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Electronics & Communication Engineering
SRI GANGANAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRI GANGANAGAR Submitted To: Submitted By:
Mr. Deepak Batra
HOD & in charge PTS ECE Department
SEM: - -7th SEM Roll no. Branch: ECE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
WIRELESS AND TELECOMMUNICATION
CONTENTS 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Abstract Introduction Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Maintenance of networks Mobile number portability BSNL subscribers Telephony system Wireless system Cellular technology Circuit switching Packet switching BTS in mobile communication Generation of wireless technology Information security model Important reviews of wireless system Mobility management Conclusion
This report has benefited from review by a number of people, who gave generously of their time and expertise. The following people review all or a large part of the manuscript: Mr. M.Seth, Mr.S.K.Mahto, general manager of Sikkim circle. Thanks also to the above many people who provided detailed technical reviews of different topics. Finally, I would also like to thank the many people responsible for providing the information regarding the different aspects of the working of the BSNL for the north eastern zone. This includes the staff of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Gangtok and also including the BSNL¶s Sikkim circle general manager S.K.Mahto for letting me complete my training and proving with all the information required. I am also very thankful to my friends for providing me with required knowledge and material for the completion of this report.
This report documents the work carried out by me on the basis of the training obtained from Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited (BSNL) GANGTOK, SIKKIM. This report basically focuses on the implementation of wireless network and systems in use today and new technologies and developments to be coming in near future. The cellular revolution is apparent in the growth of the mobile phones. Recently, it had been the telephones. The invention allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric characters encoded in an analog signal. The newer generation devices with access to the internet built-in digital cameras add to this momentum. Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on satellite communications, wireless networks and cellular technology. Communication satellites were first launched in the 1960s. Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits. Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries. The most recent topic prevailing in today¶s scenario is the development of the robust coding of video content for 4G applications. An investigation, comparison, and evaluation of methods how to send short video messages (video postcards) using a 3G and 4G systems, using a mobile terminal such as a cell phone will be carried out. Submitted by: Uma Agarwal Submitted to: Deepak Batra
The two most important trends in today¶s telecommunications industry are the significant developments of cellular networks and the rapid rise of the use of the Internet. BSNL has met the demands of the rising population and had introduced technologies beyond the limits of the costumers.Introduction Modern Telecommunications network plays a key role in today's world and are required to be continuously operated even in the most adverse conditions. The rise of mobility and data-oriented applications are fundamentally changing the environment of the telecommunications network. Future telecommunications infrastructures will be heavily based on the Internet Protocol and would be packet switched. The Engineering Electrical Services in the buildings housing modern telecommunications network must perform to an exceptional degree of reliability so as to ensure that there are no breakdowns in the telecommunications system. . Voice will maintain to be an important application. Accordingly. Electrical Divisions came into existence in the erstwhile P&T department in 1963 to cater to the need for undertaking infrastructure electrical and mechanical works in house rather than sourcing it from CPWD as per earlier practice. the Electrical unit has become part of BSNL. but its leading position will be weakened in future networks. With bifurcation of P&T. studies are now being carried out to develop the fourth generation of mobile system. An explosive growth is expected in mobile communications over the next decade with higher speeds and larger capacities than provided by third-generation communications mobile systems. which must be made possible in order to meet the requirements for faster speeds and more diverse usage formats. the Electrical unit remained with DOT and with the Corporatization.
has 55. 52 Million GSM Capacity. expanding the network. it has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity. is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line. BSNL is numerous operator of India in all services in its license area. VoIP services. 287 Satellite Stations.140. GSM Mobile. with 35. The company offers wide ranging & most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. more than 38302 fixed exchanges.Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. it is one of the largest & leading public sector units in India.21 million Basic Phone subscribers i. CDMA mobile. Carrier service. 7330 cities/towns and 25. 8 mill2ion WLL capacity. In basic services. Broadband. IN Services etc. making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. 50430 R km of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts.282 2G cellular customers and 88.11. Today. Cell One. 85 per cent share2 of the subscriber .6 lakhs villages.e. BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals. 614755 Rk2m of OFC Cable. 3895 Node B ( 3G BTS). BSNL is the only service provider. VSAT. Presently. 46565 BTS.2009.493 3G customers as on 30. BSNL cellular service. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. MPLS-VPN. Internet.
Account less Internet (CLI). 390 million (US $ 2. multiprotocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice.99. Keeping pace with this transformation. . 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.5 million WLL subscribers and 2.37 billion). DIAS. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. It has now become the key to economic progress and prosperity in the country. BSNL has more than 2. BSNL has consistently up-graded its operations to state-of-the-art service offerings. Video streaming applications have become a reality for them. The company has vast experience in Planning.26 billion) for last financial year.6 million Data One broadband customers. Telecommunications is no longer a plain vanilla voice service. At present there are 0. A slew of technological game changers like highspeed broadband and 3G mobile services have well and truly established BSNL as a strong market force. network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. Dial-up.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz. 000 million (US $ 14. our customers will have high speed data. data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs. Scaling new heights of success. video calls and many more Value Added Services.base and 92 percent share in revenue terms.351. With 3G. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit. Leased Line. We are continuously striving to offer more and more innovative value added services to our customers with a view to make the life of BSNL customers simpler and at the same time more meaningful. BSNL has been adjudged as the N2UMBER ONE ISP in the country. Installation.630.
Backbone infrastructure is being created by us to provide broadband connectivity to Village Panchayats. 35. We believe in inclusive growth of the economy which can be accelerated by reaching to rural masses. is certainly on a financial ground that's sound.BSNL has been instrumental in unleashing growth and prosperity in rural areas through wireless broadband. authorized equity capital of Rs. 88. 5. y No. Post Offices. Electrical System y Two independent feeders supply from electrical supply company.634 crores (US$ 17. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. The Company has a net worth of Rs.000 crores (US $ 1. issue of birth certificates.03 billion) in 2008-09.98 billion) and Revenues is Rs.96 billion).812 crores (US $ 7. Schools and Universities and Common Service Centre¶s being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas. y Vacuum Circuit Breaker for 11 kV systems with numerical relays for 112 kV and electronic release for 415 volts. vehicle registration etc. 11 kV/ 433 volt Transformer of 1000 KVA capacity.000 crores (US $ 0. Provision of high speed broadband connectivity at Common Service Centers in rural areas has facilitated the common man in various ways such as payment of utility bills.40 billion). the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation. BSNL is also lending a helping hand to the State Governments in endeavors associated with e-Governance projects. verification of land records. 10. . Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs.
12 passenger capacity Elevators up to 9th floor and 2 Nos. 66% and 100%. . D. substation. Monitoring of addressable Fire Detection system for building and various equipment rooms.G.12 passengers up to 6th floor and 2000kg capacity freight Elevators form basement to 9th floor. Special provision of occupancy based sensors in Board room. CMD. Monitoring and control of Electrical Equipments like Airconditioning system. y y y y y y CCTV monitoring and recording inside & outside the building with digital DVR¶s. Monitoring of condition based periodical maintenance of equipments installed Emergency Public address system with talk back. Elevators sets. 480 KVA UPS backup for emergency lighting at critical locations and computers and monitoring services Provisions of electrical risers by sandwiched insulated compact bus risers.. sets. and Directors areas. Energy efficient Luminaries with time based control of 33%. DG set of 1000 KVA capacity each with AMF feature for standby supply. fire fighting system pumps etc. Building Management System y Electronic Access control cards attendance system on each floor. conference hall.y y y y y 2 nos. 4 nos.
These assets have been growing at 20 percent annually. The group is also instrumental in introducing new technologies towards better supply of power and savings in energy. Maintenance of the electrical assets is budgeted at four to six percent of the asset value which implies. Besides maintenance the group has also conducted energy surveys in all major exchanges.000 crores (replacement cost).Maintenance of networks Presently the EW is managing the maintenance contracts for eight states covering almost 100 percent of their urban exchanges. This accounts for almost one third of the total maintenance work in the country. TOWERS OF MANGALORE .e. Presently the EW is undertaking maintenance worth Rs 75 crores i. approximately one third of the total maintenance budget. at least Rs 225 crores worth of maintenance every year. The electrical assets are valued at over Rs 5.
Broadband connection: 3. while shifting to a different service provider provided they follow the guidelines set by TRAI. There has been cases where other peoples number has been used by some else.Mobile Number Portability (MNP) BSNL has been efficient in providing safety to its user and their privacy. To avoid these circumstances BSNL has certain norms and regulations. Telephony Subscribers (Wireless and Landline): 300. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) allows users to retain their numbers.23 million (April 2008) Land Lines: 39. Users are expected to holding the mobile number with a given provider for at least 90 days. TRAI announced the rules and regulations to be followed for the Mobile Number Portability in their draft release on 23 September 2009.42 million (March 2008) Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million (2007) Monthly Cell phone Addition: 10. before they decide to move to the other provider.51 million (January 2008) BSNL Subscribers Cell phones: 267. 40% of population by 2010.22% (March 2008) Projected tele-density: 500 million.16 million (March 2008) Tele-density: 26.47 million (Feb 2008) .
commonly handles both signaling and audio information on the same twisted pair of insulated wires: the telephone line. Government and several private players run local and long distance telephone services. Basic principles 1896 Telephone from SWEDEN A traditional landline telephone system. Fax and dial-up Internet communication. Although originally designed for voice communication. beeper. light or other device to alert the user to incoming calls.Telephony System Telephone system: The Mobile telecommunications system in India is the second largest in the world and it was thrown open to private players in the 1990s. The country is divided into multiple zones. called circles (roughly along state boundaries). the system has been adapted for data communication such as Telex. Competition has caused prices to drop and calls across India are one of the cheapest in the world. . also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS). The signaling equipment consists of a bell.
sending electrical pulses corresponding to the telephone number to the exchange. receiver (speaker) and related audio components to the line. that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook". and sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. which puts the telephone into an active (off hook) state by connecting the transmitter (microphone). This circuitry has a low resistance (less than 300 ohms) which causes DC current from the telephone exchange to flow through the line. If the called party's line is active. the calling party then presses the number buttons in a sequence corresponding to the telephone number of the called party. A rotary dial telephone employs pulse dialing. filtering. thus operating a button switch or "switch hook".) Provided the called party's line is not already active or "busy". and other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". On a modern push-button telephone. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset. The buttons are connected to a tone generator circuit that produces DTMF tones which arrive at a circuit at the exchange. These include a transmitter (microphone). and amplification.and number buttons or a rotary dial to enter a telephone number for outgoing calls. The exchange detects this current. The telephone consists of an alerting device. the exchange sends an intermittent ringing signal (about 90 volts AC in North America and UK and 60 volts in Germany) to alert the called party to an incoming call. a receiver (speaker) and other circuits for dialing. A twisted pair line is preferred as it is more effective at rejecting electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk than an untwisted pair. usually a ringer. attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line. the exchange sends a busy . (Most exchanges are still equipped to handle pulse dialing.
When the called party picks up the handset. if the called party's line is active but has call waiting installed. confirming that the called phone is now active. the exchange sends an intermittent audible tone to the called party to indicate an incoming call. When a party initiates a call to this line. but exchange circuitry can send an AC voltage down the line to activate the ringer for an incoming call. The exchange circuitry turns off the ring signal. However. the circuitry at the telephone exchange detects the absence of DC current flow and therefore "knows" that the phone is on hook with only the alerting device electrically connected to the line. and both phones are now active and connected through the exchange. The parties may now converse as long as both phones remain off hook. placing the handset back on the cradle or hook. Satellite . draws DC current through the line. The phone's ringer is connected to the line through a capacitor. they actuate a double-circuit switch hook which simultaneously disconnects the alerting device and connects the audio circuitry to the line. This constitutes a mechanism whereby the phone draws no current when it is on hook. and the ringing signal is transmitted. This. In modern telephone networks. in turn. a device which blocks the flow of DC current but permits AC current to flow. DC current ceases to flow in that line. When a party "hangs up". fiber-optic cable and digital technology are often employed in such connections. Calls to parties beyond the local exchange are carried over "trunk" lines which establish connections between exchanges. signaling the exchange to disconnect the call. When a landline phone is inactive or "on hook".signal to the calling party.
2 Call Rates Slashed: Communication rates in India fell sharply after the year 2000 when infrastructure improvements and entry of many major players made Indian Telecom a highly competitive sector. For international calls. intra circle calls are considered local calls while inter circle are considered long distance calls. you dial the area code prefixed with a zero (. Dialing System: On landlines. The country code for India is 91. Landlines are facing stiff competition from mobile telephones. Internet Users: Number of Internet users in India is the 4th largest in the world. you would dial 011-XXXX XXXX). The competition has forced the landline services to become more efficient. For long distance calls. even in high density urban areas. such as Touchtel and Tata Teleservices. Currently Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle.technology may be used for communication over very long distances Landlines: Landline service in India is primarily run by BSNL/MTNL and Reliance Infocomm though there are several other private players too. There is a conversion process underway to make all numbers in India 10 digits long. Though the number of internet users is . The landline network quality has improved and landline connections are now usually available on demand. For calling Delhi. you would dial ³00 and the country code+area code+number.
manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. the latest technology purchase must have new features. Whether it is a television. high-speed wireless. To support such a powerful system. Meanwhile. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging. the penetration level is still lower than most countries across the globe. Bluetooth and 802. or refrigerator. cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. WIRELESS SYSTEM Consumers demand more from their technology.high. cellular phone. But that is far from the limit of features. high-speed wireless connectivity. stock quotes. and even Internet access right on their phones. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary Information ² the power of a personal computer ² sits in the palm of one¶s hand. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity. .11 are examples. the most-wanted feature is better. we need pervasive. Such a system does not yet exist. With the advent of the Internet. nor will it exist in today¶s market without standardization. faster access to information. The goal is the same: long-range. Fourthgeneration wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers. typically in the tens of meters. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances.
in the 900 MHz band. Currently there are an estimated 201. with operations in only a few states. Idea cellular and BSNL/MTNL.29 million mobile phone users in India compared to 39. International roaming agreements exist between most operators and many foreign carriers. the number of mobile phone connections has crossed fixed-line connections. Recent operators also operate in the 1800 MHz band. Reliance Infocomm.These two technologies are collectively referred to as second-generation. Circuit-switching Circuit switching has been the dominant technology for both voice and data communications. There are many smaller players. The dominant players are Airtel.Cellular Technology The mobile service has seen phenomenal growth since 2000.73 million fixed line subscribers. Vodafone. India primarily follows the GSM mobile system. Most modern cellular phones are based on one of two transmission technologies: time-division multiple access (TDMA) or code-division multiple access (CDMA). In September 2004. Communication via circuit .
an end to end circuit must be established. The most common example of circuit switching is the telephone network. . Information Transfer: Information can now be transmitted from A to E. Signals may be transmitted in both directions. a channel is dedicated to the connection. Typically. For example. station A sends a request t node 4 requesting a connection to station E. Circuit disconnect: After the signal transmission has been completed.itching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. a link from A to E is a dedicated line. On each physical link. Generally. the connection is terminated. the connection is full duplex. That path is a connected sequence of links between the network nodes. usually by the action of one or more stations. Communication via circuit switching involves three phases: Circuit Establishment: Before any signal can be transmitted.
. When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network. On a packet switching network packets are still accepted. Two stations o different data rates can exchange packets.Circuit Switching Packet switching In comparison to circuit switching packet switching has greater efficiency. A packet switching network can carry out data rte conversion. since each connects to its node at its proper data rate. some calls are blocked.
BTS System .
it is generally and common associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA.BTS in Mobile Communication A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: y The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) ± comprising an MSC and associated registers. In this regard. and manages operational states of each TRX.for maintenance of the network. as well as software handling and alarm collection. It may also have equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications. spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). y The Base Station subsystem (BSS) ± comprising a BSC and several BTS. The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of base stations). The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. y The Operations support system (OSS) . a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. . Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards. A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF).
Antenna: This is also considered a part of the BTS. may be integrated with DRX. status changes. signal DSP. are done through the control function. software upgrades. . Alarm extension system: Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. Combiner: Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna.General Architecture Transceiver (TRX): Basically does transmission and reception of signals. etc. Duplexer: This is used for sending and receiving signals to/from antenna and also for sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Control function: Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA): Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna. On-the-spot configurations. Baseband receiver unit (BBxx). It allows reducing the number of antenna used. Frequency hopping. etc.
Devices with lots of pending data can have extra time with which to send it. This makes the frame setup simpler because there is no time wasted on setting up the order of transmission. is a technique for dividing the time domain up into sub channels for use by multiple devices. every device gets a timeslot in every frame.TDMA TDMA. This has side effect of wasting bandwidth and capacity on devices that have nothing to send. Each device gets a single time slot in a procession of devices on the network. one each for n devices on the network. one device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of the spectrum. During this period. each device indicates how much data it has to send. There are n timeslots in each frame. or Time Division Multiple Access. One optimization that makes TDMA much more efficient is the addition of a registration period at the beginning of the frame. This is called ETDMA (Extended TDMA) . In practice. During that particular time slot. and every other device is in the quiescent state.
at an arbitrary time. for this type of data. implemented in North America. CDMA CDMA. This is accomplished by taking each bit of the signal and multiplying it by all bits in the unique code for the phone.The mobile phone digitizes the voice data as it is received. This type of data is seen often in voice transmission. very little capacity is wasted by excessive allocation. Each mobile device has a unique and orthogonal code that is used to encode and recover the signal . and encodes the data with the unique code for that phone. it is not possible to predict the rate or amount of pending data from a particular host. the data is modulated for transmission over the bandwidth allocated for that transmission. while systems implemented in Europe and the rest of . one data bit is transformed into a sequence of bits of the same length as the code for the mobile phone.and can increase the efficiency of TDMA to ten times the capacity of the original analog cellular phone network. GENERATIONS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES First Generation Wireless Technology The first generation of wireless mobile communications was based on analog signaling. Thus. or Code Division Multiple Access. the volume of speech. The benefit of using TDMA with this optimization for network access comes when data is ³burst. Once encoded. where the rate of speech. allows every device in a cell to transmit over the entire bandwidth at all times.´ That means. Analog systems. were known as Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). Thus. and the amount of background noise are constantly varying.
The use of separate timeslots for transmission and reception simplifies the electronics in the mobile units. The most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM). The first GSM systems used a 25MHz frequency spectrum in the 900MHz band. Analog systems were primarily based on circuit-switched technology and designed for voice. CDMA . GSM systems operate in the 900MH2z and 1. using TDMA-based technology. Second Generation Wireless Technology The second generation (2G) of the wireless mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. called Personal Digital Communications (PDC). GSM systems. In addition to GSM. An estimated 248 million users now operate over GSM systems. Today. a similar technology. While GSM technology was developed in Europe. GSM technology is a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Since then.9 GHz band.8 GHz bands throughout the world with the exception of the Americas where they operate in the 1. are now operating in about 140 countries and territories around the world.the world was typically identified as variation of Total Access Communication Systems (TACS). not data. first implemented in 1991. emerged in Japan. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology was developed in North America. Each frequency is then divided using a TDMA scheme into eight time slots. FDMA is used to divide the available 25MHz of bandwidth into 124carrier frequencies of 200 kHz each. several other TDMAbased systems have been deployed worldwide and serve an estimated 89 million people worldwide.
GSM. HSCSD is one step towards 3G wideband . However. digitized segments and encodes them to identify each call. too slow for today's Internet. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) technologies. PDC and other TDMA-based mobile system providers and carriers have developed 2G+ technology that is packet-based and increases the data communication speeds to as high as 384kbps. the virtual explosion of Internet usage has had a tremendous impact on the demand for advanced wireless data communication services. CDMA systems have been implemented worldwide in about 30 countries and serve an estimated 44 million subscribers. Second Generation (2G+) Wireless Networks As stated in a previous section. As a result. the effective data rate of 2G circuit-switched wireless systems is relatively slow. These 2G+ systems are based on the following technologies: High Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD).uses spread spectrum technology to break up speech into small.
6kbps by introducing 14.mobile data networks. GPRS technology is packet-based and designed to work in parallel with the 2G GSM. This circuit-switched technology improves the data rates up to 57.4 kbps.4 kbps data coding and by aggregating 4 radio channels timeslots of 14. GPRS is an intermediate step that is designed to allow the GSM world to implement a full range of Internet services without waiting for the deployment of full-scale 3G wireless systems. PDC and TDMA systems that are used for voice communications and for table look-up to obtain .
g. EDGE technology is a standard that has been specified to enhance the throughput per timeslot for both HSCSD and GPRS. an Internet backbone or an X. whereas the enhancement of GPRS is called EGPRS. The BSS consists of Base Transceiver Stations and Base Station Controllers. in EGPRS.25 network. The Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) make up the PLMN. ftp and HTTP-based Web services. the data rate per timeslot will triple and the peak throughput. In ECSD. such as SMTP/POP-based e-mail. the maximum data rate will not increase from 64 kbps due to the restrictions in the A interface. e. Mobile handsets (MS).GPRS user profiles in the Location Register databases. but the data rate per timeslot will triple. GGSN provides the connection to external Packet Data Network (PDN). The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) receives and transmits over the air interfaces (CDMA. providing wireless voice and data . TDMA). GPRS networks consist of an IP-based Public Mobile Land Network (PLMN). GPRS uses a multiple of the 1 to 8 radio channel timeslots in the 200 kHz frequency band allocated for a carrier frequency to enable data speeds of up to 115kbps. The data is packetized and transported over Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) using an IP backbone so that mobile users can access services on the Internet. Roaming is accommodated through multiple PLMNs. and Mobile Switching Centers (MSC) for circuit-switched network access and databases. Base Station Services (BSS). SGSN and GGSN interface with the Home Location Register (HLR) to retrieve the mobile user's profiles to facilitate call completion. The enhancement of HSCSD is called ECSD. Similarly. will exceed 384 kbps. including all eight timeslots in the radio interface.
MSC accommodates the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to store the roaming subscriber information.connectivity to the mobile handsets. The 3G Wireless systems were proposed to provide voice and paging services to provide interactive multimedia including teleconferencing and internet access and variety of other services. However. and then the data is switched to the external PDN through the GGSN or to another mobile subscriber. MSC switches the voice calls to circuit-switched PLMN network such as PSTN and ISDN. . On the data side. The First generation wireless mobile communication systems were introduced in early eighties and second generations¶ systems in the late 1980s was intended primarily for transmission of voice. Hence providing broadband services would be one of the major goals of the 4G Wireless-systems. Base Station Controllers (BSC) route the data calls to the packet-switched PLMN over a Frame Relay (FR) link and the voice calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The third generation wireless systems which are just getting introduced in the world markets offer considerably higher data rates. frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or the code division multiple access (CDMA). the BSC routes the data calls to the SGSN. The initial systems used analog frequency modulation where as the second as well as the subsequent mobile systems use digital communication techniques with time division multiplexing (TDM). The reverse process happens at the destination PLMN and the destination BSS. and allow significant improvements over the 2G systems. these systems offer wide area network (WAN) coverage of 384 kbps peak rate and limited coverage for 2 Mbps.
to the underlying logical link control.25. segmentation and multiplexing of network-layer messages to a single virtual connection. such as IP or X.The following is a brief description of each protocol layer in the GPRS network infrastructure: Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP): protocol that maps a network level protocol. Logical Link Control (LLC): a data link layer protocol for GPRS which functions similar to Link Access Protocol ± D . SNDCP also provides other functions such as compression.
. MTP3.922 Core by mapping BSSGP's service requests to the appropriate Frame Relay services. This layer assures the reliable transfer of user data across a wireless network. SCCP. BSSAP+: protocol that enables paging for voice connections from MSC via SGSN. thus optimizing paging for mobile subscribers. BSS2AP+ is also responsible for location and routing updates as well as mobile station alerting. Network Service: protocol that manages the convergence sublayer that operates between BSSGP and the Frame Relay Q. GTP operates on top of TCP/UDP over IP.922 core protocol as its transport mechanism. authentication. GP2RS Tunnel Protocol (GTP): protocol that tunnels the protocol data units through the IP backbone by adding routing information. GPR2S Mobility Management (GMM/SM): protocol that operates in the signaling plane of GPRS handles mobility issues such as roaming.(LAPD). BSSGP uses the Frame Relay Q. Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP): processes routing and quality of service (QoS) information for the BSS. MTP2 are protocols used to support Mobile Application Part (MAP) and BSSAP+ in circuit switched PLMNs Mobile Application Part (MAP): supports signaling between SGSN/GGSN and HLR/AuC/EIR. selection of encryption algorithms and maintains PDP context.
and a circuitswitched domain. RNC replaces the Base Station Controller. which is also part of the core network. 3G wireless networks consist of a Radio Access Network (RAN) and a core network. known as Node B and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs). into one umbrella.Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks 3G wireless technology represents the convergence of various 2G wireless telecommunications systems into a single global system that includes both terrestrial and satellite components. CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces. RAN functionality is independent from the core network functionality. such as CDMA. which provide the same functionality that they provide in a GPRS system. the North American TDMA standard. which includes 3G SGSNs and GGSNs. The second radio interface is CDMA2000 which is backward compatible with the second generation CDMA IS-95 standard predominantly used in US. Universal Wireless Communications ± UWC-136. was proposed by the TIA and designed to comply with ANSI136. which includes 3G MSC for switching of voice calls. also called IS-136HS. The third radio interface. The Radio Access Network consists of new network elements. It provides . One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies is its ability to unify existing cellular standards. Charging for services and access is done through the Charging Gateway Function (CGF). The core network consists of a packet-switched domain. and TDMA. Node B is comparable to the Base Transceiver Station in 2G wireless networks. GSM. The following three interfaces modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA.
The IU interface is split into 2 parts: circuit switched and packet-switched. Iur and IU interfaces based on ATM as a layer 2 switching technology. handover control and support for the connections to circuit-switched and packet-switched domains. In contrast. The IU interface is based on ATM with voice traffic embedded on virtual circuits using AAL technology and IP-over-ATM for data traffic using AAL5 technology. there is no similar mandate in North America and it is more likely that competition will drive the deployment of 3G wireless technology in that region. Voice is embedded into ATM from the edge of the network (Node B) and is transported over ATM out of the RNC. . Nextel Communications has announced that it will be deploying 3G wireless services in North America during the fourth quarter of 2000. Data services run from the terminal device over IP. which in turn uses ATM as a reliable transport with QoS. For example. These traffic types are switched independently to either 3G SGSN for data or 3G MSC for voice. The interconnection of the network elements in RAN and between RAN and core network is over Iub.the radio resource management. Evolution of 3G technology Initial coverage NTT Docomo is deploying 3G wireless services in Japan in the third quarter of 2000.
Compatibility and interworking between the new 3G wireless systems and the old legacy networks must be achieved in order to ensure the acceptance of new 3G wireless phones by service providers and end-users.The existence of legacy networks in most regions of the world highlights the challenge that communications equipment manufacturers face when implementing next generation wireless phone. .
this traditional technology is inefficient for the delivery of multimedia services. If an ATM network is chosen. MSC evolution depends on the selection of a fixed network to carry the requested services. RNSAP and NBAP.5 to 5 GHz) are different for 3G wireless technology compared to 2G/2G+ wireless technology. Towards this end. the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG) is working closely with 3G Partnership Projects (3GPP and 3GPP2) to come up with global standards for 3G wireless protocols. . IP technology is used end-to-end for multimedia applications and ATM technology is used to provide reliable transport with QoS. The core switches for nextgeneration of mobile networks will be based on packet-switched technology which is better suited for data and multimedia services.The existing core technology used in mobile networks is based on traditional circuit-switched technology for delivery of voice services. ATM protocols need to be incorporated to transport the services. global roaming requires compatibility to existing deployment and graceful fallback to an available level when requested services are not available in the region. The BSC may evolve into an RNC by using add-on cards or additional hardware that is co-located. then ATM protocols will have to be supported in 3G MSC along with interworking between ATM and existing PSTN/ISDN networks. Evolution of BSC to RNC requires support for new protocols such as PDCP. However. Finally. BTS' evolution into Node B may prove to be difficult and may represent significant capital expenditure on the part of network operators. The carrier frequency (5 MHz) and the bands (2. RRC. RANAP. Therefore.
4G Technology The 4G technology will be able to support Interactive services like Video Conferencing (with more than 2 sites simultaneously). etc. The network security would be much tighter. All switches would be digital. The Wi-Max lobby and the people who are working with the Wi-Max technology are trying to push WiMax as the 4G wireless technology. Also the security features will be much better. The bandwidth would be much wider (100 M2Hz) and data would be transferred at much higher rates. The cost of the data transfer would be comparatively very less and global mobility would be possible.The most telling example is growth of the Internet over the last 10 years. The networks will be all IP networks based on IPv6. This concept is already beginning a revolution in wireless networking. Wireless Internet. The antennas will be much smarter and improved access technologies like OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA) will be used. More efficient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference. with instant access to the Internet from anywhere. Wi-Max can deliver up to 70 Mbps over a 50Km . At present there is no consensus among people to refer to this as the 4G wireless technology. The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. Wireless networks provide a unique twist to this product: mobility. Also QoS will improve. I do not think this is popular with the researching community.
Wi-Max does not satisfy the criteria completely. wireless providers are already moving in the direction of expanding the bandwidth of their cellular networks. or 3G. The important thing to remember here is that all the researches for 4G technology are based around OFDM. These are collectively referred to as third generation. we have to wait and see who would be the winner. Also Wi-Max technology (802. This gives more credibility to the Wi-Max lobby who would like to term Wi-Max as a 4G technology. Since there is no consensus for the time being. Unfortunately. the current cellular network does not have the available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well. As mentioned above. Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the constant stream of voice data. services. with 4G wireless technology people would like to achieve up to 1Gbps (indoors).16e or Mobile Wi-Max is being standardized. Almost all of the major cell phone networks already provide data services beyond that in standard cell phones. 802. However. Problems with the Current System After all. Cellular providers are continuing to upgrade their networks in order to meet this higher demand by switching to deferent protocols that allow for faster access speeds and more efficiently transfers. the way in which the companies are developing their networks is problematic all are currently proceeding in directions with their technology improvements. Not only is data transfer slowly ² at the speed of analog modems ² but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated efficiently for data.16d) does not support mobility very well. To overcome the mobility problem.radius. Wi-Max is also based on OFDM. .
The equipment and technology needed for 4G will be cheap. The cellular industry. The first is the nature of the service providers. Even though converters will be able to sell more services to their customers. between 4G and HDTV. An outside agent ² the national government ² must standardize on 4G as the wireless standard for the United States. that player will be at a significant disadvantage. but nobody else follows suit. A common concern is the similarity of this proposal to the forced introduction of HDTV 4G Wireless Systems 6 in the US. if a player chooses the 4G strategy. because of all of the cellular manufacturers investing in it. Some of the developers make the conversion to 4G because not all of the players have chosen 4G. it will not be enough to cover the higher costs of converting to 4G. . Therefore. which has (thus far) failed miserably. however. There are many small television broadcasters in rural areas whose cost of conversion would be as much as 15 years of revenue. the equipment will be more expensive than the second scenario. No cellular provider has incentive to move to 4G unless all providers move to 4G. There are two key differences. however. Cellular providers will market additional services to its customers.
Thus. Unfortunately. But this still does not explain the security aspect. the following entities must cooperate to create the secure wireless system: Government regulator Network infrastructure provider Wireless service provider Wireless equipment provider Wireless user (Russell 2001. The players are multi-billion dollar companies.does not have this problem. security almost always means ³information . wireless security is really a combination of wireless channel security (security of the radio transmission) and network security (security of the wired network through which the data flows). this is no easy task. a security leak exists. otherwise. In attempting to avoid security problems like those that plagued the first-generation cellular systems. An often overlooked area of financial liability for cellular providers is in the area of information security. Providers could lose money through fraudulent use of the cellular system or unauthorized disclosure of user information over the airwaves. These collectively can be referred to as ³wireless network security´ (Russell 2001. who already have enough capital. engineers must design security into any new technology it cannot be added as an after thought. Our proposal is simply choosing a direction for their growth. 172) Information Security Model Before seeking to design and implement wireless security. 173). Implementing good security requires that security be designed into every aspect of the system. one first needs to understand what this elusive concept of security really means. however. In a digital realm. In this case. continual network upgrades are part of their business plan.
security. This document. on the other hand.´ Therefore. The cube is thus split into 27 smaller cubes. we can use the information security model proposed by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (NSTISSC). the objectives of future wireless technology. Along the top edge of the cube is the three states information while the rows on the left side of the cube are the information characteristics that the security policy should provide. but rather to present the major issues of wireless security. . and the security measures needed to reach those goals. each of which must be examined for risks and solutions in any extensive security audit. The columns on the right side of the cube detail the three broad categories of security measures that can be pursued to protect the information. is not meant to contain such an audit.
Cellular phones and other handheld devices were designed to be small and mobile. Iowa State University professor Steve Russell comments that ³an RF engineer using $50 worth of readilyavailable components can build a simple short-range jammer for any of the common microwave frequencies´ (Russell 2001. Dept. U. as is available bandwidth (Russell 2001.Physical security can pose problems as well. but this also means that they are more likely than other pieces of technology to get lost or stolen. This can result in a loss of signal for users.Wireless Security Issues Wireless systems face a number of security challenges. of Commerce. This could manifest lower levels in the encryption that protects the information (NIST. . Moreover.S. one of which comes from interference. these devices often have extremely limited computing power. speed is consequently lowered. To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. Because of their size. 174). an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-ofservice attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used. Even then. As encryption is improved in the same device. 5-26). To ensure that the security features are compatible with worldwide availability. and thieves can easily conceal them. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum. possibility of interference increases. 174). Every new technology must be analyzed for security issues before it is fully implemented. To ensure that the resources and services provided to users are adequately protected against misuse or misappropriation. one must keep a careful eye on any new issues that may develop.
To ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-wide interoperability and roaming between providers. is an advanced transmission technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. This highly specific kind of noise does not cause interference with current radio frequency devices. which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices. 4G HARDWARE-Ultra Wide Band Networks Ultra Wideband technology. low powered electrical pulses that are not directed at one particular frequency but rather are spread across the entire spectrum). The secret to UWB is that it is typically detected as noise. An Ultra Wideband device works by emitting a series of short. but can be decoded by another device that recognizes UWB and can reassemble it back into a signal. or UWB. These goals will help to direct security efforts. To ensure that security features enable new µe-commerce¶ services and other advanced applications. To ensure that the implementation of security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services. it can use any part of the frequency spectrum. Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of . Since the signal is disguised as noise. especially when the system is faced with specific threats. To ensure that the level of protection to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided in contemporary fixed and mobile networks.
Smart Antennas Multiple ³smart antennas´ can be employed to help find. This means that the antenna system cannot only hear many times louder. It also uses significantly less power. but curves across the spectrum. Interference would have to spread across the spectrum uniformly to obscure the pulse. special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. UWB uses all frequencies from high to low.between 3. which is 6 times faster than today¶s wireless networks. For this reason.1to 10. On the other hand. The pulse can be called ³shaped noise´ because it is not flat.´ a smart antenna can send signals back in the same direction that they came from. tune. because of the weakness of the UWB signal. actual noise would look the same across a range of frequencies it has no shape. and turn up signal information. Nevertheless. but can also . UWB provides greater bandwidth ² as much as 60 megabits per second.6 2GHz. Since the antennas can both ³listen´ and ³talk. regular noise that may have the same frequency as the pulse itself does not cancel out the pulse. thereby passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock. since it transmit pulses instead of a continuous signal.
There are two types of smart antennas: Switched Beam Antennas (Figure 7) have fixed beams of transmission. Adaptive Array Antennas (Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. Smart antennas can thereby: Optimize available power Increase base station range and coverage Reuse available spectrum Increase bandwidth 4G will likely become a unification of different wireless n2etworks. IEEE . and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector.respond more loudly and directly as well. and maximize intended signal reception. minimize interference. including wireless LAN technologies (e.g.
meaning that one device would have to have the capability of working on different networks. and even personal are2a networks. so that human beings remain intact with the wireless technology intentionally and unintentionally. This antenna technology is used to optimize the data speed and reduce the errors in the networks. The reason why 4G makes use of this technology lies in its ability to minimize the intervention among symbols and channels associated to data streaming. Under this umbrella.5G. MAGIC of 4G Technology referred to as mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global mobility support. 4G can use both orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).11). 3G). 4G needs to support a wide range of mobile devices that can roam across different types of network.4G is also capable of using multiple input / multiple output technology (MIMO). The aim of pervasive computing is to attach itself to every living space possible.802. The network operators worldwide would be able to deploy wireless mesh networks and make use of cognitive radio technology for widespread coverage and access. 4G can greatly anticipate in evolving and advancing the pervasive computing. integrated wireless and personalized services. public cellular networks (2. Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) which is basically a . These devices would have to support different networks. Therefore 4G is be able to connect various high speed networks together. OFDM mechanism splits a digital signal into different narrowband and frequencies. which would enable each one of us to carry digital devices even in dispersed locations. One solution to this ³multi-network functional device´ is a software defined radio.
5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. 5G technology including camera. dialing speed. Another wireless telecommunication technology known as time divis2ion synchronous code division multiple accesses (TDSCDMA) provides support to 4G to transfer both circuit switched data like video and voice and packet switched data. 5G GENERATION The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. video player.broadband 3G technology is also a part of 4G. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market. MP3 recording. This broadband technology transfers data in the form of frames or packets. This technology also strikes the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. large phone memory. 5Gsystem which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. audio player and much more you never imagine. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections .
000 connections. it still can cause major problems with sensitive devices and can garble voice information to a point where it is unintelligible.5G Features 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. All of these problems contribute to a low Quality of Service (Qos). Traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. video and other information over the same hardware. IMPORTANT REVIEWS OF WIRELESS SYSTEM Packet Layer The packet layer is a layer of abstraction that separates the data being transmitted from the way that it is being transmitted. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. pictures. 5G technology also support virtual private network. Without a packet layer. Even though the loss is usually negligible. . there would need to be a separate connection on each computer for each type of information and a separate network with separate routing equipment to move that information around. The Internet relies on packets to move files.
If something happens to one of the routes that a packet is using. and other huge types of data. a destination.Packets only require that there is an origin. in the case of voice using Voice over IP (VoIP). it would read: H. a packet can carry any size of information. the device on the receiving end will know that something has gone wrong and can request that the packet(s) in question be sent again. As shown by the growth of the Internet over the past few years. any data of any size can be encoded inside of it. As long as the capacity of the transmitter is large enough.323 (Protocols. As long as a packet obeys the standard for how to start and end. or a large number of packets can be sent carrying information cut up into little pieces. They have moved from carrying short text messages to carrying video. the receiving device will know and ask for the data to be retransmitted. Error correction data is encoded in the last part of the packet. audio. and at least one route between them. An example of the format of a packet carrying 896 bits of actual information can be seen in Figure 9: The ³Protocol´ section would contain whatever information was needed to explain what type of data was encoded. so if the transmission garbles even one bit of the information. Packets are also numbered so that if one goes missing. the transmission . the routing equipment uses information in the packet to find out where it is supposed to go and gives it an alternate route accordingly.com ). the capacity of packets is expandable.
They can travel over any equipment that supports packet-based communication and They receive all of the error correction and other benefits that packets receive. Several standards already exist for VoIP. the CO will then connect to an IPv6 Internet backbone.hardware will not know the difference. One other thing that VoIP allows is slow transition from direct. However. VoIP allows for flexibility the same way that data packets do. Voice over IP (VoIP) Voice over IP is the current standard for voice communication over data networks. Backbones can be replaced. the primary one being International Multimedia Telecommunications and by several companies that has cheap long distance phone calls over the Internet. allowing old-style telephone users to connect to their central office (CO) the same way. connection based communication to VoIP communication. which will then connect to the destination CO. VoIP packets are the same as any other packet. . such as NetPhone and Go Call. as far as the network is concerned.
Modern symmetric encryption algorithms are generic and use a key to vary the algorithm. especially when used to create a symmetric key for an extended . then those parties know that the user must have generated that message. the keys are inverses. In an asymmetric (also called public key) system. Moreover. but the algorithm is the same. that party can encrypt the message using the public key. In symmetric encryption. the encryption and decryption algorithms are inverses. then he too can decrypt the messages. The problem then is the key transportation problem: How do both sides get the key without a third party intercepting it? If an unauthorized user receives the key. The trick is that one cannot infer the value of one key by using the other. the user can prove that she generated a message by encrypting it with her private key. Then all parties know the algorithm and the public key. In asymmetric encryption. where both sides agree on a system of encrypting and decrypting messages ² the reverse of the encryption algorithm is the decryption algorithm. Symmetric encryption is the more traditional form. but the key is the same. an end user makes one key public and keeps the other private. If the encrypted message makes sense to other parties when decrypted with the public key. If any party wishes to communicate with the users. and only the user (with her private key) can decrypt the message. The solution to this problem is asymmetric encryption. Asymmetric keys are useful for one-time connections. Situations exist in cellular wireless systems where either symmetric or asymmetric keys are particularly useful. Thus. two sides can settle on a specific key to use for their communications.Encryption Two encryption/decryption techniques are commonly used: asymmetric and symmetric encryption.
SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. It enabled the mobile users to make use of complex trunked radio and mobile phones.connection. An excellent example of this is the GSM system¶s subscriber information card placed into each phone.Integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) was developed by MOTOROLA.iS-136 is a second generation cellular phone system. other than the voice call or conference. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. and thus are strongly preferred if key transportation is not a problem. D-AMPS were widely popular in America and Canada. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile. The card holds a unique symmetric key for each subscriber. Docomo launched its first digital service of PDC in 1993. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. It is most . However now it is in the declining phase. as a major mobile technology. Meanwhile. iDEN has a frequency of about 25Khz. It is also known as digital AMPS. Unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. iDEN allows three or six user per mobile. in Europe. Interim standard 95 is a first and the foremost CDMA cellular technology. symmetric keys are smaller and faster. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. Although this technology originates from the Europe.
famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne. It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. The GSM is the base of this technology. It is . Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology).Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology. UMTS. GSM EDGE. DECT. core network and USIM (subscriber identity module). It transmits variety of wireless signals. It runs over a frequency of 19002Mhz. It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals and data signals from cellular phones to cell sites (cell sites is cellular network). EDGE is a 3G technology therefore it can be used for packet switched systems. It is complex network and allows for covering radio access. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM. Wi-Max and CD2MA 2000. DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute. It is a wireless technology. It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. because it can operate with older devices. Wi-Max is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access. There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. Universal mobile telecommunications systems. however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well. UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard.EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more.
OFDM.GSM accounts for 80% of total mobile phone technologies market. These cells include macro. it can connect you to hotspot.portable technology. micro. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec. This technology is based on the wireless internet access. These cells are of five different sizes.GSM offers moderate security. Micro cells cover a small geographical are such as hotels. umbrella and Pico cells. Pico cell is a wireless communication scheme. Femto cell is a small base station designed to . Pico cells also cover a small geographical area. SDR. femto. These cells are supported by powerful cellular stations or in other words tower. It allows for encryption between the end user and the service base station. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS. MIMO and Wi-MAX to the some extent. It was originated in Finland Europe. Macro cells are distributed over larger geographical areas. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia. There are over more than 3 billion users of GSM. TD-SCDMA. Macro cells are the largest cells that cover radio signals. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a 2G technology. The use of various forms of cryptographic modules is part of GSM technology. The use of GSM is possible due to the SIM (subscriber¶s identity module) GSM. GSM or global system for mobile communication is a digital cellular system. Name of the Wi-Max was developed in 2001 by Wi-Max forum.
The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas.latest mobile phones support E2-GSM. A seamless service (Ex: soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important. It is connected using DSL technology. Some countries in the world use GSM-900 or E-GSM. Mobility Management Mobility Management includes location registration. 'Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G. All 2G and 3G cell phones have GSM in them. They can instead do concatenated location registration.9G or ³Super 3G´ by some researchers. In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates up to 100Mbps when travelling at speeds up to 1200Kmph. New techniques in location management might be implemented. It¶s a 3GPP research item for Release 8. LongTerm (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology. The frequency in E-GSM is extended to about 920 to 960MHZ. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible.cater the needs of minor business area. So while you¶re traveling you can replace your SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) and still remain connected to the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication). paging and handover. which reports to . It¶s also known as 3. Each MT need not do location registration every time.
Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control: avoidance or prevention of the congestion and detection and recovery after congestion. ExMTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the train and till the network knows that they are in the train. Congestion-Control Congestion control will be other critical issues in the high performance 4G networks. A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements.the network that they are concatenated to a common object. The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management. . The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques.
Therefore. However. competition in the industry is heating up. Indeed. Unfortunately. the best way to help all parties is to enforce new technologies which are both beneficial to the company and the user and also eco-friendly. Providers are slashing prices while scrambling for the needed infrastructure to provide the latest features as incentives. significant increase in computational capacity is needed for software-based encoders. Meanwhile. and customer loyalty. often turning to various solutions. One of the key issues for the operator consists of the definition of an ³ideal´ service roadmap. . Gadgets providers want to make money in a cutthroat industry. it seems part of our culture that customers expect the highest quality and the greatest features for what they buy. using the computer¶s CPU for processing. Combining these patents into one single license fee will be quite challenging. If the government wants to help. is no exception. revenue. they will most likely be used to record and play video (and audio) on PCs. Some hardware codec¶s are currently available in the market. The cellular telephone industry. which now includes a myriad of wireless devices. Customers want the features delivered to them. this will only serve to bewilder customers in an already confusing market. The mobile operator must take advantage of the opening offered by mobile video services as a means to produce traffic.Conclusion Consumers demand that software and hardware be user-friendly and perform well. simple and straightforward. Hardware-based codec¶s will be preferred in mobile phones as they consume a smaller amount of power and are faster than software routines. but current products need to evolve in order to reduce cost and power requirements.
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