example: Multiple Transmissions The figure illustrates how multiple transmissions can occur. 2. potentially causing problems with the receiving protocol. multiple copies of the same frame can arrive at the intended host.3—1-5 In a redundant topology. The following lists the sequence of events describing how multiple copies of the same frame can arrive at the intended host: 1. 4. Inc. At more or less the same time. one copy is received over the direct Ethernet connection. If switch A examines the destination address field in the frame and finds no entry in the MAC address table for router Y. • The MAC address of router Y has not been learned by either switch. When switch B receives a copy of the frame through switch A on segment 2. ICND v2. All rights reserved. switch B also forwards a copy of the frame onto segment 1 if there is no entry in the MAC address table for router Y. © 2006 Cisco Systems. switch A receives a copy of the frame and puts it into the switch A buffers. .Multiple Frame Transmissions This topic explains how multiple frame transmissions occur and the problems that can result. Cisco Systems. When host X sends a unicast frame to router Y. Most protocols are designed not to recognize or cope with duplicate transmissions. Inc. switch A floods the frame on all ports except the originating port.

A loop avoidance mechanism eliminates this problem by preventing one of the four interfaces from transmitting frames during normal operation. therefore breaking the loop. Cisco Systems. © 2006. Inc. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-21 .

Example: Instability of the MAC Database In the figure. which connects to segment 2. the switch in question may or may not cope well with rapid changes in its MAC database.MAC Database Instability MAC database instability results when multiple copies of a frame arrive on different ports of a switch. This topic describes how MAC database instability can arise and the problems that can result. Inc. The frame to router Y is flooded. All rights reserved. Port 0 connects to segment 1 when the first frame arrives. The MAC address of router Y has not been learned by either switch. Sometime later. 1-22 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. therefore breaking the loop.3 © 2006. Switches A and B learn the MAC address of host X on port 0. Depending on its internal architecture. Cisco Systems. Inc. MAC Database Instability • • • • • Host X sends a unicast frame to router Y. a loop avoidance mechanism eliminates this problem by preventing one of the four interfaces from transmitting frames during normal operation. switch B removes the first entry and installs an entry that incorrectly maps the MAC address of host X to port 1. ICND v2.3—1-6 © 2006 Cisco Systems. . mapping the MAC address of host X to port 0. Again. switch B installs a database entry. when the copy of the frame transmitted through switch A arrives at port 1 of switch B. Switches A and B incorrectly learn the MAC address of host X on port 1.

which can introduce problems such as broadcast storms. • Multiple frame transmissions occur when multiple copies of the same frame arrive at the intended host. • MAC database instability occurs when multiple copies of a frame arrive on different ports of a switch. ICND v2. multiple frame transmission.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Summary • Bridged and switched networks are commonly designed with redundant links and devices. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-23 .3—1-7 © 2006. potentially causing problems with the receiving protocol. Inc. • A broadcast storm is created when each switch on a redundant network floods broadcast frames endlessly. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. and MAC database instability.

1-24 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. . Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. Inc.

STP operation is transparent to end stations. bridges.Lesson 3 Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol Overview Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 link management protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in switched or bridged networks. you will be able to describe the functionality of STP. This lesson describes the functionality of STP. STP runs on Layer 2 switches. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the purpose of STP Explain the process STP follows when maintaining a loop-free network topology Describe how STP selects the root bridge Describe how spanning-tree port states function when STP is enabled Describe spanning-tree path costs Explain how STP recalculates the port states to accommodate topology changes Describe the function of RSTP . You need to know how STP can address the problems that are caused by redundant topologies in switched or bridged networks. and routers that are configured to operate as bridges.

The purpose of STP is to maintain a loop-free network topology. such as the Catalyst 2950 series. Cisco switches. The Digital Equipment algorithm and the IEEE 802.3 © 2006. When the network topology changes. switch.1d STP. use the IEEE 802. Note STP is enabled by default in Catalyst switches.1d algorithm are not the same and are not compatible. the switches and bridges that are running STP automatically reconfigure their ports to avoid the creation of loops or the loss of connectivity. Inc. STP continually probes the network so that the failure or addition of a link. Cisco Systems. Inc. 1-26 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3—1-3 STP was originally developed by the Digital Equipment Corporation. Spanning Tree Protocol • Provides a loop-free redundant network topology by placing certain ports in the blocking state © 2006 Cisco Systems. The Digital Equipment spanning-tree algorithm was subsequently revised by the IEEE 802 committee and published in the IEEE 802. ICND v2. A loop-free topology is accomplished when the switch or bridge recognizes a loop in the topology and logically blocks one or more redundant ports automatically. .Spanning Tree Protocol This topic describes the purpose and history of STP. All rights reserved.1d specification. or bridge is detected.

© 2006. Spanning-Tree Operation • One root bridge per broadcast domain • One root port per nonroot bridge • One designated port per segment • Nondesignated ports are unused © 2006 Cisco Systems. Only one bridge can act as the root bridge in a given network. All rights reserved. Root ports are normally in the forwarding state. The root port is the lowest-cost path from the nonroot bridge to the root bridge.Spanning-Tree Operation This topic describes the process that STP follows when maintaining a loop-free network topology. all ports are designated ports.3—1-4 STP uses two key concepts when creating a loop-free logical topology: bridge ID (BID) and path cost. a port can send and receive traffic. ICND v2. When in the forwarding state. In the figure. In the figure. Selects the root port on the nonroot bridge: STP establishes one root port on the nonroot bridge. Inc. Elects one root bridge: STP has a process to elect a root bridge. Example: Spanning-Tree Operation There are three steps that STP performs when it initially converges on a logically loop-free network topology: 1. Cisco Systems. Designated ports are normally in the forwarding state. Spanning-tree path cost is an accumulated cost calculated on the bandwidth. On the root bridge. the lowest-cost path to the root bridge is from switch Y through the 100BaseT Fast Ethernet link. switch X is elected as the root bridge. Inc. 2. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-27 .

forwarding traffic for the segment.3. Nondesignated ports are normally in the blocking state to logically break the loop topology. it is not forwarding traffic but can still receive traffic. Inc. . Designated ports are normally in the forwarding state. The designated port is selected on the bridge that has the lowest-cost path to the root bridge. 1-28 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Selects the designated port on each segment: On each segment. The 10BaseT Ethernet port on switch Y is a nondesignated port because there is only one designated port per segment. In the figure.3 © 2006. Cisco Systems. the designated port for both segments is on the root bridge because the root bridge is directly connected to both segments. When a port is in the blocking state. STP establishes one designated port.

both switches are using the same default priority. Inc. STP calls for each switch or bridge to be assigned a unique BID. ICND v2. in accordance with IEEE 802. The switch with the lowest MAC address will be the root bridge.768 (1000 0000 0000 0000 in binary. Cisco Systems. is 32. © 2006. which switch has the lowest bridge ID? © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-29 . the BID is made up of a priority value (two bytes) and the bridge MAC address (six bytes). which is the midrange value.1d.Root Bridge Selection This topic describes how STP selects the root bridge. Switches and bridges exchange these messages using a multicast frame called the bridge protocol data unit (BPDU). The default priority.1111). Spanning Tree Protocol Root Bridge Selection • BPDU (default = sent every two seconds) • Root bridge = bridge with the lowest bridge ID • Bridge ID = In this example. Example: Selecting the Root Bridge In the figure. The root bridge is the bridge with the lowest BID. or 0x8000 in hex).3—1-5 Switches and bridges running the spanning-tree algorithm exchange configuration messages with other switches and bridges at regular intervals (every two seconds by default). One of the pieces of information included in the BPDU is the BID. In this example. All rights reserved. depending on the switch model. Typically. Note A Cisco Catalyst switch uses one of its MAC addresses from a pool of MAC addresses that are assigned to either the backplane or to the supervisory module.1111. switch X is the root bridge with a BID of 0x8000 (0c00.

Spanning-Tree Port States This topic describes the spanning-tree port states. the bridge thinks that it is the root bridge and will transition to the listening state. it is able to send and receive BPDUs to determine the active topology. the bridge will transition from the blocking state to the listening state.3—1-6 With STP. During a topology change. from which they listen for BPDUs. ICND v2. If properly configured. Initially. When the bridge first boots up. During the listening state. a port temporarily implements the listening and learning states. Inc. the ports then stabilize to the forwarding or blocking state. every bridge in the network goes through the blocking state and the transitory states of listening and learning at power up. Inc. Forwarding ports provide the lowest-cost path to the root bridge.3 © 2006. the bridge performs these three steps: Selects the root bridge Selects the root ports on the nonroot bridges Selects the designated ports on each segment 1-30 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. which has a default of 20 seconds. all bridge ports start in the blocking state. Cisco Systems. An absence of BPDUs for a certain period of time is called the max_age. ports transition through these four states: Blocking Listening Learning Forwarding When STP is enabled. At this point. If a port is in the blocking state and does not receive a new BPDU within the max_age. All rights reserved. no user data is being passed. . Spanning-Tree Port States • Spanning tree transits each port through several different states: © 2006 Cisco Systems. When a port is in the transitional listening state.

Spanning-tree timers can be tuned to adjust the timing. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-31 . The learning state reduces the amount of flooding required when data forwarding begins. Note If a switch port is connected only to end-user stations (not connected to another switch or bridge). a port is capable of sending and receiving user data. © 2006. when such an end-user port first comes up. The default values are put in place to give the network enough time to gather all the correct information about the network topology. because there are no other switches or bridges connected to it. This is acceptable because no loops can be formed through the port. Cisco Systems. a Catalyst switch feature called PortFast should be enabled on those end-user ports. Ports that are not the designated or root ports will transition back to the blocking state. Inc. but these timers should be set to the default value. In the forwarding state. The forward delay has a default value of 15 seconds. it automatically transitions from the blocking state to the forwarding state. Normally. If a port is still a designated or root port at the end of the learning state. the port will transition to the forwarding state. With PortFast. a port transitions from the learning state to the forwarding state in 30 to 50 seconds.The time it takes for a port to transition from the listening state to the learning state or from the learning state to the forwarding state is called the forward delay.

Inc. the root bridge. ICND v2.3 © 2006. 1-32 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.) © 2006 Cisco Systems.3—1-7 Example: Spanning-Tree Port States The figure illustrates a sample topology with STP enabled. The Ethernet port on switch Y is the nondesignated port (blocking). All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. The following describes the actions that occur in this example: The ports on switch X. are the designated ports (forwarding). There is only one designated port per segment. Inc. The Fast Ethernet port has a lower-cost path to the root bridge than the Ethernet port. . The Fast Ethernet port on switch Y is the root port (forwarding).Spanning-Tree Port States (Cont.

Port 0 is the lowest-cost path to the root on both switches. © 2006. All rights reserved. Port 1 of switch X is a designated port.3—1-8 Example: Spanning-Tree Operation The following describes the STP port states in the figure: The root bridge is switch Z. The root port is port 0 on switches X and Y. All designated and root ports are in the forwarding state. Port 1 on switch Y is the nondesignated port on the segment and is in the blocking state. ICND v2. Inc. Cisco Systems. Inc. the designated port is selected to be on switch X because it has a lower BID than switch Y. which has the lowest BID. Because both switch X and switch Y have the same path cost to the root bridge. The designated port is port 0 of switch Z.Spanning-Tree Operation © 2006 Cisco Systems. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-33 . All ports on the root are designated ports.

Cisco Systems. Inc. ICND v2.3—1-9 Example: Spanning-Tree Path Cost The spanning-tree path cost is an accumulated total path cost based on the bandwidth of all the links in the path. Note Most Catalyst switches incorporate the revised cost calculations.3 © 2006. some of the path costs specified in the IEEE 802. 1-34 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. . to accommodate higher-speed interfaces. in the older specification. Inc. All rights reserved. The IEEE 802. In the figure.1d specification are shown.Spanning-Tree Path Cost This topic describes the spanning-tree path cost.1d specification has been revised. Spanning-Tree Path Cost © 2006 Cisco Systems. The calculation of the new specification uses a nonlinear scale. A key point to remember about STP cost is that lower costs are better. the cost was calculated based on a bandwidth of 1000 Mbps.

Switch Y will transition its blocking port (port 1) from the blocking state to the listening state to the learning state. Inc. ICND v2. When the max_age timer on switch Y expires before a new BPDU has been received from switch X.Spanning-Tree Recalculation This topic describes how STP adjusts the port states to accommodate topology changes. a new spanning-tree recalculation is initiated. Inc. © 2006. After all the switch and bridge ports have transitioned to either a forwarding or a blocking state. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-35 .3—1-10 When there is a topology change because of a bridge or link failure. Spanning-Tree Recalculation © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems. then to the forwarding state. Example: Spanning-Tree Recalculation In the figure. if switch X (the root bridge) fails and does not send a BPDU to switch Y within the max_age (default is 20 seconds. switch Y becomes the root bridge and will forward traffic between the two segments. which equals 10 missed BPDUs). switch Y will detect the missing BPDU from the root bridge. All rights reserved. placing blocked ports in the forwarding state. the spanning tree ensures connectivity by adjusting the network topology.

Inc.3 © 2006. The normal convergence time is 30 to 50 seconds. switches and bridges must recompute STP. 1-36 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Cisco Systems. Convergence is necessary for normal network operations. For a switched or bridged network. All rights reserved. a key issue is the amount of time required for convergence when the network topology changes.Spanning-Tree Convergence • Convergence occurs when all the switch and bridge ports have transitioned to either the forwarding or the blocking state.3—1-11 Convergence in STP is a state in which all the switch and bridge ports have transitioned to either the forwarding or the blocking state. . Inc. which disrupts user traffic. • When the network topology changes. ICND v2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Fast convergence is a desirable network feature because it reduces the period of time that bridges and switches have ports in transitional states and therefore not sending any user traffic.

3—1-12 RSTP significantly reduces the time to reconverge the active topology of the network when changes to the physical topology or its configuration parameters occur. RSTP allows switch port configuration so that the ports can transition to forwarding directly when the switch reinitializes. and assigns port roles to individual ports on the switch. and it defines port states as discarding. while remaining compatible with STP. RSTP provides rapid connectivity following the failure of a switch.1w. RSTP. A new root port and the designated port on the other side of the bridge transition to forwarding through an explicit handshake between them. a switch port. RSTP selects one switch as the root of a spanning-tree active topology. All rights reserved. specified in IEEE 802.Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol This topic describes the function of Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol (RSTP). RSTP defines the additional port roles of alternate and backup.1w. © 2006. Note The Cisco implementation of 802. depending on whether the ports are part of the active topology.1d determines an alternate root port if it exists. Inc. supersedes STP as specified in IEEE 802. or forwarding. Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.1d includes some features that are standard in 802. the Cisco implementation of 802. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-37 . learning. or a LAN. ICND v2.1d. Inc. For example.

1-38 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Backup: A backup path that provides a redundant (but less desirable) connection to a segment to which another switch port already connects. and forwarding. Alternate: An alternate path to the root bridge different than the path root port takes. Cisco Systems. Alternate and backup port roles exclude the port from the active topology. The table compares STP port states with RSTP port states. Disabled: A port that has no role within the operation of spanning tree. RSTP Port States The port state controls the forwarding and learning processes and provides the values of discarding.3 © 2006. Backup ports can exist only where two ports are connected together in a loopback by a point-to-point link or bridge with two or more connections to a shared LAN segment. Root and designated port roles include the port in the active topology. Inc. Operational Status STP Port State RSTP Port State Port Included in Active Topology No No Yes Yes No Enabled Enabled Enabled Enabled Disabled Blocking Listening Learning Forwarding Disabled Discarding Discarding Learning Forwarding Discarding In a stable topology. . Designated: A forwarding port elected for every switched LAN segment. learning.The port roles are defined by RSTP as follows: Root: A forwarding port elected for the spanning-tree topology. RSTP ensures that every root port and designated port transitions to forwarding while all alternate ports and backup ports are always in the discarding state.

You can override the automatic link-type setting with an explicit configuration. Inc. Prior to the introduction of 802. ICND v2. Cisco Systems. Inc. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-39 . It is simply an example of link types. the spanning-tree algorithm waited passively for the network to converge before transitioning a port to the forwarding state.1w. Rapid transition to forwarding is not a major constraint on the switched networks of today. © 2006. The new RSTP actively confirms that a port can safely transition to forwarding without relying on a timer configuration. A port operating in full-duplex mode is point-to-point. skipping the listening and learning stages. An edge port does not generate topology changes when its link toggles. To achieve fast convergence on a port. whereas a port operating in half-duplex mode is considered shared by default. All rights reserved. the protocol relies upon two new variables: the edge-type port and the link-type port.3—1-13 Rapid transition is the most important feature introduced with IEEE 802. Note RSTP is able to achieve rapid transition to forwarding only on edge ports and point-to-point links. With edge ports. The link-type variable is automatically derived from the duplex mode of a port. Note The figure does not represent a preferred design.Rapid Transition to Forwarding © 2006 Cisco Systems. Edge ports can go directly to forwarding.1w. all ports directly connected to end stations cannot create bridging loops in the network.

. STP establishes a root bridge. and designated ports. Summary • STP is a bridge-to-bridge protocol used to maintain a loop-free network. • To maintain a loop-free network topology. • If the network topology changes. STP maintains connectivity by transitioning some blocked ports to the forwarding state. © 2006 Cisco Systems.3—1-14 1-40 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc. the ports then stabilize to the forwarding or blocking state. If properly configured. • With STP. Inc. the root bridge has the lowest BID. • RSTP significantly speeds the recalculation of the spanning tree when the network topology changes. All rights reserved. ICND v2. a root port. which is made up of the bridge priority and the MAC address. Cisco Systems. • When STP is enabled.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.3 © 2006. every bridge in the network goes through the blocking state and the transitory states of listening and learning at power up.

move. Because every network is unique. The default configuration will essentially set up the switch to function as a transparent bridge. This lesson describes how to configure a Catalyst switch. default gateway. or VLANs configured.Lesson 4 Configuring a Catalyst Switch Overview A Cisco Catalyst switch comes with factory default settings. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the default setting for a Cisco Catalyst switch Configure the Catalyst switch IP address and default gateway Describe the two duplex modes used with Catalyst switches Configure the duplex options in Catalyst switches Set permanent and static addresses in the MAC address table Configure port security Add. and change MAC addresses on access layer Catalyst switches Manage Catalyst switch configuration files . Objectives Upon completing this lesson. you may need to modify some of the configuration parameters on your Catalyst switch. with no management IP address. you will be able to configure a Catalyst switch.

Cisco Systems. The default values vary according to the features of the switch.0 • CDP: enabled • 100BaseT port: autonegotiate duplex mode • Spanning tree: enabled • Console password: none © 2006 Cisco Systems. Catalyst 2950 Series Default Configuration • IP address: 0. For many parameters. All rights reserved. Inc. ICND v2.3 © 2006. Inc. The figure lists some of the default settings on the Catalyst 2950 series switches. . Not all of the defaults are shown in the figure. 1-42 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. the default configuration will suit your needs. However.0.Catalyst Switch Default Configuration Verification This topic describes the default settings for a Cisco Catalyst switch and how to display them.3—1-3 A Cisco Catalyst switch comes with factory default settings that can be displayed with the show command.0. you may want to change some of the default values to meet your specific network needs.

20fc. Cisco Systems. The commands that describe the port and interface conventions for the Catalyst 2950 series switches are as follows: The show run output refers to fa0/1 as interface FastEthernet0/1. Fa0/5. forward delay 0. Fa0/18.--------.3—1-4 Ports on the Catalyst switches are referred to as either port or interface. All rights reserved. Port Identifier 128. depending on the context.. The show spanning-tree detail output refers to fa0/11 as port 11. The show vlan output refers to fa0/1 as port Fa0/1. Fa0/21. Fa0/9.a840 Designated port id is 128. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 5. received 1181993 wg_sw_2950#show vlan VLAN Name Status Ports ---. Fa0/16. Fa0/13. Inc. Inc. © 2006.11. Fa0/14. Fa0/8. Fa0/15. Fa0/6. Fa0/3. Fa0/10.Port Names on Catalyst 2950 Series Switches wg_sw_2950#show run Building configuration. Fa0/2. Fa0/19. Fa0/17. Designated root has priority 1. Fa0/22.-------------------------------. designated path cost 0 Timers: message age 2. Port priority 128. Fa0/4.11. ICND v2. Fa0/12. address 0008.20fc.a840 Designated bridge has priority 1. Fa0/11. Fa0/24 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Fa0/20. Fa0/23. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-43 . Fa0/7. address 0008.------------------------------1 default active Fa0/1. Current configuration: ! ! interface FastEthernet0/1 ! interface FastEthernet0/2 wg_sw_2950#show spanning-tree detail Port 11 (FastEthernet0/11) of VLAN0001 is forwarding Port path cost 19..

Use the no ip address interface configuration command to remove an IP address or disable IP processing. For example. Configuring the Switch IP Address Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950(config-if)#ip address {ip_address} {mask} • Configures an IP address and subnet mask for the switch VLAN1 interface wg_sw_2950(config)#interface vlan 1 wg_sw_2950(config-if)#ip address 10. On the Catalyst 2950 series switch. you must configure an IP address and subnet mask. such as Netscape Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer.3—1-5 If the switch is to be a manageable entity on the network.Catalyst Switch IP Address and Default Gateway Configuration This topic describes how to set and reset the IP address. All rights reserved. With the CVSM. you can configure a switch via a graphical user interface and monitor live images of the switch. An IP address must also be assigned if you plan to connect to the switch via Telnet or if you plan to use Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to manage the switch. The Cisco Virtual Switch Manager (CVSM) is used for managing a switch. To configure an IP address and subnet mask on the switch.255. use the ip address interface configuration command. the CVSM requires the switch to have an IP address configured and IP connectivity to communicate with a web browser. Cisco Systems.5. ICND v2.255.5.0 © 2006 Cisco Systems. it must have a basic IP configuration. and default gateway for a Catalyst switch.3 © 2006. 1-44 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc. Inc. subnet mask. .11 255.

Inc. Once the default gateway is configured. Use the no ip default-gateway command to delete a configured default gateway. A router is used to route traffic between different networks. © 2006. Cisco Systems. The default gateway is the router IP address. All rights reserved.5.5.3—1-6 Use the ip default-gateway global configuration command to configure the default gateway on the Catalyst 2950 series switches. An IP address is assigned to the switch for management purposes. Inc. the switch has connectivity to the remote networks with which a host needs to communicate. the switch sends the traffic to the default gateway.3 © 2006 Cisco Systems.Configuring the Switch Default Gateway wg_sw_a(config)# ip default-gateway {ip address} • Configures the switch default gateway for the Catalyst 2950 series switches wg_sw_a(config)#ip default-gateway 10. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-45 . If the switch needs to send traffic to a different IP network. ICND v2.

3 © 2006. Inc.3—1-7 On the Catalyst 2950 series. ICND v2.2.2. .9b40) Internet address is 10. Cisco Systems. 1-46 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. All rights reserved. line protocol is up Hardware is CPU Interface.Showing the Switch IP Address Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950#show interfaces vlan 1 Vlan1 is up. . Inc.a445. address is 0008. wg_sw_2950# © 2006 Cisco Systems. .a445.9b40 (bia 0008. use the show interfaces vlan command to verify the IP address for each interface.11/24 .

The traditional shared LAN operates in half-duplex mode and is susceptible to transmission collisions across the wire. Full-duplex transmission between stations is achieved by using point-topoint Ethernet.3—1-8 Half-duplex transmission mode implements Ethernet carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD). Inc. Fast Ethernet. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. In full-duplex mode. the collision detect circuit is disabled.Duplexing and Speed This topic describes the two duplex modes. Fast Ethernet. but not between shared hubs. Most Ethernet. Standard shared Ethernet configuration efficiency is typically rated at 50 to 60 percent of the 10-Mbps bandwidth. Duplex Overview Half Duplex (CSMA/CD) • Unidirectional data flow • Higher potential for collision • Hub connectivity Full Duplex • Point-to-point only • Attached to dedicated switched port • Requires full-duplex support on both ends • Collision-free • Collision detect circuit disabled © 2006 Cisco Systems. Full-duplex Ethernet significantly improves network performance without the expense of installing new media. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-47 . Nodes that are attached to hubs that share their connection to a switch port must operate in halfduplex mode because the end stations must be able to detect collisions. © 2006. and Gigabit Ethernet NICs sold today offer full-duplex capability. This arrangement is collisionfree. Full-duplex port connections are point-to-point links between switches or end nodes. Each full-duplex connection uses only one port. Nodes that are directly attached to a dedicated switch port with Network Interface Cards (NICs) that support full duplex should be connected to switch ports that are configured to operate in full-duplex mode. ICND v2. Frames sent by the two connected end nodes cannot collide because the end nodes use two separate circuits in the Category 5 or Category 3 cable. and Gigabit Ethernet connections. Full-duplex Ethernet offers 100 percent efficiency in both directions (10Mbps transmit and 10-Mbps receive).

3 © 2006.3—1-9 Use the duplex interface configuration command to specify the duplex mode of operation for switch ports. ICND v2. .Duplex Interface Configuration This topic describes how to set and view duplex options.or full-duplex mode when they are set to 10 or 100 Mbps. Note To determine the default duplex mode settings for the Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) module ports. All rights reserved. but when set to 1000 Mbps. the default is full. Inc. 1-48 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. 100BaseFX ports operate only at 100 Mbps in full-duplex mode. they operate only in full-duplex mode. the default is auto. Inc. For 100BaseFX ports. The duplex parameters on the Catalyst 2950 series are as follows: auto sets autonegotiation of duplex mode full sets full-duplex mode half sets half-duplex mode For Fast Ethernet and 10/100/1000 ports. Cisco Systems. Setting Duplex Options Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950(config)#interface fa0/1 wg_sw_2950(config-if)#duplex {auto | full | half} © 2006 Cisco Systems. The 10/100/1000 ports operate in either half. refer to the documentation that came with your GBIC module.

output 00:00:01. 6 interface resets 0 babbles. address is 0008.a445. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 2 collisions. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:00:57. 44931071 bytes. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 0 frame. 0 underruns 0 output errors. half-duplex on one end and full-duplex on the other. 0 PAUSE output 0 output buffer failures. 0 output buffers swapped out © 2006 Cisco Systems. 0 packets/sec 323479 packets input.9b42) MTU 1500 bytes. 0 overrun. Autonegotiation can at times produce unpredictable results. 0 CRC.3—1-10 Example: Showing Duplex Options Verify the duplex settings by using the show interfaces command on the Catalyst 2950 series. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Half-duplex. To avoid this situation. The show interfaces privileged EXEC command displays statistics and status for all or specified interfaces. ICND v2. is operating in full duplex and by default the Catalyst switch sets the corresponding switch port to half-duplex mode. txload 1/255. manually set the duplex parameters of the switch to match the attached device. You can use the show interfaces command to check for FCS late collision errors. If the switch port is in full-duplex mode and the attached device is in half-duplex mode. 0 no carrier. This configuration. Inc. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-49 . output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). line protocol is up (connected) Hardware is Fast Ethernet. causes late collision errors at the half-duplex end. 0 late collision. Autonegotiation can happen when an attached device. Cisco Systems. 0 no buffer Received 98960 broadcasts (0 multicast) 1 runts. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. 29 deferred 0 lost carrier. 0 pause input 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 1284934 packets output.9b42 (bia 0008. which does not support autonegotiation. © 2006. reliability 255/255. 0 ignored 0 watchdog.Showing Duplex Options Switch#show interfaces fastethernet0/2 FastEthernet0/2 is up. Inc. All rights reserved. DLY 1000 usec. 36374 multicast. 103121707 bytes. The figure shows the duplex setting of an interface.a445. 0 throttles 1 input errors. BW 10000 Kbit. check for frame check sequence (FCS) errors on the switch full-duplex port. 10Mb/s input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported ARP type: ARPA. 0 giants.

the switch updates the MAC address table. Managing the MAC Address Table Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950#show mac-address-table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports ------------------------All 0008. the Catalyst 2950 series switch can store up to 8192 MAC addresses. Cisco Systems.e3e8. For example.3—1-11 Switches use the MAC address tables to forward traffic between ports.dddd STATIC CPU 1 0008. ICND v2. All rights reserved. permanent.0440 DYNAMIC Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 wg_sw_2950# © 2006 Cisco Systems. As stations are added or removed from the network.a445.cccd STATIC CPU All 0100. .0ccc. Inc. adding new entries and aging out those that are currently not in use. Inc. The switch provides dynamic addressing by learning the source MAC address of each frame that it receives on each port.MAC Address Table Management This topic describes how to set permanent and static addresses in the MAC address table. and static addresses. Dynamic addresses are source MAC addresses that are learned by the switch. traffic for all new unknown addresses is flooded. The maximum size of the MAC address table varies with different switches. An administrator can specifically assign permanent addresses to certain ports.cccc STATIC CPU All 0100. then dropped when they are not refreshed and aged out. When the MAC address table is full.3 © 2006.9b40 STATIC CPU All 0100. These MAC tables include dynamic.0cdd. Unlike dynamic addresses. permanent addresses are not aged out.0ccc. then adding the source MAC address and its associated port number to the MAC address table. 1-50 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

5600. use the mac-address-table static global configuration command to add static addresses to the MAC address table. Example: Setting a Static MAC Address In the figure above. Inc.67ab vlan 1 interface fastethernet0/2 © 2006 Cisco Systems. and all interfaces can send traffic to it. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-51 .Setting a Static MAC Address Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950(config)#mac-address-table static mac-addr vlan vlan-id interface interface-id wg_sw_2950(config)# mac-address-table static 0004. when a packet is received in VLAN 1 with this MAC address as its destination. ICND v2. All rights reserved. © 2006. Inc. A static address in the MAC address table does not age out. Cisco Systems. Use the no form of this command to remove static entries from the MAC address table.3—1-12 On the Catalyst 2950 series. the packet is forwarded to a specified interface.

When you assign secure MAC addresses to a secure port. a maximum number of secure MAC addresses. or the violation mode. . Inc. On the Catalyst 2950 series.eeee wg_sw_2950(config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2. Cisco Systems. use the switchport port-security interface command without keywords to enable port security on an interface. Note A port must be in access mode to enable port security. You can add secure addresses to the address table after you set the maximum number of secure MAC addresses allowed on a port in these ways: Manually configure all of the addresses Allow the port to dynamically configure all of the addresses Configure a number of MAC addresses and allow the rest of the addresses to be dynamically configured 1-52 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.eeee.3 © 2006. Inc. the port does not forward packets with source addresses outside the group of defined addresses.Port Security Configuration This topic describes how to configure port security. Use the no form of this command to disable port security or set the parameters to their default state. Use the switchport port-security interface command with keywords to configure a secure MAC address.3—1-13 You can use the port security feature to restrict input to an interface by limiting and identifying MAC addresses of the stations allowed to access the port. All rights reserved. Configuring Port Security Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950(config-if)#switchport port-security [mac-address mac-address] | [maximum value] | [violation {protect |restrict | shutdown}] wg_sw_2950(config)#interface fa0/1 wg_sw_2950(config-if)#switchport mode access wg_sw_2950(config-if)#switchport port-security wg_sw_2950(config-if)#switchport port-security maximum 1 wg_sw_2950(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 0008.

In this mode. when the switch restarts. To enable sticky learning. you can bring it out of this state by entering the errdisable recovery cause psecure-violation global configuration command. including those that were dynamically learned before sticky learning was enabled. which is the startup configuration that is used each time the switch restarts. the sticky secure MAC addresses are converted to dynamic secure addresses and are removed from the running configuration. When you enter this command. You can add additional secure MAC addresses up to the maximum value configured. If you do not save the configuration. and an SNMP trap notification is sent. Cisco Systems. A secure port can have from 1 to 132 associated secure addresses. a port security violation causes a trap notification to be sent to the network management station. If sticky learning is disabled. When port secure MAC addresses reach the limit that is allowed on the port. (Optional) Sets the maximum number of secure MAC addresses for the interface. the interface converts all the dynamic secure MAC addresses. Security violation situations are as follows: The maximum number of secure MAC addresses have been added to the address table. The default is 1. The range is from 1 to 132. enter the switchport port-security mac-address sticky interface configuration command. to sticky secure MAC addresses. packets with unknown source addresses are dropped until you remove a sufficient number of secure MAC addresses to drop below the maximum value. Sets the security violation restrict mode. Sets the security violation protect mode. the MAC addresses are lost. The total number of available secure addresses on the switch is 1024. When a secure port is in the error-disabled state.You can configure an interface to convert the dynamic MAC addresses to sticky secure MAC addresses and to add them to the running configuration by enabling sticky learning. the interface does not need to relearn these addresses. a port security violation causes the interface to immediately become error-disabled. If you save the sticky secure MAC addresses in the configuration file. Command mac-address mac-address maximum value violation protect Description (Optional) Specifies a secure MAC address for the port when you enter a 48-bit MAC address. or you can manually reenable it by entering the shutdown and no shutdown interface configuration commands. An address learned or configured on one secure interface is seen on another secure interface in the same VLAN. The sticky secure MAC addresses do not automatically become part of the configuration file. restrict shutdown © 2006. (Optional) Sets the security violation mode or the action to be taken if port security is violated. In this mode. Note Port security is disabled by default. The default is shutdown. and a station whose MAC address is not in the address table attempts to access the interface. Sets the security violation shutdown mode. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-53 . The table lists the security violation commands. Inc.

Verifying Port Security on the Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950#show port-security [interface interface-id] [address] [ | {begin | exclude | include} expression] wg_sw_2950#show port-security interface fastethernet 0/5 Port Security : Enabled Port Status : Secure-up Violation Mode : Shutdown Aging Time : 20 mins Aging Type : Absolute SecureStatic Address Aging : Disabled Maximum MAC Addresses : 1 Total MAC Addresses : 1 Configured MAC Addresses : 0 Sticky MAC Addresses : 0 Last Source Address : 0000. (Optional) Sets the display to include lines that match the specified expression. .0000 Security Violation Count : 0 © 2006 Cisco Systems. which is set with the switchport port-security maximum command. (Optional) Displays all the secure addresses on all ports. (Optional) Sets the display to exclude lines that match the specified expression. Enters the expression that will be used as a reference point in the output. Command interface interface-id address begin exclude include expression Description (Optional) Displays the port security settings for the specified interface. The table lists the address violation commands. Cisco Systems.0000.3—1-14 On the Catalyst 2950 series. 1-54 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. An address violation occurs when a secured port receives a source address that has been assigned to another secured port or when a port tries to learn an address that exceeds its address table size limit. (Optional) Sets the display to begin with the line that matches the specified expression. All rights reserved. use the show port-security interface privileged EXEC command to display the port security settings defined for an interface.3 © 2006. Inc. Inc. ICND v2.

Use the show port-security command without keywords to display the port security settings for the switch. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-55 .3—1-15 Use the show port-security address command to display the secure MAC addresses for all ports. Inc. All rights reserved.dddd. © 2006.Verifying Port Security on the Catalyst 2950 Series (Cont.) wg_sw_2950#sh port-security address Secure Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports Remaining Age (mins) --------------------------------1 0008. Inc. ICND v2.eeee SecureConfigured Fa0/5 ------------------------------------------------------------------Total Addresses in System (excluding one mac per port) : 0 Max Addresses limit in System (excluding one mac per port) : 1024 wg_sw_2950#sh port-security Secure Port MaxSecureAddr CurrentAddr SecurityViolation Security Action (Count) (Count) (Count) -------------------------------------------------------------------------Fa0/2 1 1 0 Shutdown --------------------------------------------------------------------------Total Addresses in System (excluding one mac per port) : 0 Max Addresses limit in System (excluding one mac per port) : 1024 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.

configure the MAC address to the port allocated for the new user. configure port security. Configure port security. Configure the MAC address to the port allocated for the new user.3 © 2006. Inc. On the new access switch. remove the MAC address restrictions from the port. Executing Adds. as follows: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Add the address to the new physical port. On the new access switch. 3.Adds. follow these steps: Step 1 Step 2 Configure port security. To move a MAC address from one access switch to another. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Moves. All rights reserved. To delete a MAC address on an access switch that connects a workstation to the network. Configure port security on the new switch. Changing a MAC Address 1. Step 4 1-56 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. When all security is in place for the new location. and changes for access layer Catalyst switches. Moving a MAC Address 1. shut down the old port and remove any MAC restrictions. Cisco Systems. moves. Remove MAC address restrictions. Moves. delete the MAC address from one physical segment or logical network and assign it to a new physical segment. 2.3—1-16 To add a new MAC address on an access switch that connects a workstation to the network. Remove the old port configuration. . Remove any old access lists from the original access switch. Configure the MAC address to the port allocated for the new interface so that the first MAC address that is seen on the port is the only address permitted. ICND v2. and Changes for Access Layer Catalyst Switches This topic describes how to handle adds. 2. and Changes for MAC Addresses Adding a MAC Address 1. Add the address to a new port. Configure the MAC address. Inc. 4.

Cisco Systems. In this case. the only changes that need to be made are to the switch itself to remove the old MAC address from the security on the port and to add the new MAC address to the security on the port. Installing a new Ethernet NIC will not permit the affected workstation to have access to the network because the security policy is based on the old MAC address. that MAC address is no longer valid because MAC addresses are unique. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-57 .If an Ethernet NIC fails. © 2006. Inc.

3—1-17 To add a new access switch to the network. and vty interfaces. Cisco Systems. increase the priority value. Configure security for the device. 4. 2. Determine the IP address for management purposes. follow these steps: Step 1 Configure the switch IP address and the default gateway to be used for management purposes. as appropriate. Inc. you should erase the configuration and proceed as if you are adding a new network device. All rights reserved.Adding a New Switch to the Network 1. Connect the switch into the existing infrastructure only after you have completed all of the switch configuration steps. treat the process as both a removal and an addition of equipment. and vty interfaces. Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 To ensure that the new switch does not become the root of the spanning tree. depending on the number of configuration changes required. There are two levels of security that need to be considered: the user EXEC level and the privileged EXEC level. Inc. Configure administrative access for the console. you can overwrite those specific configuration parameters.3 © 2006. auxiliary. To move equipment from one location to another. ICND v2. 1-58 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. If there are few administrative and interface changes. If the equipment is being moved to a site with few or no similar configuration settings. . Configure the access switch ports as necessary to support single workstations. IP phones. Configure administrative access for the console. Configure security for the device. auxiliary. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Configure the access switch ports as necessary. and trunking to upstream and downstream switches. 3.

Managing the Configuration File Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950#copy nvram:startup-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] • Uploads the startup configuration in NVRAM to a TFTP server wg_sw_2950#copy system:running-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] • Uploads the system running configuration to a TFTP server wg_sw_2950# copy nvram:startup-config tftp://172. Log into the switch through the console port or a Telnet session. Specify the IP address or host name of the TFTP server and the destination filename.3—1-18 The copy command can be used to copy a configuration from or to a file server. follow these steps: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Verify that the TFTP server is accessible and properly configured.16.cfg]? !! 1189 bytes copied in 0. Upload the switch configuration to the TFTP server. ICND v2. Use one of these privileged EXEC commands: copy system:running-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] copy nvram:startup-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] © 2006.155]? Destination filename [wg_sw_a.155/wg_sw_a. To upload a configuration file from a switch to a TFTP server for storage.Catalyst Switch Configuration File Management This topic describes how to manage Catalyst switch configuration files.16.2. Cisco Systems. On the Catalyst 2950 series. Inc. use the copy nvram:startup-config tftp: command to upload the startup configuration in NVRAM to a TFTP server. All rights reserved.cfg Address or name of remote host [172.068 secs (17485 bytes/sec) wg_sw_2950# © 2006 Cisco Systems. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-59 .2. Inc.

. Inc.3—1-19 On the Catalyst 2950 series. ICND v2.Clearing NVRAM Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950#erase nvram: -orwg_sw_2950#erase startup-config • Resets the system configuration to factory defaults wg_sw_2950#erase nvram: Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] [OK] Erase of nvram: complete wg_sw_2950# © 2006 Cisco Systems. 1-60 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. All rights reserved. use the erase nvram: or the erase startup-config privileged EXEC commands to reset the switch configuration to the factory defaults.3 © 2006. Cisco Systems. Inc.

3—1-20 © 2006. Cisco Systems. Inc. The ip default-gateway command is used to configure a default gateway. • MAC address tables include dynamic and static addresses. • The duplex command is used to configure switch duplex options. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-61 . All rights reserved. © 2006 Cisco Systems. The switchport port-security mac-address command is used to set static MAC addresses. Summary • A Catalyst switch comes with factory default settings that can be displayed with the show command. • The ip address command is used to configure an IP address and subnet mask on a switch.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. Inc. ICND v2.

ICND v2. The erase nvram: command resets the switch configuration to the factory default settings. and changed devices and interfaces. All rights reserved.3—1-21 1-62 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. • As network endpoint topology changes because of added. .) • The port security feature can be used to restrict input to an interface by limiting and identifying MAC addresses of the stations that are allowed to access the port.3 © 2006. © 2006 Cisco Systems. moved. Inc. Inc. • The copy command can be used to copy a configuration from or to a file server.Summary (Cont. Cisco Systems. the switch configuration may need to be modified.

• Most complex networks include redundant devices to avoid single points of failure. Redundant links and devices eliminate the possibility that a single point of failure will result in loss of function for the entire switched or bridged network.Module Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this module. it can introduce others. but redundant links and devices can also cause problems. Although a redundant topology eliminates some problems. • STP provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in switched or bridged networks. Cisco Systems. but you may need to modify some of the configuration parameters on your Catalyst switch. STP is a Layer 2 link management protocol that is used to maintain a loop-free network. ICND v2.3—1-1 Ethernet switches and bridges make intelligent frame-forwarding decisions by examining the source and destination MAC address of incoming frames. • A Cisco Catalyst switch comes with factory default settings. A Cisco Catalyst switch comes with factory default settings. Inc. Module Summary • LAN switches and bridges have the ability to listen to traffic and make intelligent forwarding decisions at Layer 2. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-63 . All rights reserved. Inc. which set up the switch to function as a transparent bridge. © 2006 Cisco Systems. © 2006.

. Q1) Which two functions can LAN switches and bridges provide? (Choose two. dedicated Q3) Which frame transmission mode reads the destination address of a frame before forwarding it? (Source: Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions) A) B) C) D) cut-through fragment-free store and forward all transmission modes Q4) Which feature do switches and bridges implement so that they can receive and transmit frames independently on each port? (Source: Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions) A) B) C) D) loop avoidance buffering memory store and forward mode Spanning Tree Protocol Q5) What information in a frame does a switch or bridge use to make frame-forwarding decisions? (Source: Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions) A) B) C) D) source port source address destination port destination address 1-64 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3 © 2006. Cisco Systems. (Source: Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions) A) B) C) D) increases.Module Self-Check Use the questions here to review what you learned in this module.) (Source: Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions) A) B) C) D) E) Q2) packet routing jitter avoidance address learning store and forward decision loop avoidance using the Spanning Tree Protocol Ethernet switching or bridging _____ the available bandwidth of a network by creating _____ network segments. shared decreases. dedicated decreases. The correct answers and solutions are found in the Module Self-Check Answer Key. Inc. shared increases.

) (Source: Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions) A) B) C) D) E) unicast frames multicast frames broadcast frames frames with a known destination address frames with an unknown destination address Q8) Which term commonly describes the endless flooding or looping of frames? (Source: Identifying Problems that Occur in Redundant Switched Topologies) A) B) C) D) flood storm loop overload broadcast storm broadcast overload Q9) Which term describes multiple copies of a frame arriving on different ports of a switch? (Source: Identifying Problems that Occur in Redundant Switched Topologies) A) B) C) D) flood storm multiple frame transmission MAC database instability loop overload Q10) When does the STP automatically reconfigure switch or bridge ports? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) when the network topology changes when the forward delay timer expires when an administrator specifies a recalculation when a new BPDU is not received within the forward delay Q11) How does the STP provide a loop-free network? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) by placing all ports in the blocking state by placing all bridges in the blocking state by placing some ports in the blocking state by placing some bridges in the blocking state © 2006. Cisco Systems.Q6) When a frame arrives with a known destination address. where does the switch or bridge forward it? (Source: Introducing Basic Layer 2 Switching and Bridging Functions) A) B) C) D) source port broadcast port destination port all ports except the source port Q7) Which three frame types are flooded to all ports except the source port on a switch? (Choose three. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-65 . Inc.

typically? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) blocking learning listening forwarding Q16) In which state is a root port. The port is able to populate its MAC table. but not yet populate its MAC table. how is the designated port selected on a segment? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) lowest-cost path to the root bridge highest-cost path to the root bridge lowest-cost path to the closest nonroot bridge highest-cost path to the closest nonroot bridge Q14) Which statement is true of a port in the listening state? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) The port is able to check for BPDUs and populate the MAC table. The port is able to forward user frames.3 © 2006. but not yet populate its MAC table. . Cisco Systems.Q12) Which port is the lowest-cost path from the nonroot bridge to the root bridge? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) root blocking designated nondesignated Q13) With STP. The port is able to check for BPDUs. Inc. but not yet forward user frames. typically? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) blocking learning listening forwarding Q17) On which STP bridge are all ports designated ports? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) root bridge nonroot bridge bridge with the lowest priority bridge with the highest bridge ID Q18) Which event is required for STP to detect a topology change? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) when a BPDU is not received within two seconds when a device does not respond to a handshake message when the max_age timer has expired without receiving a BPDU when a device does not respond quickly enough to a handshake request 1-66 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Q15) In which state is a nondesignated port.

Q19) Which switched network issue does RSTP address? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) network security size of the network redundant topology speed of convergence Q20) What is the RSTP equivalent to the STP listening state? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) blocking listening discarding forwarding Q21) With RSTP. Cisco Systems. Inc. including all the defaults © 2006. which two port roles are included in the active topology? (Source: Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol) A) B) C) D) root and alternate root and designated alternate and backup designated and backup Q22) What does the duplex full command do? (Source: Configuring a Catalyst Switch) A) B) C) D) sets full-duplex mode for the switch sets full-duplex mode for an interface sets full-duplex mode with flow control for the switch sets full-duplex mode with flow control for an interface Q23) Which command restricts port usage to no more than ten devices? (Source: Configuring a Catalyst Switch) A) B) C) D) switchport secure 10 switchport max-mac-count 10 switchport port-security maximum 10 switchport port-security 10 max-mac Q24) What does the erase startup-config command do on a Catalyst 2950 series switch? (Source: Configuring a Catalyst Switch) A) B) C) D) deletes the MAC address table on the switch resets the switch configuration to the factory defaults resets the switch configuration to the last-saved version deletes all configuration information on the switch. Configuring Catalyst Switch Operations 1-67 .

. E C C A C A A B A D A C D C B B C B 1-68 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. E C A B D C B.3 © 2006.Module Self-Check Answer Key Q1) Q2) Q3) Q4) Q5) Q6) Q7) Q8) Q9) Q10) Q11) Q12) Q13) Q14) Q15) Q16) Q17) Q18) Q19) Q20) Q21) Q22) Q23) Q24) C. Inc. Cisco Systems. C.

and increased dedicated throughput. you will be able to improve scalability. Not only do VLANs solve many of the immediate problems associated with administrative changes. Module Objectives Upon completing this module. interoperability.Module 2 Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs Overview Cisco Systems provides VLAN-capable solutions across its suite of internetworking switches and routers. interoperability. they also provide scalability. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe VLAN operations and protocols Configure a VLAN on a large switched network . and throughput by implementing VLANs in your network.

Inc. Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. .2-2 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

and troubleshoot VLANs on Cisco access switches. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical LAN.Lesson 1 Introducing VLAN Operations Overview A VLAN is a group of end stations with a common set of requirements. and broadcast traffic flooding. This lesson describes VLAN operations and associated protocols. You should understand how VLANs operate and the important VLAN protocols in order to configure. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the basic features of a VLAN Explain how Catalyst switches support VLAN functionality Describe the VLAN membership modes Explain the functionality provided by 802. Flooded traffic that originates from a particular VLAN floods only ports belonging to that VLAN.1Q trunking Describe the ISL protocol and encapsulation Describe the features of VTP Describe the modes in which VTP operates Explain how VTP operates in a management domain Describe how VTP pruning supports VLANs . Objectives Upon completing this lesson. verify. independent of their physical location. multicast. you will be able to describe VLAN operations and protocols. but allows you to group end stations even if they are not physically located on the same LAN segment. A VLAN allows you to group ports on a switch to limit unicast.

thereby adding a layer of security. Within the switched internetwork. Inc. Containing broadcasts within a VLAN improves the overall performance of the network. Ports in a VLAN share broadcasts. You can assign each switch port to only one VLAN. Within the switched internetwork. such as coworkers in the same department. VLANs can include stations in a single building or multiple-building infrastructures. Inc. ports in different VLANs do not share broadcasts. VLAN Overview • Segmentation • Flexibility • Security VLAN = Broadcast Domain = Logical Network (Subnet) © 2006 Cisco Systems. VLANs provide segmentation and organizational flexibility. ICND v2. Using VLAN technology. a cross-functional product team. A VLAN can exist on a single switch or span multiple switches. VLANs can also connect across WANs. 2-4 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. or diverse user groups sharing the same network application. You can design a VLAN to establish stations that are segmented logically by functions.3—2-3 A VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can span multiple physical LAN segments. All rights reserved. and applications without regard to the physical location of users.VLANs Defined This topic describes the basic features of VLANs. Cisco Systems. you can group switch ports and their connected users into logically defined communities. project teams. . VLANs provide segmentation and organizational flexibility.3 © 2006.

• VLANs can span across multiple switches. • Trunks use special encapsulation to distinguish between different VLANs. For a VLAN to span across multiple switches. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-5 . Inc. the Catalyst must retransmit the frame only to ports that belong to the same VLAN. © 2006. VLAN Operation • Each logical VLAN is like a separate physical bridge. A trunk can carry traffic for multiple VLANs. ICND v2. when a frame arrives on a switch port. and loop avoidance mechanisms as if the VLAN were a separate physical bridge. the Catalyst switch implements VLANs by restricting data forwarding to destination ports that are in the same VLAN as originating ports. That is. multicast. Normally. Inc. a port carries traffic only for the single VLAN to which it belongs. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. and broadcast traffic. • Trunks carry traffic for multiple VLANs.3—2-4 A Cisco Catalyst switch operates in a network like a traditional bridge. a trunk is required to connect two switches. forwarding and filtering decisions.VLAN Operation This topic describes how Catalyst switches support VLAN functionality. Each VLAN that is configured on the switch implements address learning. The implication is that a VLAN that is operating on a Catalyst switch limits transmission of unicast. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Traffic originating from a particular VLAN floods only other ports in that VLAN. Internally.

A dynamic port can belong to only one VLAN at a time. the Catalyst switch queries the VMPS for the VLAN assignment based on the source MAC address of the arriving frame. Multiple hosts can be active on a dynamic port only if they all belong to the same VLAN.3 © 2006. Catalyst switch ports can belong to one of these VLAN membership modes: Static VLAN: An administrator statically configures the assignment of VLANs to ports. 2-6 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. VLAN Membership Modes © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. ICND v2. The VMPS can be a Catalyst 5000 series switch or an external server. The VMPS contains a database that maps MAC addresses to VLAN assignments. The Catalyst 2950 series cannot operate as the VMPS. Inc. Cisco Systems.3—2-5 Ports belonging to a VLAN are configured with a membership mode that determines to which VLAN they belong.VLAN Membership Modes This topic describes the two VLAN membership modes. Dynamic VLAN: The Catalyst switches support dynamic VLANs by using a VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS). When a frame arrives on a dynamic port at the Catalyst access switch. .

You can implement Ethernet trunking in these two ways: Inter-Switch Link ( ISL). Inc. Cisco Systems.1Q extends IP routing capabilities to include support for routing IP frame types in VLAN configurations using the IEEE 802.1Q port is assigned to a trunk.1Q Trunking © 2006 Cisco Systems.1Q encapsulation.3—2-6 The IEEE 802.1Q port is assigned an identifier value that is based on the port’s native VLAN ID (the default is VLAN 1). Every 802. an IEEE standard IEEE 802. Inc. a Cisco proprietary protocol 802. Every 802. All rights reserved. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-7 . All untagged frames are assigned to the LAN specified in the ID parameter.1Q. Cisco supports IEEE 802.1Q trunking.1Q Trunking This topic describes the basic functionality provided by 802. ICND v2. Trunking is a way to carry traffic from several VLANs over a point-to-point link between the two devices. © 2006. 802.802.1Q for Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.1Q protocol is used to interconnect multiple switches and routers and define VLAN topologies. All ports on a trunk are in a native VLAN.

Inc. but will not be able to read any other frame because the frames are tagged. ordinary stations will be able to read the native untagged frames. All rights reserved.1Q trunk and its associated trunk ports have a native VLAN value.1Q does not tag frames for the native VLAN. Therefore. 2-8 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Cisco Systems. ICND v2. 802. . Inc.Importance of Native VLANs © 2006 Cisco Systems.3 © 2006.3—2-7 An 802.

Cisco Systems. 802.1Q Frame © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.1Q share the same tag.3—2-8 The figure shows how adding a tag in a frame results in recomputation of the frame check sequence (FCS).1p and 802. Inc. Inc. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-9 .802. © 2006. ICND v2.

ICND v2. Example: Per VLAN Spanning Tree + Cisco developed PVST+ to enable the running of several STP instances. 2-10 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. to a PVST+ zone.1Q standard defines a unique spanning-tree instance running on the native VLAN for all of the VLANs in the network. typically a Cisco ISL–based network. An 802. a PVST+ region. Inc.Per VLAN Spanning Tree + © 2006 Cisco Systems. You can connect a PVST region to a PVST+ region by connecting two ISL ports.1Q switches. Inc. There is no specific configuration needed to achieve this connection. PVST+ networks must be in a treelike structure for proper STP operation. typically the 802. Similarly.3 © 2006.1Q ports. you can connect a PVST+ region to an MST region by connecting two 802. a mixed environment should look like the one shown in the figure. All rights reserved. PVST+ provides support for 802. Cisco Systems.1Q trunks and the mapping of multiple spanning trees to the single spanning tree of 802. Providing different STP root switches per VLAN creates a more redundant network. Each region consists of a homogeneous switch. and an MST region. The PVST+ architecture distinguishes three types of regions: a PVST region. PVST+ uses a Cisco device to connect an MST zone.1Q-based network of another vendor. . Ideally.1Q mono spanning tree (MST) network lacks some flexibility compared with a Per VLAN Spanning Tree + (PVST+) network that runs one instance of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) per VLAN.3—2-9 The 802.

© 2006. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-11 .1Q MST and Cisco PVST protocols without requiring extra commands for configuration.In order to support the IEEE 802.1Q MST region. In addition. PVST+ adds verification mechanisms to ensure that there is no inconsistent configuration of port trunking and VLAN IDs across switches. Cisco Systems.1Q standard. Tunneling means that bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) are flooded through the MST region along the single spanning tree present in the MST region. Inc. the Cisco STP implementation was extended to become PVST+ by adding support for tunneling across an IEEE 802. PVST+ is therefore compatible with both the 802.

• Performed with ASIC • Not intrusive to client stations. . 2-12 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. To support the ISL feature. each connecting device must be ISLconfigured. and between routers and switches © 2006 Cisco Systems. It has been implemented for connections among switches. Inc. A router that is ISL-configured is used to allow interVLAN communications. ISL is protocol-independent. because the data frame may carry any upper-layer protocol. All rights reserved. A non-ISL device that receives ISL-encapsulated Ethernet frames may consider them to be protocol errors if the size of the header plus data frame exceeds the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. Cisco Systems. ISL Tagging ISL trunks enable VLANs across a backbone. Administrators use ISL to maintain redundant links and load-balance traffic between parallel links using the STP.3 © 2006. ISL header not seen by client • Effective between switches.3—2-10 ISL is a Cisco proprietary protocol for interconnecting multiple switches and maintaining VLAN information as traffic travels between switches. and Network Interface Cards (NICs) that are used on nodes such as servers.Inter-Switch Link Protocol and Encapsulation This topic describes ISL protocol and encapsulation. Running a trunk in full-duplex mode is efficient and highly recommended. ISL operates in a point-to-point environment. routers. ICND v2. ISL functions at the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Layer 2 reference model by encapsulating a data frame with a new header and a cyclic redundancy check (CRC). The ISL frame tagging that the Catalyst series of switches uses is a low-latency mechanism for multiplexing traffic from multiple VLANs on a single physical path. Inc.or half-duplex mode. ISL provides VLAN capabilities while maintaining full wire-speed performance over Fast Ethernet links in full.

Token Ring (0001). Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-13 . All rights reserved. a binary value from 0. SA. such as the FDDI frame control field © 2006. and CRC AAAA03: Standard Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) 802. the lowest priority. The number of VLANs supported by a switch depends on the switch hardware. also identifies if the encapsulated frame is a Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) frame INDX: 16-bit descriptor identifying the transmitting port ID.2 LLC header HSA: First 3 bytes of the SA (manufacturer or unique organizational ID) VLAN ID: 15-bit VLAN ID. User. Inc.3—2-11 Ports configured as ISL trunks encapsulate each frame with a 26-byte ISL header and a 4-byte CRC before sending it out the trunk port. Inc. Cisco Systems. Type. used for diagnostics RES: 16-bit reserved field used for additional information. to 3. Because ISL technology is implemented in application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Information contained in the ISL frame header is as follows: DA: 40-bit multicast destination address Type: 4-bit descriptor of the encapsulated frame types: Ethernet (0000).ISL Encapsulation © 2006 Cisco Systems. LEN. and ATM (0011) User: 4-bit descriptor used as the type field extension or used to define Ethernet priorities. the highest priority SA: 48-bit source MAC address of the transmitting Catalyst switch LEN: 16-bit frame-length descriptor minus DA. only the lower 10 bits are used for 1024 VLANs BPDU: 1-bit descriptor identifying whether the frame is a spanning-tree BPDU. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) (0010). ICND v2. frames are tagged at wire-speed performance.

VTP minimizes misconfigurations and configuration inconsistencies that can cause problems.3 © 2006. A VTP domain is one switch or several interconnected switches sharing the same VTP environment. VTP Protocol Features • Has a messaging system that advertises VLAN configuration information • Maintains VLAN configuration consistency throughout a common administrative domain • Sends advertisements on trunk ports only © 2006 Cisco Systems.3—2-12 VTP is a Layer 2 messaging protocol that maintains VLAN configuration consistency by managing the additions. You can configure a switch to be in only one VTP domain. . 2-14 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. such as duplicate VLAN names or incorrect VLAN-type specifications. and name changes of VLANs across networks. Cisco Systems.VLAN Trunking Protocol Features This topic describes the features that VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) offers to support VLANs. Configurations made to a single VTP server are propagated across links to all connected switches in the network. By default. ICND v2. Inc. deletions. Inc. a Catalyst switch is in the no-management-domain state until it receives an advertisement for a domain over a trunk link or until you configure a management domain. All rights reserved.

When you make a change to the VLAN configuration on a VTP server. Transparent mode: When you make a change to the VLAN configuration in VTP transparent mode. Inc. or delete VLANs • Forwards advertisements • Synchronizes • Not saved in NVRAM • Creates local VLANs only • Modifies local VLANs only • Deletes local VLANs only • Sends and forwards advertisements • Does not synchronize • Saved in NVRAM © 2006 Cisco Systems. change. or client mode. Cisco Systems. the change is propagated to all switches in the VTP domain. VTP Modes • Creates VLANs • Modifies VLANs • Deletes VLANs • Sends and forwards advertisements • Synchronizes • Saved in NVRAM • Cannot create. The characteristics of the three modes are as follows: Server mode: The default VTP mode is server mode. You can complete different tasks depending on the VTP operation mode. Inc.3—2-13 VTP operates in one of three modes: server mode. VTP messages are transmitted out all trunk connections.VTP Modes This topic describes the modes in which VTP operates. the change affects the local switch only and does not propagate to other switches in the VTP domain. ICND v2. © 2006. VTP transparent mode does forward VTP advertisements within the domain. but VLANs are not propagated over the network until a management domain name is specified or learned. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-15 . transparent mode. All rights reserved. Client mode: You cannot make changes to the VLAN configuration when in VTP client mode. VTP advertisements are forwarded in VTP client mode.

© 2006 Cisco Systems. • VTP advertisements are sent every 5 minutes or when there is a change. All rights reserved. A higher configuration revision number indicates that the VLAN information being advertised is more current than the stored information. the other devices in the VTP domain would also delete their VLANs. the VTP server increments the configuration revision number by one. VTP advertisements are sent every 5 minutes or whenever there is a change in VLAN configurations. .3—2-14 VTP advertisements are flooded throughout the management domain. The server then sends out a VTP advertisement with the new configuration revision number. VTP Operation • VTP advertisements are sent as multicast frames. Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. 2-16 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. A configuration revision number is included in each VTP advertisement. If the configuration revision number being advertised is higher than the number stored on the other switches in the VTP domain. Each time a VTP server modifies its VLAN information. Note In the overwrite process.VTP Operations This topic describes how VTP operates in a management domain. ICND v2. Inc. Advertisements are transmitted over the default VLAN (VLAN 1) using a multicast frame. Inc. the switches will overwrite their VLAN configurations with the new information being advertised. The configuration revision number in VTP transparent mode is always 0. if the VTP server deleted all VLANs and had the higher revision number. • VTP servers and clients are synchronized to the latest revision number. One of the most critical components of VTP is the configuration revision number.

if the configuration revision number indicates that the message was created after the configuration currently in use. On a Catalyst 2950. the switch incorporates the advertised VLAN information.A device that receives VTP advertisements must check various parameters before incorporating the received VLAN information. Cisco Systems. use the delete vtp privileged EXEC command. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-17 . Inc. First. © 2006. change the VTP domain to another name and then change it back to reset the configuration revision number. To reset the configuration revision number on most Catalyst switches. Next. the management domain name and password in the advertisement must match those configured in the local switch.

The broadcast traffic from station A is not forwarded to switches 3. a trunk connection carries traffic for all VLANs in the VTP management domain.VTP Pruning This topic describes how VTP pruning supports VLANs. Cisco Systems. Note Pruning can be enabled only on VTP servers. VTP pruning increases available bandwidth by restricting flooded traffic to those trunk links that the traffic must use to access the appropriate network devices. . Example: VTP Pruning By default.3—2-15 VTP pruning uses VLAN advertisements to determine when a trunk connection is flooding traffic needlessly. Only switches 1 and 4 support ports configured in the red VLAN. All rights reserved. VTP Pruning • Increases available bandwidth by reducing unnecessary flooded traffic • Example: Station A sends broadcast.3 © 2006. Inc. Commonly. some switches in an enterprise network do not have local ports configured in each VLAN. ICND v2. not on clients. 5. and 6 because traffic for the red VLAN has been pruned on the links indicated on switches 2 and 4. The figure shows a switched network with VTP pruning enabled. 2-18 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc. and broadcast is flooded only toward any switch with ports assigned to the red VLAN © 2006 Cisco Systems.

• In a network. Cisco Systems. ICND v2.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. • The IEEE 802. All rights reserved. Inc. Summary • A VLAN permits a group of users to share a common broadcast domain regardless of their physical location in the internetwork. forwarding and filtering decisions. Catalyst switches support two VLAN membership modes: static and dynamic. Each VLAN configured on the switch implements address learning.1Q protocol is used to transport frames for multiple VLANs between switches and routers and for defining VLAN topologies. Inc. a Catalyst switch operates in a network like a traditional bridge. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-19 . VLANs improve performance and security in switched networks. and loop avoidance mechanisms. © 2006 Cisco Systems. • Ports belonging to a VLAN are configured with a membership mode that determines to which VLAN the ports belong.3—2-16 © 2006.

• VTP pruning uses VLAN advertisements to determine when a trunk connection is flooding traffic needlessly.Summary (Cont. or transparent. and name changes of VLANs across networks.) • ISL is a Cisco proprietary protocol to transport multiple VLANs between switches and routers. • VTP advertisements are sent throughout the management domain every 5 minutes or when there is a change. deletions. All rights reserved. but VLANs are not propagated over the network until a management domain name is specified or learned.3—2-17 2-20 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. • VTP operates in one of three modes: server. Cisco Systems. . Inc. • VTP is a Layer 2 messaging protocol that maintains VLAN configuration consistency by managing the additions.3 © 2006. The configuration revision number that is included in each advertisement identifies the most current information. client. ICND v2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. ISL provides VLAN tagging capabilities while maintaining full wire-speed performance. Inc. The default VTP mode is server mode.

change. As network topologies. There are several methods that enable you to add.Lesson 2 Configuring VLANs Overview When configuring VLANs. you can make changes on one switch and have those changes automatically communicated throughout the VTP domain. business requirements. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. ensuring that only one switch is the server Configure 802. you have several configuration options. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Configure VTP. This lesson shows you how to configure. verify. and troubleshoot VLANs on large switched networks. you will be able to configure a VLAN on large switched networks. VLAN requirements also change. and individual assignments change.1Q trunking on a Catalyst 2950 series switch Configure ISL trunking on a Catalyst 4000 series switch Create a VLAN on the VTP server switch Change the name on a VLAN Assign switch ports to a VLAN Describe the output for each of the show commands for the Catalyst 2950 series switches Modify a VLAN Troubleshoot common VLAN problems . With VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP). You should understand how VLANs are configured in order to be able to verify and troubleshoot VLANs on Cisco access switches. and delete VLANs. Trunks enable traffic for multiple VLANs to move over a single link.

Cisco Systems. VTP does not function properly. By default. Inc. Inc. you must decide whether to use VTP in your network. VTP pruning eligibility is one VLAN parameter that the VTP protocol advertises. All rights reserved. VTP Configuration Guidelines • VTP domain name • VTP mode (server. server mode is default • VTP pruning • VTP password • VTP version Use caution when adding a new switch to an existing domain. © 2006 Cisco Systems. or transparent). .3—2-3 When creating VLANs.3 © 2006. 2-22 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. The default values for the Catalyst 2950 series switches are as follows: VTP domain name: None VTP mode: Server VTP password: None VTP pruning: Disabled VTP trap: Disabled The VTP domain name can be specified or learned. the domain name is not set. With VTP. You may optionally set a password for the VTP management domain.VTP Configuration This topic describes how to configure VTP. if you do not assign the same password for each switch in the domain. Add a new switch in client mode to prevent the new switch from propagating incorrect VLAN information. you can make configuration changes on one or more switches and those changes are automatically communicated to all other switches in the same VTP domain. but change the VTP mode to transparent. ICND v2. Enabling or disabling VTP pruning on a VTP server propagates the change throughout the management domain. client. Default VTP configuration values depend on the switch model and the software version. However. Reset the VTP revision number to 0.

it can only be reassigned. Inc. A domain name cannot be removed after it is assigned. Alternately. Use the no vtp form of this command to return to the default settings. pruning. interface. Cisco Systems. and mode. you can use the vtp privileged EXEC command to configure the VTP password. When the VTP mode is transparent.Creating a VTP Domain Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950# configure terminal wg_sw_2950(config)# vtp mode [ server | client | transparent ] wg_sw_2950(config)# vtp domain domain-name wg_sw_2950(config)# vtp password password wg_sw_2950(config)# vtp pruning wg_sw_2950(config)# end © 2006 Cisco Systems. Switch# vtp {password password | pruning | version number} Note The domain name and password are case sensitive. domain name. and the administrative version. © 2006. Inc. Use the no form of this command to remove the filename or to return to the default settings. including the storage filename. All rights reserved. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-23 . you can save the VTP configuration in the switch configuration file by entering the copy runningconfig startup-config privileged EXEC command.3—2-4 Use the vtp global configuration command to modify the VTP configuration. ICND v2.

Inc. All rights reserved. . The VTP domain name is ICND. ICND v2.1.3 © 2006.4 at 3-3-93 20:08:05 Switch# © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Switch(config)# end Switch#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 0 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 64 Number of existing VLANs : 17 VTP Operating Mode : Transparent VTP Domain Name : ICND VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x7D 0x6E 0x5E 0x3D 0xAF 0xA0 0x2F 0xAA Configuration last modified by 10. The configuration revision is 0. 2-24 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3—2-5 Example: VTP Configuration The figure demonstrates the commands that you would enter to configure VTP and show the VTP status. Pruning is disabled. Cisco Systems.1. The characteristics of the switch in this example are as follows: The switch is transparent in the VTP domain.VTP Configuration Example Switch(config)# vtp domain ICND Changing VTP domain name to ICND Switch(config)# vtp mode transparent Setting device to VTP TRANSPARENT mode.

3—2-6 There are several limitations that IEEE 802. This topic describes how to configure IEEE 802. spanning-tree loops might result.1Q Trunking Configuration The IEEE 802. If they are different. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-25 . Inc. Cisco Systems. • Make sure that your network is loop-free before disabling STP. All rights reserved.1Q protocol carries traffic for multiple VLANs over a single link on a multivendor network. and you should consider the following: Make sure that the native VLAN for an 802. © 2006 Cisco Systems. © 2006.1Q trunk is the same on both ends of the trunk link.1Q trunking on a Catalyst 2950 series switch. 802. ICND v2.802.1Q trunk is the same on both ends of the trunk link.1Q trunks impose on the trunking strategy for a network.1Q Trunking Issues • Make sure that the native VLAN for an 802. Make sure that your network is loop-free before disabling Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). • Note that native VLAN frames are untagged. Inc.

The settings include the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Allowed-VLAN list STP path cost for each VLAN STP port priority for each VLAN STP PortFast setting Trunk status. all ports follow the parameters that are set for the first port to be added to the group.1Q trunking interacts with other switch features.The table shows how IEEE 802. If you change the configuration of one of these parameters. Switch Feature Secure ports Port grouping Trunk Port Interaction A trunk port cannot be a secure port. 802. but all trunks in the group must have the same configuration. . Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. When a group is first created. Inc. if one port in a port group ceases to be a trunk.1Q trunks can be grouped into EtherChannel port groups. all ports cease to be trunks 2-26 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. the switch propagates the setting that you enter to all ports in the group.

Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-27 .Configuring 802. ICND v2. Inc. This command returns an error if you attempt to execute it in dynamic (auto or desirable) mode. The port negotiates to a trunk port if the connected device is in either trunk state. Dynamic auto: Enables a port to become a trunk only if the connected device has the state set to trunk or desirable. which is the default mode for all Ethernet interfaces. desirable state. or auto state. This command is valid only when the interface switchport mode is access or trunk (configured by using the switchport mode access or the switchport mode trunk interface configuration command). Cisco Systems. Inc.3—2-7 Use the switchport mode interface configuration command to set a Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet port to trunk mode. the port becomes a nontrunk port. The switch does not engage in DTP negotiation on this interface. The Catalyst 2950 series switches support the Dynamic Trunk Protocol (DTP). © 2006. Use the no form of this command to return to the default setting. The switchport nonnegotiate interface command specifies that DTP negotiation packets are not sent on the Layer 2 interface. All rights reserved. There are four options for the switchport mode command.1Q trunk mode and negotiates with the connected device to convert the link to trunk mode. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Otherwise. Otherwise. which manages automatic trunk negotiation. the port becomes a nontrunk port. as follows: Trunk: Configures the port into permanent 802.1Q Trunking wg_sw_a(config-if)# switchport mode trunk • Configures the port as a VLAN trunk Note: The Catalyst 2950 series switches support only 802.1Q encapsulation. Dynamic desirable: Triggers the port to negotiate the link from nontrunk to trunk mode. Access: Disables port trunk mode and negotiates with the connected device to convert the link to nontrunk.

wg_sw_a(config)# interface interface 2. which is configured automatically when trunking is enabled on the interface by using the switchport mode trunk command. the CLI1 prompt will change from (config)# to (config-if)#. wg_sw_a(config-if)# switchport mode trunk 1 Notes After the interface configuration is entered. CLI = command-line interface Catalyst 2950 series switches support only 802. Enable trunking on the selected interface. Action Enter the interface configuration mode and the port to be configured for trunking. Configure the port as a VLAN trunk.The table shows the steps to configure a port as an 802. beginning in privileged EXEC mode.1Q trunk port. Inc. Step 1. Note 2-28 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Cisco Systems.1Q encapsulation.3 © 2006. .

All rights reserved. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-29 . This topic describes how to configure ISL trunking on a Catalyst 4000 series switch.3—2-8 Use the switchport trunk encapsulation interface configuration command to set a Catalyst 4000 series port to encapsulate with ISL. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Configuring ISL Trunking wg_sw_4000(config)# interface {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} slot/port • Select the interface to configure. Note: You must enter this command with either the isl or dot1q keyword to support the switchport mode trunk command. © 2006. wg_sw_4000(config-if)# shutdown • (Optional) Shut down the interface to prevent traffic flow until configuration is complete. Inc. wg_sw_4000(config-if)# switchport mode {dynamic {auto | desirable} | trunk} • Configure the interface as a Layer 2 trunk (required only if the interface is a Layer 2 access port or to specify the trunking mode). wg_sw_4000(config-if)# switchport trunk encapsulation {isl | dot1q | negotiate} • (Optional) Specify the encapsulation. which is not supported by the default mode (negotiate). Inc. dot1q: The interface uses only 802. Cisco Systems.1Q trunking encapsulation when trunking. Then use the switchport mode trunk interface configuration command to configure the interface as a Layer 2 trunk. ICND v2. ISL: The interface uses only ISL trunking encapsulation when trunking. negotiate: The device negotiates trunking encapsulation with a peer on the interface. The figure illustrates the encapsulation types supported on the Catalyst 4000 series switch.ISL Trunking Configuration ISL operates in a point-to-point environment to carry traffic for multiple VLANs over a single link.

Inc. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Note Catalyst 2950 series switches do not support ISL encapsulation.3 © 2006.Configuring ISL Trunking (Cont. All rights reserved.3—2-9 The figure illustrates the steps for configuring ISL on a Catalyst 4000 series switch. Check your device to determine which type of encapsulation it will support: ISL.) wg_sw_4000# configure terminal wg_sw_4000(config-if)# interface gigabitEthernet 2/24 wg_sw_4000(config-if)# shutdown wg_sw_4000(config-if)# switchport trunk encapsulation isl wg_sw_4000(config-if)# switchport mode trunk wg_sw_4000(config-if)# no shutdown Note: Not all Catalyst series switches support ISL encapsulation. . Cisco Systems. dot1q. or both. ICND v2. 2-30 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. The Catalyst 1900 series switches support ISL but not dot1q.

3—2-10 Before you create VLANs. which by default is VLAN 1. the 2950 series can support up to 250 VLANs. Inc. The default Ethernet VLAN is VLAN 1.VLAN Creation This topic describes how to create new VLANs. This IP address must be in the management VLAN. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-31 . All rights reserved. the switch must be in VTP server or transparent mode. • CDP and VTP advertisements are sent on VLAN 1. CDP and VTP advertisements are sent on VLAN 1. • VLAN 1 is the factory default Ethernet VLAN. you must decide whether to use VTP to maintain global VLAN configuration information for your network. ICND v2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Catalyst switches have a factory default configuration in which various default VLANs are preconfigured to support various media and protocol types. Depending on the model. Before you can create a VLAN. For you to be able to communicate with the Catalyst switch remotely for management purposes. the switch must have an IP address. • To add or delete VLANs. VLAN Creation Guidelines • The maximum number of VLANs is switch-dependent. © 2006. • Most Catalyst desktop switches support 64 VLANs with a separate spanning tree per VLAN. Cisco Systems. • The Catalyst switch IP address is in the management VLAN (VLAN 1 by default). Inc. the switch must be in VTP server mode or VTP transparent mode. Most Catalyst desktop switches support a maximum of 64 active VLANs.

VLAN 1 (including VLAN1002. ICND v2. To add an Ethernet VLAN. VLAN1003. you must specify at least a VLAN number. (Optional) Specify the VLAN name. an ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters that must be unique within the administrative domain. VLAN0004 could be a default name for VLAN 4 if no name is specified. For vlan-id. Inc. use the vlan global configuration command to enter the config-vlan configuration mode. For the Catalyst 2950 series switch. the default is to append the VLAN number to the word vlan. Cisco Systems. Inc.3—2-11 To allow VLANs to span across multiple switches. a switch is in VTP server mode so that you can add. or delete VLANs. change. name vlan-name By default. assign a number and name to the VLAN. or delete VLANs. . change. For example. you cannot add. the range is 1 to 4094 when the enhanced software image is installed and 1 to 1005 when the standard software image is installed. 2-32 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Each VLAN has a unique. All rights reserved.Adding a VLAN Catalyst 2950 Series Switch# configure terminal Switch(config)# vlan 2 Switch(config-vlan)# name VLAN2 © 2006 Cisco Systems. To add a VLAN to the VLAN database. Command/variable vlan vlan-id Description ID of the VLAN to be added and configured. do not enter leading zeros.3 © 2006. If the switch is set to VTP client mode. Use the no form of this command to delete the VLAN. four-digit ID that is a number from 0001 to 1005. or a range of VLAN IDs separated by hyphens. You can enter a single VLAN ID. and VLAN1005) is the factory default VLAN. If no name is entered for the VLAN. a series of VLAN IDs separated by commas. The table lists the commands to use when adding a VLAN. VLAN1004. you must configure trunks to interconnect the switches.

Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-33 . ICND v2. Modifying a VLAN Name wg_sw_a(config-vlan)# name vlan-name wg_sw_a# configure terminal wg_sw_a(config)# vlan 2 wg_sw_a(config-vlan)# name switchlab2 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. the VLAN name for VLAN 2 is changed to switchlab2. In the example. Inc. © 2006. All rights reserved.3—2-12 To modify an existing VLAN name or number. use the same command syntax that is used to add a VLAN.VLAN Name Modification This topic describes how to change the name on a VLAN. Cisco Systems.

When you assign a switch port to a VLAN using this method. . Assigning Switch Ports to a VLAN Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950(config-if)# switchport access [vlan vlan# | dynamic] wg-sw_2950# configure terminal wg_sw_2950(config)# interface fastethernet 0/2 wg_sw_2950(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2 wg_sw_2950# show vlan VLAN ---1 . Fa0/3.---------------------active Fa0/1.3—2-13 After creating a VLAN.VLAN Port Assignment This topic describes how to assign switch ports to a VLAN. . Inc. 2-34 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. All rights reserved. Fa0/4 active Fa0/2 © 2006 Cisco Systems. A port can belong to only one VLAN at a time. . 2 Name -------------------------------default . ICND v2. Note By default. Use the dynamic option to have the VLAN controlled and assigned by a VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS).3 © 2006. Cisco Systems. it is known as a static-access port. all ports are members of VLAN 1. . you can manually assign a port or a number of ports to that VLAN. Inc. On a Catalyst 2950 series switch. vlan2 Status Ports --------. configure the VLAN port assignment from the interface configuration mode using the switchport access command. Use the vlan vlan# option to set static-access membership.

© 2006.40 at 3-3-93 20:08:05 © 2006 Cisco Systems.3—2-14 On a Catalyst 2950 series switch. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-35 .10.10. Verifying the VTP Configuration wg_sw_2950# show vtp status wg_sw_2950# show vtp status VTP Version Configuration Revision Number of existing VLANs VTP Operating Mode VTP Domain Name VTP Pruning Mode VTP V2 Mode VTP Traps Generation MD5 digest : 2 : 0 : 17 : Server : ICND_lab : Disabled : Disabled : Disabled : 0x7D 0x6E 0x5E 0x3D 0xAF 0xA0 0x2F 0xAA Maximum VLANs supported locally : 64 Configuration last modified by 10. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. use the show vtp status command to verify a recent configuration change or to view the VTP configuration information.VLAN Configuration Verification This topic describes the output for each show command on the Catalyst 2950 series switches. Inc. ICND v2. Inc.

Inc.3 © 2006. wg_sw_2950# show interfaces fa0/11 trunk Port Fa0/11 Port Fa0/11 Port Fa0/11 Mode desirable Encapsulation 802. 2-36 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3—2-15 © 2006 Cisco Systems.Verifying a Trunk wg_sw_2950# show interfaces interface [switchport | trunk] wg_sw_2950# show interfaces fa0/11 switchport Name: Fa0/11 Switchport: Enabled Administrative Mode: trunk Operational Mode: down Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q Negotiation of Trunking: On Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default) . Inc. . . The Catalyst 2950 series switch supports trunking on each of its Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ports. use the show interfaces interfaces switchport or the show interfaces interfaces trunk command to display the trunk parameters and VLAN information of the port. . Cisco Systems. To verify a trunk configuration on a Catalyst 2950 series switch.1q Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1-13 ICND v2. All rights reserved.

.-------. All rights reserved.----.Verifying a VLAN Catalyst 2950 Series wg_sw_2950# show vlan [brief | id vlan-id || name vlan-name] wg_sw_2950# show vlan id 2 VLAN Name Status Ports ---.-------. Use the show vlan brief command to display one line for each VLAN that displays the VLAN name.-----.--------. Inc. and the switch ports.-------------------------------. The show vlan command displays the switch ports assigned to each VLAN.3—2-16 After the VLAN is configured.-----. used for the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) trunk. and other parameters used for Token Ring or FDDI VLANs. Cisco Systems. Fa0/12 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---.------------------------------2 switchlab99 active Fa0/2. the status.-----2 enet 100002 1500 0 0 .-----. . Use the show vlan id vlan# or the name vlan-name command to display information about a particular VLAN. the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). the security association ID (SAID). ICND v2.----. Other VLAN parameters that are displayed include the type (the default is Ethernet).---------. you should validate the parameters for that VLAN. Inc. Use the show vlan command to display information on all configured VLANs. © 2006. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-37 . wg_sw_2950# © 2006 Cisco Systems.---. the maximum transmission unit (MTU) (the default is 1500 for Ethernet VLAN).

Inc. All rights reserved. use the show vlan brief privileged EXEC command to display the VLAN assignment and membership type for all switch ports.--------.----------------------------fddinet-default trnet-default act/unsup act/unsup wg_sw_2950# show interfaces interface switchport © 2006 Cisco Systems.----------------------------active Fa0/1. ICND v2.3—2-17 On the Catalyst 2950 series switch. Cisco Systems. Inc. Fa0/4 active active active act/unsup act/unsup Name Status Ports -------------------------------. .Verifying VLAN Membership wg_sw_2950# show vlan brief wg_sw_2950# show vlan brief VLAN Name ---. Fa0/3. use the show interfaces interface switchport privileged EXEC command to display the VLAN information for a particular interface.--------------------------------1 default 2 vlan2 3 vlan3 4 vlan4 1002 fddi-default 1003 token-ring-default VLAN ----1004 1005 Status Ports --------. Alternatively. 2-38 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Fa0/2.3 © 2006.

Cisco Systems. Recall that a Catalyst switch can support a separate spanning tree per VLAN. while another switch can be the root for VLAN 2. ICND v2.12 Type -----------------------Shr P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/2 Fa0/12 © 2006 Cisco Systems.Verifying STP for a VLAN wg_sw_2950# show spanning-tree [active | detail | vlan vlan-id | summary] wg_sw_2950# show spanning-tree vlan 2 VLAN0002 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 2 Address 0008. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-39 . use the show spanning-tree vlan privileged EXEC command to display the STP configuration for a particular VLAN.3—2-18 On the Catalyst 2950 series switch.Nbr -------128.a840 Cost 31 Port 12 (FastEthernet0/12) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32770 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 2) Address 0008. © 2006. one switch can be the root for VLAN 1. Inc. All rights reserved. Port fa0/12 is the root port for VLAN 2. The root bridge for VLAN 2 has a bridge priority of 2 with a MAC address of 0008. allowing for load balancing between switches.1d STP. Inc. For example.a445.a840. The switch is running the IEEE 802. (This idea is explained further in the course Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks [BCMSN]).2 128. Example: Verifying STP for a VLAN The figure shows spanning-tree information for VLAN 2 on a Catalyst 2950 series switch.9b40 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Root Sts --FWD FWD Cost --------100 19 Prio.20fc.20fc.

the change is automatically propagated to other switches in the VTP domain. This topic describes how to add.dat file wg_sw_a(config-if)# switchport access vlan vlan# • Statically assigns a VLAN to a specific port © 2006 Cisco Systems. VLAN changes made from a switch in VTP transparent mode impact the local switch only. and change VLANs. Inc. and changes to the vlan. and Changes for VLANs As network topologies. VLAN requirements also change. business requirements.Adds. changes are not propagated to the domain. move. When you make VLAN changes from a switch that is in VTP server mode. Inc.3 © 2006. Adding VLANs and Port Membership After a new VLAN is created. moves. be sure to make the necessary changes to VLAN port assignments. the switch must be in VTP server or transparent mode. . Separate VLANs will also require interVLAN routing to permit users in the new VLAN to communicate with other VLANs. Cisco Systems. 2-40 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. and individual assignments change. including default gateway and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). Moves. and Changes for VLANs wg_sw_a(config)# vlan vlan-id wg_sw_a(config-vlan)# • Enters the privileged EXEC VLAN configuration mode • Writes VLAN adds. or delete VLANs. change. All rights reserved. InterVLAN routing includes setting up the appropriate IP parameters and services.3—2-19 To add. Executing Adds. ICND v2. Moves. Separate VLANs typically imply separate IP networks. Be sure to plan the new IP addressing scheme and its deployment to stations before moving users to the new VLAN.

To move a port into a different VLAN. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-41 . then reassign all ports to this VLAN. Use the no vlan vlan-id command to remove a VLAN that is in VLAN configuration mode.Changing VLANs and Port Membership To modify VLAN attributes. use the switchport access interface configuration command to perform this function. To reassign a port to the default VLAN (VLAN 1). © 2006. For the Catalyst 2950 series switch. use the no switchport access vlan command in interface configuration mode. be sure to first reassign all member ports to a different VLAN. After a port is reassigned to a new VLAN. There is no need to first remove a port from a VLAN to make this change. Note Before deleting a VLAN. To use a different VLAN number. the VLAN is deleted on that specific switch only. Deleting VLANs and Port Membership When you delete a VLAN from a switch that is in VTP server mode. Cisco Systems. the VLAN is removed from all switches in the VTP domain. Note The VLAN number cannot be changed. that port is automatically removed from its previous VLAN. create a new VLAN using a new number. Inc. Any ports that are not moved to an active VLAN will be unable to communicate with other stations. When you delete a VLAN from a switch that is in VTP transparent mode. use the vlan vlan-id global configuration command. use the same commands that are used to make the original assignments. such as VLAN name.

3—2-20 Misconfiguration of a VLAN is one of the most common errors in switched networks. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems. .VLAN Troubleshooting This topic describes the most common misconfiguration errors and suggests solutions to help you troubleshoot your switched network. ICND v2. Recognizing the symptoms of the problem and identifying an action plan may help you identify and solve the problem. Inc. Troubleshooting Switched LANs © 2006 Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. 2-42 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

Check connected LED. the server is attempting to communicate back to these clients. but if switches are running in half-duplex mode. Check to see if a default route is needed on router in order to reach a switch on a different IP subnet. check for correct cable and proper attachment. Eliminate unnecessary connections between VLANs if a port belongs to multiple VLANs. Check hardware. Make sure that the VLANs match on both sides of a trunk. Full-duplex or half-duplex Ethernet settings are incorrect. As a result. The fact is that switches minimize the number of collisions. Cabling problem. Problem Facts Performance on the VLAN is slow or unreliable. check to see what type of errors exist. VLAN inconsistency problem. Check port assignments. Check using CDP and show interface commands. Possible Problem Causes and Action Plans ■ ■ ■ Bad adapter in a device. The traffic comes through the router and switch to the directly connected server. a minimum number of switch ports is involved in a link. and that no valid VTP server information update has occurred. the problem may just be an overloaded link. © 2006. What path is the packet taking? Is it going across trunks or nontrunks to other switches? If you see from the output of a show interfaces command that the number of collisions is increasing rapidly. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When faced with poor throughput problems. switch. An example is a news server that has many clients attempting to communicate at the same time.The table shows high-level VLAN problems that can occur with a router or switch. Consider these questions: Is the problem on the local side or remote side of the link? Remember. There is a myth that switched Ethernet eliminates collisions. Inc. At the same time. and check cable length to be sure it does not exceed maximum cable distance. Misconfigured IP addressing or mask. There could be a bad adapter card. Attached terminal or modem connection cannot communicate with router or switch. As the server is answering one client. The only cure for collisions on Ethernet is to run in full-duplex mode. servers. VLAN misconfigured. and clients. Check that the baud rate and character format match. Local VLAN devices cannot communicate with remote devices on a VLAN beyond the router. Default gateway not specified or incorrect. another client sends a request. the collisions will still occur because two devices can always attempt to communicate at the same time. there is the potential for collision. Make sure that there is proper trunking. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-43 . Combinations of frame check sequence (FCS) and alignment errors and runts generally point to a duplex mismatch. ISL problem. The usual culprit is the autonegotiation between devices or a mismatched setting between the two sides of a link. Misconfigured terminal and console port. Check router. that VLAN 1 is being used. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. Inc. 2-44 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. make sure that the default gateway (default route) on the switch is configured with the address of a router in the same subnet as the switch interface.3 © 2006. If the host is in the same subnet as the switch interface. ICND v2. make sure that the switch interface and the switch port to which the host is connected are assigned to the same VLAN. and VLAN membership of the switch interface are correct by using the show interfaces command. Inc. All rights reserved.3—2-21 Problem: One device cannot communicate with another device. Some suggested solutions to the problem are as follows: Make sure that the IP address. subnet mask. and VLAN membership of the switch interface are correct. • If the host is in the same subnet as the switch interface. © 2006 Cisco Systems. .Problem: One Device Cannot Communicate with Another • Make sure that the IP address. Use the show ip route command. make sure that the default gateway on the switch is configured with the address of a router that is in the same subnet as the switch interface. Use the show interfaces and show vlan commands. To prevent conflicts. If the host is in a different subnet. subnet mask. make sure that the interfaces are configured with IP addresses and subnet masks in different subnets. make sure that the switch interface and the switch port to which the host is connected are assigned to the same VLAN. • If the host is in a different subnet.

• If the connected device is an end station. If the connected device is an end station: — Enable spanning-tree PortFast on the port. All rights reserved. • Make sure that the switch is learning the MAC address of the host. wait until the port is in forwarding mode and try to connect to the host again. © 2006. Use the show macaddress-table dynamic command. Cisco Systems. Disable channeling on the port. ICND v2.Problem: One Device Cannot Communicate with Another (Cont. Use the no channel-group interface configuration command.) • If the port is in listening or learning mode. — — Make sure that the switch is learning the MAC address of the host. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-45 . Inc. Use the spanning-tree portfast interface configuration command. wait until the port is in forwarding mode and try to connect to the host again.3—2-22 Check the spanning-tree state on the port using the show spanning-tree interface configuration command. bypassing listening and learning modes (do not use this feature for connections to non-end station devices). enable spanningtree PortFast and disable trunking on the port. Disable trunking on the port. Use the no switchport mode trunk interface command. • Make sure that the speed and duplex settings on the host and the appropriate switch ports are correct. Make sure that the speed and duplex settings on the host and the appropriate switch ports are correct. Inc. Use the show interfaces command. PortFast places the port in forwarding mode immediately. © 2006 Cisco Systems. If the port is in listening or learning mode.

Problem: A Device Cannot Establish a Connection Across a Trunk Link
• Make sure that the trunking mode that is configured on both ends of the link is valid. The trunking mode should be “on” or “desirable” on one end and “on,” “desirable,” or “auto” on the other end. • Make sure that the trunk encapsulation type that is configured on both ends of the link is valid. • On IEEE 802.1Q trunks, make sure that the native VLAN is the same on both ends of the trunk.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—2-23

Problem: A device cannot establish a connection across a trunk link. Some suggested solutions to the problem are as follows: Make sure that the trunking mode that is configured on both ends of the link is valid. The trunking mode should be “on” or “desirable” on one end and “on,” “desirable,” or “auto” on the other end. Use the show interfaces trunk command. Make sure that the trunk encapsulation type that is configured on both ends of the link is valid. Use the show interfaces interface-id [switchport | trunk] command. On IEEE 802.1Q trunks, make sure that the native VLAN is the same on both ends of the trunk. Use the show interfaces interface-id [switchport | trunk] command.

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Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Problem: VTP Not Updating Configuration on Other Switches
• Make sure that the switches are connected through trunk links. VTP updates are exchanged only over trunk links. • Make sure that the VTP domain name is the same on the appropriate switches. VTP updates are exchanged only between switches in the same VTP domain. • Check to see if the switch is in VTP transparent mode. Only switches in VTP server or VTP client mode update their VLAN configuration based on VTP updates from other switches. • If you are using VTP passwords, you must configure the same password on all switches in the VTP domain.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—2-24

Problem: VTP is not updating the configuration on other switches when the VLAN configuration changes. Some suggested solutions to the problem are as follows: Make sure that the switches are connected through trunk links. VTP updates are exchanged only over trunk links. Use the show interfaces trunk command. Make sure that the VTP domain name is the same on the appropriate switches. VTP updates are only exchanged between switches in the same VTP domain. Use the show vtp status command. Check to see if the switch is in VTP transparent mode. Only switches in VTP server or VTP client mode update their VLAN configuration based on VTP updates from other switches. Use the show vtp status command. If you are using VTP passwords, you must configure the same password on all switches in the VTP domain. To change or set the VTP password, use the vtp password global configuration command. To clear an existing VTP password, use the no vtp password global configuration command.

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs

2-47

Summary
This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.

Summary
• When creating VLANs, you must decide whether to use VTP in your network. With VTP, you can make configuration changes centrally on one or more switches and have those changes automatically communicated to all the other switches in the same VTP domain. • The IEEE 802.1Q protocol carries traffic for multiple VLANs over a single link on a multivendor network. Use the switchport mode interface configuration command to set a Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet port to trunk mode. • The ISL protocol operates in a point-to-point environment to carry traffic for multiple VLANs over a single link. ISL is a Cisco proprietary protocol. On switches that support ISL, such as the Catalyst 4000, use the switchport trunk encapsulation interface configuration command to set a port to encapsulate with ISL.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ICND v2.3—2-25

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Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Summary (Cont.)
• Catalyst switches have a factory default configuration in which various default VLANs are preconfigured to support various media and protocol types. The vlan global configuration command can be used to create a VLAN. • An existing VLAN name or number can be modified using the vlan global configuration command syntax. • After creating a VLAN, a port or a number of ports can be statically assigned to that VLAN. A port can belong to only one VLAN at a time. • VLAN configurations can be verified using the show commands.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—2-26

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs

2-49

Summary (Cont.)
• To add, change, or delete VLANs, the switch must be in VTP server or transparent mode. When VLAN changes are made from a switch that is in VTP server mode, the change is automatically propagated to other switches in the same VTP domain. Changes made in VTP transparent mode affect only the local switch and are not propagated within the VTP domain. VLAN changes cannot be made in VTP client mode. • Misconfiguration of a VLAN is one of the most common errors in switched networks.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—2-27

2-50

Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

VLAN requirements change accordingly. Module Summary • A VLAN is a group of end stations with a common set of requirements. Inc. you can automatically communicate changes throughout the domain by using the VTP functionality. Inc.Module Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this module. All rights reserved. business requirements. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-51 . ICND v2. As network topologies.3—2-1 VLANs solve many of the immediate problems associated with administrative changes. independent of their physical location and with the same attributes as a physical LAN. Cisco Systems. © 2006 Cisco Systems. • When configuring VLANs. and individual assignments change. © 2006. Implementing VLANs successfully in your switched network enables you to improve scalability and interoperability as well as increase dedicated throughput. You can enable a single link to carry multiple VLANs by trunking them together.

3 © 2006.Module Self-Check Use the questions here to review what you learned in this module. . Cisco Systems.) (Source: Introducing VLAN Operations) A) B) C) D) E) to maintain redundant links to allow clients to see the ISL header to provide interVLAN communications over a bridge to provide trunking between Cisco switches and other vendor switches to load-balance traffic between parallel links using the Spanning Tree Protocol Q4) Which is required to support the ISL feature between two devices? (Source: Introducing VLAN Operations) A) B) C) D) being ISL-capable running Cisco IOS being VLAN-capable being 802. Inc. The correct answers and solutions are found in the Module Self-Check Answer Key.1Q-capable allows trunking to provide redundancy minimizes redundancy on a switched network allows you to run several VLANs over a single trunk minimizes misconfigurations and configuration inconsistencies Q5) What primary benefit does VTP offer? (Source: Introducing VLAN Operations) A) B) C) D) Q6) How many VTP domains can you configure for a switch? (Source: Introducing VLAN Operations) A) B) C) D) one two four eight 2-52 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Q1) Which feature is required for a VLAN to span two switches? (Source: Introducing VLAN Operations) A) B) C) D) Q2) a trunk to connect the switches a router to connect the switches a bridge to connect the switches a VLAN configured between the switches What does a VMPS map to VLAN assignments? (Source: Introducing VLAN Operations) A) B) C) D) host IDs usernames IP addresses MAC addresses Q3) What are two reasons for using ISL? (Choose two.

All trunks must follow the parameters set for the first trunk that is added to the group. what guideline must you follow? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) Each port in the group must be a secure port. Inc. then configure VTP. Assign the port to the VLAN. Cisco Systems. Assign the port to the VLAN. (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) Q12) Which information does the show vlan command display? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) VTP domain parameters VMPS server configuration parameters which ports are members of which VLANs names of the VLANs and the ports assigned to the VLANs Q13) Which command displays the spanning-tree configuration status of the ports on a Catalyst 2950 series switch? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) show vlan show trunk show spanning-tree show spantree config © 2006. only one VLAN up to 64 VLANs up to 128 VLANs one or two VLANs Q11) How many VLANs can a port belong to at one time. all VLANs are created by default. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-53 . then assign the port to the VLAN. Create the VLAN. Each trunk in the group can have its own configuration.1Q trunks into EtherChannel port groups. this also creates the VLAN with a default name.Q7) Which command correctly configures a switch for transparent mode in the VTP domain “switchlab”? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) vtp mode trunk on vtp mode transparent vtp domain switchlab vtp domain switchlab transparent Q8) Which is the default VTP mode on a Catalyst switch? (Source: Introducing VLAN Operations) A) B) C) D) off client server transparent Q9) If you group 802. All ports must follow the parameters set for the first port that is added to the group. assign ports to the VLAN. Q10) What is the logical sequence for configuring a Catalyst switch port to be in VLAN 3? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) Create the VLAN.

If the host is on the same subnet as the switch interface. Inc. Configure the switch to VTP transparent mode to minimize impact. Make sure that the port is trunking and that the allowed VLAN list permits the desired VLAN range to pass through. Make sure that the trunk encapsulation type that is configured on both ends of the link is valid. Preconfigure all VLANs in the new VTP domain on the switch.) (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) E) Make sure that the trunking mode that is configured on both ends of the link is valid. Q16) If a device on a VLAN cannot establish a connection across a trunk link. Which command would you use to determine if the switch is in VTP transparent mode? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) show trunk show spantree show interfaces show vtp status 2-54 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Verify that the VTP revision number is lower than the existing domain. Make sure that the port is connected and is not receiving any physical-layer (alignment or FCS) errors.Q14) When you delete a VLAN from a VTP domain. . regardless of VTP mode Q15) What precaution should you take when redeploying a switch to a new VTP domain in the network? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) Set a unique VTP password on the switch for security.3 © 2006. Q17) Suppose that the VTP is not updating the configuration on other switches when the VLAN configuration changes. Cisco Systems. make sure that the switch interface and the switch port to which the host is connected are assigned to the same VLAN. where should the change be performed? (Source: Configuring VLANs) A) B) C) D) on a switch in VTP server mode on every switch in VTP client mode on a switch in VTP transparent mode on every switch. which three actions should you take to resolve the problem? (Choose three.

E A D A B C C A A D C A C A. Extending Switched Networks with Virtual LANs 2-55 . D D © 2006. B.Module Self Check Answer Key Q1) Q2) Q3) Q4) Q5) Q6) Q7) Q8) Q9) Q10) Q11) Q12) Q13) Q14) Q15) Q16) Q17) A D A. Cisco Systems. Inc.

Cisco Systems. Inc.3 © 2006. .2-56 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)—and shows you how to configure and troubleshoot each. and limitations of static and dynamic routing Describe how distance vector routing protocols operate Describe the link-state and balanced hybrid routing algorithms Enable RIP on an IP network Enable EIGRP on an IP network Enable OSPF on an IP network Explain the operation of VLSMs on Cisco routers . you will be able to configure and troubleshoot RIP. It is important to understand how the various routing protocols determine IP routes. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the operation. and OSPF.Module 3 Determining IP Routes Overview Routing is the process by which information gets from one location to another. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). EIGRP. Module Objectives Upon completing this module. This module describes the features and operation of five routing protocols—Routing Information Protocol (RIP). IGRP. benefits.

3-2 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Cisco Systems. Inc. .3 © 2006.

you must understand the operation of both static and dynamic routing protocols and the impact that they have on an IP network. and limitations of static and dynamic routing. To effectively manage an IP network. you will be able to describe the operation. routing information takes the form of entries in a routing table. This lesson introduces IP static and dynamic routing. The network administrator can statically (manually) configure the entries in the routing table. or the router can use a routing protocol to create and maintain the routing table dynamically to accommodate network changes whenever they occur. Conceptually.Lesson 1 Introducing Routing Overview Routing is the process of determining where to send data packets destined for addresses outside the local network. with one entry for each identified route. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. Routers gather and maintain routing information to enable the transmission and receipt of such data packets. and classes of dynamic routing protocols Describe the main characteristics of dynamic routing protocols Describe the different classes of routing protocols Explain how to use the ip classless commands Describe the basics of interVLAN routing operations . types. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the basic characteristics of IP static and dynamic routing Explain the differences between static and dynamic routing Configure static routes on Cisco routers Configure default route forwarding Verify static route configurations Describe the purpose. benefits.

to the intended destination. In networking. All rights reserved. or any entity that performs routing.Routing Overview This topic describes the basic characteristics of static and dynamic routing operations. or paths. a router. . To be able to route anything. Inc. a router needs to do the following: • Know the destination address • • • • Identify the sources from which the router can learn Discover possible routes to the intended destination Select the best route Maintain and verify routing information © 2006 Cisco Systems. Select routes: Select the best path to the intended destination.3—3-3 Routing is the process by which an item gets from one location to another. Router Operations To route. Identify sources of routing information: Determine from which sources (other routers) the router can learn the paths to given destinations. Inc. Cisco Systems. Identify routes: Determine the initial possible routes. a router is the device used to route traffic. ICND v2. Maintain and verify routing information: Determine if the known paths to the destination are the most current. 3-4 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. must do the following: Identify the destination address: Determine the destination (or address) of the item that needs to be routed.3 © 2006.

ICND v2. Routing information can be collected through the dynamic routing process that is running in the routers. The router will rely on this table to tell it which interfaces to use when forwarding addressed packets. the router already knows which interface to use when forwarding packets. There are two ways in which the destination information can be learned. Determining IP Routes 3-5 .3—3-4 The routing information that a router obtains from other routers is placed in its routing table. Routing information can be entered manually by the network administrator.Router Operations (Cont. Cisco Systems.) • Routers must learn destinations that are not directly connected. If destination networks are not directly attached. If the destination network is directly connected. the router must learn the best route to use when forwarding packets. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2006 Cisco Systems. © 2006.

based on the router configuration.3 © 2006. Unlike the situation with static routes. the routing process automatically updates route knowledge whenever new topology information is received. after the network administrator enables dynamic routing. ICND v2. Cisco Systems. Inc. 3-6 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. . The router learns and maintains routes to the remote destinations by exchanging routing updates with other routers in the internetwork. Dynamic: The router dynamically learns routes after an administrator configures a routing protocol that helps determine routes. These administrator-defined routes allow very precise control over the routing behavior of the IP internetwork. Identifying Static and Dynamic Routes Static Route • Uses a route that a network administrator enters into the router manually Dynamic Route • Uses a route that a network routing protocol adjusts automatically for topology or traffic changes © 2006 Cisco Systems. The two ways to tell the router where to forward packets that are not directly connected are as follows: Static: The router learns routes when an administrator manually configures the static route.Static and Dynamic Route Comparison This topic describes the differences between static and dynamic routing. Inc. Static routes are user-defined routes that specify the path that packets take when moving between a source and a destination. All rights reserved.3—3-5 Routers can forward packets over static routes or dynamic routes. The administrator must manually update this static route entry whenever an internetwork topology change requires an update.

Example: Static Routes In the figure. Static routes can also be useful for specifying a “gateway of last resort” to which all packets with an unknown destination address will be sent. Cisco Systems.3—3-6 Static routes are commonly used when you are routing from a network to a stub network.0 subnet via the serial interface of router A. Inc. A stub network (sometimes called a leaf node) is a network accessed by a single route.1. Router B will be configured with a static or default route to reach the networks behind router A via the serial interface of router B. Note The static route is configured for connectivity to remote networks that are not directly connected to your router. For end-to-end connectivity. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. router A will be configured with a static route to reach the 172. a static route must be configured in both directions. Determining IP Routes 3-7 . © 2006.16. Static Routes • Configure unidirectional static routes to and from a stub network to allow communications to occur. ICND v2.Static Route Configuration This topic describes how to configure static routes on Cisco routers.

IP address of the next-hop router. The command will not work properly if the interface is multi-access (for example. The table lists the ip route command parameters and descriptions. . No dynamic changes to the routing table entry will occur as long as the path is active.Static Route Configuration Router(config)# ip route network [mask] {address | interface}[distance] [permanent] • Defines a path to an IP destination network or subnet or host © 2006 Cisco Systems. A static route allows manual configuration of the routing table. Inc. distance permanent 3-8 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. The parameters identified in the table further define the static route.3—3-7 To configure a static route. enter the ip route command in global configuration mode. Subnet mask. The interface should be a point-to-point interface. a shared media Ethernet interface). ICND v2. (Optional) Specifies that the route will not be removed. All rights reserved. Name of the interface to use to get to the destination network. even if the interface shuts down. (Optional) Defines the administrative distance. Cisco Systems. Administrative distance is covered in the Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview topic.3 © 2006. Inc. ip route Command Parameters network mask address interface Description Destination network or subnetwork or host.

Cisco Systems.16. Determining IP Routes 3-9 . © 2006.2. The assignment of a static route to reach the stub network 172. ICND v2. Inc. Specifies a static route to the destination subnetwork.2.0 172.1 Description Identifies the static route command.1 This table lists the ip route command parameters for this example.0 255.0 255. the static route is configured as follows: Router(config)#ip route 172. You must have a route configured in the opposite direction.3—3-8 Example: Configuring Static Routes In this example.16.16. There are eight bits of subnetting in effect.16.0 is proper for router A because there is only one way to reach that network.255. Inc.0 172. Indicates the subnet mask.1.16.255.1. All rights reserved.255. © 2006 Cisco Systems. ip route Command Parameters ip route 172. IP address of the next-hop router in the path to the destination.255.Static Route Example • This is a unidirectional route.1.

In the figure. Routes to nonexistent subnetworks.2 Description Identifies the static route command. this parameter denotes the default network. 3-10 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.Default Route Forwarding Configuration This topic describes how to configure default route forwarding. In the default route example. Cisco Systems. ICND v2.0. the following applies: Router(config)# ip route 0.3 © 2006. Default Routes • This route allows the stub network to reach all known networks beyond Router A. Inc. Use the ip route command to configure default route forwarding.0.3—3-9 Use a default route in situations when the route from a source to a destination is not known or when it is not feasible for the router to maintain many routes in its routing table. ip route Command Parameters ip route 0.0.0.16.0. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc.0.16.0.2 The table lists the ip route command parameters for this example.0. Special mask indicating the default route. . IP address of the next-hop router to be used as the default for packet forwarding.0 172.0 0. With a special mask.2.0 172. All rights reserved. router B is configured to forward all packets that do not have the destination network listed in the router B routing table to router A.0 0.2.

IGRP. ICND v2.0/0 is directly connected.0. The asterisk (*) indicates the last path used when a packet was forwarded. E .0. EX .1. © 2006. Determining IP Routes 3-11 . IA .0.RIP.connected.0 is directly connected. Inc.OSPF external type 1.0. L1 .EIGRP external.1. Verifying the Static Route Configuration Router# show ip route Codes: C . R .IS-IS level-1. M . All rights reserved. S .IS-IS level-2.3—3-10 Example: Verifying the Static Route Configuration To verify that you have properly configured static routing.per-user static route Gateway of last resort is 0.0. L2 . E2 . Serial0 0. I .0 10. Cisco Systems.OSPF external type 2.OSPF. B .EIGRP.” You should see a verification output as shown in the figure.candidate default U . enter the show ip route command and look for static routes signified by “S.0 to network 0.0.IS-IS.mobile.OSPF inter area E1 .0. O . Serial0 C S* © 2006 Cisco Systems.Static Route Configuration Verification This topic describes how to verify the static route configuration. 1 subnets 10. * .EGP i .0.0/8 is subnetted.BGP D . Inc.static.

static routing defines the format and use of the fields within a packet. Further examples of the information that routing protocols describe are as follows: How updates are conveyed What knowledge is conveyed When to convey knowledge How to locate recipients of the updates 3-12 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. • After the path is determined. What Is a Routing Protocol? • Routing protocols are used between routers to determine paths and maintain routing tables. types.Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview This topic describes the purpose. All rights reserved. and classes of dynamic routing protocols. Inc.3 © 2006. ICND v2. . Packets generally are conveyed from end system to end system. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Dynamic routing relies on a routing protocol to disseminate knowledge. a router can route a routed protocol. In contrast.3—3-11 A routing protocol defines the rules that are used by a router when it communicates with neighboring routers. Inc. Cisco Systems.

Use of IANA numbering is required if your organization plans to use an EGP. Inc. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing (EIGRP). All rights reserved. © 2006.Autonomous Systems: Interior or Exterior Routing Protocols • An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain. Determining IP Routes 3-13 . Routing Information Protocol version 1 (RIPv1.3—3-12 The two types of routing protocols are as follows: Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs): These routing protocols are used to exchange routing information within an autonomous system. Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs): These routing protocols are used to connect between autonomous systems. • EGPs connect different autonomous systems. it is good practice to be aware of private versus public autonomous system numbering schema. Cisco Systems. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an example of an EGP. such as BGP. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). RIPv2. Inc. and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) are examples of IGPs. An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administration and sharing a common routing strategy. Note The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assigns autonomous system numbers for many jurisdictions. © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2. However. • IGPs operate within an autonomous system.

3 © 2006. . also known as the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm. Inc. All rights reserved. creates an abstraction of the exact topology of the entire internetwork. ICND v2. Link state: The link-state approach. or at least of the partition in which the router is situated. Cisco Systems. Inc.Classes of Routing Protocols © 2006 Cisco Systems. There is no single best routing algorithm for all internetworks. most IGP routing algorithms can be classified as conforming to one of the following algorithms: Distance vector: The distance vector routing approach determines the direction (vector) and distance (hops) to any link in the internetwork. 3-14 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. All routing protocols provide the information differently. Balanced hybrid: The balanced hybrid approach combines aspects of the link-state and distance vector algorithms.3—3-13 Within an autonomous system.

© 2006. If there are several sources for routing information. As shown in the figure. Determining IP Routes 3-15 . Administrative Distance: Ranking Routes © 2006 Cisco Systems. A routing protocol with a lower administrative distance is more trustworthy than one with a higher administrative distance. router A would use the administrative distance to determine that IGRP is more trustworthy. Router A would then add the IGRP route to the routing table. Cisco Systems.Features of Dynamic Routing Protocols This topic describes the features of dynamic routing protocols. Inc. if router A receives a route to network E from IGRP and RIP at the same time. All rights reserved. an administrative distance value is used to rate the trustworthiness of each routing information source.3—3-14 Multiple routing protocols and static routes may be used at the same time. Example: Administrative Distance An administrative distance is an integer from 0 to 255. Inc. By specifying administrative distance values. Cisco IOS software can discriminate between sources of routing information. ICND v2. and because RIP and IGRP use incompatible routing metrics.

Cisco Systems. you can use Cisco IOS software to configure administrative distance values on a per-router. per-protocol.The table shows the default administrative distance for selected routing information sources. . Inc. and per-route basis.3 © 2006. RIPv2 External EIGRP Unknown or unbelievable Default Distance 0 1 90 100 110 120 170 255 (will not be used to pass traffic) If nondefault values are necessary. Route Source Connected interface Static route address EIGRP IGRP OSPF RIPv1. 3-16 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

If the routing update information contains a major network that is different from that configured on the receiving interface. or C) must use the same subnet mask.Classful Routing Overview • Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. Upon receiving a routing update packet. When a classful routing protocol is used. the router applies the default classful mask (by address class) as follows: — — — Note For class A addresses. a router that is running a classful routing protocol does one of the following things to determine the network portion of the route: If the routing update information contains the same major network number as is configured on the receiving interface. The Cisco IOS software does not support IGRP. the default classful mask is 255. the default classful mask is 255. B. © 2006. All rights reserved. Determining IP Routes 3-17 . IGRP is introduced to provide an example of a classful routing protocol.255. Cisco Systems. Inc.0.0. For class B addresses.0. • Within the same network. ICND v2. Routers that are running a classful routing protocol perform automatic route summarization across network boundaries.0. consistency of the subnet masks is assumed. all subnetworks of the same major network (class A. For class C addresses. the default classful mask is 255.3—3-15 Classful routing is a consequence of the fact that subnet masks are not advertised in the routing advertisements that are generated by most distance vector routing protocols.0. • Summary routes are exchanged between foreign networks. Inc.255. the router applies the subnet mask that is configured on the receiving interface.255. • These are examples of classful routing protocols: – RIP version 1 (RIPv1) – IGRP © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.

One of the most serious limitations in a classful network environment is that the subnet mask is not exchanged during the routing update process.3—3-16 Classless routing protocols can be considered second-generation protocols because they are designed to address some of the limitations of the earlier classful routing protocols. and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS). 3-18 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. ICND v2. Cisco Systems. . manual summarization may be required to keep the size of the routing tables manageable. • Summary routes can be manually controlled within the network. EIGRP. • These are examples of classless routing protocols: – RIP version 2 (RIPv2) – EIGRP – OSPF – IS-IS © 2006 Cisco Systems. thus requiring the same subnet mask to be used on all subnetworks within the same major network.Classless Routing Overview • Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the route advertisement. OSPF.3 © 2006. Inc. All rights reserved. Because subnet routes are propagated throughout the routing domain. Inc. Classless routing protocols include RIPv2. In the classless environment. the summarization process is controlled manually and can usually be invoked at any bit position within the address. • Classless routing protocols support variable-length subnet mask (VLSM). Another limitation of the classful approach is the need to automatically summarize to the classful network boundary at major network boundaries.

Inc. EIGRP immediately switches to the feasible successor without a need to perform further best-path calculations.3—3-17 Example: Routing Protocol Comparison The figure compares some of the characteristics of the different routing protocols. EIGRP generally has the fastest convergence time because it maintains a feasible successor (backup route) in its topology table. if the best path goes down. © 2006. All rights reserved.Routing Protocol Comparison Chart © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2. Inc. Determining IP Routes 3-19 . Cisco Systems. Therefore.

Using the ip classless Command © 2006 Cisco Systems. the router assumes that the subnetwork does not exist and drops the packet. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 3-20 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. if a packet is received that has a destination address within an unknown subnetwork of a directly attached network. This behavior holds true even if the IP routing table contains a default route. . Inc.3 © 2006. This topic describes how to use the ip classless command. However.The ip classless Command The ip classless command prevents a router from dropping a packet destined for an unknown subnetwork of a directly attached network if a default route is configured. ICND v2. If a packet is received that has a destination address within an unknown subnetwork of a directly attached network. the router matches it to the default route and forwards it to the next hop that is specified by the default route. With the ip classless command configured. a classful router assumes that all subnetworks of a directly attached network are present in the IP routing table.3—3-18 By default. you can change this behavior with the ip classless global configuration command (the ip classless command is enabled by default). Inc.

© 2006. All rights reserved. The configuration between a router and a core switch is sometimes referred to as a “router on a stick. In a VLAN environment.1Q to enable trunking on a router subinterface. VLANs perform network partitioning and traffic separation at Layer 2. frames are switched only between ports within the same broadcast domain. Inc. There must be a separate physical connection on the router for each VLAN. © 2006 Cisco Systems.” The router can receive packets on one VLAN and forward them to another VLAN. Inc. and you must enable ISL or 802. The router already knows about directly connected networks. ICND v2. Determining IP Routes 3-21 . The router must learn routes to networks not connected directly to it.1Q trunking on a single physical connection. Cisco Systems. To perform interVLAN routing functions. VLAN-to-VLAN Overview • Network layer devices combine multiple broadcast domains. Example: Router on a Stick The figure illustrates a router attached to a core switch. the router must know how to reach all VLANs being interconnected. Use Inter-Switch Link (ISL) or 802.InterVLAN Routing This topic describes the basics of interVLAN routing operations.3—3-19 InterVLAN communication occurs between broadcast domains via a Layer 3 device. such as a router. InterVLAN communication cannot occur without a Layer 3 device.

Dividing a Physical Interface into Subinterfaces • Physical interfaces can be divided into multiple subinterfaces. .1Q trunking.3 © 2006.3—3-20 To support ISL or 802.3. Without this subdivision. logical. 3-22 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. the FastEthernet0/0 interface is divided into multiple subinterfaces: FastEthernet0/0. All rights reserved. The resulting logical interfaces are called subinterfaces. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems. a separate physical interface would have to be dedicated to each VLAN. ICND v2. Example: Subinterfaces In the figure. FastEthernet0/0. one per VLAN. and FastEthernet0/0. addressable interfaces.1. Inc. you must subdivide the physical Fast Ethernet interface of the router into multiple.2. Cisco Systems.

Enable ISL encapsulation on the Fast Ethernet subinterface of the router.Routing Between VLANs with ISL Trunks © 2006 Cisco Systems. the VLANs are directly connected. Routing between networks not directly connected requires that the router learn the routes. Assign a network layer address to each subinterface. Note © 2006. Inc.3—3-21 Use the encapsulation isl vlan identifier subinterface configuration command to enable ISL on a router subinterface (where vlan identifier is the VLAN number). either statically or dynamically (such as via a routing protocol). ICND v2. Cisco Systems. To configure the router on a stick for interVLAN routing. All rights reserved. Inc. Determining IP Routes 3-23 . In this example. complete the following steps: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Enable ISL on the switch port connecting to the router.

management is easier when the two numbers are the same. Inc.3 © 2006. 802. Cisco Systems. Therefore. The subinterface number need not equal the dot1Q VLAN number. Inc. However.1Q Trunks © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2. .1Q is slightly different from ISL. 3-24 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. All rights reserved. The native VLAN frames in 802. Any other configuration information for the native VLAN subinterfaces is configured with the dot1Q encapsulation and the IP address. the major interface of a trunk has an address.1Q do not carry a tag.Routing Between VLANs with 802.1Q encapsulation trunking on a router subinterface (where vlan identifier is the VLAN number).3—3-22 Use the encapsulation dot1q vlan identifier subinterface configuration command to enable 802.

Summary • Routing is the process by which items get from one location to another.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. • The show ip route command is used to verify that static routing is properly configured. All rights reserved. Static routes are signified in the command output by “S. Routers can forward packets over static routes or dynamic routes.3—3-23 © 2006. Inc. Determining IP Routes 3-25 . • Static routers use a route that a network administrator enters into the router manually. Cisco Systems. Inc. Dynamic routes use a router that a network routing protocol adjusts automatically for topology or traffic changes. a router is the device used to route traffic. • The ip route command can be used to configure default route forwarding. In networking. ICND v2. based on the router configuration. • Unidirectional static routes must be configured to and from a stub network to allow communications to occur.” © 2006 Cisco Systems.

Summary (Cont.)
• Dynamic routing protocols determine how updates are conveyed, what knowledge is conveyed, when to convey knowledge, and how to locate recipients of the updates. • A routing protocol that has a lower administrative value is more trustworthy than a protocol that has a higher administrative value. • There are three classes of routing protocols: distance vector, link-state, and balanced hybrid. • The ip classless command can be used to prevent a router from dropping a packet that is destined for an unknown subnetwork of a directly attached network if a default route is configured. • For interVLAN routing to be performed, a single physical router interface must be separated into logical subinterfaces, and ISL or 802.1Q trunking must be enabled.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ICND v2.3—3-24

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Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Lesson 2

Introducing Distance Vector Routing
Overview
Distance vector routing algorithms call for each router to send all or some portion of its routing table to its neighbors. In essence, link-state algorithms send small updates everywhere, whereas distance vector algorithms send larger updates only to neighboring routers. Understanding the operation of distance vector routing is critical to being able to enable, verify, and troubleshoot a distance vector routing protocol. This lesson describes the operation of distance vector routing protocols.

Objectives
Upon completing this lesson, you will be able to describe how distance vector routing protocols operate. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe how distance vector routes are selected Describe how distance vector routing protocols maintain routing information Explain how routing inconsistencies occur with distance vector routing protocols Explain how to prevent count to infinity Describe some implementation techniques to eliminate routing loops Explain how the split horizon, route poisoning, poison reverse, holddown timers, and triggered updates techniques work together to eliminate routing loops in networks

Distance Vector Route Selection
This topic describes how distance vector routes are selected.

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

• Routers pass periodic copies of their routing table to neighboring routers and accumulate distance vectors.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ICND v2.3—3-3

The periodic routing updates that most distance vector routing protocols generate are addressed only to directly connected routing devices. The addressing scheme that is most commonly used is a logical broadcast. Routers that are running a distance vector routing protocol send periodic updates even if there are no changes in the network. In a pure distance vector environment, the periodic routing update includes a complete routing table. Upon receiving a full routing table from its neighbor, a router can verify all known routes and make changes to the local routing table based on updated information. This process is also known as “routing by rumor” because the router’s understanding of the network is based on the neighboring router’s perspective of the network topology.

Example: Distance Vector Routing Protocols
Router B receives periodic routing updates from router A. Router B adds a distance vector metric (such as the hop count) to each route learned from router A, increasing the distance vector. Router B then passes its own routing table to its neighbor, router C. This step-by-step process occurs in all directions between directly connected neighbor routers. Traditionally, distance vector protocols were also classful protocols. Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIPv2) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) are examples of more advanced distance vector protocols that exhibit classless behavior. EIGRP also exhibits some link-state characteristics.

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Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Sources of Information and Discovering Routes

• Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—3-4

In the figure, the interface to each directly connected network is shown as having a distance of 0. As the distance vector network discovery process continues, routers discover the best path to destination networks that are not directly connected, based on accumulated metrics from each neighbor. Neighboring routers provide information for routes that are not directly connected.

Example: Sources of Information and Discovering Routes
Router A learns about networks that are not directly connected (10.3.0.0 and 10.4.0.0) based on information that it receives from router B. Each network entry in the routing table has an accumulated distance vector to show how far away that network is in a given direction.

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Determining IP Routes

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Selecting the Best Route with Metrics

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—3-5

Multiple routes to a destination can exist. When a routing protocol algorithm updates the routing table, the primary objective of the algorithm is to determine the best route to include in the table. Each distance vector routing protocol uses a different routing metric to determine the best route. The algorithm generates a number called the metric value for each path through the network. Typically, the smaller the metric, the better the path. Metrics can be calculated based on a single characteristic of a path. More complex metrics can be calculated by combining several path characteristics. The metrics that distance vector routing protocols most commonly use are as follows: Hop count: The number of times that a packet passes through the output port of one router. Bandwidth: The data capacity of a link; for instance, normally, a 10-Mbps Ethernet link is preferable to a 64-kbps leased line. Delay: The length of time that is required to move a packet from source to destination. Load: The amount of activity on a network resource, such as a router or link. Reliability: Usually refers to the bit error rate of each network link. Maximum transmission unit (MTU): The maximum message length in octets that is acceptable to all links on the path. For example, both RIP and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) are distance vector routing protocols. RIP uses hop count as the metric; IGRP uses a more advanced composite metric, which uses bandwidth and delay as the metric by default.

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Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Routing Information Maintenance
This topic describes how distance vector routing protocols maintain routing information.

Maintaining Routing Information

• Updates proceed step by step from router to router.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ICND v2.3—3-6

Routing tables must be updated when the topology of the internetwork changes. Similar to the network discovery process, topology change updates proceed step by step from router to router. Distance vector algorithms call for each router to send its entire routing table to each of its neighbors. Distance vector routing updates are sent periodically at regular intervals. The routing table can also be sent immediately, using trigger updates, when the router detects a topology change. When a router receives an update from a neighboring router, the router compares the update with its own routing table. To establish the new metric, the router adds the cost of reaching the neighbor router to the path cost reported by the neighbor. If the router learns from its neighbor of a better route (smaller total metric) to a network, it updates its own routing table. Each routing table entry includes information about the total path cost (defined by the routing table metric) and the logical address of the first router on the path to each network that the routing table knows about.

Example: Maintaining Routing Information
Router B in the figure is one unit of cost from router A. Router B would add one unit of cost to all costs reported by router A when router B runs the distance vector processes to update its routing table.

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Determining IP Routes

3-31

Cisco Systems. Inconsistent Routing Entries • Each node maintains the distance from itself to each possible destination network. Inc. . © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. 3-32 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. inconsistencies can occur if slow internetwork convergence on a new configuration causes incorrect routing entries. All rights reserved.3 © 2006.3—3-7 When distance vector routing protocols maintain routing information. ICND v2.Routing Inconsistencies with Distance Vector Routing Protocols This topic describes how routing inconsistencies occur with distance vector routing protocols.

0 with a distance of 0 (hop). Just before the failure of network 10. Inconsistent Routing Entries (Cont. The router A routing table still reflects a path to network 10.4.4.) • Slow convergence produces inconsistent routing. The router A path to network 10. Determining IP Routes 3-33 .0 through router B.0.4.0. All rights reserved. router C detects the failure and stops routing packets out its E0 interface.Example: Inconsistent Routing Entries This example uses a simplistic network design to convey the concepts. © 2006.0 is through router B.0.0.3—3-8 When network 10. Cisco Systems.0.4.” Router C is directly connected to network 10. The network is said to have “converged. Inc. routers A and B have not yet received notification of the failure. Router A still believes it can access 10. Inc.4.0 fails. However. © 2006 Cisco Systems.0. with a hop count of 2.0.0 with a distance of 2. all routers have consistent knowledge and correct routing tables. ICND v2.4.

0 through router B. Inc. Inc. . © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 through router B with a hop count of 2.0. All rights reserved.3 © 2006.4.) • Router C concludes that the best path to network 10.0. Router C updates its routing table to reflect a path to network 10. ICND v2. 3-34 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.Inconsistent Routing Entries (Cont.4. Cisco Systems.4.0 is through Router B.0.3—3-9 When router B sends its periodic copy of its routing table to router C. router C believes it now has a viable path to network 10.

Inc. Inc.4.0 can be reached by paths that do not exist. the routing tables of all three routers are incorrect. Determining IP Routes 3-35 . Cisco Systems. ICND v2.0. Routing table updates will continue to be sent out and the hop count will grow ever larger (a problem called “count to infinity”).0 as 4.) • Router A updates its table to reflect the new but erroneous hop count. All rights reserved.0 will never reach their destination.0.4. detects the modified distance vector to network 10. and recalculates its own distance vector to 10. they will move continuously between the routers (a routing loop). © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.4.3—3-10 Router B receives a new update from router C and updates its own table to reflect the new cost (3 hops). packets that are destined for network 10. with hop counts that are meaningless.Inconsistent Routing Entries (Cont.0.0. Router A receives the new routing table from router B.4. At this point. showing that network 10. © 2006. Instead. Additionally.

ICND v2.0 is down. These updates continue to proliferate because the destination is never marked as unreachable. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.Count to Infinity Prevention This topic describes the problem of count to infinity and presents the solution. Example: Count to Infinity Returning to the previous example.4.0.4.0 will continue to be propagated. the routers update each other in an inappropriate way.4. Until some other process can stop the looping. the invalid updates about network 10.3—3-11 The condition called count to infinity arises when routing table updates continue to increase the metric to a destination that cannot be reached. 3-36 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.0. Inc. the information that there is a valid path to network 10. continuously updates the hop count metric despite the fact that the destination network 10.0 creates a routing loop. rather than marking the destination as unreachable. Count to Infinity • The hop count for network 10.0 counts to infinity. the hop count distance vector increments each time a routing table update is passed to another router.0 is down. Cisco Systems. Without countermeasures to stop the process.3 © 2006. failing to consider that network 10.4. count to infinity. This condition. All rights reserved. .4.0.0. While the routers are counting to infinity.

© 2006 Cisco Systems. © 2006. This number refers to a routing metric. network 10. ICND v2.Defining a Maximum • A limit is set on the number of hops to prevent infinite loops. such as a hop count.3—3-12 Distance vector protocols define infinity as some maximum number. Inc.4. Cisco Systems. Determining IP Routes 3-37 . When the metric exceeds the maximum allowed value. Inc.0. stopping the proliferation of routing updates that increase the metric.0 is considered unreachable. Example: Defining a Maximum to Prevent Count to Infinity The figure shows the defined maximum allowed value as 16 hops. All rights reserved.

Techniques to Eliminate Routing Loops This topic describes the various techniques that are used to eliminate routing loops on distance vector routing networks. route poisoning.4. Inc. poison reverse.3—3-13 A routing loop occurs when two or more routers have routing information that incorrectly indicates that a valid path to an unreachable destination exists through the other routers. © 2006 Cisco Systems. The packet loops between routers B and C indefinitely.3 © 2006.0 bounce (loop) between Routers B and C. Router C receives that packet and checks its routing table.0 arrives at router A. and triggered updates. which again forwards the packet to router C over interface S1. a packet destined for network 10. which forwards it out its interface S1. Routing Loops • Packets for network 10. The packet arrives at router B. Inc. All rights reserved. including split horizon.0. According to the router A routing table. which specifies that the packet should be forwarded out router C interface S0. ICND v2. router A forwards the packet out interface S0. Cisco Systems. .4. The packet thus arrives back at router B. A number of techniques are available to eliminate routing loops. holddown timers. Example: Routing Loops In the example. 3-38 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. as indicated in the router B routing table.0.

Determining IP Routes 3-39 . Example: Split Horizon The figure describes how the split horizon technique eliminates routing loops.0 through router C. Inc.0.0. as follows: Router B has access to network 10.0.4.4.0 to router B.0 to router A.4.0. Router C will not incorrectly use router B to try to reach network 10. All rights reserved.0. It makes no sense for router B to announce to router C that router B has access to network 10. © 2006.0.0.4. Cisco Systems.0.4.0 and concludes that network 10. router B sees that it has no alternative path to network 10.Split Horizon • It is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which the original information came. ICND v2. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Given that router B passed the announcement of its route to network 10.0 is down. it makes no sense for router A to announce its distance from network 10.0 through router C.3—3-14 One way to eliminate routing loops and speed up convergence is through the technique called split horizon.4. The rule of split horizon is that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which the original information came.0 is inaccessible.4. Inc.4.0. When router C announces that its connection to network 10.

Route poisoning attempts to eliminate routing loops that are caused by inconsistent updates. With this technique.0 coming from neighboring routers that might claim to have a valid alternate path.4. it is unreachable). the router sets a table entry that keeps the network state consistent while other routers gradually converge correctly on the topology change. router C poisons its link to network 10.4. 3-40 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.4. Inc.4.0. All rights reserved. By poisoning the route of router C to network 10.0.0. . Used with holddown timers.0 is no longer available. router C is not susceptible to incorrect updates about network 10. route poisoning is a solution to long loops.3—3-15 Another form of split horizon employs a technique called route poisoning.0.0 by sending an update for that link that indicates it has an infinite metric and a hop count of 16 (that is. © 2006 Cisco Systems. When network 10. Inc. ICND v2.Route Poisoning • Routers advertise the distance of routes that have gone down to infinity. Cisco Systems. Example: Route Poisoning The figure provides an example of route poisoning.3 © 2006.0.

All rights reserved.4. router B sends an update. Poison reverse is a specific circumstance that overrides split horizon.Poison Reverse • Poison reverse overrides split horizon.0 jump to infinity. Inc. Cisco Systems. When router B sees the metric to 10. It occurs to ensure that router C is not susceptible to incorrect updates about network 10. © 2006. The poison reverse states that network 10.0.0 is inaccessible. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. ICND v2.0. Determining IP Routes 3-41 .0.4.3—3-16 Example: Poison Reverse Split horizon with poison reverse improves convergence.4.0. back to router C. called a poison reverse.

© 2006 Cisco Systems. allowing time for other routers to recompute for this topology change. Ignoring an update with a poorer or the same metric when a holddown is in effect allows more time for the knowledge of the change to propagate through the entire network. Cisco Systems.3—3-17 Holddown timers are used to prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that may have gone bad. By default. 3-42 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. “flapping” up and down). Holddowns tell routers to hold any changes that might affect routes for some period of time. at any time before the holddown timer expires. During the holddown period. Inc.Holddown Timers • The router keeps an entry for the “possibly down state” in the network. the holddown period is set to three times the periodic update interval for RIP. the update is ignored.” The router will still attempt to route packets to the possibly down network (maybe the network is just having intermittent connectivity problems. All rights reserved. the router marks the network as “accessible” and removes the holddown timer. If an update arrives from a neighboring router with a better metric than originally recorded for the network. an update is received from a different neighboring router with a poorer or the same metric.3 © 2006. Holddown timers work as follows: When a router receives an update from a neighbor that indicates that a previously accessible network is now inaccessible. . If. routes appear in the routing table as “possibly down. the router marks the route as “possibly down” and starts a holddown timer. ICND v2. Inc.

It is possible that a router that has not yet received the triggered update will issue a regular update at just the wrong time. A triggered update is a routing table update that is sent immediately in response to some change. routing table updates are sent to neighboring routers at regular intervals. The triggered updates do not happen instantaneously. Normally. slow convergence. Triggered updates would be sufficient if there were a guarantee that the wave of updates would reach every appropriate router immediately. Determining IP Routes 3-43 . The detecting router immediately sends an update message to adjacent routers. as follows: Packets containing the update message can be dropped or corrupted by some link in the network. no new route with the same or a worse metric will be accepted for the same destination for some period of time. Slow convergence problems can also occur if routers wait for their regularly scheduled updates before notifying neighboring routers of network changes. This wave of notifications propagates throughout that portion of the network where routes went through the specific link that changed. Inc. which. However. causing the bad route to be reinserted in a neighbor that had already received the triggered update. © 2006.Triggered Updates • The router sends updates when a change in its routing table occurs. ICND v2.3—3-18 In the previous examples. routing loops were caused by erroneous information calculated as a result of inconsistent updates. The triggered update has time to propagate throughout the network. generate triggered updates notifying their neighbors of the change. Because the holddown rule says that when a route is in holddown (possibly down). in turn. All rights reserved. there are two problems. and timing. Coupling triggered updates with holddowns is designed to prevent these problems. Cisco Systems. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc.

4.0. and triggered updates to eliminate routing loops. holddown timers. Router B sends a trigger update to routers A and D. poisoning the route to network 10.0. router B removes its route to that network.Implementation of Techniques to Eliminate Routing Loops This topic describes examples of split horizon.3—3-19 Example: Techniques to Eliminate Routing Loops Routers A.4.0 by indicating an infinite metric to that network.3 © 2006.0. 3-44 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. All rights reserved. Inc. route poisoning.4. . Inc. poison reverse. As soon as router B detects the failure of network 10. and E have multiple routes to reach network 10. D. Cisco Systems. Eliminating Routing Loops © 2006 Cisco Systems. B.0.0. ICND v2.

marking the 10. send a triggered update to router E.Eliminating Routing Loops (Cont.3—3-20 Routers D and A receive the triggered update and set their own holddown timers. Cisco Systems. in turn. Router E also sets the route to 10. All rights reserved.0. Inc.4.0.) © 2006 Cisco Systems.0. ICND v2.0.0 in the holddown state. © 2006. Inc.4.0 network as possibly down.4. Routers D and A. Determining IP Routes 3-45 . indicating the possible inaccessibility of network 10.

Because router E received a triggered update from routers A and D. Inc. ICND v2.0 is inaccessible.0. 3-46 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. . router E also sends a poison reverse update to routers A and D. Inc.3 © 2006. The update states that network 10.3—3-21 Routers A and D send a poison reverse update to router B.4.) © 2006 Cisco Systems.Eliminating Routing Loops (Cont. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

3—3-22 Routers A.0.0. and E assume that the network status is only possibly down and will attempt to route packets to network 10. Cisco Systems. and E will remain in holddown until either of the following occurs: The holddown timer expires.) © 2006 Cisco Systems. Determining IP Routes 3-47 . Inc. however. This packet will reach router B.Eliminating Routing Loops (Cont. routers A. because router B has no route to network 10. A flush timer removes the route from the routing table.0.4.0.4. D. ICND v2. Inc.0.0.4. © 2006. router B will drop the packet and send back an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) “network unreachable” message. During the holddown period. All rights reserved. D. The figure illustrates router E attempting to forward a packet to network 10. An update is received that indicates a new route with a better metric.

3—3-23 When the 10.0. All rights reserved. Inc.) © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2.3 © 2006.0.4. 3-48 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.4. routers A and D change the route to 10. Cisco Systems. .0 network comes back up.Eliminating Routing Loops (Cont. Inc. After the holddown timer expires. router B will send a triggered update to routers A and D that notifies them that the link is active.0 from the possibly down state to the up state.

Eliminating Routing Loops (Cont. All rights reserved. Inc.0 is up. ICND v2. Router E updates its routing table after the holddown timer expires.0.) © 2006 Cisco Systems.4. Determining IP Routes 3-49 .3—3-24 Routers A and D send router E a routing update that states that network 10. Inc. Cisco Systems. © 2006.

the router compares the update with its own routing table. . Routers running a distance vector routing protocol send periodic updates even if there are no changes in the network. Inc. • When a router receives an update from a neighbor’s router. Summary • Distance vector routing protocols generate periodic routing updates addressed to directly connected routing devices. © 2006 Cisco Systems. • Routing inconsistencies occur if slow internetwork convergence or a new configuration causes incorrect routing entries. The router adds the cost of reaching the neighbor’s router to the path cost reported by the neighbor to establish a new metric. ICND v2.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.3 © 2006. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.3—3-25 3-50 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

poison reverse. holddown timers. route poisoning.Summary (Cont.) • Distance vector protocols define infinity as some maximum number. The routing protocol then permits the routing table update loop until the metric exceeds its maximum allowed value. © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.3—3-26 © 2006. Cisco Systems. • There are five techniques for eliminating routing loops on distance vector routing networks: split horizon. Inc. and triggered updates. ICND v2. Inc. • All five techniques can be used together to eliminate routing loops in area networks. Determining IP Routes 3-51 .

3 © 2006. Cisco Systems. . Inc.3-52 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

also known as shortest path first (SPF) algorithms. maintain a complex database of topology information. This lesson explains link-state and balanced hybrid routing algorithms. Understanding the operation of link-state routing protocols is critical to being able to enable. verify.Lesson 3 Introducing Link-State and Balanced Hybrid Routing Overview Link-state routing algorithms. you will be able to explain why link-state and balanced hybrid routing algorithms are used. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Explain how link-state protocols maintain routing information Describe the features of link-state algorithms Describe the benefits and limitations of link-state routing Describe the caveats to using link-state routing protocols Describe the features of balanced hybrid routing . Balanced hybrid routing algorithms combine aspects of both distance vector and link state. and troubleshoot their operation. Whereas the distance vector algorithm has nonspecific information about distant networks and no knowledge of distant routers. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. a link-state routing algorithm maintains full knowledge of distant routers and how they interconnect.

such as every 30 minutes. calculates the best paths to all destinations in the network. Link-State Routing Protocols • After initial flood of LSAs. Inc. 3-54 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. and a routing table of paths and ports to each network. Link-state routing protocols were designed to overcome the limitations of distance vector routing protocols.How Routing Information Is Maintained with Link State To maintain routing information. © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. After all of the information is collected. the router is less likely to propagate incorrect information that is provided by a neighboring router. Link-state routing protocols collect routing information from all other routers in the network or within a defined area of the network. send trigger updates only when a network change has occurred. a topological database. A hello mechanism determines the reachability of neighbors. link-state routing uses link-state advertisements (LSAs). . RFC 2328 describes OSPF link-state concepts and operations. Because each router maintains its own view of the network. Cisco Systems. each router.3—3-3 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocols are classified as link-state routing protocols. ICND v2. the resulting SPF tree. independent of the other routers.3 © 2006. Link-state routing protocols respond quickly to network changes. link-state routers pass small event-triggered link-state updates to all other routers. This topic describes how link-state protocols maintain routing information. and send periodic updates (known as link-state refreshes) at long time intervals. the SPF algorithm.

The best paths are then selected from the SPF tree and placed in the routing table. for example. for example. the routers connected to that network. and so on. Inc. the number of link-state routers that can be in an area should be limited. A link is similar to an interface on a router. Link-state routers find the best paths to destinations by applying the Dijkstra SPF algorithm against the link-state database to build the SPF tree. link-state protocols flood LSAs using a special multicast address throughout an area. The state of the link is a description of that interface and of its relationship to its neighboring routers. The link-state database is used to calculate the best paths through the network. or topological.When a failure occurs in the network. Each link-state router takes a copy of the LSA. the mask. The collection of link states forms a link-state. the IP address of the interface. LSAs cause every router within the area to recalculate routes. database. the type of network to which it is connected. updates its link-state (topological) database. a neighbor becomes unreachable. A description of the interface would include. and forwards the LSA to all neighboring devices. Cisco Systems. © 2006. Because LSAs must be flooded throughout an area and all routers within that area must recalculate their routing tables. Determining IP Routes 3-55 .

Inc. The backbone area is the transition area because all other areas communicate through it. The nonbackbone internal. will advertise a default route to the nonbackbone internal. router.Link-State Network Hierarchy Example • Minimizes routing table entries • Localizes impact of a topology change within an area © 2006 Cisco Systems. a contiguous backbone area must be defined. maintain separate link-state databases for each area they are connected to. Inc. ABRs. or L1/L2 router. and H are called nonbackbone internal routers in OSPF. and E are called Area Border Routers (ABRs) in OSPF and L1/L2 routers in IS-IS. The following are some examples based on the figure: Router B is called the backbone router in OSPF and the L2 router in IS-IS. The terms used to refer to these entities are different for OSPF and IS-IS. router will use the default route to forward all 3-56 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. .3—3-4 Link-state protocols use a two-layer network hierarchy. or a not-so-stubby area (NSSA) to help reduce the link-state database and routing table size. routers are aware of the topology within their respective areas and maintain identical link-state databases about the areas. An autonomous system. Autonomous system: An autonomous system consists of a collection of networks under a common administration that share a common routing strategy. There are two primary elements in the two-layer network hierarchy. Within each autonomous system. Routers F. G. or L1. or L1. Cisco Systems. All other nonbackbone areas are connected off the backbone area. router provides connectivity between different areas. Routers operating within the two-layer network hierarchy have different routing entities.3 © 2006. attach to multiple areas. or L1/L2 routers. as follows: Area: An area is a grouping of contiguous networks. D. and route traffic destined for or arriving from other areas. the nonbackbone areas can be additionally configured as a stub area. Nonbackbone internal. or L1. can be logically subdivided into multiple areas. Areas are logical subdivisions of the autonomous system. a totally stubby area. For OSPF. Routers C. All rights reserved. The backbone. or L1 routers in ISIS. or L2. sometimes called a domain. The ABR. ICND v2.

Determining IP Routes 3-57 . or autonomous system. Router A is the Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) that connects to an external routing domain. depending on how the OSPF nonbackbone area is configured (stub area. © 2006. totally stubby area. or autonomous system. Router I is a router that belongs to another routing domain.interarea or interdomain traffic to the ABR. or NSSA). Cisco Systems. or L1/L2 router. This behavior can be different for OSPF. Inc.

Instead of using periodic updates. This can greatly speed up the convergence process because there is no need to wait for a series of timers to expire before the networked routers can begin to converge. known collectively as SPF protocols. Link-State Routing Protocol Algorithms © 2006 Cisco Systems. This process can discover changes in the network topology caused by component failure or network growth. link-state protocols develop and maintain a full knowledge of the network routers and how they interconnect.3—3-5 Link-state routing algorithms.Link-State Routing Protocol Algorithms This topic describes the features of link-state routing algorithms.3 © 2006. maintain a complex database of the network topology. This knowledge is achieved through the exchange of LSAs with other routers in a network. . An SPF algorithm is then used to compute reachability to networked destinations. Cisco Systems. Unlike distance vector protocols. Inc. This information is used to update the routing table. the LSA exchange is triggered by an event in the network. Inc. 3-58 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Each router that has exchanged LSAs constructs a topological database using all received LSAs. ICND v2. All rights reserved.

0.0.33.134.0. Depending on the actual protocol employed and the metrics selected.0.0 192. The table summarizes the contents of the routing tables. Determining IP Routes 3-59 .0 192. Cisco Systems.0 192.0.168.33. Router A A A A B B B C C C D D D D Destination 185. a link-state protocol would remember both routes.0. experienced operational difficulties of any kind. © 2006.0 185.0. the link-state routing protocol would detect this change and begin forwarding packets through San Francisco (router B). it is highly likely that the routing protocol could discriminate between the two paths to the same destination and try to use the best one.157.0. Inc.0 Next Hop B C B C A C D A B D B C B C Cost 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 As shown in the table routing entries for the New York (router A) to Los Angeles (router D) routes.168.0.157.0 192.168. there would be no concern about connectivity between New York City and San Francisco.134.0 10.168.0 192.157. If the better-performing path.157.134.0.0.0 192.168.0 10. such as the route through Boston (router C).168.0 10.33. including congestion or component failure.0 192.0 185.0 10. Some link-state protocols can even provide a way to assess the performance capabilities of these two routes and have a bias toward the better-performing path.168.Example: Link-State Routing Protocol Algorithms If the network shown in the figure uses a link-state routing protocol.

resources can be optimized. – Link-state packets are sequenced and acknowledged. it is very difficult for routing loops to occur. With careful network design. Inc. All rights reserved. The network can be segmented into area hierarchies. flooded updates. the link-state database sizes can be minimized. are described as follows: Link-state protocols use cost metrics to choose paths through the network. Because each router has a complete and synchronized picture of the network. routers always base their routing decisions on the most recent set of information.Benefits and Limitations of Link-State Routing This topic describes the benefits and limitations of link-state routing. such as Routing Information Protocol version 1 (RIPv1) or Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). ICND v2. link-state protocols can immediately report changes in the network topology to all routers in the network.3—3-6 Some of the many benefits of link-state routing protocols over the traditional distance vector algorithms. leading to smaller Dijkstra calculations and faster convergence. The cost metric reflects the capacity of the links on those paths. By using triggered. Inc. . © 2006 Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. Because LSAs are sequenced and aged. Benefits of Link-State Routing • Fast convergence: – Changes are reported immediately by the affected source. Cisco Systems. limiting the scope of route changes. Routing updates are more infrequent. • Robustness against routing loops: – Routers know the topology. Link-state protocols send only updates of a topology change. • Through careful (hierarchical) network design. This immediate reporting generally leads to fast convergence times. 3-60 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

topology. forwarding) – CPU (Dijkstra’s algorithm can be intensive. more complicated networks and in networks that must be highly scalable. the Dijkstra calculation is running on a regular basis). When events rather than fixed-interval timers drive updates. the Dijkstra calculation is complex) or if the network is unstable (that is. Determining IP Routes 3-61 . dividing the network into smaller areas to reduce the size of the topology tables and the length of the Dijkstra calculation. If the network is large or complex (that is. Inc. link-state routing is clearly best in larger. Dijkstra’s algorithm requires CPU cycles to calculate the best paths through the network. Caveats to Link-State Routing • Significant demands for resources: – Memory (three tables: adjacency. In a well-designed network. To avoid an excessive use of memory or CPU power. Inc.3—3-7 The link-state approach to dynamic routing can be quite useful in networks of any size. When compared with the limitations of static routes or distance vector protocols. but can be complex when tuning various parameters and when design is complex • Troubleshooting easier than in distance vector routing © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2. provided the network is designed properly.When to Use Link-State Routing Protocols This topic describes the caveats to using link-state routing protocols. Using all these databases can require a significant amount of memory in large or complex networks. time-driven updates of a distance vector routing protocol are also avoided. this division can cause problems © 2006. link-state protocols require a topology database. and a forwarding database. The overhead of the frequent. This allows a network to have more bandwidth available for routing traffic rather than for network maintenance. an adjacency database. link-state protocols can use a significant amount of CPU power. a link-state routing protocol will enable your network to gracefully adapt to unexpected topological change. However. Cisco Systems. Link-state protocols have the following limitations: In addition to the routing table. a strict hierarchical network design is required. A side benefit of the bandwidth efficiency of link-state routing protocols is that they facilitate network scalability better than either static routes or distance vector protocols. convergence begins more quickly after a topological change. especially when many instabilities are present) • Requires very strict network design • Problems with partitioning of areas • Configuration generally simple. All rights reserved.

interpreting the information that is stored in the topology. In a multiarea design. Configuring a link-state protocol in a large network can be challenging. Link-state protocols usually scale to larger networks than distance vector protocols do.because areas must remain contiguous at all times. Additionally. 3-62 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3 © 2006. Troubleshooting is usually easier in link-state networks because every router has a complete copy of the network architecture. Cisco Systems. If the network design is complex. and the routing table requires a good understanding of the concepts of link-state routing. an area router must always have a path to the backbone or the router will have no connectivity to the rest of the network. Nevertheless. Inc. the backbone area must remain contiguous at all times to avoid some areas becoming isolated (partitioned). The routers in an area must always be capable of contacting and receiving LSAs from all other routers in their area. neighbor databases. the operation of the link-state protocol may have to be tuned to accommodate it. provided that the underlying network architecture has been soundly designed. or at least a copy of its own area of the network. . particularly the traditional distance vector protocols such as RIPv1 and IGRP. The configuration of link-state networks is usually simple.

© 2006 Cisco Systems. This increases the cost of the routers that are configured for link-state routing. will be much more noticeable than a similar exercise on a small network with large-sized links. ICND v2.and processor-intensive. planning. but it can be very noticeable.and processor-intensive. Cisco Systems. Determining IP Routes 3-63 . Consequently. such as low-bandwidth data-link connection identifiers (DLCIs) on a Frame Relay network.Drawbacks to Link-State Routing Protocols • Initial discovery may cause flooding. Link-state routing is both memory.3—3-8 Despite all of its features and flexibility. Inc. All rights reserved. link-state routing protocols can flood the network with LSAs and thereby significantly decrease the capability of the network to transport data. The potential impact on performance of both drawbacks can be addressed and resolved through foresight. • Link-state routing is memory. link-state routing raises the following two potential concerns: During the initial discovery process. routers that have more configurations are required to support link-state routing than are required to support distance vector routing. Flooding in large networks with relatively small links. Inc. and engineering. © 2006. Whether this flooding process noticeably degrades network performance depends on the amount of available bandwidth and the number of routers that must exchange routing information. This performance compromise is temporary.

However. and processor overhead.3—3-9 Balanced hybrid routing protocols combine aspects of both distance vector and link-state protocols. The balanced hybrid routing protocol converges more rapidly than distance vectors. The balanced hybrid routing protocol uses distance vectors with more accurate metrics to determine the best paths to destination networks. Inc. memory. the balanced hybrid differs from both of these protocols in that it emphasizes economy in the use of required resources. An example of a balanced hybrid protocol is the Cisco Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP).Balanced Hybrid Routing This topic describes the features of balanced hybrid routing. ICND v2. more like the link-state protocols. 3-64 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Balanced Hybrid Routing • Shares attributes of both distance vector and link-state routing © 2006 Cisco Systems. to trigger the routing of database updates. . Inc. Cisco Systems. the balanced hybrid routing protocol differs from most distance vector protocols in that it uses topology changes. as opposed to automatic periodic updates. All rights reserved.3 © 2006. However. such as bandwidth.

All rights reserved. Inc. each router calculates its own best path to all destinations in the network.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. • Using triggered. Determining IP Routes 3-65 . leading to fast convergence times.3—3-10 © 2006. • Link-state algorithms maintain a complex database of the network topology. Knowledge of the network routers and of how they interconnect is achieved through the exchange of LSAs with other routes in a network. In contrast. link-state protocols can immediately report changes in the network topology. Summary • Link-state routing protocols collect routing information from all other routers in the network. © 2006 Cisco Systems. the use of many different databases can require a significant amount of memory. flooded updates. Inc. ICND v2. Cisco Systems. After all information is collected.

. • Balanced hybrid routing protocols combine aspects of both distance vector and link-state protocols. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. © 2006 Cisco Systems. a strict hierarchical network design is required.Summary (Cont. Inc. The configuration of link-state networks should remain simple to avoid tuning.) • To avoid an excessive use of memory.3—3-11 3-66 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. ICND v2.

but still commonly used. homogeneous networks. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the features of RIP Describe the differences between RIPv1 and RIPv2 Describe the tasks required to enable a dynamic routing protocol on a Cisco router Configure a dynamic routing protocol on a Cisco router Configure basic RIP routing Use the show commands to verify the RIP configuration Use the debug ip rip command to display RIP routing updates . This lesson describes the basic features and operation of RIP and explains how to enable RIP on an IP network.Lesson 4 Enabling RIP Overview Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the most enduring of all routing protocols. RIP is a classic distance vector routing protocol. RIP is a relatively old. you will be able to enable RIP on an IP network. interior gateway protocol created for use in small.

RIP Features
This topic describes the features of RIP.

RIP Overview

• Maximum is six paths (default = 4) • Hop-count metric selects the path • Routes update every 30 seconds
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. ICND v2.3—3-3

The key characteristics of RIP include the following: RIP is a distance vector routing protocol. Hop count is used as the metric for path selection. The maximum allowable hop count is 15. Routing updates are broadcast every 30 seconds by default. RIP is capable of load-balancing over as many as six equal-cost paths. (Four paths is the default.)

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RIPv1 and RIPv2 Comparison
This topic describes the differences between RIPv1 and RIPv2.

RIPv1 and RIPv2 Comparison

RIPv1 Routing protocol Supports variable-length subnet mask? Sends the subnet mask along with the routing update? Addressing type Defined in … Supports manual route summarization? Authentication support? Classful No No Broadcast RFC 1058 No No

RIPv2 Classless Yes Yes Multicast RFCs 1721, 1722, and 2453 Yes Yes

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—3-4

Defining the maximum number of parallel paths allowed in a routing table enables RIP load balancing. With RIP, the paths must be equal-cost paths. If the maximum number of paths is set to one, load balancing is disabled.
Note Cisco routers support RIPv1 and RIPv2. This course focuses on configuring RIPv1 only.

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Dynamic Routing Configuration Tasks
This topic describes the tasks that are required to enable a dynamic routing protocol on a Cisco router.

IP Routing Configuration Tasks

• Router configuration
– Select routing protocols – Specify networks or interfaces

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—3-5

To enable a dynamic routing protocol, you must complete the following steps:
Step 1

Select a routing protocol: RIP, Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). Assign IP network numbers without specifying subnet values (except for OSPF).
You must also assign network or subnet addresses and the appropriate subnet mask to the interfaces.

Step 2

Note

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Dynamic Routing Configuration
This topic describes the basic commands that are used to configure a dynamic routing protocol on a Cisco router.

Dynamic Routing Configuration

Router(config)# router protocol [keyword]

• Defines an IP routing protocol

Router(config-router)# network network-number

• Mandatory configuration command for each IP routing process • Identifies the physically connected network to which routing updates are forwarded

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—3-6

The router command starts a routing process. The following table describes the router command parameters.
router Command Parameters Description Either RIP, IGRP, OSPF, or EIGRP Such as autonomous system, which is used with those protocols that require an autonomous system (IGRP and EIGRP); can also identify a local process ID, which is used with OSPF

protocol keyword

The network command is required because it allows the routing process to determine which interfaces will participate in the sending and receiving of the routing updates. The network command starts up the routing protocol on all interfaces that the router has in the specified network, and also allows the router to advertise that network. The table provides the description for the network command.
network Command Parameter Description Specifies a directly connected network

network-number

© 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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RIP Configuration
This topic describes how to configure basic RIP routing.

RIP Configuration

Router(config)# router rip

• Starts the RIP routing process

Router(config-router)# network network-number

• Selects participating attached networks • Requires a major classful network number

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

ICND v2.3—3-7

The router rip command selects RIP as the routing protocol. The network command assigns a major network number that the router is directly connected to. The RIP routing process associates interface addresses with the advertised network number and will begin RIP packet processing on the specified interfaces.

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Inc. Routers B and C have similar RIP configurations but with different network numbers specified. or their subnets.16. will send and receive RIP updates. All rights reserved.0.0. Cisco Systems.0.0.3—3-8 Example: RIP Configuration In the example. the router A configuration includes the following: Router rip: Selects RIP as the routing protocol Network 172. Determining IP Routes 3-73 .16. ICND v2.RIP Configuration Example © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 and 10. Inc.0.0: Specifies a directly connected network Network 10.0.0.0: Specifies a directly connected network The router A interfaces that are connected to networks 172. © 2006. These routing updates allow the routers to learn the network topology.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Verifying the RIP Configuration © 2006 Cisco Systems. Field Description Specifies the routing protocol used Specifies the time between sending updates Specifies when the next update is due to be sent Specifies the value of the invalid parameter Specifies the current value of the holddown parameter Specifies the time (in seconds) after which the individual routing information will be thrown (flushed) out Specifies whether the outgoing filtering list has been set Specifies whether the incoming filtering list has been set Specifies the version of RIP packets that are sent and received Lists the protocol that is being redistributed Specifies the networks for which the routing process is currently © 2006. Inc. The table describes the significant fields shown in the display.RIP Configuration Verification This topic describes how to use show commands to verify the RIP configuration.3—3-9 The show ip protocols command displays values about routing protocols and the routing protocol timer information that is associated with the router. ICND v2.3 . Inc. Routing Protocol is "rip" Sending updates every 30 seconds next due in 12 seconds Invalid after 180 seconds hold down for 180 flushed after 240 Outgoing update Incoming update Default version control: Redistributing Routing 3-74 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

the holddown timer is set to 180 seconds. For each source.Field Description injecting routes Routing Information Sources Lists all the routing sources that the Cisco IOS software is using to build its routing table. In the figure. router A is configured with RIP and sends updated routing table information every 30 seconds. Cisco Systems. it has been 18 seconds since router A received an update from router B.) If a router running RIP does not receive an update from another router for 180 seconds or more. The router is receiving routes from the neighboring RIP routers that are listed following the “Routing Information Sources” line. You can also use the show ip interface brief command to get a summary of the IP information and status of all interfaces. If there is still no update after 240 seconds (flush timer). In the figure. The distance default of 120 refers to the administrative distance for an RIP route. an update to a route that was down and is now up will stay in the holddown (possibly down) state until 180 seconds have passed. you will see the following displayed: ■ ■ ■ IP address Administrative distance Time the last update was received from this source Example: Verifying the RIP Configuration In the example. it marks the routes that are served by that router as being invalid. As a result. © 2006. the router removes the routing table entries from the router. (This interval is configurable. Inc. Determining IP Routes 3-75 . The router is injecting routes for the networks that are listed following the “Routing for Networks” line.

0 120/1 via 10. 1 hop). .0 10.1. Indicates the address of the remote network. Specifies the address of the next-hop router to the remote network. 3-76 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. R or C 192. The output and function of key fields from the show ip route command are explained in the table. the second number is the metric for the route (here. The routing table contains entries for all known networks and subnetworks. An “R” indicates that RIP is the protocol that determined the route.1.3 © 2006. For example. ICND v2. if the output of the show ip route command shows no entries that were learned from a routing protocol).2. Inc.3—3-10 The show ip route command displays the contents of the IP routing table. The first number in the brackets is the administrative distance of the information source. Cisco Systems. 7 seconds).2. Specifies the interface through which the specified network can be reached. Inc.Displaying the IP Routing Table © 2006 Cisco Systems. Output Description Identifies the source of the route. All rights reserved. Specifies the amount of time since the route was updated (here. use the show runningconfig or show ip protocols privileged EXEC commands on the router to check for a possible misconfigured routing protocol.1. and a code that indicates how that information was learned. a “C” indicates that the route came from a direct connection of the route to a router interface.2 00:00:07 Serial2 If routing information is not being exchanged (that is.168.

debug ip rip Command © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2.1. Inc.3—3-11 Use the debug ip rip command to display RIP routing updates as they are sent and received. The no debug all command turns off all debugging.1.16. The following output indicates the source address from which updates were received: RIP: received v1 update from 10.2 on Serial 2 The following output indicates the destination addresses to which updates were sent: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.255.255. Cisco Systems.255 via Serial2 (10.1) © 2006.1) RIP: sending v1 update to 255. Determining IP Routes 3-77 .RIP Configuration Troubleshooting This topic describes the use of the debug ip rip command.255.1. All rights reserved.255 via Ethernet0 (172. Inc.1.1.255.

in both cases to broadcast address 255.255. That router sent information about two destinations in the routing table update.Example: debug ip rip Command The example shows that the router being debugged has received updates from one router at source address 10.255 as the destination.1. Cisco Systems.80.255. The following entry is most likely caused by a malformed packet from the transmitter: RIP: bad version 128 from 160. The router being debugged also sent updates. Inc. Other output that you might see from the debug ip rip command includes entries such as the following: RIP: broadcasting general request on Ethernet0 RIP: broadcasting general request on Ethernet1 Entries like these can appear at startup or when an event occurs.2.1.89.43 3-78 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. such as an interface transitioning or a user manually clearing the routing table. . The number in parentheses is the source address that is encapsulated into the IP header.3 © 2006.

The network command allows the routing process to determine which interfaces will participate in sending and receiving the routing updates. Summary • RIP is a distance vector routing protocol that uses hop count as the matrix for route selection and broadcasts updates every 30 seconds.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson. • The router command starts the routing process. and authentication. Cisco Systems. • RIPv1 uses classful routing protocol. All rights reserved. ICND v2. Determining IP Routes 3-79 . © 2006 Cisco Systems. first a routing protocol is selected. RIPv2 supports VLSM. RIPv2 uses classless routing protocol. Inc. then IP network numbers are assigned without values being specified (except OSPF). • To enable a dynamic routing protocol.3—3-12 © 2006. manual route summarization. RIPv1 does not. Inc.

• The debug ip rip command displays information on RIP routing transactions. Cisco Systems. .3—3-13 3-80 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.) • The router RIP command selects RIP as the routing protocol. • The show ip commands display information about routing protocols and the routing table. © 2006 Cisco Systems.3 © 2006. Inc. All rights reserved. The network command identifies a participating attached network. Inc.Summary (Cont. ICND v2.

Objectives Upon completing this lesson. EIGRP is a popular choice for a routing protocol on Cisco devices. you will be able to enable EIGRP on an IP network. EIGRP scales well and provides extremely quick convergence times with minimal overhead. In a well-designed network. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the features of EIGRP Compare EIGRP with IGRP Configure EIGRP Verify the EIGRP configuration Use the debug command to troubleshoot an EIGRP configuration . EIGRP is suited for many different topologies and media. This lesson describes how to configure and monitor EIGRP.Lesson 5 Enabling EIGRP Overview Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an enhanced version of Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) developed by Cisco.

Inc. EIGRP does not send periodic routing updates like IGRP does. And when only changes are propagated. A router that is running EIGRP stores backup routes for destinations when they are available so that it can quickly adapt to alternate routes. Inc. only hello packets are transmitted on a stable network. Introducing EIGRP EIGRP supports: • Rapid convergence • Reduced bandwidth usage • Multiple network-layer protocols © 2006 Cisco Systems. 3-82 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. In some situations. However. Some of the features of EIGRP are as follows: EIGRP has rapid convergence times for changes in the network topology. the bandwidth that is required for EIGRP packets is minimized.3 © 2006. such as IGRP and Routing Information Protocol (RIP). All rights reserved. which reduces the load that the routing protocol itself places on the network. EIGRP uses the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to achieve rapid convergence. convergence can be almost instantaneous. . EIGRP queries its neighbors to discover an alternate route.3—3-3 In a well-designed network. only routing table changes are propagated. EIGRP supports automatic (classful) route summarization at major network boundaries as the default. EIGRP has very low usage of network resources during normal operation. unlike other classful routing protocols. If no appropriate route or backup route exists in the local routing table. Cisco Systems.EIGRP Features This topic describes the features of EIGRP. EIGRP scales well and provides extremely quick convergence times with minimal network traffic. Like other link-state routing protocols. EIGRP uses EIGRP hello packets to establish relationships with neighboring EIGRP routers. manual route summarization can be configured on arbitrary network boundaries to reduce the size of the routing table. Each router builds a neighbor table from the hello packets that it receives from adjacent EIGRP routers. These queries are propagated until an alternate route is found. When a change occurs. not the entire routing table. ICND v2.

Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. A successor is a route selected as the primary route to reach a destination. All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table.3—3-4 The table summarizes several terms related to EIGRP. Term Neighbor table (AppleTalk. IPX. This table is comparable to the adjacencies database used by OSPF. and it serves the same purpose (to ensure bidirectional communication between each of the directly connected neighbors). IPv4) Topology table (AppleTalk. The router maintains one routing table for each network protocol. Each EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each configured routing protocol. ICND v2. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained. © 2006. All rights reserved. EIGRP chooses the best (successor) routes to a destination from the topology table and places these routes in the routing table.EIGRP Terminology © 2006 Cisco Systems. IPv6. Inc. IPv4) Successor Feasible successor Definition Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. IPv6. A feasible successor is considered a backup route. these routes are kept in a topology table. Backup routes are selected at the same time that the successors are identified. IPv4) Routing table (AppleTalk. IPv6. however. IPX. This table includes route entries for all destinations that the router has learned. Determining IP Routes 3-83 . There is a neighbor table for each protocol that EIGRP supports. Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). Inc. Cisco Systems.

Note The Cisco IOS software does not support IGRP. which is based on research conducted at SRI International. Inc. by default) is the same for both IGRP and EIGRP.EIGRP and IGRP Comparison This topic compares EIGRP with IGRP. IGRP is discussed simply as a comparison to EIGRP. Routers that are not affected by topology changes are not involved in recomputations. 3-84 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Although the metric (bandwidth and delay.3 © 2006. . The convergence technology. employs DUAL. EIGRP has substantially improved convergence properties and operating efficiency compared with IGRP. ICND v2. However. Comparing EIGRP and IGRP • • • • Same metric Same load balancing Improved convergence time (EIGRP) Reduced network overhead (EIGRP) © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems. the weight assigned to the metric is 255 times greater for EIGRP. This algorithm guarantees loop-free operation at every instant throughout a route computation and allows all devices involved in a topology change to synchronize at the same time. Inc.3—3-5 EIGRP uses metric calculations and path load balancing similar to IGRP. All rights reserved. The convergence time with DUAL rivals that of any other existing routing protocol.

Inc.3—3-6 Use the router eigrp and network commands to create an EIGRP routing process. The EIGRP routing process associates interface addresses with the advertised network number and will begin EIGRP packet processing on the specified interfaces. Inc. However. Note that EIGRP requires an autonomous system number. Cisco Systems. The autonomous system number does not have to be registered. they will not exchange routing information. ICND v2. All rights reserved. Configuring EIGRP Router(config)# router eigrp autonomous-system • Defines EIGRP as the IP routing protocol Router(config-router)# network network-number • Selects participating attached networks © 2006 Cisco Systems. © 2006.EIGRP Configuration This topic describes how to configure EIGRP. otherwise. all routers within an autonomous system must use the same autonomous system number. Determining IP Routes 3-85 . The network command assigns a major network number that the router is directly connected to.

16.3—3-7 Example: EIGRP Configuration The following table applies to EIGRP configurations on router A in the EIGRP configuration example.0.0 network 10.0 with the EIGRP routing process Associates network 10.0.0. Inc.0.0.0.EIGRP Configuration Example © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 and any other networks that EIGRP learns about.0.16. .0 with the EIGRP routing process router eigrp 100 network 172. All rights reserved.16.0. The updates include information about networks 10. Inc.0.0.0. Cisco Systems.16.0 and 172.0.3 © 2006.0 EIGRP sends updates out the interfaces in networks 10.0. 3-86 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.0 and 172. ICND v2. Command Description Enables the EIGRP routing process for autonomous system 100 Associates network 172.

EIGRP Configuration Verification This topic describes how to verify the EIGRP configuration. Use the show ip eigrp interfaces command to determine on which interfaces EIGRP is active.3—3-8 © 2006 Cisco Systems. The show ip route eigrp command displays the current EIGRP entries in the routing table. only that interface is displayed. Otherwise. and to learn information about EIGRP relating to those interfaces. It also displays filtering and redistribution numbers and neighbors and distance information. Field Interface Peers Xmit Queue Un/Reliable Mean SRTT Pacing Time Un/Reliable Multicast Flow Timer Description Interface over which EIGRP is configured Number of directly connected EIGRP neighbors Number of packets remaining in the Unreliable and Reliable queues Mean smoothed round trip time (SRTT) interval (in milliseconds) Pacing time used to determine when EIGRP packets should be sent out the interface (unreliable and reliable packets) Maximum number of seconds in which the router will send multicast EIGRP packets © 2006. All rights reserved. all EIGRP processes are displayed. only the routing process for the specified autonomous system is displayed. Inc. The show ip protocols command displays the parameters and current state of the active routing protocol process. Verifying the EIGRP Configuration Router# show ip route eigrp • Displays current EIGRP entries in the routing table Router# show ip protocols • Displays the parameters and current state of the active process Router# show ip eigrp interfaces • Displays information about interfaces configured for EIGRP Router# show ip eigrp interfaces IP EIGRP interfaces for process 109 Interface Di0 Et0 SE0:1. If you specify an autonomous system. Determining IP Routes 3-87 . Inc. all interfaces on which EIGRP is running are displayed. If you specify an interface. Otherwise. Cisco Systems. This command shows the EIGRP autonomous system number. The table describes the significant fields shown in the example.16 Tu0 Peers 0 1 1 1 Xmit Queue Un/Reliable 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 Mean SRTT 0 337 10 330 Pacing Time Un/Reliable 11/434 0/10 1/63 0/16 Multicast Flow Timer 0 0 103 0 Pending Routes 0 0 0 0 ICND v2.

3 © 2006. Cisco Systems. . Inc.Field Pending Routes Description Number of routes in the packets in the transmit queue waiting to be sent 3-88 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

Retries: 0 2 10.1. If the peer configures a nondefault hold time. the nondefault hold time will be displayed. This is the amount of time Determining IP Routes 3-89 Uptime Q Count Seq Num SRTT RTO © 2006.9.2/1.2/1. This is the number of milliseconds required for an EIGRP packet to be sent to this neighbor and for the local router to receive an acknowledgment of that packet. Retrans: 1.6 Fa0/0 12 1w0d 1 3000 0 4 S Version 12. Smoothed round trip time. Retrans: 1.2.5 Fa0/0 11 00:04:07 768 4608 0 4 S Version 12.4. Retries: 0 © 2006 Cisco Systems. Retransmission timeout (in milliseconds).28 172. or reply packet that was received from this neighbor.31 Ethernet1 Ethernet0 Ethernet0 Holdtime (secs) 13 14 12 Uptime (h:m:s) 0:00:41 0:02:01 0:02:02 Q Count 0 0 0 Seq Num 11 10 4 SRTT (ms) 4 12 5 RTO (ms) 20 24 20 Router# show ip eigrp neighbors detail IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 101 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq Tye (sec) (ms) Cnt Num 3 1. Length of time (in seconds) that the Cisco IOS software will wait to hear from the peer before declaring it down.16. and reply) that the software is waiting to send. IP address of the EIGRP peer.16. Number of EIGRP packets (update. It is also useful for debugging certain types of transport problems.4.1. Sequence number of the last update.9.2/1. . Interface on which the router is receiving hello packets from the peer.4.28 172.81.2. Retrans: 0.2. If the peer is using the default hold time. Retries: 0 1 10.80. Inc. this number will be less than 15.9.10 Fa0/0 13 1w0d 1 3000 0 6 S Version 12.80.2/1. query.3—3-9 Use the show ip eigrp neighbors command to display the neighbors discovered by EIGRP and to determine when neighbors become active and inactive. ICND v2.Verifying the EIGRP Configuration (Cont.) Router# show ip eigrp neighbors • Displays the neighbors discovered by IP EIGRP Router# show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP Neighbors for process 77 Address Interface 172. Inc. All rights reserved.2. Field process 77 Address Interface Holdtime Description Autonomous system number specified in the router configuration command. Elapsed time (in hours:minutes:seconds) since the local router first heard from this neighbor. Retrans:0.16.3 Et0/0 12 00:04:48 1832 5000 0 14 Version 12. Cisco Systems. show ip eigrp neighbors Example The table describes the significant fields for the show ip eigrp neighbors command. Retries:0 Restart time 00:01:05 0 10. query.

The software version that the specified peer is running. The order is specified with sequential numbering starting with 0. show ip eigrp neighbors detail Example The table describes the significant fields for the show ip eigrp neighbors detail command. Cisco Systems. If the peer is using the default hold time. If the peer configures a nondefault hold time. Sequence number of the last update. Number of EIGRP packets (update. the nondefault hold time will be displayed. Retransmission timeout (in milliseconds). This is the amount of time the software waits before resending a packet from the retransmission queue to a neighbor.Field Description the software waits before resending a packet from the retransmission queue to a neighbor. query. Address Interface Holdtime Uptime Q Count Seq Num SRTT RTO Version Retrans Retries Restart time 3-90 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc. . Interface on which the router is receiving hello packets from the peer. Length of time (in seconds) that the Cisco IOS software will wait to hear from the peer before declaring it down. or reply packet that was received from this neighbor. query. Elapsed time (in hours:minutes:seconds) since the specified neighbor has restarted. Elapsed time (in hours:minutes:seconds) since the local router first heard from this neighbor. Smoothed round trip time. This is the number of milliseconds required for an EIGRP packet to be sent to this neighbor and for the local router to receive an acknowledgment of that packet. IP address of the EIGRP peer. Field process 77 H Description Autonomous system number specified in the router configuration command.3 © 2006. This column lists the order in which a peering session was established with the specified neighbor. and reply) that the software is waiting to send. The number of times an attempt was made to retransmit a packet. this number will be less than 15. The number of times that a packet has been retransmitted.

Reply.16. then the route or next hop is in a transition state.255. Indicates that a reply packet was sent to this destination. the feasibility condition is met and that path is a feasible successor.90. Destination IP network number. The table describes the significant fields for the show ip eigrp topology command output.31 (332800/307200).3—3-10 The show ip eigrp topology command displays the EIGRP topology table. Inc. No EIGRP computations are being performed for this destination.16.0. Query. If "successors" is capitalized.16. Determining IP Routes 3-91 . Inc. Serial0 © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 255. Ethernet0 via 172. the active or passive state of routes. Ethernet1 via 172.Update Q . P .Query R .80.28 (46251776/46226176).255. Update. If the reported distance of the router (the metric after the slash) is less than the feasible distance. All rights reserved.Update.Reply status 172. Number of successors.Reply r .90. FD is 0 via 172. Flag that is set after the software has sent a query and is waiting for a reply.28 (46251776/46226176).255. Indicates that a query packet was sent to this destination.80. This value is used in the feasibility condition check. Field Codes Description State of this topology table entry. 2 successors. U . R . ICND v2.81. Ethernet1 via 172. Passive and Active refer to the EIGRP state with respect to this destination. 1 successors.Active U .16.81.0 255.Query.0.81. Cisco Systems.16.) Router# show ip eigrp topology • Displays the IP EIGRP topology table Router# show ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for process 77 Codes: P . and the feasible distance to the destination. Destination subnet mask.16.Reply status P 172. Ethernet0 via 172. FD is 307200 via Connected.16.Passive A . Serial0 P 172.31 (46277376/46251776). Q .Verifying the EIGRP Configuration (Cont.255.16.16.80.80. The feasible distance is the best metric to reach the destination or the best metric that was known when the route went active.Active.Passive.255.255. Feasible distance. it need not send a query for that destination. EIGRP computations are being performed for this destination. A . This number corresponds to the number of next hops in the IP routing table. and Reply refer to the type of packet that is being sent. r . Ethernet1 via 172.28 (307200/281600).0 255. the number of successors. Indicates that an update packet was sent to this destination.28 (307200/281600). Once the software determines it has a feasible successor.0 successors FD © 2006.

This information appears only when the destination is in the active state. The second number is the EIGRP metric that this peer advertised. The first number is the EIGRP metric that represents the cost to the destination. Inc. or 3. are the current successors. It can be the number 0. This information appears only when the destination is in Active state. state via (46251776/46226176) Ethernet0 Serial0 3-92 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. IP address of the peer that told the software about this destination. . The first n of these entries.Field replies Description Number of replies that are still outstanding (have not been received) with respect to this destination. 2. Interface from which this information was learned. The remaining entries on the list are feasible successors. Exact EIGRP state that this destination is in. where N is the number of successors.3 © 2006. 1. Cisco Systems. Interface from which this information was learned.

Field process 77 Hellos sent/received Updates sent/received Queries sent/received Replies sent/received Acks sent/received Description Autonomous system number specified in the ip router command Number of hello packets that were sent and received Number of update packets that were sent and received Number of query packets that were sent and received Number of reply packets that were sent and received Number of acknowledgment packets that were sent and received © 2006. Inc. Determining IP Routes 3-93 .Verifying the EIGRP Configuration (Cont. All rights reserved.) Router# show ip eigrp traffic • Displays the number of IP EIGRP packets sent and received Router# show ip eigrp traffic IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics for process 77 Hellos sent/received: 218/205 Updates sent/received: 7/23 Queries sent/received: 2/0 Replies sent/received: 0/2 Acks sent/received: 21/14 © 2006 Cisco Systems. ICND v2. Cisco Systems.3—3-11 The show ip eigrp traffic command displays the number of packets sent and received. Inc. The table describes the fields that might be shown in the display.

3—3-12 The debug ip eigrp privileged EXEC command helps you analyze the packets that are sent and received on an interface.255. which includes SM and the cost between this router and the neighbor.255.0 metric 371200 .135.255.0.245.0 255.256000 130560 SM 360960 256000 104960 IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.255.255.255.do advertise out Ethernet0/1 © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 M 386560 .256000 130560 SM 360960 256000 104960 IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.0 255.3 © 2006.do advertise out Ethernet0/1 IP-EIGRP: Ext 172.168.255.40000000 622080 IP-EIGRP: 192.255.255.246.0.0. Because the debug ip eigrp command generates a substantial amount of output. .EIGRP Configuration Troubleshooting This topic describes using the debug command to troubleshoot an EIGRP configuration.0 metric 2272256 . Indicates that the following address is an external destination rather than an internal destination. Displays the computed metric.255. use it only when traffic on the network is light.0 255. debug ip eigrp Command Router# debug ip eigrp IP-EIGRP: Processing incoming UPDATE packet IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.69.do advertise out Ethernet0/1 IP-EIGRP: Ext 172. Inc.255.135.1657856 614400 IP-EIGRP: 192. Field Description Indicates that this is an IP EIGRP packet.69.0 metric 46310656 .256000 130560 SM 360960 256000 104960 IP-EIGRP: 172.255.do advertise out Ethernet0/1 IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.255.256000 115200 IP-EIGRP: 192.3.245.135. All rights reserved.168. Inc.3.135.255.0.0 255. IP-EIGRP: Ext M SM 3-94 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. .0 255. Cisco Systems.0 metric 40622080 .0.0.244.0 255.255.40.0 M 386560 .0 255.43.255.43. The next two numbers are the inverse bandwidth and the delay.0 255.255.0 255. The table describes the fields in the sample output from the debug ip eigrp command. .45714176 596480 IP-EIGRP: 172. respectively.0 255.255. ICND v2.0 M 386560 .do advertise out Ethernet0/1 IP-EIGRP: Ext 192.135.246.255. .255. Displays the metric as reported by the neighbor.69. . which would be labeled as “Int”.40. . The first number is the composite metric.168.255.255.0 255.255.0 255.255.69.

• The show ip eigrp commands can be used to verify the EIGRP configuration. All rights reserved.3—3-13 © 2006. Inc. Summary • EIGRP is an interior gateway protocol that scales well and provides quick convergence times with minimal network traffic. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems. Determining IP Routes 3-95 . • The router eigrp and network commands can be used to create an EIGRP routing process. • EIGRP is an enhanced version of IGRP developed by Cisco. with improved convergence properties and operating efficiency over IGRP. ICND v2. • The debug ip eigrp privileged EXEC command can be used to display information on EIGRP packets.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.

Cisco Systems. .3-96 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.3 © 2006. Inc.

Because OSPF is widely deployed. This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the features of OSPF Compare OSPF routing with distance vector routing Describe how OSPF uses hierarchical routing to separate a large internetwork into separate areas Describe the SPF algorithm Configure OSPF with a single area Modify the OSPF router ID to a loopback address Use the various show commands to verify an OSPF configuration Use the debug commands to troubleshoot an OSPF configuration . This lesson describes the function of OSPF and explains how to configure a single-area OSPF network on a Cisco router.Lesson 6 Enabling OSPF Overview Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an interior gateway protocol and a classless link-state routing protocol. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. knowledge of its configuration and maintenance is essential. you will be able to enable OSPF on an IP network.

The OSPF specification is published as an RFC.OSPF Features This topic describes the features of OSPF.3—3-3 OSPF is a routing protocol developed for IP networks by the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). known as OSPF version 2. OSPF has these two primary characteristics: The protocol is an open standard. ICND v2. 3-98 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Introducing OSPF • Open standard • Shortest path first (SPF) algorithm • Link-state routing protocol (vs. Cisco Systems. Similar to Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Inc. heterogeneous internetworks.3 © 2006. distance vector) © 2006 Cisco Systems. which means that its specification is in the public domain. Inc. is described in RFC 2328. OSPF is based on the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm. The most recent version. All rights reserved. . OSPF routes packets within a single autonomous system. OSPF was created in the mid-1980s because Routing Information Protocol (RIP) was increasingly incapable of serving large.

© 2006 Cisco Systems. A topological (link-state) database is. the routers connected to that network. You can think of a link as an interface on a router. the type of network to which it is connected. – Link = router interface – State = description of an interface and its relationship to neighboring routers • LSAs are flooded to all OSPF routers in the area.OSPF and Distance Vector Routing Protocol Comparison This topic compares OSPF routing with distance vector routing. the subnet mask. The topological database contains the collection of LSAs received from all routers in the same area. A router sends link-state advertisement (LSA) packets to advertise its state periodically and when the router state changes. Information about attached interfaces. The collection of all these link states forms a link-state database. OSPF as a Link-State Protocol • OSPF propagates link-state advertisements rather than routing table updates. Cisco Systems. Inc. Because routers within the same area share the same information. whereas RIP and IGRP are distance vector routing protocols. Determining IP Routes 3-99 . ICND v2. Inc. • OSPF uses the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to a destination. essentially. © 2006.3—3-4 OSPF is a link-state routing protocol. they have identical topological databases. All rights reserved. As OSPF routers accumulate link-state information. the IP address of the interface. an overall picture of networks in relation to routers. metrics used. and so on. • The OSPF link-state database is pieced together from the LSAs generated by the OSPF routers. they use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node. Routers that are running distance vector algorithms send all or a portion of their routing tables in routing-update messages to their neighbors. for example. The state of the link is a description of that interface and of its relationship to its neighboring routers. and other variables are included in OSPF LSAs. A description of the interface would include.

Cisco Systems. . The largest entity within the hierarchy is the autonomous system. Inc. 3-100 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.OSPF can operate within a hierarchy. which are groups of contiguous networks and attached hosts. which is a collection of networks under a common administration that share a common routing strategy. An autonomous system can be divided into a number of areas.3 © 2006.

routers in other areas need not continually run their SPF calculation.3—3-5 The ability of OSPF to separate a large internetwork. OSPF Hierarchical Routing • Consists of areas and autonomous systems • Minimizes routing update traffic © 2006 Cisco Systems.Hierarchical Routing This topic describes how OSPF uses hierarchical routing to separate a large internetwork into multiple areas. or autonomous system. such as recalculating the database. ICND v2. With this technique. are kept within an area. if area 1 is having problems with a link going up and down. Cisco Systems. Inc. The hierarchical topology possibilities of OSPF have the following important advantages: Reduced frequency of SPF calculations Smaller routing tables Reduced link-state update overhead © 2006. routing still occurs between the areas (called interarea routing). because they are isolated from the area 1 problem. Example: OSPF Hierarchical Routing In the figure. All rights reserved. but many of the minute internal routing operations. Determining IP Routes 3-101 . into smaller internetworks called areas is referred to as hierarchical routing. Inc.

Inc. and more time delays involved in crossing a 56-kbps serial line than in crossing a 10-Mbps Ethernet line. it will cost 108/107 = 10 to cross a 10-Mbps Ethernet line. with itself as the root. Each router uses the information in its topological database to calculate a shortest path tree.000 = 64 to cross a T1 line. Inc. The cost. LSAs are flooded throughout the area using a reliable algorithm. based on the cumulative cost that is required to reach that destination.Shortest Path First Algorithm This topic describes the SPF algorithm. 3-102 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Each router has its own view of the topology.544. Shortest Path First Algorithm • Places each router at the root of a tree and calculates the shortest path to each destination based on the cumulative cost • Cost = 108/bandwidth (bps) © 2006 Cisco Systems. of an interface is an indication of the overhead that is required to send packets across a certain interface. All rights reserved. There is more overhead.3—3-6 The SPF algorithm places each router at the root of a tree and calculates the shortest path to each node. Cisco Systems.000. and it will cost 108/1. using Dijkstra’s algorithm. or metric. which ensures that all routers in an area have exactly the same topological database.000 / bandwidth in bps For example.3 © 2006. higher cost. The default formula used to calculate OSPF cost is: cost = 100. so a higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. ICND v2. The cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. router A is the root. . In the figure. The router then uses this tree to route network traffic. even though all the routers build a shortest-path tree using the same link-state database.

The network command identifies which IP networks on the router are part of the OSPF network. Area that is to be associated with the OSPF address range. subnet. All rights reserved. router ospf Command Parameters Description address wildcard-mask Can be the network.0. It can be specified either as a decimal value or in dotted-decimal notation.0. or interface address. where 0 is a match and 1 is “do not care. ICND v2. Inc.3—3-7 The router ospf command takes a process identifier as an argument. you must also identify the OSPF area that the networks belong to. Configuring Single-Area OSPF Router(config)# router ospf process-id • Defines OSPF as the IP routing protocol Router(config-router)# network wildcard-mask area area-id • Assigns networks to a specific OSPF area © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Determining IP Routes 3-103 . Wildcard mask. The process ID is a unique. This mask identifies the part of the IP address that is to be matched. The process ID does not need to match the OSPF process ID on other OSPF routers. arbitrary number that you select to identify the routing process.Single-Area OSPF Configuration This topic describes how to configure a single-area OSPF.0 indicates a match of all 32 bits in the address. Cisco Systems. For each network.” For example. area-id © 2006. The table defines the parameters of the network command. a wildcard mask of 0. The network command takes the three arguments listed in the table.

3-104 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. but not of each other. such as a point-to-point serial link. The DR and BDR are elected based on the OSPF priority and OSPF router ID. Both routers A and C will have similar configurations specifying addresses in area 0. A router uses the OSPF hello protocol to establish neighbor relationships. All rights reserved. Addresses that begin with 10 as the first octet are assigned to area 0 (the backbone area).3—3-8 Example: OSPF Configuration Router B has specified 100 as the local process ID for the OSPF routing process. . You can avoid calculating wildcard masks by having a network statement that matches the IP address on each interface. the designated router is responsible for generating LSAs for the entire multi-access network. both the S2 and the S3 interface on router B will be in OSPF area 0. Designated routers allow a reduction in routing update traffic and manage link-state synchronization. Cisco Systems. Among other things. Calculating wildcard masks on non-8-bit boundaries can be error-prone. routers A and C are neighbors of router B. there will not be a DR or BDR elected. In nonmulti-access networks.3 © 2006. In this case.OSPF Configuration Example © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Routers that share a common segment become neighbors on that segment. Inc. ICND v2. In the figure. the hello protocol elects a designated router (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR). Hello packets also act as keepalives to let routers know that other routers are still functional. On multi-access networks (networks supporting more than two routers) such as Ethernet networks.

but unlike an address that is advertised.3—3-9 To modify the OSPF router ID to a loopback address. Therefore. can be overridden by configuring an IP address on a loopback interface. used as the router ID. Configuring Loopback Interfaces Router ID • Number by which the router is known to OSPF • Default: The highest IP address on an active interface at the moment of OSPF process startup • Can be overridden by a loopback interface: Highest IP address of any active loopback interface • Can be set manually using the router-id command © 2006 Cisco Systems. using a private IP address will save on registered IP address space. first define a loopback interface with the following command: Router(config)# interface loopback number The highest IP address. Cisco Systems.Loopback Interfaces This topic describes how to modify the OSPF router ID to a loopback address. the unadvertised address does not appear in the OSPF table and therefore cannot be pinged. Inc. the loopback address should be used on all key routers. Using an address that is not advertised saves on real IP address space. using a private IP address represents a trade-off between the ease of debugging the network and conservation of address space. ICND v2. If the loopback address is going to be published with the network area command. unless the host address itself is advertised. Determining IP Routes 3-105 . For this reason. Note that a loopback address requires a different subnet for each router. © 2006. All rights reserved. Inc. OSPF is more reliable if a loopback interface is configured because the interface is always active and cannot be in a down state like a real interface.

All rights reserved. 0:02:22.0. The table describes the significant fields shown in the show ip route display.140. 0:00:59.254.3 © 2006. This command is one of the best ways to determine connectivity between the local router and the rest of the internetwork.0. Inc. Ethernet2 10.254.132. You can use any one of a number of show commands to display information about an OSPF configuration.254.244.244. E2 .254.68.OSPF derived.119.OSPF Configuration Verification This topic describes how to verify an OSPF configuration using a few of the show commands.240 to network 10.119. N1 . Ethernet2 E2 10.0. networks.119.254. B . . Inc.6.0 [160/5] via 10. 3-106 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.119.RIP derived. S . Verifying the OSPF Configuration Router# show ip protocols • Verifies that OSPF is configured Router# show ip route • Displays all the routes learned by the router Router# show ip route Codes: I .110.119. and other information for the entire router.6. E . Ethernet2 .130. E2 10. 0:00:59.OSPF external type 2 route.0 [160/5] via 10.IGRP derived. Ethernet2 E2 10.BGP derived.128.119.0 [160/5] via 10.connected. C .0.3—3-10 © 2006 Cisco Systems. 0:01:00. . O . N2 . filters.static.254. R . The show ip protocols command displays parameters about timers.OSPF NSSA external type 2 route Gateway of last resort is 10.10. The show ip route command displays the routes that are known to the router and how they were learned.OSPF NSSA external type 1 route.0 O E O O E .67.EGP derived. Cisco Systems. Ethernet2 10. metrics.6. 0:02:22.0 [200/128] via 10.0 [200/128] via 10. ICND v2.

It can be one of the following values: *—Indicates the last path used when a packet was forwarded. IA—OSPF interarea route E1—OSPF external type 1 route E2—OSPF external type 2 route L1—IS-IS level 1 route L2—IS-IS level 2 route N1—OSPF not-so-stubby area (NSSA) external type 1 route N2—OSPF NSSA external type 2 route 172.254. © 2006.150. Determining IP Routes 3-107 .Field O Description Indicates the protocol that derived the route. it does not indicate which path will be used next when forwarding a nonfastswitched packet. Inc. However. The first number in the brackets is the administrative distance of the information source. It can be one of the following values: I—IGRP-derived R—RIP-derived O—OSPF-derived C—connected S—static E—Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)-derived B—Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)-derived D—Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol-(EIGRP) EX—EIGRP external i— Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)-derived ia—IS-IS M—mobile P—periodic downloaded static route U—per-user static route o—on-demand routing E2 Type of route. except when the paths are equal cost.6 0:01:00 Ethernet2 Indicates the address of the remote network. It pertains only to the nonfast-switched packets.119. Specifies the address of the next router to the remote network. Specifies the last time the route was updated (in hours:minutes:seconds). the second number is the metric for the route.0 [160/5] via 10. Cisco Systems. Specifies the interface through which the specified network can be reached.0.

Interface addr 192.254. Wait 40.255. Priority 1 Designated Router id 192.255.0 AS 201.168. If no loopback address is specified.168. the interface with the highest address is chosen as the router ID. including the hello interval.3 © 2006.1.0.168. The table describes the significant fields for the show ip ospf interface command output. Interface address 192. All rights reserved.168.0. network type.10.254.168. Adjacent neighbor count is 2 Adjacent with neighbor 192. Field Ethernet Internet Address AS Transmit Delay Designated Router Backup Designated router Timer intervals configured Hello Neighbor Count Description Status of physical link and operational status of protocol Interface IP address. Router ID 192. Mask 255.168. Inc.254.99. link-state cost Transmit delay.10 (Designated Router) © 2006 Cisco Systems.254. router ID.Verifying the OSPF Configuration (Cont.) Router# show ip ospf interface • Displays area ID and adjacency information Router# show ip ospf interface ethernet 0 Ethernet 0 is up. Cisco Systems. State OTHER.10 Backup Designated router id 192. and area address Autonomous system number (OSPF process ID). and router priority Designated router ID and respective interface IP address Backup designated router ID and respective interface IP address Configuration of timer intervals Number of seconds until next hello packet is sent out this interface Count of network neighbors and list of adjacent neighbors 3-108 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.0.254.28. Network Type BROADCAST. Inc. interface state. ICND v2. subnet mask. Retransmit 5 Hello due in 0:00:05 Neighbor Count is 8.3—3-11 The show ip ospf interface command verifies that interfaces have been configured in the intended areas. Area 0.254.202. Dead 60.168. line protocol is up Internet Address 192.28 (Backup Designated Router) Adjacent with neighbor 192.254.28 Timer intervals configured.168. . Hello 10. Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec. This command also displays the timer intervals. and shows the neighbor adjacencies.

28 BDR is 10. ICND v2.137.199.80. last OOB-Resync 00:03:08 ago Dead timer due in 00:00:36 Neighbor is up for 00:09:46 Index 1/1.137 5 FULL/DR 0:00:33 172.189 Fddi0 © 2006 Cisco Systems. retransmission queue length 0.) Router# show ip ospf neighbor 10.199.16.200. State is FULL Options 2 Dead timer due in 0:00:32 Link State retransmission due in 0:00:03 Router# show ip ospf neighbor detail Neighbor 192.137 Neighbor 10. interface address 172.200.0.225. maximum is 0 msec © 2006 Cisco Systems.Verifying the OSPF Configuration (Cont. number of retransmission 1 First 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last retransmission scan length is 1.199.168.199.) Router# show ip ospf neighbor • Displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis Router# show ip ospf neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 10. maximum is 1 Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec.1 1 FULL/DROTHER 0:00:33 172.0 via interface Fddi0 Neighbor priority is 5. The figure shows example output from the show ip ospf neighbor command showing a single line of summary information for each neighbor.225.48. interface address 192. Inc.16. Inc.199.16.137.48.168.199. Inc.48.2.37 Ethernet0 172.0.48.1 Fddi0 172. State is FULL Options 2 Dead timer due in 0:00:32 Link State retransmission due in 0:00:04 Neighbor 10.199.200 1 FULL/DROTHER 0:00:33 172.80.37 In the area 0. Verifying the OSPF Configuration (Cont.28 In the area 0 via interface GigabitEthernet1/0/0 Neighbor priority is 1. © 2006.48.168. ICND v2.225.0.16.199.200 Fddi0 10.0.3—3-13 The table describes the significant fields for the show ip ospf neighbor command output.48.199. Determining IP Routes 3-109 .16.199.3—3-12 The show ip ospf neighbor command displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis. 6 state changes DR is 10. All rights reserved.137 1 FULL/DR 0:00:31 192.30 Options is 0x42 LLS Options is 0x1 (LR).5. State is FULL. Cisco Systems.200.16.189 In the area 0. All rights reserved.0 via interface Ethernet0 Neighbor priority is 1. interface address 10.

Cisco Systems. Maximum number of LSAs sent in any retransmission packet. 2 indicates area is not a stub. Possible values are 0 and 2. Number of times update packets have been resent during flooding. DR is BDR is Options LLS Options. OSPF state. neighbor state. Number of elements in the retransmission queue. Time taken to build last retransmission packet. Memory location of the flooding details. Router ID of the designated router for the interface. Number of state changes since the neighbor was created. Area and interface through which the OSPF neighbor is known. This value can be reset using the clear ip ospf counters neighbor command. Expected time before Cisco IOS software will declare the neighbor dead. (E-bit only.. 0 indicates area is a stub. Number of hours:minutes:seconds since the neighbor went into twoway state. Neighbor location in the area-wide and autonomous system-wide retransmission queue. Hello packet options field contents. The field indicates the last successful out-of-band resynchronization with the NSF-capable router. Number of LSAs in the last retransmission packet..3 © 2006. . Maximum time taken to build any retransmission packet. IP address of the interface.) Link-local Signaling (LLS) and out-of-band (OOB) link-state database resynchronization performed hours:minutes:seconds ago (Nonstop Forwarding [NSF] information). Memory location of the flooding details. Router priority of the neighbor.Field Neighbor interface address In the area Neighbor priority State state changes Description Neighbor router ID. last OOB-Resync Dead timer due in Neighbor is up for Index retransmission queue length number of retransmission First Next Last retransmission scan length maximum Last retransmission scan time maximum 3-110 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc.. Router ID of the backup designated router for the interface.

0. Inc. Cisco Systems.0. perform the following tasks: Make sure that both routers have been configured with the same IP mask.0. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:200.0. Make sure that both neighbors are part of the same area type. OSPF hello interval.0 chk:6AB2 aut:0 auk: Router# debug ip ospf packet OSPF: rcv. and OSPF dead interval. use the debug ip ospf packet privileged EXEC command.0 dead interval received 40 configured 30 Router# debug ip ospf packet OSPF: rcv.OSPF Configuration Troubleshooting This topic describes the debug commands used to troubleshoot an OSPF configuration. © 2006. OSPF debug Commands Router# debug ip ospf events OSPF:hello with invalid timers on interface Ethernet0 hello interval received 10 configured 10 net mask received 255. All rights reserved.116 aid:0.0.255.0.117 aid:0. In the following example line.255. If a router configured for OSPF routing is not seeing an OSPF neighbor on an attached network. ICND v2. the neighbor and this router are not both part of a stub area (that is.255.0.0 chk:0 aut:2 keyid:1 seq:0x0 © 2006 Cisco Systems. The OSPF dead interval for the router does not match that configured for a neighbor. as explained in RFC 1247): OSPF: hello packet with mismatched E bit To display information about each OSPF packet received. Determining IP Routes 3-111 .0 configured 255.255.3—3-14 The debug ip ospf events output that is shown in the figure might appear if any of the following situations occur: The IP subnet masks for routers on the same network do not match. one is a part of a transit area and the other is a part of a stub area. The OSPF hello interval for the router does not match that configured for a neighbor. Inc.0. The no form of this command disables debugging output. v:2 t:1 l:48 rid:200.

possible authentication types are as follows: 0: No authentication 1: Simple password 2: MD5 OSPF authentication key MD5 key ID Sequence number v: t: l: rid: aid: chk: aut: auk: keyid: seq: 3-112 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc. Cisco Systems. . The table shows sample output from the debug ip ospf packet command when Message Digest 5 (MD5) authentication is used. possible packet types are as follows: 1: Hello 2: Data description 3: Link-state request 4: Link-state update 5: Link-state acknowledgment OSPF packet length in bytes OSPF router ID OSPF area ID OSPF checksum OSPF authentication type.3 © 2006. The output varies slightly depending on which authentication is used.The debug ip ospf packet command produces one set of information for each packet received. Field Description OSPF version OSPF packet type. The table describes the fields shown in the debug ip ospf packet display.

Inc. All rights reserved. Summary • OSPF is an interior gateway protocol similar to IGRP. • Hierarchical routing enables separation of a large internetwork into smaller internetworks. Inc.3—3-15 © 2006. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems. called areas. • The SPF algorithm places each router at the root of a tree and calculates the shortest path to each destination based on the cumulative cost required to reach that destination. but based on link states rather than distance vectors. ICND v2. • OSPF advertises information about each of its links rather than sending routing table updates like a distance vector protocol does. Determining IP Routes 3-113 .Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this lesson.

ICND v2.Summary (Cont. • The interface loopback command is used to modify the OSPF router ID to a loopback address. All rights reserved. © 2006 Cisco Systems. • Any one of a number of show commands can be used to display information about an OSPF configuration. Inc. flooding information.3 © 2006.3—3-16 3-114 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Cisco Systems. designated router selection. Inc. The network command is used to associate addresses to an OSPF area. such as adjacencies. • The debug ip ospf events privileged EXEC command can be used to display information on OSPF-related events. .) • The router ospf command starts an OSPF routing process. and SPF calculation.

This ability includes being able to meet these objectives: Describe the benefits of VLSMs Describe the process to calculate VLSMs Explain the route summarization process Describe the implementation considerations for route summarization Explain how Cisco routers manage route summarization . This strategy can be used only when it is supported by the routing protocol in use. you will be able to describe the operation of VLSMs on Cisco routers.Lesson 7 Implementing Variable-Length Subnet Masks Overview Variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs) were developed to allow multiple levels of subnetworked IP addresses within a single network. VLSM is a key technology on large routed networks. such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). This lesson describes the capabilities of VLSMs. Objectives Upon completing this lesson. Understanding the capabilities of VLSM is important when planning large networks.

Cisco Systems.156/30. What Is a Variable-Length Subnet Mask? • Subnet 172.136/30. The /30 subnets range from 172.16.14. For example.14.14.14. or C network number.128/30.14. In the figure. ICND v2.14.16. 3-116 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. is further divided into smaller subnetworks with the /27 masking.0/24 summarizes all of the addresses that are further subnets of 172. 172. companies must implement a single subnet mask within an entire class A.16.14. subnet 172.16. Inc.16.14.14.3 © 2006.16.140/30 subnets out of the range. Inc. one of these smaller subnets.3—3-3 VLSMs provide the ability to include more than one subnet mask within a network and the ability to subnet an already subnetted network address.16. the WAN links used the 172. These smaller subnetworks range from 172.16. One of the subnetworks in this range.14. consider the 172.14. and 172.224/27. .0.0/24.16.128/27.16. to be used on the WAN links. which creates subnets with only two hosts. All rights reserved.16.16.14.14.128/30 to 172. VLSM offers the following benefits: More efficient use of IP addresses: Without the use of VLSMs.0/27 to 172. 172.0/27 and from 172. Greater capability to use route summarization: VLSM allows more hierarchical levels within an addressing plan and thus allows better route summarization within routing tables. as shown in the figure.VLSM Benefits This topic describes the benefits of VLSMs.0/16 network address divided into subnetworks using /24 masking. 172. B. For example. In the figure.16.132/30.16.14.16.0/24 is divided into smaller subnets – Subnet with one mask (/27) – Then further subnet one of the unused /27 subnets into multiple /30 subnets © 2006 Cisco Systems. is further divided with the /30 prefix. including those from subnet 172.0. in the figure.

27. Therefore. © 2006. Determining IP Routes 3-117 .Isolation of topology changes from other routers: Another advantage to using route summarization in a large. the summary route does not change. Cisco Systems.0/24 domain is flapping. or going up and down rapidly.16. no router external to the domain needs to keep modifying its routing table because of this flapping activity. For example. Inc. when a specific link in the 172. complex network is that it can isolate topology changes from other routers.

you can further subnet address 172. using a /30 subnet will not waste scarce IP addresses.0/20 and that you need to assign addresses to a network that has ten hosts. Inc.32.3 © 2006. for example. each of which could support 62 (26 – 2) hosts.32. you gain 64 (26) subnets. Consider. you can further subnet an already subnetted address. By using VLSMs. you subnet 172. For example.16. 3-118 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. With this subnet address. All rights reserved. that you have a subnet address 172.0/26. With VLSMs.3—3-4 VLSMs are commonly used to maximize the number of possible addresses available for a network.16.32. you have more than 4000 (212 – 2 = 4094) host addresses. Cisco Systems.32.VLSM Calculations This topic describes the process to calculate VLSMs.16. ICND v2. Calculating VLSMs © 2006 Cisco Systems.0/20 to give you more network addresses and fewer hosts per network. If. however. . most of which will be wasted.16. for example.0/20 to 172. because point-to-point serial lines require only two host addresses. Inc.

0/20 to 172. as shown in the figure. The figure shows the first five subnets available. becoming /26.16.) Calculate the 64 subnet addresses using the bits between the two vertical lines. Step 3 Step 4 © 2006.0/26: Step 1 Step 2 Write 172.0 in binary form. Determining IP Routes 3-119 . Cisco Systems. as shown in the figure.16.32.32.32.) Draw a vertical line between the 26th and 27th bits. (The original /20 subnet boundary is extended 6 bits to the right. from lowest to highest in value. (/20 was the original subnet boundary.Follow these steps to further subnet 172. Draw a vertical line between the 20th and 21st bits. Inc.16.

0/20 subnet into multiple /26 subnets. the subnet addresses that are used on the Ethernets are those generated from subdividing the 172.3—3-5 Example: A Working VLSM In the figure. the WAN links use subnet addresses with a prefix of /30.16. four subnet numbers are used on the LANs.0/26 is further subnetted with a prefix of /30. if you use any addresses from a subnet. For example. All rights reserved.33. Cisco Systems. therefore. depending on the number of host requirements. 16 (24) subnets for the WANs. .0/26. In this example. ICND v2.33.16.16.32. 172. Note It is important to remember that only unused subnets can be further subnetted.A Working VLSM Example © 2006 Cisco Systems. is further subnetted for use on the WANs. To calculate the subnet addresses that are used on the WAN links. This prefix allows for only two hosts—just enough for a point-to-point connection between a pair of routers. further subnet one of the unused /26 subnets. 172. Inc. 3-120 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Inc. This provides 4 subnet bits more and. The figure illustrates where the subnet addresses can be applied. that subnet cannot be further subnetted. In other words. Another unused subnet.3 © 2006. In the example.

26. Determining IP Routes 3-121 .0 was discontiguous). summarizing in this way may not be valid. also called route aggregation or supernetting. However.0/24. router A can either send three routing update entries or summarize the addresses into a single network number.0/24 could be summarized into 172.0/24. 4. can reduce the number of routes that a router must maintain by representing a series of network numbers in a single summary address. All rights reserved. The figure illustrates a summary route based on a full octet: 172. © 2006. ICND v2.0/16. Note Router A in the figure can route to network 172.0/16.27.16. or 512 addresses can be represented by a single routing entry because summary masks are binary masks—just like subnet masks—so summarization must take place on binary boundaries (powers of 2).25.0.16. Route summarization.3—3-6 Example: Route Summarization As shown in the figure.16. 172.16. Route summarization is most effective within a subnetted environment when the network addresses are in contiguous blocks in powers of 2. What Is Route Summarization? • Routing protocols can summarize addresses of several networks into one address. Cisco Systems.16. 16.0. For example.Route Summarization with VLSM This topic describes the route summarization process.0. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems. and 172.16.0 elsewhere in the network (for example. if 172.0. including all subnets of that network.16. Inc. if there are other subnets of 172.

An Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR. automatically summarize routes on the classful network boundary and do not support summarization on any other boundaries. OSPF. Classless routing protocols. Cisco Systems. Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS). support route summarization based on subnet addresses. such as RIPv1 and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Classful routing protocols. 3-122 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Note Summarization is described in RFC 1518.Routing protocols summarize or aggregate routes based on shared network numbers within the network. such as Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIPv2). .3 © 2006. and EIGRP. including VLSM addressing. Inc.

16. Determining IP Routes 3-123 .16. the best summary route is 172. you can divide the addresses into groups and summarize the groups separately. you can determine the number of common bits shared among the IP addresses.16. In the figure.0/21.16. A router receives updates for the following routes: 172.169.16.0/24 172. Inc. Inc.172.0/24 172.168.0/24 172.174. © 2006. ICND v2.173. Cisco Systems.0/24 172.0/24 172.0/24 172.170.171.175.0/24 172. If the number of addresses is not a power of 2.16.3—3-7 Example: Summarizing with an Octet This example illustrates the process for route summarization within an octet. All rights reserved. the router determines the number of highest-order bits that match in all of the addresses. the first 21 bits are in common among the IP addresses.Summarizing Within an Octet © 2006 Cisco Systems. By converting the IP addresses to the binary format.16.168. Therefore.16. You can summarize addresses when the number of addresses is a power of 2.0/24 To determine the summary route.16.

32.16. ICND v2.32. .0/24. 3-124 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.64/26 and 172. Cisco Systems. Inc. This approach is particularly important when using VLSMs. route summarization occurs at the following two levels: Router C summarizes two routing updates from networks 172. Inc.32.3 © 2006. 172.128/26 into a single update.Summarizing Addresses in a VLSM-Designed Network © 2006 Cisco Systems. A VLSM design allows for maximum use of IP addresses and for more efficient routing update communication when you are using hierarchical IP addressing.16.16. your IP addressing plan should be hierarchical in nature.3—3-8 To allow the router to aggregate the most IP addresses into a single route summary. then propagates the single update to the corporate network. In the figure. All rights reserved. Router A receives three different routing updates but summarizes them into a single routing update.

Determining IP Routes 3-125 . Inc. Cisco Systems. Routing protocols must carry the prefix length (subnet mask) with the 32-bit IP address. Requirements for summarization to work correctly are as follows: Multiple IP addresses must share the same highest-order bits. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Routing protocols must base their routing decisions on a 32-bit IP address and a prefix length that can be up to 32 bits. Implementation Considerations • Multiple IP addresses must have the same highest-order bits. ICND v2.Route Summarization Implementation Considerations This topic describes the implementation considerations for route summarization. • Routing protocols must carry the prefix (subnet mask) length. All rights reserved.3—3-9 Route summarization reduces memory use on routers and routing protocol network traffic. • Routing decisions are made based on the entire address. © 2006.

16.0/16 and 192.0/24. and default routes • Routers use longest match © 2006 Cisco Systems. Route Summarization Operation in Cisco Routers 192. Whether routing summarization is automatic depends on the routing protocol. Several routes might match one destination.16. IGRP. perform automatic route summarization across network boundaries.3—3-10 Cisco routers manage route summarization in two ways. Inc.16. the longest prefix match in the routing table is used. All rights reserved. For example.0 192.16. but the longest matching prefix is used. For OSPF and IS-IS. Specifically.5.5.Route Summarization Management This topic describes how Cisco routers manage route summarization. For EIGRP and RIPv2.33 192.16. you can disable automatic route summarization and configure manual summarization. blocks of networks. Selecting routes from route summaries: If more than one entry in the routing table matches a particular destination. packets addressed to 192. this automatic summarization occurs for those routes whose classful network address differs from the major network address of the interface to which the advertisement is being sent. 3-126 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. if a routing table has different paths to 192.16.0.16. Route summarization is not always a solution.0.0 /32 /27 /24 /16 /0 Host Subnet Network Block of Networks Default • Supports host-specific routes. you must configure manual summarization. Inc. .32 192. as follows: Sending route summaries: Routing protocols.5.5.0 0.0.5. You should review the documentation for your specific routing protocols. and EIGRP.5.16.99 would be routed through the 192. ICND v2.0. such as RIP. You would not use route summarization if you needed to advertise all networks across a boundary.0/24 path because that address has the longest match with the destination address. such as when you have discontiguous networks.3 © 2006. Cisco Systems.

and therefore cannot support discontiguous subnets. Discontiguous subnets are not visible to each other.0. Inc.5. otherwise.0. or EIGRP and not using summarization.3—3-11 Classful routing protocols summarize automatically at network boundaries. as follows: Subnets are not advertised to a different major network.16.0 and 172.255. • OSPF. ICND v2. and therefore can support discontiguous subnets. IS-IS.0 255.14.Summarizing Routes in a Discontiguous Network • RIPv1 and IGRP do not advertise subnets. Determining IP Routes 3-127 . which cannot be changed with RIPv1 and IGRP. both router A and router B advertise 172.0 255.16. OSPF. EIGRP.255. Inc.0 from two different directions. In this example. the subnet routes would be advertised with their actual subnet masks. has important results. Cisco Systems.255.255.16.6. You can resolve this situation by using RIPv2.16. router C receives routes about 172. © 2006.0. RIPv1 does not advertise the 172. Example: Summarizing Routes in a Discontiguous Network In the figure. and RIPv2 can advertise subnets.0 subnets because RIPv1 cannot advertise subnets. so it cannot make a correct routing decision. © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.168. This behavior. The fact that RIPv1 cannot advertise subnets leads to confusion when routing across network 192.0. Cisco IOS software also provides an IP unnumbered feature that permits discontiguous subnets to be separated by an unnumbered link.

3—3-12 3-128 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. Cisco Systems. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Summary • VLSMs provide more efficient use of IP addresses and have greater capability to use route summarization. . Inc. • Cisco routers manage route summarization by performing automatic summarization and by selecting routes from route summaries.Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed this lesson. • Route summarization enables a router to summarize several addresses into a single network number. • VLSMs can provide more network addresses and fewer hosts per network. • Route summarization reduces memory use on routers and routing protocol network traffic.3 © 2006. All rights reserved. ICND v2.

Cisco Systems. • Distance vector routing algorithms enable each router to send all or some portion of its routing table to its neighbors. with one entry for each identified route. • Link-state routing algorithms maintain a complex database of topology information. The routing table can be updated manually or automatically to accommodate network changes. Balanced hybrid routing algorithms combine aspects of both distance vector and link-state routing. which routers use to maintain full knowledge of distant routers. ICND v2.Module Summary This topic summarizes the key points discussed in this module. All rights reserved. © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Determining IP Routes 3-129 . Inc. Module Summary • Routing information takes the form of entries in a routing table.3—3-1 © 2006.

• OSPF is a classless link-state routing protocol that is widely deployed in many networks. It is up to network administrators to be knowledgeable about each protocol in order to implement the most appropriate routing protocol based upon the needs of their network.Module Summary (Cont. and each provides different features and capabilities. • EIGRP is used in many different topologies and media. Routing can be further tuned with the implementation of a variable-length subnet mask (VLSM). Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). . Routing Information Protocol (RIP). All rights reserved. homogeneous networks. • VLSMs allow multiple levels of subnetworked IP addresses within a single network. and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) are routing protocols.3 © 2006. EIGRP provides quick convergence times with minimal overhead. Cisco Systems. Various classes of routing protocols allow for different features in each network. Inc. © 2006 Cisco Systems.3—3-2 Routers gather and maintain routing information to enable the transmission and receipt of packets. Inc. 3-130 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2. ICND v2.) • RIP is used in small.

1.255.3. D) Q2) What does the command ip route 186.0 10.1.1.3 to get to devices on network 186.5.1.1.3.1. Dynamic routes tell the router how to forward packets to networks that are not directly connected. whereas dynamic routes are automatically learned and adjusted by a routing protocol.3 specify? (Source: Introducing Routing) A) B) C) D) Both 186.3 use a mask of 255.157.255.0 255. Determining IP Routes 3-131 .5.157.0 via 10. Static routes tell the router how to forward packets to networks that are not directly connected.5.1.157.0 to get to address 10. whereas dynamic routes tell the router how to forward packets to networks that are directly connected.1. Static routes are manually configured by a network administrator. Inc. whereas static routes tell the router how to forward packets to networks that are directly connected. You want the router to trace a route to network 186.157.Module Self-Check Use the questions here to test what you learned in this module. The router should use network 186. Cisco Systems. Q3) Which command displays information about static route configuration on a Cisco router? (Source: Introducing Routing) A) B) C) D) show route ip show ip route show ip route static show route ip static Q4) Which of the following protocols is an example of an exterior gateway protocol? (Source: Introducing Routing) A) B) C) D) RIP BGP IGRP EIGRP Q5) In which situation is an administrative distance required? (Source: Introducing Routing) A) B) C) D) whenever static routes are defined whenever dynamic routing is enabled when the same route is learned via multiple routing protocols when multiple paths are available to the same destination and they are all learned via the same routing protocol © 2006.255. The router should use address 10.157.1. Q1) Which statement most accurately describes static and dynamic routes? (Source: Introducing Routing) A) B) C) Dynamic routes are manually configured by a network administrator.5.0.1.255.5.0 and 10. whereas static routes are automatically learned and adjusted by a routing protocol. The correct answers and solutions are found in the Module Self-Check Answer Key.0.

what is the default behavior if the ip classless command is not enabled? (Source: Introducing Routing) A) B) C) D) drop the packet forward the packet to the default route forward the packet to the next hop for the directly attached network broadcast the packet through all interfaces except the one on which it was received Q7) Which command correctly assigns a subinterface to VLAN 50 using 802. Inc.3 © 2006.Q6) When a router receives a packet with a destination address that is within an unknown subnetwork of a directly attached network.1Q 50 Router(config-if)#encapsulation dot1Q 50 Router(config-if)#encapsulation 50 802. Cisco Systems. . the administrator can prevent count to infinity by setting a maximum for what value? (Source: Introducing Distance Vector Routing) A) B) C) D) metric update time holddown time administrative distance Q11) What does split horizon specify? (Source: Introducing Distance Vector Routing) A) B) C) D) that information about a route should not be sent in any direction that information about a route should not be sent back in the direction that the original information came from that information about a route should always be sent back in the direction that the original information came from that information about a route should be sent back only in the direction that the original information came from 3-132 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.1Q Q8) How does a distance vector router learn about paths for networks that are not directly connected? (Source: Introducing Distance Vector Routing) A) B) C) D) from the source router from neighboring routers from the destination router distance vector router learns only about directly connected networks Q9) What does a distance vector router send to its neighboring routers as part of a periodic routing table update? (Source: Introducing Distance Vector Routing) A) B) C) D) the entire routing table information about new routes information about routes that have changed information about routes that no longer exist Q10) With distance vector routing.1Q trunking? (Source: Introducing Routing) A) B) C) D) Router(config)#encapsulation 50 dot1Q Router(config)#encapsulation 802.

) (Source: Introducing Distance Vector Routing) A) B) C) D) E) removes the holddown continues the holddown marks the route as “accessible” marks the route as “inaccessible” marks the route as “possibly down” Q15) How can link-state protocols limit the scope of route changes? (Source: Introducing Link-State and Balanced Hybrid Routing) A) B) C) D) by supporting classless addressing by sending the mask along with the address by sending only updates of a topology change by segmenting the network into area hierarchies Q16) What is the purpose of link-state advertisements? (Source: Introducing Link-State and Balanced Hybrid Routing) A) B) C) D) to construct a topological database to specify the cost to reach a destination to determine the best path to a destination to verify that a neighbor is still functioning Q17) By default.Q12) When a router sets the metric for a network that has gone down to the maximum value. how often does RIP broadcast routing updates? (Source: Enabling RIP) A) B) C) D) every 6 seconds every 15 seconds every 30 seconds every 60 seconds © 2006. Determining IP Routes 3-133 . what is it doing? (Source: Introducing Distance Vector Routing) A) B) C) D) triggering the route poisoning the route applying split horizon putting the route in holddown Q13) If a route for a network is in holddown and an update arrives from a neighboring router with the same metric as was originally recorded for the network. Inc. Cisco Systems. what two things does it do? (Choose two. what does the router do? (Source: Introducing Distance Vector Routing) A) B) C) D) ignores the update increments the holddown timer marks the network as “accessible” and removes the holddown timer marks the network as “accessible” but keeps the holddown timer on Q14) If a router has a network path in holddown and an update arrives from a neighboring router with a better metric than originally recorded for the network.

255.2) A) B) C) D) Q23) the source address the next-hop address the destination address the address of the routing table entry What could cause the message “RIP: bad version 128 from 160.255.} Router(config-router)#router rip {AS no. what do the numbers within the parentheses signify? (Source: Enabling RIP) RIP: sending v1 update to 255.43” to be displayed in the output of the debug ip rip command? (Source: Enabling RIP) A) B) C) receiving a malformed packet sending a routing table update receiving a routing table update Q24) How is the bandwidth requirement for EIGRP packets minimized? (Source: Enabling EIGRP) A) B) C) D) by propagating only data packets by propagating only hello packets by propagating only routing table changes and hello packets by propagating the entire routing table only to those routers affected by a topology change 3-134 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.89.Q18) What is the maximum allowable hop count for RIP? (Source: Enabling RIP) A) B) C) D) 6 15 30 60 Q19) With RIP. load balancing is performed over multiple paths that have which characteristic? (Source: Enabling RIP) A) B) C) D) equal cost equal weight equal distance equal bandwidth Q20) Which command correctly specifies RIP as the routing protocol? (Source: Enabling RIP) A) B) C) D) Router(config)#rip Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#rip {AS no. .} Q21) What is the default value of the RIP holddown timer? (Source: Enabling RIP) A) B) C) D) 30 seconds 60 seconds 90 seconds 180 seconds Q22) In this line from the output of the debug ip rip command.3 © 2006.80.1.255 via Ethernet1 (10.1. Inc. Cisco Systems.

0.0 Router(config-router)#router eigrp 10.0. (Source: Enabling OSPF) A) B) C) D) area network segment autonomous system Q29) With OSPF.0 Router(config)#router eigrp 10. Inc.0 is directly connected to a router that is running EIGRP? (Source: Enabling EIGRP) A) B) C) D) Router(config)#network 10.Q25) Which command correctly specifies that network 10. but each will have a separate _____ of the topology. Determining IP Routes 3-135 . (Source: Enabling OSPF) A) B) C) D) state view version configuration Q30) Which component of the SPF algorithm is inversely proportional to bandwidth? (Source: Enabling OSPF) A) B) C) D) link cost root cost link state hop count Q31) Which command correctly starts an OSPF routing process using process ID 191? (Source: Enabling OSPF) A) B) C) D) Router(config)#router ospf 191 Router(config)#network ospf 191 Router(config-router)#network ospf 191 Router(config-router)#router ospf process-id 191 © 2006.0 Router(config-router)#network 10.0.0 Q26) Which command displays the amount of time since the router heard from an EIGRP neighbor? (Source: Enabling EIGRP) A) B) C) D) show ip eigrp traffic show ip eigrp topology show ip eigrp interfaces show ip eigrp neighbors Q27) What are two characteristics of OSPF? (Choose two.) (Source: Enabling OSPF) A) B) C) D) E) hierarchical proprietary open standard similar to RIP distance vector protocol Q28) OSPF routes packets within a single _____. Cisco Systems.0.0.0.0.0.0. each router builds its SPF tree using the same link-state information.0.

224 255.252 3-136 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.0 255.240 255.255.255.3 © 2006. .0/20 into multiple /28 subnets? (Source: Implementing Variable-Length Subnet Masks) A) B) C) D) 16 32 256 1024 Q35) How many hosts can be addressed on a subnet that has 7 host bits? (Source: Implementing Variable-Length Subnet Masks) A) B) C) D) 7 62 126 252 Q36) How many hosts can be addressed with a prefix of /30? (Source: Implementing Variable-Length Subnet Masks) A) B) C) D) 1 2 4 30 Q37) Which subnet mask would be appropriate for a class C address used for 9 LANs.255.32.255.255.255.17. Cisco Systems.255. each with 12 hosts? (Source: Implementing Variable-Length Subnet Masks) A) B) C) D) 255.255. Inc.Q32) What is the purpose of the show ip ospf interface command? (Source: Enabling OSPF) A) B) C) D) to display OSPF-related interface information to display general information about OSPF routing processes to display OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis to display OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface type basis Q33) The output from which command includes information about the length of the OSPF packet? (Source: Enabling OSPF) A) B) C) D) debug ip ospf events debug ip ospf packet debug ip ospf packet size debug ip ospf mpls traffic-eng advertisements Q34) How many subnets are gained by subnetting 172.

C D B A A A B C C B C © 2006. Determining IP Routes 3-137 .Module Self-Check Answer Key Q1) Q2) Q3) Q4) Q5) Q6) Q7) Q8) Q9) Q10) Q11) Q12) Q13) Q14) Q15) Q16) Q17) Q18) Q19) Q20) Q21) Q22) Q23) Q24) Q25) Q26) Q27) Q28) Q29) Q30) Q31) Q32) Q33) Q34) Q35) Q36) Q37) B D B B C A C B A A B B A A. Cisco Systems. Inc. C D A C B A B D A A C C D A.

3 © 2006. Inc. Cisco Systems. .3-138 Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) v2.

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