GRUNDFOS PUMP HANDBOOK

PUMP HANDBOOK

Copyright 2008 GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation. All rights reserved. Copyright law and international treaties protect this material. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior written permission from GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation. Trademarks and tradenames mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners. Disclaimer All reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this material; however, GRUNDFOS shall not be liable or responsible for any loss whether direct, indirect, incidental or consequential arising out of the use of or reliance upon any of the contents of this material.

Foreword
Today’s processes place heavy demand on pumps when it comes to optimum operation, high reliability and low energy consumption. Therefore, we have developed the Grundfos Pump Handbook which, in a simple manner, deals with various considerations when sizing pumps and pump systems. This handbook, developed for engineers and technicians who work with design and the installation of pumps and pump systems, includes answers to a wide range of technical questions. The handbook can either be read from cover-to-cover or in part on specific topics. The handbook is divided into five chapters which deal with different phases when designing pump systems. Chapter 1 includes a general presentation of different pump types and components. Also described are precautions to consider when dealing with viscous liquids. Further, the most used materials, as well as different types of corrosion, are presented. Terminologies in connection with reading pump performance are presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with system hydraulics and some of the most important factors to consider for optimum operation of the pump system. Pump performance adjustment methods are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes life cycle costs, as energy consumption plays an important role in today’s pumps and pump systems. We sincerely hope that you will find this handbook useful in your daily work.

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.....2 Split-case pumps........................2 Pump performance .......................... 40 1....................... ..5........................................... .....................................18 1...................2 Pump curves.....1 Standards.4................14 1.......................................8 Multistage pumps...........................30 1........... ....2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals.36 Section 1.76 2.................................................6 Materials......1 Hydraulic terms...........5 Plastics..........1 New installation...5...............27 1.......................................................1 What is corrosion?................................................................47 1....1........................2......................................................3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump.....................1 Standard pumps..............................7 Single-stage pumps..........8 Positive displacement pumps.....................................2 Existing installation-replacement...................................................................2..... ..76 2...... ............5...............4 Ceramics..........................................23 1...........................................................................1.....3 Metal and metal alloys.....9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps...........................................6............. 17 1.............. 72 1..........................................................................................................................2............4 Sanitary pumps.................47 1.......................................24 Section 1........1...7 Groundwater pumps..... 15 1......6.................. ..........3 Liquid properties......5 Factors affecting the seal performance............................2 Types of corrosion.....2 Non-Newtonian liquids..........1 Pump construction .............. 83 2..................2 Electrical terms........................................1.......4.....................................7 Section 1..............................................................6.................................................1..............................................34 1.........................9 1......................................3 Hermetically sealed pumps............................................1....................................2............2..1....................6 Casing types (radial forces)............................75 Section 2.........................................20 1.... 90 2.. 17 1........................17 1...........................5 Liquids .............................3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation.....1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function.......4 Motors ...............................2 Motor start-up.............................................................3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump....................5...6.........................22 1........ 55 1.......................2 Types of pumps ............1.........1 Pump installation .....16 1.....5................................. 59 1........... 76 2.....3........1......6 Immersible pumps................ ..4....... 15 1........... 46 1............4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze....65 1...................................................................................................................................................5 Wastewater pumps........................................................................................... 8 1............................................ 49 Section 1.......1................................2..........................4 Seal face material combinations................................... 39 1...............................................5..........29 1..................................................................................................................................................58 Section 1.3 Voltage supply.................1 The centrifugal pump ..........31 1......................................................61 1..3 Mechanical shaft seals ................... 55 1............................................1.........................................................................5 Impeller types (axial forces).............1.... 60 1....................16 Section 1.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals.......... 71 1.....Table of Contents Chapter 1 Design of pumps and motors ..................................................................................4 Limitation of noise and vibrations...........5 Motor protection............................ 71 1..................1.............2...3..........................................1.............................................................................................4 Most common end-suction and in-line pump types.....83 2...3......93 ..........3.................2.................... 12 1.........6.......................6..... ......................6............. 21 1...........6 Rubber................4...............................5 Calculation example.......................56 1......................1 Viscous liquids..........7 Coatings............................................ 8 1..............................................78 2.................. 73 Chapter 2 Installation and performance reading.................2........................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Computer-aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids..........................................81 Section 2.....................................2...................................3...............58 1............ 77 2...............53 1............................. 11 1........................2......4.............................................4 Frequency converter...54 1..........5 Sound level ...................

....................... 130 5.............137 E) Orifice .................4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control........................................................138 F) Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter...........................................................1 System characteristics ......................................................2 Life cycle costs calculation – an example ......... .......................1 Pumps in parallel.................................2 Components of the frequency converter.........................................2 Pumps connected in series............................................................. 128 5............1....................... 114 4.. ....................4.....1...........1 Constant pressure control......4 Operating costs including labor (Co)...............2 Bypass control............................................1.........................5.....................................2 Speed-controlled pump solutions .............119 Section 4.............5...................................... 118 4...........97 3.............2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems...... 136 D) Vapor pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures.... ......................153-157 Index .........................................................................................................1............110 4...............................................135 C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet................................................................. 151 J) Pump standards.3 Advantages of speed control.................................. 111 4..................114 4......................2 Pumps connected in parallel and series..........................7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20%............ 115 4........................... 140 H) Nomogram for head losses in bends......................................1 Throttle control.....................................................122 4.........Chapter 3 System hydraulics.............................1...... 98 Section 3............ 129 5. 122 4................ 115 4.........................................................117 Section 5.................................................2................2....... 108 4............................ ......................................................7 Downtime costs (loss of production) (Cs)........................................96 3... 130 5.... etc..........152 K) Viscosity for typical liquids as a function of liquid temperature................................ ...............................................5. 158-162 Section 4...............................................................................106 4.................... 131 5... 108 4.........133 A) Notations and units.....1.....................................................107 4......................5 Comparison of adjustment methods..........2...........................4..........2.................... ................................................................................ 95 Section 3.........5 Frequency converter ... 131 5...... 103 Chapter 5 Life cycle costs calculation ...........................................................1 Performance curves of speed-controlled pumps...........1........122 4.................1.....1...2 Closed and open systems..................... ................................2.............1.....6 Maintenance and repair costs (Cm)....... 141-150 I) Periodic system...........1 Initial cost.....................................3 Modifying impeller diameter..................................................101 3... 139 G) Nozzles........................................................................................................2 Constant temperature control....................8 Decommissioning or disposal costs (Cd)...............1..........107 4......................116 Section 4..............3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system..............................................1...3 Energy costs (Ce)....1..... 131 Section 5...........1 Adjusting pump performance .............1....................................................................................................................... purchase price (Cic).....2...........1..................................4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter................ 130 5................................................ 105 Section 4......................................................................................1 Basic function and characteristics............5 Environmental costs (Cenv)..................................................1...............134 B) Unit conversion tables................................... 129 5..............................................................101 3.............................. ...............124 ........................1.........119 4.4 Speed control..3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters.....................................6 Overall efficiency of the pump system......132 Appendix.2 Installation and commissioning costs (Cin).................................1 Single resistances....................................1 Life cycle costs equation ........... valves............. 111 Section 4.............. ...............127 Chapter 4 Performance adjustment of pumps.................................

1.6 1.5 1.1 1.8 1.1.2 1.7 1. Design of pumps and motors Section 1.4 1.2.2: Types of pumps 1.2.2.1.1.2.2 1.3 1.2.2.Chapter 1.1: Pump construction 1.4 1.1.1.3 1.1.6 1.9 The centrifugal pump Pump curves Characteristics of the centrifugal pump Most common end-suction and in-line pump types Impeller types (axial forces) Casing types (radial forces) Single-stage pumps Multistage pumps Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps Section 1.8 Standard pumps Split-case pumps Hermetically sealed pumps Sanitary pumps Wastewater pumps Immersible pumps Groundwater pumps Positive displacement pumps .1 1.2.1.5 1.2.1.7 1.

1.1. and installation. and its high speed makes it possible to connect the pump directly to an asynchronous motor. Figure 1. see section 1. The inlet of the pump leads the liquid to the center of the rotating impeller from where it is flung towards the periphery. Fig. are fitted with an impeller that prevents objects from getting lodged inside the pump.1 for liquid flow through the pump. Radial flow pumps and mixed flow pumps are the most common. mixed flow pumps and axial flow pumps.3: Flow and head for different types of centrifugal pumps 8 .Section 1.1. 1. the centrifugal pump can be categorized in different groups: Radial flow pumps.3 shows the different pump types with regard to flow and head.2. The different demands on the centrifugal pump’s performance. are only a few of the reasons why so many types of pumps exist.2: Different kinds of centrifugal pumps H [ft] H [m] 10000 6 4 2 1000 6 4 2 100 6 4 2 10 6 4 2 1 2 4 6 10 2 4 6 100 2 Mixed flow pumps Single-stage radial flow pumps Multistage radial flow pumps 10000 1000 100 10 Axial flow pumps 4 6 1000 2 4 6 10000 100000 3 Q [m /h] Q [GPM] 100000 10 100 1000 10000 Fig.1 Pump construction 1. 1. The centrifugal pump is built on a simple principle: Liquid is led to the impeller hub and is flung towards the periphery of the impeller by means of centrifugal force. See figure 1. The centrifugal pump provides a steady liquid flow.1: The liquids flow through the pump The construction is fairly inexpensive. especially with regard to head. These types of pumps are discussed on the following pages with a brief presentation of a positive displacement pump in section 1. This construction provides high efficiency and is suitable for handling pure liquids. Today.1. Radial flow pump Mixed flow pump Axial flow pump Fig.1 The centrifugal pump In 1689.8. As you can tell from figure 1. If a pressure difference occurs in the system while the centrifugal pump is not running. 1. the physicist Denis Papin invented the centrifugal pump.1. liquid can still pass through due to its open design. and it can easily be throttled without causing any damage to the pump.5.1.2. flow. such as wastewater pumps.1. together with the demands for economical operation.2. this kind of pump is the most commonly used around the world. robust and simple. Pumps which have to handle impure liquids.

In some pump types with integrated motors and possibly integrated frequency converters. pump curves in Grundfos product guides only cover the liquid end hydraulic performance. Head. see section 2. [ft] H 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Efficiency 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Q [GPM] Fig. The performance curves for a centrifugal pump are shown in figure 1.3). canned motor pumps (see section 1. Therefore.6.5: The curves for power consumption and efficiency will normally only cover the pump part of the unit – i.1. see figure 1.5. [ft] H η [%] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 70 60 Efficiency 50 40 30 20 10 Q [GPM] 0 P2 [hp] 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0.4. efficiency and NPSH are shown as a function of the flow.1. The same applies for efficiency value.1. the QH-curve The QH-curve shows the head. the power consumption. In general.6 0.2 for more information.2 0 Power consumption NPSH (ft) 20 15 10 NPSH 5 0 Fig.1.6: A typical QH-curve for a centrifugal pump.e. 1. 1. which only covers the liquid end (η = ηP).1.4 0. the power consumption curve and the η-curve cover both the motor and the pump. the P2-value which is listed in the product guides as well. e. Normally.g. identifying where the pump is able to perform at a given flow. see figure 1. only covers the power going into the pump – see figure 1. power consumption. efficiency and NPSH are shown as a function of the flow Q P1 M 3~ P2 H ηM ηP Fig. Head is measured in feet liquid column [ft]. which specifies the tolerances of the curves. pump curves are designed according to Hydraulic Institute test standards or ISO 9906 Annex A.1. normally the unit feet [ft] is applied.1. P2 and ηP Following is a brief presentation of the different pump performance curves.2 Pump curves The performance of a centrifugal pump is shown by a set of performance curves.4: Typical performance curves for a centrifugal pump.4.1. power consumption. In this case the P1-value has to be taken into account. The advantage of using the unit [ft] as the unit of measurement for a pump’s head is that the QH-curve is not affected by the type of liquid the pump has to handle. low flow results in high head and high flow results in low head 9 . Head. 1.2.1. Head.

ηp is the pump efficiency For water at 68oF and with Q measured in GPM and H in ft.curve (Net Positive Suction Head Required) The NPSHr value of a pump is the minimum absolute head pressure that has to be present at the suction 10 5 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 Q [GPM] Fig. the η-curve The efficiency is the relationship between the supplied power and the utilized amount of power.1 Pump construction Efficiency. Power consumption.1. the efficiency depends on the duty point of the pump. For more information concerning cavitation and NPSH. The NPSHr value is measured in [ft] and depends on the flow. the NPSHr value increases.1).9: The NPSH curve of a typical centrifugal pump 10 .1.2. H 33.1. the efficiency ηp is the relationship between the power which the pump delivers to the water (PH) and the power input to the shaft (P2 ): side of the pump to avoid cavitation (see section 2. In the world of pumps. 1.1.000 The relationship between the power consumption of the pump and the flow is shown in figure 1. ηp = QH . the hydraulic power can be calculated as: 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 17 5 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 Q [GPM] Fig. 1. SG PH = 3960 x P2 P2 η [%] 80 70 60 where: SG is the specific gravity of the liquid.8. When flow increases.9.Section 1.7: The efficiency curve of a typical centrifugal pump PH = lb of liquid per minute . go to section 2. Q [GPM] Fig.7. H . The P2-curve of most centrifugal pumps is similar to the one in figure 1.8 where the P2 value increases when the flow increases. Q is the flow in GPM and H is the head in ft.1. SG P2 = 3960 x ηp As it appears from the efficiency curve shown in figure 1.8: The power consumption curve of a typical centrifugal pump NPSH [ft] 20 15 NPSH . It is important to select a pump that fits the flow requirements and ensures the pump is working in the most efficient flow area.2. the P2-curve P2 [hp] 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 25 0 275 300 325 Q .1. 1.1.1. see figure 1.

3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump The centrifugal pump has several characteristics and the most important ones are presented in this chapter. go to section 1.6.4.1.1. go to section 1. A more thorough description of the different pump types are given at the end of the chapter.1. • The number of stages Depending on the number of impellers in the pump.1. go to section 1.10: Example of multiple stage pump 11 . For more information. Fig 1. For more information. • The position of the pump shaft Single-stage and multistage pumps come with horizontal or vertical pump shafts and are normally designated as horizontal or vertical pumps.1.5. • Construction of the pump casing Two types of pump casings are discussed: Volute casing and return channels. a centrifugal pump can be either a single-stage pump or a multistage pump. a pump can be fitted with either a single-suction impeller or a double-suction impeller. • Single-suction or double-suction impellers Depending on the construction of the impeller.1. For more information.

Section 1.9 Liquid runs directly through the pump in-line. The motor and the pump have separate bearing constructions.1. See section 1. Inlet and outlet have a 90° angle.1. See section 1. See section 1.4 Most common end-suction and in-line pump types End-suction Horizontal Single-stage Multistage Long-coupled Close-coupled Close-coupled End-suction pump In-line pump Split-case pump Horizontal pump Vertical pump Single-stage pump Multistage pump Long-coupled pump Close-coupled pump = = = = = = = = = Liquid runs directly into the impeller. See section 1.9 Pump connects to the motor by means of a rigid coupling.1. The suction pipe and the discharge pipe are placed opposite one another and can be mounted directly in the piping system Pump with an axially divided pump housing.1 Pump construction 1.9 12 .2 Pump with a horizontal pump shaft Pump with a vertical pump shaft Pump with a single impeller. See section 1. See section 1.2.7 Pump with several series-coupled stages.1.1.1.8 Pump connects to the motor by means of a flexible coupling.

In-line Horizontal Vertical Split-case Single-stage Single-stage Long-coupled Long-coupled Close-coupled Close-coupled Multistage 13 .

17: Balancing the axial forces in a double-suction impeller arrangement 14 .1.1. 1. exerting forces on both stationary and rotating parts of the pump. 1.14 • Via throttle regulation from a seal ring mounted on the back of the impellers.1.16: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with blades on the back of the impellers Fig. While the shrouds result in a slightly lower mechanical efficiency. the forces have to be taken into consideration when selecting the driving system for the pump.1.14: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with balancing holes only Fig.1.Section 1. such as angular contact bearings in the motor.15 • Via blades on the back of the impeller. enclosed and semi-open. The enclosed impeller has vanes sandwiched between two shrouds. see figure 1.12 and 1. 1. 1.16 • Through the use of double-suction impellers. Pump parts are made to withstand these forces.1. The semi-open impeller has a single shroud on one side of the vanes and it leaves one side open. Open Fig. large axial forces may occur. see figure 1.13. These forces are balanced or avoided as follows: • Mechanically via thrust bearings.5 Impeller types There are three common types of pump impellers: open. see figure 1.1.1.1. This design usually includes replaceable wear rings so critical clearances can be renewed. see figures 1.1.1. 1. If axial and radial forces are not counterbalanced in the pump. non-abrasive fluids or fluids with large solids. see figure 1.1. they decrease the amount of pump casing wear caused by dirty or abrasive liquids. 1.13: Standard pump with single-suction impeller Axial Force Balancing A centrifugal pump generates pressure. The open impeller has a series of vanes attached to the center hub and is commonly chosen for low horsepower applications of clean.1.1. This design can handle abrasives or solids well and often allows for simple axial adjustment of critical impeller-to-casing clearances without pump disassembly.11: Impeller types Semi-open Enclosed Axial forces Fig.15: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with seal ring gap at discharge side and balancing holes Fig. In pumps fitted with a single-suction impeller. see figure 1.12: Single-suction impeller Fig.1. 1.17 Fig.1 Pump construction 1. • Via balancing holes on the impeller.11.

3.1.20. single-stage pumps operate in the range of 6-300 ft. The magnitude and the direction of the radial force depend on the flow rate and the head.1. At all other points.19: Single-volute casing Double-volute casing Radial force Single-volute casing Double-volute casing 1.1.21) are used in multistage pumps and have the same function as volute casings. it is possible to control the hydraulic radial forces.1. see figure 1.1. which leads to zero radial load.20: Radial force for single and double-volute casing Fig. As seen in figure 1. Fig. Single-stage pumps are characterized by a low head relative to the flow.6 Casing types Radial forces are a result of the static pressure in the casing.7 Single-stage pumps Generally.23.1. 1. When designing the casing for the pump. the double-volute casing develops a constant low radial reaction force at any capacity.1.0 Q/Qopt Fig. no radial forces are present. As seen in figure 1.22 and 1. 1.1. 1.1. Because of the return channel casing’s circular design. axial deflections may occur and lead to interference between the impeller and the casing. The single-volute pump is characterized by a symmetric pressure in the volute at the optimum efficiency point. 1. water rotation is reduced and the dynamic pressure is transformed into static pressure.19. Return channels (figure 1.22: Horizontal single-stage Fig. Therefore. Single-stage pumps come in both a vertical and horizontal design.1. 1.1.18: Single-suction impeller Radial forces Fig. Fig.21: Vertical multistage in-line pump with return channel casing Return channel 1. Liquid is led from one impeller to the next. see figures 1. Normally.1. The double-volute has a guide vane. At the same time.1. both casings are shaped as a volute. 1.1. the pressure around the impeller is not symmetrically equal and consequently a radial force is present.1. Two casing types worth mentioning are the single-volute and the double-volute. single-stage pumps are used in applications that do not require a total head of more than 450 ft.23: Vertical single-stage end-suction close-coupled pump in-line close-coupled pump 15 .

1.8 Multistage pumps Multistage pumps are used in installations where a high head is needed. see figure 1. Fig. Due to design. Close-coupled pumps These pumps can be constructed as follows: The pump’s impeller can be mounted directly on the extended motor shaft or the pump can have a standard motor and a rigid or a spacer coupling.27: Long-coupled pump with spacer coupling 1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps Long-coupled pumps Long-coupled pumps have a flexible coupling (basic or spacer) that connects the pump and the motor.Section 1.1. multistage pumps offer higher efficiencies when compared to single-stage end-suction pumps resulting in energy savings.26.1. The final head that a multistage pump delivers is equal to the sum of the pressure that each of the stages provide.1.24 and 1. see figures 1. horizontal multistage pumps meet flow and head requirements of single-stage end-suction pumps but with significant reductions in required horsepower. Multistage Pumps This type of pump is somewhat unique. the pump can be serviced without removing the motor and alignment is less of an issue. 1.1. the motor must be disconnected when the pump is serviced. Horizontal.1.1 Pump construction 1. 1.8.29: Close-coupled pump with impeller directly mounted on motor shaft 16 .26: Long-coupled pump with basic coupling Fig.1. Multistage pumps provide high head relative to the flow and have a steeper curve that is more advantageous for variable speed drive. 1.25: Horizontal multistage end-suction pump Fig. see figure 1.28: Close-coupled pump with rigid coupling Fig. With the same benefits mentioned in 1.1. Fig.1.1. also known as variable frequency drive (VFD) applications.1.1. If the pump is connected to the motor by a basic coupling.25.1. Several stages are connected in series and the flow is guided from the outlet of one stage to the inlet of the next.24: Vertical multistage in-line pump Fig. horizontal multistage pumps do not encounter the same vibration problems often associated with single-stage end-suction pumps. 1.27. In general. The pump must therefore be aligned upon mounting. the multistage pump is available in both vertical and horizontal versions. see figures 1.29. 1.1.28 and 1.1. Like the single-stage pump. If the pump is fitted with a spacer coupling.

This standard includes dimensional interchangeability requirements and certain design features to facilitate installation and maintenance.Section 1. 1.2. Pumps designed according to standards provide end users with advantages in installation.1: Long-coupled standard pump • DIN 24255 applies to end-suction centrifugal pumps. A standard pump is a pump that complies with official regulations pertaining to the pump’s duty point. with a rated pressure (PN) of 145 psi.4: Split-case pump with double-suction impeller 17 .2.2 Split-case pumps A split-case pump is designed with the pump housing divided axially into two parts.2. 1. spare parts and maintenance.2.2: Bare shaft standard pump 1.2. Usually. split-case pumps have a rather high efficiency.4 shows a single-stage split-case pump with a double-suction impeller.1 Standard pumps Few international standards deal with centrifugal pumps. centerline design. many countries have their own standards. Fig. The double-inlet construction eliminates the axial forces and ensures a longer life span of the bearings. service. no international standards are set for these parts. 1.2 Types of pumps 1.1 standard covers centrifugal pumps of horizontal end-suction single-stage.3: Long-coupled split-case pump Fig. The hydraulic parts of these pump types vary according to the manufacturer – so. In fact.2. The standards mentioned above cover the installation dimensions and the duty points of the different pump types. are easy to service and have a wide performance range. Fig.2. 1. Fig. also known as standard water pumps. A couple of examples of international standards for pumps follow: • ANSI B73. which more or less overlap one another. Figure 1.

This type of pump is typically used in heating or cooling applications because the construction provides low noise and maintenancefree operation.5.Section 1.2. 1. 1. solids in the pumped liquid. see figures 1. Another solution is to use a hermetically sealed pump.2. 1. The most common canned motor pump type is the circulator pump. The pumped liquid is allowed to enter the rotor chamber that is separated from the stator by a thin rotor can. which consequently leads to leakage. such as plastics or stainless steel. Usually.2.6 and 1. Motor can Fig.6: Chemical pump with canned motor Motor can Fig. The disadvantage of the mechanical shaft seal is its poor handling of toxic and aggressive liquids.2.2 Types of pumps 1. There are two types of hermetically sealed pumps: Canned motor pumps and magnetic-driven pumps. Liquid Seal Atmosphere Fig. this is addressed by a mechanical shaft seal.2. see figure 1. if any.5: Example of a standard pump with mechanical shaft seal Canned motor pumps A canned motor pump is a hermetically sealed pump with the motor and pump integrated in one unit without a seal. The rotor can serves as a hermetically sealed barrier between the liquid and the motor. that can withstand aggressive liquids. Chemical pumps are made of materials.2. additional information about these pumps is provided.2.7. This problem can often be solved by using a double mechanical shaft seal. In the following two sections.3 Hermetically sealed pumps The penetration point of the pump liquid by the shaft that allows it to connect to the impeller has to be sealed.7: Circulator pump with canned motor 18 . A disadvantage of hermetically sealed pumps is that they can handle very little.

8.2. The torque from the pump drive is transmitted to the pump shaft by means of attraction between the inner and outer magnets. The pumped liquid serves as lubricant for the bearings in the pump. As it appears from figure 1.2. magnetic-driven pumps have become increasingly popular for transferring aggressive and toxic liquids. The can serves as a hermetically sealed barrier between the liquid and the atmosphere. the magnetic-driven pump is made of two groups of magnets: An inner magnet and an outer magnet.9.2. 1.9: Magnetic-driven multistage pump 19 . the outer magnet is connected to the pump drive and the inner magnet is connected to the pump shaft.2.8: Construction of magnetic drive Inner magnets Can Outer magnets Fig. A non-magnetic can separate these two magnets. Therefore.Magnetic-driven pumps In recent years. Outer magnets Inner magnets Can Fig. As shown in figure 1. 1. sufficient venting is crucial for the bearings.

2. These materials have a compact pore-free surface finish that can be easily worked up to meet the various surface finish requirements.4 Sanitary pumps Sanitary pumps are mainly used in food.12.. This can be best achieved by using forged or deep-drawn rolled stainless steel as the material of construction.1. recommended interior surface finishes range from 32 µ-in for food and beverage applications down to 10 µ-in for bioprocessing applications.S. pharmaceutical and bio-technological industries where liquid is pumped gently and pumps are easy to clean using clean-in-place (CIP) techniques. The U. 1.2 Types of pumps 1.Section 1.2. the pumps have to have a surface roughness less than 32 µ-in (0. see figure 1. In order to meet process requirements in these industries. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the voluntary standards developed by 3-A Sanitary Standards Inc. manufacturers of sanitary pumps have designed their products to meet the material specifications of the U.1.12: Roughness of material surfaces 20 .10: Sanitary pump Fig.11: Sanitary self-priming side-channel pump Precision casting Rolled steel Fig.8 µ-m) or better. beverage.2. The leading U.2. as well as other well known globally-recognized standards such as: EHEDG – European Hygienic Engineering Design Group QHD – Qualified Hygienic Design Sand casting Fig. The main features of a sanitary pump are ease of cleaning and ease of maintenance.2.S.S.

2.5 Wastewater pumps Wastewater pumps can be classified as submersible and dry pit pumps. Figure 1.2. double rails are normally used.2. Normally. Group D environment. It is not necessary to enter the pit to perform service. in vertical or horizontal installations.e.2.13: Detail of a sewage pump for wet installations Fig.1.15: Impeller types for wastewater 21 .14. Divison I. 3-inch solids) and are fitted with special impellers to avoid blockage and clogging.13.2. three and fourchannel impellers and vortex impellers. This type of installation provides easy maintenance and repair as well as uninterrupted operation of the pump in case of flooding of the dry pit. Wastewater pumps are able to operate either intermittently or continuously. repair and replacement of the pump.15 shows the different designs of these impellers.2. Different types of impellers include: Single-channel impellers. Submersible wastewater pump motors are hermetically sealed and have a common extended shaft with a tandem mechanical shaft seal system in an intermediate oil chamber. Wastewater pumps with submersible motors shall carry the Underwriters Laboratories Inc label for class I. see figure 1. In submersible installations with sliderail systems. like conventional pumps. it is possible to connect and disconnect the pump automatically from the outside of the pit. 1. 1. depending on the installation in question. double-channel impellers. Fig.14: Wastewater pump for dry installations Vortex impeller Single-channel impeller Double-channel impeller Fig. wastewater pumps must be able to handle large particles (i. The auto-coupling system facilitates maintenance. see figure 1. 1. In fact.2. Wastewater pumps can also be installed dry.

2. Refer to page 14 for more discussion on impeller types. such as industrial washing and filtering systems. cooling units or in other industrial applications involving tanks or containers. 1 .Section 1.6 Immersible pumps An immersible pump is a pump type where the pump part is immersed in the pumped liquid and the motor is kept dry. Pumps with open or semi-open impellers are normally used for the dirty side of the filter because they can handle metal chips and particles. in chip conveyor systems. Immersible pumps are used in the machine tool industry. immersible pumps are mounted on top of or in the wall of tanks or containers. grinding machines.2 Types of pumps 1. machining centers. Fig. Pumps for machine tools can be divided into two groups: Pumps for the clean side of the filter and pumps for the dirty side of the filter.2. Pumps with closed impellers are normally used for the clean side of the filter because they provide a high efficiency and a high pressure if necessary.16: Immersible pump 22 . Normally.

The long shaft is a drawback in deep settings making installation difficult and requiring frequent service.17: Submersible turbine pump (A) and Line shaft turbine (B) 23 . Both pump types are used to pump groundwater from a well. and the entire assembly is submerged in a liquid. Submersible turbine pumps are specially designed to be fitted to a submersible motor. narrow wells. Line shaft turbine pumps have been replaced in many applications by submersible turbine pumps but are preferred for certain applications such as shallow wells and those applications requiring higher flow rates.500 GPM. 1. Because the line shaft turbine’s motor is aircooled.1.7 Groundwater pumps There are two primary types of pumps used for groundwater applications: The submersible turbine pump type. The liquid surrounding the submersible motor cools it. generally up to 2. The submersible motor is sealed to prevent water intrusion. and the line shaft turbine pump type with a motor mounted at the top of the well which is connected to the submerged pump by a long shaft.2. so submersible pumps are not suitable for hot water applications. they have a reduced diameter compared to above-ground pumps making them long and thin compared to most other pump types.2. it is often used in industrial applications to pump hot water. Submersible pumps are preferred in deep installations and those requiring low to medium flow rates. which features a pump directly attached to a submersible motor and are completely submerged in the groundwater. typically for water supply and irrigation. A B Fig. Because these pump types must fit into deep. and generally no regular maintenance is required on these pumps.

1. Fig. Even though the two pumps are designed with the same tolerances. a small change in the pump’s back pressure results in differences in the flow. However. Changing back pressure on rotary pumps will result in a minimal flow change. Two main types of positive displacement pumps include: H Fig.18: Rotary Lobe pump 24 . Depending on the pump type.Section 1. However. in some cases.2 Types of pumps 1. it is necessary to increase the tolerances. for example. 1. the flow of the reciprocating pump is almost constant with the back pressure change.2.2. rotary and reciprocating pumps is illustrated in figure 1. despite changes in the back pressure.19: Typical relation between flow and head for 3 different pump types: 1) Centrifugal pumps 2) Rotary pumps 3) Reciprocating pumps 1 H • Rotary pumps • Reciprocating pumps The difference in performance between centrifugal. liquids containing large particles or liquids of high temperature.8 Positive displacement pumps The positive displacement pump provides an approximate constant flow at fixed speed. The performance difference between reciprocating pumps and rotary pumps is due to the rotary pump’s larger seal surface area. when the pumps must handle highly viscous liquids.2.19.2. The flow of a centrifugal pump will change considerably with back pressure. the loss due 3 2 2 3 1 Q to the larger seal area of the rotary pump is greater. The pumps are typically designed with the finest tolerances possible to obtain the highest possible efficiency and suction capability.

2. thus improving its accuracy. because the diaphragm forms a seal between the liquid and the surroundings. which is activated by a camshaft. frequency converters can be connected to the larger diaphragm pumps. 1. the diaphragm is activated by the connecting rod. which is connected to a solenoid. Fig.2. The camshaft is turned by way of a standard asynchronous motor. The diaphragm pump is usually fitted with two or three non-return valves.21.21: Solenoid spring return + 1.2. In this case. Stepper motor drive design simplifies control of both the suction side and the discharge side of the pump. one or two on the suction side and one on the discharge side of the pump. stepper motor-driven diaphragm pumps enable a more steady dose of additive.22. Yet another kind of diaphragm pump exists. The flow of a diaphragm pump is adjusted by changing the stroke length and/or the frequency of the strokes.2. On larger diaphragm pumps. figures 1.22: Cam-drive assembly spring return + 1.Metering pumps The metering pump belongs to the positive displacement pump family and is typically of the diaphragm type. Compared to traditional electromagneticdriven diaphragm pumps which provide undesirable pulsations as well as fast wearing of mechanical and electrical parts caused by the solenoid operation.2.2. permitting the coil to receive the exact amount of strokes needed.23: Stepper motor drive 25 .2.2.1.2. Diaphragm pumps are leak-free. see figure 1.23. The result is optimized suction and operation due to full suction. the diaphragm is typically mounted on the connecting rod. A stepper motor drive increases the pump’s dynamic range. On smaller diaphragm pumps. This construction no longer requires stroke length adjustment because the connecting rod is mounted directly on the diaphragm. If it is necessary to expand the operating area. see figure 1. see figure 1. the diaphragm is activated by means of an eccentrically driven connecting rod powered by a stepper motor or a synchronous motor.20 and 1.20: Dosing pump Fig.22.

3.3.3: Mechanical shaft seals 1.3.3 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals 1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance . Design of pumps and motors Section 1.4 Seal face material combinations 1.3.2 Types of mechanical shaft seals 1.Chapter 1.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function 1.

and the factors that affect the mechanical shaft seal’s performance.Section 1. mechanical shaft seals provide the following advantages: • None or minimal leakage of the fluid being pumped.3. minimizing power loss • The shaft does not slide against any of the seal’s components and therefore reduces wear and associated repair costs. 1.3. materials used in mechanical shaft seals. consider the following: • Determine the type of liquid • Determine the pressure that the shaft seal is exposed to • Determine the speed that the shaft seal is exposed to • Determine the shaft-seal housing dimensions The following pages present how a mechanical shaft seal works. Compared to stuffing boxes. Before choosing shaft seal material and type.3 Mechanical shaft seals From the middle of the 1950s. Fig. • No adjustment required • Seal faces provide a small amount of friction. mechanical shaft seals gained ground in favor of the traditional sealing method . the different types of seals. Figure 1.the stuffing box.1 illustrates mechanical shaft seal mounting in different types of pumps.1: Pumps with mechanical shaft seals 28 . The mechanical shaft seal is the part of a pump that separates the liquid from the atmosphere.

Mechanical shaft seal Designation Seal face (primary seal) Rotating component Secondary seal Spring Spring retainer (torque transmission) Stationary component Seat (seal faces. 29 . Figure 1.2: The mechanical shaft seal’s components • The two primary seal faces are pushed against each other by the spring (or other devices such as a metal bellows) and the liquid pressure.3.2.4: Mechanical shaft seal in operation • The hydrostatic element is generated by the pumped liquid which is forced into the gap between the seal faces. During operation. 1.3. Fig. This film evaporates before it enters the atmosphere making the mechanical shaft seal leak-free.3: Main components of the mechanical shaft seal Primary seal • The spring retainer transmits torque from the shaft to the seal.3. The parts of a shaft seal are listed in figure 1. This lubricating film consists of a hydrostatic and a hydrodynamic film. Spring Secondary seal Primary seal Stationary part Rotating part Spring retainer Shaft • Secondary seals prevent leakage from occurring between the assembly and the shaft. the liquid forms a lubricating film between the seal faces. 1.3 shows where the different parts are placed in the seal. 1.3. a liquid film is produced in the narrow gap between the two seal faces. Vapor Evaporation begins Lubrication film Liquid force Spring force Seal gap During operation.1. Secondary seal • The spring or metal bellows press the seal faces together mechanically.4. Fig.3. The rotating component of the seal is fixed on the pump shaft and rotates when the pump operates. In connection with mechanical bellows shaft seals.3. torque is transferred directly through the bellows. Fig. see figure 1. • The hydrodynamic lubricating film is created by pressure generated by the shaft’s rotation.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function The mechanical shaft seal is made of two main components: A rotating part and a stationary part. primary seal) Static seal (secondary seal) • The stationary component of the seal is fixed in the pump housing.3.

With high liquid pressure. Balanced shaft seal Stationary seal face Rotating seal face Pump pressure Pressure Liquid Vapor Entrance in seal Atmosphere Figure 1.5: Optimum ratio between fine lubrication properties and limited leakage Unbalanced shaft seal Figure 1. resulting in less buildup of deposits. the liquid temperature. The narrow seal gap between these materials (approx.3. microscopic solids in the liquid remain in the seal gap as deposits. The liquid in the seal gap is continuously renewed due to: Contact area of seal faces Contact area of seal faces Spring forces Hydraulic forces Hydraulic forces • evaporation of the liquid to the atmosphere • Recirculation of the liquid Figure 1.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals To obtain an acceptable face pressure between the primary seal faces.7 shows an unbalanced shaft seal indicating where the forces impact the seal. A B A B Fig. it can become a problem.3. except for a very narrow evaporation zone close to the atmospheric side of the mechanical shaft seal.7: Impact of forces on the unbalanced shaft seal Several different forces have an axial impact on the seal faces.3. Because the hydraulic force is proportionate to the area that the liquid pressure affects. The best way to prevent wear is to select seal faces made of hard material such as WC (tungsten carbide) or SiC (silicon carbide). deposits build up quickly from evaporation at the atmosphere side of the seal. Ra 0. These deposits are seen with most types of liquid. When the pumped liquid crystallizes. the hydraulic forces can be so powerful that the lubricant in the seal gap cannot counteract the contact between the seal faces. When using coolant agents. The spring and the hydraulic forces from the pumped liquid press the seal together while the force from the lubricating film in the seal gap counteracts this. causing wear. the axial impact can only be reduced by obtaining a reduction of the pressure-loaded area. The optimum ratio occurs when the lubricating film covers the entire seal gap. The balancing ratio (K) of a mechanical shaft seal is 30 .3. 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals Start of evaporation 1 atm Exit into atmosphere 1.3 µin) minimizes the risk of solids entering the seal gap. two kinds of seal types exist: A balanced shaft seal and an unbalanced shaft seal. Deposits on the seal faces may cause leakage. 1.3. The thickness of the lubricating film depends on the pump speed.3. 1.6 shows a balanced shaft seal indicating where the forces impact on the seal.Section 1. Fig.6: Impact of forces on the balanced shaft seal Fig. When the liquid evaporates in the evaporation zone.5 shows the optimum ratio between fine lubrication properties and limited leakage. the viscosity of the liquid and the axial forces of the mechanical shaft seal.3.

00 K = 0.3. Incorrect positioning of the stationary seat may result in rubbing.3. which can cause wear on the O-ring and shaft.2. The O-ring must be able to slide freely in the axial direction to absorb axial displacements as a result of changes in temperature and wear. EPDM. Buna-N and FKM.3. cartridge single-unit seal. Buna -N and FKM. such as NBR.8: Wear rate for different balancing ratios O-ring seals Sealing between the rotating shaft and the rotating seal face is affected by an O-ring’s movement (see figure 1.10: Rubber bellows seal Advantages and disadvantages of rubber bellows seal Advantages: Not sensitive to deposits.85 68 104 140 176 212 230 Temperature (oF) 1. Two designs are used for rubber bellows: • Folding bellows • Rolling bellows Fig.3.10) can be made of different types of rubber. such as rust. depending on operating conditions. Rubber bellows seal with folding bellows geometry Rubber bellows seals The bellows of a rubber bellows seal (see figure 1. on the shaft Suitable for pumping solid-containing liquids Disadvantages: Not suitable in hot liquid and high pressure applications 31 .3. such as NBR.3. depending on the operating conditions. may prevent the O-ring shaft seal from moving axially causing leakage and premature failure Fig. 1. 1.defined as the ratio between the area A and the area B : K=A/B K = Balancing ratio A = Area exposed to hydraulic pressure B = Contact area of seal faces The balancing ratio for balanced shaft seals is around K=0. Fig.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals The main types of mechanical shaft seals include: Oring. Advantages and disadvantages of O-ring seal Advantages: Suitable in hot liquid and high pressure applications Disadvantages: Deposits on the shaft.8 and for unbalanced shaft seals is around K=1.15 K = 1. 1.9).9: O-ring seal Bellows seals Common to bellows seals is a rubber or metal bellows which functions as a dynamic sealing element between the rotating ring and the shaft. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Comparative wearC) Temperature (o rates valid for water K = 1. such as rust. EPDM. O-rings are made of different types of rubber material. bellows.

1.3. A cartridge seal offers many benefits compared to conventional mechanical shaft seals.3. Internal flushing is primarily used to prevent further heat generation from the seal in heating applications.3.Section 1. such as rust and lime.3. see figure 1. Metal bellows act both as a dynamic seal between the rotating ring and the shaft and as a spring. the spring produces the closing force required to close the seal faces. The bellows have a number of corrugations to provide the desired spring force. 1. In a metal bellows seal.13.12. the spring is replaced by a metal bellows with a similar force (see figure 1. Flushing In certain applications it is possible to extend the performance of the mechanical shaft seal by installing a flushing device.12: Cartridge seal • Safe handling Fig 1. Internal flushing is done when a small flow from the pump’s discharge side is bypassed to the seal area.3.3.11: Cartridge metal bellows seal Advantages and disadvantages of cartridge metal bellows seal Advantages: Not sensitive to deposits. Flushing can lower the temperature of the mechanical shaft seal and prevent deposits from occurring.11).3 Mechanical shaft seals Metal bellows seals In an ordinary mechanical shaft seal. all parts form a compact unit on a shaft sleeve and are ready to be installed. see figure 1. External flushing is done by a flushing liquid and is used to ensure trouble-free operation when handling liquids that are abrasive or contain clogging solids.13: Flushing device of a single mechanical shaft seal 32 . Fig. Fig. A flushing device can be installed internally or externally. on the shaft Suitable in hot liquid and high-pressure applications Low balancing ratio leads to low wear rate and consequently longer life Disadvantages: Fatigue failure of the mechanical shaft seal may occur when the pump is not aligned correctly Fatigue may occur as a result of excessive temperatures or pressures Advantages of the cartridge seal: • Easy and fast service • The design protects the seal faces • Preloaded spring Cartridge seals In a cartridge mechanical shaft seal.

one behind the other.3. see figure 1. 1. or too high/low pressure and temperature. External barrier liquid from the elevated tank circulates by thermosiphon action and/or by the pumping action in the seal. Tandem .3. Two types of double mechanical shaft seals include: The double seal in a tandem arrangement and the double seal in a back-to-back arrangement.16: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier liquid to drain 33 .3. 1.3. Fig.14. see figure 1.16.3.Double mechanical shaft seals Double mechanical shaft seals are used when the life span of a single mechanical shaft seal is insufficient due to wear caused by solids.dead end For external barrier liquid from an elevated tank.3.circulation For external barrier liquid circulation via a pressureless tank.3.14: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier Pumped liquid • liquid circulation • Absorbs leakage • Monitors the leakage rate • Lubricates and cools the outboard seal to prevent icing • Protects against dry-running • Stabilizes the lubricating film • Prevents air from entering the pump in case of vacuum Pressure of the external barrier liquid must always be lower than the pumped liquid pressure. Pumped liquid • • Pumped liquid Pumped liquid • • • • Tandem . Double mechanical shaft seals help protect the surroundings when aggressive and explosive liquids are pumped. The tandem seal arrangement must be fitted with an external barrier liquid system which: • Pumped liquid • • Fig. Quench liquid Quench liquid Quench liquid • Pumped liquid • Double seal in tandem This seal consists of two mechanical shaft seals mounted in tandem.15. No heat is dissipated from the system.14. see figure 1.15: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier liquid dead end Tandem . 1. see figure 1. Quench liquid Quench liquid Quench liquid • Pumped liquid • • Pumped liquid • • Pumped liquid • Fig. and placed in a separate seal chamber.drain The external barrier liquid runs through the seal chamber to be collected for reuse or directed to drain.

The back-to-back double seal consists of two shaft seals mounted back-to-back in a separate seal chamber. In case of dry-running. the temperature increases to several hundred degrees Fahrenheit in just a few minutes and consequently damages the O-rings.5-29 psi higher than the pump pressure. aggressive. resists rough handling • Poor dry-running properties. damage or block a mechanical shaft seal. Tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide Pumped liquid Cemented tungsten carbide covers the type of hard metals that are based on a hard tungsten carbide (WC) phase and usually a softer metallic binder phase. The back-to-back double seal protects the surrounding environment and the people working with the pump. Many applications incorporate pressurized systems.17.3. silicon carbide/silicon carbide and carbon/tungsten carbide or carbon/silicon carbide. Cobalt-bonded (Co) WC is only corrosion resistant in water if the pump incorporates base metal. separate pressure source.4 Seal face material combinations What follows is a description of the most important material combinations used in mechanical shaft seals for 34 . Chromium-nickel-molybdenum-bonded WC has a higher corrosion resistance. such as hypochlorite. is not as high. 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals Barrier pressure liquid Seal chamber with barrier pressure liquid industrial applications: Tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide. a metering pump • Extremely wear resistant • Very robust.3. In some cases noise may last up to 3-4 weeks. Noise is an indication of poor seal operating conditions that. e. the seal may generate noise. may cause wear of the seal. 1. Usually the noise dissapears after a couple of days of operation. explosive or sticky liquids which would wear out. If a certain pressure and temperature are exceeded. The correct technical term is cemented tungsten carbide.3. Sintered binderless WC has the highest corrosion resistance. However. A WC/WC seal face pair might be noisy during the break in period. such as cast iron. see figure 1. • A separate pump. The material pairing WC/WC has the following features: • Fig. in the long term. its resistance to corrosion in liquids.g.Section 1.17: Back-to-back seal arrangement Double seal in back-to-back This type of seal is the optimum solution for handling abrasive. The pressure can be generated by: • An existing. however. the abbreviated term tungsten carbide (WC) is used by Grundfos for convenience. The limits of use depend on seal face diameter and design. The pressure in the seal chamber must be 14.

The degree of porosity is 5-15% and the size of the pores is Ra 10-50 µin. such as demineralized water. dense-sintered. • Very brittle material requiring careful handling • Extremely wear resistant • High resistance to corrosion. Q 1P and Q 1G ) hardly corrodes. reduce the friction in case of dry-running and are critical to the durability of a seal during dry-running. fine-grained SiC with a small amount of tiny pores. Pressure and temperature limits are slightly below those of WC/WC. The dry lubricants. liquid diameter and seal design. a shorter seal life may not be experienced 35 . however. However. these material pairs have poor dry-running properties.resistant in demineralized water • In general. P Carbon/tungsten carbide or carbon/ silicon carbide features Seals with one carbon seal face have the following features: • Brittle material requiring careful handling • Are worn by liquids containing solid particles • Good corrosion resistance • Good dry-running properties (temporary dry-running) • Self-lubricating properties (of carbon) make the seal suitable for use even with poor lubricating conditions (high temperature) without generating noise. Q 1 . this SiC variant was used as a standard mechanical shaft seal material. as opposed to the above materials. noise from porous SiC seals must be expected during the running-in wear period of 3-4 days. The wear depends on pressure. fine-grained SiC This porous-sintered SiC variant has large circular closed pores. porous. the Q 1G / Q 1G material withstands a limited period of dry-running due to the graphite content of the material For different purposes. which attacks the SiC variants Q 1s and Q 1P. The designation Q1G applies to a SiC material which is suitable for use in distilled or demineralized water. the Q 1P / Q 1P face material pair generates less noise than the WC/WC pair. temperature. The SiC/SiC material pair has the following features: In warm water. sintered. SiC (Q 1s. such conditions will cause wear of the carbon seal face leading to reduced seal life. However. Low speeds reduce the lubrication between the seal faces resulting in possible increased wear However. Q 1G self-lubricating. since the distance that the seal faces have to move is reduced. independent of the pumped liquid type with the exception of water with very poor conductivity.Silicon carbide/silicon carbide Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) is an alternative to WC/WC and is used where higher corrosion resistance is required. Pressure and temperature limits of Q 1G / Q 1G are similar to those of Q 1P / Q 1P. such as graphite. Q 1G is also corrosion . For a number of years. sintered SiC Several variants of SiC materials containing dry lubricants are available on the market. SiC/SiC variants include: Q 1s. fine-grained SiC A dense-sintered. The pressure and temperature limits exceed those of WC/WC.

18 is a typical example of the power consumption of a mechanical shaft seal.3. • With reduced mechanical strength. such as energy consumption. On the next pages. Thus. The use of Q1 P. factors which have an impact on the seal performance. 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Speed (rpm) 12000 Fig. depending on the quality of the carbon and water. synthetic resin-impregnated carbon (B) covers a wide application field.3 Mechanical shaft seals • Metal-impregnated carbon (A) offers limited corrosion resistance.18: Power consumption of a 1/2 inch mechanical shaft seal Pumping action Friction Figure 1. carbon/WC.15 0. While these factors will be presented individually.5 Factors affecting the seal performance As mentioned previously. noise and leakage. it is important to stress that they are closely interrelated and should be considered as a whole. carbon/Q1P or carbon/Q1G are recommended for hot water systems 0. Synthetic resin-impregnated carbon is suitable for drinking water • The use of carbon/SiC for hot water applications may cause heavy wear of the SiC. will be presented. The figure shows that up to 3600 rpm friction is the major reason for the mechanical shaft seal’s energy consumption. Q 1G or a carbon/WC pair causes far less wear. thus reducing wear • The centrifugal pumping action of the seal’s rotating parts increases power consumption dramatically with the speed of rotation (to the third power) • The seal face friction Friction between the two seal faces consists of – friction in the thin liquid film and – friction due to points of contact between the seal faces The amount of power consumed depends on seal design.1 0. This type of wear primarily applies to Q1 S/carbon. no seal is completely tight.3. but improved mechanical strength and heat conductivity. Energy consumption The following factors contribute to the power consumption of a mechanical shaft seal: 36 .25 0. 1. but higher corrosion resistance.05 Power loss (hp) 3600 1.Section 1. lubricating conditions and seal face materials.3.2 0.

Energy consumption is, especially in connection with packed stuffing box, an important issue. Replacing a stuffing box with a mechanical shaft seal leads to considerable energy savings, see figure 1.3.19.

Standard pump 50 ft WCH; 2 inch shaft Energy consumption Stuffing box 2.0 kwh Mechanical shaft seal 0.3 kwh Leakage Stuffing box .02 GPD (when mounted correctly) Mechanical shaft seal .005 GPD
Fig. 1.3.19: Stuffing box versus mechanical shaft seal

Noise
The choice of seal face materials is critical for the function and the life of the mechanical shaft seal. Noise is generated as a result of the poor lubricating conditions in seals handling low viscosity liquids. The viscosity of water decreases with increasing temperature. This means that the lubricating conditions decrease as the temperature rises. If the pumped liquid reaches or exceeds boiling temperature, the liquid on part of the seal face evaporates resulting in decreased lubricating conditions. A speed reduction has the same effect, see figure 1.3.20.

psi

350 300 250 200 150 100 50

Duty range

Noise

Speed at 3600 rpm Speed at 3000 rpm Speed at 1800 rpm Speed at 1200 rpm
0 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 °F

Leakage
The pumped liquid lubricates the seal face of a mechanical shaft seal, providing improved lubrication resulting in less friction and increased leakage. Conversely, less leakage means poor lubricating conditions and increased friction. In practice, the amount of leakage and power loss occurring in mechanical shaft seals can vary because leakage depends on factors which are impossible to quantify theoretically due to seal face type, liquid type, and spring load. Figure 1.3.21 shows how the lubricating film of fluid is evaporated into the atmosphere.

0

Fig. 1.3.20: Relationship between duty range and speed

1 atm

Exit into atmosphere

Start of evaporation

Stationary seal face

Rotating seal face Pressure liquid vapor

Entrance in seal Atmospheric

Pump pressure

Fig. 1.3.21: Sealing gap

37

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.4: Motors
1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 Standards Motor start-up Voltage supply Frequency converter Motor protection

Section 1.4 Motors

Motors are used in many applications all over the world. The purpose of the electric motor is to create rotation, that is to convert electric energy into mechanical energy. Pumps are operated by means of mechanical energy which is provided by electric motors.

Fig. 1.4.1: Electric motor

1.4.1 Standards

Fig. 1.4.2: NEMA and IEC standards

NEMA
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) sets standards for a wide range of electric products, including motors. NEMA is primarily associated with motors used in North America. The standards represent general industry practices and are supported by the manufacturers of electric equipment. The standards can be found in NEMA Standard Publication No. MG1. Some large motors may not fall under NEMA standards.

IEC
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sets standards for motors used in many countries around the world. The IEC 60034 standard contains recommended electrical practices that have been developed by the participating IEC countries.

40

4: Gas Groups N or th A merica n G as Group A B C D E F G Europea n/ I. Where showing comparisons. Definition of zone or division A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is continuously present or present for long periods A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is likely to occur in norma l opera tion A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is not likely to occur in norma l opera tion a nd if it occurs it will exist only for a short time North American Classification C la ss I Division 1 (ga ses) C la ss II Division 1 (dusts) C la ss I Division 1 (ga ses) C la ss II Division 1 (dusts) C la ss I Division 2 (ga ses) C la ss II Division 2 (dusts) Class III Division 1 (fibers) Class III Division 2 (fibers) Fig.Introduction to potentially explosive atmospheres Potentially explosive atmospheres exist where there is a risk of explosion due to mixtures of gas/air. i.Surface Industries. hot surfaces or static electricity which may ignite these mixtures.4. Group I gases relate to underground mining where methane and coal dust are present.E.4.A. and when used.C. a represenative sample must be fully tested and certified by an independent authority such as UL in the U.. When electrical equipment is used where there is risk of explosion. These categories are used in European and I.4. Note: North American legislation now allows Zones to classify areas. Before electrical equipment can be used in a potentially explosive atmosphere.S. vapor/ air. This information is intended as a guide only. Gas Groups (plus dusts and fibers) There are two main gas groups: Group I . See figure 1.4. these may be approximations and individual standards/codes of practice should be observed for precise details. 1. and further expert guidance should be sought before placing the equipment into service or before maintaining or repairing any item of equipment in a potentially explosive atmosphere. groupings. the IEC Zone method is followed. See figure 1. the area must be so designed and constructed to avoid sources of ignition capable of igniting these mixtures.3: Area Classification Typica l ga s/ ma teria l Metha ne A cetylene Hydrogen Ethylene Propa ne Meta l dust C oa l dust G ra in dust Fig.C .Mining only and Group II . North American and European practices.4. European & IEC Classification Zone 0 (ga ses) Zone 2 0 (dusts) Zone 1 (ga ses) Zone 2 1 (dusts) Zone 2 (ga ses) Zone 2 2 (dusts) Area Classification Process plants are divided into Divisions (North American method) or Zones (European and IEC method) according to the likelihood of a potentially explosive atmosphere being present. In such areas there is a need to eliminate ignition sources such as sparks.3. Group II gases relate to surface industries and are sub-grouped according to their volatility.E. 1. dust/air or other flammable combinations.e. This enables electrical equipment to be designed with less onerous tolerances if it is to be used with the least volatile gases. G as G roup I IIC IIC IIB IIA - 41 .

Section 1. See fig 1. 1 & 2 * Exs North American practice Sample equipment and supporting documentation are submitted to the appropriate authority.g U. will not ignite a surrounding explosive a tmosphere.g. thus excluding the explosive atmosphere from any sparks or hot surfa ces. 1 & 2 Exs European Area of use Designation Standard Zones 1 & 2 EExd EN50018 Zones 0. which does not allow the surrounding atmosphere to come into conta ct with a ny spa rks or hot surfa ces. e.. Non-sparking – Sparking contacts are sealed against ingress of the surrounding a tmosphere.4 Motors Types of electrical equipment suitable for use in potentially explosive atmospheres Different techniques are used to prevent electrical equipment from igniting explosive atmospheres.4.A.B. Class 1 Division 1. such as quartz. 1 & 2 EExi EN50020 Zones 1 & 2 EExe EN 5 001 9 Zones 1 & 2 EExp EN 5 001 6 Zones 1 & 2 EExm EN 5 002 8 Zone 1 & 2 EExo EN50015 Zones 1 & 2 EExq EN 5 001 7 Zone 2 EExN EN50021 Zones 0. Purged and Pressurized – Electrical equipment is housed in an enclosure which is initially purged to remove any explosive mixture then pressurizedto prevent ingress of the surrounding atmosphere prior to energiza tion. The product is marked with the certification details such as the gas groups A.L. F. a listing is issued allowing the manufacturer to place the product on the market.5: Standards and methods of protection USA Area of use Designation Standard Class I Divisions 1 & 2 – UL1203 Class I Divisions 1 & 2 – UL1203 – – – Class l Divisions 1 & 2 – NFPA 496 – – – Class l Division 2 – UL698 – – – – – – – – IEC Area of use Designation Standard Zones 1 & 2 Exd IEC60079-1 Zones 1 & 2 Exi IEC60079-11 Zones 1 &2 Exi IEC 6007 9-7 Zones 1 & 2 Exp IEC 6007 9-2 Zone 1 & 2 Exm EC 6007 9-1 8 Zones 1 & 2 Exo EC 6007 9-6 Zones 1 & 2 Exq IEC 6007 9-5 Zone 2 Exn EC 6007 9-1 5 Zones 0.g. Special Protection– Equipment is certified for use in a Potentially Explosive Atmosphere but does not conform to a type of protection listed above. Powder Filling – Equipment is surrounded with a fine powder. Flameproof Enclosure – An enclosure used to house electrical equipment which. when subjected to an internal explosion. hot surfa ces a re elimina ted. Encapsulation – A method of exclusion of the explosive atmosphere by fully encapsulating the electrical components in an approved ma teria l. After successful testing.D and the area of use.5 for restrictions as to where these different types of equipment can be used.4. C.. light fittings. Increased Safety – This equipment is so designed as to eliminate spa rks a nd hot surfa ces ca pa ble of igniting a n explosive a tmosphere. Oil Immersion – The electrical components are immersed in oil. Fig 1.M. Intrinsic Safety– A technique whereby electrical energy is limited such that any sparks or heat generated by electrical equipment is sufficiently low a s to not ignite a n explosive a tmosphere. e. 42 . Equipment is tested in accordance with relevant standards for explosion protection and also for general electrical requirements.S. . e.C.

7: Two-digit IP enclosure class identification (IEC) 43 . Second digit Protection against ingress of water 0 No special protection 1 The motor is protected against vertically falling drops of water. Drain holes enable the escape of water entering the starter housing. There can be a HP limit for rolled steel frame motors. The first digit stands for protection against contact and ingress of solid objects. i.4.4. • Washdown . i.Temperature Hot surfaces can ignite explosive atmospheres. e.g. such as condensed water 2 The motor is protected against vertically falling drops of water. see figure 1.g. a hand 2 The motor is protected against objects bigger than 12 mm. Temperature Classification European/IEC North America T1 T1 T2 T2 T2 A T2 B T2 C T2 D T3 T3 T3 A T3 B T3 C T4 T4 T4A T5 T5 T6 T6 Maximum Surface Temperature 842 ° F 5 7 2° F 5 3 6° F 5 00° F 4 4 6° F 41 9° F 3 92 ° F 3 5 6° F 3 2 9° F 3 2 0° F 27 5 ° F 2 4 8° F 21 2° F 185° F Fig 1. To prevent this from happening.Totally Enclosed Spray Proof Corrosion-resistant. blows it across windings inside motor and exits opposite drive end. a finger 3 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 25 mm.g. Motor is protected from drops of liquid or particles falling at any angle from 0-15 degrees.4. e. etc. e. When the motor is installed in a damp environment. IEC Motor Enclosures The IP rating states the degrees of protection of the motor against ingress of solid objects and water. all electrical equipment intended for use in a potentially explosive atmosphere is classified according to the maximum surface temperature it will reach while in service. Cast Iron finned motors do not meet FDA requirements.. even if the motor is tilted at an angle of 15 degrees 3 The motor is protected against water spray falling at an angle of 60 degrees from vertical 4 The motor is protected against water splashing from any direction 5 The motor is protected against water being projected from a nozzle from any direction 6 The motor is protected against heavy seas or high-pressure water jets from any direction 7 The motor is protected when submerged from 15 cm to 1 m in water for a period specified by the manufacturer 8 The motor is protected against continuous submersion in water under conditions specified by the manufacturer • TEFC-Totally Enclosed External fan pulls air in through fan cover and blows it over the exterior (only) surface of the motor. through condensation. 4 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 1 mm. The rating is stated by the letters “IP” followed by two digits. wires.e. see figure 1. • Explosion Proof (xp) Enclosed motor designed to withstand an explosion of a specified dust. First digit Protection against contact and ingress of solid objects 0 No special protection 1 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 55 mm.7. gas or vapor according to explosive environment standards. wires 5 The motor is protected against ingress of dust 6 The motor is completely dust-proof • Open Drip Proof (ODP) Internal fan pulls air in. the bottom drain hole should be opened.6: Temperature classification : NEMA Motor Enclosures The following describes NEMA Motor Enclosures: and the second digit stands for protection against ingress of water. More resistant to the liquid and particles. for example IP55.6.e. This temperature can then be compared to the ignition temperature of the gas(es) which may come into contact with the equipment and a judgement can be reached as to the suitabillity of the equipment to be used in that area. Fig 1. Opening the drain hole changes the motor’s enclosure class from IP55 to IP44. This maximum temperature is normally based on a surrounding ambient temperature of 104° F (40° C). tools.4.

Some pumps have a coupling which requires a smooth motor shaft end or a special shaft extension which is not defined in the standards. [°f] 356 311 266 248 15 10 10 Maximum temperature increase 176 221 257 104 Maximum ambient temperature 104 104 104 B F H Class Maximum ambient temperature (°F) Maximum temperature increase (°F) Hot-spot overtemperature (°F) Maximum winding temperature (Tmax) (°F) B F H 104 104 104 144 189 225 18 18 27 266 311 356 Fig 1. The various insulation materials and systems are classified into insulation classes depending on their ability to resist high temperatures. The life of an insulation material is highly dependent on the temperature to which it is exposed. D 2F Fig 1. and motor power.8: Frame size Distance between holes Insulation class Hot-spot overtemperature The insulation class is defined in the NEMA standard and tells something about how robust the insulation system is relative to motor operating temperatures.4.9. Flanges and shaft end comply with NEMA standards or EN 50347 and IEC 60072-1 for IEC. The figure shows where the different values that make up the frame size are measured on the motor. shaft end. see figure 1.Section 1.4.8 gives an overview of the relationship between frame size.4.4.4 Motors Frame size Figure 1.9: Different insulation classes and temperature increases at nominal voltage and load 44 .

125 405TSC 2.375 215TC 1.625 256TC 1.125 184TC 1.125 324TSC 1.5 1 2 1.375 365TC 2.5 5 20 20 10 7.875 365TSC 1. 2.1 2 Frame Size Shaft end (C-face motors) diameter [in] 42C 0.875 404TSC 2.875 145TC 0.75 143TC 0.0 1 3 3 1.875 284TSC 1.875 364TC 2.625 284TC 1.875 182TC 1.5 56C 0.5 1 5 5 2 1.625 286TSC 1.875 405TC 2.375 444TSC 2.5 25 15 10 30 20 15 25 30 40 25 20 50 30 25 40 50 60 40 30 75 50 40 60 75 60 50 100 75 60 100 125 150 125 150 100 125 75 100 Fig 1.5 3 2 10 10 5 3 15 15 7.10: The relationship between frame size and power input 45 .375 48C 0.875 286TC 1.5 7.4.375 445TSC 2.875 326TSC 1.375 254TC 1.5.125 326TC 2.375 445TC 3. 1.875 404TC 2.125 213TC 1. specific frame assignments have not been made by horsepower and speed. It is possible for more than one HP and speed combination to be found in a given frame size.625 66C 0.625 324TC 2.5 7.375 3 Rated power (TEFC Motors) 2-pole 4-pole 6-pole 8-pole [HP] [HP] [HP] [HP] In these fractional size motors.375 364TSC 1.125 444TC 3.

autotransformer starting makes use of an autotransformer. Reduced locked-rotor torque. Less water hammer when starting a pump.2 Motor start-up Methods of starting referred to in this section include: Direct-on-line starting. Less water hammer when starting a pump. autotransformer starting. Cons High locked-rotor current.11. Current pulses when switching from reduced to full voltage.4. soft starter and frequency converter starting. No current pulses. Soft starter A soft starter is a device which ensures a soft start of a motor. Current pulses when switching over from star to delta. Whenever applying the directon-line starting method. Direct-online starting is suitable for stable supplies as well as mechanically stiff and well-dimensioned shaft systems. Soft starter "Soft" starting. Reduced locked-rotor torque. The autotransformer is placed in series with the motor during start and varies the voltage up to nominal voltage in two to four steps. i. Safe starting. This is done by raising the voltage within a preset voltage rise time. Reduction of locked-rotor current as required. Frequency converter starting Reduced locked-rotor torque.e. Reduction of starting current by a factor of 3.4.Section 1. direct-on-line starting (DOL) means that the motor is started by connecting it directly to the supply at rated voltage. which is used with three-phase induction motors. star/delta starting. see figure 1.11: Starting method Direct-on-line starting As the name suggests. Autotransformer starting As the name states. Reduced locked-rotor torque. Starting method Direct-on-line starting (DOL) Star/delta starting (SD) (Y/∆) Autotransformer starting Pros Simple and cost-efficient. typically 2 to 3 times. 46 . Reduction of locked-rotor current as required. Not suitable if the load has a low inertia. Star/delta starting The objective of this starting method. but they can also be used for soft starting. typically 2-3 times.4. No current pulses. Current supply is reconnected to the windings in delta (∆) configuration once the motor has gained speed. Reduction of locked-rotor current and torque. is to reduce the starting current. it is important to consult local authorities. Frequency converter starting Frequency converters are designed for continuous feeding of motors. pumps. Can be used for continuous feeding of the motor. Current supply to the starter windings is connected in star (Y) configuration for starting. Expensive Fig 1.4 Motors 1.

1.4. The frequency converter converts the main voltage into a different voltage and frequency.12 shows typical voltage range examples for 60 Hz motors.4. the motor has to be able to operate with a main voltage tolerance of ± 10% from the lowest and highest voltage in the range.4. causing the motor to run at a different speed. Typical North America voltage examples 60 Hz 60 Hz motors come with the following voltages: • 1 x 115 – 230 ∆ / 346 – 400 Y • 1 x 115/208-230 • 1 x 208-230 • 1 x 230 • 3 x 208-230/460 • 3 x 230/460 • 3 x 575 Fig 1.4 Frequency converter Frequency converters are often used for speed controlled pumps.3 Voltage supply The motor’s rated voltage lies within a certain voltage range.4. According to the NEMA standard. see chapter 4.12: Typical voltages 1. This way of regulating the frequency might result in some problems: • Acoustic noise from the motor which is sometimes transmitted to the system as noise • High voltage peaks on the output from the frequency converter to the motor 47 . Figure 1.

13: Stator with phase insulation Motors with phase insulation Phase insulation is normally used in three-phase motors. For supply voltages of 690 V and higher. the motor has to be fitted with both reinforced insulation and delta U /delta T filters. This generally applies to motors . Motors with insulated bearings In order to avoid harmful current flows through the bearings. Specific precautions are not necessary if the voltage supply is less than 500 V. Phase insulation also referred to as phase paper Motors without phase insulation For motors constructed without phase insulation. the motor has to have reinforced insulation or be protected with delta U /delta T filters. Continuous operation with voltage peaks above 650 V can cause damage to the motor. Fig 1. This applies to all motors constructed according to these principles. continuous voltages known as Root Mean Square voltages (RMS) above 460 V can increase the risk of disruptive discharges in the windings and destroy the motor. Motors with reinforced insulation With supply voltages between 500 V and 690 V.40 hp run > with variable frequency drives.Section 1. Motor manufacturers will use special ceramic coatings to insulate one or both bearings. the motor bearings have to be electrically insulated. 48 .4.4 Motors Insulation for motors with frequency converters The discussion below highlights different kinds of motors with frequency converters and how different kinds of insulation affect the motor.

1 0. but when motor load is less than 25%. There are two types of energy losses in electric motors: Load-dependent and load-independent losses.4. it is important to size the motor so that losses associated with running the motor too far below its rated capacity are minimized. motors must be protected against the following: • Iron losses (core losses) • Mechanical losses (friction) Motors are categorized according to efficiency.2 100 80 60 40 20 Efficiency Power factor 0 25 Fig 1.Motor efficiency In general.5 Motor protection Motors are usually protected against high temperatures that can damage the insulation system.8 0. Thermal protection varies with motor type. Some have electricity-to-shaft power efficiencies of 8093% depending on the motor size and sometimes even higher for bigger motors. load (schematic drawing) 150 50 75 100 125 Per cent of rated load 100 90 80 70 100 hp 10 hp 1 hp Efficiency % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Errors causing slow temperature increase in the windings: • Slow overload • Long start-up periods • Reduced cooling / lack of cooling • Increased ambient temperature • Frequent starts and stops • Frequency fluctuation • Voltage fluctuation Errors causing fast temperature increase in the windings: • Blocked rotor • Phase failure Fig 1. load and power vs.4. Depending on motor construction and application. • Stator winding losses (copper losses) • Rotor losses (slip losses) • Stray losses (in different parts of the motor) Load-independent losses in the motor refer to: 1.4 0. It is common to choose a motor that meets the power requirements of the pump.4. Load-dependent losses vary with the square of the current and cover: Motors can fail due to overload for long periods of time so are often intentionally oversized and operate at 75% to 80% of their full load capacity. Generally. motor efficiency and power remain relatively high. electric motors are quite efficient.14: Efficiency vs. Motor construction and its power consumption must be considered when choosing thermal protection.15: The relationship between efficiency and rated load of different sized motors (schematic drawing) Percent of rated load 49 . EFF2 and EFF3). Motor efficiency drops quickly below a certain percentage of rated load. thermal protection can also prevent damaging temperatures in the frequency converter if it is mounted on the motor. efficiency and power decrease.6 Percent Cos j 0. The most important classifications are Environmental Protection Act in the US (EPact) and CEMEP in the European Union (EFF1. Therefore. At this level of loading.

Thermal protection A motor’s thermal protection (TP) is provided by a temperature-sensing device that is built in to the motor. When motor temperature becomes excessively hot due to failure-to-start or overloading. are unattended. Thermal switch and thermostats Thermal switches are small bi-metallic switches that change state due to the temperature.They can be purchased with trip temperatures ranging from 194°F to 356°F. This type is preferred where unexpected restarts would be hazardous. constant overload) Slow and fast (i. one in each phase of the winding. or for motors that are located remotely or operated off-sight. Single-phase motors Single-phase motors normally come with thermal protection. with closed being the most common. Fig 1. They are available with a wide range of trip temperatures. in series.4. Note: This should not be used where unexpected restarting would be hazardous. Usually three PTCs are fitted in series. Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistors) can be fitted into the windings of a motor during production or afterwards. This is especially important for motors that start automatically. One or two.4. the sensor device shuts off the motor. PTCs have to be connected to a thermistor relay which detects the rapid increase in resistance of the thermistor when it reaches its trip temperature. Thermal switches always carry a TP111 designation. however. • Impedance Protected . constant overload and blocked condition ) Number of levels and function area (2 digits) 1 level at cutoff 2 levels at emergency signal and cutoff 1 level at cutoff 2 levels at emergency signal and cutoff 1 level at cutoff Category 1 (3 digits) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Three-phase motors Three-phase motors have to be protected according to local regulations.16: TP designations 50 .Power to the motor is restored by pushing an external button. the thermal protection (TP) of the motor has to be indicated on the nameplate with a TP designation. • Manual Reset . This kind of motor usually has contacts for resetting in the external control circuit. The basic types of temperature sensing devices include: • Automatic Reset . According to the IEC 60034-11 standard. are usually fitted in the windings like thermistors and can be connected directly to the circuit of the main contactor coil. in accordance with UL standards. it is less sensitive and is not able to detect a locked rotor failure.e. Symbol TP 111 TP 112 TP 121 TP 122 TP 211 TP 212 TP 221 TP 222 TP 311 TP 312 Technical overload with variation (1 digit) Only slow (i.e. Thermal protection usually has an automatic reclosing. This type of protection is less expensive than thermistors. requiring no relay. Only fast PTC thermistorscondition) (i. blocked Indication of the permissible temperature level when the motor is exposed to thermal overload. normally open and closed types. Figure 1. Thermal switches are also referred to as Klixon thermal switches and Protection thermal overload (PTO). This implies that the motor has to be connected to the main voltage supply in a way to ensure that accidents caused by the automatic reclosing are avoided.e.The motor is designed to protect itself under locked rotor (stalled) conditions.The thermal protector automatically restores power after the motor cools.16 shows an overview of the TP designations. Category 2 allows higher temperatures than category 1 does.

the deep-groove ball bearing in the drive end must have C3 or C4 clearance. The motor bearings are held in place by wave spring washers in the non-drive end. • The pump has complete or partial hydraulic relief • The pump has many brief periods of operation • The pump has long idle periods C4 bearings are used for pumps with fluctuating high axial forces. It is important to keep the motor clean to ensure adequate ventilation.4. the relative air humidity inside the motor is always lower than 100%. Because bearing manufacturers must fulfill these standards. Spring washer Non-drive end bearing Drive end bearing Fig 1.18: Cross-sectional drawing of motor 51 . Non-drive end Drive end Bearings There are several types of bearing designs. Bearings with C4 clearance are less heat sensitive and have increased axial load-carrying capacity. the motor is warmer than the surroundings.18. Normally. The fixed bearing in the drive end can be a deep-groove ball bearing or an angular contact bearing. a ball bearing must have a certain internal clearance between the raceway and the balls.Space Heater A heating element ensures the standby heating of the motor and is used with applications that struggle with humidity and condensation.4. bearings are internationally interchangeable. Axial play is required due to production tolerances. motors have a locked bearing in the drive end and a bearing with axial play in the non-drive end. Without this internal clearance. In order to rotate freely. Angular contact bearings are used if the pump exerts strong one-way axial forces. If the pump is installed in a dusty environment. Depending on the pump type to which the motor is fitted. Conversely. the bearings can be difficult to rotate or they may seize up and be unable to rotate. By using the space heater. the pump must be cleaned and checked regularly. The bearing carrying the axial forces of the pump can have C3 clearance if: Fig 1.17: Space heater Maintenance The motor should be checked at regular intervals. and thereby. Bearing clearances and tolerances are stated according to ISO 15 and ISO 492. see figure 1. thermal expansion during operation. and other factors.4. too much internal clearance will result in an unstable bearing that may generate excessive noise or allow the shaft to wobble.

The basic oil viscosity must be: • Higher than 50 cSt at 104°F • 8 cSt at 212°F Motors with lubrication system Many integral size motors have lubricating nipples for the bearings both in the drive end and the nondrive end. Apart from that.Section 1.19: Typical types of bearings in pump motors Motors with permanently lubricated bearings For closed permanently lubricated bearings.4. This may vary by manufacturer. Primarily outward pull on the shaft end Strong outward pull on the shaft end Moderate forces. The motor is designed so that: • there is a flow of grease around the bearing • new grease enters the bearing • old grease is removed from the bearing Motors with lubricating systems are normally labeled on the fan cover and are supplied with a lubricating instruction. The lubricant is often a lithium-based. high temperature grease. one of the following high temperature resistant types of grease are normally used: • Lithium-based grease • Polyurea-based grease The grease zerks are visible and are easily accessible. instructions are given in the installation and operating instructions.4 Motors Axial forces Bearing types and recommended clearance Drive end Non-drive end Deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Moderate to strong forces. 52 . Primarily outward pull on the shaft end (partly hydraulically relieved in the pump) Small forces (flexible coupling) Strong inward pressure Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C4) Fixed angular contact bearing Deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Deep-groove ball bearing (C4) Deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Fixed angular contact bearing Fig:1.

5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze 1.Chapter 1.5. Design of pumps and motors Section 1.2 Non-Newtonian liquids 1.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump 1.1 Viscous liquids 1.5.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids 53 .5 Calculation example 1.5: Liquids 1.5.5.

18 65. pumps have to handle other types of liquids. propylene glycol.4 45.75 56. gasoline. On the following pages.Section 1. go to Appendix K.5. which is normally measured in Poise (1 Poise) • The kinematic viscosity (ν).11 66. e. we will focus on kinematic viscosity (ν). Density values and temperatures are also shown 54 . these types of liquids have different densities and viscosities. 1. oil. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a substance to flow. hot oil is thinner than cold oil. a 50% propylene glycol liquid increases its viscosity 10 times when the temperature changes from +68 to –4oF.004 0.g. Liquid Density temperature ρ [lb/ft3] t [°f] 68 68 68 68 -4 62.1: Comparison of viscosity values for water and a few other liquids.5.75 93 6. low viscous liquids. Propylene glycol and motor oil are examples of thick or high viscous liquids. The viscosity of a liquid changes considerably with the change in temperature.5. Gasoline and water are examples of thin. For more information concerning liquid viscosity. Two kinds of viscosities exist: • The dynamic viscosity (μ). which is normally measured in centiStokes (cSt) The relationship between the dynamic viscosity (μ) and the kinematic viscosity (ν) is shown in the formula at right.23 μ ν = ρ ρ = density of liquid Liquid Kinematic viscosity ν [cSt] 1. Compared to water. The higher the viscosity. As you can tell from figure 1.5 Liquids 1. in a number of applications.1 Viscous liquids While water is the most common liquid that pumps handle. the more difficult the liquid will flow on its own.4 68.7 Water Gasoline Olive oil 50% Propylene glycol 50% Propylene glycol Fig.1.

On the other hand. like cream. like non-drip paint.2: Changed head.2. η P H 1. The viscosity of Newtonian liquids is not affected by the magnitude and the motion that they are exposed to. flow rate and pump efficiency are reduced For example. λ [btu ft/h ft2 °F] • Higher boiling point. The liquid will have a: • Lower freezing point. the viscosity decreases with an increase in agitation • Thixotropic liquids. the viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids does change when agitated. the higher density requires increased motor power and the higher viscosity reduces pump head. ρ [lb/ft3] • Higher kinematic viscosity. an antifreeze agent like propylene glycol is added to the water to prevent the liquid from η Q Fig.5.5. When glycol or a similar antifreeze agent is added to the pumped liquid. As mentioned. A few examples of non-Newtonion liquids include: • Dilatant liquids.5. tf [°F] • Lower specific heat. Mineral oil and water are typical examples of this type of liquid. β [ft/°F] • Higher density. when a pump is used for pumping a liquid in a cooling system with a liquid temperature below 32oF.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump Liquid with higher viscosity and/or higher density than water affects the performance of centrifugal pumps in different ways: • Power consumption increases. have a yield value which must be exceeded before the flow starts. freezing. efficiency and power input for liquid with higher viscosity 55 . i.2 Non-Newtonian liquids The liquids discussed so far are referred to as Newtonian fluids. 1. H. the liquid obtains properties different from those of water. see figure 1. exhibit a viscosity increase when agitated • Plastic fluids. tb [°F] • Higher coefficient of expansion. a larger motor may be required to perform the same task • Head.5. ν [cSt] These properties must be considered when designing a system and selecting pumps.1. P. flow rate and efficiency resulting in a need for increased motor power. From that point on. cp [btu/lbm °F] • Lower thermal conductivity. like ketchup. exhibit a decrease in viscosity with an increase in agitation The non-Newtonian liquids are not covered by the viscosity formula described earlier in this section.e.

e. The following section presents a simplified method used to determine pump curve corrections for pumps in systems that must handle liquids with a viscosity between 5 cSt .5. Fig. it is necessary to determine. that the pump can meet the required performance or if a larger motor is required. the head of one stage has to be used.100 cSt and (specific gravity of 1.) and kinematic viscosity of the pumped liquid.5. head (HS.Section 1.5.0 specific gravity. Pump curve corrections for pumps handling high viscous liquid Based on knowledge about required duty point.0). most importantly. the correction factors of H and P2 can be found. 1.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze Pump characteristics are usually based on water temperature at around 68°F. a kinematic viscosity of approximately 1 cSt and is 1.3. Please notice that this method is not as precise as the computer-aided method described later in this section. head and viscosity values 56 . When pumps are used for liquids containing antifreeze below 32°F. flow (QS.3: It is possible to determine the correction factor for head and power consumption at different flow. i. To get the correction factor for multistage pumps.5 Liquids 1.). see figure 1.

57 . see figure 1.4 lines 3 and 4 • Based on P2w. Hw) • Read the power input P2w at the duty point (Qs. Figure 1. lines 4 and 5 • Check if P2s is less than P2 max of the motor. P2w . Mixture . and the motor should be powerful enough to handle the power input on the shaft.4: Pump curve correction when choosing the right pump for the system The pump and motor selection procedure contains the following steps: • Calculate the corrected head Hw (based on Hs and kH ). the equivalent head for clean water HW and the corrected actual shaft power P2S can be calculated by the following formula H Hw = kH . HS P2S = kP2 . Otherwise select a more powerful motor • Ensure NPSHr < NPSHa The pump selection is based on the normal data sheets/curves applying to water. ρ s w ρs ρw Qs 3 Q where HW : is the equivalent head of the pump if the pumped liquid is “clean” water P2W : is the shaft power at the duty point (QS.Figure 1.. The pump should cover the duty point flow and head. 1. see figure 1.3 is read in the following way: When kH and kP2 are found in the figure. kp2.5.5.5.Hw).HW) when the pumped liquid is water HS : is the desired head of the pumped liquid with agents P2S : is the shaft power at the duty point (Qs.Hs) for the viscous pumped liquid water (with agents) ρs : is the specific gravity of the pumped liquid ρw : is the specific gravity of water = 1.5. ρw.5.4.(.0 P2s ( ) P2w 5 4 Mixture Water Q Fig. P2w .4 lines 1 and 2 • Choose a pump capable of providing performance according to the corrected duty point (Qs.) P ρ P2S = KP2 . see figure 1.5. the motor can be used. HS Hw Hs 2 1 Water HW = kH . and ρs calculate the corrected required shaft power P2s.4 shows how to proceed when selecting a pump and testing whether the motor is within the power range allowed. If that is the case.

Section 1.5 Liquids

1.5.5 Calculation example
A circulator pump in a refrigeration system is to pump a 40% (weight) propylene glycol liquid at 14°F. The desired flow is QS = 260 GPM, and the desired head is HS = 40 ft. If the required duty point is known, it is possible to find the QH-characteristic for water and choose a pump to cover the duty point. Once the pump type and size is determined, the pump is fitted with a motor which can handle the specific pump load. The liquid has a kinematic viscosity of 20 cSt and a specific gravity of 65.48 lb/ft3. With QS = 260 GPM, HS = 40 ft and ν = 20 cSt, the correction factors can be found in figure 1.5.3.

1.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids
Some computer-aided pump selection tools include a feature that compensates for the pump performance curves based on input of the liquid density and viscosity. Figure 1.5.5 shows the pump performance curves from the example at left. The figure shows both the performance curves for the pump when it handles viscous liquid (the full lines) and the performance curves when it handles water (the broken lines). As indicated, head, flow and efficiency are reduced resulting in an increase in power consumption. The value of P2 is 4.5 hp which corresponds to the result as shown in the calculation example in section 1.5.4.

kH = 1.03 kP2 = 1.15 HW = kH · HS = 1.03 · 12 = 40 ft QS = 260 GPM
[ft]

H

η [%]

60 50

The pump selection has to cover a duty point equivalent to Q,H = 260 GPM, 40 ft. Once the necessary pump size is selected, the P2 value for the duty point is determined, which in this case is P2W = 3.8 hp. It is now possible to calculate the required motor power for the propylene glycol mixture:

40 30 20 10 0 0 P2 [hp] 6 4 2 0 Q [GPM] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Q [GPM] 0
NPSH (ft)

P2S = kP2 . P2w .

ρS ρw

Fig. 1.5.5: Pump performance curves

1049 P2S = 1.15 . 3.8 . 998

= 4.6 hp

The calculation shows that the pump has to be fitted with a 5 hp motor, which is the smallest motor size able to cover the calculated P2S = 4.6 hp.

58

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.6: Materials
1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 1.6.7 What is corrosion? Types of corrosion Metal and metal alloys Ceramics Plastics Rubber Coatings

Section 1.6 Materials

This section discusses the different materials used for pump construction, including the features that every single metal and metal alloy have to offer. Corrosion will be defined, and the different types will be identified, as well as what can be done to prevent corrosion from occurring.

1.6.1 What is corrosion?
Corrosion is usually referred to as the degradation of the metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment, see figure 1.6.1. Considered broadly, corrosion may be looked upon as the tendency of the metal to revert to its natural state similar to the oxide from which it was originally melted. Only precious metals, such as gold and platinum, are found in nature in their metallic state. Some metals produce a tight protective oxide layer on the surface which hinders further corrosion. If the surface layer is broken, it is self-healing. These metals are passivated. Under atmospheric conditions, the corrosion products of zinc and aluminum form a fairly tight oxide layer and further corrosion is prevented. Likewise, on the surface of stainless steel, a tight layer of iron and chromium oxide is formed, and on the surface of titanium, a layer of titanium oxide is formed. The protective layers of these metals demonstrate their good corrosion resistance. Rust, on the other hand, is a non-protective corrosion product on steel. Rust is porous, not firmly adherent and does not prevent continued corrosion, see figure 1.6.2.

Environmental variables that affect the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys
pH (acidity) Oxidizing agents (such as oxygen) Temperature Concentration of solution constituents (such as chlorides) Biological activity Operating conditions (such as velocity, cleaning procedures and shutdowns)

Fig. 1.6.1: Environmental variables that affect the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys

Rust on steel

Non-protective corrosion product
Oxide layer on stainless steel

Protective corrosion product
Fig. 1.6.2: Examples of corrosion products

60

metallic corrosion involves the loss of metal at a spot on an exposed surface. In many cases. Pitting corrosion forms holes or pits on the metal surface.3: Uniform corrosion Pitting corrosion Pitting corrosion is a localized form of a corrosive attack.6.6. it is impossible or rather expensive to completely stop the corrosion process. It perforates the metal while the total corrosion. 1. measured by weight loss. Examples of metals subject to uniform corrosion include: • Steel in aerated water • Stainless steel in reducing acids [such as AISI 304 (EN 1. might be rather minimal. The environment’s chemical and physical conditions determine both the type and the rate of corrosion attacks.6. General thinning continues until the metal is broken down. The conditions also determine the type of corrosion products that are formed and the control measures that must be taken. The rate of penetration may be 10 to 100 times that of general corrosion depending on the aggressiveness of the medium.1. different forms of corrosion and their characteristics will be discussed.2 Types of corrosion Generally. Uniform corrosion Uniform or general corrosion is characterized by corrosive attacks spreading evenly over the entire surface or on a large part of the total area. it is usually possible to control the severity to acceptable levels. An example of metal subject to pitting corrosion: • Stainless steel in seawater Fig. Corrosion occurs in various forms ranging from uniform attacks over the entire surface to severe local attacks. Uniform corrosion results in waste of most of the metal. however.4: Pitting corrosion 61 . 1. On the following pages. Pitting occurs more often in a stagnant environment.4301) in sulfuric acid] Fig.

6: Intergranular corrosion Selective corrosion Selective corrosion attacks one single element of an alloy and dissolves the element in the alloy structure. However. (10) Crevice corrosion Crevice corrosion.5: Crevice corrosion Intergranular corrosion Intergranular corrosion occurs at grain boundaries. Intergranular corrosion.4401) in nitric acid Fig.6. 1. such as those found at flange joints or at threaded connections. Examples of selective corrosion: • The dezincification of unstabilized brass producing a weakened.7: Selective corrosion 62 . porous copper structure • Graphitization of gray cast iron leaving a brittle graphite skeleton due to the dissolution of iron. Design of pumps and motors Section 1.1 Pump construction. A narrow region around the grain boundary may become deplete in chromium and become less resistant to corrosion than the rest of the material. Zinc corrosion products Copper Brass Fig. Crevices.1.6.6. 1. the alloy’s structure is weakened. is a localized form of corrosion attack. crevice corrosion is more aggressive. Examples of metals subject to intergranular corrosion include: • Insufficiently welded or heat-treated stainless steel • Stainless steel AISI 316 (EN 1. like pitting corrosion. 1. Crevice corrosion occurs at narrow openings or spaces between two metal surfaces or between metals and non-metal surfaces and is usually associated with a stagnant condition in the crevice. This is unfortunate because chromium plays an important role in corrosion resistance. also called intercrystalline corrosion. are often the most critical spots for corrosion. An example of metal subject to crevice corrosion: • Stainless steel in seawater Fig. Consequently.6 Materials 1. typically occurs when chromium carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries during the welding process or in connection with insufficient heat treatment.

6. and it drops below the liquid vapor pressure forming vapor bubbles. Often. the liquid boils. Consequently. 1. the vapor bubbles collapse and produce intensive shockwaves.4401) in chlorides • Brass in ammonia Fig. Examples of metals that are subject to SCC: • Stainless steel AISI 316 (EN 1. The attack is localized in areas with high velocity or turbulent flow. In the areas where the vapor bubbles form. 1. When the pressure rises again.6. Examples of metals that are subject to cavitation: • Cast iron in water at high temperature • Bronze in seawater Fig.8: Erosion corrosion Cavitation corrosion Cavitation corrosion occurs when a pumped liquid with high velocity reduces the pressure. the collapse of the vapor bubbles remove metal or oxide from the surface.10: Stress corrosion cracking 63 . The material can crack without any significant deformation or obvious deterioration of the material.9: Cavitation corrosion Stress corrosion cracking Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) refers to the combined influence of tensile stress (applied or internal) and corrosive environment. pitting corrosion is associated with SCC. Examples of metals subject to erosion corrosion: • Bronze in seawater • Copper in water Flow Fig. Erosion corrosion attacks are characterized by grooves with a directional pattern.6. 1.Erosion corrosion Erosion corrosion is a process whereby the rate of corrosion attack is accelerated by the relative motion of a corrosive liquid and a metal surface.

1. seawater.6.6 Materials 1. the failure can take place at an even lower stress and after a shorter period of time. 1.13).6. the greater the galvanic corrosion effect will be.6.less noble Fig. Cathodic protection is the reduction or prevention of the corrosion of a metal surface through the use of sacrificial anodes (zinc or aluminum) or impressed currents. there is no fatigue limit in corrosion-assisted fatigue. Examples of metals that are subject to galvanic corrosion include: • Steel in contact with AISI 316 (EN 1. The tendency of a metal or an alloy to corrode in a galvanic cell is determined by its position in the galvanic series.11: Corrosion fatigue Galvanic corrosion Galvanic corrosion occurs when a corrosive electrolyte and two metallic materials are in contact (galvanic cell) and corrosion increases on the least noble material (the anode) and decreases on the noblest material (the cathode).most noble 64 .13: Galvanic series for metals and alloys in seawater Aluminium . If the metal is simultaneously exposed to a corrosive environment.1 Pump construction. Metals or alloys at the upper end are more noble than those at the lower end. Design of pumps and motors Section 1. (10) Corrosion fatigue < Pure mechanical fatigue occurs when a material subjected to a cyclic load far below the ultimate tensile strength fails. An example of a metal subject to corrosion fatigue: • Aluminium structures in a corrosive atmosphere Fig.4401) • Aluminum in contact with copper The principles of galvanic corrosion are used in cathodic protection. Contrary to a pure mechanical fatigue.6. The galvanic series indicates the relative nobility of different metals and alloys in a given environment (e.12: Galvanic corrosion Copper . 1.The farther apart the metals are in the galvanic series. see figure 1.1.g. Fig.

003% to 1.45% of carbon 0.6.6. machinability.4401) Steel is a widely used material primarily composed of iron alloyed with carbon. Cavitation corrosion of bronze impeller Ferrous alloys Ferrous alloys are alloys where iron is the prime constituent. The most common type of steel is carbon steel. the features of different metals and metal alloys used for construction of pumps are discussed. low cost. Steel Erosion corrosion of cast iron impeller Pitting corrosion of AISI 316 (EN 1.5% by weight. and process but have low corrosion resistance compared to alternative materials such as stainless steel.3 Metal and metal alloys On the following pages. Carbon steel is grouped into four categories. Ferrous alloys are the most common of all materials because of their availability. ductility. Cast steel is closely comparable to wrought.4462) Fig 1. Generally.50% of carbon Intergranular corrosion of stainless steel Crevice corrosion of SAF 2205 (EN 1.14. both are relatively inexpensive to make.30% to 0. and hardness. an increase in carbon content will lead to an increase in strength and hardness but to a decrease in ductility and weldability.0394 inch Type of steel Low carbon or mild steel Medium carbon steel High carbon steel Very high carbon steel Content of carbon 0.6. The content of carbon has an important impact on the material’s strength. Steel is available in wrought and cast grades. see figure 1.14: Four types of carbon steel 65 . weldability. form.75% of carbon 0.75% to 1. and versatility.30% of carbon 0.1. 0.45% to 0.003% to 0. The amount of carbon in steel varies in the range from 0.

15: Comparison and designations of grey iron Fig 1. and sometimes even better.05% (by weight) of magnesium. silicon and carbon. acids) than steel and cast iron. The graphite flakes act as stress concentrators under tensile loads making the material weak and brittle in tension. The minimum chromium content in standardized stainless steel is 10. Magnesium causes the flakes to become globular.6 Materials 1.1. Cast iron can be alloyed with 13-16% (by weight) silicon or 15-35% (by weight) nickel (Ni-resist) to improve corrosion resistance. Molybdenum. the concentration of carbon is between 3-4% by weight.e. most of which is present in insoluble form (e. Grey iron is used for the construction of motor blocks because of its high vibration damping ability. The round shape of nodular graphite reduces the stress concentration and consequently.1 Pump construction. That is why grey iron is often used for pump parts with moderate strength requirements. The two main types are grey cast iron and nodular (ductile) cast iron. Alloying with these elements brings out different crystal structures which enable different properties in connection with machining. Typically. graphite flakes or nodules). Grey iron In grey iron. but strong and ductile in compression.g. welding and corrosion resistance. Figure 1.3 GGG-50 - 400-18 400-15 450-10 500-7 - A 536 Gr 60-40-18 A 536 Gr 65-45-12 A 536 Gr 80-55-06 Fig 1.6. pumps. the material is much more ductile than grey iron. Chromium improves the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Various types of cast irons are widely used in industry. The corrosion resistance of cast iron is comparable to that of steel.03-0. Fracture surfaces take on a grey appearance (hence the name). nickel and nitrogen are other examples of typical alloying elements. stainless steel has a higher resistance to chemicals (i.6. Grey iron is an inexpensive material and is relatively easy to cast with a minimal risk of shrinkage. Design of pumps and motors Section 1. This extremely thin layer is self-repairing under the right conditions. the graphite is dispersed throughout a ferrite or pearlite matrix in the form of flakes. Nodular iron is normally used for pump parts with high strength requirements (high pressure or high temperature applications). forming. This is due to a chromium oxide film that is formed on the metal surface.6.5%. (10) Cast iron Cast iron is an alloy of iron. Stainless steel Stainless steel is composed of chromium containing steel alloys.16 shows that the tensile strength is higher for nodular iron than for grey iron. so the graphite is dispersed throughout a ferrite or pearlite matrix in the form of spheres or nodules. Nodular (ductile) iron Nodular iron contains around 0. pipes and automotive parts. Cast iron has good corrosion resistance to neutral and alkaline liquids (high pH) but has poor resistance to acids (low pH). In general. especially for valves. ASTM 0 ASTM 150 172 200 207 241 250 EN-GJL-150 EN-GJL-200 EN-GJL-250 GG-15 GG-20 GG-25 50 200 250 A 48 Gr 25A A 48 Gr 30A A 48 Gr 35A - 400 400 430 450 460 500 575 EN-GJS-400-18 EN-GJS-400-15 EN-GJS-450-10 EN-GJS-500-7 - GGG-40 GGG-40.16: Comparison and designations of nodular iron 66 .

75-3. To follow.5 2-2.3xMo% + 16xN%.07 0. the four major types of stainless steel: ferritic.12-0.5 4-5 6.5 2.5-26.4539/904L/ N08904 1.In environments containing chlorides. Fig 1.07 0. Also known as SAF 2507 67 . molybdenum and nitrogen) on the pitting resistance is taken into consideration. stainless steel can be attacked by localized corrosion.5 2-2.5 7 % Nickel 8-11 9-12 9-12 24-26 4.5-3.5 2-2. 0.2 Cu 1-3 N 0.4057/431/ S43100 1.4409/CF3M/ J92800 1.2 N max.02 0.15-0.32 % Other S 0.03 0.4571/316Ti/ S31635 1.03 0.5 19-21 20 21-23 25 % Chromium 18-20 18-20 18-20 19-21 21-23 24.4410/none/ S 32750 4) Designation EN/ASTM/UNS 1. Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE): Cr% + 3.5-13.4517/CD4MCuN/ J93372 % Carbon max. 0. 0.5 10-12 10-13 10-13 10.03 0.10-0.4462/ none/ S32205 2) 1.4404/316L/ S31603 1.22 0.4584/none/ none 1. 0.5 18-20 16.4470/CD3MN/ J92205 1. It is common to use the so-called Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE) values as a measure of pitting resistance for stainless steel.5 N max.4547/none / S 31254 3) 1.5-18.5-2.08 0.5-1 N 0.2 N 0.03 % Carbon max.5-3.07 0.35 16 18 18 18 24 24 24 34 43 34 43 PRE 19 26 26 35 35 38 1) 1) Contains some ferrite 2) Also known as SAF 2205.4305/303/ S30300 1.17: Chemical composition of stainless steel Chemical composition of stainless steel [w%] Microstructure Ferritic Martensitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic Microstructure Austenitic 1) Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic 1) 5) Designation EN/AISI/UNS 1. such as pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion.03 0.2-2 N 0.03 % Chromium 16-18 15-17 17-19 17-19.5-18.5 2.18-0.03 0.1 2.70 Cu 1.08 0.5 4 % Molybdenum Ti > 5 x carbon Ti < 0.5 2-2. martensitic. Be aware that the PRE value is a rough estimate of the pitting resistance of a stainless steel and should only be used for comparison/classification of different types of stainless steel.5-3.12-0. the higher the resistance to localized corrosion.4308/CF8/ J92600 1.22 N 0.5 4-5 2.4408/CF8M/ J92900 1. 3) Also known as 254 SMO.5 4) % Nickel % Molybdenum % Other PRE 5) 17 1.02 0.4401/316/ S31600 1.1 0.12-0.5-6.22 Cu 0.6.025 0.5 16.5 8-10 8-10.5 2-2. PRE values are calculated by formulas where the relative influence of a few alloying elements (chromium. austenitic and duplex are presented.5-3.07 0.4016/430/ S43000 1.24-0. The higher the PRE.22 Cu 2.5 24-26 18 4.5-18.5-6.4301/304/ S30400 1.4306/304L/ S30403 1.5 16. The resistance of stainless steel to these types of corrosion is highly dependent on its chemical composition.

07% in the regular type of stainless steel. toughness. surgical instruments and for sharp-edged tools. Both grades contain 0. Martensitic (magnetic) Martensitic stainless steel is characterized by high strength and limited corrosion resistance. Austenitic (non-magnetic) Austenitic stainless steel is the most common type of stainless steel and is characterized by a high corrosion resistance. Stainless steel SAF 2205 is widely used for making pump shafts and pump housings. This kind of stainless steel can be either wrought or cast. (10) Ferritic (magnetic) Ferritic stainless steel is characterized by good corrosion properties. high corrosion resistance and low susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking or a combination of these properties. shafts. toughness and weldability. If stainless steel is heated up to 932°F . Because titanium has a higher affinity for carbon than chromium. Austenitic stainless steel. good formability. see illustration 1.6.6 Materials 1. are used for almost any type of pump components. the chromium may form chromium carbides with the carbon in the steel. the risk of sensitization is reduced.4306). also referred to as sensitization (see section 1. and with the easy availability of ‘L’ grades. and moderate toughness. Low alloyed ferritic stainless steel is used in mild environments (teaspoons.1. or AISI 304L (EN 1.15-0. high corrosion resistance and excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. kitchen sinks.4571) contains a small amount of titanium.1472°F for a relatively long period of time during welding. resistance to stress corrosion cracking. free machining grades with a low sulphur content and a higher corrosion resistance have been developed.4301) and AISI 316 (EN 1. The stabilized grade AISI 316Ti (EN 1. Martensitic steels are used for springs. Due to its high sulphur content (0.35 w%). This reduces chromium’s capability to maintain the passive film and may lead to intergranular corrosion. 68 .4404).) where maintenance-free and non-rusting is required.17.4401). especially the AISI 304 and AISI 316.1 Pump construction.6. the use of stabilized grades has declined significantly.2). Ferritic-austenitic stainless steel is typically used in applications that require high strength. such as knives and scissors. washing machine drums. Over the years. If low carbon grades of stainless steel are used. AISI 303 is one of the most popular stainless steel types of all the free machining stainless steel types. etc. The content of carbon is generally low in modern stainless steel. AISI 304 (EN 1. Stainless steel with a low content of carbon is referred to as AISI 316L (EN 1. Design of pumps and motors Section 1. the formation of chromium carbides is minimized. the machinability improves considerably but corrosion resistance and weldability decrease. Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic) Ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel is characterized by strength.03% of carbon compared to 0.

18: Common types of copper alloys Brasses are the most widely used of the copper alloys because of their low cost and easy or inexpensive fabrication and machining. Alloying additions result in different cast and wrought materials suitable for use in the production of pumps. bronze and copper nickels. All copper alloys have poor resistance to alkaline liquids (high pH). The most important alloying constituents are iron. including corrosive environments. and molybdenum. and iron. 2) Bronze can be alloyed with aluminium to increase strength. compared to cast iron. Nickel alloys are often used for pump parts in the chemical process industry. However. high temperatures. molybdenum. impellers and pump housings. fittings. Brass. ammonia. chromium. nickel alloys are more difficult to cast than the common carbon steels and stainless steel alloys. such as seawater. copper. pressure vessels and for many marine. chromium. Red brass. 1) Lead can be added as an alloying element to improve machinability. and sulfides and are sensitive to erosion. Nickel alloys are available in both wrought and cast grades.are corrosion resistant. Fig 1. electrical and general engineering applications.such as InconelTM Alloy 625. they are inferior in strength to bronzes and must not be used in environments that cause dezincification. brass is unsuitable because of its tendency to desincificate. The alloying constituents make it possible to form a wide range of alloy classes. pipelines. have a high resistance to chlorides in aggressive liquids.Nickel alloys Nickel based alloys are defined as alloys in which nickel is present in greater proportion than any other alloying element. Copper alloys Pure copper has excellent thermal and electrical properties but is a very soft and ductile material. high stresses or a combination of these factors. HastelloyTM C-276 and C-22 . In such environments. red brass and bronze are widely used for making bearings. The price of nickel based alloy limits its use in certain applications. 69 . However.6. HastelloyTM alloys are commercial alloys containing nickel. not subject to pitting or crevice corrosion in low velocity seawater and do not suffer from erosion at high velocity. Nickel based alloys . Nickel and nickel alloys have the ability to withstand a wide variety of severe operating conditions.

1.5%) Unalloyed (pure) >99% Al Copper is the principal alloying element. An advantage of aluminum is its ability to generate a protective oxide film that is highly corrosion resistant if it is exposed to the atmosphere. When a limited amount of oxygen is added. Therefore. magnesium. A disadvantage of aluminum is its instability at low or high pH or in chloride-containing environments.e. i. 64). titanium performs much better than stainless steel in aggressive liquids. can further improve this property. (10) Aluminum Pure aluminum is a light and soft metal with a density of about a third of that of steel. titanium’s corrosion resistance depends on the formation of an oxide film. Pure aluminum has a high electrical and thermal conductivity. Aluminum alloys are widely used in structures where a high strength to weight ratio is important. such as seawater. iron and copper. The use of aluminum in vehicles and aircrafts reduces weight and energy consumption. and magnesium increases its corrosion resistance and strength.19: Major alloying elements of aluminum 70 . Additions of various alloying elements. copper increases its machinability.6. though other elements (magnesium) may be specified Manganese is the principal alloying element Silicon is the principal alloying element Magnesium is the principal alloying element Magnesium and silicon are principal alloying elements Zinc is the principal alloying element.6. and zirconium may be specified Other elements (including tin and some lithium compositions) Fig 1. Titanium’s oxide film is more protective than stainless steel’s. such as aluminum and vanadium. it will strengthen titanium and produce commercial-pure grades. is quite ductile and has a relatively low strength. such as copper.1 Pump construction. It is used in many aerospace engine and airframe components. Like stainless steel. This property makes aluminum unsuitable for exposure to aqueous solutions. Titanium is a reactive material. Design of pumps and motors Section 1. such as anodizing. Major alloying element CP: commercial pure (titanium content above 99.6 Materials 1. has a low position in the galvanic series and may easily suffer from galvanic corrosion if coupled to nobler metals and alloys (see section on galvanic corrosion pg. The most common alloying elements are silicon (silumin). especially under conditions with high flow. chromium. wet chlorine or organic chlorides. but other elements. increase its strength significantly but at the expense of ductility. Designation 1000-series 2000-series 3000-series 4000-series 5000-series 6000-series 7000-series 8000-series Titanium Pure titanium has a low density. magnesium. Treatment. The aluminum and vanadium-alloyed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) is the “workhorse” alloy of the titanium industry. such as in the transportation industry. This is further emphasized by the fact that aluminum is a reactive metal.20: Titanium grades and alloy characteristics Fig 1. where pitting and crevice corrosion can occur. Silicon increases the material’s castability. it is seldom used for making pump components. Because titanium is a high-price material.

and polyurethanes. plastics can be reinforced with fiberglass or other fibers. Thermoplastics Thermoplastic polymers consist of long polymer molecules that are not cross-linked to each other. together with additives and fibers.6. There are two main types of plastics: Thermoplastics and thermosets (thermosetting plastics). These plastics. PEEK) and chemical resistant fluoropolymers (e.4 Ceramics Ceramic materials are composed of metallic and non-metallic elements and are typically crystalline in nature. 1. Cross-linking is achieved during fabrication using chemicals. antioxidants • Plasticizers • Flame retardants Abbreviation PP PE PVC PEEK PVDF PTFE* *Trade name: Teflon® Thermosets Thermosets harden permanently when heated. Ceramics are mainly used for making bearings and seal faces for shaft seals. with thermoplastics being the most common used worldwide.g. Disadvantages of ceramics include low ductility and high tendency for brittle fractures. PVDF). used for surface coatings. PTFE.6. Thermoplastics are widely used for making pump housings or for lining of pipes and pump housings. Common technical ceramics are aluminum oxide (alumina . and silicon nitride (Si3N4). Examples of additives found in plastics: • Inorganic fillers for mechanical reinforcement • Chemical stabilizers. heat. Ceramics are suitable for applications requiring high thermal stability.21: Overview of polymer names Fig 1. Plastics often contain additives which transfer additional properties to the material.22: Different types of polymers 71 . and corrosion resistance.Al2O3). Thermosets are harder.g. or radiation.6. A wide range is available from low-cost commodity plastics (e. e. tungsten carbide (WC). They are often supplied as granules and heated to permit fabrication by methods such as molding or extrusion. but coal and natural gas are also used. PTFE is one of the few thermoplastics that is not meltprocessable. a process called curing or vulcanization.5 Plastics Some plastics are derived from natural substances like plants but most types are synthetic. silicon carbide (SiC). Linear polymer chains Thermoplastics Branched polymer chains Polymer name Polypropylene Polyethylene Polyvinylchloride Polyetheretherketone Polyvinylidene fluoride Polytetrafluoroethylene Weakly cross-linked polymer chains Elastomers Thermosets Strongly cross-linked polymer chains Fig 1. PVC) to high cost engineering thermoplastics (e. strength. PE.g. Furthermore. among other things. as cross-linking hinders bending and rotations. wear resistance. Most synthetic plastics come from crude oil.6. PP. are also referred to as composites. more dimensionally stable and brittle than thermoplastics and cannot be remelted. Some thermosets include epoxies. polyesters. Thermosets are.g.1.

Nitrile rubbers have high resilience and high-wear resistance but only moderate strength. alkalines and solvents should not be used with silicone rubbers. Silicone rubbers are resistant to water. It has very poor resistance to mineral oil and fuel. strong alkalis and polar fluids such as methanol and acetone. (10) 1. e. Different grades of nitrile rubber exist .6. and PMQ. strong alkalis and many freons. It can generally be used at about -22°F. hot water. Nitrile rubber At temperatures up to about 212°F. FKM rubbers have limited resistance to steam. They can be used in high temperatures. Chemraz® Kalrez® Fig 1. this rubber has limited weathering resistance and poor solvent resistance.6 Rubber The term rubber includes both natural rubber and synthetic rubber. such as low compression set in a wide range of temperatures (from -76°F to 392°F in air).the latter have improved low-temperature properties or chemical resistance.6. Design of pumps and motors Section 1. also known as elastomers. Ethylene-propylelediene rubber Ethylene propylelediene (EPDM) has excellent water resistance which is maintained to approximately 248-284°F. There are standard and special grades .22. the different kinds of rubber qualities and their main properties.6. very high cost and limited use at low temperatures. AbbreviationCommon types of copper alloys Examples of Common name trade name NBR EPDM. nitrile rubber (NBR) is an inexpensive material that has a high resistance to oil and fuel.6 Materials 1. VMQ. in regards to temperature and resistance to different kinds of liquid groups. This rubber type has good resistance to acids. In general. PMQ.1 Pump construction. fuel and a wide range of chemicals including non-polar solvents. FKM offers excellent resistance to high temperatures (up to 392°F depending on the grade) in air and different types of oil. Silicone rubber Silicone rubbers (Q) have outstanding properties. In this section. but their disadvantages are difficult processing. FMQ FFKM Nitrile rubber Ethylene-propylelediene Fluoroelastomers Silicone rubber Perfluoroelastomers Buna-N Nordel® Viton® Siloprene ® Perfluoroelastomers Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) have very high chemical resistance. Fluoroelastomers Fluoroelastomers (FKM) cover a whole family of rubbers designed to withstand oil. Teflon®). Different components in a pump are made of rubber. The crosslink is the key to the elastic or rubbery properties of these materials. the FMQ silicone rubber resistance to oil and fuel is better than that of types MQ.23: Rubber types 72 . However. some acids and oxidizing chemicals. such as gaskets and Orings (see section 1. almost comparable to that of PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene. Rubbers.3 on shaft seals). the higher the oil resistance but the poorer the low-temperature flexibility.the higher the acetonitrile (ACN) content. The elasticity provides resilience in sealing applications.g. Rubbers are cross-linked (vulcanized) but have a low cross-link density. are flexible long-chain polymers that can be stretched easily to several times their length. excellent electrical insulation and non-toxic. but certain grades can operate at lower temperatures. Concentrated acids. VMQ. Further. EPM FKM MQ.1. and other polar fluids. these rubber types have poor oil and fuel resistance. This type of rubber also has poor resistance to amines. will be presented. methanol. see figure 1.

1.6.7 Coatings
Protective coatings such as metallic, non-metallic (inorganic) or organic coatings, are a common method of corrosion control. The main function of coatings, aside from galvanic coatings such as zinc, is to provide a barrier between the metal substrate and its environment. They allow for the use of normal steel or aluminum instead of more expensive materials. In the following section, the possibilities of preventing corrosion by means of different coatings will be examined.

To protect the base steel, zinc coating sacrifices itself slowly by galvanic action.

Steel coated with a more noble metal, such as nickel, corrodes more rapidly if the coating is damaged.

Fig 1.6.24: Galvanic vs. barrier corrosion protection

Metallic coatings
There are two types of metallic coatings. One is where the coating is less noble than the substrate, and the other, electroplating, is where a more noble metal is applied to the substrate as a barrier layer.

Metallic coatings less noble than the substrate
Zinc coatings are commonly used for the protection of steel structures against atmospheric corrosion. Zinc has two functions. It acts as a barrier coating, and it provides galvanic protection. Should an exposed area of steel occur, the zinc surface preferentially corrodes at a slow rate and protects the steel. The preferential protection is referred to as cathodic protection. When damage is minimal, the protective corrosion products of zinc will fill the exposed area and stop the attack.

Metallic coatings nobler than the substrate
Electroplating of nickel and chromium coatings on steel are nobler than the substrate. Unlike galvanic coatings where the coating corrodes near areas where the base metal is exposed, any void or damage in a barrier coating can lead to an immediate base metal attack.

73

1. Design of pumps and motors Section 1.6
Materials 1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Non-metallic coatings (conversion coatings)
Conversion coatings are included in non-metallic coatings, also known as inorganic coatings. Conversion coatings are formed by a controlled corrosion reaction of the substrate in an oxidized solution. Examples of conversion coatings are anodizing or chromating of aluminum and phosphate treatment of steel. Anodizing is mainly used for surface protection of aluminum, while chromating and phosphating are usually used for pre-treatment to improve paint adhesion and to help prevent the spreading of rust under layers of paint.

<

Paints
As mentioned, paints are an important class of organic coating. Figure 1.6.25 shows several types of organic coatings. A typical paint formulation contains polymeric binders, solvents, pigments and additives. For environmental reasons, organic solvents are often replaced by water or simply eliminated, as in powder coating. Painted metal structures usually involve two or more layers of coating applied on a primary coating, which is in direct contact with the metal.

Organic coatings
Organic coatings contain organic compounds and are available in a wide range of different types. Organic coatings are applied to the metal by methods of spraying, dipping, brushing, lining or electro-coating (paint applied by means of electric current). They may or may not require heat-curing. Both thermoplastic coatings (i.e. polyamide, polypropylene, polyethylene, PVDF and PTFE) and elastomer coatings are applied to metal substrates to combine the mechanical properties of metal with the chemical resistance of plastics, but paints are by far the most widely used organic coating.

Physical states of common organic coatings
Resin type Acrylic Alkyd Epoxy Polyester Polyurethane Vinyl Solvent- Water- Powder based based coating X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Two comp. liquid

Fig 1.6.25: Physical states of common organic coatings

74

Chapter 2. Installation and performance reading

Section 2.1: Pump installation
2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 New installation Existing installation-replacement Pipe flow for single-pump installation Limitation of noise and vibrations Sound level

Section 2.2: Pump performance
2.2.1 Hydraulic terms 2.2.2 Electrical terms 2.2.3 Liquid properties

shaft seal. manifolds Space availability – width. Recommendations for new and existing installations follow.1. controlling • History.. gaskets. e.1 Pump installation Accuracy of suited pump type for an installation has significant impact on optimum operation. specifications including old duty point.g. from the ground. to a greater extent. relevant for medium to large sized installations.g.Section 2. Advisory • Major changes might be beneficial in long or short term and should be documented.g. in-line or end-suction. e.g. life cycle costs (LCC). pressure. such as efficiency. dimensions. commissioning. This will be dealt with on the following pages. e. availability of spare parts • If the pipework has been planned. two main areas are important: Pipe flow and limitation of noise and vibrations. pump selection is equivalent to pump replacement in an existing installation. operation and maintenance – basically the life cycle costs (LCC). The larger the pumps.1.g. Previous pump installation • Pump make.2 Existing installation–replacement Tips for optimum pump selection for existing installation follows. maintenance Future requirements • Desired improvements and benefits • New selection criteria including duty points and operating times. temperature.e.g. e. vibration accessibility for maintenance) Selection • Should be based on priorities agreed to by customer For the selection of correct pump type and installation advice. depth and height Accessibility for maintenance.1 New installation • If the pipework has not been planned. 76 . This will be covered in a later section. 2. installation. An extensive product portfolio combined with competent advice and after-sales service is the foundation of a proper selection. Pre-investigation of the installation should include: • Basic pipe flow – pipes in and out of the building. doorways Availability/accessibility of lift equipment Floor type. i. type. recommendations and pump tips are general for any installation but. reduced environmental impact (noise. installation savings. e. investment costs or lifecycle costs (LCC). the selection of a pump type can be based on other primary criteria. along the floor or from the ceiling • Specific pipework at the point of installation. lifetime. the greater the costs with respect to investment. solid or suspended floor with basement • Existing foundation • Existing electrical installation • • • • 2. e. materials. The following analysis. liquid specs • Supplier criteria.

2.1 is based on single-pump installation.1. End-suction close. 2.1. accessibility plays a major role for suitability of a pump choice. In parallel installations. End-suction long-coupled (only horizontal mounting) Best choice Best choice Good choice Good choice Good choice Good choice Best choice Best choice Good choice Best choice Good choice Good choice Best choice Best choice Best choice Best choice Acceptable choice Good choice Best choice Good choice Good choice Good choice Best choice Acceptable choice Acceptable choice Best choice Acceptable choice Good choice Best choice Not applicable Fig. Scores: Best choice Good choice Acceptable choice Not applicable Pump type Pipework To the pump: From the pump: Along floor Along floor To ground To ceiling Along floor From ground To ground To ceiling Along floor From ceiling To ground To ceiling Wallmounted Wallmounted A.1 Pipework and pump type 77 .3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation Figure 2. In-line close-coupled (horizontal or vertical mounting) B. Simple pipework with few bends as possible is the criteria for pump choice in a single-pump installation.1.coupled (horizontal or vertical mounting) C.

limited maintenance access because of pipework 2. dampeners and expansion joints.1.1. Fig. floating foundation and foundation suspended on vibration dampeners.2: Three in-line pumps in parallel.4.1. see figure 2. may also cause noise and vibration due to rotation in the motor and pump and by the flow in pipes and fittings.3. foundation. Basement can act as a resonance box.Section 2. 2.2. see figure 2.5 hp. see figure 2. easier maintenance access because of pipework Floor Solid ground Foundation Floor constructions can be solid or suspended. The effect on the environment depends on correct installation and the condition of the entire system. vibration dampening of the pump may be necessary. Fig.1. Fig.1. see figure 2.5. There are four basic installations for the two types of floor constructions: Floor. however.1. In-line pumps installed in parallel do not always provide the best accessibility because of the pipwork. The pump should be installed on a plane on a rigid surface. Generally.1 Pump installation Accessibility plays a major role in how well a specific pump choice is suited to an installation of several pumps in parallel. this should be considered for pumps with motors above 7. 2.1. Three ways to limit noise and vibration in a pump installation are: Foundation considerations.5: Suspended floor construction Wall Floor Ground floor Basement Floor Solid ground 78 . 2. Suspended – risk of floor amplifying the noise. Smaller motor sizes.3: Three end-suction pumps in parallel. End-suction pumps installed in parallel provide better accessibility.1. Fig.1.4: Solid floor construction Solid – minimum risk of noise due to low transmission of vibrations.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations To achieve optimum operation and minimize noise and vibration. 2.

1.g.10: The same foundation rules apply to vertical in-line pumps Foundation Vibration dampeners Floor 79 . This weight is needed to get the dampeners to work efficiently at low pump speed. hence direct vibration transmission. e.7.1.1. 2.1. 2.7: Foundation Floor Foundation Base plate Pump unit Floating foundation Resting on a dead material.9: Foundation suspended on vibration dampeners Floor Vibration dampeners Foundation Base plate Pump unit Pump unit Fig. see figure 2. Fig. Fig. sand.Floor Direct mounting on floor. The weight of a concrete foundation should be 1.1. 2. see figure 2.6. 2.8: Floating foundation Floor Sand Foundation Base plate Pump unit Foundation suspended on vibration dampeners Optimum solution with controlled vibration transmission. Fig. hence reduced risk of transmitting vibration. 2.6: Floor Floor Base plate Pump unit Foundation Poured directly on concrete floor.1.9. see figure 2. Fig. see figure 2.8.1.1.1.5 x the pump weight.

1 Pump installation Dampeners Vibration dampener selection requires the following data: pressure loss on the pressure side. such as center displacement or misalignment of flanges.Section 2. This prevents the development of turbulence in the expansion joints. resulting in better suction conditions and a minimum 80 . therefore. 2.5 times the pipe diameter from the pump on the suction side as well as on the discharge side. Expansion joint Foundation Pump unit Base plate Vibration dampeners Floor Expansion joints Expansion joints are installed to: Fig. The supplier should. • Forces acting on the dampener • Motor speed with consideration of speed control • Required dampening in % (suggested value is 70%) Dampener selection varies from installation to installation. it is best to install larger expansion joints. Pumps installed with vibration dampeners should always have expansion joints fitted at both the suction and the discharge side to prevent the pump from being supported by the flanges. An incorrect selection may increase the vibration level. size vibration dampeners. corresponding to the pipework. At high water velocities (16. Expansion joints are fitted at a minimum distance of 1 to 1. vibration dampeners and fixed pipework • Absorb expansions/contractions in the pipework caused by liquid temperature changes • Reduce mechanical strain in connection with pressure waves in the pipework • Isolate mechanical noise in the pipework (not for metal bellows expansion joints) Expansion joints should not be installed to compensate for inaccuracies in the pipework.11: Installation with expansion joints.1.4 ft/s or greater).

Follow the expansion joint supplier’s instructions. 2. Noise is unwanted sound.14: Metal bellows expansion joints with tie bars 2. e. frequency 10 20kHz Frequency kHz Smaller pumps. 2.Figures 2. The level of noise can be measured in the following three ways: 1. A rule-of-thumb is: 100 80 60 20 50 100 200 500Hz 1 2 5 Fig.12: Rubber bellows expansion joints with tie bars Fig. At temperatures above 212°F combined with a high pressure. An expansion joint without tie bars will exert force on the pump flanges. 2. Pressure – Lp : The pressure of the air waves 2.1.g. 2.14 show examples of rubber bellows expansion joints with or without tie bars. 2 hp: Lw = LP + 11 dB Larger pumps.1.Ll: The power per m2 (will not be covered in this book) It is not possible to compare the three values directly.1. which in turn affects the pump and the pipework. Lp (dB) 120 Pain threshold Threshold of hearing Music Speech 40 20 0 Fig. The fixed points should always be placed as close to the expansion joints as possible. e.5 Sound level The sound level (L) in a system is measured in decibel (dB). metal bellows expansion joints are often preferred.1. Power – Lw : The power of the sound 3. but it is possible to calculate between them based on standards.13: Rubber bellows expansion joints without tie bars Fig.11.1.g. 150 hp: Lw = LP + 16 dB 81 .1. due to the risk of rupture.12-2.15: Threshold of hearing vs.1. Intensity .1. Expansion joints with tie bars can be used to minimize the forces caused by the expansion joints and are recommended for sizes larger than four inches. The pipes must be fixed so that they do not stress the expansion joints and the pump. see figure 2.

1.15. dB (A) 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 10 100 1000 10000 Hz Fig.1 Pump installation Sound levels are indicated as pressure when they are below 85 dB(A) and as power when exceeding 85 dB(A). Recommendations to installation and foundation can be given to eliminate or reduce the negative impact of sound level. Therefore. If the pumps have the same sound level. 2. see figure 2. If the pumps have different sound levels. values from figure 2.1. In the case of two or more pumps in operation. and the measurements are adjusted depending on frequency.17 Increase of the total sound pressure level with equal sources 3 2.1.5 2 4 6 8 10 Fig.Section 2. 2. In some cases the weighting increases and in other cases it decreases.17. two pumps is Lp + 3 dB. the sound level can be calculated. see figure 2.5 2 1.16 A-weighting curve 15 10 5 4 8 12 16 20 24 Fig.1. Noise is subjective and depends on a person´s ability to hear. For example. Certain conditions could have a negative impact (increased sound level) or a positive impact on the sound level. three pumps is Lp + 5 dB. Other weightings are known as B and C but they are used for other purposes not covered in this book. The weighting is known as A-weighting [dB(A)].18 Increase of the total sound pressure level with different sources 82 . see figure 2. Guaranteeing values in a specific room in a specific pipe system is difficult because these values are beyond the reach of the manufacturer. meaning the sound level on a hard floor with no walls. Indications of sound level should normally be stated as free field conditions over reflecting surface.5 Experience values: 1 Rise of + 3 dB + 5 dB +10 dB Perceived as: Slightly noticeable Clearly noticeable Twice as loud 0.18 can be added.1. the above mentioned measurements get weight according to the sensitivity of a standard ear.16. expressed as: LpA. the total sound level can be calculated by adding the value. 2.1.1.

1 Hydraulic terms Flow. for example. the mass flow is essential to identify because the mass is the carrier of energy (see section on Heat Capacity). 83 . electrical terms. The liquid temperature has an influence on how big a mass flow can move per unit of time since the liquid density changes with the temperature. On the next pages.1: Calculation examples Mass flow Mass flow (Qm) is the mass which a pump moves per unit of time and is measured in pounds per second. if the pump is rusty or makes abnormal noise. 2.7 Volume flow Volume flow (Q) is read from a pump curve . cooling and air-conditioning systems. pressure and head are the most important hydraulic terms pertinent to pump performance. Q .30 22000 6.Section 2. Flow Flow is the amount of liquid that passes through a pump within a certain period of time. a number of values must be identified in order to determine if the pump is performing properly.2 Pump performance When examining a pump.2. Q = m ρ Examples Volume flow Q Density Mass flow Qm Unit GPM lb/ft3 lb/h lb/s 62.or. a pump can move a given volume per unit of time. several things should be evaluated. 2. Throughout this book the term flow refers to volume flow. For water supply. Fig. Q Qm = ρ . mechanical terms and liquid properties. For example. volume flow is the most important parameter because a certain volume of water is needed for drinking or irrigation.1 Water at 68°F at 248°F 44. Volume flow and mass flow are the two flow parameters considered for a performance reading.2. no matter the density of the liquid.86 20730 5.02 58. In heating. three values are presented for examining a pump’s performance: Hydraulic terms. measured in gallons per minute. put in another way.

The figure applies for a system with insignificant friction loss 1 2 So. as the one shown in figure 2. dynamic pressure in connection with determining the head of a pump will be discussed. 2. the dynamic pressure Pdyn and the total pressure Ptot Dynamic pressure 1 2 Dynamic pressure p is caused by liquid velocity and is dyn calculated by the following formula: 1 2 where: ρ is the density of the 1 liquid in [lb/ft3] v is the velocity of the2 liquid in [ft/s] Dynamic pressure can be converted into static pressure by reducing the liquid velocity and vice versa. the dynamic pressure pdyn has a minor impact on the total pressure. For example. Figure 2. if the velocity of a water flow is 14.2. psta psta ptot psta ptot pdyn Static pressure Static pressure psta is the pressure measured with a 1 pressure gauge placed perpendicular to the flow or 2 in a non-moving liquid. 84 . see figure 2.3: The static pressure increases if the liquid velocity is reduced. an increase in pipe diameter. Q ptot Fig.3 shows a part of a system where the pipe diameter increases from D1 to D2 resulting in a decrease in liquid speed from v1 to v2.2. 2.2 Pump performance Pressure Pressure (p) is a measure of force per unit area.2.Section 2.2 results in an increase in the static head which is measured with the pressure gauge p2.45 psi.7 ft/s. the sum of the static pressure and 2 the dynamic pressure is constant throughout the horizontal pipe.2.2. Total pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure: Later in this chapter. which is considered insignificant in many pumping systems. the dynamic pressure is around 1.2: How to determine the static pressure Psta.2. D1 v1 p1 p2 v2 D2 A P B ptot psta pdyn Fig. Assuming that there is no friction 1 loss in the system. In most pumping systems.

197 Q Conversion table for pressure units atm 0.069 0.2. it is important to know the point of reference for the pressure measurement.7 psi = 35.102 0. is higher than normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm). 0.9 100 Absolute pressure Absolute pressure (Pabs) is defined as the pressure above absolute vacuum.4335 1.4085 2. Throughout this book the term pressure refers to gauge pressure.307 SG where : H is the head in [ft] p is the pressure in psi2.4 ft 42.5 0.1 ft 34.7 psi = 26. When dealing with pressure.145 0.5: Pumping four different liquids at 14.2.987 bar 0.7 psi Water at 68°F SG = 0. hence four different duty points Duty point for water at 20°C 8 6 4 2 H(m) Duty point for brine at 20°C Q 2.7 psi = 42. Normally.307 0.895 1 2. The 1 following formula shows the relationship between 2 pressure (p) and head (H): Fig.325 33.504 * Physical atmosphere Fig.7 psi Diesel oil at 68°F SG = 0.422 14.987 bar 0.7 psi = 34.7 psi Water at 203°F SG = 0. often referred to as overpressure.097 1 0.96 14.0295 0.806 ft of H2O m of H2O 2.2. 0 atmospheres.5.9 100 1 bar 14.102 0.333 10. “absolute pressure” is used in cavitation calculations.703 0.7 psi Head 1 The head (H) of a pump 2 an expression of how high is the pump can raise a liquid.703 0.895 1 2.098 1.333 10.335 1 3. or bar (105 Pa). pressure p is stated as gauge pressure because most sensor and pressure gauge measurements account for the pressure difference between the system and the atmosphere.2.4085 Q 85 . 2.013 1 101.1ft 14.5 ft 14. where a pump handles four different liquids.281 33.806 ft of H2O m of H2O 2.069 0.305 1 10.422 14.307 0.969 9.325 33.80 14.0097 0. 1 bar 14.H(m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 Duty point for diesel at 20°C Duty point for water at 95°C Duty point for water at 20°C Duty point for brine at 20°C Measuring pressure Pressure is measured in psi (Ib/in²).013 1 101.1ft 35.068 0. designation 1 psi 1 kPa 1 feet of H2O 1 m of H2O 1 m H 2O 1 0.696 psi kPa 6.03 0.01 0.1 ft 14.969 9. Usually. Conversion table for pressure units designation 1 psi 1 kPa 1 feet of H2O 1 m of H2O 1 m H2O 1 0.696 psi kPa 6.4.504 * Physical atmosphere Other pressure units are used as well. The relationship between pressure and head is shown in figure 2.197 atm 0.03 0.4335 1.997 14.0295 0.068 0. 2.305 1 10.4: Conversion table for pressure units Gauge pressure Gauge pressure (Pg).0097 0. that is the absolute zero for pressure. see figure 2.3 14.5 0.7 psi at the Duty point for diesel at 20°C 12 discharge side of the pump results in four different heads Duty point for water at 95°C 10 (ft).281 33.01 0.4 ft 14.098 1.145 0.31 SG 0.097 1 0.31 SG is the specific gravity ofSG liquid the Pressure p is measured in [psi]. 26. Head is measured in feet (ft) and is independent of the liquid density. Two types of pressure are essential with pressure measurement: Absolute pressure and gauge pressure.335 1 3.5 ft Brine at 68°F SG = 1.

6.9 5. it is necessary to 1 compensate 2 the difference. see appendix F.31 SG 1 2 where : H is the actual pump head in [ft] 2.7.4085 height between the measuring static 2.9 5.307 0.31 A is the area SG 2.31 0. diameter of the two ports D1 2 2.31 [ft/s] velocity in SG SG Q is the volume flow in [GPM] D is the port diameter in [in] 2.5 bar 2. 2.25) 1.307 2.h1 = 355 mm D1 = 150 mm v1 = 3.4085 where: v is the2. the contribution can be read in a nomogram.6: Standard end-suction pump with dimension difference on suction and discharge ports v2 = 5.2.4085 1057 the 1.2.25) 2. the actual head has to be corrected for this as well.4085 Q 2 SG The liquid velocity v is calculated by the following formula: 1 2 0.4085 points h2-h1.0 4.9 . head.31 in [ft] v is the liquid velocity in [ft/s] SG 2.9 following factors: The pressure measurements p1 and p2. as it is in the case in figure 2. the flow through the pump Q. see figure 2. depends on Combining these two formulas.7.1 bar h2 .4085 Q 1 H.6.77 m/s2 p1 = 0.43 m/s2 D2= 125 mm p2 = 1.2.31 SG 0.4085 1057 4.0 0.31 SG 86 0.307 SG D1 p1 Fig.Section 2. if a static difference in head is present between the two measuring points. However.31 SG 2.0.2 Pump performance How to determine the head The pump head is determined by reading the pressure 1 on the flanges of the pump p2.31 (15.31 (15. And if the port dimensions for of the two measuring points differ from one another. The correction due to the difference in port diameter is caused by the difference in the dynamic pressure. the difference in0.4085 Q 1 0.4085 Q . Instead of calculating the correction from the formula. p1 and then converting 2 the values into head. and the Q SG and D .4085 Q 0.4085 p is the pressure at the flanges in [ft] SG SG is the specific gravity of the liquid g is the acceleration of gravity in [ft/s2] h is the static height2.31 1 0.9 2. v2 D2 p2 v1 h2 h1 1 The actual pump head H is calculated by the following 2 formula: 2.9 .

7 SG is installed in a system with the following data: 1 2 Q = 1057 GPM 2.7.25 psi 2.25 psi Fig.4085 Q 0.307 p2 = 15.31 (15.9 .7: Standard end-suction pump with different dimensions of suction and discharge ports (Example) 2.4085 1057 4.7.9 2.h1 = 1 ft D1 = 5.2.3 ft/s2 p1 = 7.1 2 1 2 2 2.31 (15.31 SG 0.9 in v1 = 12.9 As it appears from the calculation.9 5.4085 Suction port diameter D1 = 6 in 2.307 A pump of the same type as the one shown in figure 2. The deviation is caused by the difference in height between the pressure gauges (1 ft) and by the difference in port dimensions.9 psi h2 . which in this case is 1 inch.9 psi SG Liquid: Water at 680F 0.9 5.4085 Q 2.82 26.31 0.0 SG 1 0.25) 19.0 1 1 5. 2. the pressure difference measured by pressure gauges is about 1 ft lower than what the pump is actually performing.25) 2.98 1.4085 SGable to calculate the head of the pump: We are now 1 Calculation example v2 = 17. 87 .9 in p2 = 15.31 1.4085 1057 0.31 SG p1 = 7.8 ft/s2 D2= 4.80 ft 0.4085 Q 4.31 Discharge SG diameter D2 = 5 in port The difference in height between the two ports where the pressure gauges are installed is h2-h1 = 1 ft 2.9 .4085 Q 0.2.

System pressure is important to consider when dealing with a closed system. With in-line pumps.31 ( SG H = head in ft P = psi SG = specific gravity Differential pressure The differential pressure (∆p) is the pressure difference between the pressures measured at two points. measured in feet in the lowest point.2 Pump performance If the pressure gauges are placed at the same static height or if a differential pressure gauge is used for the measurement.2. For these types of pumps a simplified formula is used to determine the head: p1 p2 h1 h2 2. where inlet and outlet are placed at the same level. that is. Differential pressure is measured in the same units as pressure.8: The system pressure Hsta in a closed system has to be higher than the physical height of the installation .7.2. the two ports often have the same diameter. The system pressure. System pressure The system pressure is the static pressure.a: Inline pump with same static height on inlet and outlet.2. it is not necessary to compensate for the difference in height (h2-h1).Section 2. which refers to when the pumps are not running.2. must always be higher than the height of the system to ensure that the system is filled with liquid and can be vented properly. h2 = h1 Dry cooler h Chiller Hsyst Hsyst > h Fig. the pressure drops across valves in a system. 88 ( Fig.

: 2.: 2. Additional damage to bearings. see figure 2.3. see figure 2. in feet absolute Vp = Vapor pressure at the maximum operating temperature. in feet absolute (positive or negative) Hf = Friction loss in suction piping. is determined by the manufacturer and typically included on the performance curve.6. NPSHr. Calculation of the risk of cavitation To avoid cavitation.2.10 red dot) which can damage impellers. which is the amount of suction head required to ensure the pump performs at full capacity.: Q 2. a = Front of impeller vanes b = Back of impeller vanes a b Imploding vapor bubbles Fig.2. shaft seals and welds may occur due to increased noise and vibration caused by cavitation. vapor bubbles form. This damage is often only detected when the pump is disassembled. The rate of damage depends on the properties of the impeller material. see figures 2. NPSHa is a function of the system in which the pump will be applied and is calculated as follows: p1 Vapor pressure p NPSH Impeller inlet Impeller outlet Q Fig. see section 1.11: Pump curve when pump cavitates H NPSHa must be greater than the NPSHr to avoid cavitation.12: NPSH . hmax = Maximum suction head Hb = Atmospheric pressure at the pump site. in feet absolute H NPSHa = Hb + Hs — Hf — Vp Curve when pump cavitates Q Fig. this is the theoretical maximum suction lift.2.10.2. Pump performance is harmed by cavitation due to decreases in both flow (Q) and head (H).2. the bubbles collapse releasing shock waves (figure 2.2. Stainless steel is more resistent to cavitation than bronze.curve H Q 89 .2. the following formula is used to calculate the maximum suction head: NPSH hmax = Hb — Hf — NPSHr — Hv — Hs Q Fig.10 yellow dot).13 Hf = Friction loss in the suction pipe NPSHr = Net Positive Suction Head read at the NPSH curve at the highest operational flow.9: Implosion of cavitation bubbles on the back of impeller vanes p Pressure [Pa] Net Positive Suction Head H H a b a = Front of impeller vanes b = Back of impeller vanes To calculate the risk of cavitation.2.2.12.Cavitation Cavitation in a pump occurs when the suction pressure is lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid pumped.2. As the pressure in the pump rises.11.9 and 2.: 2. the Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHr) for the pump is compared with the Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHa) of the system.2. and bronze is more resistant than cast iron.10: Development of pressure through a centrifugal pump H Hb = Barometric Pressure. When the pressure on the suction side of the pump drops below the vapor pressure of the pumped liquid (figure 2. see figure 2. in feet absolute Hs = Suction Head.

The suction head is reduced while the flow is kept at a constant level. current and power factor. NPSH can either be considered in terms of NPSHr (required) or NPSHa (available).6 Barometric pressure p (psi) b Water column H (ft) b Boiling point of water (°f) 212 210.Section 2.92 30. The testing is repeated at different flows.89 31. H [ft] NPSH Liquid with air Vented liquid Q [GPM] Fig.039 11.567 13. Height above sea level (ft) 0 1640. For more information concerning vapor pressure of water.0 1.: 2.0 5.8 1.05 26.: 2.15. For typical curve for liquid containing gas see figure 2.3 140 130 32025 300 15 120 110 20 Hf 100 12 280 10 90 80 70 60 2706.0 8.0 2504.1 0 Hv 140 122 Fig. a range of values must be considered.6 4.7 0.6 2.531 33.4 3280.0 2302.8 199. that is to raise a full water column 33.0 1940. Hv – Vapor pressure of the liquid.6 1760.13.2.13: Barometric pressure above sea level tm (˚C ) 150 tm (°F Hv ) (m) 370 40 360 35 45 30 Hv (ft ) 413 328 259 148 131 115 98 82 66 49 39 33 26 20 16 13 10 6.0 2121. Hs – Safety factor.: 2.2 Electrical terms To examine a pump’s performance.9 3.0 3.2. forming the basis of the NPSH curve. Hs depends on the situation and normally varies between 1.57 Fig. In this section the most important electrical values are presented: Power consumption.5 h NPSH Hb 50 40 30 20 10 1580.4 0.2 0. go to Appendix D.4 14.2. When the differential pressure has decreased by 3%.14: System with indication of the different values that are important in connection with suction calculations 104 86 68 50 32 2.9 0.3 0. the pressure at the pump’s suction side is read and the NPSH value of the pump is defined. voltage.2 204.2.2. NPSHrequired The required suction head for the pump NPSHavailable The available suction head in the system The NPSH value of a pump is determined by Hydraulic Institute testing standards and is made as follows.2.89 ft above sea level.3 2. see figure 2.692 13.8 6561.5 ft and 3 ft.3 0.2 Pump performance The NPSH value indicates to what extent the pump is unable to create absolute vacuum.15: Typical NPSH curve for liquid containing gas 90 .

2. including the shape of the pump housing. the impeller and diffuser design and the surface roughness.16: Pump unit with indication of different power consumption levels If a frequency converter is also included. The power input to the pump. Hydraulic power. the total efficiency ηT also includes the efficiency of the motor: PH Fig.2. see figure 2. Efficiency Efficiency (η) normally only covers the efficiency of the pump part. For typical pump units consisting of both pump and electric motor. ηP. Power is measured in horsepower (hp). The power consumption (P) of the different components is designated as follows: P1 P1 The power input from the mains. the power that the pump transfers to the liquid in the form of flow and head. often referred to as shaft power or brake horsepower (Bhp). A pump’s efficiency is determined by several factors. or the amount of power the consumer must purchase.Power consumption Pumps are made of several components. or the power output from the motor.16. P2 P2 PH For the most common pump types. the efficiency of the entire unit must include the efficiency of the frequency converter (ηfc ): 91 .2. also known as water hp (Whp). the term power consumption normally refers to P2.

g. the voltage between any two of the phases (L1. The ratio between the phase-phase voltage and the phase-neutral voltage is: L1 L2 L3 N Ground } } 480V Three-phase supply 230V Single-phase supply Fig. Voltage is measured in volts (V) and can be direct current (DC). electricity supply for houses.g. see figure 2.Section 2. AC single-phase motor. e. 3 x 480 V 92 .g. voltage (v) drives a current (I) through an electrical circuit. L3) is 480 V. e. 1. Power and power factor Power (P) consumption is of high importance when it comes to pumps.g. A ground connection is added to the system as well. L3) and a neutral (N). For pumps with standard AC motors.2. The layout of an AC main supply differs from one country to another.2. 2. The most common layout is four wires with three phases (L1. the power input is found by measuring the input voltage and input current and by reading the value cosj on the pump motor nameplate.5 V battery – or alternating current (AC). e. L2. etc. The ratio between the phase-phase voltage and the phase-neutral voltage is determined by the formula at right. The voltage between one of the phases and neutral (N) is 230 V.17: Mains supply. 1 x 230 V AC three-phase motor. 3 x 480 V Current Current (I) is the flow of electricity and is measured in ampere (A). e.2 Pump performance Voltage Like pressure drives flow through a hydraulic system. For a 3x480 V/230 V main supply. The amount of current in an electrical circuit depends on the supplied voltage and the resistance/ impedance in the electrical circuit. e. The power consumption P1 can be calculated by the formulas shown at right for a single-phase or a three-phase motor. pumps are supplied with AC voltage supply. The term cosj is the phase angle between voltage and current and is referred to as power factor (PF). Normally.g.17. L2.

39 11.15°C. °C (Celcius). Liquid heat capacity depends on temperature. The calculation between Fahrenheit and Celcius is °F = °C . that is -273. the Saybolt Universal viscosity is calculated by the following formula: [SSU] = 4.2. such as glycol and water for air-conditioning.8 + 32.62 . so higher flow is required to transport the same amount of energy. and viscosity.2. 93 . Mixed liquids. such as heating. temperature for ethylene glycol Liquid heat capacity The heat capacity (Cp) shows how much additional energy a liquid can contain per mass when it is heated. and the boiling point is 100°C and 212°F. or K (Kelvin). 1.07 13. See appendix K. but 0°C is the freezing point of water and 0°K is the absolute zero. Heat capacity is considered in systems for transporting energy.72 20% 34% 44% 52% Liquid temperature The liquid temperature (t. Hence. the lowest possible temperature. Viscosity Kinematic viscosity is measured in centiStokes [cSt] (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s). [cSt] Btu/lbm °F 0% pure water 16. have a lower heat capacity than pure water. air-conditioning and cooling. see figure 2.2. For kinematic viscosity above 60 cSt.74 15.18: Heat capacity vs. 18. 2.04 8.3 Liquid properties When making system calculations.18. heat capacity.2. 10. specific gravity.37 -40 -4 32 68 104 140 176 212 248°F Fig.T) is measured in °F (Fahrenheit). the following liquid properties should be considered: Liquid temperature. Temperature units of °C and K are actually the same.42 Specific Gravity The Specific Gravity (SG) is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of density of the material to the density of water at a specified temperature of 68°F. the freezing point of water is 0°C and 32°F. The unit [SSU] Saybolt Universal is also used in connection with kinematic viscosity.

2 Pumps connected in series .1.Chapter 3.2.1 Single resistances 3.1: System characteristics 3.1.2 Closed and open systems Section 3. System hydraulics Section 3.2.2: Pumps connected in parallel and series 3.1 Pumps in parallel 3.

which altogether affect the system characteristic.1.1 System characteristics Previously. pipes. In this chapter the pump performance curve at different operating conditions as well as a typical system characteristic will be examined. fittings. 3. • Open systems An open system is a liquid transport system like a water supply system where the pump must address the static head as well as overcome the friction losses in the pipes and components. in section 1. etc. Fig. where the pump has to overcome the friction losses in the pipes. the basic characteristics of pump performance curves were discussed.1: The point of intersection between the pump curve and the system characteristic is the duty point of the pump • Closed systems A closed system is a circulating system like heating or air-conditioning systems. 96 . the interaction between a pump and a system will be discussed. the duty point of the pump can be determined as the point of intersection of the two curves. System characteristic describes the relation between flow (Q) and head (H). Following is a discussion on how these resistances affect the system characteristic.1.2. in the system. Open and closed systems consist of resistances (valves. Finally.1. closed or open. valves. The system characteristic depends on the type of system in question.1.Section 3. When the system characteristic is drawn in the same system of co-ordinates as the pump curve. etc.) connected in series or parallel. see figure 3. heat exchanger.

the steeper the resulting system curve will be.1.1 Single resistances Every component in a system constitutes a resistance against the liquid flow which leads to a head loss.2 shows a system consisting of a valve and a heat exchanger. 3. a substantial reduction in the pressure loss occurs. Figure 3. So. and Q is the flow through the component. if it is possible to lower the flow in a system. which depends on the component in question. 97 . Q2 k is a constant. the total head loss.2 shows how the resulting curve will look and what the duty point will be if the system is a closed system with only these two components. The figure shows that the more resistance in the system.1.1. ∆H. Resistances connected in series The total head loss in a system consisting of several components connected in series is the sum of head losses that each component represents. If we do not consider the head loss in the piping between the two components. As it appears from the formula. the head loss is proportional to the flow to the second power. The following formula is used to calculate the head loss: ∆H = k .2: The head loss for two components connected in series is the sum of the two individual head losses ∆Htot = ∆H1 + ∆H2 Figure 3.3. the resulting characteristic is found by adding the individual head losses. ∆Htot. at a given flow Q. As it appears from the figure. is calculated by adding the two head losses: Fig.1.

3 shows a system with a valve and a heat exchanger connected in parallel. 3. air-conditioning systems and process cooling systems. Figure 3.1.Section 3. A common feature of these closed systems is that the liquid is circulated and is the carrier of heat energy. connecting components in parallel results in a more flat system characteristic.1.1.3: Components connected in parallel reduce the resistance in the system and result in a more flat system characteristic 3.1. and thereby the head loss. pump systems are split into two types: Closed and open systems. Closed systems are characterized as systems with pumps that overcome the sum of friction losses which are generated by all the components. Figure 3. The differential pressure across the components connected in parallel is always the same.2 Closed and open systems As mentioned previously.4 shows a schematic drawing of a closed system where a pump circulates water from a heater through a control valve to a heat exchanger. Heat energy is what the system must transport. closed systems are systems which transport heat energy in heating systems.1.1 System characteristics Resistances connected in parallel Contrary to connecting components in series. This section will examine the basic characteristics of these systems. Closed systems Typically. This is because the components installed in parallel reduce the total resistance in the system. The resulting system characteristic is defined by adding all the components’ individual flow rates for a specific ∆H. The resulting flow can be calculated by the following formula for a head loss equivalent to ∆H Q tot = Q 1 + Q2 Fig.4: Schematic drawing of a closed system 98 . Fig. 3.

3. the pump deals with the static head of the liquid and must overcome the friction losses in the pipes and the system components.1.1.5: The system characteristic for a closed system is a parabola starting at point (0. result in a system characteristic as shown in figure 3. The pump must provide a head higher than the static head of the water (h).0) and is calculated by the following formula: H = k .H) = (0.6 99 . Q2 As the formula and curve indicate.5. (Hf). In these systems. A pump transports water from a break tank at ground level up to a roof tank on the top of a building. fittings. the pressure loss is approaching zero when the flow drops. see figure 3.1. 3. valves.1. The required pressure in a closed system (which the system curve illustrates) is a parabola starting at the point (Q.All these components. Fig. Q1 Q Q1 Q Fig.1. e. as well as the necessary head to overcome the total friction loss between the two tanks in piping. There are two types of open systems: • Open systems where the total required static head is positive.7: System characteristic together with the pump performance curve for the open system in figure 3.7. Fig. • Open systems where the total required static head is negative.0) Open systems Open systems use the pump to transport liquid from one point to another.1. water supply irrigation and industrial process systems. 3. along with the pipes and fittings.1.6 shows a typical open system with positive static head. etc. The pressure loss depends on the rate of flow.g.6: Open system with positive static head Open system with positive static head Figure 3.

The water flows. a lower energy consumption. 3. consequently.9: System characteristic and the pump performance curve for the open system shown in figure 3.1 System characteristics Figure 3. This results in a modified system characteristic and a reduced flow in the system.1.1. The static head (h) from the water tank brings water to the consumer. So. Open system with negative static head A typical example of an open system with negative required head is a pressure booster system.9.1. so the pump has to boost the head to the level (H1) in order to compensate for the friction loss (Hf) in the system. see figure 3. whereas a smaller flow leads to a smaller pressure loss and.-h). Fig. 3. and the system characteristic and the pump performance curve are shown in figure 3. although the pump is not running.9. This is a general rule for liquid transport systems: A larger flow leads to a higher pressure loss. consequently. the lower the power consumption of the pump. as in a water supply system. The resulting system characteristic is a parabolic curve starting at the H-axes in the point (0. The difference in height between the liquid level in the tank and the altitude of the water outlet (h) results in a flow equivalent to Qo.8: Schematic drawing of a open system Fig. the height (h) is reduced.8 100 . the lower the friction loss (Hf) and.1. The flow in the system depends on the liquid level in the tank. the head is insufficient to ensure the required flow (Q1) to the consumer.7 shows that.1. in an open system. However. no water flows if the maximum head (Hmax) of the pump is lower than the static head (h).1. Only when H > h will water start to flow from the break tank to the roof tank.8.1. the flow (Q1) and the pump size have to match the need for the specific system.Section 3. If the water level in the tank is reduced. The system curve also shows that the lower the flow rate. The system is shown in figure 3.

For each value of head. is double. but the maximum flow. The system’s total performance curve is determined by adding Q1 and Q2 for every value of head which is the same for both pumps. To avoid bypass circulation in pumps that are not running. Because the pumps are identical. H1=H2 .1 Pumps in parallel Pumps connected in parallel are often used when: • The required flow is higher than one single pump can supply • The system has variable flow requirements which are met by switching parallel-connected pumps on and off Normally. pumps connected in parallel are of similar type and size. This section will focus on these two ways of connecting pumps.2. a check valve is connected in series with each pump. and thereby have different performance curves. Qmax. Hmax.Section 3. the flow is the double as for a single pump in operation: Fig.1 shows a system with two identical pumps connected in parallel.2. pumps are often connected in parallel or series. Figure 3. However.2. Q = Q1 + Q2 = 2 Q1 = 2 Q2 101 . the pumps can be of different size. 3.2 Pumps connected in parallel and series To increase total pump performance in a system. which the pumps deliver at a specific head.1: Two pumps connected in parallel with similar performance curves . 3. the resulting pump curve has the same maximum head. or one or several can be speed-controlled. The resulting performance curve for a system consisting of several pumps in parallel is determined by adding the flow.

If both pumps are running at the same speed. Whether to run one or two pumps depends on the actual system characteristic and pump type. see figure 3.2.2. Above Q1 both pumps must operate to meet the performance needed. speed-controlled pumps will be discussed in detail. A single pump covers the required pump performance up to Q1. The hatched area in figure 3.3: Two speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel (same size). The duty point can also be achieved when two pumps are running at reduced speed. The orange curve shows the performance at reduced speed Fig 3.2.2. Later in chapter 4. speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel offer efficient pump performance. thus.4: One pump at full speed compared to two pumps at reduced speed. Note that the duty point at Q1 is reached with one pump running at full speed.2 shows that P1 is the only pump to supply in that specific area because it has a higher maximum head than P2.2 shows two different sized pumps connected in parallel.Section 3.2: Two pumps connected in parallel with unequal performance curves Fig. When adding Q1 and Q2 for a given head H1=H2. 3. energy consumption to use both pumps at the same time. Speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel For varying flow demand. it is sometimes necessary due to efficiency and. the resulting pump curves look like the orange curves shown in figure 3. The duty point for one pump running at full speed results in low pump efficiency because the duty point is located far out on the pump curve.2 Pumps connected in parallel and series Figure 3. Fig. although the maximum efficiency of the pumps decreases slightly at reduced speeds. In this case the two pumps have the highest total efficiency 102 . This method is common to water supply and pressure boosting systems. The figure also compares efficiency.3.2. The total efficiency is much higher when two pumps run at reduced speeds. 3.4 (orange curves).2. see figure 3.3.2.2. A pumping system with two speed-controlled pumps with the same performance curve covers a wide performance range. the resulting performance curve is defined. Even though one single pump is able to maintain the required flow and head.

2. 103 . As discussed in section 3. pumps connected in series are used in systems where high pressure is required.6 shows two different sized pumps connected in series. The combination of a fixed-speed pump and a speed-controlled pump connected in series is often used in systems where a high and constant pressure is required. The resulting performance curve is determined by adding H1 and H2 at a given common flow Q1=Q2.2.5: Two equal sized pumps connected in series Q Fig. The fixed-speed pump supplies the liquid to the speedcontrolled pump whose output is controlled by a pressure transmitter. This results in a curve with the double maximum head (2⋅Hmax) and the same maximum flow (Qmax) as each of the single pumps. 3.5 shows the performance curve of two identical pumps connected in series.6 shows that P2 is the only pump to supply in that area because it has a higher maximum flow than P1. Pumps connected in series Normally.1. 3.2. Figure 3.7. The resulting performance curve is made by marking the double head for each flow value in the system of co-ordinates. see figure 3. that is.2. (PT). unequal pumps can be a combination of different sized pumps or of one or several speed-controlled pumps.2.2.2.2.2. 3.2. Figure 3.7: Equal sized fixed-speed pump and speed-controlled pump connected in series. A pressure transmitter PT together with a speed controller is making sure that the pressure is constant at the outlet of P2.6: Two different sized pumps connected in series Q Fig. The hatched area in figure 3. This is also the case for multistage pumps that are based on the series principle. Fig.3. one stage equals one pump.

2.2 Components of the frequency converter 4.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system 4.4.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters .2.1 Performance curves of speed-controlled pumps 4.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system 4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems Section 4.1.2.1.1.Chapter 4.5.5.1 Basic function and characteristics 4.1: Adjusting pump performance 4.4 Speed control 4.3: Advantages of speed control Section 4.1.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control Section 4.1.2 Constant temperature control 4.2.4.1 Constant pressure control 4. Performance adjustment of pumps Section 4.1.2: Speed-controlled pump solutions 4.5.4: Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter 4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods 4.1 Throttle control 4.2 Bypass control 4.3 Modifying impeller diameter 4.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20% Section 4.5: Frequency converter 4.

and in some applications. Often.1.1. [ft] H η [%] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Q [GPM] 0 Fig.1: When selecting a pump it is important to choose one where the duty point is within the high efficiency area. it is important to choose one where the duty point is in the high-efficiency area of the pump. The four adjusting methods are discussed on the following pages. sometimes it is not possible to select a pump that fits the optimum duty point because the requirements of the system change or the system curve changes over time.: 4. 106 . The most common methods of changing pump performance are: • Throttle control • Bypass control • Modifying impeller diameter • Speed control Choosing a method of pump performance adjustment is based on an evaluation of the initial investment along with the operating costs of the pump.1 Adjusting pump performance When selecting a pump for a given application. However. oversized pumps are selected for the system.1. Otherwise. Therefore. It is then necessary to limit the performance – primarily the flow rate.Section 4. the power consumption of the pump is unnecessarily high. All methods can be carried out continuously during operation apart from the modifying impeller diameter–method. it may be necessary to adjust the pump performance so that it meets the changed requirements. the maximum head. see figure 4.

QP. permitting the duty point to be adjusted.1. resulting in a lower flow and less energy consumption.. consequently reducing the flow. Throttling results in a flow reduction. Even when the required flow in the system is zero. resulting in less power consumption. Like the throttling valve method.1.2 Bypass control Compared to the throttle valve.1 Throttle control A throttle valve may be placed in series with the pump. the flow is Q2. Hmax . see figure 4. reducing the flow in the system 107 .1. QBP. QBP.2. If the pump and the throttle valve are replaced by a smaller pump. When the pump performance is adjusted with this method.2: The throttle valve increases the resistance in the system. the pump will deliver a higher head than necessary for that particular system. Without the throttle valve.: 4. see figure 4.4. QS. see figure 4.2. QP QBP QS HP System H Bypass valve Hmax Smaller pump System The bypass valve will introduce a maximum limit of head to the system.1. can be met by a smaller pump and no bypass valve. Hp Throttle valve Hv Hs System H Pump Resulting characteristic Smaller pump Hv Hs System Throttle valve Q1 Q2 Q3 Q Fig. the pump will be able to meet the desired flow Q1 at a lower pump head. Throttle valves can be used to limit the maximum flow. the flow will never be higher than Q3 even if the original system curve is completely flat.3. In the example.: 4. Bypass valve 4. The flow. the pump will never run against a closed valve. The throttle valve adds resistance to the system.1.1. With the throttle valve connected in series with the pump. in the pump independent of the system characteristics.3: The bypass valve diverts part of the flow from the pump. meaning there is no resistance in the system. raising the system curve. is the sum of the flow in the system.1.3. the flow is reduced to Q1. installing a bypass valve will result in a certain minimum flow.1. and the flow in the bypass valve. QS. Qs QBP Resulting characteristic Pump HP QBP QS QP Q Fig. see figure 4. the required flow.

4: Change in pump performance when the impeller diameter is reduced 4. it cannot be done while the pump is in operation. the impeller trimming has to be done in advance before the pump is installed or in connection with service. the ratio change of the impeller diameter to the second power. the pump efficiency decreases when the impeller diameter is reduced. consequently. Compared to the throttling and bypass methods. H Hn Hx Dx Dn Qx Qn Q Fig. Speed control by means of a frequency converter is the most efficient way of adjusting pump performance exposed to variable flow requirements. reduces pump performance. The degree of efficiency reduction depends on pump type and duty point. reducing the diameter which. The duty points following the formulas are placed on a straight line starting in (0. the flow and the head change with the same ratio: that is.Section 4.1. the efficiency is only reduced by a few percentage points.4 Speed control The last method of controlling the pump performance to be covered in this section is the variable speed control method. which can be carried out during operation.0).1. For minor changes of the impeller diameter. The change in power consumption is following the diameter change to the fourth power.1 Adjusting pump performance 4. The following formula shows the relationship between the impeller diameter and the pump performance: D Note that the formulas are an expression of an ideal pump. In practice.3 Modifying impeller diameter Another way to adjust the performance of a centrifugal pump is to modify the impeller diameter.8 . As it appears from the formulas. 108 . 4. Dn. Dx > 0.1.

a reduction of the speed will result in a slight fall in efficiency.1. In practice. frequency converter and motor efficiencies must be taken into account. The head (H) is proportional to the second power of the speed (n) whereas the power (P) is proportional to the third power of the speed. The formulas in figure 4.0) – see section 3.5 show that the pump flow (Q) is proportional to the pump speed (n).1.1. which is valid for speed reduction down to 50% of the maximum speed: If the need for precise power saved is desired. 4. The efficiency at reduced speed (nx) can be estimated by the following formula.2 (p 99). Fig. The power equation implies that the pump efficiency is unchanged at the two speeds.The following equation applies with close approximation to how the change in speed of a centrifugal pump influences the performance of the pump: The affinity laws apply when the system characteristic remains unchanged for nn and nx and forms a parabola through (0.5: Pump parameters for different affinity equations 109 .

Hn. Overall efficiency Relative power consumption by 20% curve will have of the pump system efficiency reduction in flow Relative power The resulting performance Overall Throttle control Overallpump The resulting performance consumption by curve will have of the efficiency Relative power 20% The throttling Reduced have Considerably curve will Q performance method implies a valve connected in 94% of the pump reduction in by system efficiency consumptionflow Relative power 20% The resulting Overall reduced reduction in flow20% system series with a pump.1.1. see figure 4. The curve will be more linear than see figure Hn reduced curve the complete system. and the curve for reduced Hn a Throttle valve Throttle valve Throttle valve Throttle valve b Slightly reduced Reduced Q and H original curve characteristics (Hn). . Hx Valve Hn Hx Hn Modifying impeller diameter 67% Slightly reduced Reduced Q and H Valve Hx Hn This method does not imply extra components. This connection consumption by curve will have of the pump Reduced Q acts as a new pump at unchanged maximum head Considerably 94% reduction in flow system Reduced Q Considerably 94% reduced but reduced flow performance. Reduced Q and H quadratic.8: Impeller diameter adjustment Speed controller Speed controller Speed controller In comparison.1.1 Adjusting pump performance 4.8 shows Slightly reduced curve (Hx)67% the the reduced QH and Reduced Q and H Valve 67% Slightly reduced 67% 110% Considerably Reduced H and changed reduced curve head and a QH curve with a changed characteristic. see figure 4. the curve Valve Hx 110% Reduced H and changed acts as Considerably at reduced maximum connection a new pump Valve Hn Hn Hn Hx Hx Hx Hx Valve Valve Valve Valve Fig.9.9: Speed controller connected to a pump 110 . the size of the motor has to be taken into account. 4. when speed is Slightly reduced Hx Hn Hx reduced the curves become more flat as the head is Hn 65% Reduced Q and H Hx reduced to a higher Slightlythan the flow. the valve curve.1. However. For an illustration of reduced Reduced Q Considerably 94% the pump curve. see figure 1. the speed control method also makes it possible to extend the performance range of the pump above the nominal QH curve by increasing the speed above nominal speed level of the pump.Hx.9.7: Bypass valve connected across the pump Hx Speed control The speed control method results in a new QH curve at reduced head and flow.1. 4.1.6b.1. see figure 4. Hx Valve Hn Hx Hn Bypass control Considerably 110% Reduced H and changed Valve Hx Hn reduced When connecting a valve across the pump. Valve Hx Figure 4.6: Throttle valve connected in series with a pump Bypass valve a b Bypass valve Bypass valve Bypass valve Hn Hn Hn Hn D D D D Speed controller Hn Hn Hn Hx Hx Hx Valve Valve Valve Valve Hn Fig.6a.Section 4. see the Hy curve in figure 4. Slightly reduced 65% Hn Hn Hn Hn Hx Hx Hx Hx Hy Hy Hy Hy Fig. 4.7b. degree reduced 65% Slightly reduced Reduced Q and H Hn Hx Hy Hn Hx Hn H Hxy Hn Hy Hx Hy Hn Hx Hn Hx Hx Hx Hx Reduced Q and H Fig. 4. the resulting QHcharacteristic of this device can be compared to The resulting performance different systems.1.4.1. reduced curve 110% Considerably Reduced H and changed 4.1.7a. The characteristics Hn 65% of Reduced Q and Hthe curves remain the same.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods When the pump and its performance-changing device is considered as one unit. If this over-synchronous operation is used.

The efficiency of speed-controlled pumps is only affected to a limited extent if the speed reduction does not drop below 50% of the nominal speed. 4.8 does not have a significant impact on pump efficiency and does not have a negative influence on the overall efficiency of the system. The efficiency is only reduced by a few percentage-points. therefore reducing efficiency of the pumping system.4. Depending on the method of performance adjustment.5. Reducing the impeller size in the range of Dx/Dn>0.1. In the original starting point (Q = 260 GPM and H = 230 ft) the power input to the pump is set relatively to 100%. and it does not have an impact on the overall running economy of speed-controlled solutions.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20 % In a given installation the flow has to be reduced from Q = 260 GPM to 220 GPM. the power consumption reduction will vary. This is further discussed on the following pages.4. 111 . see figure 1.4.16 in section 1.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system Both the throttling and the bypass method introduce some hydraulic power losses in the valves (Ploss = k Q H).

To obtain the best possible efficiency. the increase in P2 is equal to zero and in rare cases. 4. Consequently. P2 might decrease slightly.speed control Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM] 112 .1.12: Relative power consumption . in installations where the flow demand varies.Section 4. The maximum power consumption for some pumps is at a lower flow than the maximum flow.10: Relative power consumption .throttle control H [ft] H [ft] H [ft] 220 220 264 264 Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM] = Modified duty point = Original duty point 229 229 229 180 180 180 P2 P2 P2 110% 110% 100% 110% 100% 100% Q Q Q Fig. the power consumption has reduced to around 65% of the original consumption.11. the valve has to reduce the head of the pump to 180 ft. When the pump has to operate in a fixed.1. H [ft] H [ft] H [ft] 249 249 249 229 229 229 180 180 180 = Modified duty point = Original duty point P2 P2 P2 100% 100% 100% 94% 94% 94% Q Q Q Bypass control To reduce the flow in the system. The throttling results in an increased head. the flow is consequently increased to 356 GPM. 220 264 Fig.1 Adjusting pump performance Throttle control The power consumption is reduced to about 94% when the flow drops from 264 to 220 GPM. the impeller diameter adjustment method or the speed-controlled method of the pump are the best options for reducing the flow in the installation. As it appears from figure 4.1. By a flow reduction of 20%. The degree of increase depends on the pump type and the duty point. modified duty point. However. the impeller diameter adjustment method is the best solution. see figure 4.13. see figure 4.13: Relative power consumption . This can only be done by increasing the flow in the pump. 4.modifying impeller diameter H [ft] H [ft] H [ft] = Modified duty point = Original duty point 70 70 70 55 55 55 Q Q Q P2 P2 P2 100% 100% 100% 65% 65% 65% 50 50 50 60 60 60 Q Q Q Fig. 229 229 229 180 180 180 = Modified duty point = Original duty point Speed control When the speed of the pump is controlled.1. If this is the case.12.bypass control H [ft] H [ft] H [ft] 220 220 220 264 264 264 356 356 356 Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Modifying impeller diameter When the impeller diameter is reduced.1. both the flow and the head are reduced.1. 4.1. the speed-controlled pump is the best solution. both the flow and the head of the pump drop. the power consumption increases because of the throttle. P2 P2 P2 100% 100% 100% 67% 67% 67% Q Q Q 220 220 220 264 264 264 Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Fig.1. in some cases.11: Relative power consumption . 4. the power consumption is reduced to around 67% of its original consumption. see figure 4. which results in an increased power consumption of up to 10% above original consumption. Therefore.10.

14: Characteristics of adjustment methods. 4. 113 .1.1.Summary Figure 4.14 gives an overview of the different adjustment methods that are presented in the previous section. Each method has its pros and cons which should be considered when choosing an adjustment method for a system. Method Continuous adjustment possible? The resulting performance curve will have Reduced Q Overall efficiency of the pump system Considerably reduced Relative power consumption by 20% reduction in flow 94% Throttle control Yes Throttl Throttle valve Hn Hx Valve Bypass control Bypass valve Yes Reduced H and changed curve Considerably reduced 110% Bypass va Hn Hx Valve Modifying impeller diameter No Reduced Q and H Slightly reduced 67% D Hn Hx Speed control Speed controller Yes Reduced Q and H Slightly reduced 65% Speed con Hn Hx Hy Fig.

Due to comfort 1 H1 and energy savings.2. measured by a pressure transmitter. Figure 4. differential pressure and temperature. In this section the possibilities of combining speed-controlled pumps with PI-controllers and sensors measuring system parameters. The different options will be presented by examples. pset. The pump installation ensures that the supply pressure is constant in the flow range of 0 to Qmax. The supply pressure is independent of the level. Speed break tank controller h Q1 Qmax Q Fig.1 shows what happens when the flow is reduced from Qmax to Q1 . the performance of the pump until p1 is equal to pset. with the actual supply pressure.1. The PI-controller compares the needed pressure. If h changes. are discussed. p1. speed control of pumps is an efficient way of adjusting pump performance to the system.2. Setpoint pset PIcontroller Actual value p1 Pressure transmitter H nn nx Break tank Speed controller h Q1 H1 PT p1 Taps pset h Q1 Setpoint pset 4. consequently.1 Constant pressure control Break water from tank PIcontroller Actual value p1 Pressure transmitter H nn nx pset Taps A pump has to supply tap a to different taps in a building. so the system characteristic varies p Q1 according to the required flow.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions As discussed in the previous section.2. the PIcontroller adjusts the speed of the pump so that p1 always corresponds to the setpoint. such as pressure.1: Water supply system with speed-controlled pump delivering constant pressure to the system 114 . As it appears from figure 4. The controller reduces the speed of the pump from nn to nx to ensure that the required discharge pressure is p1 = pset.Section 4. (h). in the break tank. If the actual pressure is higher than the setpoint. The demand for tapPT h water is varying. a constant supply pressure is recommended. the solution is a speed-controlled pump with a PI-controller.2. the PI-controller reduces the speed and. PT. 4.

which is measured by a temperature transmitter. A differential pressure controlled circulator pump is recommended for circulating systems with variable system characteristic. with the actual return pipe temperature.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system Circulating systems. the return pipe temperature has to be kept at a constant level. 4. tr = 68oF. The PI-controller compares the needed temperature. The machine is cooled with water at 59oF from a cooling plant.2. see Chapter 3.2. TT. by a speed-controlled pump. Fig. tset. tr.2.4.2: System with injection molding machine and temperature. therefore.2.2.3. 4. are well suited for speed-controlled pumps. This figure shows a heating system with a heat exchanger where the circulated water is heated up and delivered to three consumers. the higher the flow of cooling water is needed to ensure that the return pipe temperature is kept at a constant level of 68 oF.2 shows a system with a water-cooled injection molding machine for high quality production. Figure 4. To ensure that the molding machine runs properly and is cooled sufficiently. This system has a fixed system characteristic. The pump is controlled according to a constant differential pressure measured across the pump. and.3: Heating system with speed-controlled circulator pump delivering constant differential pressure to the system 115 . such as radiators. typically closed systems.2 Constant temperature control Performance adjustment through speed control is suitable for a number of industrial applications.3. the pump system offers constant differential pressure in the Q-range of 0 to Qmax. see figure 4.2. The solution is a speed-controlled pump controlled by a PI-controller. As depicted by the horizontal line in figure 4. Fig.controlled circulator pump ensuring a constant return pipe temperature 4. A control valve is connected in series at each consumer to control the flow according to the heat requirement.2. The higher the heat loss in the machine. the duty point of the pump is located on the curve between Qmin and Qmax.

4.2. fittings.Section 4.2. This data is used to calculate the flow as well as how much the setpoint Hset must be reduced at a given flow to ensure that the pump performance meets the required blue curve in figure 4. 4. heat exchangers. Both systems are equal in performance. the pump must overcome friction losses in pipes. When flow demand increases. pump curve data has to be stored in the controller. The best way to control a circulator pump in a system Speed like the one shown in the figure at right is to allow controller the pump to deliver a pressure that increases when the flow increases. are low as well. and the necessary cabling has to be added. 116 . see fig.2. To get the system up and running. depicted as the blue curve in figure 4. • The differential pressure transmitter is placed close to the consumers and the system is running with differential pressure control – DPT2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control The main function of the pumping system in figure 4. see figure 4. PI-controller.2. and the pump has to increase the delivered pressure. fittings.2.4. The second solution requires more installation costs because the transmitter has to be installed at the installation site. the pressure losses DPT1 in the pipes. The first solution places the pump.4 is to maintain a constant differential pressure across the control valves at the consumers.2. etc. etc. Such a pumping system can be designed as follows: H1 Q1 Qmax Q Fig. pressure losses increase to the second power. speed control and the transmitter close to one another providing easy installation and making it possible to get the entire system as one single unit. HsetHf. As discussed in Chapter 3.4. 4. system is proportional to the flow in second power.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions 4. In order to do so.4. Q1 Setpoint Hset Actual value H1 PIthe pressure loss in a controller Setpoint Hset PIcontroller Actual value H1 Speed controller Q1 H Hset DPT1 DPT2 Hf H1 H nn nx Hset Hf DPT2 When the demand of flow is low.4: Heating system with speed-controlled circulator pump peed-controlled delivering flow-compensated differential pressure to the system • The differential pressure transmitter is placed across the pump and the system is running with flow-compensated differential pressure control – DPT1. and the pump supplies only a pressure equivalent to what the control valve requires.2. etc. see section 4. such as radiators. heat exchangers. The transmitter measures the differential pressure at the consumer and compensates automatically for the increase in required pressure in order to overcome the increase in pressure losses in the supply pipes.4.

it is important to keep the operating costs of a pumping system at the lowest possible level.3 Advantages of speed control A large number of pump applications do not require full pump performance 24 hours a day. speed-controlled pumps in closed and open systems will be examined. Increased comfort Speed control in different pumping systems provides increased comfort in water supply systems. Compared to fixed-speed pumps. As seen in section 4.1. Therefore. thus reducing the total system costs. it is possible to reduce the energy consumption by up to 50% with a speed-controlled pump. Reduced energy consumption Speed-controlled pumps use only the amount of energy needed to address a specific pump installation. see section 4. Speed control of pumps is normally made by a frequency converter unit. 117 . The advantages that speed control provides and the benefits that speed-controlled pumps with frequency converters offer are presented first. Low life cycle costs As we will see in Chapter 5. it is an advantage to be able to adjust the pump’s performance in the system automatically. the energy consumption of a pump is a very important factor when calculating a pump’s life cycle costs. automatic pressure control. Therefore.Section 4. speed-controlled pumps ensure that the differential pressure is kept at a level so that noise in the system is minimized. In circulating systems. Compared to other control methods. Reduced system costs Speed-controlled pumps can reduce the need for commissioning and control valves in the system. Efficient operation leads to lower energy consumption and results in lower operating costs. the best possible way of adapting the performance of a centrifugal pump is by means of speed control of the pump.1. On the following pages. Environment protection Energy-efficient pumps cause less pollution and harm to the environment. and where the soft-start of pumps reduce water hammer and noise generated by too high pressure in the system. frequencycontrolled speed control offers the highest efficiency and the most efficient utilization of the energy.

Pumps with integrated frequency converters are ideal because they can be used instead of fixed-speed pumps in replacement installations at no extra installation cost.1: Pump unit with integrated frequency converter and pressure transmitter Optimal energy savings Because the pump. it is a system that can solve application problems or save energy in a variety of pump installations.1. selection. see figure 4. operation of the pump system reduces power consumption. The only requirement is a power supply connection and a fitting of the pump with an integrated frequency converter in the pipe system. 118 . a frequency converter. a PI-controller and sometimes a sensor/pressure transmitter in one single unit. After adjusting the required setpoint pressure. Fig.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter In many applications.Section 4. frequency converter and sensor which naturally facilitate the sizing. the motor and the frequency converter are designed for compatibility. pumps with integrated frequency converters are the optimum solution. and then the pump is ready for operation. These pumps combine the benefits of a speed-controlled pump solution with the benefits gained from combining a pump. One supplier One supplier can provide the pump.4. The motor is connected to the electrical power supply. The manufacturer has made all internal connections and adjustments. the system is operational. and the pump is in operation. and ordering procedures. Setpoint PIcontroller Frequency converter M PT Easy to install Pumps with integrated frequency converters are just as easy to install as fixed-speed pumps. 4. A pump with an integrated frequency converter is not just a pump.4. as well as maintenance and service procedures. What follows is a brief description of the advantages that pumps with integrated frequency converter have to offer.

Likewise. Figure 4. H [ft] 100% 320 280 90% 240 80% 70% 60% 50% 4. the potential energy savings depend on the system in question. you can select a specific duty point.4.4. 200 160 120 80 40 0 0 25% 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Q [GPM] P [hp] 1 10 8 6 4 2 0 Q [GPM] Fig 4. Fewer pumps can replace many fixed speed pump types with narrow performance capabilities. and find out at which speed the duty point can be reached and what the power consumption. the minimum curve represented by 25% of the maximum speed is also shown.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems Speed-controlled pumps are used in a wide range of systems.3: System characteristic point of a closed and an open system 119 .4.3 shows the System characteristic HO HO System characteristic Q Q Closed system Q Q Open system Fig 4.2: Performance curve for a speed-controlled pump H H Pump curve H H Pump curve 4. Figure 4. As indicated in the diagram. P1.4. The change in pump performance and. is. As discussed in Chapter 3. performance curve and the system characteristic of a closed and an open system. Performance curves of speedcontrolled pumps The following is a discussion of how a speed-controlled pump’s performance curve is read. and the second curve shows the corresponding power consumption curve. consequently. the characteristic of a system is an indication of the required head a pump has to deliver to transport a certain quantity of liquid through the system.Wide performance range Pumps with integrated frequency converters have a broad performance range which enables efficient performance under widely varied conditions and meets a wide range of requirements.2 provides an example of the performance curves of a speed-controlled pump. The performance curves are plotted for every 10% decrease in speed from 100% down to 50%.1. QH.4. The first curve shows the flow-head (QH) curve.

4. The system characteristic starts in the point (0. H Q = 66 GPM Boiler or like Consumers Fig. such as night-time duty in heating systems. so the pump cannot work according to the system characteristic. As you can tell from figure 4. 4.4.Section 4. Control valves in the system always need a certain operating pressure.4. the pump has to overcome the friction losses in the pipes. The total friction loss by a full flow of 66 GPM is 39.4: Closed system H [ft] 100% 320 280 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 0 70% 60% 50% 99% 90% 80% 25% 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Q [GPM] P [hp] 1 10 8 6 4 2 0 Q [GPM] Fig.0). like heating and air-conditioning.5. In this section. which ensures that the pump will operate according to the orange line shown in the figure.4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter Speed-controlled pumps in closed systems In closed systems. In a circulating system. etc. operating at the minimum curve (25% of the full speed) can be relevant in some situations. the minimum performance is around 57% of the full speed. see figure 4.4. an example of a speed-controlled pump in a closed system will be presented. heat exchangers.5: A speed-controlled pump in a closed system 120 . 4. shown by the red line in figure 4. That is why some speedcontrolled pumps offer the proportional pressure control function.5.3 ft. valves.4.

0 H = 65.6 shows a pump in a pressure boosting / water supply system. ps. has to be 29 psi and the total friction loss in the system by full flow.5 + 18. 9. 4. the pump operates in a relatively narrow speed band.8 psi ps = 14.31 (29 — 14.Pressure at tapping point ps . pf. Q.31 (pt) SG — 2.7: A speed-controlled pump in an open system 121 .4.Suction pressure pf . Figure 4.31 (pt — ps + pf) pt . the variation in speed will be even smaller.Flow rate h .ps (2-1) . In systems with less friction loss.5 psi.31 (pf) SG H = 65.Friction loss Q .4.4. the equation to use follows: Fig. 105 H+ ρ.4.08 ft g 998 . As seen in the previous two examples.9 ft H = 142.Static lift H = He + 2. = 20 + = 99.6 ft + 76. If there is no friction loss. Therefore.5 1. from about 65%-99% of the full speed. the pressure at the tap. is 14.7 shows the QH curve of a pump which meets the requirements described.5 psi Q = 29 GPM H pt . the closed system accounts for the highest energy saving potential. the possible variation in speed and power consumption is highest in closed systems. the minimum speed in the above case is about 79% speed. Figure 4. For maximum head at a flow. The inlet pressure to the pump. pt. of 29 GPM.6 ft SG pf = 18.6 + 2.5 2.5 ft To address this application from zero to maximum flow Q = 29 GPM.31 (ps) SG + 2.8) 1.5 0 Q [GPM] Fig.Speed-controlled pumps in open systems The system characteristic as well as the operating range of the pump depend on the type of system in question. 4.8 psi.81 H [ft] 100% 200 175 150 125 99% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% SG H = 65.0 1.0 0. The pump has to supply Q = 29 GPM to the tap which is placed h = 65 ft above the pump.6: Pump in a water supply system pt = 29 psi he = 65. HO 75 50 25 0 0 25% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Q [GPM] P [hp] 1 2.6 + 2. is 18. The required head can be calculated by using the equation at right.

As it appears from the figure. 4-pole. To ensure correct motor magnetization. is to convert the main electric supply into a new AC voltage with another frequency and amplitude.5. T f2 f1 f1 > f2 n Fig. changes speed. The frequency converter changes frequency and voltage.) of the motor and the frequency of the voltage supplied.5.2: Functional blocks of the frequency converter 122 . it is also necessary to change the amplitude of the voltage. The basic function. as mentioned.5 Frequency converter As mentioned. not to the same degree. The DC voltage is then converted into a new AC voltage with another frequency and amplitude. how they operate. in turn. 4. Additionally. Mains supply AC EMC filter Rectifier Intermediate circuit DC Inverter Control circuit Fig. for example. a control circuit and an inverter.5. Components of the frequency converter In principle. 4. all frequency converters consist of the same functional blocks.2. Using a frequency converter in connection with asynchronous motors provides the following benefits: • The system can be used in both 50 and 60 cycleareas without modifications • The output frequency of the frequency converter is independent of the incoming frequency • The frequency converter can supply output frequencies higher than mains supply frequency – making over synchronous operation possible As seen in figure 4. 4. The rectifier can handle 50 Hz or 60 Hz frequencies.5.Section 4. so it can be concluded that the task of a frequency converter is to change the fixed supply voltage/frequency. the speed is changed by changing frequency/voltage of the motor. Changing the frequency of the supply voltage is ideal for achieving asynchronous motor speed control. speed control of pumps involves a frequency converter. 3x480v/60 Hz into a variable voltage/frequency.1 shows the motor torque characteristic (T) as a function of the speed (n) at two different frequencies/voltages. Figure 4.1: Displacement of motor torque characteristic Use of frequency/voltage control results in a change in torque which. the incoming frequency will not influence the output frequency. and related precautions associated with using them. 4. The frequency converter rectifies the incoming main electric supply and stores the energy in an intermediate circuit consisting of a capacitor. The amplitude of the voltage supplied and the load on the motor shaft also influence the motor speed. The load characteristic of the pump is also shown. the frequency converter consists of three other components: An EMC filter. as this is defined by the voltage/frequency pattern which is defined in the inverter. however.1 Basic function and characteristics The speed of an asynchronous motor depends primarily on the pole number (2-pole. This section will provide a closer look at frequency converters.5.2.5. etc.

indicating how the pulse/pause ratio of the voltage changes.4a. and cause damage or disturbances. could be left out. The voltage supplied to the motor consists of a number of squarewave pulses. The control circuit The control circuit block has two functions. The motor current itself is almost sinusoidal.The EMC filter This block is not part of the primary function of the frequency converter and. The inverter The output voltage from a frequency converter is not sinusoidal like the normal mains voltage. This is shown in figure 4. It controls the frequency converter and provides communication between the product and the surroundings.5. In figure 4. in order to meet EMC requirements and local requirements.5. a section of the motor voltage is shown.4b. see figure 4.5.4: a) Motor current (top) and motor voltage at Pulse Width Modulation control. b) Section of motor voltage 123 .5. in principle.3: AC voltage with variable frequency (fm) and variable voltage (Vmotor) 0 a b * * Detail 0 Fig 4. The mean value of these pulses forms a sinusoidal voltage of the desired frequency and amplitude.3. The EMC filter prevents high noise signals from going back to the main electric supply and disturbing other electronic equipment connected to it. It also ensures that noise signals in the main electric supply generated by other equipment do not enter the electronic devices of the frequency converter. the filter is necessary. indicating motor current (top) and motor voltage. However. Vmotor Mean value of voltage 0 0 t T = 1/fm Fig 4. The switching frequency can range from a few kHz up to 20 kHz. This principle of inverter operation is called Pulse Width Modulation control (PWM). depending on the brand. To avoid noise in the motor windings. and it is the control principle most often used in frequency converters today. a frequency converter with a switching frequency above the range of audibility (~16 kHz) is preferable.5.

86 Fig. As mentioned.69 KW PF = 0. electric switch.5 b): Three-phase. see figure 4. power factor (PF) 460 V 6.5.Section 4. The charging of the capacitor occurs during short time periods where the rectified voltage is higher than the voltage in the capacitor at that moment. V V V PF PF ( ( PF 4. P1 cos ϕ.08 hp to the shaft.1 A 3.5 Frequency converter 4. This influences the dimensioning of the main elecrical cable. In both cases the motor supplies 4.5. two-pole standard asynchronous motor b) Three-phase. A comparison of the current shows the following differences. the relation between voltage (V).6: Fig 4. the non-sinusoidal current causes other conditions at the electric supply side of the motor.8 A 3.36 A 13. current (I) and power (P) is shown in the formula at right. The same formula cannot be applied for calculating the power input for motors with frequency converters. A frequency converter will behave differently than a standard asynchronous motor at the main electirc supply side.5. peak Power input. etc.5. twopole standard asynchronous motor with frequency converter Standard motor Mains voltage Mains current RMS Mains current. twopole standard asynchronous motor Non-sinusoidal power input.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters There are some conditions which the installer and user should be aware of when installing and using frequency converters or pumps with integrated frequency converters.68 KW cosϕ = 0.5. For a standard motor without a frequency converter.4 A 9. 4.5.5 shows how the current and voltage appear for a: a) Three-phase. three-phase supplied frequency converters This type of frequency converter will not receive sinusoidal current from the electrical supply. 52%) for the frequency converter option This is due to the design of the frequency converter connecting the electric supply to a rectifier followed by a capacitor.93 hp 124 .6: Comparison of current of a standard motor and a frequency converter • The current for the system with frequency converter is not sinusoidal • The peak current is much higher (approx.5 a): Three-phase. Figure 4. a b Fig 4.83 Motor with frequency converter 460 V 6. two-pole standard asynchronous motor with frequency converter.

Because these are not sinusoidal.5. the power factor (PF) can be calculated by the formula at right. Fig 4.8: Labelling of the ELCB for three-phase frequency converters 125 . Instead. The power factor has no direct connection with the way in which current and voltage are displaced in time.7 and 4. If failure occurs on the DC side of the frequency converter. current measuring instruments for frequency converters must be able to measure “True RMS.5.5. If the power (P) and the RMS value of current and voltage are known.7: Labelling of the ELCB for single-phase frequency converters Fig 4. it is necessary to use an instrument that is capable of measuring “non-sinusoidal” currents. the ELCB must be able to brake.” Frequency converters and earth-leakage circuit breakers Earth-leakage circuit breakers (ELCB) are used as extra protection in electrical installations. the power must be calculated by means of instruments and on the basis of instantaneous measurements of current and voltage. the ELCB installed must be able to brake. it must be labeled as shown in figures 4. In general. If a frequency converter is to be connected. To ensure that the ELCB will brake in case of earth-leakage current.8 Both types of earth-leakage circuit breakers are available on the market today.5. there is no accurate way of calculating the power input based on simple current and voltage measurements. When measuring the input current in connection with installation and service of a system with a frequency converter.

1: Life cycle costs equation 5. purchase price 5.6 Maintenance and repair costs 5.2: Life cycle costs calculation – an example Energy costs 90% Maintenance costs 2-5% Initial costs 5-8% .1.1.1.5 Environmental costs 5.1.1 Initial cost. Life cycle costs calculation Section 5.1.1.Chapter 5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs 5.4 Operating costs 5.1.3 Energy costs 5.7 Downtime costs (loss of production) 5.8 Decommissioning or disposal costs Section 5.

Section 5.2: Typical life cycle costs of a circulating system in the industry In the following paragraphs.1. purchase price Installation and commissioning costs Energy costs Operating costs including labor Environmental costs Maintenance and repair costs Downtime costs (loss of production) Decommissioning or disposal costs Fig.1. install. LCC is calculated by the following formula: LCC = Cic + Cin + Ce + Co + Cm + Cs + Cenv + Cd 128 . an example will be presented to demonstrate how the LCC formula is applied. This tool was designed to help companies minimize waste and maximize energy efficiency in different systems including pumping systems. As it appears from figure 5. 5.1: A guide to life cycle costs analysis for pumping systems Typical life cycle costs Initial costs Maintenance costs Energy costs Fig. 5.1. each of these elements is described. The life cycle costs (LCC) consist of the following: Cic Cin Ce Co Cenv Cm Cs Cd Initial cost.1.1.. operate. initial costs and maintenance costs are the most important. Life cycle cost calculations aid in decision making associated with design of new or repair of existing installations. Finally. energy costs. Europump and the US Department of Energy have developed the Pump Life Cycle Costs (LCC) guide.2. The Hydraulic Institute. maintain and dispose of a pump during its lifetime.1 Life cycle costs equation In this section the elements that make up a pump’s life cycle costs (LCC) as well as how to calculate LCC will be addressed. see figure 5. The life cycle costs of a pump are an expression of how much it costs to purchase.

1. purchase price The initial cost (Cic) of a pump system includes all equipment and accessories necessary to operate the system. Pumps with integrated frequency converters often have components integrated in the product.1. Often. there is a trade-off between the initial cost and the energy and maintenance costs.3: Equipment that makes up a pumping system 5. see figure 5.1. connection and set-up of transmitters and frequency converters. etc • Commissioning evaluation at start-up As in the case for initial costs.1. This kind of pump often has a higher initial cost but lower installation and commissioning costs. expensive components often have a longer lifetime or a lower energy consumption than inexpensive components. frequency converters. 5. 5. it is important to consider the trade-off options. 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Initial costs System 1 5200 System 2 7300 Fig. control panels and transmitters.2 Installation and commissioning costs The installation and commissioning costs (Cin) include the following: • • • • Installation of the pumps Foundation Connection of electrical wiring and instrumentation Installation.4: Initial costs of a constant speed pump system (System 1) and a controlled pump system (System 2) 129 . For example.1. Pump Control panels Initial costs Frequency converter Transmitter Fig.3.5. such as pumps.1 Initial cost.

4 Operating costs including labor Operating costs (Co) cover labor costs related to the operation of a pumping system.6: Efficiency comparison of a new and an existing pump 5.1 Life cycle costs equation 5. where pumps often run more than 2000 hours per year. 5. and.1.3 Energy costs In most cases.1.1. see figure 5. around 20% of the world’s electrical energy consumption is used for pump systems. lowering operating costs. are modest. 5. it is possible to reduce the energy consumption by up to 50% Other use 80% Pump systems 20% Fig.1. By using speedcontrolled pumps in the industry. This contribution to the life cycle costs of a pumping system in the industry is modest. see figure 5. in most cases. 130 .1.5. In fact. different types of surveillance equipment allow connection of the pump system to a computer network. Today. Some of the factors influencing the energy consumption of a pump system includes: • Load profile • Pump efficiency (calculation of the duty point.Section 5.1. energy consumption (Ce) is the largest cost in the life cycle costs of a pump system.5 Environmental costs The environmental costs (Cenv) include the disposal of parts and contamination from the pumped liquid. such as pipes and valves • Use of speed-controlled solutions.1.6) • Motor efficiency (the motor efficiency at partial load can vary significantly between high efficiency motors and normal efficiency motors) • Pump sizing (often margins and round-ups tend to suggest oversized pumps) • Other system components. 5.5: Energy consumption worldwide η [%] New Existing 80 60 40 20 0 0 22 44 66 88 110 132 154 176 198 220 242 Q [GPM] Fig.

Typically. Simplified: LCC = Cic + Ce + Cm Cic Initial costs.7.1. This formula is shown at right. 5. 5. In the pump business.7: A standby pump assures that production continues in case of pump breakdown Calculating the life cycle costs The life cycle costs of a pump system are made up of the summation of the aforementioned components over the system’s lifetime. even for a short period of time. decommissioning or disposal costs (Cd ) of a pump system varies.1.5. Preventive maintenance will extend pump life. life cycle costs are normally calculated by a simplified formula with fewer elements to consider. optimize pump performance and prevent pump breakdowns.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs Maintenance and repair costs (Cm) relate to maintenance and repair of the pump system and include: Labor. 5.1.1. Though one pump may be enough for the application. purchase price Ce Cm Energy costs Maintenance and repair costs 131 . see figure 5. it is a good idea to install a standby pump that can take over in the event of an unexpected failure. Fig. the lifetime range is 10 to 20 years. spare parts. transportation and cleaning.8 Decommissioning or disposal costs Depending on the pump manufacturer. This cost is seldom taken into consideration when calculating LCC. Production stoppage is costly.7 Downtime costs (loss of production) Downtime costs (Cs) are extremely important to pump systems used in production processes.

31 12 220 10 298.000 25. The application has the following characteristics: • 12 operating hours per day • 220 operating days per year • Lifetime of 10 years (calculation period) Based on this data.000 10.76 USD 33. the initial cost.000 20.000 15. Life cycle costs calculations will help determine which pump to install in the system.31 20. 5. this is considered to be a good investment.000 0 0 2 4 Years 2 4 Years Fixed speed USD kw hours days years kwh Fixed speed 18.000 30.000 45.000 40.000 15.9.000 0 35.76 12 220 10 495. Even though the initial cost of a variable speed pump is twice as high as a fixed speed pump. and in general industrial applications.066 12 28.000 Maintenance costs Energy costs 25.000 10. it is possible to calculate the life cycle costs of the two solutions.1.000 35.303 days 220 years 10 kwh 495.07 Variable 7204 speed 1417 11.264 Variable speed 11.000 40. the payback time is around 2½ years.000 45.000 Total costs 20. the variable speed pump consumes 40% less energy than the fixed speed pump.000 USD Fixed speed Variable speed Fixed speed Variable speed 6 8 10 Fixed speed Variable speed 6 8 10 Fig.000 10.000 0 20.Section 5. the total cost of the variable speed solution is 25% lower than the fixed speed pump solution after 10 years. 5.000 30.000 40.000 30.000 40.688 USD/kwh .284 USD 38.07 Fixed USD 3602 speed USD 1417 kw 18.000 5.284 hours 12 USD 38. Pump types Average power consumption Operating hours per day Working days per year Calculation period Total energy consumption Electrical power price Pump types Pump price Maintenance costs Average power consumption Energy costs Operating hours per day Total costs Working days per year Calculation period Total energy consumption 45.07 Maintenance costs USD 3602 Energy costs USD 1417 USD 33.000 10.1.000 5.000 5.000 15. of the variable speed pump is twice that of the fixed speed pump.000 price 30.066 28.264 Pump price USD/kwh .000 0 USD 25.303 Pump price Maintenance costs Energy costs speed Variable Fig.584 . The payback time of the variable speed pump solution is a bit longer because the pump is more expensive.000 20.8: Life cycle costs of a fixed and a variable speed pump 25.07 7204 1417 20.000 Electrical power price Pump 35.1. Besides the lower life cycle costs the variable speed pump provides.000 5. Cic. as discussed in chapter 4.000 USD 45.9: Payback time for a fixed and a variable speed pump 132 .2 Life cycle costs calculation – an example The example using the LCC formula mentioned on the previous page follows: An industry needs a new water supply pump and two solutions are taken into consideration: • A fixed speed multistage centrifugal pump • A variable speed multistage centrifugal pump According to the calculations. However. such as constant pressure in the system. some operational benefits. As you can tell from figure 5.688 220 10 298.000 0 35.000 15.584 .

etc.Appendix A) Notations and units B) Unit conversion tables C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet D) Vapor pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures E) Orifice F) Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter G) Nozzles H) Nomogram for head losses in bends. I) Periodical system J) Pump standards K) Viscosity for different liquids as a function of liquid temperature . valves.

Appendix A Notations and units The table below provides an overview of the most commonly used notations and units for pumps and pump systems.174 ft/s m 134 .S.7 w = 1 hp g = 32. unit ft GPM psi psi ft lb ft ft lb ft SI unit gph ft ft psi lb gal in in ft ft RPM hp 745. U.

0228 0. 4.00634 0./Min.62137 miles Centimeter 2. 1 0.5 760 0.43 51.72 13. Imp Mgd = Million Imperial gallons per 24 hr.987 1 — 135 .2 1 0.0243 0. day. U. Gpm x .596 0.538 30.00144 = . 15. Hg.646 0. (2) 42 gal.0193 14.2954 Mm. Bar atm Kilopascal 1 12 27.4906 0.000694 1 (1) US Mgd = Million U.0012 0. 1.73 43.5 1.547 157.0703 0.0328 0./Min. Gal.Appendix B Unit conversion tables The conversion tables for pressure and flow show the most commonly used units for pumping systems CONVERSION FACTORS .0937 9. (3) (3) U.86 407. Water Psi.04 1 0.00184 0.1047 150.357 1 1.85 13.31 = 34.3048 0. Ft.8 Liters/Sec.281 1.9 28.4 1 750. Hg.32 10. Ft.0254 0.816 25.99 0.S.0304 0.31 1.0736 0.0278 Foot 12 1 0. Water In.094 1 Mile = 5280 ft.28 52.3937 0.48 91.2 1 1.0014 0.00223 0.65 1 1440 Barrels/24 Hrs.0605 0.S.00144 0.00173 0.72 U. bbl.227 0.000065 0.68 15360. (3) 42 34.6 yards = .0353 3. Meters Liters Barrels/Min.92 0.45 70.133 0.433 1 0.538 1 101.09 U.0504 0.67 0. 448.0109 Meter 39. 0. Gpm U.49 1.31 34.4 694.25 Imp. = 1760 yards = 1609.0833 1 2.0186 Ft. Unit Gpm Gpm (2) Mgd (2) /Sec.019 0. Hg.9144 0.00144 0. 1.UNITS OF LENGTH Examples: 2 Yards x 3 = 6 Feet x 0.856 189./Sec. Mgd.93 0.87 22. Water Ft.2778 0.0833 0.5 = 6945 U.00268 0.54 29.7 1 0.0286 41.6 1 0. day.S. Imp.7505 Bar 2.49 33.403 3.0757 0.21 0.53 23786.49 Psi 15 Psi x 2. gallons per 24 hr.(3) 0.86 Barrels/Min.44 1 100 Meter 0.0238 34.333 Yard 36 3 1 Centimeters 0.433 = 6.272 0.UNITS OF FLOW Examples: 500 U.37 3. Barrels/24 Hrs.0133 — atm 0.3 meters = 1.56 19.00528 0. Hg.S.833 1.00662 0.01 1 CONVERSION FACTORS . Cu.377 542.883 2. Water In.3349 Psi 0.333 = 1 Yard Unit Inch Foot Yard Inch 1 0.8 374 0. x 694. In.000035 0.4 Cu.S.696 0.0345 0.19 4.1451 In.0446 33.000042 0.03937 29. /Hr.UNITS OF PRESSURE Examples: 15 Ft.00981 1 0. Water 0.0631 0.S.6 Imperial Mgd (2) 833.54 30. CONVERSION FACTORS .0292 0.0361 0.61 Kilometers 1 Kilometer = 1000 meters = 1093.65 Ft. Water x . Mgd Imperial Cu. Mm.503 14. /Sec.5353 401. Gal. Meters/Hr.4 578. Mgd (2) 694.0025 0.S.534 2.833 0.8 16.83 28544 Cu.S.

000 1.001 0.1 0.000.000 100 10 0.000.01 0.000.Appendix C SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet Factor 10 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 9 Prefix 1.000.000.001 0.001 giga mega kilo hekto deka deci centi milli mikro nano Symbol G M k h da d c m µ n Greek alphabet Alfa Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Jota Kappa Lambda My Ny Ksi Omikron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Ypsilon Fi Khi Psi Omega Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν ΚΣ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ µ ν κσ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω 136 .000.000 1.

7790 24.825 22.3400 11.943 .875 FEET lb/ft3 62.1 23.7 132.2230 2.000 .998 .8560 49.4296 0.060 62.353 41.172 14.929 .2750 1.5500 PSIA 0.310 62.968 .890 2.6927 2.710 61.2 35.979 .220 62.3629 0.7 82.960 .999 .9492 1.180 143.002 1.110 59.5110 9.1860 20.000 1.411 0.420 62.270 62.281 0.2000 57.5958 0.0 65.6960 17.080 58.610 59.370 62.1 76.7 29.735 11.810 59.8 15.1 126.5068 0.790 60.943 5.570 60.257 27.766 8.379 1.3 1.9926 7.1780 0.994 .9 26.2 87.1217 0.6 71.8 143.982 .220 57.965 3.8153 0.980 61.939 .591 0.4 32.997 .3 98.948 .203 2.999 .600 137 .839 0.4300 41.400 62.380 61.000 61. Properties of Water at Various Temperatures WATER TEMPERATURE 0 SPECIFIC GRAVITY VAPOR PRESSURE DENSITY F 0 C 32 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 0 4.425 62.190 60.4 110.120 62.340 60.920 57.975 .9 54.390 62.2 10.994 1.584 33.630 122.952 .0 104.520 58.001 1.860 59.204 0.996 .9680 29.964 .560 61.340 62.1474 0.3 48.987 .2139 0.990 60.494 0.1230 14.340 0.8250 35.995 .7184 4.7414 5.Appendix D Vapor pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures This table shows the specific gravity [sg].060 87.3 21.8892 3.933 .4 60.800 58.6 18.196 6.0886 0.9 100.0 12.770 73.6981 0.4 7.990 .2 137.924 0.998 .6 121.2561 0.420 60.0 115.343 50.8 43.8 93.983 35.050 103.706 0.959 .5260 14.972 .170 62.410 62.178 17.001 1.992 .172 1.0 37.985 .3056 0. vapor pressure p [psi] and the density ρ [lb/ft3] of water at different temperatures t [oF].350 59.617 1.001 1.956 .

the system is designed to allow the feed pump to discharge its build-up pressure through a bypass line in which a nipple orifice is installed. but when no hot water is needed. For that reason. in order to increase the run life of the pump and control the temperature rise. During feed pump system design. These boiler feed pumps operate continuosly in order to provide on-demand hot water.5.Appendix E Orifice Nipple orifices are typically used in boiler feed applications when boiler feed pumps need to discharge built-up pressure. d is the nipple orifice diameter in inches. of water. nipple orifices are sized using performance charts. where Q is in gpm. and H is the differential head in ft.61 for all orifices in the general equation Q = 19. the valve to the boiler is closed and the pump ends up operating under a harmful shut-off condition during extended periods of time in which there will be a rise in liquid temperature in the pump because the input horsepower being converted to heat in the pump is not dissipated.636 Cd d2 H0. The orifice dissipates the high pressure and allows water to flow back to the reservoir tank. derived from an acceptable mathematical approach that assumes a constant discharge coefficient (Cd) of 0. Orifice size Approximate Discharge Through Bypass Nipple Orifice 1000 1/8" 3/16" 1/4" 5/16" 7/16" 3/8" 1/2" 7/8" 13/16" 3/4" 11/16" 5/8" 9/16" 1" Head (Feet) 100 10 1 10 Flow (GPM) 100 1000 138 . like the ones shown in the figure below.

1 10 100 Q[GPM] 1000 10000 139 .1 10 100 Q[GPM] 1000 10000 d/D=1/1. When head has to be determined (see page 86).5/4 d/D=8/10 d/D=16/18 d/D=3/4 d/D=8/12 d/D=16/20 d/D=3/5 d/D=10/12 d/D=18/20 Approximate Sudden Contraction Head Loss 100 10 H[ft] D d 1 0.5 d/D=5/6 d/D=12/16 d/D=2/3 d/D=5/8 d/D=14/16 d/D=2. a change in pipe dimension results in a change in liquid velocity and consequently.2.25/2 d/D=4/6 d/D=12/14 d/D=2/2.5/3 d/D=6/8 d/D=14/18 d/D=2.5 d/D=4/5 d/D=10/14 d/D=1. a change in dynamic and static pressure. Approximate Sudden Expansion Head Loss 100 d D 10 H[ft] 1 0.Appendix F Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter As described in Chapter 2. the difference in the two port dimensions requires a correction of the measured head.

Some nozzles have a lower n value (check with the supplier). Nozzle Diameter (inch) 1/16 3/16 3/8 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 3/4 2 1/4 1/8 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 Q1 Q2 = ( ) p1 p2 n where n = 0.5. We assume that the nozzle has a quadratic behavior. and d / D is less than 1/3.1 1 10 100 Q [GPM] 1000 10000 100000 140 .Appendix G Nozzles The relationship between the nozzle diameter d [inches]. Pressure p [psi] D Flow Q [GPM] Nozzle diameter d [inch] 2 3/4 3 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 Approximate discharge of a nozzle 400 PSI 100 10 5 0. the needed flow Q [GPM] and the required pressure before the nozzle p [psi] is found by the nomogram below.

1/2” (0.0 5.6 12.0 12 14 15 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 Vel.74 *** 2. per sec.0 56. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict.6 1.62 12.8 *** 15.17 3. 0.9 36.42 9.68 7.4 0.9 15.60 *** 2.6 43.4 69.3 29.0 9.1 *** 11. 1.8 30. .7 70.78 7.Appendix H Friction Loss for Water in New Sch.6 54.4 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** Frict.34 6.26 1.0 2.4 *** 15.08 3.98 9.7 54.71 9.2 24.52 5.5 5.7 *** 19. 3/4” (0.16 10.70 4.85 *** *** 4.93 *** *** 15.56 8.5 4.34 *** 3.8 44.45 8.5 20.4 71.47 *** 3.4 1.32 *** 8.0 10.1 0.87 *** 11.69 2.41 *** 3.4 1.8 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.0 1.22 8.13 1.26 *** *** 0.42 9.6 87.02 9.5 50.88 6.31 0.95 4.0 119 146 209 141 .01 *** 1.81 6.24 10.60 *** *** 0.72 9.6 1.11 *** 1.70 *** 7.02 7.3 86.5 0.0 105 148 200 259 326 396 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 3/8” (0.3 0.6 31.68 *** 3.04 5.70 16.06 *** *** 1.2 33.1 18.93 *** 2.7 0.5 3.40 9.34 *** 1.60 *** 12.5 0.0 15.1 38.63 10.0 7.8 *** 16.30 *** *** 8.39 7.52 *** *** 3.5 8.7 55.3 0.0 3.0 5.5 9.94 6.0 122 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1/4” (0.61 *** 4.2 0.2 1.23 *** 1.0 3.74 *** 1.49 ID) Vel.3 95.71 4.9 68.8 12.0 13.2 0.36 2.21 *** 4.5 6.20 *** 1.Vel.8 12. 1” (1.5 62.6 73.23 *** 2.5 1.1 *** 16.7 0.1 *** *** *** *** *** 0.3 17.7 18.5 1.84 1.8 0.5 42.50 10.0 22. Frict.9 136 183 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.0 8.0 4.54 *** 5.1 0.70 4.65 *** 6. Frict.0 12 14 15 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 0.85 *** 2.65 6.81 *** 5.11 2.5 7.08 5.32 *** 4.0 8.64 3.11 *** *** *** *** *** 0.1 13.5 8.26 2.82 ID) Vel.1 134 187 *** *** *** *** *** 0.50 *** 4.5 7.7 14.39 3.0 9.3 86.62 *** 1.2 56.6 0.42 *** 6.) 1/8” (0.26 ID) gpm 0.4 48.8 *** 13.0 1.86 7.8 2.21 *** 2. 0.8 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.22 4.73 *** *** 1.3 70.36 ID) Vel.0 6.9 95.86 *** 2.2 1.5 9.58 *** *** 2.8 16. Frict.68 *** *** 2.0 14.93 5.0 6.5 5.81 *** 3.01 *** 3.92 8.72 7.82 3.0 2. 0.0 32.57 1.5 10.04 ID) Vel.3 13.6 22. loss in ft.36 4.86 9.81 *** 2. Frict.56 *** 4.38 *** 0.0 *** 18.97 *** 3.5 6.4 0.77 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** Frict. gpm 0.78 *** 1. per 100 ft.8 *** 27.3 78.1 21.90 *** *** 1.1 26.7 35.5 100 118 *** 158 *** 205 *** 258 *** 316 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.0 4.37 *** *** *** *** *** 0.8 2.17 7.45 5.0 7.41 0.5 4.8 42.6 0.55 6.27 11.5 10.20 5.5 3.3 0.86 *** *** 2.20 *** 5.3 *** 45.25 10.9 1.48 *** 1.4 83.28 5.21 *** 6.75 5. in ft.6 25.89 *** 4.8 0.30 *** 1.8 57.62 ID) Vel.9 1.

87 3.4 18.05 6.27 2.08 6.75 1.94 4.33 0.8 20.5 16.0 52.66 0.53 1. gpm 5 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1400 0. per sec.9 22.0 62.02 3.3 21.7 12.35 2. 1.29 5.02 3.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.0 51.52 6.72 1.9 32.2 26.5 51.1 16.51 1.52 8.84 3.4 23. Frict.1 11.60 9. Frict.35 0.30 *** 1.83 1.7 33.5 29.57 1.17 2.3 80.36 *** 0.15 0.6 142 .69 5.9 43.15 3.82 10.2 88.53 1.1 21.87 *** 1.07 ID) Vel.82 2.9 24.47 10.78 5.2 27.58 1.Appendix H Friction Loss for Water in New Sch.10 7.47 *** 4.52 0.4 72.9 26.39 3.3 17.81 7.48 3.2 33.92 *** 1.55 *** 0.0 95.0 111 128 146 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.16 1.1 66.8 28.5 51.38 10.2 17.35 4.7 12.25 0.6 14.0 41.46 11.25 6.07 *** 0.2 112 138 197 267 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.15 2. Vel.52 3.89 2.4 22.07 ID) 2 1/2” (2.7 25.20 0.1 23.26 8.46 0.6 18.68 3.20 5.34 5.73 5.55 10.6 13. loss in ft.55 8.8 18.50 6.3 28.9 20.82 7.77 2.6 18.0 68.4 21.9 15.2 21.0 15.5 17.4 31.63 4.9 15.67 0.28 4.69 7.80 0.6 21.57 *** 2.10 3.06 7.3 40.0 50.0 12.82 *** 2.72 4. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict.5 26. Frict.6 21.66 13.7 23.2 31.01 2.12 *** 0.5 36.49 1.73 0.4 19.61 ID) Vel.19 3.2 35.3 58.47 ID) Vel.8 89.50 *** 0.66 5.7 16.5 23.7 32.4 46.03 6.28 4.01 *** 1. 0.70 3.8 13.2 13.30 7.74 6. Frict.16 1.21 1.27 2.70 8.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.04 9.25 0.26 1.3 12.Vel.2 28. 0.51 5.43 3.44 7. per 100 ft.5 25.79 1.9 19.9 25.2 19.96 2.15 1.1 25.94 4.86 11.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.04 5.42 3.02 4.21 6.27 *** 0.48 0.3 12.35 3.7 30.0 97.91 *** 2.67 6. Vel. Frict.21 2.37 6.90 10.82 4.) gpm 5 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1400 1 1/4” (1.53 4.43 *** *** *** *** 0.0 54.56 8.02 2.81 8.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.8 37.2 43.56 11.54 6.1 17.07 2.0 15.1 13.36 6.66 10.2 103 132 160 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 3” (3.0 28.7 18.4 24.5 79.4 14.9 61.07 1.82 4.86 1.8 75.8 30.7 23.28 8.88 9.31 0.76 *** 1.07 0.86 4.28 1.68 9.00 3.34 9.65 8.96 1. in ft.59 8.5 63.54 5.34 *** 2.03 4.87 *** 1.34 1.72 3.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.0 22.7 16.76 2.94 2.4 17.1 44.38 ID) 1 1/2” (1.42 2.30 4. .37 4.04 *** *** *** *** 0.11 10.9 26.4 14.04 *** 0.94 7.25 0.6 14.9 26.60 *** 3. Frict.25 0.2 15.07 ID) Vel.52 1.2 30.0 17.5 13.4 11.18 0.13 *** 0.3 33.7 30.4 15.5 13.89 6.57 3.10 0.94 1.38 10.61 0.7 12.52 2.59 0.89 2.58 9.3 119 158 199 241 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 2” (2.7 88.55 7.42 0.00 1.2 19.0 13.4 *** 34.3 0.6 101 *** 131 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 4” (4.2 17.2 38.

93 10.00 5. Vel.32 3.01 1.49 0.01 2.20 0.79 4.77 8.57 2.7 15. Vel.59 4.11 0.11 0.4 25.5 12.07 0.96 1.90 12.51 6.92 3.66 7.08 0.94 1.30 9.06 5.6 21.19 1.45 5.63 1.11 1.2 *** *** 1.98 8.2 14.10 6.25 0.06 0.48 4.49 4.2 16.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.05 ID) Vel.15 3.49 5.8 17.66 2.53 3.12 0.14 10.38 3.78 2.91 11.5 12.30 0.07 4.92 2.27 4.0 21.94 ID) 14” (13.3 17.2 16.61 6.87 10.41 4.96 3.13 0.2 22.48 0.17 0.22 8.65 4.6 17.15 1.81 5.11 3.42 0.88 7.70 6.89 3.64 0. Frict.21 0.79 10.48 0.7 11.37 1.5 *** 49.10 0.80 4.9 14.14 0.87 5.39 0.72 2.14 0.57 2.9 20.5 22.1 37.37 6.16 4.23 7. Frict.73 0.33 3.5 *** 25.11 0.3 20.9 *** *** 0.64 0.77 6.8 16.04 1.1 22.55 6.0 21.02 8.14 2.41 0.7 *** 28.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 6” (6.6 19. per 100 ft.34 0.38 1.13 0.07 ID) 8” (7.31 0.79 1.29 0. Frict.8 14. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict.9 14. Vel.48 0.03 1.2 12.88 5.25 0. gpm 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 1.39 8.31 5. Frict.87 1.52 1. loss in ft.62 0.2 *** 22.61 2.88 9. Frict.81 0.89 3.17 0.2 12.29 2.11 2.99 11.2 12.03 4.78 1.24 2.04 5.92 7.66 1.7 0.70 8.17 8.39 0.58 2.8 143 .36 0.27 2.21 1.07 0.25 0.Appendix H Friction Loss for Water in New Sch.94 5.8 *** 32.2 27.47 6.83 2.4 *** *** *** *** 0.16 5.18 0.33 3.55 1.41 7.49 8.80 1.0 11.0 *** 19.21 3.98 ID) 10” (10.4 *** 39.90 2.91 8.08 0.62 10.32 7.29 5.5 *** 30.02 ID) 12” (11.07 0. .7 17.22 0.81 2.27 1.12 0.49 10.33 0.60 10.1 12.44 0.20 0.17 4.89 4.22 1.44 2.25 2.86 2.41 1.37 2.60 1.87 3.20 2.72 3. Vel.44 2.21 0.09 0.50 0.66 4.58 1.18 0.98 9.93 7.08 0.06 0.56 3.4 16.5 16.51 4.85 4.21 3.59 0.16 0.16 0.73 8.3 18.4 12.81 9.55 1.41 7.25 3.81 5.68 2.35 0.04 0.73 4.00 2.5 19.9 *** *** *** *** 1.09 0.8 18.01 4.28 0.85 4.12 ID) Vel.2 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.70 0.85 3.4 23.Vel.33 1.8 *** 22.25 2.70 0.29 0.62 11.12 8.22 2.9 15. 0.28 1.54 0.34 0.97 2.1 22.07 8. per sec.13 5.54 1.92 2.50 0.74 5.41 0.0 19.83 4.67 1.60 0.24 0.34 8.4 15.0 15.85 3.7 *** 61.00 5.3 24.39 0.14 0.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.05 7.53 3. Frict.36 1.9 11.09 1. in ft.43 1.29 4.68 1.42 1.19 1.73 1.73 7.43 0.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.57 0.2 12.3 10.11 6.08 3.03 2.1 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.3 14.2 20.0 13.28 0.24 2.40 1.58 2.86 4.59 0.07 1.8 24.85 1.08 6.89 3.30 4.46 7.) gpm 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 5” (5.2 13.63 11.09 0.44 5.86 2.15 0.21 0.56 2.28 1.44 3.13 4.

69 3.4 16.37 0.30 5.23 10.000 35.8 14.4 13.79 5.0 19.16 16.000 0.45 6.75 in the 4” to 12” size range and .5 20.23 0.4 *** 0.59 3. Correct tabulated values for fluid temperatures other than 60°F as following: Temp (°F) Correction factor 32 1.82 2.41 5.8 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 0.000 0.15 fps (5. with no allowance for age.5 *** *** *** *** *** 2. 24” (22.88 9.40 0.01 2.410)/(ID) 2 = gpm (.1 28.62 ID) Vel.69 10.02 5000 0.9 34. Frict.46 11.6 17.48 0.21 0.Vel.86 5.78 1.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 16” (15.08 0. (31.87 3.38 5.09 0.94 40.4 29.39 2.38 7.10 0.000 30.69 7.25 20.321)/Area (in.) 2/64.000 * The ID value specified for 30” and 36” sizes are for Sch.49 1.0 fps is optimum). Velocity and Velocity head can be calculated using the following formulas: Vel. Velocity within column (vertical drop/riser pipe) should be kept within the range of 4 .00 ID)* Vel.5 13.68 7.71 12.26 5.99 4. Frict.78 4. Frict.3 18.000 0. gpm 2.16 0.00 60 1.64 0.08 0. 20” (18.6 *** *** *** 2.2 18.4 11.6 fps (3.00001217 ft /sec.55 0.000 16. 40 steel pipe.0 fps is optimum).8 23.10 50 1.8 16.73 1.45 50.74 9. 15% is a reasonable Factor of Safety.11 1.77 8.58 4.12 0.61 2.65 0.000 12.30 0.17 8.92 8. 4.15 0.000 20.17 2.28 0.09 12.00 ID)* 36” (35.19 5.04 4. 20 pipe.6 *** *** *** 0.000 0.44 0. .00 ID) Vel.1 14.56 10.000 0. Cast iron (CI) pipe has a slightly larger ID than steel pipe in the 3” to 12” dia. 40 pipe is not available in diameters greater than 24” 144 . Table based on Darcy-Weisback formula.54 0. Velocity head values are not included in the table.14 0. The friction loss data is based on seamless Sch.85 212 .43 2.) 2 /2g = (Vel.81) Vel.9 14.18 7.000 0. 2).21 5.38 25.45 7. or any other abnormal condition of interior surface. 2.59 4.67 2.06 9000 0.000 0.13 14.29 4.38 7.5 16. 40 steel and CI pipes for the same nominal diameter.31 2.91 3.13 1.84 3.) gpm 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10. Sch.46 4. Frict.000 50.80 7.86 1.30 0.02 5. 6.9 25.2 SSU).52 2.58 11. For general purposes. 30” (29.97 4.08 9.6 15.04 5.9 *** *** 0.000 40.000 18.07 10.9 12.83 6. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict.11 1.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.40 3.77 6.79 3.72 35.51 0.60 for 14” and larger sizes.19 3.95 150 .07 0.000 14.7 14.80 16” (15.38 0.30 7.42 2.61 10.96 1.07 0.41 2.49 4.34 0.60 0.Appendix H Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. per 100 ft. as they are normally not considered as a component of Total Head (TH) calculations to solve water supply pumping problem.92 1.37 4.15 3.00 ID) Vel. Frict. where: Area (in 2) = π (ID) 2/4 Vel.15 1.37 0.2 14.10 2.74 6. per sec.14 0. Frict.0 11.20 0.03 *** 0. which generally makes no practical difference with respect to water supply pumping problems.26 0.83 *** 1.4 5.000 25.94 *** 2.54 30.41 9.21 2.90 200 .00 80 1.1 22.03 6000 0.63 4.17 9.3 17.04 8000 0.0 20.89 3.98 9. Friction Losses in DI pipe can be approximated by multiplying the tabulated value by .000 Note: 1. Head (ft.000 0.35 6.5 12.7 *** *** *** *** *** 0.33 11.2 21.13 0.46 0.89 4.73 *** *** 1.8 28. Any Factor of Safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each particular installation.18 0.000 1.89 2.39 1.9 27.) = (Vel.20 18.05 0. Vel.67 0.70 2.2 20. Velocity within horizontal distribution piping should be kept within the range of 1 . differences in diameter.72 3.44 3.58 1. (fps) = gpm (.26 8.0 23. loss in ft.35 7.67 6.08 10.54 5.72 0. Ductile Iron (DI) has a larger ID than both Sch.12 0.04 5.8 25.17 0. 3.20 40 1. range.93 2.25 0.59 6.00 100 .29 1.04 7000 0.2 12.000 0. 1. Tabulated friction loss values are calculated based on water at 60°F and a kinematic viscosity = 0.0 12.62 5. in ft.

07 49.27 9.17 2.79 72.17 1.58 4.97 44.43 53.33 33.61 3.38” ID Vel.47 38.38 102.9 20.98 15.8 Frict.05 5.31 1. per 100 ft.00 55.25 8.60 11.42 5. 0. Copper Tubing and Sch.70 1.45 6.95 8.2 11.83 10.45 9.72 3.84 12.01 1.61 27.34 3.86 50.4 3/4” gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 1/4” gpm 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 Tubing .59 17.88 10.33 39.5 1.5 Pipe 1.50 3.02 73.70 5.26 7. 0.64 5.23 48. 0.71 2.65 8.84 30.61 6.7 Frict.35 2.32 1.0 4.65 8.44 2.13 Pipe .33 1.16 145 .31 80.56 1.65 3.02 3.07 70.61 15.22 6.75 2.06 2.07 8.75 3.34 5.545” ID Vel.60 1.65 10.28 2.83 5.25 10.62 3.40 Pipe 1.76 9.36 13.52 1.4 0.45 1.61 44.67 2.1 15.27 4.69 2.04 3.25 14.59 11.81 8.96 6.06 2.13 3.10 6.3 17.5 5.93 8.13 16.86 5.61 4.18 2.69 93. in ft.31 3.3 17.03” ID Vel.42 1.87 8.53 2.25 9.18 4.24 36.04 6.50 115.48 3.62 11.46 6.71 7.38 7.78 80.55 29.28 1.5 12.96 63.4 139.80 29.65 40.58 Tubing .15 40.68 13.18 34.39 69.56 47.56 5.71 60.25 3.35 0.25 7.0 12.48 21.83 5.0 12.75 3.52 56.66 33.49 5.36 5.66 1.95 2.74 1.92 Frict.06 24.31 8.81 2. loss in ft.0 16.00 29.11 11.6 14.9 13.66 4.824” ID Vel.09 1.44 6.56 19.71 7.35 1.55 3.0 9. 0.5 0.785” ID Vel.23 4.03 10.0 7.74 11.04 2.57 2.44 23.99 26.94 10.4 12.98 16. Frict.40 1.4 Pipe .96 35.06 24.6 157.47 59.85 4.35 3.19 28.53 1.5 2.11 3.04 1.98 4.) 1/2” gpm 0.90 Tubing 1.44 4. per sec.78 1.86 10.09 2.09 38.74 5.38 2.24 6.98 41.10 19.79 20.86 55.37 67.42 3. 40 PVC Pipe (Frict.50 6.60 4.0 1” gpm 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 Tubing 1.20 19.85 Frict.67 5.0 14. 0. 1. 0.0 3.78 9.22 17.41 0.0 1. 0.44 1.46 12.92 7.07 29. 1.80 12.55 7. 0.94 10.4 13.Vel.16 2.99 2.30 5.Appendix H Friction Loss for Water in New Type L.0 10.50 21.45 4.35 9. Frict.82 1.15 43. 0.21 1.27 15.08 1.72 1.89 3. .00 7.16 115.79 2.81 2.30 2.66 55.89 4.00 2.22 7.62 4.05” ID Vel. 0.91 4.0 8.78 6.34 2.0 2.50 7.32 3.5 3.74 9.65 11.53 1.5 4.32 13.15 1.22 9.86 16.8 15.61 9.97 62. Frict.40 10.19 6.65 14.45 0.12 4.06 3.33 12.69 1.51 0.91 1.64 7.81 7.85 8.11 9.70 0.28 20.55 0.0 6.96 2.41 22. Frict.20 23.27” ID Vel.25 11.81 5.05 9.75 1.14 1.07 16.622” ID Vel.29 7.

60 4.17 5. per sec.54 9.51 0.09 5.74 2.15 7.37 6.8 14.50 5.39 2.11 3.79 10.67 0.47 3. 0.72 0.80 5.54 25. 0.95 9.56 11. loss in ft.23 4.69 16.91 2.11 9.17 2.70 9.98 4.75 4.16 2.40 10.14 4.40 11.90 1.69 Tubing 2.4 16.35 4.32 9.31 0.Appendix H Friction Loss for Water in New Type L.87 1.92 4.52 7.87 3.02 2.42 0.93 28.61 18.74 44.06 Pipe 3.10 3.1 0.38 1.30 34.01 10.82 7.88 6.87 11.2 14.) Tubing 1 1/2” gpm 8 9 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 2 1/2” gpm 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 1.61 9.76 4.87 2.82 8. .45 11.94 13.52 12.2 12.18 23.01 Pipe 2.80 2.73 0.92 9.61 2. Frict.37 7.3 12.46 4.93 15.79 5.41 6.09 6.83 4.65 2.35 0.16 11.66 0.4 12.71 24.21 2.36 16.08 6.04 6.30 8.35 2.52 6.65 8.51 5.95” ID Vel.1 0.4 11.79 7.34 78.7 0.75 5. Copper Tubing and Sch.92 2.04 32.49 9.1 11.05 7.61 3.33 0.96 9.03 17.19 1.3 12.49 2.13 10. 0.64 6.73 9.98 16. 1.67 2” gpm 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 3” gpm 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 Vel.08 1.5 12.59 25.46 2.51 17. 1.81 1.8 12.22 1.16 7.3 11.6 14.68 14.57 3.0 19.01 3.1 10. 40 PVC Pipe (Frict.51” ID Vel.91 4.11 19.17 13.5 13.48 7.28 9.78 66.34 1.12 1.12 23.65 7.12 1. 1.39 3.66 1.03 Tubing 2.15 1.67 0.68 2.15 0.40 10.75 2.59 1.82 1.24 4.79 19.4 14.5 Pipe 1.77 2.55 0.25 6.54 8.5 11.39 7.57 10.69 3.88 2.1 14.55 0.07 2.12 5. 0.21 8.9 17.76 79.44 1.35 2.22 10.67 18.62 21.26 3.53 7.64 6.65 3.25 8.46 8.30 1.63 1.94 26.41 1.47” ID Vel.8 13.33 26.1 12.71 7.45 9.25 0.21 7.70 14. per 100 ft.Vel.29 2.05 8.4 15.45 11.8 11.01 2.04 3.68 0.93 40.16 2.70 12.65 14.31 1.36 4.95 7.24 54.75 6.2 13.80 2.00 14.72 1.4 15.2 13.93 9.61 30.22 5.74 6. 1.07 Vel.80 3.38 8.35 3.21 3.19 3.61 3.43 20.30 3.17 5.87 1. Frict.01 6.70 5.19 7.28 12.53 1.96 2.78 5.68 2.11 6. 1.78 14.8 12.2 18.49 0.76 1.66 2.63 0.62 4.57 5.13 0.87 32.82 3.47 1.99 12.46 3.62 1.63 9.70 3.58 7.25 28.52 0.07” ID Vel.42 6.43 1.05 1. 1.07” ID Frict.59 3.97 4.94 1. in ft.48 3.79 5.54 11.80 7.14 9.03 4.56 10.65 6.24 20.02 3.58 6.88 1.98 1.81 19.31 10.46” ID Vel.34 58.0 0.94 3.17 6.58 9.85 4.09 6.19 4.17 2.98” ID Frict.38 1.03 3.82 0.29 3.68 15. 0.42 14.70 7.56 8.15 5. Frict.33 20.79 146 .36 4.4 Pipe 2.63 4.4 13.70 5.45 1.31 7.90 Vel.85 12.27 1.05 5.4 13.84 8. Frict.61” ID Frict.8 Frict.4 14.94 1.66 5.89 7.41 17.99 10.4 12.8 16.68 5.25 8.30 4. 0.21 5.99 8.5 Tubing 1.

4 12.92 10.56 5.95 13.36 14.00 5.48 2.75 7.83 2. 40 PVC Pipe (Frict.58 1. Table based on Darcy .33 3.30 8.48 3.7 0.36 3.21 5.87 5.74 10.96 1.1 15.35 17.29 3.91 6.57 1.40 1.23 1.24 6.8 14.65 8.33 5.09 2.35 5.35 9.85 1.Appendix H Friction Loss for Water in New Type L. loss in ft.97 17.42 6.00 3. Frict.76 2.32 20.13 7.09 15.43” ID Vel.90 3.7 13.55 4.67 4.00 4.94 1.39 7.10 5.51 19.33 4.44 2.35 5.84 4.31 4.66 6.66 3.61 6.97 4.14 7.Vel.00 13.13 3.19 12.21 3.05 1.60 6.08 11.06 3.36 10. 2.86 Pipe 4.33 9.89 6. Copper Tubing and Sch.16 15.09 2.77 0. per sec.08 5.0 16.50 1.55 2.08 4.66 2.01 4.3 16.77 4.83 0.51 0.46 8.4 0.96 22.67 0. It is recommended that for most commercial design purposes a safety factor of 15 to 20% be added to the values in the tables.96 3.68 2.28 3.52 4.9 0.94 2. 40 PVC Pipe 2.99 4” gpm 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Vel.4 18. difference in diameter.46 0.95 1.52 6. 2.08 1.81 3.35 2.09 2.2 13.83 4.62 2.6 17.05 9.39 1.81 5.23 23.91 2.60 0.33 2.6 17.94 3.18 4.66 9. .31 3.68 0.33 8.24 19.66 5.56 1.55” ID Vel.25 1.63” ID Vel.33 10.65 8.28 10.00 2.95 7.3 15.14 1. 147 .49 8.77 20.36 2.00 8.72 5.12 6.26 3.71 0.) Tubing 3 1/2” gpm 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 3. 0.03 2.Weisback formula 3.95 3.80 0.78 3. 2. Tubing 3.9 15.88 6.5 12.58 4.35 2.74 4.0 13.48 3.09 8.57 3.7 Note: 1.00 6.20 12.63 7.71 17.4 14. in addition to Sch.62 3.82 4.75 1. in ft.95 7.32 Pipe 3.35 1.33 6. No allowance has been made for age.26 6.79 3.0 17. per 100 ft.14 2.2 11.0 11.7 16.33 4. Any factor of safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each particular installation.41 5.64 4.02 9. or any abnormal condition of interior surface.91” ID Frict.73 1.23 10. Frict.02 4.60 0. The friction losses listed under the pipe heading is approximately valid for Regular Weight Copper and Brass Pipe.84 5.28 4.10 1.32 2.11 9. Frict.66 7.27 1.7 12.

0 5.40 .2 5.0 7.0 44.40 .46 .6 2.4 3.69 2.5 3. TEE .80 1.20 45° ELBOW .0 23.0 10.0 2.60 .0 4.0 18.50 2.50 .9 3.0 52.30 3.3 9.0 7.61 .0 CLOSED RETURN BENDS 2.10 1.16 .70 .7 1.5 172 40.0 6.62 .48 2. LONG SWEEP 90° ELBOW .6 2.0 40.3 3.50 .7 1.0 6.60 22.65 .65 .5 136 33.2 4.0 5. 27.5 3.97 5.0 50.0 79.0 7.0 6.0 STD. 78.22 1.2 .5 15.5 4.5 2.7 3.50 4.20 9.0 15.27 .0 27.0 1.0 4.9 3.0 18.0 2.3 1.90 1.4 18.4 6.0 8.5 4.0 5.5 2.0 3.0 16. MEDIUM SWEEP 90° ELBOW .0 2.6 2.3 27.80 9.70 16.7 2.0 70.80 8.5 10.4 1.0 9.25 7.0 10.0 5. 22.3 2.36 2.6 2.0 1.22 .0 84.5 2.40 .3 18.4 2.50 .8 1.0 20.79 . 1/8” to 12” nominal sizes are based on standard steel pipe.5 7.5 1.5 2.4 5. 23.62 1.2 11.0 ABRUPT CONTRACTION d d d D D D 1/4 1/2 3/4 .0 9. 33.70 6.0 9. 21.0 15.0 105 26.50 27.74 .62 3.40 3.93 1.5 5.21 1.80 . 65.0 14. 16.85 5.5 3.0 15. 92.8 24.30 ABRUPT ENLARGEMENT d d d D D D 1/4 1/2 3/4 .0 11.0 10.6 4. Friction losses are based on screwed connection from 1/8” to 4” sizes and flanged connections from 6” to 24” 7-21 148 .80 12.4 41.30 6.0 18.0 3.0 14.15 1.0 1.6 4. 31.0 8.0 4. 18.5 1.4 1.30 .9 14. ORDINARY ENTRANCE TO PIPE LINES .86 1.83 .46 .0 66.0 88.0 2.75 .5 STD.3 8.2 11.0 34.7 .14 .0 5.40 4.3 .9 3.6 4.90 1.10 GATE VALVE 1/4 1/2 CLOSED CLOSED .0 14.0 .0 5. 14” to 24” sizes are ID pipe.5 13. d Smaller diameter = D Larger diameter SIZE OF PIPE (inches) 1/8” 1/4” 3/8” 1/2” 3/4” 1” 1 1/4” 1 1/2” 2” 2 1/2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10” 12” 14” 16” SQUARE 90° ELBOW 1.0 3.0 79. 90° ELBOW .0 44.0 7.0 2.21 .0 2.0 1.0 7.10 1.Appendix H Friction Losses Through Pipe Valves and Fittings (Straight Pipe in Feet .0 57.29 .4 . 43.50 8.6 .80 .46 .48 1.0 11.0 25.0 23.60 .0 6.40 17.0 4.6 .0 12.0 274 3/4 CLOSED 19 26 36 44 59 70 96 116 146 172 213 285 425 555 703 815 978 1110 GLOBE VALVEWIDE OPEN 9 12 16 18 23 29 38 46 58 69 86 116 175 225 285 336 395 435 ANGLE VALVEWIDE OPEN 5 6 8 9 12 15 20 23 29 35 43 57 86 115 141 166 195 220 CHECK VALVEWIDE OPEN 2.6 1.70 .00 43.5 9. STD.0 6.0 21.0 8.20 20.0 .0 39.Equivalent Length) SIZE OF PIPE (inches) 1/8” 1/4” 3/8” 1/2” 3/4” 1” 1 1/4” 1 1/2” 2” 2 1/2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10” 12” 14” 16” WIDE OPEN .0 6.5 1.5 8.9 1.70 18.2 20.0 4.5 7.60 11.0 2. TEE 1.0 14.5 2.5 3.2 23.40 8.0 5.3 27.0 72.0 19.0 57.5 4.97 2.0 9.4 7.0 22.6 4.83 2.5 14.5 13.6 2.4 .3 6.39 1.36 1.90 1.50 .5 Use the smaller diameter in the column for pipe size. 26.0 16.0 16.29 1.4 .0 14.50 37.0 2.0 .2 15.0 17.0 1.0 66.0 99.2 15.0 36.0 60.50 14.80 5.0 4. 36.3 3.16 1.33 .0 8.5 2.0 5.4 5.50 .80 33.0 9. 53. 27. 2.5 233 53.0 34.3 18.5 1.0 4.0 20.0 4.0 Section 7 Note: 1.0 15.0 1.0 3.0 18.4 9.0 17.65 .2 23.0 2.0 5. 106.0 25. 37.0 6.83 4.0 11.2 20.6 196 48.5 6. 19.40 5.74 1.5 12.10 12.0 88.0 1.6 28.

Appendix H Typical Check Valve Friction Loss Chart Typical Surface Plate / 90° Discharge Elbow Friction Loss Chart SURFACE PLATE / 90° DISCHARGE FRICTION LOSS CHART 149 .

12” lines 150 .77 or 2 .Appendix H Steel Pipe Friction Loss & Velocity Chart Note: Above chart indicates average values for standard weight steel pipe.090 2” 1 2 6 18 39 71 115 174 247 338 447 3” 1 2 6 13 24 39 59 84 115 153 4” 6” 8” 10” 1 2 6 11 18 27 39 53 71 1 2 3 6 9 13 18 24 1 1 2 4 6 8 11 1 1 2 3 4 6 Section 7 NOTE: Comparing the ratio of the square of diameters will provide the capacity equivalent relationship (ie. Hazen . Equivalent Pipe Capacity Comparison Main Size 2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10” 12” 14” 16” 18” 20” Smaller Pipe Size (Number of smaller pipes required to provide carrying capacity equal to a larger pipe) 3/4” 13 39 84 247 530 957 1” 6 18 39 115 247 447 724 1.Williams roughness constant (C) = 140. how many 12” lines will be required to equal the capacity of a 16” line? .(16 ) / (12 ) = 1.

Appendix I Periodic system 1 H Hydrogen 2 He Helium 3 Li Lithium 4 Be Beryllium 5 B Boron 6 C Carbon 7 N Nitrogen 8 O Oxygen 9 F Fluorine 10 Ne Neon 11 Na Sodium 12 Mg Magnesium 13 Al Aluminium 14 Si Silicon 15 P Phosphorus 16 S Sulphur 17 Cl Chlorine 18 Ar Argon 19 K Potassium 20 Ca Calcium 21 Sc Scandium 22 Ti Titanium 23 V Vanadium 24 Cr Chromium 25 Mn Manganese 26 Fe Iron 27 Co Cobalt 28 Ni Nickel 29 Cu Copper 30 Zn Zinc 31 Ga Gallium 32 Ge Germanium 33 As Arsenic 34 Se Selenium 35 Br Bromine 36 Kr Krypton Rubidium 37 Rb 55 Cs 38 Sr Strontium 39 Y Yttrium 40 Zr Zirconium 41 Nb Niobium 42 Mo 74 W Tungsten 43 Tc 75 Re Rhenium 44 Ru Ruthenium 45 Rh Rhodium 46 Pd Palladium 47 Ag Silver 48 Cd Cadmium 49 In Indium 50 Sn Tin 51 Sb Antimony 52 Te Tellurium 53 I Iodine 54 Xe Xenon Molybdenum Technetium 56 Ba Barium 57 La Lutetium 72 Hf Hafnium 73 Ta Tantalum 76 Os Osmium 77 Ir Iridium 78 Pt Platinum 79 Au Gold 80 Hg Mercury 81 Tl Thallium 82 Pb Lead 83 Bi Bismuth 84 Po Polonium 85 At Astatine 86 Rn Radon Caesium 87 Fr Francium 88 Ra Radium 89 Ac Actinium 104 Rf Rutherfordium 105 Db Dubnium 106 Sg Seaborgium 107 Bh Bohrium 108 Hs Hassium 109 Mt 110 Ds 111 Rg 112 Uub 113 Uut 114 UUq 115 UUp 116 UUh 117 UUs 118 UUd Meitnerium Damstadtium Roentgenium Ununbium Ununtrium Ununquadium 58 Ce Cerium 59 Pr 60 Nd 92 U Uranium 61 Pm Promethium 62 Sm Samarium 63 Eu Europium 64 Gd Gadolinium 65 Tb Terbium 66 Dy Dysprosium 67 Ho Holmium 68 Er Erbium 69 Tm Thulium 70 Yb Ytterbium 71 Lu Lutetium Praseodymium Neodymium 90 Th Thorium 91 Pa Protactinium 93 Np Neptunium 94 Pu Plutonium 95 Am Americium 96 Cm Curium 97 Bk Berkelium 98 Cf Californium 99 Es Einsteinium 100 Fm Fernium 101 Md Mendelevium 102 No Nobelium 103 Lr Lawrencium 151 .

nominal duty point and dimensions Pump-related standards: ANSI/HI 1. and noise levels End-suction centrifugal pumps . PN-designated Metallic flanges Pumps. impeller types. the standard cover the design and application of centrifugal pumps.1-2001 ASME B73. designation and material codes Flanges and their joints .2-2003 EN 733 EN 22858 Specifications for horizontal end suction centrifugal pumps for chemical process Specifications for vertical in-line centrifugal pumps for chemical process End-suction centrifugal pumps.Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts Motor standards: Nema MG 1-2007 EN 60034/IEC 34 Information guide for general purpose industrial AC small and medium squirrel-cage induction motor standards Rotating electrical machines 152 .Hydraulic performance tests -Grades 1 and 2 Metallic products .6 ANSI/HI 1.Types of inspection documents Mechanical vibration .Class 1 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps .Appendix J Pump standards Pump standards: ASME B73. valves.03 psi with bearing bracket End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 232.06 psi) . casing configurations. fittings and accessories.5-1996 ISO 9905 ISO 5199 ISO 9908 ISO 9906 EN 10204 ISO/FDIS 10816 Pipe flanges and flanged fittings Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps . etc: ASME/ANSI B16.Class 3 Rotodynamic pumps . selection criteria. detailed procedures on the setup and conduction of hydrostatic and performance tests Rotodynamic (centrifugal) pump applications. and pump units for liquids: Spare parts ISO 3661 EN 12756 EN 1092 ISO 7005 DIN 24296 Specifications.Designation.Principal dimensions.3 Centrifugal tests. rating with 145.Base plate and installation dimensions Mechanical seals . performance. pump classifications.Circular flanges for pipes.Class 2 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps . mechanical features.

o ( at 68 F) 2 Spindle oil ρ: 850 10 8 6 4 Gas and diesel oil ρ: 880 Light ρ: 930 Silicone oil ρ: 1000 Milk ρ: 1030 SAE 20 Petroleum ρ: 800 Aniline ρ: 1030 2 400 500 2000 3000 SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 50 SAE 60 SAE 70 20000 30000 1.62 . As it appears from the graph. the Saybolt Universal viscosity is calculated by the following formula: [SSU] = 4. the viscosity decreases when the temperature increases. For kinematic viscosity above 60 cSt.10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 t 100°C 10000 40000 50000 20000 30000 40000 50000 100000 200000 100000 153 . The graph below shows the relationship between kinematic viscosity in [cSt] and viscosity in [SSU]. Viscosity Kinematic viscosity is measured in centiStokes [cSt] (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s). [cSt] cSt 10000 8 6 4 V The densities shown in the graph are for 68° F Glycerol ρ: 1260 Kinematic viscosity centiStokes cSt Sekunder Saybolt Universal SSU 2 1 2 32 35 40 50 10 1000 8 6 4 3 Silicone oil 4 5 Fuel oil 2 Olive oil ρ: 900 Cottonseed oil ρ: 900 Fruit juice ρ: 1000 100 8 6 4 20 Heavy ρ: 980 Mean ρ: 955 100 30 40 50 200 300 100 400 500 SAE 10 200 300 1000 SAE no. The unit [SSU] Saybolt Universal is also used in connection with kinematic viscosity.Appendix K Viscosity of typical liquids as a function of liquid temperature The graph shows the viscosity of typical liquids at different temperatures.1 .0 8 6 4 Petrol ρ: 750 Ethyl Alkohol ρ: 770 1000 Silicone oil 4000 5000 Acetone ρ: 790 Water ρ: 1000 Ether ρ: 700 Acetic acid ρ: 1050 2000 3000 4000 5000 10000 2 Mercury ρ: 13570 0. The SAE-number is also indicated in the graph.

0003 0.29 61.0008 0. °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 63.30 65.0007 0.0005 0.98 67.54 64.0004 0.0003 0.0007 0.76 64.89 66.47 66.98 64.79 62.45 61.20 66.0006 0.02 64.04 62.0004 0.0012 0.0037 0.82 63.0026 0.0019 0.56 65.53 65.15 63. °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 0.0031 0.19 63.76 65.0007 0.0036 0.55 65.0006 0.27 63.0003 50% 0.0011 0.0004 0.0006 0.0271 0.61 63.0005 0.93 63.31 60.07 63.0003 0.97 62.0005 0.0011 0.64 62.0017 0.0003 0.90 67.34 66.0015 0.0003 0.62 30% 65.0003 0.42 63.0003 0.99 63.57 60.99 61..31 63.0014 0.0003 0.0008 0.0007 0.0008 0.0002 0.90 65.05 64.0005 0.0012 0.0012 0.80 64.70 66.0003 0.61 63. Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Ethylene Glycol Temp.70 63.29 63.0005 0.0057 0.0011 0.97 66.05 65.66 64.0428 0.0002 30% 0.69 63.70 61.18 60.0006 0.0046 0.83 64.73 66.73 65.0006 0.0017 0.05 64.43 65.72 62.0041 0.0033 0.95 61.0068 0.07 63.0009 0.52 63.40 63.0004 0.0022 0.0132 0.70 67.0004 0.01 62.43 63.0019 0.0013 0.0004 0.59 67.51 61.11 61.0009 0.0004 0.20 67.37 66.27 61..0003 40% 0.0010 0.43 62.05 59.0015 0.33 64.0010 0.80 67.85 65.28 63.40 40% 67.73 63.17 65.0002 0.78 Note: Density in lb/ft3.0073 0.0009 0.0026 0.90 66.0130 0.18 64.0005 0.0005 0.0096 0.72 61.0003 0.70 64.51 63.0004 0.12 50% 68.0006 0.0183 0.53 62.0002 0.80 66.0005 0.0003 154 .0009 0.0006 0.0005 0.97 65.0014 0.0052 0.86 62.77 63.10 62.77 20% 64.47 62.0045 0.0010 0.45 64.34 67.0009 0.0004 0.0016 0.0005 0.93 65.30 65.0008 0.07 62.0007 0.52 64.0024 0.59 66.75 64.19 61.0029 0.0007 0.05 66.75 65.0003 0.54 64.0021 0.56 64.0017 0.37 65.92 61.56 63.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.25 63.82 60.0004 0.0006 0.0014 0.0002 0.0006 0.12 68.06 62.17 65.0003 0.0004 0.0002 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.42 62.93 62.0007 0.31 64.0027 0.Appendix K Ethylene glycol Density of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Ethylene Glycol Temp.47 67.0003 0.0008 0.55 66.04 66.0002 0.86 64.06 60.0002 20% 0.63 62.0012 0.71 61.0004 0.0020 0.66 65.0092 0.95 63.0011 0.21 64.0023 0.30 62.90 60.34 64.

0089 0.02 62.0005 0.49 62.0003 0.0005 0. °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 0.54 63.83 61.0003 0.0004 0.35 66.03 62.0007 0.74 63.0005 0.91 63.30 64.66 62.45 62.47 60.0043 0.0002 0.56 61.0183 0.03 63.0003 0.0003 50% 0.0006 0.0006 0.79 63.34 59.00 64.0007 0.79 64.82 40% 65.0019 0.11 65.54 61.0023 0.0034 0.91 59.0016 0.0005 0.90 64.53 64.0002 20% 0.0009 0.0005 0.0007 0.38 63.0049 0.23 64.55 64.86 62.78 60.0015 0.0003 0.33 61.74 62..0007 0.0072 0.51 63.22 61.0003 0.33 63.14 61.0002 0. Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Propylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Propylene Glycol Temp.0003 40% 0.78 60.66 63.30 63.14 64..85 62.93 61.99 50% 66.0004 0.90 62.15 59.0004 0.74 61.21 59.20 63.46 62.0030 0.0028 0.0019 0.32 61.36 64.27 63.0006 0.0020 0.0016 0.0006 0.0008 0.74 64.24 64.63 61.0003 0.14 64.0004 0.92 63.61 59.41 60.0004 0.0010 0.89 59.0003 0.57 63.76 62.23 66.31 61.0275 0.90 64.12 62.71 65.0004 155 .0124 0.0009 0.73 64.0002 0.0005 0.11 60.82 65.08 60.48 65.20 63.0004 0.33 20% 64.0011 0.37 61.0024 0.0008 0.0005 0.0187 0.50 65.Appendix K Propylene glycol Density of Aqueous Solutions of Propylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Propylene Glycol Temp.0006 0.0065 0.0008 0.10 62.0003 0.18 61.0010 0.0002 30% 0.0037 0.0004 0.0005 0.46 66.0039 0.68 60.0004 0.0009 0.0002 0.0013 0.28 62.0029 0.43 62.80 61.21 65.0012 0.73 62.0019 0.60 65.67 64.92 61.0004 0.0050 0.0011 0.0024 0.0016 0.06 64.95 64.0003 0.65 61.0008 0.0007 0.89 60.0004 0.52 63.0027 0.16 63.0055 0.11 Note: Density in lb/ft 3.39 64.0004 0.0009 0.0010 0.33 65.0006 0.0013 0.0019 0.00 60.44 62.08 63.0036 0.93 61.73 63.97 65.03 61.0003 0.0010 0.0090 0.83 60.0132 0.0273 0.0003 0.0012 0.0007 0.17 60.15 59.0002 0.53 64.0016 0.67 62.0013 0.0007 0.05 60.0006 0.0008 0.98 62.67 65.0005 0.06 63.37 63.25 62.0011 0.0412 0.11 61.0096 0.0014 0.0006 0.0003 0.65 60.82 63.35 65.0645 0.0005 0.03 62. °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 63.59 62.1049 0.47 60.0005 0.0004 0.0067 0.0005 0.0014 0.60 30% 65.50 61.30 63.95 63.50 60.0003 0.0023 0.

91 15% 10% 5% 62.90 79.1 1.79 70.9 12.2 29.22 75.40 86.04 64.11 63.08 89.16 73.65 16.5 14.79 65.48 68.5 4.0 0.27 83.0 9.9 2.0 3.60 75.34 82.51 95.03 77.1 1.22 72.1 4.0 0.9 14.2 1.67 68.5 1.73 69.97 75.0 0.90 81.6 3.21 80.4 11.01 92.60 2.6 0.20 94.2 1.60 67.3 1.67 77 86 95 104 113 122 131 140 149 158 °F 156 .85 3.8 0.65 85.20 88.8 39.90 84.59 78.29 68.29 65.7 0.48 69.5 83.79 67.32 94.3 1.85 72.39 100 50% 45% 40% 35% 10 35% 30% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 81.47 74.28 74.5 1.67 64.58 51.1 2.64 88.8 76.58 87.84 10.09 80.83 91.66 72.7 0.8 2.9 7.5 0.6 0.6 4.8 95.59 77.4 1.15 83.04 72.45 93.86 64.83 87.39 91.98 1.1 80.09 83.0 92.15 25% 20% 1 74.78 77.8 0.5 3.98 70.02 82.30 64.41 77.64 38.78 76.71 81.15 78.22 78.42 67.0 1.1 1.5 6.34 79.2 5.72 79.77 82.64 45% 40% 87.16 70.09 75.54 72.17 65.41 75.03 74.17 67.26 91.41 76.1 9.70 93.8 1.14 86.29 73.8 1.15 84.28 76.22 6.46 84.97 78.6 5.2 6.79 68.3 2.10 68.35 72.0 19.77 90.21 85.60 69.66 74.1 8.85 71.04 65.03 73.52 82.39 88.20 90.6 1.9 8.7 2.8 1.54 65.71 25.3 1.14 93.4 19.02 87.78 78.92 68.7 0.Appendix K Sodium hydroxide ρ [lb/ft3] Concentration wt % = Temperature 32 41 50 59 68 77 86 95 104 113 122 131 140 149 158 167 176 5% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 10% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 15% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 20% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 25% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 30% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 35% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 40% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 45% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 50% ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft3] 55% ν [cSt] 66.35 71.76 94.23 1.3 2.3 2.40 78.7 0.6 73.4 97.6 1.95 96.23 69.92 65.95 90.8 13.51 96.9 0.9 0.5 2.33 85.6 2.5 69.0 1.89 93.48 71.2 20.4 2.9 0.78 75.3 6.32 97.96 85.28 81.09 79.0 26.83 88.58 89.6 8.4 86.67 65.53 79.52 90.71 84.58 92.9 3.35 69.85 74.9 15.42 32 0 68 50 68 86 104 122 140 158 176 °F 68.13 lb/ft3 cSt 99.3 1.38 95.98 67.6 1.09 81.2 1.88 55% 50% 93.5 5.7 12.9 7.04 71.53 81.3 9.39 92.59 76.17 66.98 65.13 96.7 1.21 88.66 71.42 65.9 0.6 89.48 64.

04 68.53 76.8 67.41 73.91 67.66 74.3 5.5 1.54 67.86 64.0 0.79 70.7 1.5 1.03 73.9 69.2 1.0 2.3 1.7 1.41 72.2 4.66 71.3 1.78 76.9 70.54 73.72 77.92 67.3 2.4 3.41 71.9 0.48 70.8 1.1 2.66 73.2 1.4 1.17 69.41 69.0 74.60 70.04 66.3 1.8 1.3 2.29 72.3 1.1 157 .3 1.23 67.8 3.7 2.0 1.10 74.11 65.0 1.9 2.6 5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77 86 ρ [lb/ft ] 3 ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft ] 3 ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft ] 3 ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft ] 3 ν [cSt] [cSt] Concentration wt % = Temperature -13 -4 5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77 86 10% 15% 20% 25% 5% 10% 15% 20% 77.5 1.6 1.79 69.73 64.34 77.85 2.04 68.97 71.1 1.2 1.1 0.5 1.73 67.78 73.54 69.79 2.22 71.29 69.60 67.66 76.23 4.2 1.04 64.7 6.91 73.Appendix K Calcium chloride ρ [lb/ft ] 3 Sodium chloride ν ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft ] 3 ρ [lb/ft ] 3 ν [cSt] ρ [lb/ft ] 3 ν [cSt] Concentration wt % = Temperature 7.0 1.85 70.8 1.0 1.35 70.67 1.5 2.2 1.6 3.2 2.8 1.11 67.3 77.34 72.4 2.1 1.53 77.6 2.3 2.5 1.16 74.4 1.22 77.98 70.85 71.9 2.35 67.7 1.9 72.48 2.54 65.54 71.22 4.6 2.0 3.0 0.42 67.3 1.66 69.23 3.9 1.04 67.9 0.79 67.92 66.09 76.6 1.2 2.98 64.9 1.54 69.7 1.47 77.97 76.54 67.10 71.3 3.92 64.0 0.66 70.2 1.

Index

A
Absolute pressure Adjusting pump performance Aluminum ATEX (ATmosphère EXplosible) Austenitic (non-magnetic) Autotransformer starting Axial flow pumps Axial forces 85 106 70 41 68 46 8 14

B
Balanced shaft seal Basic coupling Bearing Insulated bearing Bellows seal Groundwater pump Bypass control 31 16 51 48 30 23 106

Constant differential pressure control Constant pressure control Constant temperature control Copper alloys Corrosion Cavitation corrosion Corrosion fatigue Crevice corrosion Erosion corrosion Galvanic corrosion Intergranular corrosion Pitting corrosion Selective corrosion Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) Uniform corrosion Corrosion fatigue Coupling Basic coupling Flexible coupling Spacer coupling Crevice corrosion

115 114 115 69 60 63 64 62 63 64 62 61 62 63 61 64 16 16 16 16 62

C
Canned motor pump Cartridge seal Casing Double-volute Single-volute Return channel Cast iron Cavitation Cavitation corrosion Centrifugal pump Ceramics Close-coupled pump Closed system Coatings Metallic coatings Non-metallic coatings Organic coatings Computer-aided pump selection Control Throttle control Bypass control Speed control 18 32 15 15 15 15 66 10, 89 63 8 71 12, 13, 16 96, 98 73 73 74 74 58 106 107 107 108

D
Decommissioning and disposal costs 131 Deep well pump 23 Density 10, 93 Density of water Appendix D Density of brine Appendix K Diaphragm pump 25 Differential pressure 88 Differential pressure control 116 Dilatant liquid 55 Direct-on-line starting (DOL) 46 Dosing pump 25 Double mechanical shaft seal 33 Double seal in tandem 33 Double seal in back-to-back 34 Double-channel impeller 21 Double-inlet 17 Double-suction impeller 11, 17 Double-volute casing 15 Downtime costs 131

Index

Index

Duty point Dynamic pressure Dynamic viscosity

96 84 54

Frequency converter

47, 108, 118

G
Galvanic corrosion Gauge pressure Grey iron 64 85 66

E
Earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) 125 Efficiency 10 Efficiency at reduced speed 109 Efficiency curve 10 Electric motor 40 Flameproof motor 42 Increased safety motor 42 Non-sparking motor 42 EMC directive 123 EMC filter 123 Enclosure class (IP), motor 43 End-suction pump 12 Energy costs 130 Energy savings 111, 114, 117 Environmental costs 130 Erosion corrosion 63 Ethylene propylelediene rubber (EPDM) 72 Expansion joints 80

H
Head Heat capacity Hermetically sealed pump Horizontal pump Hydraulic power 9, 85 93 18 12, 13 10, 91

I
IEC, motor Immersible pump Impeller Double-channel Single-channel Vortex impeller Increased safety motor Initial costs In-line pump Installation and commissioning costs Insulation class Intergranular corrosion 40 22 14, 21 21 21 21 42 129 12, 13 129 44 62

F
Ferritic (magnetic) 68 Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic) 68 Ferrous alloys 65 Flameproof motor 42 Flexible coupling 16 Floating foundation 79 Flow 83 Mass flow 83 Volume flow 83 Units Appendix B Fluoroelastomers (FKM) 72 Flushing 32 Foundation 78 Floating foundation 79 Floor 79 foundation 79 Vibration dampeners 79 Frame size 44

K
Kinematic viscosity 54, Appendix K

L
Life cycle costs Example Liquid Dilatant Newtonian Non-Newtonian Plastic fluid Thixotrophic Viscous Long-coupled pump Loss of production costs 117, 128 132 54 55 55 55 55 55 54 12, 13, 16 131

N
NEMA, motor standard Newtonian fluid Nickel alloys Nitrile rubber Nodular iron Noise (vibration) Non-metallic coatings Non-Newtonian liquid Non-sinusoidal current Non-sparking motor NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) 40 55 69 72 66 78 74 55 124 42 10, 89

M
Magnetic drive Maintenance and repair costs Martensitic (magnetic) Mass flow Measuring pressure Mechanical shaft seal Bellows seal Cartridge seal Metal bellows seal Rubber bellows seal Function Flushing Metal alloys Ferrous alloys Metal bellows seal Metallic coatings Mixed flow pumps Modifying impeller diameter Motors Motor efficiency Motor insulation Motor protection Motor start-up Direct-on-line starting (DOL) Star/delta starting Autotransformer starting Frequency converter Soft starter Mounting of motor (IM) Multistage pump 19 131 68 83 85 18, 28 30 32 32 31 29 32 65 65 32 73 8 108, 110 40 49 48 49 46 46 46 46 46, 47 46 43 11, 12, 13, 16

O
Open system Operating costs Organic coatings O-ring seal Oversized pumps 96, 99 106, 130 74 30 106

P
Paints Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) Phase insulation PI-controller Pitting corrosion Plastic fluid Plastics Positive displacement pump Power consumption Hydraulic power Shaft power Pressure Absolute pressure Differential pressure Dynamic pressure Gauge pressure Measuring pressure Static pressure System pressure Units Vapor pressure 74 72 48 114 61 55 71 24 10, 91 10, 91 91 84 85 88 84 85 85 84 88 85, Appendix A 90, Appendix D

13. 13. 96 Pumps connected in series 103 Pumps in parallel 101 Pumps with integrated frequency converter 118 Purchase costs 129 PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) 123 Q QH curve 9 R Radial flow pump Radial forces Reinforced insulation Resistances connected in parallel Resistances connected in series Return channel casing Rubber Ethylene propylelediene rubber (EPDM) Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Nitrile rubber (NBK) Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) Silicone rubber (Q) Rubber bellows seal 8 15 48 98 97 15 72 72 72 72 72 72 30 S Sanitary pump Seal face Seal gap Selective corrosion Setpoint Shaft Shaft power Shaft seal Balanced shaft seal Unbalanced shaft seal Silicone rubber (Q) Single resistances Resistances connected in series Single-channel impeller Single-stage pump Single-suction impeller Single-volute casing Soft starter Sound level Sound pressure level Spacer coupling Static head Static lift 20 28 29 62 114 11 91 28 31 31 72 97 97 21 11. 16 Positive displacement pump 24 Radial flow pump 8 Sanitary pump 20 Single-stage pump 15 Split-case pump 12. 13. 13 Wastewater pump 21 Pump casing 15 Pump characteristic 9. 12. 13 Immersible pump 22 Long-coupled pump 12. 16 Diaphragm pump 25 Dosing pump 25 Hermetically sealed pump 18 Horizontal pump 12.Index Index Pressure control Constant differential pressure control 115 Constant pressure 114 Constant pressure control 114 Constant supply pressure 114 Pressure transmitter (PT) 114 Proportional pressure control 120 PTC thermistors 50 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 123 Pump Axial flow pump 8 Borehole pump 23 Canned motor pump 18 Centrifugal pump 8 Close-coupled pump 12. 12. 13. 16 Magnetic-driven pump 19 Mixed flow pump 8 Multistage pump 11. 15 11 15 46 81 82 16 99 99 . 17 Standard pump 17 Vertical pump 12. 13. 96 Pump curve 9 Pump installation 77 Pump performance curve 9.

Appendix D 108 12. 17 Stainless steel 66 Standard pump 17 Standards 40 IEC. 98 Open system 96. 13 79 78 54.Speed control 106. 13. motor 40 Sanitary standards 20 Standstill heating of motor 51 Star/delta starting 46 Static pressure 84 Steel 65 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 63 Stuffing box 28 Submersible pump 23 System characteristic 96 Closed system 96. 108. 110 Variable speed control 108 Speed-controlled pumps in parallel 102 Split-case pump 12. motor 40 NEMA. 110-113 107 70 11 U Unbalanced shaft seal Uniform corrosion 31 61 V Vapor pressure Variable speed control Vertical pump Vibration dampeners Vibrations Viscosity Dynamic viscosity Viscous liquid Viscous liquid pump curve Voltage supply Volume flow Units Volute casing Vortex impeller Wastewater pump 90. 99 System costs 117 System pressure 88 T Temperature Units Thermoplastics Thermosets Thixotrophic liquid Throttle control Throttle valve Titanium Twin pump 93 Appendix B 71 71 55 106. Appendix K 54 54 55 47 83 Appendix A 11 21 21 .

N.S. Kansas 66061 Phone: (913) 227-3400 Telefax: (913) 227-3500 Canada GRUNDFOS Canada Inc. Ontario L6H 6C9 Phone: (905) 829-9533 Telefax: (905) 829-9512 Mexico Bombas GRUNDFOS de Mexico S.A. Mexico Phone: 011-52-81-8144 4000 Telefax: 011-52-81-8144 4010 . de C.L.grundfos. Boulevard TLC No. 2941 Brighton Road Oakville. GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation 17100 West 118th Terrace Olathe.V.P. 15 Parque Industrial Stiva Aeropuerto C. 66600 Apodaca.Being responsible is our foundation Thinking ahead makes it possible Innovation is the essence www.com L-IND-HB-01 8/2008 (US) U.A.