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Covalent Bonding

8.1: Molecular compunds vs Ionic Compounds

-- The bond structure affects properties in both
-- Molecular compounds do not trade electrons, they share

We know that to make an ionic compounds the ions had to have

opposite charges. Could two hydrogen ions make an ionic
No, but two hydrogen molecules could make a molecular compund.
Guess how:

How many different ways can we represent a hydrogen molecule?

H2 H-H H:H H:H

Try these for a chlorine molecule.

Title: Jan 2­4:34 PM (1 of 22)
Atoms form molecules which form molecular 

Compare this to ionic compounds in Fig. 8.3.
List the differences and similarities between ionic and 
molecular compounds.

Molecular compounds have a lower melting and boiling 
point than ionic compounds.  They are often liquid or 
gas at room temperature and are usually formed from 
two or more non­metals.

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Molecular formula: a way to represent the composition 
of a molecule
For example:  C2H6  

Subscripts refer to the actual number of atoms in the 
molecule, not the lowest whole number ratio, like in 
ionic compunds.

Sometime there is onlt one type of atom:  O 2

The molecular formula does not tell you about the 
structure or arrangement of the atoms.

Use your model kit to build the molecules in Fig. 8.6

Title: Jan 2­4:47 PM (3 of 22)
Given these formulas:
Br2 KBr CH4 SO3 N2H2 Ne2

Which do not exist?

Which are ionic compunds?
Which represent molecules?
Which represent compounds?
How many atoms are in each molecule?

Title: Jan 2­4:59 PM (4 of 22)
8.2 Covalent Bonding

Instead of trading electrons (like ionic bonds)

covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons.

Sharing one pair of e- is a single covalent bond.

ex) H2 is H : H or H-H
F2 is
H2O is
NH3 is
CH3 is

Title: Jan 2­5:04 PM (5 of 22)
Try conceptual problem 8.1.

Next, draw electron dot structures for each element

in the second row of the periodic table.

How many bonds much each atom form to attain

noble gas configuration?
Can Li form a covalent bond to reach stability?
Which elements can reach stability by forming
covalent bonds?
Can F form an ionic bond?
Are the bonds in N2 ionic or covalent?

Title: Jan 2­5:18 PM (6 of 22)
Diatomic Molecules:
Diatomic molecules are formed from two of the
same element covalently bonded (with a single double
or triple bond).

Predict the form of a diatomic flourine molecule.

How might O2bond to get a complete octet?

It forms a double bond where it share two pairs
of electrons.

How might N2 bond to get a complete octet?

It forms a triple bond where it shares three
pairs of electrons.

Predict what other diatomic molecules are out there.

Title: Jan 2­5:24 PM (7 of 22)
Double and triple bonds exist in other molecules
besides diatomics.

Predict what would happen with CO2

What would happen with CO?

Oxygen will share one of its electron pairs.

When a covalent bond is formed by one shared
electron pair being donated from one atom it is called
a coordinate covalent bond.

Title: Jan 3­7:49 AM (8 of 22)
Predict the bonding structure for NH4+
(But first NH4+ is a polyatomic ion. What is

The ammonium ion forms when a hydrogen ions joins

with ammonia NH3

We notatate a coordinate covalent bond with an

arrow from the atom that is doing the sharing to the
atom that needs the pair.

Title: Jan 3­7:53 AM (9 of 22)
Every polyatomic ion wants to have a completed octet.
They can gain electrons through covalent bonds,
coordinate covalent bonds, and simply by gaining
electrons to form ions.

Predict the electron structure for SO32-

Lets do Conceptual Problem 8.2, then do 9­12 on your 

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Bond Dissociation Energy
Energy is released when H2 forms ­­ this indicates 
that the product is more stable than the reactant.  
Energy is needed to break the bond between the 
hydrogens ­­ this energy is called bond dissociation 

If the BDE for... 
C­C is 347 kJ/mol 
C=C is 657 kJ/mol  
C≡C is 908 kJ/mol
...which type of bond do you think is the strongest?

Title: Jan 3­8:19 AM (11 of 22)
Resonance: The quality or condition of being resonant:
words that had resonance throughout his life.

What does this mean? You define resonance.

In chemistry, resonance structures exist when a

molecule can have two or more valid configurations
and the molecule exists in a halfway state between
the two possibilities.
For example: O-O=O <=> O=O-O
-- These structures are highly stable
-- They are indicated by drawing a double ended
arrow between the possible structures.
Read R31 about ozone.

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Exceptions to the octet rule:
The octet rule is a good guideline, but there are
some molecules that cannot gaincompleted octets and
there are some that are more stable with more of
less in their valence shells.

For example:
NO2 O-N=O <=> O=N-O




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8.3 Bonding Theories

Molecular orbital theory draws on quantum mechanics to

predict the shape of orbitals in bonding.

Sigma (σ) Bonds: Form between two orbitals when they overlap
symmetrically around the bond axis.

S      +     S                              Sigma Bond

A Pi (π) Bond overlaps on either side of the bond axis.

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VSPER (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory

What can we predict about this theory based on its name?

Normally we draw methane (CH4) like this:

but in real life methane exists in 3D, spread out in space, and the
electron pairs repel each other (why?). If all electron pairs repel
equally the molecule assumes a shape called tetrahedral, where the
angle between each bond is 109.5.

Title: Jan 4­8:17 AM (15 of 22)
If the molecule has an unshared pair of electrons they are more
strongly attracted to their atom and push the shared pairs farther
away, resulting in a bond angle of 107.

For example, NH3

If there are two unshared pairs, they both are pushing on the shared
pairs and make bond angles of 105.

For example, H2O

Predict what bond angle CO2 would form -- first draw its electron dot

Title: Jan 4­8:24 AM (16 of 22)
First look at a molecule electron dot structure. Know that bonded pairs
of electrons repel each other equally, but unbonded pairs will repel the
bonded pairs more strongly. All electron pairs will stay as far apart as
possible. If there are four bonding pairs, the shape will be tetrahedral
with bond angles of 109.5.

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Hybrid Orbital Theory

A carbon atom has ___ valence electrons. Its electron structure is

2s22p2. But it is more stable to promote one electron and have 2s12p3.
In hybrid orbital theory these four orbitals combine to make 4 sp3
orbitals. This allows each of the orbitals to bond equally with the s
orbitals of H.

This theory also explains double bonds.

In ethene (C2H4) the C orbitals hybridize to make 3 sp2 orbitals and one
regular p orbital.

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What about triple bonds?
Ethyne (C2H2) hybridizes to form 2 sp orbitals and 2 regular p orbitals.

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8.4 Polar Bonds and Molecules

In a covalent bond a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms.

Both atoms are attracted to and pulling on the electron pair and that it
what forms the bond.

If both atoms are pulling equally on the electrons, the bond is a non-
polar covalent bond.

If one atom is pulling more strongly on the electrons, that atom gains a
slightly negative charge and the other atom gains a slightly positive
charge and the bond is called polar covalent.

Title: Jan 4­8:59 AM (20 of 22)
The relative electronegativities of the atoms determine their pull on
the electrons.

What is electronegativity?
Which element is the most electronegative?
Which is the least?

In HCl, the e.n. of H= 2.1, the e.n. of Cl= 3.0. Which atom pulls the
elctrons more strongly? Which has a more negative charge? Which a
more positive charge?

Look at table 8.3 to determine what type of bond will be formed.

Do Conceptual Problem 8.3.

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Polar Molecules
A molecule with two poles is called a dipole. If the molecule is linear,
the polarities will cancel out: O=C=O

Become an expert on types of attraction between

Dipole interactions --

Dispersion forces --

Hydrogen bonds --

Network solids --

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