PS 1A03

PS 1A03:
Subject Coordinator: Office: Phone: Email: Website: Consultation Times: My tutorial time and room: My TA: Office: Phone: Email: Consultation Times:

Introduction to Peace Studies
Course Outline — Term 2 (Winter) 2010/11
Monday 1:30-2:20 pm HH 109

Wednesday 1:30-2:20 pm HH 109 Dr. Colin Salter TSH 302 (905) 525 9140 | Extension 23722

Mondays 2:30-4:30pm Other times by appointment

PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010)

page 1 of 12

Subject Description
roughout remembered history to the present, we, as a species, have witnessed and participated in horri c forms of violence. From genocide and war, sexual abuse and domestic violence through to other marked and unmarked acts, violence surrounds us. ere are a number of people who suggest that the everyday lived experience of (western) society is predicated on and requires persistent and widespread violence. In this course we will look at the growing study and engagement with peace as both a vision for the future and a means to achieve it: a means and an end. rough engagement with varied theoretical, personal and activist approaches to peace and con ict (from conservative and religious through to radical perspectives), we will consider strategies adopted for both the prevention of violent con ict, and its transformation, ranging from the interpersonal through to the international levels. rough critical engagement with a number of case studies, exploring both historical and contemporary con icts, alongside individual actions, that draw on these theoretical insights, we will collectively discuss the dynamics of peace-based approaches to con ict and change. is will help to foster practical understandings and mutual respect in working through the challenges and practicalities of current approaches to con ict transformation.

Assessment Summary
Assessment 1 2 3 4 5 6 Participation Short Commentary Essay/dialogue plan Essay/dialogue Final exam Format active engagement in discussion Presentation writing task writing task writing task formal exam Length n/a max 15 minutes (see notes) 750 words 200 words + 1500 words see notes January 24 February 28 April 4 Exam period Due Date weekly Weighting 15% (see notes) 10% 15% 10% 30% 20%

ere is no set textbook for this course. Scheduled readings are listed in this outline and included in the courseware available at Titles.

PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010)

page 2 of 12

Courseware & Other Resources
Required readings for each week are listed in this outline and included in the courseware. ese readings are complementary to the lecture material presented and essential for your active participation in tutorials a requirement of this course. You are responsible to ensure you have either an understanding of the week’s reading materials, or questions based on these to help gain an understanding of these before class. I have not set a required text for this course. A number of texts receive repeated reference, and would provide worthy resources for those of you continuing with Peace Studies: David P. Barash (2010) Approaches to Peace – a reader in peace studies, Second Edition, New York: Oxford University Press. [Also First Edition, 2000] Robert L. Holmes & Barry L. Gan (2005) Nonviolence in eory and Practice, Illinois: Waveland Press, 2nd edition. Krishna Mallick & Doris Hunter (2002) An Antholog y of Nonviolence – historical and contemporary voices, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. It is recommended that you keep abreast of current events for in-class discussion. Alternate news sources that are available online include: Al Jazeera, CBC Radio 1, Democracy Now! (news and radio show/podcast), Independent Media Centre/Media Coop, Mother Jones (nonpro t news organization), e Guardian (UK newspaper), Green Le Weekly (Australian/ internationalist), New York Times, etc.

As a starting point for research, the following journals are available online or via the library: e Journal of Peace Research, e Online Journal of Peace and Con ict Studies (OJPCR), Peace and Change – a Journal of Peace Research, and Peace and Con ict Studies Journal. An extensive list is available at h p:// journals.php

Learning Outcomes
PS 1A03 will engage you in a pre gurative learning environment one that encompasses the values we are studying in both its direct experience and for learning in itself. At completion, you will possess an understanding of the key concepts of peace studies and a broad knowledge of different perspectives on peace and con ict and the effectiveness of these in day-to-day, interpersonal, and international con ict transformation and the projection of peace. ese learning outcomes include: - To evaluate and engage the concepts of peace and con ict.

PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010)

page 3 of 12

- To consider, experience and re ect on the basis of con ict and the challenges of working within peace-based frameworks. - To address, personally and in groups, issues that require a ention currently and in the future, that affect the embrace of peace-based relations. - Self-growth through personal engagement and lived experiences of peace based relations. - To improve writing, inter-personal (group) relations and public speaking skills. Group work and group processes will foster the development of valuable collaborative skills that will assist you in becoming more effective communicators.

Each week we will be looking at a number of set readings. ese will complement the lecture material, including real-world examples introduced. As there are tutorials before and a er the lecture times each week, the material covered in tutorials will be for the preceding week’s lecture: i.e. the readings listed in week 2 are discussed in the week 3 tutorial, and so on. Week 1. Course overview & Introduction (January 3) is week we start with an overview of the course structure and material. We also introduce ourselves. We o en hear references to peace, yet what does it actually mean? Is there a universal or popularly adopted de nition of peace? Why study Peace? Readings Erich Fromm (1984), On disobedience and other essays, London: Routledge. pp. 133-48 (Chapter 10: On the eory and Strategy of Peace). David P. Barash (1991), Introduction to Peace Studies, California: Wadsworth Publishing. pp. 5-12 & 25-29. Week 2. Bases of inter-personal con ict (January 10) What are the causes of person-to-person (social) con ict? In what unmarked ways are our lived experiences shaped by the presence of patriarchy/sexism, racism, heteronormativity, relations to difference and constructed hierarchies more broadly? We will have a very brief lecture, followed by a screening of Phillip Noyce’s (2002) Rabbit Proof Fence. e lm address key issues about
PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010) page 4 of 12

PS 1A03 Pedagogy
is course is run a bit differently to other subjects you may be taking. Please read the subject outline carefully rather than assuming things are like other classes. e penalty for less than 80% a endance is unusual. Please check it.

- Be prepared for group activities. In PS 1A03, the aim is to encourage you to learn through direct participation in discussions and group activities. By coming to class prepared to discuss set readings, lecture material and current events, you will contribute to and participate in a rich and at times challenging learning environment. is will both assist you and your fellow students.

Australia’s recent past (and present), that directly parallels events in Canada. **Please ensure you arrive to class on time. Required readings: Johan Galtung (1996), Peace by peaceful means: peace and con ict, development and civilization, London: Sage Publications. pp. 40-48 (Chapter 3) Sura Hart (2004), ‘Creating a culture of peace with nonviolent communication’, in Riane Eisler and Rod Miller (eds), Educating for a culture of p e a c e , Po r t s m o u t h , N H : He i n e m a n n . pp. 113-125.

Antholog y of Nonviolence – historical and contemporary voices, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 153-167 Anthony Browne (2001) 'You eat cows and pigs, so why can't we eat whales?’, e Guardian, Sunday 24 June, h p:// environment/2001/jun/24/ whaling.observerfocus Week 4. Foundations for peace (January 24) What are the cornerstones of peace? Is there a diversity or disparity of views on what these cornerstones are? How can we work towards implementing these? Required readings: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations David P. Barash (2010) ‘Human Rights’, in David P. Barash (ed) Approaches to Peace – a reader in peace studies, Second Edition, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 176-185. Henr y Dav id oreau (2002) ‘Civ il Disobedience’, in Krishna Mallick & Doris Hunter (Eds) An Anthology of Nonviolence – historical and contemporary voices, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 51-65. **Commentaries are due at the start of the Monday lecture time. Week 5. Differing approaches to peace and con ict (January 31) What are the implications of differing personal/ political perspectives in the world (and within countries)? How do these perspectives shape understandings of peace and con ict? Required readings: Be y Reardon (2010) ‘Sexism and the War System’, in David P. Barash (ed) Approaches to
PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010) page 5 of 12

Week 3. Bases of international con ict (January 17) Where can we locate the bases of international con ict? What are the effects of colonialism, Nationalism, capitalism and sovereignty? Required readings: Lila Abu-Lughod (2002), ‘Do Muslim Women R ea l ly Need Sav i ng ? A nt h ro pol og i c a l Re ections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others’, American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3. pp. 783-790. Peter Singer (2002) ‘Speciesism Today’, in Krishna Mallick & Doris Hunter (Eds) An

Peace – a reader in peace studies, Second Edition, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 259-66. Jasmina Tesanovic (pp. 80-86), eresa Hitchens (pp. 88-90) & Arundhati Roy (pp. 90-97), in Daniela Gioseffi (2003), Women on War: an International anthology of women writer’s om antiquity to the present, New York: Feminist Press at City University of New York. Brian Martin (1999), ‘Nonviolence Versus Capitalism’, Gandhi Marg, Vol. 21, No. 3, October-December. pp. 283-312. Week 6. Religious/cultural/ethical perspectives on peace (February 7) In what ways do differing religious perspectives shape approaches to peace and con ict? What are the commonalities and differences underlying and embodied in these approaches? Required readings: Aldo Leopold (2010) ‘ e Land Ethic’, in David P. Barash (ed) Approaches to Peace – a reader in peace studies, Second Edition, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 148-155. Robert C. Johansen (1997), ‘Radical Islam and Nonviolence: a case study of religious empowerment and constraint among Pushtans,’ in Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 34, No. 1. pp. 53-71. Week 7. Nonviolence (February 14) What is nonviolence? Like Peace, we o en hear references to nonviolence, yet what does it actually mean? Is there a universal or popularly adopted de nition of nonviolence? Required Readings: A. Paul Hare (1968), ‘Introduction to the theories of non-violence’, in A. Paul Hare and Herbert H. Blumberg (eds.) Nonviolent direct action – American cases, social- psychological analysis, Washington, D.C.: Corpus Books. pp. 3-30.

Karen Beckwith (2002), ‘Women, Gender, and Nonviolence in Political Movements’, PS: Political Science & Politics, Vol. 35, No. 1. pp. 75-81. **Essay/dialogue plan are due at the start of the Monday lecture time. ** Mid-term recess Monday February 21st-26th. Week 8. Grassroots approaches to con ict I (February 28) Grassroots actions for peace and justice receive regular media a ention. How does the basis for such actions differ to that of governmental and (international) non-governmental organizations? How do such approaches differ between the north and south? How do they differ between industrialized countries? How do they differ within industrialized countries? Required reading: Jeff Conant (2010) A Poetics of Resistance: the Revolutionary Public Relations of the Zapatista Insurgency, Oakland: AK Press. pp. 23-8, 39-47. Alex Khasnabish (2010) Zapatistas: rebellion om the grassroots to the global, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing. Chapter 4 (‘“a world made of many wo r l d s ” : t h e t rans nat i o na l i m pac t o f Zapatismo’) pp. 164-198; and Conclusion (‘to open a crack in history’) pp. 199-204. Week 9. Grass-roots approaches to con ict II (March 7) is week we look at the evolution of a a local dispute, focussing on the community campaign: the outcomes of which continue to shape the city and the province. Required reading: Jane Mulkewich and Richard Oddie (2009) ‘Contesting Development, Democracy, and Justice in the Red Hill Valley’ in Laurie E.
PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010) page 6 of 12

Adkin. (ed) Environmental con ict and democracy in Canada, Vancouver: UBC Press. pp. 243-261. Friends of Red Hill Valley website h p://

Week 10. State approaches to con ict: the United Nations, Peace Keeping and NGO’s (March 14) How are governmental and international nongovernmental organizations approaching con ict? Is there a role for economic sanctions, or do they hurt those already suffering? Is there a role for UN Peacekeepers? Is there a place for pragmatism? Are ‘best intentions’ adequate? Required readings: Lori Buck, Nicole Gallant & Kim Richard Nossal (1998), ‘Sanctions as a gendered instrument of statecra : the case of Iraq’, Review of International Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1. pp. 69–84. Elizabeth Boardman (2005), Taking A Stand: a guide to Peace Teams and accompaniment projects, Gabriola Island: New Society. pp. 5-14. Week 11. Con ict transformation (March 21) How can we embrace, work with and transform con icts in a peaceful manner? How can we, as individuals, be the change we want to see in the world in our interpersonal communications? Required readings: Paulo Freire (2010) ‘ e Pedagogy of the Oppressed’, in David P. Barash (ed) Approaches to Peace – a reader in peace studies, Second Edition, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 160-166. Dudley Weeks (2002) ‘ e eight essential steps to con ict resolution’, in Krishna Mallick & Doris Hunter (Eds) An Anthology of Nonviolence – historical and contemporary voices, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 231-244.

Week 12. Post 911/new challenges to peace (March 28) What happened on September 11 changed many things including how people viewed the potential of and for peace in the world. Some refer to this atrocity as bringing the realities of western acts of aggression into full view, this time with us (as opposed to them) as the victims. What are the potentials for peace post 911? How can we work towards positive change? Required readings: bell hooks (2004), e Will to Change: Men, Masculinity and Love, New York: Washington Square Press. pp. 17-33. Stanley Hauerwas (2002), ‘September 11, 2001: A Paci st Response’, e South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 101, No. 2: pp. 425-433. Brian Martin (1992), ‘Science for Nonviolent Struggle’, Science and Public Policy, Vol. 19, No. 1: pp. 55-58. Week 13. Wrap-up (April 4) We re ect on the range of material covered, drawing the threads together **Essay/dialogue due at the start of the Monday lecture time.

PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010)

page 7 of 12

Requirements and assessment tasks
Assessment and submission - You are not required to pass every component of assessment to pass the subject. - Penalty for late submission of work: 10 marks per day out of 100. e subject coordinator reserves the right to hold an additional oral examination for any piece of assessment. Participation: You will not receive participation marks for merely turning up. You will be graded on your active participation in class discussions and how this re ects your knowledge of the readings. If you have questions about the reading materials, this is the best environment in which to discuss them.

A endance A endance at class is a key requirement of this course. Non-a endance will signi cantly impact on what you can learn from this course. By not participating, you also detract from the ability of others to learn with you. A endance will be recorded in lectures and tutorials. If you miss more than 2 tutorials, marks will be subtracted from your nal mark, as follows: - 0, 1 or 2 absences: no penalty - 3 absences: 3% subtracted - 4 absences: 6% subtracted - 5+ absences: 9%+ subtracted For example, if your mark is 75% but you missed 4 classes, your nal mark will be 75% - 6% = 69%. If you are present for only part of a class, that counts as fractional a endance. For example, 2.5 absences leads to a 2% penalty. If you will not be able to a end a class, you should contact me in advance. As part of a group of 3-4, you will be responsible for leading a 12-15  minute presentation and subsequent discussion of a week’s reading material. Groups will be assigned in Week 4, with a maximum of eight groups. e task of the presentation is not to summarize the reading materials, rather to engage and critically re ect on them with regard to one, or more, speci c case studies. You will be graded both on your understandings of the material, how you present, and your ability to facilitate a peaceful and respectful discussion. You will be required to submit a one-page bibliography. If you do not submit a bibliography, you will lose 5 of a possible 15 marks for this assignment.
PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010) page 8 of 12

Short (Tutorial Presentation) Due date: various Weighting: 10% Length: 12-15 minutes

e rest of the class will demonstrate their critical re ection on the reading materials in their comments and this will shape their participation grade.

Write a 700-word commentary which links course material and readings to the themes and subject of the case study. Consult your TA regarding your choice of case study, biography/autobiography or lm. Essay or dialogue plan Due date: At start of lecture, February 28 Weighting: 10% Length: 200 words + is task has two parts.
1. Write a 200 word outline for your essay or dialogue. Introduce and outline your proposed case study and how it relates to the study of peace and/or con ict transformation. 2. Write an annotated bibliography detailing four sources.

If you have chosen to write the dialogue, you will need to include the participants (see details under ‘Essay of Dialogue’ below), the topic of the discussion and the perspectives of each of the participants within the outline. Commentary: Due date: At start of the lecture, January 24. Weighting: 15% Length: 750 words For this assignment, you have a choice from the following:
1. Re ect on the actions of residents, a community group, or others involved in action over an issue. 2. Re ect on the strategies and actions of a public interest group. 3. Review a biography or autobiography of a prominent peacemaker/activist. 4. Review a lm that critically engages with, comments on, or showcases peace, war or non-violence.

Submission of this assessment task is mandatory. Failure to do so will lead to a grade of zero for both the proposal and the essay. You will resubmit this plan with your essay/ dialogue. If you wish to change your case study and focus before writing your essay/dialogue, you must consult with your TA. Essay or Dialogue Due date: At start of the Lecture, April 4 Weighting: 30% Length: 1500 words Write a 1500-word essay or dialogue about your case study and how it relates to the study of
PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010) page 9 of 12

peace and/or con ict transformation. e case study can be a speci c con ict (eg. the US cou nter / i nsu rgen c y i n Iraq , t h e G 2 0 demonstrations in Toronto, protests against the Vancouver Olympics), or a more generalized problem of violence in society (domestic violence against women). Engage with the s u b j e c t a n d (a ny) m e a n s o f c o n i c t transformation. If you have chosen to write a dialogue, the people involved can be ctional or real, dead or alive, but should not be staff or students at the university (including yourself). For example, the dialogue might involve Judi Bari, George W. Bush, Emma Goldman, Johan Galtung, Gandhi, Adolph Hitler, bell hooks, Naomi Klein, Osama bin Laden, Subcomandante Marcos, Shrek, Vandana Shiva, Mother eresa, V (or Evey, from V for Vende a), or Lisa Simpson. e dialogue should be as realistic as possible within the assumptions about the participants and situation. Virtually the entire body of text should be dialogue. You may add the equivalent of “stage directions” (see Shakespeare plays for examples). Each participant in the dialogue should speak from and/or advocate a speci c perspective (eg. radical, conservative, Marxist, liberal, anarchist, Quaker) to peace and con ict. e participants should not normally refer to references explicitly (with the exception of well known writers). You, as the author of the dialogue, should prov ide footnotes at appropriate places, explaining what sources the speakers might be using, drawing inspiration or ideas from. If you have chosen to write an essay, you are also required to address at least two speci c perspectives (eg. radical, conservative, Marxist, liberal, anarchist, Quaker) to peace and con ict in relation to the case study addressed.

For both the essay and dialogue, the minimum requirements are: - four different sources about the case study; and - two different sources about each of the approaches. at is a minimum of 8 different sources for this assignment. At least half of the sources used must not be listed in this course guide. You are welcome to work in a team to collect material for this assignment. For example, in a team of four, two team members could investigate the case study, means of con ict and its transformation whilst the other two team members could study two theories. It needs to be noted that you must write your own individual essay. Exam e nal exam will be composed of multiple choice and short answer questions. e entire content of the course (including videos shown during class) is examinable. Image sources
Peace ag, original source unknown. Marc Riboud. Jan Rose Kasmir, protest against the Vietnam War outside the Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia, Saturday, 21 October 21, 1967   h p:// Elisa Iannacone, As leaders of the G20 nations gathered in Toronto, Canada, protesters took to the streets [caption]. ‘G20 summit protests in Toronto : Your pictures’, BBC News, 27 June 2010 h p:// ‘ e U.S. vs. John Lennon’ reproduced from Jürgen Fauth’s Muckworld h p:// 2007/02/14/the-us-vs-john-lennon/

PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010)

page 10 of 12

General grading criteria
e following criteria will be utilized in the assessment of all wri en work and will guide the assessment of all other assignments. Excellent (A+, A, A-) (100% - 80%) oughtfully develops interesting and original ideas; secondary material and course readings are used intelligently and not as a substitute for the learner’s own thinking; clear indication of conceptual understanding; originality, creativity and enthusiasm; solid organization; convincing/ well supported statements; virtually free of errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation; uses the conventions of scholarly documentation correctly. Very Good to Good (B+, B, B-) (79% – 70%) Competent/accurate treatment of its topic; well wri en with a clear purpose; may demonstrate weaker conceptual understanding; may lean uncritically on secondary sources; organization is clear and sentences are comprehensible; few errors in grammar and spelling; follows conventions of scholarly documentation. Good to Fair (C+, C, C-) (69% - 60%) Lack of clarity; trivial/underdeveloped purpose/thesis and/or arguments; considerable summary and paraphrase, with only occasional analytical commentary; may be characterized by conceptual and research inaccuracies; may rely exclusively on secondary sources; organization is disjointed; some sentences may be convoluted and incomprehensible; mistakes in grammar, spelling and punctuation; carelessness with scholarly documentation. Problematic (D+, D, D-) (59% - 50%) Serious inaccuracies or inconsistencies; minimal grasp of topic; sources are o en misused or misinterpreted; expresses opinion, but does not support effectively; lacks coherence/clarity; has errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation. Failures (F) (49% - 0%) Total misunderstanding; disorganization; considerable grammatical errors; unscholarly presentation. ( is grade is also given for plagiarism/other academic integrity issues)

Your notes:

PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010)

page 11 of 12

Course Policies
Submi ed work
Assignments must be submi ed by due dates. Late submissions will be penalized by 5% of their .value per day (including weekends) unless an extension has been granted by the instructor (only the course instructor may grant extensions). Extension requests will only be granted if appropriate documentation is provided (e.g. a doctor’s note). Late assignments will receive a grade, but No,additional comments. e instructor cannot accept/grade work a er the end of term. Under rare circumstances learners who were not able to complete their work during the regular term may apply for an extension by submi ing an application to the Undergraduate Reviewing Commi ee before the end of term (see h p:// forms/DeferredTermWork.pdf). e instructor and TA are not responsible for any misplaced assignments – always keep an extra copy of your work. Assignments not submi ed in class may be dropped off in the box outside of TSH 313 (the Interdisciplinar y Studies Office). Do not slip assignments under the instructor’s or TA’s doors – these will not be accepted. Electronic/email copies of assignments will not be accepted.

Statement on Academic Integrity:
You are expected to exhibit honesty and use ethical behaviour in all aspects of the learning process. Academic credentials you earn are rooted in principles of honesty and academic integrity. Academic dishonesty is to knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage. is behaviour can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: "Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty"), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university. It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the various types of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy, located at h p:// e following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty: - Plagiarism, e.g. the submission of work that is not one's own or for which other credit has been obtained. - Improper collaboration in group work.

Group Work Participation:
It is an issue of academic integrity, closely allied to plagiarism and cheating, to be a “free-loader” in group worm and activities. “Free-loading” is providing less than an equal contribution to the work and decision-making of the group, i.e. bene ting in marks from work done by other members of the group in an unjust way. To contribute, each learner needs to be present and contribute during all group meetings and activities. Participation will be peer monitored and absences may result in a reduction in the grade awarded an individual for group work (amount to be determined on a case-bycase basis). Multiple absences may be taken as negating membership in one’s group. Failure to effectively contribute to the group work may also result in a reduction of the overall participation grade awarded. In order to ensure the Small Groups work effectively, group members must maintain open communication with the instructor and teaching assistant regarding their group’s dynamics. Please inform the instructor of any con icts or cases of uneven workload distribution as soon as possible.

- Copying or using unauthorized aids in tests and examination. All assignments will be evaluated to ensure academic integrity. Academic dishonesty will be treated as a very serious ma er in this course and all cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Office of Academic Integrity.

Email Communication Policy
e course instructor will only open emails sent from McMaster email addresses. Emails sent from any other email provider (e.g. Hotmail, Gmail, Yahoo) will not be opened and will be deleted immediately. is policy protects con dentiality and con rms your identity.

Assisted Learning
e Centre for Student Development is always available to help students with different learning needs (MUSC B-107; Ext 24711; h p:// If you require special arrangements, you should talk to the course instructor as soon as possible.

PS 1A03: Introduction to Peace Studies (Winter 2010)

page 12 of 12

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful