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The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

Dr A. L. Neill
BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS medicalamanda@gmail.com

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Dr A. L. Neill
BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS medicalamanda@gmail.com

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The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

Introduction

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As you can see any contribution is greatly valued and can only make this and other A to Z publications more helpful for the reader, so please send any suggestions to me directly or via Aspenpharmacare who have graciously sponsored much of A to Z projects.
Dr Amanda Neill BSc MSc MBBs PhD FACBS Director of Anatomy Anatomy @ Mac fax 93651000 mobile 0414248747 or email medicalamanda@gmail.com www.amandasatoz.com © A. L. Neill

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With the presentation of student seminas in anatomy and histology, it became obvious that some guide on how to pronounce many these terms for the new and the non-medical student was needed and so a pronunciation guide and common explanation of some terms were also included in red.

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Why such an array of vocabularly in this living document? Because of reader feedback!! This is a living document and it has been expanded with suggestions from students and colleagues alike. Already it is much changed from its first printing, due to this feedback. Initially it was only a glossary of anatomical terms, then as I took my students through Anatomy and onto Histology, they told me these terms too were also foreign to them in many cases and also caused them difficulty hence some common histological and cytological terms (by no means complete) were added. Later a commonality of terms were noted by the students who asked for an inclusion of their word roots and regular repeated prefixes and suffixes; derivations so they could build up and analyse the ANATOMY of the medical words themselves. Hence a section of common prefixes, suffixes and word roots was added to the beginning of the book with some included in the main text in blue with a pronunciation guide.

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The following is a glossary of anatomical and histological (microscopic anatomy) terms: their etymology – derivation where relavent, their word roots, prefixes, suffixes and their pronunciation. Other common medical terminology used in health studies are also included. Many of these terms will appear again and again in medical/health related subjects.

it is hoped you will use these guides and find them helpful in your studies. The A to Z of Organs and Systems and the A to Z of Emergency Medicine. Joints and Ligaments. The A to Z of Histological and anatomical images is still present on the website although yet to be turned into an A to Z book.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Acknowledgement and Future Plans This is the second update of the A to Z books now numbering 5. Neill 2 . the A to Z of Peripheral Nerves and this book the A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms. the A to Z of the Bones of the Skull. Zoe. particularly in reference to students and including common abbreviations used on most medical wards and in emergency medicine. You are always welcome to visit our website and leave your suggestions there. L. rA I thank Aspenpharmacare for their ongoing support. Jody and Mickey are my raison d’etre. including: the A to Z of Skeletal muscles. doctors and others. Students. guides to degrees diplomas and postnominals and other qualifications and an inclusion of some helpful medical memonics. The A to Z of Radiology. As always we value your input and response as to the order and the need for this works. practice or other aspects of your healthy life. Dedication Changes to the second edition ©D Changes to this volume are as follows: inclusion of additional acronyms used in medical and other related health areas. the A to Z of the skin and the A to Z of Neurology and the Nervous system are also being discussed. My family Ali. inclusion of some common Histological/Immunohistochemical stains and their uses.. Please see the back of the book for ordering details and the availability of the other titles in the series. ma nd a Ne ill © A. Quentin. A feedback form at the back of the book is designed to collate any suggestions or ideas you may have.although I may not always show them how much their support means to me. the A to Z of Bones. additional medical facts and tables and basic anatomical concepts and descriptions. the A to Z of Gynecological terms. in particular the Australian CEO Greg Lan. and the further suggestions of books such as the A to Z of Surface Anatomy.

L. Neill Ne ill . awake. = alternative Amb = ambulate AML = acute myelogenous leukaemia ANA = antinuclear antibody ANS = autonomic nervous system AOB = alcohol on breath AODM = adult onset diabetes mellitus AP = anteroposterior or abdominal perineal ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome 3 A AA ARF AS AS ASAP ASCVD ASD ASHD AST AV A-V A-VO2 ©D rA ma nd a B b/n BBB = acute renal failure = aortic stenosis = Alternative spelling. generally referring to the differences b/n British and American spelling = as soon as possible = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease = atrial septal defect = atherosclerotic heart disease = anal skin tag = atrioventricular = arteriovenous = arteriovenous oxygen = between bundle branch block /blood brain barrier BCAA = branched chain amino acids BCC = basal cell carcinoma bd/bid = twice a day BD = Bowen’s disease / twice daily BE = barium enema BEE = basal energy expenditure BF = blood flow BKA = below the knee amputation BLK = benign lichenoid keratosis / benign lymphocytic keratosis BL = basal lamina BM = bone marrow /bowel movement/basement membrane BMR = basal metabolic rate BOM = bilateral otitis media BP = blood pressure / bullous pemphigoid BPH = benign prostatic hypertrophy BPM = beats per minute BRBPR = bright red blood per rectum BRP = bathroom privileges BS = bowel sounds / breath sounds / blood stream BUN = blood urea nitrogen BV = blood vessels BW = body weight Bx = biopsy © A. Medical and Clinical Abbreviations and Acronyms in common use = amino acids / androgenic alopecia AAA = abdominal aortic aneurysm AAD = antibiotic-associated diarrhoea AAO = alert. and orientated A&O = alert & orientated Ab = antibody ABD/Abd = abdomen ABG = arterial blood gas AC = before eating ACD = acute contact dermatitis ACLS = advanced cardiac life support ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone ad libitum/ad lib = take as needed / no restrictions ADD = attention deficit disorder ADH = anti-diuretic hormone ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adj.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Anatomical. = adjective ADR = adverse drug reaction / acute dystonic reaction AED = antiepileptic drug AF = atrial fibrillation / afebrile AFB = acid-fast bacilli AFP = alpha-fetoprotein AFX = atypical fibroxanthoma A /G = albumin/globulin ratio Ag = antigen AI = aortic insufficiency AK = actinic keratosis AKA = above the knee amputation ALD = alcoholic liver disease ALL = acute lymphocytic leukaemia alt.

tissue sample) dead on arrival dyspnea on exertion diagnostic peritoneal lavage diphtheria. L.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms C c = with c. = as demonstrated / that means C&S = culture and sensitivity CA = cancer/carcinoma Ca = calcium /carcinoma CAA = crystalline amino acids CABG = coronary artery bypass graft CAD = coronary artery disease CAT (scan) = computerized axial tomography CBC = complete blood count CBG = capillary blood gas CC = chief complaint CCF = chronic cardiac failure CCU = cardiac care unit CCV = critical closing volume CF = cystic fibrosis CGL = chronic granulocytic leukaemia CHF = congestive heart failure CHO = carbohydrate chol.g. = coagulation COLD = chronic obstructive lung disease COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CONN = congenital naevus CP = chest pain/cerebral palsy CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure CPDN = compound naevus CPK = creatinine phosphokinase CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation CRCL = creatinine clearance CRF = chronic renal failure CRP = C-reactive protein CSF = Cerebrospinal fluid CSSD = chronic superficial scaling CT D ma rA ©D nd a D5W DI DIC = = = DIF DIP DH DJD DKA dL/dl DM DMS DN DNR DNS DOA DOE DPL DPT Ds DSAP DTR DVT DX Dysp = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = DA DAT DAW DC D&C DDx DF DFSP Ne ill = = = = = = = = dermatitis = connective tissue / computerized tomography CTCL = cutaneous T cell lymphoma cut. = cutaneous CUT HORN = cutaneous horn CVA = cerebrovascular accident /costovertebral angle CVAT = tenderness at the costovertebral angle CVP = central venous pressure CX = cicatrix CXR/CX= chest X-ray dermatitis artifacta diet as tolerated dispense as written discontinue /discharge dilation and curettage differential diagnosis dermatofibroma dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans 5% dextrose in water diabetes insipidus disseminated intravascular coagulopathy direct immunofluorescence distal interphalangeal joint dermatitis herpetiformis degenerative joint disease diabetic ketoacidosis decilitre diabetes mellitus dermatomyositis dermal naevus do not resuscitate did not survive processing (e. pertussis. tetanus disease disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis deep tendon reflexes deep venous thrombosis diagnosis dysplastic 4 © A.f. Neill . = cholesterol CI = cardiac index CIN = carcinoma in situ CK = creatinine kinase CML = chronic myelogenous leukaemia CMV = cytomegalovirus CN = cranial nerves / compound naevus CNH = chondrodermatits nodularis helicis CNS = central nervous system CO = cardiac output C/O = complaining of COAD = chronic obstructive airways disease coag.

Therefore Vgr = 325mg GSW = gun shot wound Gt/gtt = drops GTT = glucose tolerance test GU = genitourinary GVDH = graft versus host disease GXT = graded exercise tolerance test (Stress test) . L. 1 grain = 65mg. type III (AIDS agent. ears. and throat extraocular muscles erythrocyte sedimentation rate endotracheal endotracheal tube endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography ethanol examination under anaesthesia H H = HA = HAA = HAV = Hb = HBP = HCG = HCT = HDL = HEENT = Hg = Hgb = H/H = HIV = HK = HLA = HMF = HJR = HO = HOB = HP = HPF = HPV = HPI = HR = HS = HSM = HSP = HTLV-III = hormone headache hepatitis B surface antigen hepatitis A virus haemoglobin high blood pressure human chorionic gonadotropin hematocrit high density lipoprotein head. nose and throat haemorrage haemoglobin haemoglobin/haematocrit human immunodeficiency virus solar keratosis histocompatibility locus antigen Hutchinson’s melanotic freckle hepatojugular reflex history of head of bed high power high power field human papilloma virus history of present illness heart rate at bedtime hepatosplenomegaly herpes simplex virus human lymphotropic virus.g. HIV) = herpes simplex virus = hypertension = history Ne ill incision and drainage intake and output insect bite reaction intracellular (inside the cell) irritant contact dermatitis © A. Neill gr = grain. verbal response (Glasgow coma scale) ears. nose. faints and/or funny turns functional residual capacity failure to thrive follow-up fever of unknown origin forced vital capacity fracture granuloma annulare Gonorrhoea Grover’s disease general by endotracheal tube glomerular filtration rate growth hormone gastrointestinal gastrointestinal tract Greek gram ma HSV HTN Hx nd a I I&D I&O IBR IC ICD = = = = = essential amino acids erythema annular centrificum epidermolysis bullosa acquisita estimated blood loss extracellular (outside the cell) electrocardiogram electroconvulsive therapy erythema elevatum diutinum electroencephalogram essential fatty acid deficiency example electromyogram erythema multiforma eyes. g/gm = = = = = = = = = = 5 G rA FB FBS FDE FEV FFP FFFT FRC FTT FU FUO FVC Fx = = = = = = = = = = = = foreign body fasting blood sugar fixed drug eruption forced expiratory volume fresh frozen plasma fits. EMG EMS EMV ENT EOM ESR ET ETT ERCP = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ETOH = EUA = F ©D GA GC GD GETT GFR GH GI GIT Gk. eyes.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms E EAA EAC EBA EBL EC ECG ECT EED EEG EFAD e. motor.

rubella magnetic resonance imaging methicillin resistant staph aureus multiple sclerosis/mitral stenosis/morphine sulphate methicillin-sensitive staph aureus motor vehicle accident multivitamin injection maximum voluntary ventilation . bladder keep vein open L ©D L LAD = left = left axis deviation/left anterior descending LAE = left atrial enlargement LAHB = left anterior hemi-block LAP = left atrial pressure or leukocyte alkaline phosphatase LBBB = left bundle branch block LDH = lactate dehydrogenase LE = lupus erythematosus LIH = left inguinal hernia LK = lichinoid keratosis nd a MCTD = MCV = MI = mL/ml MLE MM MMEF Mmol MMR MRI MRSA MS MSSA MVA MVI MVV = = = = = = = = = = = = = M MAO MAP MAST MBT MCH MCHC = no active disease/ no abnormality detected NAS = no added salt NCV = nerve conduction velocity NED = no evidence of recurrent disease Ng = nanogram NG = nasogastric NIDDM = non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NKA = no known allergies NKDA = no known drug allergies NMR = nuclear magnetic resonance nocte = at night 6 N NAD © A. Neill Ne ill = = = = = = = margin (generally of the skin) monoamine oxidase mean arterial pressure medical anti-shock trousers maternal blood type mean cell haemoglobin mean cell haemoglobin concentration mixed connective tissue disease mean cell volume myocardial infarction/mitral insufficiency millilitre midline episiotomy malignanat melanoma maximal mid expiratory flow millimole measles. = = = = = left lower lobe lentigo maligna (melanoma) last menstrual period last normal menstrual period loss of consciousness/level of consciousness = lumbar puncture / lichen planus = Latin M IRBBB = IRDM = IT ITP IV/iv IVC IVP = = = = = JN = junctional naevus JODM = juvenile onset diabetes mellitus JVD = jugular venous distention K ma J rA KA KOR KP KUB KVO = = = = = keratocanthoma keep open rate keratous pilaris kidneys. L. mumps.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ICS ICU ID IDDM IEC IG/Ig IHSS IM/im IMV INF IPPB = = = = = = = = = = = intercostal space intensive care unit infectious disease/identification insulin dependent diabetes mellitus intradermal carcinoma immunoglobulin idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis intramuscular intermittent mandatory ventilation intravenous nutritional fluid intermittent positive pressure breathing incomplete right bundle branch block insulin resistant diabetes mellitus intrathecal idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura intravenous intravenous cholangiogram/inferior vena cava intravenous pyelogram LLL LMM LMP LNMP LOC LP Lt. ureters.

inflammatory drugs NS = nervous system NSR = normal sinus rhythm NT = nervous tissue / nasotracheal PMI PMN = point of maximal impulse = polymorphonuclear leukocyte (neutrophil.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms NPO = nothing by mouth /nil by mouth NRM = no regular medications NSAID = non-steroidal anti. q6h = every 6 hours) = every day = every hour q4h. Neill . L.. PMH = = = = = = = = 7 PD PDA PDR PDx PE = = = = = rA P PA PAC PAO2 PaO2 PAP PAS PAT P&PD Pb PC PCWP = = = = = = = = = = = = para posteroanterior premature atrial contraction alveolar oxygen peripheral arterial oxygen content pulmonary artery pressure periodic acid Schiff’s stain paroxysymal atrial tachycardia percussion and postural drainage prothrombin time / lead after eating pulmonary capillary wedge pressure pathological diagnosis patent ductus arteriosus physicians desk reference provisional diagnosis pulmonary embolus /physical exam / pleural effusion positive end expiratory pressure pulmonary function tests pictogram past history pulmonic insufficeny disease / pulmonary index phenylketonuria plural previous medical history ma q qd qh nd a Q R R RA RAD RAE RAP RBBB RBC RBP RBS RBT RDA RDW RIA = = = = = = = = = = = = = OB = obstetrics OCG = oral cholecystogram OD = overdose / right eye OE / O/E = on examination OM = otitis media OOB = out of bed OP = out patients . or physical therapy Pt = patient PTCA = percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty PTH = parathyroid hormone PTHC = percutanous transhepatic cholangiogram PTT = partial thromboplastin time PUD = peptic ulcer disease PUPP = puritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy PVC = premature ventricular contraction PVD = peripheral vascular disease O P ©D PEEP PFT Pg/pg PHx PI PKU pl. every 6 hours etc. every 4 hours.g. qid = four times a day QNS = quantity not sufficient Qod = every other day Qs/Qt = shunt fraction Qt = total cardiac output Ne ill right rheumatoid arthritis or right atrium right atrial axis deviation right atrial enlargement right atrial pressure right bundle branch block red blood cell retinol-binding protein random blood sugar random breath test recommended daily allowance red cell distribution width radioimmunoassay © A.. polymorph) PN = peripheral nerve PND = paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea PNS = peripheral nervous system PPD = pigmented purpuric dermatosis PR = petechial rash prn = given as required no set treatment regime PS = pulmonic stenosis PT = prothrombin time.hospital patients treated but not admitted OPV = oral polio vaccine OR = operating room OS = left eye OU = both eyes = every (e. q6h..

L. SVD Sx without sinoatrial synthetic amino acid sugar and acetone subacute bacterial endocarditis small bowel follow through short bowel syndrome spinal cord / subcutaneously subcutaneously squamous cell carcinoma serum creatinine seborraeic keratosis systolic ejection murmur Swan-Ganz (catheter) small for gestational age serum gamma. Neill S ©D rA s SA SAA S&E SBE SBFT SBS SC sc SCC SCr SEB K SEM SG SGA SGGT = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ma nd a T T&C TAH T&H TB TBG Td tds TIA TIBC Tid/td TIG TKO TLC TMJ TNTC TO TOPV TPN TSH TT TTP TU TUR TURBT TURP TV TVH Tw Tx Ne ill = = = = = = = = = = type and cross = total abdominal hysterectomy = type and hold (blood or serum products) = tuberculosis = total binding globulin = tetanus-diphtheria toxoid = three times daily = transient ischemic attack = total iron binding capacity = three times a day = tetanus immune globulin = to keep open = total lung capacity = temporo-mandibular joint = too numerous to count = telephone order = trivalent oral polio vaccine = total parenteral nutrition = thyroid stimulating hormone = thrombin time = thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura = tuberculin units / transurethral = transurethral resection = TUR bladder tumors = transurethral resection of prostate = tidal volume = total vaginal hysterectomy = twice a week = treatment. Assessment. = singular SK = solar keratosis sl = sublingual © A. transplant 8 .glutamyl transpeptidase SGOT = serum glutamic. Plan shortness of breath subcutaneous one-half /same side /signs and symptoms superficial spreading melanoma superficial spreading malignant melanoma immediately sexually transmitted disease superior superficial spontaneous vaginal delivery symptoms SSM = SSMM = STAT STD sup. supf. Objective.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms RIH RLL RLQ RML RNA R/O ROM ROS RPG RRR RT RTA RTC RU RUG RUL RUQ RV RVH Rx = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = right inguinal hernia right lower lobe right lower quadrant right middle lobe ribonucleic acid rule out range of motion review of systems retrograde pyelogram regular rate and rhythm respiratory therapy / radiation therapy renal tubular acidosis return to clinic resin uptake retrograde urethogram right upper lobe right upper quadrant residual volume right ventricular hyperthrophy treatment / regime SLE SMO SN SO SOAP SOB SQ ss = = = = = systemic lupus erythematous slips made out spinal nerve standing orders Subjective.pyruvic transaminase SIADH = syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone Sig = write on label SIMV = synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation sing.oxaloacetic transaminase SGPT = serum glutamic.

FFFTº = no fits. = whirlpool WPW = Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome) W-T-D = wet to dry W/U = workup .P.g.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms U WO = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = urinalysis uric acid /umbilical artery catheter upper airway obstruction universal blood donor ulcerative colitis /umbilical cord as directed unfractionated heparin upper gastrointestinal upper respiratory infection upper right quadrant upper respiratory tract infection ultrasound urinary tract infection urinary urea nitrogen ultraviolet A light V VA VAD VC VCT VCUG VDRL VMA VO V/Q VRE VSS VT VV VW VWD VZV = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = W rA verrica / verrucous venous access device vital capacity venous clotting time voiding cysourethrogram Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (test for syphilis) vanillymadelic acid verbal order / voice order ventilation . WOP = without pain WOS = wedge of skin W. faints or funny turns) 1º = primary 2º = secondary 9/12 = nine months 3/52 = three weeks 5/7 = five days 2/24 = two hours 3/60 = three minutes 3/360 = three seconds 3s = three seconds © A.perfusion vancomycin-resistant enterococcus vital signs stable ventricular tachycardia varicose veins vessel wall von Willebrand's disease varicella zoster virus ma Z ZDV ZE Z-ESR Zn ZnO ZSB # ~ º = = = = = = WB WBC WBR WD WF WIA WID WM WN w/n w/o WNL 9 = whole blood = white blood cell / white blood cell count = whole body radiation = well developed = white female = wounded in action = widow. crossmatch xeromammography extraocular movements X-ray therapy (radiation therapy) excessive times upper limit of normal years / yes yellow fever youngest living child years old year of birth year year to date zidovudine Zollinger-Ellison (syndrome) zeta erythrocyte sedimentation ate zinc zinc oxide zero stools since birth = written order /weeks old/ wide open. L. widower = white male = well nourished = within = without = within normal limits ©D nd a Y y YF YLC yo YOB yr ytd = = = = = = = UA UAC UAO UBD UC Ud UFH UGI URI URQ URTI US UTI UUN UVA X X2d XI XII XL XM XMM XOM XRT XS XULN = = = = = = = = = = = fracture / number = approximately = no (e. eleven twelve extended release / extra large. Neill Ne ill times 2 days.

L. . so this stain can be © A. blood vessels.com. The most commonly used method is the Ziehl-Neelsen method. glycoprotein. It is very sensitive. Kinyoun’s method a modification of which is the Fite-Faraco stain and has a weaker acid for supposedly more delicate M. . Ne ill Histology stains are a confusion of eponymous terms and methods used in individual laboratories. mucin. It does stain a lot of things and.H&E. tuberculosis. In many cases individual variations exist in different laboratories and it is advised that contact with the appropriate laboratory will give the medical professional the details they need. also one stain may be used for many purposes eg the routine stain used in all labs. Neill 10 AFB (acid fast bacilli) stain for mycobacterium rA PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) ma This is an all round stain and used on nearly every section in the histology laboratory. for example with PAS. See www. allowing an overall view of the cellular morphology. can have a high background. therefore. Those included here are those stains common to most labs and the principles behind the staining methods. as well as fungi. but not very specific. leprae bacilli. Lipid is often removed in the processing. It generally not interfere with other stains and can be used in conjunction with them. nd a More details can be found in the A to Z of Histology / Histopathology. A predigestion step with amylase will remove staining for glycogen. PAS is useful for outlining tissue structures: basement membranes. though there is also Putt’s stain.aspenatlas. It stains glycogen. capsules.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Common Histological Stains and their uses General Stains Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) ©D This an all-around useful stain for many things. Structures stained This stain uses carbol-fuchsin to stain the lipid walls of acid fast organisms such as M. etc. mucoprotein. concerning their particular specialities and variations on these common stains. The haematoxylin stains the nucleic acids and other acid material blue and the eosin acts as a counter stain to colour most other structures non-specifically red/pink. and the A to Z of the Skin and surface anatomy. There are many more and this list is by no means complete.

and eosin compounds. while using only the one stain. which is helpful in identifying these components. Chromaffin cells have cytoplasmic granules that appear brown when fixed with a dichromate solution as in the adrenal medulla and their tumours pheochromocytomas. isospora.causing a black deposit in tissue sections. Fontana-Masson. Argentaffin cells reduce a silver solution to metallic silver after formalin fixation. Wright-Giemsa stains ©D 11 All these stains contain mixtures of methylene blue. This means that a tissue component stains a different colour than the dye itself. Included are cryptosporidium. One property of methylene blue and toluidine blue dyes is metachromasia. Diazo. For example. ma Cells that produce polypeptide hormones. Biogenic Amine stains for Argentaffin cells Blood smear stains Romanowsky stains eg Giemsa stains. noradrenalin = norepinephrine) can be found individually (Kulchitsky cell of GI tract) or as a group (adrenal medulla). © A. Schmorl’s Pascual’s and Weisel’s stains) Ne ill insensitive particularly when looking in large granulomatous tissue. and amyloid will stain purple and not blue. The following is a traditional classification of the staining patterns based upon the ability of the cells to turn soluble silver nitrate to metallic silver . L. cartilage. as they are interchangeable when the fixative is changed. as in carcinoid tumours of the gut. The most sensitive stain for mycobacteria is the AuramineRhodamine stain which requires a fluorescence microscope for viewing. nd a (Autofluorescence. modified Giemsa. or Lieb’s Crystal Violet method . Neill rA Traditionally there are 3 patterns of staining although this is fairly artificial. Although a fatty substance it is not fat but can be stained using Congo red. or amine precursors (adrenalin = epinephrine. mast cell granules. There are things other than mycobacteria that are “acid fast”. .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Amyloid Amyloid is a substance which can be found in all tissues pathologically. mucin. Using a pre-reduction step may cause a more intense stain. azure. active amines. This is called an argyrophil (silver loving) reaction. and the hooklets of cysticerci.

Connective tissue stains (collagen. reticulin fibres and fibrin) nd a Ne ill Ca bound to an anion. A reticulin stain occasionally helps to highlight the growth pattern of neoplasms. contain elastic fibres. It works best with small amounts of Ca (such as in Michaelis-Gutman bodies). Sirius red stain is also used for collagen staining. the lamina propria of gastrointestinal tract. because the elastic lamina of muscular arteries. elastin. These are called “ferruginous bodies” because they are highlighted with an iron 12 © A. ©D Martius’s scarlet blue stain distinguishes fibrin from true connective tissues and should be used where there is extensive inflammation. . The fibres become coated with a protein-ironcalcium matrix. and if used with the Masson stain for collagen and muscle fibres provides a good contrast. Trichrome will also aid in identifying normal structures. giving them a shish-kebab appearance. ma The trichrome stain helps to highlight the supporting collagenous stroma in sections from a variety of organs. Exogenous pigments and minerals (asbestos. Neill rA The reticulin stain is useful in parenchymal organs such as liver and spleen to outline the architecture. In tissue. such as connective tissue capsules of organs. The Alizarin method is also used in analyzers to measure serum calcium photometrically. silica) Asbestos is a special type of long-thin silica crystal.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Calcium (Ca) Stains Alizarin red S forms an orange-red lake with Ca. usually with sharp edges. An elastic tissue stain such as the Verhoff’s van Giesen stain or Orcein-Giemsa stain help to outline arteries. as in bone. L. can be seen. This stain is most useful when large amounts are present. such as phosphate (PO4) or CO3 (carbonate) can be demonstrated with the Von Kossa stain. and the broncho-vascular structures in lung. carbon. these crystals are highly irritative and highly fibrogenic. Delicate reticular fibres. This helps to determine the pattern of tissue injury. and the media of the aorta. by showing the dispersal of the normal fibrous architecture. usually of the mineral group chrysotile. Azan stain can be used to differentiate osteoid from mineralized bone. Ca forms a blue-black lake with haematoxylin to give a blue colour on H&E stain. which are argyrophilic.

L. Fat stains ma Street drugs for injection often are diluted with compounds containing minerals such as silica or talc.. so the morphology of the organism needs to be known. but this is widely scattered in the tissues without regard to cellular detail. Fungi stains ©D 13 (Gomori methenamine silver stain = GMS) Fungi and Pneumocystis carinii. It can be distinguished from melanin by doing a Melanin bleach. or the Prussian blue reaction. which is black and finely granular. which helps to distinguish carbon from melanin. and in general. Formalin-heme pigment is also birefringent on polarization. © A. Poorly fixed tissues may contain formalin-heme pigment.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Silica is present in many minerals and building materials. It is most often present in lung. which is also used in the analysis of gunshot residue. It can be useful in identifying fat emboli in lung tissue or clot sections of peripheral blood. The ORO is a rapid and simple stain. Fresh smears or cryostat sections of tissue are necessary because fixatives containing alcohols. . Fungi also stains red with the PAS method and blue with H&E. Tattoo pigment is usually black and is inert and non-polarizable. Red tattoo pigment often contains cinnabar (which has mercury in it). Neill rA The oil red O (ORO) stain can identify neutral lipids and fatty acids in smears and tissues. but especially in lymphoreticular tissues. barium.physiological. have cell walls which stain black or brown. there are no specific stains for these materials. will remove lipids. outlining the organisms clearly. such as Perl’s iron stain.pathological). or routine tissue processing with clearing. Carbon appears as anthracotic pigment in the lungs. nd a Ne ill stain. minerals are best demonstrated by microincineration techniques or by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis (SEM-EDA). but can make its way into lymph node. because of its composition of antimony. These crystals can be found throughout the body. Disadvantages with this stain is the large amount of background staining. and lead. haemochromatosis . Most forms are very inert and cannot be stained in tissue but can be demonstrated by white birefringence on polarization. Iron (haemosiderin) stains Haemosiderin (storage iron granules) may be present in areas of old haemorrhage or be deposited in tissues with iron overload (haemosiderosis .

unstained paraffin sections. These ions then react with potassium ferrocyanide to produce an insoluble blue compound (the Prussian blue reaction). The section is treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to release ferric ions from binding proteins. Colonies appear as fuzzy blue 14 © A. and some lipochrome pigments also will stain black as well). They are the wear-and-tear pigments found most commonly in heart. Formalin fixation imparts a strong yellow autofluorescence to unstained tissues with these substances. argentaffin) and melanin in tissues.bacteria stains Gram stain gram positive organisms stain purple and gram negative organisms stain red poorly. Melanin stains nd a Lipochrome can be stained by Sudan black B. DOPA substrate is acted upon by DOPA-oxidase in the melanin-producing cells to produce a brownish black deposit.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Lipochrome (lipofuschin) pigments . Neill rA ma The Fontana-Masson stain. liver. The less highly oxidized “ceroid” pigment of testis interstitium and seminal vesicle is another form of lipochrome.Age spots These are the breakdown products within cells from oxidation of lipids and lipoproteins. Ne ill Perl’s iron stain is the classic method for demonstrating iron in tissues. . but the most specific method is an enzyme histochemical method. In H&E all bacteria appear as blue rods or cocci regardless of gram reaction. Ocular melanin takes hours to bleach. and adrenal cortex (zona reticularis). Schmorl’s method uses the reducing properties of melanin to stain granules blue-green. Formaldehyde-induced fluorescence can be used to highlight biogenic amines (chromaffin. long Ziehl-Neelson acid fast. argentaffin. ©D Bleaching techniques remove melanin in order to get a good look at cellular morphology. They make use of a strong oxidizing agent such as potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide. DOPA-oxidase. chromaffin. while skin melanin takes minutes. Pseudomelanin of melanosis coli is PAS positive whereas true melanin is not. Microorganisms . relies upon the melanin granules to reduce silver nitrate (note. Pseudomelanin pigment is also found in macrophages. Lipochrome may also exhibit a strong orange autofluorescence in formalin-fixed. CNS. and Schmorl’s methods. L.

The best method is the Warthin-Starry stain.stains all mucins using a variety of methods PAS (peroidic acid-Schiff) . Alcian blue . Alcian blue stains are simple. Alcian blue. Therefore. or sulphated.specifically stains epithelial mucins. ma nd a Ne ill . They stain with PAS. • Acid (simple. They are soluble in aqueous solutions and slightly soluble in weak alcoholic solutions.found in tissue stroma.These contain hyaluronic acid.These are found in adenocarcinomas. The types of mucopolysaccharides are as follows: • Neutral . and metachromatic dyes. • Acid (complex. mesenchymal) found in tissue stroma and sarcomas . Uric acid crystals are seen in acid urine. L. A Giemsa stain may help demonstrate Donovan bodies and leishmania. colloidal iron.glands of the GI tract and in prostate. but have a lot of background staining. Mucin stains There are a variety of mucin stains. • Acid (complex. • Acid (simple. but it is very insensitive. PAS is most sensitive but least specific Colloidal iron stains are unpredictable. cartilage. Spirochetes are very difficult to stain. urates are present as sodium urate.are in epithelial cells containing sialic acid. and metachromatic dyes. and bone and include substances such as chondroitin sulphate or keratin sulphate. colloidal iron method. They stain with PAS. There are a variety of stains for mucin: ©D Urates 15 The mucin stain with the most specificity is mucicarmine. connective tissue) . Neill rA • • • • Colloidal iron (“AMP”) . and metachromatic stains are positive. Alcian blue. or non-sulphated) . colloidal iron. They stain with Alcian blue.stains glycogen as well as mucins Mucicarmine . tissues must be fixed in 95% or absolute alcohol to prevent leaching of urates. In tissue. PAS.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms clusters. epithelial) . They stain with Alcian blue. all attempting to demonstrate one or more types of mucopolysaccharide substances in tissues. Sodium urate crystals are also birefringent on polarization. mucicarmine.stain acid mucopolysaccharides. © A. Methenamine silver stains urates black.

mining substance usual site origin .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Common Exogenous materials found in tissues aluminium asbestos beryllium carbon fungal spores lead silica silver lungs skin lungs lungs. L. skin lungs. mucosal linings lungs. skin lungs. fungi. bone. skin ©D rA ma © A. skin. respiratory mucosa. mining mould. Neill 16 nd a Ne ill air / mining air / asbestos building materials / mining mining gas emissions Traffic. smoking paint. silver. lungs. fibroglass material photography materials. skin nasal passages. gardens glass. hair kidney.

extensors / abductors . longus or the shortest.elevators / tensors . 2 location where the muscle os located generally the associated bone eg Temporalis near the Temporal bone 3 size or series ie in a series of closely related muscles is it the largest maximus or the smallest minimus (gluteus maximus. Neill How to use the Pronunciation guide in this glossary .the syllables in CAPITALS are the syllables emphasized in the pronunciation of the word. 4 number of origins eg Biceps which has 2 origins as opposed to Triceps which has 3.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Guide to Naming muscles ©D 17 Most skeletal muscles are named based on one or more criteria 1 the direction of the muscle fibres eg rectus meaning straight (running parallel to an anatomical line -Rectus Abdominus parallel to the abdominal midline) as opposed to oblique or transverse.rotators. tertius. Please note spelling is both English and American with cross reference to each. brevis or the first second or third prima. secondo. rA ma nd a Words are written in Bold with a (bracketed guide) listed afterwards in English sounds . It is not listed in the front guide. major or the smaller minor eg Pectoralis major and Pectoralis minor. With the inclusion of prefixes and suffixes where necessary. their simple pronuciation guide is backeted after their inclusion. L.pronators / depressors . Words with a guide are often listed twice the pronunciation guide is first and the etymology or derivation of the word is then listed next with further explanation if necessary. Maybe it is the longest. Ne ill © A.adductors / supinators . gluteus minimus) or with only 2 the larger. 5 insertion and/or origin where the muscle inserts and originates eg Sternocleidomastoid giving in the name the insertion and the origins of this muscle 6 action muscles are named for their actions in which case there is frequently an opposing muscle named to demonstrate this purpose: flexors .

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Table of contents Acknowledgements and Future Plans Dedication Changes to the Second edition Ne ill Introduction 1 2 2 2 3 Anatomical. word roots and suffixes Common organ specimens sent to Pathology Laboratories The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Disassembly -Taking the Body Apart Guide to Surface Anatomy and Surface Markers Guide to Anatomical Layers Guide to Organ Weights and Measurements Guide to Anatomical Descriptions Guide to Medical Qualifications Guide to Anatomical Planes and Relations Assembly .Building the Body ma nd a How to use the Pronunciation guide in this glossary 158 166 167 169 170 171 172 173 177 196 196 ©D Feedback form © A. Neill Abbreviations of common medical qualifications Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide The A to Z project so far… resources and other A to Z publications rA 18 . Medical and Clinical Abbreviations and Acronyms in common use Common Histological Stains and their uses 10 16 17 17 18 19 43 47 68 Common Exogenous materials found in tissues Guide to Naming muscles Table of contents Summary of prefixes. L.

vinegar acetab.fat aemia. itch acet. SUFFIXES 19 Summary of prefixes.abdomin.blood aer.air nd a © A. word roots and suffixes Suffixes -ac /aceous: pertaining to -acousia: condition of hearing -ac: state or quality of -ad: towards Prefixes A-: without / no Ab-: away from Ac.ray aden. Neill Alb-: white aesthesi.pain -aemia /-emia: blood -aethesia/-esthesia: condition involving sensation -adol: an analgesic -age: rate action or process -agnosia: loss of ability to know -agra: pain or painful seizure Ne ill .spiny. WORD ROOTS.gland adenoid./Ad-: towards /near Acu-: sharp /sudden ©D rA -adeni: state of glands The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ma Af. perception aeti.wing alg.hearing acr.cause ala.glandlike adip.mite.saucer acou.PREFIXES.feeling. thorny acar. L. belly acanth.extremities actin./algesi./ Ag-: near /going to Word root abdomin.

man. SUFFIXES © A. atmosphere atri. human antr.anus.water argyr.antrum.fat atm.artery arthr. looped rA nd a -aster: star shaped -asthenia: weakness -ate: to use /act like /subject to -atresia: condition of occlusion ma Apo-: away from.with foetal membranes amyl. L. astr.man.silver arrhen.man angi.sand amnio. anal anth. Neill All-: other different Ambi-: both Ambly-: dull Ametri-: disproportionate Amphi-: both sides.PREFIXES.air sac amm. sinus aqua.waiting room Ne ill 20 .nourishment alveoli.joint articul.blood vessel an. abnormal Ante-: before Anti-: against Anykl-: bent. both. detached The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Asthen-: weakness At-: towards Atel-: imperfect aliment. WORD ROOTS.starch andr.gas. crooked.joint surface aster-. double An-: without /lack of ©D -al: pertaining to -ance /-ancy: quality or state -algesia /-algia: sensitivity to pain -arche: beginning -ary: pertaining to Anis-: unequal / dissimilar Anomalo-: unequal. male artereo.star ather.floral anthrop.

axis.ear. Neill .cheek ma Cac-: diseased. foundation Bi.heat canth.2005-2007 aluation Only.nitrogen.eyelid brachi.arm / upper arm / gill branchi. urea Suffixes -atrophia: condition of malnutrition / wasting -aux/-auxe: enlargement balan.pressure.mucus blephar.hearing aur.armpit azot. closed Auto-: self Aux-: growth.glans penis bar.small tube or hair © A. 21 Prefixes Atreto-: imperfect /imperforate.gill bronchi.heel / lime /calcium calor. axial axilla.air transport in the lung / branch bucc. L.gold axi. ear shape auri.slit for eyelids capill. abnormal calc. WORD ROOTS. weight blenn./Bin-/ Bis-: two Brachy-/Brevi-: short Brady-: slow rA Ne ill Word root audi. SUFFIXES by Foxit Reader ght(C) by Foxit Software Company.PREFIXES. increase ©D nd a -biosis / -biotic: life -blast: bud forming / immature / embryonic -blepharia: re the eyelid -blepsia/ -blepsy: condition of sight -brachia: to do with the arm -bund: prone to -cace: bad / diseased / deformed The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Ball-: throw Bar-: pressure Basi-: base.

nucleus case.tail caul.head caps.capsule carcin.cavity. SUFFIXES © A. hole. hollow cel-/ coel. L.cancer of epithelial origin cardi-/ cardio.cavity / something coming through a hole e. WORD ROOTS. Neill Cat-/ Cath-: down / against ©D -carcinoma : cancer of the epithelial cells -cardia: to do with the heart -cathartic: cleaning rA nd a Ne ill Cen-/ Coen-: general capit-/ caput.central cephal-head cer.burn / burning caud.g. a hernia -cele/ -coele: hernia.cornea/ horny tissue cerebell.little brain cerebr-brain 22 . tumor or swelling /cavity of the body -centesis: puncture -centric: with a centre -cephalia: to do with the head -cerebral: pertaining to the brain -chesia: pertaining to faeces defecation ma The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms centr.cheeselike caus-/ caut.wax cerat.wrist cary-/ kary.PREFIXES.stem cav.heart carp-/ karp.

eyelash / eyelid -chylia: condition of digestion Circum-: around.coloured chron.movement Cis-: on this side / on the same side clast.to bend -cle: little diminutive Co-/ Col-/ Com.bile / gall bladder chondro. string chrom.cartilage chord. circular / surrounding cilia. SUFFIXES 23 Prefixes -cerebral: pertaining to the brain -chesia /chezia: to do with defecation -chondria: condition of worrying about a disease -chromasia: condition of colour ©D The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms cheir /chir. cancer cheil-/ chil.neck chal-copper chancr.hand chol. Neill Ne ill . cervix.clavicle -clasia /-clasis /-clast /-clastic: crushing or breaking up clin. WORD ROOTS.PREFIXES./Clist-: closed cleid./Cor-: together with col-/coel.hairlike / hair -cide: to kill killer Cirrho-: yellow cine.colon -cleisis: closure.time chyle.digested food / fats cili.rotting.cord. L. conclusion rA Word root cervic-.lip Suffixes ma nd a © A.breaking / an instrument which breaks Cleist. growing abnormally./ Con.

toothlike.to grow / to expand crur.frost cyst.tears dactyl. flowing -cusis: hearing -cyst/. teeth Ne ill 24 .cell De-/Des-/Dis-: remove. WORD ROOTS.leg cusp.people dent-/ dont-/odont.culum/-culus: diminutive -current: running. L. undo Demi-: half The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms dacry.pupil corp.circle /cyclical cry-/kry.vagina con-/ kon. Neill Cryo-: cold Crypto-: hidden Cyano-: blue ©D nd a -clonia: re spasms -cnemia: condition of leg below the knee -coccus: berry shaped -comma: a piece of something -crania: re the head -crasia: a condition of / a mixture -cratia: re incontinence -crine: secretion eg glandular -cule/.tooth.cystic: bladder / fluid filled sac -cyte: cell / mature cell -cythemia / cythaemia: condition of cells of the blood rA -dactyl: condition of fingers or toes -demic: relating to a region -dendron: treelike formation colp-/ kolp.heart / crown core.fingers/ toes dem.skin cycl.body cost.dust / together.rib crani. SUFFIXES © A. with cor-/ coron.bladder / sac of fluid ma cyt.Contra-: against PREFIXES.skull cresc.point cutis.

2005-2007 aluation Only. Neill .back The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms E-/Ec.PREFIXES./ Ecto: outside / external Ectro-: absence / congenital Ef-: move away / go away / outside rA Ne ill dur.ectasis /.oil emet.neck derm-/ dermato.spikey ec./endo-: within inside Ent-: inner within Ep-/ epi-: upon. inside ele-/eole. SUFFIXES by Foxit Reader ght(C) by Foxit Software Company. L.house ma Em-/en. form -ellum: small.vomiting encephalo.gut / intestine / GIT episi.finger / toe dors.skin desm. diminutive -emetic: pertaining to vomit -enchyma: nourishing of cells and structures Word root der. in addition to.brain entero.ectasy: expansion stretching -ectomy: excision of / cutting out -ectopia: out of place -edema /oedema: swelling -eidos: shape. WORD ROOTS. power -dynia: condtion of pain echin.vulva erg.bond / bind / ligament digit. 25 Prefixes Dextra-: right Di-: two Dia-: through / between / apart Diplo-: double / twin Dis-/ Dys-: difficult / wrong / incorrect Duo-/ Dy-: two ©D nd a -eal: pertaining to -ectasia /. over Equi-: equal Eryth-: red Eso-: within.hard Suffixes -dermia: skin -desis: binding / fixation -desma: bridging or connecting -dipsia: thirst -dontia: to do with teeth -drome: that which follows a specifc path -dynamia /-dynamy: strength.work/ activity © A.

threadlike fiss.break fus.spindle The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms galact.union gangli.fever ferr.action erot. SUFFIXES © A.: to pour / the body of faci.knot gastri.face fasci. WORD ROOTS.iron fibr. Neill Eu-: normal. L. in front of ma Fund.fibrers / to do with fibres fila.love desire PREFIXES. outside. well Ex-/ exo-/extro-: external.: yellow Fore.split / cleft foet-/ fet.to do with foetus for place / opening fract.ergy. protruding Extra-: in addition to ©D nd a -eous: composed of / like -ergetic/-ergic: effect of activity -ergy: effect or result -escent: become like / emmiting light -esis: action / process or the result of -fast: securely attached confined -febrile: feverish -ferous: bearing -fibroma: benign tumour of fibrous tissue -flect / -flex : to bend -fluent: to flow -form / forme: to have a shape -fuge: to drive away rA Ne ill Flav.milk gam.stomach -gamy: marriage. union -gen: that which generates -genesia: condition concerning information 26 .: before.band or sheet (of CT) febri.

tongue glyc.grain-like/ granular gravid.old / aged gingivi.chin genu.twin gen.gum glia. L.PREFIXES.know / discern gon-/ knee / sexual /semen goni.female ma © A.corner / angle gran.race /sexual/ reproduction geni. SUFFIXES 27 Prefixes Suffixes -genisis: origin -genia: condition of the jaw -genic: origin .under the jaw ger-/ geri-/ geront.: to carry.blood hallux.pregnancy gyn/gyno/gynaeco. stick. formation -geusia / geustia: to do with taste -glia : to glue.knee geny. bear ©D nd a -gluten : glue -glossia: to do with the tongue -glycaemia: condition of sugar in the blood -gnathia: condition of the jaw -gnomy: science of judging -gnosia: condition of knowing -gony: birth origin -gyne: female characterisitcs rA Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Gravis-: heavy Gymno-: naked Word root gemin.big toe .glue / gluelike gloss-/glosso.sweet / sugar gnath. adhesion Ges. Neill Hapl-: single haeme-/heme.jaw gn. WORD ROOTS.

spiral hepat.sacrum hist/ histo. wet / hydrogen hyster -uterus ma Il.to stimulate hyal.water. Neill Hemi-: half Hetero-: different Holo-: entire.pertaining to the flank or lower abdomen ima. non Infra-: below . into/onto/ no.glasslike. beneath.tissue horm.liver hidr-/ hidro.: between Intra.: within The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms iatro.: negative. glassy hydr.groin 28 . SUFFIXES © A.jaundice ide.ulcer.horn /corn helc.distinct / separate ili. L. beneath / inside Inter.: in.PREFIXES. whole Homo-/ Homeo-: same / level Hyper-: excessive Hypo-: less than normal ©D nd a -hydat : water -hydria: fluid level in the body -iatric: to treat / cure -iatrician: physician / healer -iatry: specific type of medical condition -ible: ability.sweat hier.sun helic. against Im-/ In. capacity -ic /ical/: pertaining to / similar to -id: state or condition.to treat icter.mind idi. the lowest inguin. WORD ROOTS. sore heli. structural element of teeth rA Ne ill hel.below.

SUFFIXES by Foxit Reader ght(C) by Foxit Software Company. practitioner -itic: relating to -ium: diminutive The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Juxt-: next to rA nd a -labial: pertaining to the lips -labile: unstable changeable jug. rainbow colours isch. person. L.next to ma Koilo-: hollow / concave kali.lip lac.island irid. Neill Laevo-/levo-: left Leio-/lio-: smooth labi.PREFIXES.iris of the eye.throat / neck juxta.milk lacri.potassium kaps.tears Ne ill . WORD ROOTS.capsule kary-/cary.: straight ©D -kinesia: condition relating to movement -kinesis: division of cells / activation Word root ini. 29 Prefixes Ithy.2005-2007 aluation Only.suppression / stoppage ischi.nucleus kerato.vagina © A.hip Suffixes -ism: resulting from practice or theory of -ismus: spasm /contraction -ist: agent.movement kolp-/colp.yoke jugu.horny kinesi.back of the head insul.

Neill lapar. L.bind together ma Longus-: long Loxus-: oblique lat/later. veneer PREFIXES. SUFFIXES © A.talk / babble lamina.spleen lim. WORD ROOTS.read lien.voice box/voice Leuco-/Leuko/Luco-/Luko-: white/ colourless/ pale rA nd a -lymph: clear fluid -lipsis / lipse: leave / fail / omit -lith /lithiasis: stone / re stones -logia: condition of speech or reason -logology: study or science of -lucent: light admitting Liga.syphilis lumb. narrow / small ©D -lalia: condition involving speech -lemma: sheath.hunger lingu/lingua.tongue/tonguelike lip.abdominal cavity lapis.layer.wolf Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 30 .stone loc.place luc-/leuc.fat lith.side lex.loin / lower back lumin. envelope / confining membrane -lepsis /-lepsy/ -leptic: seizure -lexia: reading conditions lal.light/ cavity / channel luna.moon lyc.Lep-: to take or seize Lepto-: thin.stone laryng.light /white/ pale lue.

menstruation.hand mania.membrane menisci.dark / black ma Suffixes -lyse/-lyze/-lysis: to decompose / to breakdown -lytic: production of / decomposition -ma/ -mata: result of an action -malacia: softening -mancy: divination -mania: obsession. contraction lys.periods. SUFFIXES 31 Prefixes Macro-/ Makro-: large Magna. L. menses mening. compulsion -manic: specified pyschosis -mastia/ -masty /mazia/: re the breast -megaly: enlargement -melia: re the limbs -mentia: re the mind -mere/ -mer / meria: part of / condition of the parts Meli-: sweet/ honey Meta-: subsequent transformation men.disc / crescent ment.disintegrate malar.cheek bone mamm.breast man.forehead © A. WORD ROOTS.upper jaw maz.breast/ breastlike maxilla.: soft ©D nd a -meter: measurement Word root ly.cheek / limb / member melan. Neill .opening /hole mel.dissolve The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Medi-/ Mes-: middle Meg-/ Megalo-: large.part metop.PREFIXES.obsession mast-/mastoid-/maz.breast meat. great rA Ne ill Meio-/ Mio-: reduced.: huge Mal-: bad Malac.mind / chin/ mer.

uterus micr.mother.mucus my. Neill Micro-: small Mid-: middle Mis-: hatred Multi-: many ©D -metria: re the uterus -metry: re measuring -mimesis: imitation / simulation -mittent: send -mnesia: re the memory -moria: condition of dementia -motor: effects of activity -myelia: re the spinal cord rA nd a -nephric: re the kidney -neural: re nerves structurally -neuria: a condition of nerves metr.death nephr.nerve / brain noci. L.eardrum ma Necr-: death Neo-: new narc./nas.bone marrow /spinal cord myl.nose necr.knot Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 32 .muscle myc.threadlike mnem. SUFFIXES © A.molar myring.PREFIXES.pain nod.stupor naris.movement muc-/myx.memory morph. WORD ROOTS.small /abnormally small mit.form mot.kidney neuro.fungal myel.

eye ops-/opt-/optic. swelling / bulk / hooked onych-/onyx. internal rA Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Olig-: scant.eyesight orb.ovary ophthalm.pain.PREFIXES.neck. swelling -opia/-opsia /-opy: condition of vision -orexia: condition of appetite -osmia: sense of smell Oes.teeth odyn. SUFFIXES 33 Prefixes Word root nos.back of the head occlus. tumour.: inside. L.to close or shut up ocul.swelling olfact.tumour. Neill .disease not. distress oedem-/edem.navel onc. few occipit.back nucha. mass.sphere ma © A.eye odont. WORD ROOTS.nail o-/oo-/ovi.egg/ovum ooph-/ oophor-/othec.smell om. lump. nape of neck Suffixes Ob-/ Oc-: against -odontia: treatment of teeth -oedema: condition of swelling -oid: resembling / form -ol: oil ©D nd a -on: unit -oma: mass.shoulder omphal.

-otomy: removal of

PREFIXES, WORD ROOTS, SUFFIXES

© A. L. Neill

Ortho-: straight, correct, normal -osteon/ -osteum: bone -otia /otic: ear

©D nd a
-pachy: thickening -paedic/-pedic: children -path :individual; suffering from a disease / individual treating a disease using a system -pathetic: relating to emotions -pathy: disease of / therapy -pede /-ped: number of feet -paenia/ -penia: deficiency of -pepsia /-peptic: state of digestion -phagia: eating / desire to eat -

Pachy-: thick Paleo-: ancient old Pali-: repetition recurrence

rA Ne ill

orch-/orchid- testis or-/ora- mouth os- mouth/ bone osche- scrotum osm- odour/impulse/osmosis oss-/osteo- bone ot- ear

paed-/ped- child

palat- roof of the mouth

ma

Pan-: everything Par-/ Para-: against / aside / nearby / abnormal Parvi-: small Per-: through Peri-: around / surrounding Pero-: stunted

palpebra- eyelid /eyelash palpit- flutter

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

papilla- nipple part- childbirth path- disease pect-/pector- chest, breast. / thorax ped-/pes- foot petr- stone

34

PREFIXES, WORD ROOTS, SUFFIXES

35

Prefixes Phan- /Phas- visible / speak Phen-: light, bright

Word root phac-/phak- lens phag- eater , to eat phalan- fingers / toes

©D nd a

phall- penis, penile phas- speech

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

Phleg-: inflammation

rA Ne ill

Plan-: flat Plat- /platy-: flat/ broad, wide Pleo-: many Pluri-: many more Poikilo-: irregular / abnormal Polio-: grey

phleb- vein, veinous phren- mind physi- natural pil- hair plantar- sole of the foot plas- grow and form pleo- many pleur- walls of the lungs, thorax plic- fold ridge pne-/pneum- breath, air, lungs, gas pod- foot

ma

© A. L. Neill

pollex- thumb

Suffixes -phasia /-phemia: re speech -philia /-philic /-phily: love of, affinity with -phobe /-phobia: resisting / avoiding, fearing, dreading -phoresis: transmission -phoria: tendancy to /emotional state/ visual axes -phragm: separation -phrasia: re speech -phrenia: re the mind -phrenic: re the diaphragm -phyisis: growth, growing -plakia: patches on membrane -plasia: condition / formation -plasty: repair of / involving surgery -plegia /-plegic: paralysis -plex/-plexus: network -plexia /-plexy: condition resulting from a stroke -pnea/-pnoea: beathing, re respiration

PREFIXES, WORD ROOTS, SUFFIXES

© A. L. Neill

Poly-: many Post-: after -proctia: re the anus -prosopia: re the face -pterygium: re the conjunctiva -ptosis: downward displacement

Prae-: in front of / young Pre-: before Presby-: old Prim-: first Pro-: before, in front of -ptysis: spitting

©D
-podia: re feet -poeisis: formation / development -pore: passageway

rA nd a
-pyrexia: re fever -pubic: frontal part of the pelvis -pulsion: push

Pronus-: face down Pseudo-: false

ma

Quad-: four

poples- posterior part of the knee pont- bridge por- passage / pore/ callus presby- old proct- anus, anal / rectum prosop- face psor- to itch psych- mind pter- wing / feather ptoma- corpse ptyal- saliva ptysis- to cough or spit pub- adult puer-/pueb- child/infantile/ undeveloped pulm- lung pur-/py-/pyron- pus, pyel- renal pelvis / kidney

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

rachi- spine radi- radiation, ray radi-/radicul- root/ tooth / nerve

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blood sanita. SUFFIXES by Foxit Reader ght(C) by Foxit Software Company.PREFIXES.to turn ma Schiz-: split Scirrho-: hard Sclera-: hardening Scolio-: twisted Semi-: half Sicc-: dry sangui.2005-2007 aluation Only.nose /noselike rhiptid./ Rub-: red -rrhagia/-rhagia: excessive flow/ rupture -rrhea /-rrhoea: flow.spine.wrinkles rhiz.kidney rhabdo.rectal / straight ren. WORD ROOTS.flow rhig. straight /rod rhachi. L. dung © A.boatlike scat. 37 Prefixes Re-: return / again / contrary Retro-: behind / go back Rhabdo-: striped Rhod.muscle / network / flesh scaph.health sapr-/seps.decaying sarc-/sark. Neill . discharge -rrhaphy: suturing in place -rrhea: flow ©D nd a -scelia: re legs -sclerosis: hardening Suffixes The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms rA Ne ill Word root rami.beck rot.branch rect.faeces.root rost.stiff / cold rhin. vertebral column rhe.stick.

examine scyt.wall /to separate/ border sial.shadow scolec.worm scope. Neill ©D nd a -sect: to cut -sepsis: condition of decay -spasm: involuntary contraction rA -sphygmia: condition of the pulse ma Spheno-: wedge Spiro-: coil scel.leg schist.split.tighten / straighten.saliva sider. L.spine Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 38 . WORD ROOTS.decay sept. cause rigidity sperm-/spermato.sleep spasm.perception.body somn.divided scia-/skia.hollow cavity soma-/somatic.seed sphen.to cut sens.pulse spin. feeling seps.wedge sphym. fissured /cleft schiz.Sinistro-: left Spano-: few / scant PREFIXES.skin sect.iron sin. SUFFIXES © A.

SUFFIXES 39 Prefixes ©D -stage: phase -stalsis: contraction of the alimentary canal -stasis: to stand to stop Suffixes The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Sten-: narrow.star sterc. constricted Ster-: solid Strept-/ Stroph-: twisted rA nd a -stole: condition of organs -stoma: mouth.vertebrae spinal column spongi. Neill Sub-/Suf-/Sup-: under Word root spir.PREFIXES.tin stas. WORD ROOTS. L.visceral.sponge squam. opening -stophy: to twist.shield steth.line strum.spleen spod. intestines splen.to squint strati.breath splanchn.goiter styl.fat stell.chest stoma. turn ma © A.faeces stern.mouth / opening /covering strab.waste materials spondyl.to layer/ layers stri.standing walking stopped steat-/steap-/stear.scale stann.stake pole Ne ill .

connective tissue syring. union -synthesis: formation of PREFIXES.rope terat.tube Tach.the art of tect.to touch ma Tect-/Teg-: covering Tors-: twisted taenia-/tenia.eyelid / edge of foot techn. container -thelium: layer of tissue tabe. WORD ROOTS.weblike tele/tel. L.roof teg.a ribbon / a band tal.time teno-/tend.monster Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 40 .sweat syndesm.grave tars.juice sud.ankle talip.Super-/Supra-: over above Supinus-: face up Sy-/Sym-/Syn-/Syl-: together.to waste away tact./Tachy-: fast Taut-: tight same rA nd a -thecium: sack.end / far away temp. SUFFIXES © A. Neill ©D -taxia: condition of impairment / an arrangement succ.club footed taph.covering tela.

food / to feed typ. cutting -tonia: re muscle contraction -tresia: perforation Suffixes Thyr-: shield ©D nd a The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Trachy-: rough Trans-: across rA Ne ill ma Trop-: turn / change Word root test.palm of hand /sole of foot therap.place /to place tox.neck windpipe tract. cure thix.PREFIXES. WORD ROOTS.treatment. lump thym. Neill Ultra-: beyond ul.nipple thely.gums / scar ungu.hair thromb.thymus. L. mind or spirit top.female thenar.poison trachel. drag troph.nail . witness / testicles thec.testimony.touch thora.draw.clot.model © A. SUFFIXES 41 Prefixes -therapy: re treatment -thetic: to put.sheath thel. to place -thymia: re the mind and emotions -trichia: re hair -tomy /-tome /-tomic: re incisions.chest thrix.

Neill ©D nd a -zoite: simple organism -zyme: re enzymes Volv-: turn rA Ne ill Xanth-: yellow Xero-: dry ur-/ urin-/uron.front vermi. L.vessel / duct ven.different foreign xiphi. SUFFIXES © A.uterus vas.urinary tract uter.belly / hollowed part ventr. WORD ROOTS.wormlike vesic.swordlike ma zyg.living xen.bladder / blister vir.yoke / union / pair The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 42 . one -verse: to change -vorous: re eating PREFIXES.virus viscer.internal organs vivi.Uni-: single.vein venter.

L. bronchus. carotid body tumor) transitional cell Ca SCC adenocarcinoma osteochondroma myeloma metastatic tumor (eg breast.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Common organ specimens sent to Pathology Laboratories Appendix (appendectomy) Artery (Bx) appendicitis mucocele arteritis atheroma aneurysm cystitis diverticulae fistulae tuberculosis schistosomiasis osteoporosis osteomalacia osteomyelitis Paget’s disease Bladder (Bx / cystectomy) Bone / Bone Marrow (Bx) Breast (Bx / mastectomy) ma cysts fibrocytic disease abscess fat necrosis inflammation squanous metaplasia inflammation dysplasia (CIN) UC Crohn’s disease amyloidosis fistulae amoebiasis diverticular disease endometritis abnormalities of the menstral cycle hyperplasia Bronchial (Bx) Cervix (cone Bx / punch Bx) rA ©D Endometium (Bx / curettings) 43 Colon / Rectum (Bx / colonectomy) nd a SCC oat cell Ca Ne ill carcinoid tumor 1º or 2º tumor (rare) chemodectoma (eg. Neill Tissue / Organ (Specimen types) Non-Tumor Pathology Tumor Pathology . thyroid. prostate. kidney) adenoma fibroadenoma adenocarcinoma Paget’s disease of the Nipple SCC SCC CIN genital warts adenomatous polyps adenocarcinoma lymphoma polyps adenocarcinoma sarcomas polyps © A.

L. Neill nd a amyloidosis glomerulonephritis pyelonephritis cysts calculi tuberculosis Ne ill adenocarcinoma adenocarcinoma sarcoma adenocarcinoma transitional cell Ca . breast and brain) . colon.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Epididymis (Bx) cysts inflammation tuberculosis salpingitis ectopic pregnancy endometriosis adenocarcinoma Fallopian tubes (Bx / salpinectomy) Gall bladder cholecystitis (Bx / cholecystecomy) calculi Joints / Tendons / arthritis Synovial membrane crystal synvitis (Bx / curretings) (eg gout) Kidney (Bx / nephrectomy) Larynx / Vocal Cords (Bx) Liver (Bx / lobectomy) laryngeal nodules inflammation ma pneumonia inflammation hepatitis cirrhosis obstructive jaundice sarcoidosis amyloidosis storage disorders Lung (Bx / pneumonectomy) rA ©D Muscle (skeletal) (Bx) Nasal mucosa (Bx) Lymph node reaction to inflammation Hodgkin’s lymphoma / (Bx / radical removal tuberculosis non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of LN group) sarcoidosis 2º tumor (eg. breast. testis) myopathies neuropathic atrophy rhabdomyosarcoma mucoepidermoid Ca polyps SCC 44 © A. pancreas and stomach) SCC oat cell Ca adenocarcinoma 2º tumor (eg. bone. lung. breast. colon.pelvis polyps SCC hepatocellular Ca lymphoma 2º tumor (eg.

Bowen’sdisease lymphoma melanoma naevi skin tags / polyps SCC warts © A. Neill polyps salivary gland tumors adenocarcinomas SCC . L. dysgerminoma 2º tumor (eg.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Oral cavity (Bx) cysts (dental) inflammation Oesophagus (Bx) Ovary (Bx / oophrectomy) oesophagitis strictures ulceration (peptic) cysts endometriosis Pancreas (Bx) Parathyoid gland cysts pancreatitis hyperplasia Pleura (Bx) ma inflammation tuberculosis sarcoidosis calculi sialoadenitis cysts dermatitis reactive changes fungal infections alopecia psoriasis Placenta / umbilical malformations cord infarctions Salivary gland (Bx) rA Prostate gland hyperplasia (Bx / prostatectomy) prostatitis ©D 45 Skin / hairy skin (Bx / punch Bx / curettings / shaves / ellipsoid excision / Mohs sections) nd a adenoma Ne ill SCC benign and malignant tumors of respective tissues epithelium = mucinous cystadenoma stroma = thecoma germ cells = dermoid cyst. breast. lungs) adenocarcinoma adenolymphoma (Warthin’s) mucoepidermoid tumor pleomorphic adenoma adenocarcinoma BCC carcinoid tumor CIN . stomach) adenocarcinoma (exocrine) apudomas (endocrine) choriocarcinoma hydatiform mole mesothelioma 2º tumor (eg.

L. Neill .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Spleen (Bx / splenectomy) amyloidosis hypersplenism syndromes thrombocytopenic purpura traumatic rupture gastritis peptic ulceration hydrocoele orchiditis tuberculosis Stomach (Bx) Testis (Bx / orchidectomy) Uterus (Bx / hysterectomy) ma abnormal cyclical bleeding adenomyosis endometriosis dysplasia inflammation leukoplakia Thyroid nodular goitre adenoma (Bx / thyroidectomy) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis adenocarcinoma thyrotoxic hyperplasia leiomyoma (fibroid) medullary carcinoma (+ amyloid) leiomyoma (fibroid) adenocarcinoma (of endometrium) SCC CIN warts ©D rA Vulva (Bx / excision) nd a Ne ill lymphoma leukaemia adenocarcinoma leimyoma lymphoma lymphoma teratoma 46 Small intestine (Bx / resection of the small bowel partial or complete) Crohn’s disease coeliac disease diverticulae infarction adenocarcinoma carcinoid tumor lymphoma © A.

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The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms From Thorax to Chest BUILDING THE BODY ©D 57 © A. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . L.

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away from . akoustikos. hence.toward. and ductum = led. Acropolis) and omos = shoulder. and ductum = led. no ab. acromion: Gk. supplementary. several of which affect the activity of other endocrine glands. related to hearing. lack of. Adenohypophysis: also = the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. addition to accessory: adj. the tip of the shoulder.sudden. acetabulum: Lt. ab = from. (≠abduction) adenoid: Gk. eidos = shape or form.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A a. ac.acetabular. It is composed of glandular epithelium. the socket for the head of the femur. sing.Gk. akros = summit (c.near. hence. near to. ad = towards. ad = to. toward adduction: Lt.abduct. at.f. the part of the trunk between thorax and the perineum. verb . acina adj. and abulum = small receptacle. L. adipose: Lt. negative abdomen: Lt. verb . sharp. Neill 68 .. adhesion: Lt. Absorption (ahb-SORB-shun) the passage of digested foods from the GIT & into the BS. acetic). adj.adduct. ren = kidney. The adenohypophysis secretes numerous Hs. accessum = added. ab = from. deviating from normal. hence fatty adrenal: Lt. ad = to. abduction: Lt. Acini (AS-ih-nee) clusters of cells in the pancreas that secrete digestive enzymes. movement towards. and errare = to wander. (≠adduction) aberrant: Lt. Actin (AHK-tihn) the contractile protein that makes up the major portion of thin filaments in muscle fibers. hence.without. situated near the kidney (see suprarenal) A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A. movement from.Lt. acetum = vinegar (cf. abdomen = the belly. severe ad. aden = a gland. adeps = fat. acu. acinar (AS-in-us) Acoustic (ah-COOS-tic) pertaining to hearing and sounds acoustic: adj. and haesus = stuck Adipose (AHD-ih-pose) a CT whose cells (adipocytes) are highly specialized for lipid storage. hence. a vinegar cup.

white alba: Lt. albus = white albicans: Lt. agonist: Gk. alimentum = food. like boiled white of an egg. located superior to each kidney. ferry).anlagonist. wing. ala = wing (ala of nose). alimentary canal. Neill . e. stimuli which cause the adrenal (suprarenal) gland to produce adrenaline.g. hence a wing-like process. albus = white albuginea: Lt. 69 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. . pl.. carrying to.other. form. each situated superior to a kidney. including glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids. eidos = like. and ferent = carrying (cf. hence. Gk. albus = white. allantos = sausage. e.near. Adrenal glands two endocrine glands. hence levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscles = lifter of the upper lip and ala of nose. all. Ala (AY-lar) referring to the wing or flattened part of a bone particularly if there are other shapes in the bone which are not wide and flat as in the Sphenoid or the inominate / hip.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z adrenergic: adj. alb.Lt. It secretes steroid Hs. A term used to specify neurons or pathways which use adrenaline as a transmitter. toward. alimentary: adj. (also = suprarenal glands). gen = form. af = to. ag. toward.Lt.g. alaeque: Lt. Alpha cell a type of cell in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans that secretes the H glucagon. Adventitia (ahd’-ven-TISH-yah) the outermost covering of an organ or tissue (see Serosa. abnormal. ala: Lt. addition to agger nasi: Lt. = becoming white.. axons carrying information from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus are afferents to that nucleus. different. suffix -que = and. (a prime mover). Adrenal medulla the inner region of the adrenal glands. which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine (also adrenaline noradrenalin).other. a muscle in apparent contest with another. hence. adj. = eminence of the nose. agonistes = rival. L.. addition to afferent: adj. abnormal allantois: Gk.near. Tunica Externa). allo. different. ergon = work.alae. af. Gk. Adrenal cortex (ah-DREE-nal KOR-teks) the outer region of the adrenal glands.

apart. It opens to M the exterior at the anus. D Alveolar sac two or more alveoli which share a common opening from an alveolar duct. pl. analogous: Gk. ancon = elbow. angiography: Gk.analgesic. and algesis = pain. a microscopic air sac within the lungs. ana = up. adj. hence any small hollow. = doubtful (nucleus ambiguus). L.Gk. about. insensibility to O pain. U Anatomy (ah-NAH-to-mee) the study of the structure of the body. ana = up. and aisthesis = sensation. = a two-handed flask. a basin. towards. hence the muscle attached to the (lateral surface of the) olecranon. starchy. Anatomical position the reference position. homologous). hence cutting up V of a body (c. an = negative.. in which the subject is S standing erect with the feet facing forward. again anaesthesia: Gk.alveoli. lack of. Q anastomosis: Gk. a Y pathological dilatation of a BV..f. around G ambiguus: adj. angeion = blood vessel (BV). anatomy: Gk.f. & T the palms of the hands are facing forward (the thumbs are to the outside).both. J amylacea: Gk.alveolar. amygdala = almond. not K an. Anal canal (A-nawl) the terminal 2 or 3 cm of the rectum. amygdaloid: adj. arms are at the sides.without. back. and tome = a cutting. a local dilatation of a tube.Lt. angeion & graphe = a record. and eidos = shape or I form.up. Neill 70 . H ampulla: Lt. X aneurysm: Gk. W anconeus: Gk. . Alveolar duct (awl-VEE-o-lar) a branch of a respiratory bronchiole w/n C the lungs leading to alveoli & alveolar sacs. N analgesia: Gk.g. hence. ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. after holes in a tissue eg the lung – alveolar bone in B the maxilla. an. loss of L sensation.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A alveolus: Lt. dissection). pl F alveoli ambi. picture of a BV Z injected with radiopaque material. hence the R end-to-end continuity of 2 vessels. amygdaloid is almond-shaped. amylon = starch. E Alveolus (awl-VEE-o-lus). and eurys = wide. and logos = word. ana = of each. adj. A P part with similar function through different morphology e. an = negative. and stoma = mouth. fish gills and mammalian lungs (c.

anterior. an = negative. anus = ring. and hidros = sweat. anulus: diminutive of Lt. anus: Lt. (see also adenohypophysis) antero. separation Aperture (a-PET-tyuu-a) an opening or space b/n bones or w/n a bone. absence of sweating. Aortic semilunar valve . ante. hence a space in a bone or organ. anti.agonist. forward anteversion: Lt. hence little ring.uneven. Neill . hence little ring. (see also the ventral root). and flexere = to bend.against. Anterior pituitary gland the portion of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain composed of glandular epithelium. hence a muscle which may oppose an agonist. see also ventral) ≠ posterior Anterior horn a region of the SC grey matter containing the cell bodies of motor neurons. 71 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. L. it consists of 3 cusps that are attached to the wall of the aorta near its origin from the L ventricle. ankyle. ap. ante = before.toward . and agonistes = rival. = ring. the anterior angulation b/n cervix uteri & the vagina. anti = against. anterior angulation between the body and cervix of the uterus. It originates from the L ventricle. antron .before anteflexion: Lt.away from derived from. combating antrum: Gk.(AS anulus) anomalo. hence. Anterior root the structure emerging from the SC on its anterior aspect that contains axons of motor neurons. Anterior (ahn-TER-ee-or) toward the belly or front of the body..cave. and versum = turned. Aorta (AY-OR-tah) the main trunk of the systemic circulatory circuit.= aortic valve. anus = ring..The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z anhidrosis: (anhydrosis. typical of skin deprived of its sympathetic innervation. (in humans. ante = before. adj. ante = before. in front. near to ap. anterior: comparative of Lt.anal.bent.one of 4 heart valves. anidrosis) Gk. irregular antagonist: Gk. adj. (see also the ventral horn). ankle: the region between the leg and the foot. (AS annulus) Anus (AY-nus) the distal end and outlet of the rectum. crooked Annulus (AN-yoo-lus) the outer fibrous ring of the intervertebral disc annulus: diminutive of Lt.

Arachnoid & Dura from inner to outer layers) arachnoid: adj. Q areola: Lt. arthro = joint. used for sheet-like tendons. adrectus = raised. hence the fusion of Y a joint or the stiffening of a joint. aqua = water. appendix: Lt. Arteriole (ar-TEER-ee-ol) a small tributary from a larger artery that W delivers blood to a capillary. apo = from. desis = to stiffen. Artery (AR-ter-ee) a BV that carries blood away from the heart. appendere = to hang on. F appendage: Lt.chief. small. in H juxtaposition. which transmits fluid from the 3rd to the 4th ventricle. and ductus = drawn or led off. (Pia. arteria (to take away) arthrodesis: Lt.Gk. aqua = water hence watery or water-like Arachnoid (a-RAK-noyd) the middle of 3 CT coverings (meninges) of L the brain and the SC.g. arcuatum = curved or arched.the extremity of a conical or pyramidal structure. the cerebral aqueduct of the J midbrain. G apposition: Lt. L. in contact. hence. and eidos = shape or form. and physis = growth. and neuron = tendon (later applied C to nerve cell and its fibres). X artery: Lt. Arrector pili (ah-REK-tor PI-lee) muscle fibers attached to hair w/n the T skin. U arrector: Lt. inferior most tip that points to the L B side. aqueduct: Lt. Neill 72 . adj. open space. Also the tissue around the nipple S arm: the upper limb.the articular process of a vertebra. a bony process E . Lt. e. supplement. This middle layer of the three N meninges is spread web-like over the brain. hence.D aponeurotic.. a I channel for conducting fluid. aponeurosis: Gk. first.apophysial. P arcus: Lt. beginning. arcuatum = curved or arched area: a part of a surface. appendere = to hang on. R Areolar (a-REE-o-lar) a type of CT with sparse protein fibers in the matrix (loose CT). supplement. arcuate: Lt. arachne = spider. appositus = placed at. The A apex of the heart is the rounded. between shoulder and elbow.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Apex (A-pehks) . apo = from. Z ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Adj. K aqueous: Lt. M hence like a spiders web. apophysis: Gk. arrector pili = a hair-raising V muscle. O arch. an arch.

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

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Articular cartilage (ar-TIH-kyoo-lar KAR-ti-lej) the cartilage that covers the end of a bone, where it forms a joint with another bone. Articulation (ar-tik’-yoo-LAY-shun) = joint, which is a point of contact b/n 2 opposing bones. articulation: Lt. artus = joint, hence, articulate - to form a joint. arytenoid: Gk. arytaina = pitcher, and eidos = shape or form, the arytenoid cartilage curves like a spout as- toward , near to Ascending colon (ah-SEN-ding KO-lun) a segment of the large intestine that extends from the caecum to the transverse colon = Right colon. aspect: a view of more than one surface. aspera: Lt. rough. asterion: Gk. asterios = starry. asthen- weak, weakness Astrocyte (AS-tro-site) a neuroglial cell type common in the CNS, particularly the brain. Astrocytes are believed to form a structural framework b/n neurons, BV, and other neuroglial cells by their attachments. They are also capable of impulse transmission. astrocyte: Gk. astron = star, and kytos = cell, hence a starshaped (neuroglial) cell. ataxia,: Gk. a = negative, and taxis = order, hence inability to coordinate the voluntary muscles. atlas: Gk. atlao = I sustain. Atlas was the mythical god who sustained the globe on his shoulders. the 1st vertebra sustains the skull, and its upper surface bears 2 concavities to do this. atresia: Gk. a = negative, and tresis = a hole, an absence or closure of a body orifice or tubular organ atreto- closed, imperforate Atrium (A-tree-um) One of 2 superior chambers of the heart. pl.- atria. atrium: Lt. = entrance hall, adj.- atrial. atrophy: Gk. a = negative, and trophe = food, hence wasting from starvation. auditory: Lt. audire = to hear, hence, pertaining to the ear. auricle: Lt. auricula = a little ear - part of the external ear auricular - ear-shaped auscultate: Lt. ausculto = to listen to auto- self, spontaneous autonomic: adj.Gk. auto = self, and nomos = law, hence selfregulating.
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A aux- help, growth, increase Axial (AKS-ee-el) refers to the head and trunk (vertebrae, ribs and B sternum) of the body - axial skeleton including the skull and the C veterbral column axilla: Lt. armpit. D axis: Lt. axis = the central line of a body or part thereof, especially the imaginary line around which rotation takes place adj. axial. E Axon (AKS-on) a long process of a neuron that carries a nerve impulse F away from the cell body. axon: Lt. axis = axis, hence the main process of a neuron G conducting impulses away from the cell body. azygos: adj.Gk. a = negative, and zygos = paired, hence, unpaired. H

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The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

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bary- low, heavy, deep difficult and CT stroma that underlies epithelium. basi- foundation, base basilar: adj.Lt. basis = base. basilic: adj.Gk. basilikos = royal (king-sized). Basophil (BAS-oh-fil) a type of WBC that is characterized by large cytoplasmic granules that stain blue with basic dyes. Beta (BEE- tah) cell a cell in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans that secretes the H, insulin. bi- twice, two, double (see di) biceps: Lt. bis = double, and caput = head, hence 2-headed, adj.- bicipital. bifid: adj.Lt. bis = double, and findo = to split. bifurcate: Lt. bis = double, and furco = fork, hence to divide into two. bilateral: Lt. bi = two, lateral = side, hence, pertaining to two (both) sides. bin- twice, two, double bipennate: adj, Lt. bis = double, and pinna = feather, hence converging from 2 sides Biopsy (BYE-op-see) removal of a piece of living tissue for examination. blast- undifferentiated, immature Blind spot a region of the retina where no photoreceptive cells are present, due to the exit point of the Optic N. Body cavity a space in the body that is internally lined by a membrane, & contains structures including organs. Bone a CT that contains a hardened matrix of mineral salts and collagen fibers. Its cells include osteocytes, which are embedded within lacunae, and the free-roaming osteoblasts and osteoclasts. border: see margin. Bowman’s capsule (BO-manz CAP-sewl) the part of the kidney nephron that surrounds the glomerulus, (see glomerular capsule). brachiocephalic: Lt. brachium = arm, and Gk. kephale = head, a BV related to the upper limb and head.

D Basement membrane (BM) a thin layer of extracellular material E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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C bar- pressure

brief.. bulla: Lt.short brady. bronchioles do not) Bronchus (BRONG-kus) any one of the air passageways that carry air between the trachea and the bronchioles. L. bucca = cheek.slow ≠ tachy Brain stem the inferior portion of the brain that consists of the midbrain.short brevis: Lt. branchia: Gk. hence a flattened sac containing a film of fluid. Bronchiole (BRONG-kee-ol) a small bronchus . and medulla oblongata. pl. bregma: Gk. = bubble. adj. = a purse. where the brain can be felt pulsating in infancy. brachy.brachial.Lt. = short . Neill . pons. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ©D ma nd a Ne ill Bone Cutter 76 Z © A. = trumpeter . = gills.. buccinator: Lt. = bulb or onion.a series of small tubes that arise as branches from tertiary bronchi w/n each lung (bronchi have cartilage in their walls. .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms rA Brachial (BRAY-kee-al) arm mainly to do with the upper arm brachium: Lt. brevi.this is the muscle which blows air out from the cheek bulbus: Lt. = moist. = arm. bronchial Brunner’s glands mucous glands located w/n the submucosa of the small intestine. referring to the site of the anterior fontanelle (ie a little fountain) the site of junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures.bronchi. adj. bursa: Gk. adj.cf. buccal: adj.branchial.

canal: Lt. callous Gk. and is the only site of nutrient diffusion b/n the BS and body cells. Capitis . canthus: Gk.Lt. kanthos . = a wine-cup (plural . deformed. caput: Lt.calices) alternative spelling calyx. calcar = spur. calf: the soft tissue swelling at the back of the leg. cranium minus the facial skeleton. = head. recent (seen) calcaneus: Lt. = hard (AS callus) Callus a disorganized pattern of woven bone formed after a fracture. Capsule (KAP-syoo-l) an enclosing membrane capsule: Lt.v. capitulum: diminutive of caput. canalis = a water-pipe or canal.of a head.having a caput from Lt. calcar avis: Lt. calyx: Lt.). canaliculi.f. decapitate).i. The capillary wall is a single cell layer in thickness. (AS cecum) caen. = a wine-cup (plural . calotte: calvaria from which the base has been removed Calvaria (KAL-vai-reea) refers to the cranium w/o the facial bones attached. calvaria: Lt. = blind. canine: adj. calcar: Lt.bad. calx = heel. a very thin BV. L. Capillary (kah-PIL-lar’-ee) a microscopic BVthat interconnects arterioles with venules.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C cac. hence an enclosing sheet. hence the bone of the heel. capsa = box. = a spur. diminutive of canal.angle b/n ends of rims. Neill C .e. hence spur-shaped. calix: Lt. AS Cecum caecum: Lt. calva = bald head. 77 D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.capitate = having a head (c. cancelli = grating or lattice. capitis = of a head (q. diseased. = head. cancellous: adj. part of the skull containing the brain . the spur of a bird. Canaliculus (kan’-al-LIK-yew-lus) a small channel w/n compact bone tissue that connects lacunae. pl. capillary: Lt. callum = hard. canis = dog. ill (kak) Caecum (SEE-kuhm) the proximal end of the large intestine which receives the terminal ileum of the small intestine. calcarine: Lt. capitate: adj.calyces) found in the renal pelvis. callosum: Lt. Lt. hence a spur-like elevation.. capillaris = hair-like.new.Lt. adj.

cava: Lt. hollow. inferior (in human anatomy). cardium pertiaing to the heart adj. cauda equina: Lt. carneae: Lt. (in dentistry a pathological hollow in the bone – tooth). cavitas = a hollow. (AS coeliac) Cell the basic living unit of multicellular organisms. cauda: Lt. koilia = belly. = tail. cavity: Lt. carpus: Gk. Neill 78 . adj. (kar-nee) carotid: Grk karoo. L.caudate . = blind. Medusa = Gk. cavernous: Lt. mythical female with ugly and with snake like hair. kardia = heart.carpal. Carina (KAR-rin-ah) the point of bifurcation of the 2 primary bronchi in the lung carina: Lt.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms caput medusae: Lt. adj. cavum: Lt.Gk. carnea = fleshy. (also = the soma). = gristle. cecum: Lt. adj. containing caverns or cave-like spaces. carcin = crab -oma = lump cardia: adj. note legs are inferior not caudal caudate: Lt. caro = flesh. and makes up the bulk of the heart wall.. The matrix is mainly secreted by chondroblasts. = cave.cartilaginous. = to put to sleep. hence having a tail. cauda = tail. of primary importance. a small fleshy elevation. cardinal: Lt.. (AS caecum) celiac: adj. caput = head. hence toward the tail. It is characterized by striations and involuntary contractions. caruncle: diminutive of Lt. Cartilage (KAWR-tih-lehj) a type of CT characterized by the presence of a matrix containing a dense distribution of proteins and a thickened ground substance. Cavity: (KAV-it-ee) an open area or sinus within a bone or formed by 2 or more bones. compression of the common or internal carotid artery causes coma. cartilage: Lt. = a keel. caudal: Lt. adj.. Cell body the portion of a neuron containing the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm. hence. cardiac Cardiac muscle (KAR-dee-ahk MUS-ehl) one of 3 types of muscle tissue. cardinalis = principal.having a tail. cavum = cave. cauda = tail.Gk. = wrist. A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A. Carcinoma (KAR-sin-oh-mah) cancer of epithelial origin carcinoma Lt. = a horse’s tail.

and is the area of optimal visual acuity (clearest vision). (The Gk. L. central: adj. it is the convoluted mass that lies superior to all other parts of the brain. cerebellum: diminutive of Lt. cer. consisting of microtubules.wax (ser) cerat. kephale = head. cervix = neck. Central vein when pertaining to the liver.cervical.general. = brain.Lt. koilos = a hollow (AS coelom) cen. chancr. cervical: adj.cornea /horny tissue (kerat) Cerebellum (ser’-eh-BELL-uhm) a functional region of the hindbrain located inferior to the cerebrum. Neill C celom: Gk. letter chi = c). which is composed of grey matter.Lt. cervix: Lt.hand (kyro-) chol. chiro. cerebrum: Lt.canerous. constricted.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 79 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. cerumen: Lt. centrum = centre. cerebrum = brain. fibrous part of the uterus that is b/n the vagina & the body of the uterus.Gk. pertaining to the neck. bile (kohl) cholang. Cerebral cortex the outer layer of the cerebrum. It coordinates muscle movement.lip (cheel-) chiasma: Gk.head Cephalic (KEF–al-ik) pertaining to the head cephalic: adj. abnormal growth. rotting (kankr-) cheil. It contains cone cells (only). the central vein is a vein located in the center of a liver lobule that conveys blood from the hepatocytes to the hepatic vein. which play a role in cell division. Central nervous system (CNS) A major division of the nervous system (NS) that contains the brain & spinal cord (SC). adj. Cervix (SER-viks) the narrow.cerebral. Centriole (SEHN-tree-ol) cylindrical structures within the cytoplasm of a cell. It is the main site of integration of sensory & motor impulses. = neck. centrum: Lt. cera = wax. Cerebrum (SER-ee-bruhm) the largest functional region of the brain..hundredth part.new. common . recent (sen) centi.bile vessel or passage (kohl-ange) ..gall. kiasma = cross. hundred (sen-tee) Central fovea (FO-vee-ah) a small depression in the center of the macula lutea of the retina. adj. = centre. cephal.

movement (sin-ee) cingulum: Lt.yellow. orange (si-roh) cis-on this side (sis) Z ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.hair (sil-ee-ah) R ciliary: adj. E chori.Gk. Y cirrho. Its movement generates a flow of fluid (usually mucus) in the extracellular environment. I choroid: adj. N Chromosomes become visible during cell division. L. sing..cingulate. X bend or bent around. = cord. = eyelid. or ciliated. = juice. from which CSF is produced. chondral Chondrocyte (KON-droh-site) a mature cartilage cell.ciliary. surrounding circumflex: Lt.cartilage (kondra-) chondral: adj. T cilium: Lt. B Chondrium (KON-dree. also chyli: Gk. pl. adj. adj. like a membrane.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A chondra. cilia = eyelashes. W circum. Cilia (SIL-ee-ah) a hairlike process associated with a cell that is a S modification of the plasma membrane.coloured (krohm-) K Chromatin (KROH-mah-tin) the mass of genetic material in the nucleus of a cell.. hence. hence.digested fats (ky-lee) P chyle: Gk.eyelash (sil-ee) Q cilia. circum = around. U . an eyelash. chondria. Choroid plexus (KO-royd PLEKS-sus) a mass of specialized capillaries H in the ventricles of the brain. forming the middle G layer of the wall of the eye. chrom. F It lines most of the internal surface of the sclera. chorda: Lt. Neill 80 . consisting mostly of DNA. It is only visible during L interphase.protective membrane (kor-ee-) Choroid (KO-royd) part of the vascular tunic covering of the eyeball. O chron.Lt.um) the cartilage adj. cili. chondros = cartilage.Gk. girdle or belt. chorion = skin and eidos = shape or form.around .cilia V cine. = juice. and flexere = to bend.time (kron-) chyle. C Chondroitin sulfate (kon-DROI-tin SUL-fate) a semisolid material D forming part of the EC matrix in certain CT. J hence. M Chromosome (KRO-mo-som) one of the structures (46 in human cells) within the cell nucleus that contains genetic material. = cilium.

com. colon: Gk. colp.Lt. transverse. collum: Lt. kokkyx = cuckoo. adj. koilia = belly.vaginal (kohlp) columna: Lt. collis = hill. = communicating. clausum = closed. communicans: adj. like a bed-post.shaped. = of the colon.f. hence a barrier. it is characterized by a dense EC matrix filled with mineral salts and collagen arranged in lamellae that surround a central osteonic (Haversian) canal. hence. Cochlea (KOK-lee-ah) the portion of the inner ear which contains the receptors of hearing -the organ of Corti. hence. . coeliac: adj. L. and missum = sent. co. = neck colliculus: diminutive of Lt. clist.Lt. Neill C cisterna: Lt. with comitans: adj. = accompanying.with. collateral: adj. Compact bone one of 2 types of bone tissue.together. = neck (cf. declivity). = slope (c. fibres which cross b/n symmetrical parts. clavis = key .Lt. whose bill the coccyx resembles. containing the ascending.old Roman keys were S. descending & sigmoid sections. Colon (KOH-lun) the large intestine. clavicle: diminutive of Lt. (AS celiac) coen. cleist. together (koh) coccyx: Gk. Lt. con = together.cochlear. together coli: Lt.. = column.closed clivus: Lt. a combining form denoting relationship to the clavicle.. colli: genetive (possessive case) of collum. alongside. cochlea: Lt. con = together. = a cistern. commissure: Lt. = snail. and latus = side. claustrum: Lt. cleis = key. common col-with. collar).clavicle (klyde-) cleido: Gk.Gk. cleid.Gk.general . or pillar.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 81 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Collagen (KOL-a-jen) a protein that is an abundant component of CT. hence the spiral cochlea. kline = bed. eidos = shape or form. kolon = large intestine.closed (klyst-) clinoid: adj. (=dense bone).

Neill 82 . coronal suture). coracoid: adj.Lt. pl. Cone cell a photoreceptor in the retina of the eye that is involved in colour vision and high visual acuity..The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms con. = shell. pl. adj. = shaped like a small horn. corp.coronary or coronal. with (Kon) concha: Lt. and functions in the support and binding of body structures. cone shape constrictor: Lt. junction). hence. coronoid: adj.. conus medullaris . cornu = horn.together. hence a line which turns . Coronal (kor-RO-nal) plane a plane that extends vertically to divide the body into anterior & posterior portions. conchae pertaining to shell shapes as in the ear and nose Condyle (KON-dile) a rounded enlargement or process possessing an articular surface condyle: Gk. coronary: adj.body (korp) corpus: Lt.shaped like a crown. contra = against. = body.an outline. tornos = lathe. producing narrowing.f. kondylos = knuckle. con = together. = crown. conoid: Gk. also = the frontal plane. Cornea (KOR-nee-ah) the transparent. cornea: Lt. hence a coronal plane is parallel to the main arch of a crown which passes from ear to ear (c.the lower end of the spinal cord. contour: Gk.. and strictum = drawn tight. Connective tissue (kon-EK-tiv Tishh-ew) (CT) one of the 4 basic types of tissue in the body. hence. the opposite side (≠ ipsilateral) conus: Lt. conjunctiva: Lt. cornu: Lt. corniculate: Lt. L. hence. Corona radiata (koh-RO-nah ra-dee-AR-tah) several layers of follicle cells that form a protective mantle around the secondary oocyte.corpora. encircling like a crown. = cone. the dense transparent tissue forming the front of the eyeball. derived from 2 germinal layers. latus = side. It is characterized by an abundance of EC material with relatively few cells. = like a crow’s beak. and junctus = joined (cf.opposite against contralateral: Lt. corona: Lt. contra. konoeides = resembling a cone. = horn. anterior portion of the fibrous tunic covering the eye. con = with. = crown. pertaining to the body or the main part of the organ A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A.

f. = a little body. crossed like the letter X. adj.cuneate. as in red corpuscle (RBC) small package of haemoglobin (see also renal corpuscle) corpuscle: Lt. hence a muscle that produces wrinkles. corrugator: Lt. = crest. cubitus = elbow. cuneus: Lt.cold freezing crypt.crura. = a wedge. = rib.. Cupula a gelatinous mass located w/n the ampullae of the inner ear. Crown the part of a tooth that is exposed.hidden. Cristae sensory organs of dynamic equilibrium. cost. covered occult cubital: adj. culminate). L. cribrum = sieve. cuneate: adj.Gk. = a wedge.rib (kost) costa: Lt. and covered with enamel. crur.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Corpus luteum (KOR-puhs LOO-tee-uhm) a structure w/n the ovary B D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 83 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. kuboides = cube-shaped. = bark. (≠ medulla) cortex: Lt. Neill C that forms from a ruptured Graafian follicle and functions as an endocrine gland by secreting female hormones. plural .Lt.cortical. adj. cricoid: adj. coxa: Lt.Lt.ring-like. which are located w/n the ampullae of the inner ear. Crenation (kre-NAY-shun) the shrinkage of a cell caused by contact with an hypotonic solution. cuneiform: adj. and ruga = wrinkle.Lt.Lt. hence wedge-shaped. cruciate: adj. hence os coxae = the hip bone. .leg (kroo-r) crus: Lt.Lt.. = suspender.costal. Crest (KR-est) a narrow ridge cribriform: adj. con = together. cranium cremaster: Gk. kranion = skull. crista galli = the (median) crest of a cock. crista: Lt. crux = cross. circular. Cranium (KRAYN-ee-um) consists of all the bones of the skull with the exception of the mandible cranium: Gk. Cortex (KOR-tehks) the outer portion of an organ. = summit (c. = leg. hence the muscle which suspends the testis. hence. cryo. cuneus = wedge. hence. adj. Corpuscle (KOR-puhs-ehl) used to describe a small body contained w/n a sac. culmen: Lt. sieve-like. = hip. cuboid: adj. adj.

cutis. cyt-cell (siteCytokinesis (SI-to-ky-nee-sis) the division of the cytoplasm as a part of the process in mitosis resulting in 2 equal daughter cells. = little dome. cuspis = a pointed elevation. containing the cellular organelles. adj. Cuticle (cew-Tic-le) a narrow region of stratum corneum at the proximal end of a nail (=eponychium) cymbo. which is interpreted in the brain as dynamic equilibrium cupola: Lt. It lies outside the cellular organelle membranes.Lt. Neill 84 . Cytosol (SI-toh-sol) the thickened fluid of the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm (SI-to-plazm) the material of a cell located w/n the plasma membrane & outside the nuclear membrane.cystic. Cutaneous (kew-TAY-nee-us) membrane one of the 3 types of epithelial membranes found in the body.boat shaped (sim-boh) cyrt. = little dome. (AS cupula ) cusp: Lt. / cupula: Lt. kystis = bladder. curved cyst. L.skin (kew-tis) cutaneous: adj.bent. it is also known as the skin. cutis = skin. Cytoskeleton (si’-to-SKEHL-eh-ton) the complex supportive network of microtubules & microfilaments in the cytoplasm. A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA nd a © A..The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ma It shifts in response to changes in the position of the head.sac bladder (sist-) cyst: Gk. This shift generates an impulse.

ten.people. dehiscence: Lt. deferens: adj.remove. dent. having a toothed margin. finger. Dense irregular connective tissue a CT that contains an EC matrix densely populated with collagen fibers. which extend in irregular directions . = a tree. adj.half (dem-ee) Dendrite (DEN-dryt) a cytoplasmic extension from the cell body of a neuron which carries a nerve impulse towards the cell body.f.teeth dentate: Lt. Neill C dactyl. hence like the branches of a tree. dens = tooth. denticulate: Lt.Lt. decussatus = crossed like the letter X. Deep a directional term meaning away from the surface of the body. = flayed or skinned. L. having small tooth-like projections. hence the act of swallowing. a separation. dendrite: or dendron. D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 85 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. freeing from dec. dentine: from Lt. deka. hence. hence.f.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B D dartos: Gk. which extend in parallel directions. hiscere = to gape. deglutition: Lt. the capital letter has a triangular shape (c.digit. dens = tooth. deglutire = to swallow. de. Dentin (DEN-teen) the bonelike material forming the bulk of a tooth. clivus). Gk. Gk. (≠ superficial) Deep fascia (FASH-ee-ah) a sheet of CT covering the external surface of a muscle (also = the epimysium). undoing. decussation: Lt. a splitting away (as in wounds).multiple of ten deltoid: adj. hence. de = away. declivitas = slope (cf. = tooth (c.dental. delta (D). toe (dak-til) . It is the main component of tendons and ligaments.. dens: Lt. tenth (dess) declive: Lt. reversal. dens = tooth.found in the dermis of skin. dentist). Dense regular connective tissue a CT that contains a matrix densely populated with collagen fibers. population (dem) demi. the substance of the tooth surrounding the pulp. = carrying down. depriving. the delta of the Nile) dem.

diploic. dia = apart. double. and physis = growth.R diastolic. and pressum = pressed. and opsis = vision. de = prefix implying descent. twin diplopia: Gk. and phragma = wall. diencephalon: Gk. 2-bellied U (as in muscles). dia = apart. digastric: adj.dermal. O Diaphysis (di-AH-fih-sihs) the shaft of a long bone.. diploos = double. hence double X vision. in S general the structures surrounding the 3rd ventricle. adj. adj. detrusio = thrust away. adj-diaphragmatic (see phrenic). V digit: Lt. separation. derm. adj. I Descending colon (dee-SEN-ding KO-lun) the segment of the large intestine b/n the transverse colon & the sigmoid colon. hence. C depress: Lt. dia = across. apart. L. D Depressor (DEE-press-ohr) muscle which pushes down (≠ levator) E dermatome: Gk. & enkephalos = brain. T adj. and stellein = sending.diencephalic. & gaster = belly. hence to press down depression = downward movement or a concavity on a surface. twice.Gk. usually excepting the pollex (thumb) or hallux (big toe). a N partition. Neill 86 .secondary. J detrusor: Lt. = skin.. hence.digital. hence sending Q the walls of the heart apart. = fold. Z ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. between. K desmo.skin G Dermis (DER-mis) the layer of the skin lying deep to the epidermis H and composed of dense irregular CT. second L di. W diplo. dia = double. reversal.double. the cancellous bone b/n the inner and outer tables of the skull.two. dermis: Gk. relaxation or dilatation. hence the body P of a long bone b/n the growing regions near the ends. a F segment of skin supplied by a single spinal ganglion. i.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Deoxyribonucleic acid (dee-ohk’-see-ry-bo-nyoo-KLAY-ik AH-sihd) A (DNA) a nucleic acid in the shape of a double helix that contains the B genetic information necessary for protein synthesis. tome = a cutting or division.. adj. diastole: Gk. apart from M dia.through across. diaphysis: Gk. derma = skin. complete diaphragm: Gk. Y diploë: Gk. digitus = a finger or toe.ligament deuter.. dia = between.e. (= Left colon).

Neill . hence. separation. and phagein = to eat. dura: adj.two dynam.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A dis-apart from. or posterior. dysphagia: Gk. double . duo. twice. = back. = by-road. anatomy). the tough covering membrane of the CNS. disssecare = to cut up. dys = difficult. Lt. = duct. Dissection (DYE-sek-shon) to cut up to carve in a systematic way dissection: Lt. implying farther from a given point. Dorsal root the sensory branch of a spinal nerve which connects with the SC. two. hence. dorsum = back. (also = vas deferens. dorsum: Lt. standing apart.two Duodenum (dew-OH-den-uhm) the first segment of the small intestine extending from the pyloric valve to the jejunum.difficult painful abnormal rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. diverticulum: Lt. Ductus deferens (DUK-tuhs DEF-er-ehnz) the tube that conducts sperm from the epididymis in the testes to the ejaculatory duct. mostly of the head.Lt. duodenarius = twelve. di = apart. = disc. dura mater. dy. duodenum: Lt. Its pathway is very twisted. reversal. dys. Distal (DIS-tahl) away from the middle of the body or the axis or core of the body proximal distal: adj. and seminal duct).f. wrong discus: Lt. durable). L. and stans = standing. hence a blind tubular process or sac. Distal convoluted tubule a segment of the renal tubule (of the kidney nephron) that extends from the loop of Henle to the collecting duct. sectum = cut (c.power energy (dye-nam) Dynamic equilibrium the sensation of rapid movements.Lt. because it is 12 fingerbreadths long. = hard (cf. B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 87 difficult. from dis = apart. ductus: Lt. Dorsal (DOR-sal) a directional term indicating toward the back side. dorsal: adj. difficulty in swallowing.

and derm = skin. out of place echin. and ferens = carrying. elbow: the junction between arm and forearm. Efferent arteriole (EHF-er-ehnt ar-TEER-ee-ole) an arteriole that transports blood away from the glomerulus of a nephron (in the kidney). & parts of the larynx. hence. to raise up.the developing organism during the first 8 weeks of life after fertilization.Lt. ex = out.within inside into in on emboliformis: adj. hence throwing out. out. and bryein = to swell or grow. em. external.outside out to protrude over away less efferent: adj. ejaculatory: Lt. .outer. hence. over. excise surgically ectopic: Gk. ecto. ek = out. ex = out. Elasticity (ee-lahs-TIH-sih-tee) the physiological property of tissue to return to its original shape after extension or contraction.outside. to protrude over. less ec. Embryo (EHM-bree-oh) in the human . less / house Eccrine (EHK-rihn) a type of sweat gland that functions in the maintenance of body temperature. hence.outside. embryo: Gk. away. out.spine or thornlike processes (ee-kine) Ectoderm (EHK-toh-derm) one of 3 primary germ layers in the developing embryo. edge: border or margin of a surface. Efferent ductules (DUK-tew-lz) small coiled tubes that transport sperm from the rete testis to the epididymis. away.present in the external ear. ef. elevatus = raised up. and elevation = a raised part ≠ depress. protrude. ectoderm: Gk. ektos = outside. and jacere = to throw. It gives rise to the NS & to the epidermis and its derivatives. L. conducting from. embolus = wedge or blocking matter.Gk. the outermost germ layer of the embryo. Neill 88 . elevate: Lt. the early stage of intrauterine development. and topos = place. Elastic cartilage a type of cartilage (CT) that contains large numbers of elastic fibers in a more opaque matrix.ectomy to cut out. en = within. A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms E e. hence out of place.

Neill . = within. endo = within. and kranion = skull. Endocardium (ehn-doh-CARD-ih-um) the innermost layer of cells in the heart chambers (see endothelium) Endochondral ossification (ehn-do-KOHN-dral OS’-if-iKA-shun) where bone tissue develops by replacing hyaline cartilage. endoderm: Gk. a projection (usually smooth). endo = within. e = out. : krinein = to separate. and derm = skin. endo = within. and kephalos = head. and Lt. endocranium : Gk. ©D 89 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. here the cellular products are secreted into the extracellular space and transported by the BS. hence. hence.Lt. and kardia = heart. The endometrium undergoes changes in response to female hormones. L. endo = within.vomiting B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z eminence: Lt. the outer endostial layer of the dura mater. Endometrium (EN-do MEE-tree-uhm) the innermost layer of the uterine wall.within inside into on endocardium: Gk. Endoderm (EN-do-derm) one of the 3 primary germ layers in an embryo. Endocytosis (ehn’-do-sih-TO-sihs) the active process of bulk transport of material into a cell. respiratory system and the lining of the BVs. the endothelial lining of the chambers of the heart. encephalon: Gk.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A emet. resulting in a 28-day cycle involving menstruation during which much of the endometrium is sloughed off to be rebuilt again. en = within.with extra-cranial venous channels. en. endocranium: Gk.within inside in on Enamel (ee-NAM-ehl) the hardened outer covering on the crown of a tooth. emissary vein. and emissum = sent out. (also = ductless glands). It includes phagocytosis and pinocytosis. endo. endolymph: Gk. Endocrine gland (EHN-do-krihn gland) one of two main categories of glands. hence. the skull adj. lympha = clear water. one connecting intra. later forms the organs of the alimentary canal (GIT) & the respiratory tract. emissary: adj. it begins as the inner layer. eminens = projecting. endo = within. hence the fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear. organs that ductlessly secrete products into the BS. the brain. the germ layer of the embryo that gives rise to the organs of the GIT. endocranial endocrine: Gk.

& a congenital anomaly in others. ep. (also = ependymocytes). ie. epi-upon. the fold of skin over the inner angle of the upper eyelid. Endoplasmic reticulum (ehn’-do-PLAZ-mik reh-TIHK-yew-lum) (ER) a cytoplasmic organelle that consists of a series of tubules with a hollow center. & thele = the nipple. and metra = uterus. visceral layer of serous pericardium covering the heart. inner enter. and kondylos = knuckle. endo = within. epi = upon. Neill 90 . in addition to. beside. endothelium: Gk. It surrounds individual nerve fibers (myelinated axons of neurons). It functions in the transport of cellular products (smooth ER). (also = visceral pericardium) epicardium: Gk. and kardia = heart. A B C D Ne ill E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A. an under-garment. squamous epithelium lining the heart and BVs. L. over epicanthus: Gk. and as a site for protein synthesis (if ribosomes are attached. Endothelium (ehn’-do-THEE-lee-uhm) a layer of simple squamous epithelium lining the inside of BVs & the heart chambers (see endocardium).within. endo = within. called rough ER) (see also Sarcoplasmic reticulum specially adapted for muscle fibres).upon. Endosteum (ehn-DOS-tee-uhm) a membrane lining the medullary cavity w/n a bone & containing osteoblasts and osteoclasts. epi = upon. over Ependymal (eh-PEN-di-mal) cells a type of neuroglial cells in the brain that line the ventricles. It may refer to a vest or singlet. hence the mucosal lining of the uterine cavity. Endoneurium (ehn’-do-NEW-ree-uhm) the deepest layer of CT associated with a nerve. a normal characteristic in certain races. ent. Endomysium (ehn’-do-MY-see-uhm) the deepest layer of CT associated with muscle. epicondyle: Gk. intestines Eosinophil (ee’-oh-SIHN-oh-fihl) a type of granulated WBC characterized by a cytoplasm which absorbs the eosin stain.to do with the gut. on the outside. hence. ependyma: Gk. the lining membrane of the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the SC. Epicardium (epi-KAR-dee-um) the thin outer layer of the heart wall. among.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms endometrium: Gk. = an upper garment. on the outside. a prominence on a condyle of the humerus/femur. It surrounds individual muscle fibers. beside among. hence. and kanthos = corner. in addition to. epi = upon.

the upper median zone of the abdomen.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 91 epicranial: adj. the most external layer of the skin. epi = upon. it is characterized by a close arrangement of cells with little intercellular material. the CT surrounding an entire muscle.epiphysial. epi = upon. epidural: adj. Epidermis (epi-DERM-ihs) the superficial layer of skin composed of stratified squamous epithelium. hence. & kranion = skull. and mys = muscle. adj. called the glottis. and derm = skin. Lt.Gk. it surrounds the whole muscle. the organ perched posterosuperior to the testis. Neill . and glottis = larynx. epimysium: Gk.. Epiphyseal (epi-FIS-EE-al) line a line of calcified bone visible in a section through bone that is the remnant of the epiphyseal plate. (see deep fascia). and gaster = belly.to do with the vulva (ep-ee-zee) Epithelial (epi-THEE-lee-al) tissue one of 3 primary tissue types.Gk. Epididymis (epi-DID-imus) an organ in the male reproductive system that consists of a coiled tube located within the scrotum. and physis = growth. Epineurium (epi-NEW-ree-uhm) the outermost layer of CT associated with a nerve. which the greater omentum resembles (+ entrapped fat globules). epigastrium: Gk. epiglottis: Gk. and didymos = testis. hence. L. Epiglottis (epi-GLOHT-ihs) a part of the larynx that consists of a leafshaped piece of hyaline cartilage which forms a movable lid over the opening into the trachea. Epiphysis (ep-IF-ih-sihs) the end of a long bone that contains spongy bone tissue. epi = upon. hence. epi = upon. epidermis: Gk. epi = upon. rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. epiploic: adj. episi. (also = epithelium). Epimysium (epi’-MI-see-uhm) the outer layer of CT associated with muscle. It surrounds the whole nerve. external to dura mater. epi = upon. epididymis: Gk. Epiphyseal plate a region of cartilage b/n the epiphysis & diaphysis producing growth in the length of a bone. epi = upon. hence. surrounded by compact bone epiphysis: Gk. epiploon = a net. epicranial aponeurosis (galea) joining frontalis to occipitalis muscles. the end of a long bone beyond the cartilaginous growth disc. epi = upon. hence the uppermost part of the larynx.Gk. dura = tough.

cell layer lining the body’s internal & external surfaces.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A epithelium: Gk.. ethmos = sieve. (AS Oesophagus) ethmoid: adj. & thele = the nipple. outer layer. further from the inside. U prominent eyeball. N ex. ≠ flexed or bent. hence. e = out. C Eponychium (ehp’-o-NIHK-ee-uhm) a narrow region of stratum corneum at the proximal end of a nail. externus = outward. outside. Lt.broad. and ophthalmos = eye. eu. and eidos = shape or form. Neill 92 . normal. epithelium of the B gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.within I Esophagus (eh-SOHF-ah-guhs) a tubular segment of the alimentary J canal b/n the pharynx & the stomach. epi = upon. D equi. External auditory canal the epidermal-lined tube of the external X ear.outside. less Excretion (ehk-SKREE-shuhn) the process by which metabolic waste O materials are removed from a cell. exophthalmos: Gk. and versum = turned. P exo.to protrude. W external: adj. (= cuticle). Exocytosis (ehk’-so-sih-TO-sihs) the active cellular process by which S materials are transported out of a cell and into the extracellular T environment. out. hence. Z ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. extend: Lt. eso. Lt.good. erectus = straight or upright. easily L eury.equal erector: Lt. like a sieve.work F -ergy action erigentes: pl. one of two main categories of glands. extension = extended or V straightened. away. Q here the cellular products are released into ducts then transported to a R body surface or into a body cavity. out of Exocrine (EHK-so-krihn) gland. K hence. over. exo = out. an unpaired skull bone. wide M eversion: Lt. or an entire body. erigere = to erect. E erg. It passes Y through the hole in the temporal bone called the external auditory meatus. well. a tissue. extendo = extend/stretch out.Gk.red H Erythrocyte (eh-RITH-ro-site) a synonym for red blood cell. hence turned outwards. extending from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. L. G erythr.

including interstitial fluid and blood plasma. extra = outside. the external auditory canal. which consists of the B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 93 © A. and pyramidal (q. Extracellular fluid (ECF) the fluid outside the plasma membrane of cells. outside the serous membrane stretched around the inside of the abdominal wall and around the viscera. L. and the tympanic membrane (see Pinna). Neill rA ma nd a appendage known as the auricle. peri = around and teinein = stretched. hence descending nerve tracts that do not traverse the pyramids of the medulla. Ne ill . Extracellular environment (EKS-trah-CEHL-yew-lar en-VI-ROHmehnt) the body space outside the plasma membrane of cells.v. Gk. extrinsecus = from without. extra. extrinsic: Lt.Lt. extrapyramidal: Lt. in addition to. hence (usually) a muscle (usually) originating outside the part on which it acts.outside of out over beyond.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A External ear the outer part of the ear. extra = outside.). extraperitoneal: adj.

fasci. hence. = band or bandage. It is the body’s most concentrated form of energy. Facet (FAS-set) a small joint surface or smooth boney surface facet: Lt.deep fascia. faci.faucial. = sickle.f..band. and also serves to insulate from external temperature changes. conncteion (fashi-) Fascia (FASH-ee-ah) a sheet or band of dense CT that structurally supports organs and tissues. or the subcutaneous layer of fatty CT superficial fascia. pl. It is stored w/n cells comprising adipose tissue. hence.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms F fabella: diminutive of Lt.to do with the face (fasi) facilitate: Lt. femora fenestra: Lt.fever femur: Lt. a facet on a diamond). falciform (FALS-ee-form) falx: Lt. a small smooth bony surface. and superficial fascia separates the skin and muscle layers often loose. L.. Deep fascia surrounds muscle tightly.foetal or fetal.femoral. after the 2nd month in utero. Falx (FALKs) as in sickle-shaped or curved used in the brain mainly.Lt. Fat a lipid compound formed from one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids. adj. facilis = easy. a bundle of nerve or muscle fibres. febri. the sickle-shaped falx cerebri and falx cerebelli. adj. faba = a bean. = throat. shaped like a sickle. fascis = bundle. to make easy. adj. fasciculus: diminutive of Lt. facies = face. = thigh. variable . Neill 94 . hence. Fascicle (FAS-ih-kul) A bundle of skeletal muscle fibers (cells) that forms a part of a muscle. the site of a tendinous attachment (c.. falciform: adj.falciform. fauces: Lt. adj. falx = a sickle. ± coated with articular/joint cartilage. adj. fascial. fascia: Lt. A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A. = window. a sesamoid bone found in the lateral head of gastrocnemius. hence. in Man. and forma = form.. (AS Foetus) fetus: the developing mammal in utero. adj. hence the fibrous wrapping of muscles . Fetus (FEE-tuhs) the early developmental stage from 8 weeks after fertilization to birth.

flexor. flocculus: diminutive of Lt.Lt. it contains the sclera & the cornea. formed from fibrinogen & required for blood clotting.yellow flexure: Lt. fimbria hippocampi. flaccid: adj. Fibrinogen (fi-BRIHN-o-jehn) a large plasma protein. fimbria: Lt. flexum = bent. hence. & flexion = the act of flexing insert the unequals sign extension. a scalloped band of fibres alongside the hippocampus. Fibroblast (FI-bro-blahst) a large cell in CT that manufactures much of the extracellular material. a muscle which bends a part of the body. a muscle which fixes a part. it is found only in sperm cells. Lt. flex: Lt. flav. flaccidus = weak or slack. flexura = a bending. adj. fixus = fixed. flavus = yellow. which the tibia and fibula resemble. differential staining. adj. resembling a picture of a little cloud. fibril: diminutive of Lt. Fibrous tunic the outer wall of the eyeball that is composed of dense CT. Flagellum (flaw-JEHL-uhm) a single. Foetus (FEE-tuhs) the early developmental stage from 8 weeks after fertilization to birth. long extension of a cell composed of protein filaments to provide mobility. as in flocculus cerebelli.threadlike thread filament: Lt. Neill .Lt. In human cells. and close resemblance to dense regular CT. = brooch. flavum: adj. Filum terminale . fixator: Lt. = a fringe. filamentum = a delicate fibre. filum: Lt.a thread of pia continuous with the lower end of the SC. Fissure (FISH-er) a narrow gap or slit or furrow fissure: Lt. the precursor of fibrin.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z fibre: Lt. fibra = a fibre. floccus.. = a cleft. It is converted to fibrin by thrombin.filamentous. fibrosus = fibrous. L. (AS Fetus) 95 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. which is distinguished from other cartilages by the small size and numbers of chondrocytes and lacunae. with a woolly top and a flat base. = a thread. a tuft. fibula: Lt. It is found in the intervertebral discs particularly the outer ring. fibra = a fibre. Fibrin (FI-brihn) an insoluble protein in the blood. Fibrocartilage a type of cartilage (CT). the fibula is the movable pin fila.

fract. funis = cord (used usually for bundles of nerve fibres). = tongs. expanded compartment w/n the stomach serving as a temporary storage area for ingested food material. hence a concavity in bone.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms foetus: the developing mammal in utero. it is the area of highest visual acuity (sharpness of vision) a small depression on the retina. or on a lining surface. associated with the palpable pulsation of the brain in the anterior fontanelle of an infant. Lt. fusus = spindle. Frontal plane a plane that extends in a verticle direction dividing the human body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions. = a pit (usually smaller than a fossa).follicular. after the 2nd month in utero. fore. L.spindle (fewze-) fusiform: adj. or an organ. Fundus a large.. in man. Fossa (FOS-ah) a pit.break frenulum: diminutive of frenum.. = bridle or curb. foveola: diminutive of fovea. folia: plural of Lt. foramina forceps: Lt. fus. adj. A B C D E Ne ill F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A. (also = the coronal plane).foetal AS fetal. Fovea centralis (FO-vee-aw cehn-TRAL-ihs) the region of the retina consisting of cone cells only (no rod cells). pl. depression or concavity on a bone or formed by several bones fossa: Lt. frontis = of the forehead. fons = fountain. frenum: Lt. = a ditch or trench. = bottom or base. because the Roman prostitutes plied their profession beneath the arches of the bridges over the river Tiber). follicle: Lt. or coronal. adj. folium = leaf. folliculus = a little bag. (note that the fundus of the stomach & uterus are at the top. fundus: Lt.fundiform funiculus: diminutive of Lt. and the fundus of the eye & of the bladder are posterior!). fontanelle: French diminutive of Lt. hence. = hole.front or before forearm: the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist.Lt. spindle-shaped. fovea: Lt. frontal: adj. Foramen (FOR-ay-men) a natural hole or passage in a bone usually for the transmission of BVs or Ns foramen: Lt. = arch (hence fornication. fornix: Lt. adj. Neill 96 .

referring to a peripheral collection of nerve cells. gelatina = congeal material derived from partial hydrolysis of skin collagen. gelatin: Lt. gemellus: Lt. Gastric (GAHS-trihk) gland any one of several types of glands in the stomach mucosa that contributes to the gastric juice. Ganglion (GANG-lee-ohn) a cluster of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS.ganglionic. gestation: Gk.Gk. gastro. L. = cock. genital: adj. the bulging muscle of the calf. gaster = belly or stomach adj. crista galli. = gum (of tooth). = swelling. alphabet. the cock’s comb. genitalis = reproductive. girdle: a ring of bones which may be complete or incomplete hence the pelvic girdle is complete and the pectoral girdle is not 97 D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. hence. hence. Gestation (jehs-TA-shuhn) the period of development prior to birth.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B G the liver that stores bile. diminutive of geminus = twin. a bent knee. Gastro (GAS-troh) pertaining to the stomach Gastrocnemius (GAS-troc-neem-uhs) the muscle belly in the calf gastrocnemius: Gk. geniculare = (jen-ew) the knee. gamma: the 3rd letter of the Gk. hence. geneion = chin. genu: Lt. genitalia. gallus: Lt. It may be male (sperm cell) or female (oocyte). crista galli. = knee. Neill C Gallbladder (GAWL-blahd-er) a small saclike organ located beneath . etc. the sexual organs. Gamete (ga-MEET) a sex cell. genial: adj. gastric: Gk.. beta. geniculum: Lt. the cock’s comb. galli: genetive (possessive case) of Lt. ges = carry giganto. used in sequence alpha. adj. gaster = belly. geniculate: Lt. hence. Germinal (JER-mih-nal) epithelium a layer of epithelial cells covering the ovaries. = cock. gelatus = frozen.huge gingiva: Lt. ganglion: Gk. delta. and kneme = leg. gamma. geniculare = to flex the knee. hence.Lt.

It is part of the kidney nephron.. gluteus (GLOO-tee-us) gluteal: adj.Gk. = larynx.Gk. glossa = tongue.Gk. Golgi apparatus (GOL-jee ahp’-ah-RAHT-uhs) a cellular organelle characterized by a series of flattened. each of which is encapsulated by a Bowman’s capsule. hence. glaber = bald. glene = socket. an adhesive CT. = larynx. gland: Lt. bony prominence between the eyebrows. glans = acorn. (also = a mucus cell). gluteos = rump or buttock. glomerulus: Lt.gluteal. glans penis at the end of the penis . gnath. gloutos = rump or buttock.jaw (na-th) Goblet cell a unicellular gland often in the shape of a goblet that secretes mucus.Gk. Gluteal (GLOO-tee-al ) to do with the rump buttock behind adj. from glomus = a ball of thread (c.f. glottis: Gk. L. glandula: diminutive of Lt. or knot glossal: adj. hence a little gland.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms glabella: diminutive of Lt. i. Glomerulus (glo-MEHR-oo-luhs) one of many specialized capillary networks located in the kidney cortex. applied to the body of the sternum. gladiolus: diminutive of L. glottic: adj. gon. Gland a specialization of epithelial tissue to secrete substances. glans: Lt. glans = an acorn. hollow cisternae. globus: Lt. i. 1of 3 muscles of the buttock. hence. and eidos = shape or form. adj.looks like an acorn glenoid: adj. Gonad (GO-nahd) an organ that produces gametes and sex H. it is the prominent tissue forming endocrine & exocrine glands. conglomeration). In the male it is the testes. the boundaries of rima glottidis. Neill 98 . It may consist of a single cell or a multicellular arrangement. and in the female it is the ovaries. .e.corner A B C D E F Ne ill G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A. = a globe. a small sword. glia: Gk. & is the site of kidney filtration. = glue. a secreting organ.glandular. adj. = acorn. gladius = a sword.sexual goni.e. It serves as a site of anabolic activities. gluteus: Gk. smooth. glomerare = to roll up. Glandular epithelium epithelial tissue whose primary function is secretion.

granul. gubernaculum: Lt. Gustation (guhs-TA-shuhn) the sense of taste. granum = a grain. griseus = bluish or pearly grey. hence a little grain gravid: adj. hence a gland producing gametes ovary or testis. gubernatorial).nakedness gyn.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A gony. Lt. gustatio = taste. something which governs or directs. Lt. like a rudder (c.heavy Grey matter Nerve tissue in the brain and SC that contains neuron cell bodies. Lt. (also = taste buds) They are mainly located on the tongue & embedded w/n papillae. pl. gyrus: Gk. Lt.f. gravida = pregnant. pertaining to the sense of taste.gonadal. Gyrus (g-eye-rus) the elevation of neural tissue in the brain. L. and therefore appears grey or non-white in colour. gracilis = slender. hence. griseum: adj. Following ovulation. hence a coil of brain cortex. gyros = circle. adj.female (g-eye-n) Compact bone ma nd a Ne ill . = reproduction. The Graafian follicle secretes the female hormone estrogen. or gustation. . opposite of sulcus the depression in the brain b/n each gyri.grain (gran-ewl) granulation: diminutive of Lt. which produces progesterone. gustatory: adj. Graafian follicle: a mature ovarian follicle that contains a single oocyte.knee B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 99 © A. it changes form to become the corpus luteum. gravis. Neill rA gonad: Gk. dendrites. Gustatory organ: a special sensory organ that contains chemoreceptors providing the sense of taste. gracile: adj. & nonmyelinated axons. gyri gymno.

half (hem-ee) A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A. haema = blood. hence haemorrhoids are the extrusion of gut BVs through the anus. Haematopoiesis (heem’-ah-to-poy-EE-sihs) The production of blood cells in the red bone marrow. semitendinosus and biceps femoris). and rheo = to flow. or exposure to a hypotonic solution. hamulus: diminutive of Lt.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms H habenula: diminutive of Lt. Neill 100 . (AS hemoglobin) Haemolysis (hee-MOL-ih-sihs) the bursting of a RBC resulting from disruption of the plasma membrane by toxins. helix: Gk. Hair follicle a cluster of epithelial tissue surrounding the root of a hair where the hair originates. habena = rein. = coil. helix = a coil. hamate: adj. Heart the hollow muscular organ within the thoracic cavity that propels blood through the circulatory network. hallux. Haversian system (see osteon) smallest functioning unit of bone. hence. (AS hemolysis) Haemostasis (hee’-mo-STA-sihs) the stoppage of bleeding. spiral. hecl. Hair a threadlike outgrowth of the skin that is composed of columns of keratinized cells. Haeme = blood (AS Heme) Haematocrit (hee-MAT-o-krit) the percentage of RBCs in a sample of blood. freezing or thawing. = saccules. These have little or no muscle and so bleeding can be profuse. of the back of the thigh . hamus = a hook. AS hematopoiesis) Haemoglobin (HEE-mo-glo-bihn) a complex protein in RBCs involved in the transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide. hooked.ulcer (hels) helicine: Gk. hemi. hapl.single haustra: Lt. hamstrings: the tendons of the muscles of the ham . hamus = hook. which is determined by centrifuging the sample and measuring the RBC volume relative to other blood components. hallex = great toe (hallucis = of the great toe). haemorrhoid: Gk. (= haemopoiesis. hence likely to bleed. L.ie.big toe (hal-uhcs) hallux: Lt. Lt.felt behind the knee when the leg is flexed against resistance (semimembranosus.

histology Lt. Hepatic (heh-PAT-ik) pertaining to the liver. hidr. hence. the curled shape of the hippocampus in coronal section hist.tissues Histology (HIHS-toh-lo-jee) the microscopic study of tissues. hip: the lateral prominence of the hip bone and greater trochanter. plegia = stroke. hippocampus: Gk. Hepatocytes (heh-PAT-OH-cites) Liver cells.. hemiparesis: Gk. used usually to denote weakness rather than paralysis. hence the study of pictures Horizontal plane a plane that extends perpendicular to the length of the body dividing it into superior and inferior portions. heter. ology = the study of. opsis = vision. common. hemianopsia: Gk. like (hoh-me-oh) homologous: adj. adj. paralysis of one half of the body. & logos = word. different. paresis = paralysis. hindbrain: the part of the brain below tentorium cerebelli.-hilar.same.six hiatus: Lt. hemiplegia: Gk. hepar = the liver. = pictures.other. an = negative.entire homo.. hemi = half. half of a sphere.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z hemianopia: Gk. hence loss of half of the field of vision. hemi = half. homos = same. 101 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. hernia: Lt.sweat hier. = liver. hence loss of half of the field of vision. = a gap (like that between some people’s ears). L. hemi = half. hemi = half. hemisphere: Gk. hippokampos = a sea-horse. abnormal ≠ homo hex. hepatic: adj.hernial. (also = transverse plane). Neill .same (hoh-moh) homeo. = the point of attachment of a seed. adj. adj. opsis = vision. hence.Gk. an = negative. ie medulla oblongata + pons + cerebellum. sphaira = ball. hence the part of an organ where the vessels and nerves are attached. holo.hepatic. parts with similar morphologys but different functions. hepar: Gk. hemi = half. Gk.to do with the sacrum hilum: Lt. = a protrusion.

to urge. hypo = down. the endos of all syovial joints and the larynx. to stimulate Hormone (HOR-mone) a substance secreted by endocrine tissue that changes the physiological activity of the target cell.glass hyaline: adj. humour: Lt. and akousis = hearing. = U-shaped. tissue. Hypertrophy (hi’-PEHR-tro-fee) the abnormal enlargement or growth of a cell. upper arm (hew-mer) humerus: Lt. humor = liquid. cephalic). often pointed.parallel to the horizon. However. (c. physis = growth.to do with the arm. hyal. horm. Neill 102 .excessive ≠ hypo hyperacusis: Gk. hyalos = glassy. a downgrowth (from the brain). and glossa = tongue. Hyperplasia (HI’-per-PLAY-zee-ah) an increased production & growth of cells beyond normal limits. adj. Hyaline cartilage (HY-al-ine) a type of CT that contains chondrocytes embedded w/n lacunae. hyper . the costal cartilages. = the arm-bone. hence excessive sensitivity to sound. the nose. horn: a projection.Gk. Part of this gland is an upgrowth from the pharynx. (=pituitary) Hyposecretion (hi’-po-see-KREE-shuhn) the diminished secretion of a product by a gland. koilos = head.. hence.water hydrocephalus: Gk.hypophysial. L. hyper = over. ≠ hypo. humer.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms horizontal: adj. Gk. or organ. Hypertonic (HI’-pehr-TOHN-ihk) the state of a solution having a greater concentration of dissolved particles than the solution it is compared to (≠ hypotonic). hypo = under. hydr. A B C D E F G Ne ill H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a © A.water hymen: Gk. = membrane. both of which are surrounded by a dense. Hyaline cartilage is found in: tracheal and bronchial walls. hence the aqueous & vitreous humour of the eyeball. this is not the whole truth. semitranslucent matrix of collagen fibers & glycosaminoglycans.deficient below under≠ hyper Hypodermis (hi’-po-DEHRM-ihs) the area of the body b/n the dermis of the skin and skeletal muscle hypophysis: Gk. across the virginal vagina. hypoglossal: adj. hygr. hydor = water. hyoid: adj.Gk.f.

hence adj.over exhibitionistic emotion. L. thirst. including endocrine gland regulation. hysteria. refers to part of diencephalon. Neill rA ma nd a the diencephalon in the brain.v. Ne ill . hypothalamus: Gk. hyster.. and hunger. Hypotonic (hi’-po-TON-ik) the state of a solution having a lower concentration of dissolved particles that the solution it is compared to (≠ hypertonic).The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Hypothalamus (hi’-po-THAHL-aw-muhs) the small. inferior portion of B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 103 © A.hysterical pertains to female emaotions. noun. It functions mainly in the control of involuntary activities.).uterine (hister-) hystero: Gk hyster to do with the uterus thought to be the seat of all female emotion. and thalamus (q. hypo = under. sleep.

beneath infra: Lt.. non In vitro (ihn VEE-tro) outside the body.in. inhibitus = restrained. = funnel and the fluid opening in the Left ventricle. Neill 104 .to treat (ee-at-rah) icter. indicis indusium: Lt.pertaining to the flank or the leg ilium: Lt. = notch. Lt. to supply a nerve to a part. hence. lower Inferior (ihn-FER-ee-or) a directional term describing a location further from the head than something else. im. in = into.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms I iatr.Lt. on. onto. and nervus = nerve. the bone of the flank. inguin. = lowest. farther from the head end. In vivo (ihn VEE-vo) inside the living body. not. L. also.iliac. adj. = lower down. into. into.ileal. incisura: Lt. hence. in.below.pertaining to the ileum Ileum (IHL-ee-uhm) the distal segment of the small intestine. onto. eilein = twisted. infundibulum: Lt. reduction of the excitability of a synapse. incisum = cut up. such as in a culture bottle. the fore-finger. hence the anvil-shaped ossicle of the middle ear.in. incus: Lt. A B Ne ill C D E F G H nd a I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma © A. = tunic. = below. inguen = groin. on. index: Lt. = anvil.pertaining to the groin inguinal: adj. ili.. non ima: adj. innervate: Lt. hence. incisor: Lt.jaundice (ikter) ile.Lt. hence. = unpaired. = a pointer. inhibition: Lt. ileum: Gk. inferior: adj. impar: Lt. the funnelshaped distal end of the uterine tube which opens near an ovary. infero. hence artery thyroidea ima lowest artery to the thyroid . adj. infra.low. Infundibulum (ihn’-fuhn-DIB-yoo-lum) the narrow connection b/n the hypothalamus of the brain & the pituitary gland. adj. not.

and digitus = a digit. inter = between. and nomen = name. integument: Lt.Lt. L. Intercellular (ihn’-tehr-SEHL-yoo-lar) the area b/n cells. inspection: Lt. inspectus = examined. internal: adj. inter. set between. Integumentary (ihn-tehg’-yoo-MEHN-tar-ee) pertaining to the skin & its accessory organs. hence. hence.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 105 rA ma nd a I innominate: Lain in = not. and calatum = inserted. hence. Internal (ihn-TER-nawl) a directional term describing a location deep to the surface of the skin relative to something else. inter = between. hence. (= cells of Leydig).island insula: Lt. It aids in the conduction of an impulse from one cardiac cell to another. tegmen = roof. (= tissue fluid and intercellular fluid). without a name. intestine: Lt. Neill .like fingers. to attach. to interlock . visual examination.within Ne ill © A. hence. inter = between. intima: Lt. Interstitial fluid (ihn’-tehr-STIH-shuhl FLOO-ihd) the portion of extracellular fluid which fills the tissue spaces b/n cells. hence innominate bone = unnamed bone generally referring to the hip. = island. Intestinal gland (ihn-TEHS-tihn-awl glahnd) a tubular gland in the mucosa of the small intestine which secretes digestive enzymes. Lt. insertio = to join into. in = on. noun insertion. interstitial: adj. Interstitial cells (ihn’-ter-STIH-shuhl) cells in the testes located b/n seminiferous tubules that secrete testosterone. and sistum = set. interdigitate: Lt. intra. (= crypt of Leiberkuhn). nearer the inside. intestinum = the digestive tube beyond the stomach. implant. insul. hence. = innermost. Intercalated disk (ihn-ter’-kaw-LA-ted dihsk) a transverse thickening of a cardiac muscle cell’s sarcolemma at its boundary with an adjacent cell.between intercalated: adj. hence interposed. insert: Lt. Intervertebral disk (ihn’-tehr-VEHR-teh-brahl disk) a cartilaginous joint consisting of a pad of fibrocartilage located b/n two adjacent vertebrae.Lt. internus = inward. hence the skin coat.

and ire = to go. fusus = spindle. = a rainbow. iso.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms rA intra: Lt. ie an orifice or point of entry to a cavity or space. isch. upside down. = within. The iris is the coloured part of the eye surrounding the pupil. isthmus: Gk. Intracellular fluid (ICF) the fluid w/n cells.same ipsilateral: Lt. Isotonic solution a solution that contains an equal amount of solutes relative to another. intra = within. because the ischium contributes more than either the ilium or pubis to the acetabulum.a narrow passage. isthmos . Neill 106 . Lt. = equal. intrinsic: adj. intro = within. introitus: Lt. intrafusal: adj.equal similar iso: Gk. ischion = socket. inside out. hence to turn inward. ipsi. Lt. = in. inversion: Lt. and latus = side. blocking ischi. the same. Intracellular (ihn’-traw-SEHL-yoo-lar) the space w/n a cell ≠ intercellular fluid ≠ extracellular fluid. Iris (I-rihs) a part of the vascular tunic of the eye.suppression. ipsi = self.hip ischium: Gk. It is located on the anterior side of the eyeball & is composed of smooth muscle fibers that regulate the amount of light entering the eye. Islet of Langerhans (I-leht of LANG-er-hawnz) one of numerous clusters of endocrine cells w/n the pancreas. hence on the same side ≠ contralateral. and vertere = to turn. A B C D E F G H Ne ill nd a I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D ma © A. Intramembranous ossification (ihn’-trah-MEHM-braw-nuhs ohs’ih-fih-KA-shuhn) the development of bone from foetal CT membranes. iris: Lt. L. = on the inside.

throat (jug-ew) jugular: adj. jejunus = empty. L. = yoke (cf.near to juxta: Lt. jug. which may E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 107 © A. . D Joint (joynt) a point of contact b/n two opposing bones. juxta. next to Juxtaglomerular apparatus (juhks’-tah-glo-MER-yoo-lawr ahp’-ahRAHT-uhs) a structure located in a kidney nephron which is composed of cells from the distal convoluted tubule & the afferent arteriole. juga) jugum: Lt.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B J jejunum: Lt. joint: the meeting of 2 or more bones or cartilages. It secretes renin in response to a decrease in BP. at which movement is possible..Lt.yoke (jug) jugu. jugulum = neck. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill C Jejunum (jeh-JEW-nuhm) the middle segment of the small intestine. adj. = near. conjugal). Jugum (JOO-gum) referring to the bridge b/n 2 bones generally symmetrical with a Right and Left side (pl.jejunal. move. (also = articulation).

(see genu = knee) koilo. knee: the junction of the thigh and the leg. and cilium Lt. cornea Keratin (KER-ah-tihn) a waterproofing protein present in the epidermis. and Lt. kinetic). keras = horn. A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J nd a K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma © A.move kinocilium: Gk.tumour kerato. hard. keratin: Gk.nucleus kel. kine. kyphos = bent or bowed forward.hollow concave kolp. kineo = to move (cf.vagina koniocortex: Gk. L. and hair. hence protoplasmic thread of hair process in cupula of crista ampullaris of a semicircular duct. cortex = bark. sensory cortex containing mostly granular layers. = eyelash. kyphosis: Gk.horny.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms K kary. konis = dust. Neill 108 . hence. nails. skin.

lal.. laminae (lahMIN-ee) laminectomy = removal of the lamina to give access to the SC and its perforating nerves. Lacteal =lactiferous ducts.aminar. a small pond or gap.lacunar. hence. letter representing a capital ‘L’ and written as an inverted V. hence. pl. lacrima = a tear (drop). the act of secreting milk. pl.tear (lak-ree) lacrimal: adj. either a layer of NT. lacer = mangled. Lt. = plate. lac = milk. and ferre = to carry. L. Lacuna (lah-KOO-nah) a chamber w/n bone or cartilage matrix which houses a cell (an osteocyte or chondrocyte). hence. Lt. Lamina (lah-MIN-a) plate as in the lamina of the vertebra a plate of bone connecting the vertical and transverse spines pl. Hence. . lamellae lamella: diminutive of Lt.laminectomy = lamina + Gk. lacerum: Lt. lambdoid (L-shaped) Lamella (lah-MEHL-a) concentric ring of hardened bone matrix found in compact bone.labial.excision of the vertebral laminae. lactation: Lt. tornforamen lacerum is often torn in head injuries.labyrinthine. or cheeks or malnutrition. lactiferous: adj. lac = milk.. lactic: adj.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B L labium: Lt. adj. adj. lapar. labyrinth: Gk. as in vertebral laminae. adj. = rim. resembling milk. lacerated. adj.lacunae. ektome = excision .abdominal cavity lapis. adj. Lt. Lt. specialized lymphatic ducts in the small intestine to absorb large fat molecules. lana = wool. the fine downy hair on the skin of the foetus. a small plate.. lactans = suckling. like the laminae of the lateral geniculate body.stone D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 109 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. or of bone. labyrinthos = maze. When they do so they turn pale or milky. lamina = plate.lip . lacri. lacuna: Lt. = lip (plural labia). lac = milk. labrum: Lt. like lamina cribrosa sclerae. Neill C labi. lanugo: Lt.talking lambda: Gk. lacteal: adj. lamina: Lt. or a CT membrane. hence. lacus = lake.

ligament: Lt. A B C D E F G H I J K nd a Ne ill L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma © A. colourless. hence.. pale (AS leuko) leuko. (AS leucocyte). ≠ depressor lien.lienal. earlier name was anitersor . Lens an oval. and forma = shape. Neill 110 . lentiform or lenticular. = voice-box.ligamentous. colourless..smooth lemniscus: Gk. levator. adj.. leg: the lower limb b/n the knee & the ankle. leio.white. lentiform: adj. lemniskos = a band or ribbon (applied to nerve fibres).white. ligamentum = bandage.left liga. transparent structure located b/n the posterior iris & the vitreous humor of the eyeball. & meninx = membrane. latus = side. Lateral (LA-tehr-awl) a directional term describing a structure that is located further from the vertical midline of the body relative to another. = elevator.bind Ligament (LIHG-ar-ment) a band or cord of dense CT that extends from one bone to another to provide a joint with structural stability. larynx: Gk. Leukocyte (LOO-ko-site) a white blood cell. latissimus dorsi muscle.thi. = spleen. latus = wide. It is connected to the vascular tunic by suspensory ligaments -it is a cataract if it becomes opaque. lens = lentil.wiper of the anus.Lt. Larynx (LAR-ihnks) a box-like cartilaginous organ in the respiratory tract located b/n the pharynx & the trachea. hence. = lentil . lepto. usually tying parts to each other.spleen (leen) lien: Lt.Lt. delicate small mild leptomeninx: Gk. pale (AS leuco) Leucocyte (LOO-ko-site) a white blood cell. Lt. nearer the side. generally refers to pia & arachnoid meninges leuco. lateral: adj. lens: Lt.laryngeal. hence.transparent body with surfaces curved to redirect light adj. lentilshaped. the widest muscle of the back. lata: Lt. (AS leukocyte).The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Large intestine the final segment of the alimentary canal consisting of a large tube that forms the faeces. adj. levo. latus = side. lepto = delicate.to lift up ≠ depressor levator: Lt. latissimus: superlative of adj. adj. L. which is expelled by the process of defecation.

hence. adj. longus. a lobule. the brain limbic lobe is made up of structures which encircle the junction of the diencephalon and telencephalon. adj. 111 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.line (lin-ee-ah) linea: Lt. hence. = a threshold.. adj. limbus: Lt. lobulus: Lt. detoxification of blood. Lobules when pertaining to the liver. the longest. limbus of cornea. longitudo = length. loin: Lt.smooth lip.location place locus: Lt. adj. and production of bile. Lt. lingual. L.long longissimus: superlative of Lt. ether. hence. lobos = lobe. lio. a little tongue. Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis..Lt. the lingual frenulum connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth. = line. lobule: diminutive of lobus. lingu. loc.lobar. linea. hence.limbic. a place (cf. It includes fats. = a margin.tongue lingua: Lt. longus = long. = tongue. lengthwise. location. lobus: Gk. locate.stone Liver a large digestive organ in the superior right corner of the abdominopelvic cavity that functions mainly in the interconversion of energy-storage molecules. its circular junction with the sclera. Lipoprotein (lih’-po-PRO-teen) a protein-lipid complex produced by the liver that transports cholesterol and triglycerides through the BS. lumbus . Neill . whereas high density lipoproteins (HDLs) are associated with a reduced risk. lith. diminutive of lobus. usually curved. hence. limen: Lt. and chloroform. lingula: diminutive of lingua. phospholipids. subliminal . hence. and steroids.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z limbic: adj.the part of the back b/n the ribs and the hip bone. . Lingual (LIHN-gwal) pertaining to the tongue.lingular. For example. limbus = a margin. dislocate). longitudinal: adj.fat Lipid (LIH-pihd) an organic compound that is usually insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol.below threshold. usually curved. the lobules are cuboidal subdivisions of the liver that contain rows upon rows of hepatocytes.

ly. hence the space within a tube.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ©D longus: adj. .loin lumbar: Lt.Lt. crescentic. hence worm-shaped muscles of the palm. Lymph nodules a compact cluster of lymphocytes w/n a lymph node. which are produced by fibroblasts. lumbus = loin adj. hence.disintegrate Lysosome (LI-so-sohm) a cellular organelle that contains digestive enzymes..light (loo-s) lucidum: Lt. A B C D E F G H I J K nd a Ne ill L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z rA ma © A. lys. hence.clear spring water. lue. Lung one of two large organs in the thoracic cavity which is responsible for the exchange of respiratory gases. Lymphatic vessel a hollow tubular structure similar to a vein that transports lymph in a direction leading toward the heart. lymphatic Lymph node a small. Lt. luteum: adj. lumbrical: Lt. Lymphocyte (LIHM-fo-site) a type of WBC lacking large granules in the cytoplasm it plays a central role in immunity.syphilis lumb. = long. lympha . Lumen (LOO-mehn) the potential space w/n a tubular structure. lymphatic: a vessel carrying lymph.lymphoid.dissolved Lymph (lihmf) the slow-moving fluid w/n lymphatic vessels of the lymphatic system. oval organ located w/n the lymphatic vessel network. luna = moon. Neill 112 . It is the most widespread of all CT.see loin. lucidus = clear. lunate: adj. (= lymphoid tissue). the hole in the tube lumen: Lt. Lt.e. lumbricus = worm. = opening. Lymphatic tissue a specialized type of CT containing an abundance of lymphocytes. (also = areolar tissue). i. longissimus (superlative) = the longest. adj. luc. lymph: Lt. L. Loose connective tissue a type of CT consisting of loosely-packed protein fibers of collagen and elastin in a semifluid matrix. = yellow.

malleus: Lt.spotless). adj. macula: Lt. adj.. manubrium: Lt. adj. large enough to be seen with the naked eye. man. immaculate .hand manus: Lt. = great. Mammary (MAM-ar-ree) gland a modified sweat gland in the breast that serves as the gland of milk secretion for nourishment of the young. the movable lower jaw..masseteric..mammary.abnormal bad malac. Macula lutea (MAK-yoo-law LOO-tee-ah) a yellow-colored depression in the retina of the eye. Neill C macro. malleus = hammer. mammilla: diminutive of mamma.soft malar. makros = large. margin: the edge or border of a surface. = spot (cf.. Marrow (MAR-oh) the soft.cheek bone magna: Lt.. masseter: Gk. = hand (cf.pertaining to the breast D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 113 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Macrophage (MAK-ro-fahrj) a large phagocytic cell originating from a monocyte. = chewer. mandere = to chew. Major (MAY-jaw) bigger of the 2 things malleolus: diminutive of Lt. = the hammer.malleolar. L.large. = breast.big mal.marginal. = handle. great makro. hence.macular. = a hammer. adj.mammillary.big . mamma: Lt.. magna. adj. adj. adj. adj. consisting of adipose tissue. mandible: Lt..Gk. highly vascularized tissue w/n bone. It includes yellow marrow. hence. manual). Malleus (MAL-ee-uhs) the lateral ear bone that contacts the tympanic membrane.g. which consists of blood. pertaining to gross anatomy.mandibular. and skopein = to examine.manubrial. e.forming tissue (also = haeopoietic tissue). and red marrow. mast..The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B M macroscopic: adj..

medius: Lt. intermediate Medial (MEE-dee-al) a directional term describing a part lying nearer to the vertical midline of the body relative to another part. the medulla of the kidneys.. and stans = standing. now used only for the upper jaw. In the adult this contains yellow marrow.Lt. medial: adj.large meio. Mediastinum (mee’-dee-ah-STIH-nuhm) the region in the thoracic cavity b/n the two peural cavities.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Mast cell (MAH-st) a basophil that has migrated out of the BS to the extracellualr tissue generally found in loose CT. median: Lt.breast meat. and nail bed.large megalo.meatal. and the major vessels of the heart. part of an organ. = passage.opening Meatus (mee-AY-tus) canal opening passage meatus: Lt. = middle. contract mel. = a female animal used for breading. cheek A B C D E F G H I J K L nd a Ne ill M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma © A. medius = middle. part of the trachea. adj. matrix: Lt.middle. applied to part of an organ deep to its cortex. maz. L. mastoid: adj. adj. = marrow. (mass-toyd) Matrix (MAY-trihks) the intercellular material in CT. mastos = breast or teat. Medullary cavity (mehd-UL-lar-ee KAV-ih-tee) the potential space w/n the shaft of a long bone. It secretes heparin (an anticoagulant) and seratonin (promotes inflammation) and the immune response . maxilla: Lt. a median vertical partition. or deeper. meg. nearer the median plane. medi. refers to ground substance of CT. Medulla (meh-DUL-ah) an inner. = jaw-bone. masticere = to chew. womb.Gk.reduce. and eidos = shape or form. mastication: Lt. ≠ cortex medulla: Lt. mediastinum: Lt. the medulla of the adrenal gland & the lymph node.maxillary. adj .medullary Medulla oblongata (meh-DUHL-ah ob’-long-GAR-tah) the inferior part of the brain stem.limb. Neill 114 . e.g. medius = middle. & to the SC & adjoining part of brain stem adj . part of the oesophagus.mediastinal. It consists of the heart. hence. medianus = in the middle.

menses meninges: pl. and enteron = intestine.middle mesencephalon: Gk. menis .mesencephalic. Melanocyte (MEHL-ahn-o-site’) a cell normally located deep to the epidermis in the skin that secretes melanin.mind. and enkephalos = brain. or only CT. the intermediate part of the broad ligament. membrana = a thin sheet. between. Neill . (also = malignant melanoma). mesentery: Gk. mens = mind. the peritoneal fold which tethers the centrally placed small intestine.subsequent. mesosalpinx: Gk.a small crescent. Mesothelium (mehz’-oh-THEE-lee-uhm) a simple squamous epithelium lining parts of the body’s ventral cavity. mesos = middle. Mesoderm (MEEZ-oh-derm) the middle of the three primary germ layers in a developing embryo that forms the muscles.meningeal. ment. mesos = middle. and karpus = wrist.Lt.mesenteric. mer. adj. It may play a role in circadian rhythms. and salpinx = tube. and derma = skin. mesos = middle. the heart and BVs. Membrane (MEHM-bran) a thin sheet of tissue that lines or covers body structures. L. meninx = a membrane. chin mental: adj. the embryonic CT of the mesoderm.. It may contain a thin layer of epithelial tissue and CT. of Gk. & chymos = juice. mesoderm: Gk. changing after metacarpus: Gk. ©D 115 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.black B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Melanin (MEHL-ah-nihn) a dark pigment released into some parts of the body like the skin. mesos = middle.. meta = after. transformation.membranous. adj. Melatonin (mehl’-ah-TO-nihn) a H secreted by the pineal gland. & the CT.. membrane: Lt. adj.. meta. mesenchyme: Gk.part. Membranous bone a type of embryonic osseous tissue representing early skeletal development in a late embryo. segment mes. . the middle germ layer of the embryo. men. adj. meniscus: Lt.metacarpal. Melanoma (mehl-an-OH-mah) a highly metastatic malignancy arising from melanocytes in the skin. adj.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A melan. mesos = middle. or Lt. mentum = chin.

hence. Microvilli (mi’-kro-VIHL-i) microscopic extensions of the cell membrane filled with cytoplasm that serve to increase the absorptive surface area of the cell. .. metatarsus: Gk. and physis = growth. meta = after.smallest minimus: Lt. hence. alongside the epiphysial or growth cartilage. It provides mobility for the cell. Mitochondrion (mite’-o’-KOHN-dree-ohn) a cellular organelle that consists of a double layer of plasma membrane where many of the catabolic activities of the cell take place. It serves as a relay center for impulses. adj. adj. each of which contains the same genetic composition as the original parent. meta = after. Neill 116 .middle Midbrain (MID-brayn) the superior part of the brain stem.reduced contraction miosis: Gk. Middle ear the area of the ear b/n the tympanic membrane of the outer ear & the bony labyrinth of the inner ear. = smallest.thousandth minimus.smaller of 2 things mio. micturare = to desire to pass urine.small Microfilament (mi’-kro-FIHL-ah-mehnt) a rod-shaped component of cytoplasm composed of protein. Midsagittal (MID-sahj-ih-tahl) a plane that extends vertically through the body. adj. L. Mitosis (mi-TO-sihs) the division of a cell’s nucleus into two daughter nuclei. It is an epithelial-lined space housing the 3 ear ossicles. equal division of the whole cell results.Gk. When mitosis is followed by cytokinesis. located b/n the diencephalon and the pons. b/n the 2 ends of a long bone. mid. A B C D E F G H I J K L nd a Ne ill M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma © A. minor. metopic: adj. and tarsos = ankle. Microtubule (mi’-kro-ew-yool) a tube-shaped component of cytoplasm composed of protein providing support and shape for the cell.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms metaphysis: Gk.metaphysial. micturition: Lt. (also = the tympanic cavity). meiosis = lessening..metatarsal. pupillary constriction. metopon = forehead. the bones beyond the tarsus. (also = the mesencephalon). dividing it into unequal right and left portions. Microglia (mi’-kro-GLEE-aw) a type of neuroglia in the brain characterized by its small size & phagocytic function. milli.miotic. hence. micro.

117 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. the body and head of which represent the main belly of a muscle. Monocyte (MON-oh-site) a large. = mountain. hence.shape morphology: Gk. multi. study of pattern of structure.. If the cell moves from the BS to the extracellular tissue. modiolus: Lt. musculus. a cylindrical borer with a serrated edge. mola = mill. a form of sensation . morphos = form. and the tail. agranular WBC that is phagocytic.Lt. (= a goblet cell). Motor end plate the portion of the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber that is in close association with a motor neuron. Mucous (MYOO-kuhs) cell a unicellular gland that secretes mucus. and findere = to split. L.many (mul-tee) multifidus: Lt. modus = mode. the central stem of the bony cochlea. the tendon. sight. hence.memory (mem) modality: Lt. mnem. Motor nerve a nerve that contains axons from motor neurons. containing mostly water & polysaccharides. pain. Muscle (MUSS-l) an organ composed of skeletal muscle tissue & its associated CT that functions mainly in the production of movement of the skeleton.e. touch. mons pubis. multus = much. characterized by its ability to contract. mons: Lt. molar: adj. and thereby transmits impulses away from the CNS. Muscularis (muhs’-kyoo-LAHR-ihs) a layer of smooth muscle tissue w/n the wall of an organ. the soft tissue bulge over the female pubes. muscle: Lt. Muscle tissue one of the 4 primary types of tissue in the body. morph.morphological.g.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Mixed nerve a nerve that contains axons from sensory and motor B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z neurons. adj. Muscle fibre a synonym for muscle cell. hence. Neill . (= mucous membrane). and logos = word or relation. mus = mouse. Mucosa (myoo-KO-saw) an epithelial membrane that lines a body cavity or organ & contains cells that secrete mucus. it is called a macrophage. diminutive of Gk. Mucus (MYOO-kuhs) a thick fluid secretion from mucous cells. like a screw.

segmented insulative cover over the axons of many peripheral neurons that is produced by Schwann cells. spinal cord myelin: Gk. mys = muscle.fungal (my-seet-) mydriasis: Gk.mucoid (mix) A B C D E F G H I J K L nd a Ne ill M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ©D rA Head Clamp 118 Z © A. myel. A neuron axon that is covered by the myelin sheath is said to be myelinated.molar mylohyoid: Gk. -. which extends the length of the fibre and is composed of thin and thick filaments of protein. hence. composed of cardiac muscle tissue.myocardial. myl. pertaining to the muscle of the gut. mys = muscle. and tome = a cutting. myelos = marrow. Neill . and enteron = intestine. Myometrium (mi’-o-MEE-tree-uhm) the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the uterus. and kardia = heart.myelinated. myx. myocardium: Gk.bone marrow .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ma mycet. L. adj. Myocardium (mi’-o-KAHR-dee-uhm) the primary layer of the heart wall. a group of muscles innervated by spinal segment. mylo = molar. and hyoeides = U-shaped. white fatty sheath of an axis cylinder.. myotome: Gk. = dilatation of the pupil. mys = muscle. myenteric: Gk. adj. Myelin sheath (MI-eh-lihn sheth) a white. Myofibril (mi’-o-FI-brihl) a rod-shaped component of a muscle fibre.

nas. neonatal: adj. neos = new. pallium = cloak. the tarsal bone is concave posteriorly. (also = an action potential). it is a cord of individual myelinated axons surrounded by perineurium. prefix . hard plate of mostly keratin. newborn. pertaining of birth. the cerebral cortex which developed more recently than the archipallium or olfactory cortex. nasus = nose.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B N and develops at the distal end of the fingers and toes.death Necrosis (neh-KRO-sihs) death of a cell. = nostril. which functions in the conduction of an impulse from one area of the body to another. navicular: Lt. nasal: adj.nares.nose (na-ris-) naris: Lt. navicula = a little ship. now a peripheral fibre bundle which conducts impulses to/from the CNS Nerve bundle also known as a nerve fasciculus. pertaining to the nose. plural . axons and dendrites invested & surrounded by CT and BVs.renal kidney Nephron (NEH-frohn) the smallest functioning unit of the kidney each of which filters. nervus = tendon. hence. hence. natos = born. Lt. L. Lt. nares: plural. hence. necro. resembling a boat.nose (nays-) naris. a group of cells. Nerve an organ of the NS composed of a bundle of neurons. hence. nephro. such as a neuron. Lt. natal: adj. nerve: Lt. Nerve impulse a wave of negative charges (depolarization) that propagates along the outer surface of the plasma membrane of a conductive cell. neopallium: Gk.neos = new. and Lt. natus = born. Neill C Nail a thin. Numerous bundles compose a single nerve. naris = nostril. reasborbs and secretes the non-protein fluid of the blood.Gk.stupor E F G H I J K L M O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 119 rA ma N nd a Ne ill © A. D narc. neo-: Gk. derived from the epidermis . neos = new. or a tissue due to disease. and Lt.

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Nervous tissue a tissue that consists of two generalized cell types, neurons and neuroglia. Neurons are specialized to initiate action potentials and conduct them at high speeds. Neuroglia provide numerous supportive functions, they are the CT cells of the CNS. Nerve trunk a combination of nerves that are secured together by epineurium to form a thickened cord of NT. neur- nerve neural: adj.Gk. neuron = nerve adj. neurium. Neurilemma (noo’-rih-LEHM-ah) the outer layer of a myelin sheath associated with a nerve fiber that contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm of a Schwann cell. Neurocranium (new-ROH-kray-NEE-uhm) the part of the skull which houses the brain. Neuroglia (new’-ROHG-lee-ah) supportive cells of the NS that are most prevalent in the brain and spinal cord. (sing. = pl. ) neuroglia: Gk. neuron = nerve, and glia = glue; the CT of the CNS adj. neuroglial. Neurohypophysis: also = the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is composed of NT and is connected to the hypothalamus of the brain by the narrow stalk, the infundibulum. The neurohypophysis receives two hormones released by neurons in the hypothalamus, oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). neurohypophysis: or posterior lobe of hypophysis - Gk. hypo = down, and physis = growth; hence, the posterior part of the hypophysis evaginated downwards from the diencephalon, and its stalk. neurolemma: Gk. neuron = nerve, and lemma = peel or rind; hence, the covering layer of a nerve. Neuromuscular junction (new’-ro-MUHS-kyoo-lawr JUHNK-shuhn) the area of contact b/n the terminal end of a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle fiber. Neuron (NEW-ron) a cell of NT characterized by its specialization to conduct impulses (conductivity). neuron: Gk. = nerve; refers to the nerve cell body, with its axon and dendrites; adj- neuronal. Neurosecretory (new’-roh-seh-KREE-tor-ee) cells Neurons that extend from the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and secrete the hormones oxytocin (OT) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

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ob- against, in front of obex: Lt. = barrier; hence, the coronal fold of ependyma over the lower angle of the 4th ventricle. Oblique (OH-bleek) slanting or deviated oblique: adj.Lt. obliquus; slanting, or deviating from the perpendicular or the horizontal. oblongata: Lt. oblongus = oblong; medulla oblongata. obturator: Lt. obturatus = stopped up; hence, a structure which closes a hole. oc- against infront of occiput: Lt. ob = prominent and caput = head; the prominent convexity of the back of the head; occlusion: Lt. occlusum = closed up; apposition of reciprocal teeth; blocking of any tubular structure; oculomotor: Lt. oculus = eye, and movere = to move, hence, pertaining to moving the eye. ocul- eye (ok-ewl) oculus: Lt. = eye. oedem- swelling odontoid: Gk. odous = tooth, and eidos = form, shape, hence, tooth-like. oesophagus: Gk. = gullet (passage from pharynx to stomach); adj.- oesophageal. Olecranon (OH-lek-ran-on) to do with the elbow olecranon: Gk. olene = ulna, and kranion = upper part of head; the upper end of the ulna. olfactory: adj. Lt. olfacto = smell. olig- scant, deficent, few, little olive: Lt. oliva - the oval fruit of the olive tree; oval eminence on medulla oblongata; adj - olivary. om- shoulder omentum: Lt. = apron; adj.- omental. omohyoid: Gk. omos = shoulder; hence, a muscle attached to the scapula and hyoid. onc- cancer Oncogene (OHN-ko-jeen) a gene that can transform the cell into an oocyte

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Organelle (or-gan-EHL) a component of a cell that has a consistent. the name given to the bony socket in which the eyeball rotates. pl.Gk. to resist or place in contact with optic: adj. orbis = circle. (also = the blind spot). ossicle: Lt. ora serrata: Lt. hence. hence. oris = a mouth. orthos = straight combining form meaning straight. . its ability to divide and to produce bone matrix. (also = ovum or egg). normal.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A onycho. Neill . correct os.orbital. similar structure in other cells and performs a particular function. . L. oppositum = put against.to do with finger and toenails (onee-koh) B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Oocyte (O-ah-site) A gamete produced within an ovary. = placing against. and facio = make. or. and ossification. Optic disk the area on the retina where the optic nerve exits the eye and contains no rod or cone cells. the process of forming bone Osteoblast (OS-tee-o-blahst’) a type of bone cell characterized by its mobility. Osteoclast (OS-tee-o-klahst’) a type of bone cell characterized by its ability to dissolve bone matrix.ossa.mouth ora: Lt. pertaining to the mouth. to form bone. adj.osseous. . Organ of Corti (KOR-ti) the structure within the inner ear that contains receptor cells sensitive to sound vibrations. pl. opposing. orifice: Lt. ora = margin or edge. orbit: Lt. orificium = opening. the cerebral cortex covering & hiding the insula ophthalmic: adj. ossiculus. hence. -osis condition of Osseous (OS-ee-uhs) pertaining to bone. = lid or cover.ora. pertaining to sight. Gk. adj. os = bone. ossis: Lt. os = bone. ophthalmos = eye. operculum: Lt. os. opponens: Lt.oral. oris: Lt. ossify: Lt. operculum insulae. adj . oral: Lt. diminutive of os = bone. Organ (OR-gan) an organized combination of two or more different types of tissues which performs a general function. the serrated anterior edge of the retina. and serra = saw. ora = margin.straight straightening (or-thoh) ortho Gk. oppose: Lt. ortho. optos = seen. os = mouth. .ora. Osteocyte (OS-tee-o-site’) a type of bone cell characterized by its 123 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.

ovum = egg. (also = an Haversian system). an opening. otos = ear. nerve impulses are generated to the brain for interpretation as head movements for static equilibrium. = a door.ear otic: adj. Otoliths small calcium carbonate crystals located w/n the maculae of the inner ear’s utricle and saccule.ova. The otoliths move in response to head movements. As a result. L. logy = a field of study. = egg. otolith: Gk. -osteum pertaining to bone (os-tee-um) osteum: Lt. Osteon (OS-tee-on) an organized arrangement of bone tissue in adult compact bone such that the bone matrix concentrically surrounds a central canal containing a BV. plural .Gk. Neill 124 . ot. the organ containing ova (the largest cells in the female). ovum: Lt. osteon = bone. (also = Haversian canal). Osteonic canal the central canal in an osteon that contains a BV. an orifice. osteology: Gk.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms rA immobile location within a lacunus and by a reduced ability to produce bone matrix. pertaining to bone ostium: Lt. or primary reproductive organ that produces gametes and female sex hormones ovary: Lt. oxy. hence.sharp A B C D E F G H I J K L M N ma nd a Ne ill O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D © A. and lithos = stone. otos = ear. shifting their mass which distorts the hair cell processes. calcareous particles in the utricle and saccule of the membranous labyrinth. Ovary (OH-vahr-ee) the female gonad. hence.

para = beside. and palpation. para = beside of near. D pachy. palmaris. paraesthesia: Gk. eg burning or pricking.e. parametrium: Gk.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B P located in the dermis that responds to touch (pressure). palaios = old. para = beside.papillary. & metra = womb. pan = all. = sweetbread. para = beside. adj. adj. abnormal. paralysis: Gk. unequal paradidymis: Gk. panniculus: diminutive of Lt. para = beside. to examine by feeling. par.Lt. derived from Gk. paed. paraplegia: Gk. the cerebral cortex forming the outer covering of the cerebral hemisphere.recurrence pallidus: adj. abnormal sensation. palpare = to touch. palpebra: Lt. and kreas = flesh. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and hormones that regulate blood sugar. Papilla (paw-PIHL-ah) a small finger-shaped projection. loss or impairment of muscle function. = nipple or teat. refers to testes.thick (pak-ee) E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 125 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.against.beside para. hence. aside. palmar . palma = palm. paralysis of the lower limbs. the collection of convoluted tubules in the spermatic cord. and didymis = twinned or paired. and forma = shape. oblong organ located posterior to the stomach in the abdominal cavity. paleo: Gk.child palate: Lt. L. adj. above the head of the epididymis. pallium: Lt.. paleocerebellum. Lt. = cloak:. pancreatic. pampiniform: adj. pancreas: Gk. Neill C Pacinian corpuscle (pa-SIHN-ee-an KOR-puhs-ehl) a receptor . CT within the broad ligament alongside the uterus. lyein = to loosen.Lt. papilla: Lt. pannus = cloth. near. palpate: Lt. adj. and aisthesia = sensation. and palpatus = touched.. pampinus = tendril. = eyelid. palatum = palate. palma: Lt.palatal or paLt. pan.general overall Pancreas (PAN-kree-as) a soft. = pale. and plege = a stroke. pali. the earliest stage in the evolution of the cerebellum.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ma nd a Ne ill P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA © A. and pathos = feeling. Neill 126 . Lt. applied to women who have borne children ≠ nulliparous. eg. para = beside. en = in. parous: adj. Lt. parasympathetic: adj. Lt. beside the kidney. = relaxation. adj. parasternal: adj. as opposed to the framework or stroma. Gk. each of which is located between the skin of the cheek and the masseter muscle on a side of the face. parietal layer of the pericardium outer of the 2 layers of the pericardium ≠ visceral.(also = the pericardial sac). The nerves synapse "beside" the organs they affect. Parotid (pah-ROHT-ihd) glands a pair of salivary glands. designating the functional elements of an organ. pararenal fat. Gk. Parenchyma (par’-EN-kihm-ah) the functioning elements of an organ as opposed to the structural or supporting elements (also ≠ stroma) parenchyma: Gk para = beside or near. Gk para = beside. hence. Parietal (pa-RI-eh-tal) pertaining to the outer wall of a cavity or organ e. and chein = to pour. It is attached to the inner thoracic wall. L. Gk. and sternon = chest. the parasternal line is a vertical line midway b/n the sternal edge & the midclavicular line. pertaining to paries = wall. and otos = of the ear. but has come to mean partial paralysis. the fatty capsule of the kidney Parasagittal (pahr’-ah-SAHJ-ih-tahl) A plane that extends vertically through the body dividing it into unequal right and left portions. parathyroid: adj. (thyroid). part of the autonomic NS which is complementary to the sympathetic NS Parathyroid (pahr’-ah-THI-royd) gland One of 4 or 5 pea-shaped glands located embedded into the posterior side of the thyroid gland. Parietal pleura (PLEW-rah) the outer serous membrane associated with each lung. para = beside. beside the ear.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms pararenal: adj. Gk para = beside. parotid: adj. pario = I bear (children). para = beside. beside the thyroid gland. parietal: adj. Parietal cell a cell in the stomach mucosa that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor. syn = with. paresis: Gk. parietalis. ren = kidney. Parasympathetic division (pahr’-ah-sihmp-ah-THEH-tihk dih-VISHzhuhn) the component of the ANS that stimulates activities which conserve body energy and direct BF to the GIT &/or the sexual organs. Parietal pericardium (peh-ree-KARD-ee-um) the outer serous membrane covering the heart.i.

penna = feather. multipennate. adj. applied to structures having the appearance of parallel teeth arising from a straight back (eg.Gk. pedis: Lt. about / beyond perianal: adj.to shine. = part. appendage).childbirth patella: Lt. pecten: Lt. Penis (PEE-nihs) the external reproductive organ of the male through which most of the urethra extends. Pericardium (pear’-ih-KAR-dee-uhm) the serous membrane associated with the heart. penna = feather. bipennate. peri = around. penis: Lt. pectoris = of the front of the chest. peri = around.. from two. per = through. 127 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. = basin. a small pan. pectoral: adj. the male organ of copulation (cf. adj. pecten = a comb.patellar. a muscle whose fibres approach the tendon from one direction is unipennate. from Lt. appendix. pennatus: (pinnate) . hence. Neill . pectoralis: adj. and from more than two. path.. pelvis: Lt. L. hence. composed of two layers.. pellucidum: adj. multipennate. the membranes enclosing the heart.around. from two. Lt. pedicle: diminutive of Lt.pelvic. peduncle: variation of pedicle. musculi pectinati) pectineal: adj. and kardia = heart. part. translucent. a muscle whose fibres approach the tendon from one direction is unipennate. Lt. hence the muscle attaching to the pecten (pectineal line) of the pubic bone.adj. pericardium: Gk.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z pars: Lt. Lt. and lucere . anus = lower opening of alimentary canal. hence. and Lt. pectineus: Lt. pedis = of the foot. = comb. pectoris = of the front of the chest. bipennate. = tail. Pericardial (pear’-ih-KAR-dee-ahl) cavity a narrow space b/n the outer wall of the heart (the visceral pericardium) & the parietal pericardium.through / excessive peri.disease Pathology (pahth-OH-loh-jee) the study or science of diseases. pectinate: adj. an inner visceral pericardium and an outer parietal pericardium. pennate: Lt. = of the foot. pecten = a comb. and from >2. per. Lt. It contains pericardial fluid.

away from the centre (c. Periodontal ligament (pear’-ee-o-DON-tal LIG-ah-ment) a CT membrane that surrounds a tooth and connects it to the bone of the jaw. perichondrium: Gk. the caudal aspect of the trunk b/n the thighs. periodontal: adj.f. peri = around. Peripheral (per-IH-fehr-ahl) nervous system (PNS) The division of the NS consisting of nerves and ganglia located between the CNS and the body surfaces. L.Lt. the region of the trunk below the pelvis Perineurium (pear’-ih-NYEW-ree-uhm) an extension of the epineurium of a nerve that invaginates inward to wrap around bundles of nerve fibers. Periosteum (pear’-ee-OS-tee-uhm) the CT covering around a bone that is important in bone growth.Gk. the membrane covering cartilage.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Perichondrium (pear’-ih-KOHN-dree-uhm) a layer of dense CT that envelopes cartilage. peri = around and phero = carry. Perimysium (pear’-ih-MI-see-uhm) an extension of the epimysium of muscle that invaginates inward to divide a muscle into bundles. the external periosteum of the skull.peritoneal. and osteon = bone. nutrition. peri = around. and kranion = skull. peripheral: adj. adj. or. the membrane stretched around the internal surface of the walls and the external aspect of some of the contents of the abdomen. and stellein . periteino = to stretch around. peri = around. a circular constriction passing as a wave along a muscular tube. Neill 128 . peri = around. hence. peritoneum: Gk. hence.peristaltic. Peritoneum (per’-ih-to-NEE-uhm) the extensive serous membrane associated with the abdominopelvic cavity. perineum: Gk. and lympha . the fluid in the bony labyrinth surrounding the membranous labyrinth (and continuous with the CSF). adj.. periosteum: Gk. and odont = tooth.. Peritoneal (pear’-ih-to-NEE-awl) cavity the space between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum. peristalsis: Gk. perilymph: Gk.to constrict. pericranium: Gk. It contains a small amount of fluid. and repair. and chondros = cartilage. pelvic diaphragm.perineal. the membrane around a bone. peri = around. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ma nd a Ne ill P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA © A. adj.Gk. peri = around. periphery). = clear water.

perone = clasp. stone petrosal: adj.eater Phagocytosis (fayg’-o-sih-TO-sihs) a type of cytosis in which bulk solid materials may be transported into a cell. phan. petrosus = rocky..Lt.phalanges. Large groups of WBCs may coalese to form Giant cells to engulf large particles such as cotton fibres. adj. schizophrenic). one of the small bones of a digit. peroneal: adj. pl.brown. L.. / petrous: adj. petrosus = rocky. phren = diaphragm or mind. malformed B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Peroxisomes (pehr-OHX-ih-sohmz) small. pharynx: Gk. the production of either.vein (fleb-) phleg. the membrane which faithfully follows the contour of the brain and SC. phalang. speak utter phen. diaphragmatic (cf.natural (fizz-ee) pia: Lt.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A pero. diaphragm phrenic: Gk. = row of soldiers.pharyngeal. phallus: Gk. phren.Gk. = faithful.inflammation phon.light bright manifest philtrum: Gk. dusky Pharynx (FAHR-ihnks) a tube that extends from the level of the internal nares to its union with the larynx. phag. brooch . adj. philtron .mind .voice phonation: Gk. petr. Neill . phone = sound or voice. physi. which transports air. phallos = penis.appear visible. = soft 129 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.phalangeal. = foot.rock. hence. phas. spherical cellular organelles similar to lysosomes that play catabolic roles in the cell.fingers or toes (falanj-) phalanx: Lt. food. and liquid. Peyer’s patches (PA-yehrz PAH-chuhz) clusters of lymphatic tissue (farj-) containing numerous WBC that are located in the wall of the small intestine.the median sulcus of the upper lip.see fibula.Lt.appear visible phao.stunted. It is performed by WBCs for the removal of harmful particles and cells from the body. = throat. pes: Lt. phleb.

Pituitary (pih-TEW-ih-tahr-ee) gland a small. plan. pleura: Gk. pituitary: Lt. pirum = a pear. Plasma (PLAHZ-mah) the extracellular fluid that forms a portion of blood.lungs. Pineal (pie-NEE-ahl) gland a small endocrine gland located at the posterior end of the diencephalon. (also = the hypophysis). pinea = a pine cone. a real or imaginary flat surface. to wander plat. It consists of an inner visceral layer and an outer parietal layer. pea-shaped. plax = plate or flat. and movere = to move. planta = the sole of the foot. functionally important endocrine gland located inferior to the hypothalamus and attached to it by way of a short stalk. L. pituita = mucous or phlegm. hence. planus = flat. the pineal gland which is cone-shaped. hence. adj.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Pia mater (PE-ah MA-tehr) The innermost of the three meninges surrounding the brain and SC.flat level.broad flat plane: Lt. the gland was thought to produce mucous which was discharged through the nose. plantar: adj. subcutaneous muscle extending from below the clavicle to the mouth. Neill 130 . the action of the arrectores pilorum muscles.. hence.plantar or plantaris. platysma: Gk. = flat object. pleo. Lt. pisiform: adj. = a flat. Lt. and eidos = shape or form. = a rib. Lt. the sole of the foot. pineal: adj. pisum = a pea. Platelet (PLA-teh-leht) a formed element of blood that is active in blood clot formation. pear-shaped. Plasma membrane a microscopic barrier associated with cells composed mainly of a phospholipid bilayer and protein. pilus: Lt. pilomotor: Lt. piriform: adj. planta: Lt. pilus = a hair. placenta: Lt. round cake. Pinocytosis (pihn’-o-sih-TO-sihs) a type of exocytosis in which bulk amounts of fluid are transported into the cell. placode: Gk. respiratory Pleura (PLEW-rah) the serous membrane associated with the lungs.many (plee-oh-) pleur. (also = the epithalamus). The outer plasma membrane of a cell is also called the cell membrane. hence. Later used to name the serous membrane lining the chest walls and the lungs. Lt. forming a part of the roof of the third ventricle. = a hair. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ma nd a Ne ill P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA © A. the flat.

passageway porta: Lt.irregular polio. also Lt. porus: Lt.posterior part Posterior (po-STEER-ee-or) a directional term describing the location of a part being toward the back or rear side relative to another part. poikilo. Lt. Posterior horn a region of the SC grey matter containing sensory neuron cell bodies. poples = the ham or thigh. hence.pontine. and sometimes. = bridge.portal. hence.foot Podocyte (PO-doh-site) a fenestrated cell forming the visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule in the kidneys. or lymphatic vessels.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Pleural cavity a narrow space between the visceral and parietal B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z pleurae that contains pleural fluid. adj. Plexus (PLEHKS-uhs) a network of interconnecting nerves. adj. the openings of the acoustic meatuses.bridge popliteus: Lt.grey (poh-lih-oh) pollex. adj. ©D 131 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.thumb pollex: Lt. plexus: Lt. portare = to carry. = thumb. Neill . hence. a pore or foramen.several pne. In humans it is also known as dorsal. plicare = to fold.. por. poly. part of the brain stem.air. pneuma = air. L.popliteal. pont. referring to the fossa behind the knee or its contents. the knee. pollicis: genitive (possessive case) of Lt.many Pons (pohnz) a part of the brain located between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata.after behind postero. a fold.(also = the ventral horn). = a gate. pod.. pluri. posterior: adj. post. = a network or plait. the portal system carries venous blood from the alimentary tract to the porta hepatis. hence of the thumb. veins. plica: Lt. pollex = thumb. breathe (new) pneumon: Gk. pons: Lt. post = behind (in place or time).

praeputium = foreskin (of penis or clitoris). = slender. pro. recumbent face-down posture. an outgrowth. ie. Posterior pituitary gland the part of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain consisting of the axons of neurons originating in the hypothalamus and supporting tissue. the position of the body as a whole at a given moment. hence. They are the endoderm. promontory: Lt. princeps: Lt. primus = chief. positus = placed. and capere = to take. prae. to pronate = to turn the hand so that the palm faces downwards or posteriorly supinate. and fundus = bottom. and cuneus = wedge. = going forwards. sitting. supine. prone: Lt. the parietal lobule anterior to the cuneus. mesoderm. part of land jutting into the sea . pronatus = bent forwards. prominens: Lt. elongated.anus rectum profundus: Lt. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ma nd a Ne ill P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA © A. posture: Lt. ie. pronate: Lt. hence chief or principal. = projecting.g. promontorium = a headland. kneeling. prone.first Primary germ layer One of 3 layers of cells that differentiate during the embryonic stage to give rise to all tissues in the body. presby. pre = before. pro = before. prepuce: Lt. e. hence profundus = deep. pronatus = bent forwards.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Posterior root the structure merging with the SC on its posterior aspect that contains sensory nerves. proct. hence. (also = the dorsal root). procerus: Lt. recumbent. usually bone eg.in front of before pre. L.in front of before precuneus: Lt. the zygomatic process of the temporal. indicating growing out.a bony prominence.old prim.in front of Process (PROH-sehs) general term used to describe any marked projection or prominence process/processus: Lt. erect. and ectoderm. the vertical slip of muscle between the medial part of frontalis and the root of the nose. Neill 132 .

Lt. Prostate (PROH-stat) gland a walnut-shaped gland surrounding the urethra as it emerges from the urinary bladder in males. and Gk. hence.forward anterior prosection: Lt. pro = before. One who prepares an anatomical dissection prosencephalon: Lt. sensory impulses received by the joints and muscles within one’s own body. pro = in front.g. protubero = I bulge out. Pseudostratified (sew’-do-STRAHT-ih-fide) pertaining to a single layer of epithelial cells which appears multi-layered when viewed in a prepared slide. to put forwards (e. Its secretions contribute to semen. hence. proxime = nearest. Protraction .face down B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z proprioceptive: Lt. pro = before.wing (ter-) pterion: Gk. L. and captum = taken. protrudo = thrust forwards. = loin. pros.g. hence. something which stands before – e. pseudo = false stratified = multi-layered psor. protractus = drawn out.g. e. separating 133 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Proximal (PROHKS-ih-mal) a directional term indicating a body part that is located nearer to the origin or point of attachment to the trunk than another. protuberance: Lt. pseudostratified Lt. a bulging bony feature (see tuber).the act of protruding. protrusion . protract: Lt.itching (saw-) psoas: Gk. = statum = stood. and sectum = cut. part of the brain rostral to the midbrain. pseudo. pro = before.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A pronus. enkephalos = brain. nearer to the root of a limb. the tongue. the prostate gland stands before the urinary bladder.false (syoo-doh) Pseudopod (SOO-do-pohd) a streaming extension of plasma membrane-bound cytoplasm from a mobile cell. shoulder or mandible). prostate: Gk.the act of protracting. pteron = wing. A dissection to demonstrate anatomic structures. opposite of distal.. proprius = one’s own. & Lt. proximal: adj . the region where the tip of the greater wing of the sphenoid meets or is close to the parietal. protrude: Lt. and sectum = cut. Neill . pter. prosector: Lt.

hence. drooping of an eyelid. hence a very small point or orifice.. pupilla = the central black orifice in the iris. husk or shell of fruit or seed (the external part of the lentiform nucleus). = peel.i.near the pubis . = a sharp point. pterygoid: adj.or more-sided base.Gk. pyelos = basin. pteryx = wing. and flat sides Pyramidal cells neurons w/n the cerebral cortex of the brain which inititate somatic motor impulses. pupil: Lt. pulpa = a soft part of the body or tooth. pudendal: adj. hence pulpy or soft. pulmo = lung. and gramma = diagram.pupillary. pulpa = a soft part of the body or tooth. pertaining to the external genitalia. highly branched neurons in the cerebellar cortex that receive input from many thousands of synapses.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms the frontal from the squamous temporal. pulmonary: adj. hence. adj. adj. puber = adult. the posterior end of the thalamus. hence. which guards the opening into the duodenum. hence. which consists of CT containing BVs & Ns.purple putamen: Lt.as a secondary sexual characteristic. hence the lower abdominal secondary sexual hair. hence. radiograph of the renal pelvis (and usually of the ureter) after filling with contrast medium. pyelogram: Gk. wing-shaped. puberty: Lt. the time when hair appears in the pubic region . Neill 134 . pyramis = a pyramid (solid with 3. and eidos = shape. pulposus: Lt. pulvinar: Lt. Pupil (PYOO-pihl) the small hole through the centre of the iris in the eye through which light passes. or descent of an internal organ. pudendus = shameful.e. pulvinus = rounded cushion. the part of the pyloric canal containing the sphincter.pyloric. Pulp cavity the space w/n a tooth that is filled with pulp.. = fall. alternatively the region where these 4 bones meet.Lt. = gate-keeper. pubes: Lt. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O ma nd a Ne ill P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA © A.Lt. purpur. L. Purkinje cells Large. = adult or signs of manhood. hence. ptosis: Gk. pulp: Lt. punctum: Lt. pylorus: Gk. pyramid: Gk.

Lt. hence. the line of junction of the edges of 2 muscles or areas of skin. radius: Lt. radiation radiation: Lt. hence. rectus = straight. which rotates around the hub. radix: Lt. a seam. re = back. radix = root. = spoke of a wheel. D E F G H I J rachi. = square or rectangular. adj. = root.root.not so in Man). quadratus: Lt. recurrent: Lt.. ramify: Lt. quadri = four. hence square or rectangular. to branch. then runs back to its source. and facere = to make. spine. quadrigeminus: Lt. the lateral bone of the forearm. and currere = to run. and caput = head. quadriceps: Lt. L.a small cavity set apart from a main cavity.radial. raphe: Gk. (The rectum was named in animals where it is straight .radicular. radiatus = radiant. hence a structure which bends. re. hence.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B Q quadrangular: Lt. which rotates (though around an almost vertical axis). rectum: adj. rami. ramus = a branch. ma nd a R Ne ill © A.branch (ray-mee) ramus: Lt.f. recessus = a secluded area or pocket.return. hence. bone or blood vessel. adj. back again Receptor (ree-SEHP-tor) a structure that is capable of responding to a stimulus by initiating a nerve impulse. rectus: Lt. radius). divergence from a common centre (c. quadri = four and angulus = angle. rectus = straight. a 4headed muscle. hence. recess: Lt. quadri = four. and gemini = paired or twinned.four . hence a small root. hence four-fold. hence.spine vertebral column K L M N O P S T U V W X Y Z ©D 135 rA Q R radi. radicle: diminutive of Lt. a branch of a nerve. Neill C quad. = branch.

used to enter the abdomen or to locate p. Renal medulla the inner part of a kidney. Renal sinus (REE-nal SI-nuhs) a potential space w/n each kidney extending from the hilum to the medulla.Lt. Neill 136 . renal: adj. a BM. It consists of the alveolar epithelium. Red pulp: part of the interior areas of the spleen (the other is white pulp). Renal tubule (REE-nal TEW-byewl) part of a nephron of the kidney consisting of a simple epithelial lined tube extending from Bowman’s capsule to a collecting duct. It contains the renal pelvis. This is contractile in rodents and allows for the release of blood in shock conditions. It contains renal tubules and BVs. Red pulp serves as a storage area for erythrocytes (RBCs). and consists of venous sinuses and cords of CT known as splenic cords. and the endothelium of a capillary. There are 3 parts to each tubule: the proximal convoluted tubule. Renal cortex the outer part of a kidney. which contains renal corpuscles and segments of renal tubules. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q rA ma nd a Ne ill R S T U V W X Y Z ©D © A.to a stimulus mediated by the CNS. the Loop of Henle (= renal loop) and the distal convoluted tubule. Renal corpuscle (REE-nal KOR-puhs-ehl) the portion of a kidney nephron consisting of the Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus (see Corpuscle). Renal pyramid (REE-nal PEER-a-mihd) One of about 8 to 10 coneshaped structures in each kideny extending from the medulla to the cortex. The functions of reabsorption. ren = kidney. Respiratory membrane the barrier in the lungs which must be crossed by gas molecules during gas exchange. L. Renal pelvis (REE-nal PEHL-vihs) a membrane-lined basin w/n the renal sinus of each kidney.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Red bone marrow a CT located within spongy bone which contains the stem cells & their differentiated forms involved in blood cell formation. W/n the renal medulla are the renal pyramids.kidney Renal (REE-nawl) pertaining to the kidneys. which contain the renal tubules. ren. which are striated pyramid-shaped areas formed by the congregation of renal tubules.muscular or secretory . reflex: an involuntary response . secretion concentration or dilution occur across the walls.ain or an abnormality smaller than a zone or zona. Region (REE-jon) an area often of the abdomen defined by anatomical surface markers.

= a net. and flexion = bent. = chink.striated striped rhe. the position of being turned backwards. which enclose the rhomboid fossa (floor of 4th ventricle). hence. hence having a network. rhod.Lt. retro. applied to the angulation of the body of the uterus on the cervix. not at right angles. a network of veins or tubules. and tractum = pulled. rima: Lt. retro = backwards. e. risorius is the “smiling” muscle drawing the corners of the mouth laterally. L. risor = scoffer. the hind-brain: consisting of the medulla oblongata. reticulum = small net. hence. rhombus = a figure with 4 equal sides. re = back. to pull something back. retro = backwards. Ribosome (RYE-boh-zome) a microscopic. spherical structure w/n the cytoplasm of a cell composed of RNA and protein. Rod cell a photoreceptor cell in the retina of the eye that detects very low levels of light. a thickened band of deep fascia which retains tendons or the patella.red rhomboid: adj. and version = turned. rima palpebrarum = the chink b/n the free edges of the eyelids. hence. the shape of a rhombus. applied to the angulation of the cervix uteri on the vagina.flow rhin.the innermost of the 3 layers of the eyeball. and retraction . Neill . & enkephalos = brain.reticular. reticular: adj.nose rhinencephalon: Gk. Gk.. rhabdo. risorius: Lt. It serves as an attachment site for messenger RNA during protein synthesis. retroversion: Lt. retinaculum: Lt. rhinion = nostril. the position of being bent backwards.. pons and cerebellum. reticulum: diminutive of Lt. adj. = a tether. retroflexion: Lt. & enkephalos = brain. 137 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A.the act of retracting. Retina (REHT-ih-nah) the light-sensitive inner layer of the eye containing rod and cone cells. rete = net. hence. retina: derivation uncertain . = backwards.located behind retro: prefix .g. the brain tissue concerned with smell rhombencephalon: Gk.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z rete: Lt. rhombos = rhomboid.Lt. retract: Lt.

rubrum = red. Lt. rotate: Lt. = a wrinkle. to turn. rotnudus = round.rostral. Lt. L.. adj. and rotation. the act of turning. rugose: adj. ruga: Lt. ruga = a wrinkle. rub. wrinkled. hence. Lt.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Ne ill rostral: adj. rostrum = beak. rotundum: Lt. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q rA ma ©D © A. hence. Neill 138 nd a R S T U V W X Y Z . beak.red rubro: prefix. a platform or beak-like structure. rota = wheel. rostrum: Lt. implying nearness to the corpus callosum.

Sarcoplasm (SAHR-ko-plahzm) the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber. Sarcomere (SAR-ko-meer) a contractile microscopic subunit of striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac muscle). L. Gk. sartorius muscles. 139 S T U V W X Y Z ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. saccus = a sack. Salivary (SAHL-ih-vahr-ee) gland one of several exocrine glands in the facial region that secrete saliva into the mouth to initiate the digestive process. because the sagittal suture is notched posteriorly. hence a triangle with unequal sides. = trumpet. like an arrow. & includes the midsagittal/median sagittal plane (dividing into equal halves) and the parasagittal plane (dividing into unequal portions). squatting. and is similar in structure to the endoplasmic reticulum found in other cells. saphenes = obviously visible. by the lambdoid sutures. a description of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles. scaphoid: adj. Neill . saccule: Lt. each of which is trumpet-shaped. saphenous: adj. (see also endoplasmic reticulum). sagitta = arrow. when contracted produce the tailor’s posture. scalene: adj. The saphenous veins become obvious when varicose. saliva = spit. sacrum: Lt. the uterine or auditory tubes. Lt. salping. = tailor:. salivary: adj. Lt. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (sahr’-koh-PLAHZ-mihk reh-TIHK-yewluhm) a cellular organelle found only in muscle cells that stores calcium ions. sagittal: adj. Sagittal (SAJ-ih-tal) a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions. Sarcolemma (sar’-ko-LEHM-ah) the plasma membrane covering the outer surface of a muscle fiber. Gk. also the fossa occupied by tensor veli palatine muscle. sacculus. and eidos = shape or form. skaphe = skiff. sacer = sacred (probably considered so because of its size). sartorius: Lt. hence the carpal bone which is hollowed out on its distal surface for the head of the capitate. skalenos = uneven.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S sac: Lt.tube salpinx: Gk. diminutive of saccus. Gk.

the white of the eye. and -osis = condition. hence. adj. second.. It is usually associated with a hair follicle.leg schiz. = seed. ischion = hip-joint. secretus = separated. hence the tough. having a half-moon shape. and the pubis only 1/5).second following secrete: Lt. outer layer of the eyeball.Lt.twisted scoliosis: Gk.scleral. to produce a chemical substance by glandular activity . . adj. (the ischium earns its name because it forms > 2/5 of the acetabulum. hence. skleros = hard. Neill 140 .sellar. hence.hard Sclera (SKLEH-raw) the posterior part of the outer.hard sclero. scolio. skolios = crooked or curve.adj. L. and luna = moon. adj. Sciatic (SY-at-ic) nerve. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R rA ma nd a Ne ill S T U V W X Y Z ©D © A. Semicircular canal (seh’-mi-SEHR-kyoo-lawr caw-NAHL) one of three looping canals in each temporal bone that form a part of the inner ear. Secretion (seh-KREE-shuhn) a substance produced and released by a cell that serves a useful benefit. sella turcica = Turkish saddle. scrotum: possibly derived from Lt. Sebaceous (seh-BAY-shuhs) gland an exocrine gland located in the dermis that secretes an oily substance called sebum. secretion. scorteus = leather.Gk. semi. Ischiadikos meant pertaining to the ischium or hip .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms scapula: Gk. scel.secretory. It contains perilymph fluid and the receptors for equilibrium. scirrho.. noun.later changed to ischium.split Schwann cell a type of neuroglial cell that forms myelin sheaths around axons of peripheral nerves. largest nerve in the body lies on the ischium and is very visible hence the name. skapto = I dig. whereas the ilium contributes < 2/5.half partial semilunaris: adj.sciatic pain resulting from damage to the sciatic nerve or parts of it sciatic: adj. The sciatic nerve lies on the ischium.scrotal. adj. = saddle. semen: Lt.seminal (seminal vesicle). the lateral curvature of the spine.. sclera: Gk.because of the resemblance to a spade. fibrous tunic covering the eyeball. sella: Lt. semi = half.

Lt. sesamodes. = notched like the edge of a saw (serrate). saeptum = fenced in. hence. = like serum.the hamstring muscle (the lower half is tendinous). Lt. and membrana = membrane. seps. small bone in tendon at site of friction. semi = half. the hamstring muscle of which the upper half is membranous. Seminiferous tubule (sehm’-i-NIHF-ehr-uhs TEW-byewl) a microscopic.decay septum: Lt. Gk. hence. a radiograph of a salivary duct. eidos = shape or form.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z semimembranosus: adj. Neill . sialogram: Gk. serratus: adj. similar to the capsule of an organ. to bear: the sperm-producing tubules in the testes. Lt. tightly packed tube w/n each testis where the sperm cells develop. hence. or pacemaker). Serous membrane (SEHR-uhs MEHM-brane) an epithelial membrane that lines a body cavity or covers an organ. hence. sesamoid: adj. like grains of sesame. Lt. the outer membranous layer of a visceral organ containing blood and nerve supply as well as lymphatic drainage). sinister: adj. sialon = saliva. semi = half. = left-sided. sigma. and tendo = I stretch. ie. semen = seed and ferre = to carry. Serosa (sehr-O-sah) any serous membrane. and gramma = a diagram.dry sigmoid: adj. a dividing fence or partition-generally of CT. seminiferous: Lt. semitendinosus: adj. L. S-shaped. serous: Lt. sicc. (also. . and secretes small amounts of fluid. Gk. Sigmoid colon (SIHG-moyd KOH-luhn) the distal segment of the colon located b/n the descending colon & the rectum. the form used at the end of a word having an S-shape. 141 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. Simple (SIHM-pehl) pertaining to a single-layered arangement of epithelial cells. Sinoatrial node (sin’-oh-AY-tree-awl nohd) (SA node) a cluster of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the wall of the right atrium that initiate each cardiac cycle (also = the sinuatrial node. Seminal vesicle (SEHM-ih-nawl VEHS-ih-kehl) one of a pair of convoluted glands of the male reproductive system located posterior to the urinary bladder that secretes part of the semen. serum-like.

pancreas. adj. L. solea = flatfish or sandal. alone. somn.few scanty spasm: Gk. but resembles the fish. soleus: adj.see soleus. Smooth muscle one of 3 types of muscle tissue in the body characterized by the lack of visible striations.sleep spano. adj. Sinusoids an extensive network of vessels that may be found in the liver. soma = body. It forms part of the walls of hollow organs and BVs.Gk. with automatic and autonomic contractile function. somite: Gk. which are similar in structure to capillaries only “leakier”.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ©D sinistro-left Sinus (SI-nuhs) a space w/n a bone lined with mucous membrane. venous or arterial blood. = seed or semen. = solitary. and adrenal cortex. = the body. It attaches to bones to form the muscles of the body. somatic: adj. soleus muscle does not enter the sole of the foot. Skeletal muscle tissue one of 3 types of muscle tissue in the body characterized by the presence of visible organized striations and under conscious control over its contraction. pertaining to the body frame but not to its viscera.. sperma: Gk. lymph or serous fluid. (also. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R rA ma nd a Ne ill S T U V W X Y Z © A. adj. Lt.spastic. Soma (SOH-mah) pertaining to the body or the main part of an organ or a cell soma: Gk. a modified BV usually vein with an enlarged lumen for blood storage and containing no or little muscle in its wall). spasmos = an involuntary contraction of a muscle. hence an embryonic body segment. = a hollow or space which may contain air. filtration and absorption of nutrients. soma = the body.spermatic.sinusoid. such as the frontal and maxillary sinuses in the head. Somatic nervous system the component of the PNS that conveys impulses associated with conscious sensory and motor activities. sole: the lower surface of the foot . spleen. or spasmodic. hence. sinus: Lt. Skull (sk-UHL) this a term for all the bones of the head Small intestine the organ of the alimentary canal located b/n the stomach and the large intestine that functions in the final digestion. Neill 142 . solitarius: Lt.

adj. Gk.lien). spina = a thorn. adj. Spinal cord a long. Gk. spinal. square-like. adj. glandular organ that is part of the lymphatic system and is located in the upper left region of the abdomen behind the stomach.squamous.splenic (Lt. hence scale-like. lymphatics. cremaster muscle.stapedial. Spermatic cord (spehr-MAH-tihk kord) a narrow bundle of tissue in the male reproductive system extending from the epididymis to the inguinal canal.. hence the unpaired bone which is wedged into the base of the skull b/n the unpaired frontal and occipital. Spongy bone One of2 types of bone tissue. sphen.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Spermatozoa: = sperm cells. characterized by the presence of spaces filled with red marrow b/n thin bone spicules called trabeculae.spinous.pressure. stapes: Lt. pulse splanchnic: adj.stopped 143 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. consisting of the ductus deferens.coiled. Neill . breath sphygm. sphinkter = a tight binder. squama: Lt. Splanchocranium (spl-ANK-noh-KRAY-nee-uhm) that part of the skull containing the facial bones. nerves. They are the formed male gametes B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z produced by meiosis from cells w/n the walls of seminiferous tubules of the testes.Lt.tightening associated with a ring of muscle (sfinkter) sphincter: Gk. ie a circular muscle which closes an orifice. spine: Lt.. scalelike. or a lay term for the vertebral column. respiration. squama = a scale (as of fish or reptile). adj. narrow organ of the CNS that extends through the vertebral canal & connects the PNS with the brain.sphincteric. .wedge (sven) sphenoid: adj. hence. adj. Squamous (SKWA-muhs) flat. stapedius. L. = a scale (as of fish or reptile). BVs. splen = the spleen. sphincter. spir. spleen: Lt. and eidos = shape or form. Individual spermatozoa are capable of locomotion due to the presence of a single flagellum. Spinal nerve one of 31 pairs of nerves that extend b/n the SC and another part of the body. Spleen a soft. sphen = wedge. = stirrup. stas.. splanchnon = a viscus or internal organ. and CT. hence pertaining to viscera. squamous: adj.. a sharp process.

= bed or mattress. = furrow. distinct from its parenchyma. CT or matrix upon W which or w/n which the structures are placed eg the parenchyma stroma: Gk. Lt. sternon = chest or breast.striped line streak (stry-) S stria: Lt. C steno. the T caudate and lentiform nuclei connected by grey strands which U traverse the internal capsule. adj. later applied to K the wider part of the digestive tract just below the diaphragm. striatus = furrowed. steat. corpus striatum. Stomach (STOH-muhk) a large.squint strabismus: Gk. hence. It is a mucous membrane that contains numerous gastric glands embedded M throughout. ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. hence nonmotile microvilli. Stroma (STROH-mah) supporting bed of cells. stella = star. hence. Y stroph. and eidos = Z shape or form. a pencil-like structure.Lt.twisted styloid: adj. F sternum: Gk.sternal. stomachos = gullet or oesophagus. strabismos = squinting. inability to focus O both eyes on a given point.gastric.chest H stoma: Gk. = a mouth. hollow organ in the alimentary canal I located b/n the oesophagus and small intestine that plays a prominent J role in digestion.twisted stri. E sternebra: Gk. the segments of the sternum (these fuse in later life). stomach: Gk. the supporting framework of an X organ. sternon = chest or breast. Q stratum: Lt.three dimension depth firm solid D stereocilia: Gk. R strepto.Gk. and cilium = eyelash.fat B stellate: adj.narrow stereo. stylos = an instrument for writing. striatum: adj. and -bra = from vertebra.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Static equilibrium the sensation of body position. stereos = solid. adj. L. Neill 144 . N strab. G steth. giving the strands a striated V appearance. or layer. = a covering sheet. applied to a streak or stripe.. P Stratified (STRAH-tif-ide) pertaining to a multiple-layered arrangement of epithelial cells. L Stomach mucosa the innermost layer of the stomach wall.

hence stimuLt.supinate ≠ pronate. subix = a support. (also = hypodermis. sudor = sweat. suf. superior: adj. Also called craniad or cephalad. L.sweat Sudoriferous (syoo’-dor-IF-er-us) gland an exocrine gland located in the skin that secretes sweat. (also = sweat gland).comparative of Lt.Lt. super = above. = superficial. superus = above. sudomotor: Lt. Submandibular (sub’-man-DIB-yoo-lah) glands a pair of salivary glands located along the inner surface of the jaw in the floor of the mouth. hence under the clavicle. Superior (soo-PEER-ee-or) A directional term indicating the location of a part that is nearer to the head region than another. and cilia = eyelid. pertaining to the eyebrow.under sulcus: Lt.Lt. Sublingual (suhb-LING-wal) glands a pair of salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth deep to the mucous membrane. Superficial (soo’-pehr-FIHSH-ahl) A directional term indicating the location of a part that is toward or nearer to the body surface relative to another ≠ deep. nearer the surface. substantia: Lt. subiculum: diminutive of Lt. succus: Lt. supinus. sud. (also = submaxillary glands). Submucosa (sub’-myoo-KOH-sah) a layer of CT located external to a mucous membrane. sublimis: Lt. super = above.over superciliary: adj.under less than partial B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z subclavian: Lt. = a substance. and superficial fascia). ©D 145 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. and clavis = a key. Neill . verb . hence. the secretion of the small intestine). = juice (succus entericus. and facies = surface. superficial: adj. sub = under or below.face up supination: the act of turning the back of the hand to face posteriorly. super. Subcutaneous layer (suhb’-kyoo-TA-nee-uhs LA-yehr) the layer of loose CT and adipose tissue deep to the dermis of the skin. hence.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A sub. = a groove.g the sweat glands. and movere = to move.

Synaptic end bulb the expanded distal end of a neuron’s axon containing numerous synaptic vesicles & mitochondria. sutura = a seam.the ledge on the calcaneus supporting part of the talus. and physis = growth. supra = above. Synaptic cleft (sihn-AHP-tihk clehft) a part of the synapse that consists of the space b/n neurons or neuron and muscle fiber across which the neurotransmitter must diffuse. syn = with.together.Lt. sural: adj. a joint . recumbent on the back. synapse: Gk. suprarenal: Lt. (also = sudoriferous gland). symphysis: Gk.above over supra: Lt. the zone an impulse passes from one neuron to another. sustentaculum: Lt. Synaptic vesicles microscopic sacs w/n synaptic end bulbs of axons that store neurotransmitter. L. the stitching of 2 opposing edges of tissue. = a support. Suture (SEW-tjah) the saw-like edge of a cranial bone that serves as a joint b/n bones of the skull . also. syn = with. union. the 2 halves fusing before 2 yo). superior to.bone + fibrocartilage + bone generally used for joints in the median plane. suture: Lt. the hand position of the dorsum posteriorly. prefix = superior to. e.g. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R rA ma nd a Ne ill S T U V W X Y Z ©D © A. supra. syn. and ren = the kidney. supinus. Sweat gland an exocrine gland located in the skin that secretes sweat. sym. Neill 146 . Synaptic terminals the terminal ends of axons where the synapse begins b/n adjacent neurons. the fibrous joints b/n cranial bones. over. often fuse later in life (the symphysis of the mandible is exceptional. association Synapse (sihn-AHPS) the junction b/n the axon of one neuron & the dendrite or cell body of another neuron. Sympathetic division (simp’-ah-THEH-tihk dih-VIH-zhuhn) a division of the ANS that functions mainly in stimulating emergency responses (fight or flight).together union association sympathetic: Gk. and pathos = feeling. and aptein = to join. sustentaculum tali . syn = with. sura = the calf.Lt.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms supine: adj. the peripheral part of the ANS arising from the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord and communicates with other nerves. which sustains. hence.

syn = with. and dromos = running. syn = with. and ergon = work. syn = with. ie. joint . hence the contraction of cardiac muscle. the fluid in freely moving joints which resembles egg-white adj. a muscle cooperating with others to produce a certain movement. synovia: Gk. syn = with. a multinucleate mass of protoplasm formed by cells merging as in Giant cells and skeletal muscle cells. syn = with.bone + fibrous tissue + bone syndrome: Gk. and kytos = cell. synovial Synovial fluid the liquid secretion of epithelial cells in the synovial membrane lining a synovial (freely moving) joint. a joint bone + cartilage + bone syncytium: Gk. Ne ill . and desmos = a band. syndesmosis: Gk. L.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 147 © A. systole: Gk. which serves as a lubricant and shock absorber. b/n opposing bones. characteristic of a certain pathology. called the synovial cavity. & ovum = egg. and chondros = cartilage. a group of signs and symptoms. synergist: Gk. Neill rA ma nd a synchondrosis: Gk. = contraction. syn = with. Synovial joint (sihn-OH-vee-awl joynt) a type of joint characterized by the presence of a membrane-lined cavity.

= covering. L. the tortoise-shaped tarsal of the talocrural (ankle) joint.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms T tabe. tensus = stretched. tectorium = an overlying surface like plaster. = rounded. tars. temporal: Lt. tarsal.covering tectorial: adj. tegmentum: Lt. taut. = a web. = ankle-bone. tectum: Lt. hence the roof of the midbrain. later.eyelid . A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S rA ma nd a T U V W X Y Z ©D © A. hence a muscle which produces tension. cylindrical. the bones of the foot behind the metatarsals.touch taenia: Lt. Neill 148 . tempus = time.g. Tectorial membrane (tehk-TOR-ee-awl MEHM-bran) a thin membrane in the inner ear that projects over the receptor hair cells of the organ of Corti.f. a covering or roof. Taste buds special sensory organs located primarily on the surface of the tongue & usually embedded within papillae. testiculus = the male gonad (see testis).. the flat part of the foot. = a tape or ribbon. AS taenia tensor: Lt. tentorium cerebelli. = roof. = a tape or ribbon.Lt. = covering (c.wasting tact. teg. ter. edge of foot tarsus: Gk. a fold of pia mater containing a choroid plexus.same tect. AS tenia (TEEN-ih-ah) tal. tendo = I stretch out. tarsos = a flat surface. = tent. the temporal area of the scalp. integument = the skin). hence. providing the sense of taste or gustation. e.ankle talus: Lt. tela: Lt.covering tegmen: Lt. adj. tenia: Lt. They contain chemoreceptors.three teres: Lt. where grey hair first appears Tendon (TEHN-dohn) a band of dense CT that extends from the muscle to attach to a bone. tendon: Lt. testicle: Lt. tentorium: Lt.

adj. thalamus: Gk. and eidos = shape or form. Lt. hence. (also = platelets). ©D 149 rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. thymus: Gk. adj. = sweetbread. and degenerates by adulthood. pl. thyroid: Gk.the posterior end of the thalamus is rounded and named pulvinar = cushion.tibial. Under Roman law. (also = the Adam’s apple).The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Testis (TEHS-tihs) one of a pair of male gonads (sex glands) located B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z w/n the scrotum that produces sperm cells and testosterone. Thyroid cartilage (THI-royd CAHR-tih-lihj) the largest piece of hyaline cartilage of the larynx. Thrombocyte (THROHM-bo-sit) the formed elements in blood that play a prominent role in blood clotting. L. and maintaining calcium levels in the blood. mind Thymus (THI-muhs) gland a glandular lymphatic organ located superior to the heart that produces T lymphocytes during early childhood. thyreos = shield. testiculus = the male gonad.third (ter-shi-) tetralogy: Gk. thorax: Gk.testes. Threshold stimulus (THRESH-hold STIH-myoo-luhs) a change in environment thrombus: Gk. . shaped like a shield (shields the glottis). symptoms or defects. theka = a capsule. = the shin-bone. thym. & mediastinum. no man could bear witness (testify) unless he possessed both testes. Testosterone a steroidal hormone secreted by interstitial cells (cells of Leydig) located w/n the testes.thymus. Thoracic cavity (tho-RAHS-ihk CAHV-ih-tee) the part of the anterior (ventral) body cavity located superior to the diaphragm. theca: Gk. tetra = four. tibia: Lt. pl. = bedroom . metabolism. sheath. = the chest. combination of 4 elements eg. = palm of hand. Thrombus (THROHM-buhs) a blood clot that has formed in a vein or artery. & logos = discourse. lungs. which contains the heart. terti. It promotes the development of male secondary sex characteristics & the development of spermatozoa. = a clot. testis = a witness. testis: Lt. testes. thenar: Gk. Neill .thoracic. the ball of the thumb. Thyroid gland (THI-royd) an endocrine gland located on the anterior side of the neck that secretes hormones involved in growth.

g. Tooth a bony structure projecting from the maxilla or mandible that provides for the grinding. palatine & lingual). Transverse colon the segment of the colon that extends across the body from its union with the ascending colon (Left) to its union with the descending colon (Left). It plays major roles in swallowing and speech formation. Trachea (TRA-kee-aw) an organ of the respiratory system consisting of a long tube supported by semi-rings of cartilage extending from the pharynx to the bronchi. Trabecula (traw-BEHK-yoo-lar) a thin plate of bone within spongy bone tissue. to place tors. tractus = an elongated strand of wool or dough. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Tongue (tuhng) the muscular organ of the digestive system that is anchored to the floor of the mouth and wall of the pharynx. Neill 150 . tonsilla = tonsil (e. L. tract: Lt. There are 3 pairs (pharyngeal. or mechanical digestion. trans. = goat. referring to its corrugations. trapezium: Gk. Only. trapezion = a trapezium . trapezion = a trapezium .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms by Foxit Reader Tissue (TIH-shoo) a group of similar cells that combine to ght(C) by Foxit Software Company. all of which play a role in the immune response. hence the supporting fibres of a structure. Transitional epithelium forms the inner lining of the urinary bladder and ureters transverse: perpendicular to the long axis = horizontal.twisted bulge torus: Lt. tragus: Lt. trabecula: diminutive of Lt. trapezius: Gk. palt. (also = a band of supportive CT extending to the interior of an organ from its outer wall as in the spleen or the breast).across Transitional epithelium a type of epithelial tissue characterized by its ability to expand in size and recoil. tonsil: Lt. of food particles.2005-2007 form a aluationcommon function.a quadrilateral with 2 sides parallel.. trachea: Gk. = a bulge. top. Tonsil (TOHN-sihl) a small organ of the lymphatic system that consists of an aggregation of fixed lymphocytes & CT embedded in a mucous membrane. tracheia = rough.on the surface . giving the organs it lines a feature of elasticity.a quadrilateral with 2 rA ma nd a Ne ill T U V W X Y Z ©D © A.e tonsil). hence a pathway for nerve fibres. trabs = a beam. because of the beard-like tuft of hair on its internal aspect.

tube: origin unknown tubule: little tube tuber: Lt. hence. tuberculum: Lt. tunica: Lt. trapezion = a trapezium . trigeminal: Lt. tri. hepatic artery. = trunk (of a tree). trigone: Lt. a small prominence. tuber = a swelling or lump. trigonum = a triangle.a quadrilateral with 2 parallel sides. trapezius muscle.nutrition truncus: Lt. a small prominence.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z sides parallel. usually bony (smaller than a tuberosity). triquetrus = 3-cornered. tres = 3.three (try) Triad when pertaining to the liver. = a runner. tubercle: Lt. usually large and rough (larger than a tubercle). They include branches of the hepatic portal vein. triticea: Lt. Neill . diminutive of tuber. trocho. (see protuberance) Tubercle (TEW-ber-cl) a small process or bump generally on a bone. the diamond-shape of both trapezii muscles together. hence a 3-headed muscle. When pertaining to skeletal muscle.turn change troph. triticum = a grain of wheat. moves obviously in running. L. triquetral: Lt. trochlea: Gk. diminutive of tuber. tuber = a swelling or lump. usually bony. trapezoid: Gk.round trochanter: Gk. triad: from Lt. a triad is a combination of 3 structures that can be observed in a cross-sectional microscopic view. with 3 large divisions. trigeminus = triplets. and caput = head. triceps: Lt. tuberosity: Lt. resembling a trapezium. a triad refers to a T tubule and two cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. hence. = shirt. trop. the bony landmark. Tunica externa (TEW-nih-kah eks-TEHRN-ah) the outermost layer of a tubular BV wall. and bile duct. the tiny cartilage in the lateral thyrohyoid ligament. the greater trochanter. cranial nerve V. trochilia = a pulley. (also = the tunica adventitia and the serosa. hence a covering. hence. it is composed of CT and in larger vessels smaller BVs the vasa vasorium) 151 ©D rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. tres = 3.

The tunica media is composed of smooth muscle tissue. and may contain elastic fibers. (also = the tunica interna. separating the external ear from the middle ear. turbinate: Lt. tympanum: Lt. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S rA ma ©D © A. Tunica media (TEW-nih-kah ME-de-ah) the middle layer forming the wall of a tubular BV. L. layer of a tubular BV. or deepest. Tympanic membrane (tihm-PAHN-ihk MEHM-bran) a thin membrane b/n the external auditory canal & the tympanic cavity.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Tunica intima (TEW-nih-kah IHN-tih-mah) the innermost. it is composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) and a BM of CT. Neill 152 nd a Ne ill T U V W X Y Z . An old term for the nasal conchi. (also = the eardrum). turbo = a child’s (spinning) top. = a drum. hence shaped like a top.

ultra. uva = grape. uterus: Lt. L. = hook. = elbow or arm. (also = the fallopian tubes or oviducts). and echein = to hold. narrow muscular tube extending from the kidney to the urinary bladder & transports urine using gravity and peristalsis. ourethra = passage from bladder to exterior. uva = grape. hence. uterus = womb. = the boss on the centre of a shield. uncus: Lt. oureter = passage from kidney to bladder. uncinate: Lt. ureter: Gk.. V W X Y Z ©D 153 U rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. uni. adj. ungu. = the navel. the canal connecting the foetal bladder and umbilicus. uncinatus = hooked. Urinary bladder (yew’-rih-NAR-ee BLAH-dehr) a hollow muscular organ located at the floor of the pelvic cavity that temporarily stores urine. The pigmented vascular layer of the eyeball (iris. unguis = finger-nail.first one urachus: Gk. Urethra (yew-REE-thrah) a tube extending from the urinary bladder to the exterior that carries urine in females and urine and semen in males. = womb. Uterus (YEW-tehr-uhs) a hollow muscular organ in the female reproductive system that serves as a site of embryo implantation. umbo of tympanic membrane. ouron = urine. utricle: diminutive of Lt.beyond in excess umbilicus: Lt. Uterine tube (YEW-tehr-ihn toob) One of 2 tubes that transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus in the female reproductive system. umbo: Lt. urethra: Gk.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U ulna: Lt. the medial bone of the forearm. Neill . ciliary body and choroid). uvula: diminutive of Lt. development and menstruation.nails ungual: pertaining to Lt. uvea: Lt.uncinate. Ureter (YEW-reh-tehr) a long.

Valve a membranous flap composed of CT and usually lined by a layer of epithelium which directs the flow of fluid in one direction. invagination is the acquisition of a sheath by pushing inwards into a membrane. (also = anterior). hernia. ventral. and evagination is similar but produced by pushing outwards. which leaves the head and neck to traverse the thorax and upper part of the abdomen. Neill 154 . vallecula: diminutive of Lt. diminutive of vas. L. vallis = a fossa. = belly. vallatus = walled.venous. vallate: Lt. hence. varicocoele: Lt. vagina: Lt. vagus: Lt. Vascular (VAHS-kyoo-lawr) Pertaining to or containing BVs. hence. valgus: Lt.. varix = vein and Gk. vasculum. cranial nerve X. vas: Lt. vascular: Lt. hence. the large papillae on the tongue which are depressed below the surface and surrounded by a groove which is itself bounded by a wall.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms V Vagina (vaj-EYE-nah) a tubular. a varicose condition of the veins of the pampiniform plexus. pertaining to BVs. hence. = vessel (plural = vasa). veli = of a curtain. vena. varus: Lt. (veen-us) velum: Lt. It is a tube extending between the epididymis and the urethra in the male that conveys spermatozoa during ejaculation. Vas deferens also = the ductus deferens. pertaining to the belly side. = bow-legged. Ventral (VEN-tral) a directional term describing the location of a part nearer to the anterior or front side of the body relative to another. = curtain. hence. A B Ne ill C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U ©D rA ma nd a V W X Y Z © A. = knock-kneed. valva = the segment of a folding-door. adj. Ventral root the motor branch of a spinal nerve that connects with the SC. kele = tumour. = wandering. = sheath. valvula: diminutive of Lt. Vein (vayn) a BV that transports blood from body tissues to the heart. muscular organ of the female reproductive system extending b/n the vulva & the uterus. vein: Lt. valve: Lt. ven. valva.vein venter: Lt.

and forma = shape. ventricle: diminutive of Lt.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A Ventricle (VEN-trih-kuhl) one of the 2 inferior. = worm.vesical. vibrissa: Lt. Vermis (VEHR-mihs) the central constricted part of the cerebellum that separates the 2 cerebellar hemispheres. Neill . and vagina. vertical: perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizontal. adj. vermiform: Lt. Venule (VEN-yewl) a small vein that collects deoxygenated blood from a capillary network and conveys it to a larger vein. the segmented median part of the cerebellum. vestibule: Lt. hence. = bladder. hence. hence a little bladder. nose. rA ma nd a Ne ill © A. worm-shaped. vertebra: Lt. In the cell. vesicle: diminutive of Lt. Vertebral column The skeleton of the back that is composed of 26 vertebrae and associated tissues. Vestibular membrane (vehs-TIHB-yew-lahr MEHM-brayn) a thin membrane inside the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. mouth. L. verto = I turn. highly muscular B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ©D 155 chambers of the heart that push blood into major arteries during their contraction. spine. vermis = a worm. vesica = bladder.. hence. vertex: Lt. Vermiform appendix (VEHR-mih-form aw-PEHN-dihks) a small.to do with the baldder vesica: Lt. one of the movable bones of the VC. closed-end tube extending from the caecum of the large intestine. = summit. seminal vesicle. Vestibule (VEHS-tih-byewl) a small space that opens into a larger cavity or canal. vesica = bladder. Vertebral canal (VEHR-teh-brahl kah-NAHL) a cavity extending through the vertebral column that is formed by the vertebral foramina of each vertebra. vibrare = to vibrate. vestibulum = entrance hall. vesic. vesicula: diminutive of Lt. vermis: Lt. (also = the backbone. hence the highest point on the skull. it is a membranous sac w/n the cytoplasm which contains cellular products or waste materials. venter = a small belly. through which extends the SC. the hairs in the nasal vestibule which vibrate in the air. A vestibule is found in the inner ear. Vesicle (VEHS-ih-kuhl) a small sac containing a fluid. or spinal column).

vivi. a vascular. vitreous: Lt. volar: pertaining to the palm or the sle of the foot volv.. pl. hair-like process. a hair. vincula: Lt. Lt. . villus: Lt. adj.turn vomer: Lt.viscera. Visceral pleura (VIHS-er-ahl PLEW-rah) a serous membrane covering the outer surface of each lung. Neill .alive vocal: adj. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U ©D ma nd a Ne ill V W X Y Z 156 © A. pertaining to the outer surface of an internal organ ≠ parietal. vitelline: Lt. delicate vascular synovial bands passing to the digital tendons. usually projecting from a mucous surface. vita = life. hence. BVs. = an internal organ. = plough-share.vinculum). and a lymphatic vessel. visceral: adj.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms rA Villus (VIHL-luhs) a small. = the external female genitalia. viscus = an internal organ. fingerlike projection of the small intestinal wall containing CT. (also = vitreous body). . plural . hence. Visceral peritoneum (VIHS-er-ahl per’-ih-toh-NEE-uhm) a serous membrane covering the surfaces of abdominal organs. Visceral (VIHS-er-ahl) pertaining to the internal components (mainly the organs) of a body cavity. the bone of the nasal septum which is split in two at its upper edge. vox = voice.visceral. viscus: Lt. and which functions in the absorption of nutrients.Lt. vulva: Lt. vital: Lt. = fetters (sing. vitreus = glassy. Vitreous humor (VIH-tree-uhs HYEW-mahr) a mass of gelatinous material located w/n the eyeball in the posterior cavity located b/n the lens and the retina. vitellus = yolk. L.villi.

the bone joining the maxillary. hence. sword-shaped. hence. G H X xen. S rA Z ma Y nd a I xanth. the bone joining the maxillary.dry K L M N xiphoid: Gk. O found w/n the medullary cavities of bones.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms A B W of neurons. D White pulp one of the 2 interior areas of the spleen (see red pulp). monocytes and macrophages suspended on a stroma of reticular fibers. zonule: diminutive of zona. L.yellow Ne ill © A. xiphos = a sword. and eidos = shape or form. zygon = yoke. P Q Yellow marrow a collection of fat storage (adipose) & other tissues R Zona (ZOH-nah) an area smaller than a region in an organ as in the W X Y Z ©D 157 adrenal gland zona: Lt. E White pulp is composed of lymphocytes. = a belt. T zyg. hence. zygon = yoke. Neill C White matter a type of NT composed mainly of the myelinated axons . It provides immunological F and phagocytic functions in the spleen.yoke (z-eye-g) U zygoma: Gk. V zygomatic: adj.different J xero.Gk. temporal & sphenoid bones. frontal. a circular band.

Taking the Body Apart TAKING THE BODY APART ©D rA ma © A. Neill 158 nd a Ne ill .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Dissembling . L.

L. Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill beginning with the chest .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms TAKING THE BODY APART ©D 159 © A.

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms TAKING THE BODY APART cardiac catastrophe ©D rA ma © A. Neill 160 nd a Ne ill . L.

Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill . L.no gizzards ©D 161 © A.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms TAKING THE BODY APART no guts .

. Neill 162 nd a Ne ill . ©D rA ma © A.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms TAKING THE BODY APART No vision. L.

.. L. gutless . Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill model empty and.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms TAKING THE BODY APART ©D 163 © A.

.and not much backbone either ©D rA ma © A..The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms TAKING THE BODY APART .. Neill 164 nd a Ne ill . L.

Neill rA ma nd a Ne ill .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms TAKING THE BODY APART Anatomy .it's a no-Brainer !! ©D 165 © A. L.

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

Guide to Surface Anatomy and Surface Markers
HORIZONTAL • C1= the Hard palate • C2 = free margin of the upper teeth • C2/3 = Hyoid bone • C4 = upper level of the Thyroid cartilage • C6 = Cricoid cartilage • T1 = vertebra prominens • T7 = Thoracic plane • T9/10 = Sterno-Xiphoid plane • L1 = Transpyloric plane • L3 = Subcostal plane • L3/4 = Umbilical plane • L5 = intertubercular plane

INTERSECTION POINTS • Lateral vertical lines + Transpyloric plane = Lateral central points • Median line + L1 = central point

Right Hypochondriac

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9 ABDOMINAL REGIONS -intersection of the lateral vertical planes and the transpyloric and the intertubercular planes Epigastric Umbilical Hypogastric Left Hypochondriac Left Lumbar Left Iliac

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VERTICAL • Lateral vertical line = through the lateral extremity of the 9th costal cartilage. • Median vertical plane / Sagittal plane = through the centre of the body and vertebral column • Midclavicular line = through the middle of the clavicle

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The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms

Guide to Anatomical Planes and Relations
This is the anatomical position.
A = Anterior Aspect from the front Posterior Aspect from the back used interchangeably with ventral and dorsal respectively B= Lateral Aspect from either side C = Transverse / Horizontal plane D= Midsagittal plane = Median plane; trunk moving away from this plane = lateral flexion or lateral movement moving into this plane medial movement; limbs moving away from this direction = abduction; limbs moving closer to this plane = adduction E = Coronal plane F = Median

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.consisting of several layers of epithelial cells. rA SUPERFICAL FASCIA = LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE + FAT (± Skeletal muscle) ma General properties of the SKIN nd a DERMIS . Networks of Blood Vessels (BV) + Nerves (N) + Lymphatics spread thoughout the area. which slough off and are replaced b/n 1-7 days . Neill SKIN = EPIDERMIS + DERMIS .scars will not have the properties or the features of the epidermis.very variable thickness females >males ©D 169 Gives the intrinsic shape of the body ie main deposit of fat determines the FIGURE Allows for facial expressions. THIN / MOBILE REGENERATES / REPAIRS thick skin directly over bone directly over cartilage Ne ill © A. L.capable of repair/regeneration contraction (reduction of wound size) and scar formation.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Guide to Anatomical Layers EPIDERMIS .burns or wounds to this level may be completely healed without scar formation Exceptions PALMS / SOLES SHIN / CHEST EARS / NOSE Loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE (CT) + FAT + Skeletal muscle Not arranged as specific layers .contains all the specialities of the skin: hair. . nails sweat glands etc.burns or wounds to this level will be detectable and are from tissue replacement not regeneration . sitting on supportive layer the basement membrane BM. fairly stable .consisting of connective tissue supplying the epidermis with nerve and blood supply tissue is not replaced except on a need basis.

(may be 80 in a “normal” goiter) - ©D for more details please see The A to Z of Organ Anatomy rA ma nd a Ne ill This is the point of mobility of the skin The point of determining the looseness or tightness of the tissue This is the plane used by the plastic surgeons. Thorax. There should not in the long term alteration in sensation.5 120-200 /per kidney 0.2 225-375 0.(may be >800 if exposed 0. DEEP FASCIA = CONNECTIVE TISSUE + NEUROVASCULAR TISSUE Defined anatomical layer .. There may be changed appearance.5 100-250.VISCERA Cranium. Layers of varying thicknesses and strengths.7 250-500 /per lung 1.5 1. L. Neill 170 .Easily separates from the tissue above. Acts as a conduit for the Blood and Nerve supply to the deep tissues particularly the skeletal muscle tightly bound over muscle / anchor for intermuscular septa CT + BV + N + Lymphatics MUSCLE & BONE . Abdomen and Pelvis / axial skeleton Guide to Organ Weights and Measurements Organ Adrenals Brain Heart Kidneys Liver Lungs Spleen Thyroid Normal Adult Range % of Total Body grams Weight 12-20 /per gland 1250-1500 2.500-1..800 2.2 to a parasite eg malaria) 15-40 .The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Wounds to this area will not alter the function of the tissue underneath. (unless there is excessive contraction).limbs / appendicular skeleton . © A.

.... name the ligaments involved -.. name the bones involved -.... © A...superior / inferior / anterior / posterior / laterally / medially describe any particular radiological feature including CT scan Organs define the organ describe the general outline -.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Guide to Anatomical Descriptions How to desribe features in Anatomy Systematically Joints classify their type -. list any functional aspects -.. bones and relavant muscles) relate the joint to the line of weight describe their blood supply describe their nerve supply list the surrounding bursae list their relations -. fibrous / cartilaginous / synovial describe their shapes / and articular coverings capsule / capsular thickenings / accessory / intracapsular name other intracapsular structures . L. ma nd a shape / size (inc weight) / colour / surfaces (including impressions) / consistency / location (including orientation) endocrine / exocrine / autonomic / immunological / physiological / structural / psychological Ne ill .. superior / inferior / anterior / posterior / laterally / medially describe the Histology and Embryology describe any particular radiological feature including CT scan ©D Muscles describe their attachments describe their actions describe their blood supply describe their nerve supply list any unusual features 171 Vessels and Nerves list in order . Neill rA describe the blood supply describe the nerve supply describe the lymphatic drainage list the relations -.. .origin/course/termination/relations and branches for more details see The A to Z of Basic Anatomical Concepts and Anatomical Mapping.synovial membrane / discs / tendons / fat pads / bones describe functional aspects -...... movements (list muscles involved) stability (list ligaments..

© A. Diplomas. Diplomas and then Certificates in conferring order iii Fellowships before Memberships iv parliamentary designations last 4 do not place degrees on the same line as the name only national and royal honours 6 most colleges and institutes do not have recognized abbreviations and so have their name is spelt out in full. ©D rA ma 5 higher degrees absorb lower ones if they are from the same institution.) ii Degrees. Neill 172 . and only use commas b/n different postnominals not b/n several postnominals of the same type ie not b/n masters and bachelors degrees. Specifically Medical Qualifications. nd a 3 do not place a comma b/n the first postnominal and the person’s name. AM. Ne ill Guide to Degrees. etc. L. IAE = institute of advanced education. exceptions CAE = college of advanced education.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 1 full stops should not be used in abbreviations of degrees or other qualifications STYLE GUIDE 2 use either a full or shortened term but not a mixture of both order of qualifications is: i national and royal honours (AO. IT = institute of education. Postnominals and other Qualifications.

Unlike a PhD standards vary from institute to institute and all Doctorates are not universally recognized as opposed to the PhD. rA The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms D Diploma of … Generally a 2 year tertiary qualification. ma DDR DLO DM DO Doctorate of …. Diploma of Diagnostic Radiology Diploma of Laryngology and Otorhinology Doctorate of Medicine Diploma of Ophthalmology © A. Neill .. Generally a post graduate professional degree similar to a PhD but often internally awarded and may not be examined externally. L. Generally a year qualification. Frequently at a tertiary college.Abbreviations of common medical qualifications Abbreviations of common medical qualifications 173 Abbreviation B BM BS BMedSc BSc ©D nd a Ne ill Qualification/Membership Bachelor Degree in… A 3 year University qualification in various disciplines .increasingly degrees are taking 4 years to complete Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery *see MBBS / MBBCh commonly termed “medical degree” Bachelor of Medical Science Bachelor of Science C Certificate in …. Maybe at a postgraduate level.

Abbreviations of common medical qualifications © A. Generally denoting a “fellowship” in a college as opposed to a “membership”. Neill DPM DS DTR DPhil Diploma of Psychological Medicine Doctorate of Science Diploma of Radiological Medicine Doctorate of Philosophy of a particular discipline F ©D nd a Ne ill Faculty of …… Generally denoting a group of Departments with a common theme. Fellows are awarded membership on the basis of qualifications and nominations. with faculty members. rA ma The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 174 FACBS FACD FACLM FACRM FFARCS FRACO FRACMA FRACOG FRACP FRACR FRANZCP FRC Psych FRC Path Fellowship in …. L. Fellow in the Australian College of Biomedical Scientists Fellow of the Australian College of Dermatologists Fellow in the Australian College of Legal Medicine c Fellow of the Australian College of Rehabilitation Medicine Fellow in the Faculty of Anaethetists in the Royal College of Surgeons Fellow in the Australian College of Ophthalmologists FRACS Fellow in the Australian College of Surgeons Fellow in the Australian College of Medical Administration Fellow in the Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Fellow in the Australian College of Physicians Fellow in the Australian College of Radiologists Fellow in the Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Fellow in the Royal College of Psychiatrists Fellow in the Royal College of Pathologists .

. Generally denoting membership to a college as to opposed to a fellowship Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery* See BM MS / MBBCh Doctor of Medicine Master of Surgery Master of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Member of the Royal College of Physicians of the Royal Kingdom Member of the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ma © A. Generally denoting a postgraduate degree of at least 2 years duration. which may or may not be externally examined. In some universities this may be awarded automatically on completion of a degree.Abbreviations of common medical qualifications 175 FRCOG FRCPA FRCS Fellow in the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Fellow in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australia FRCR Fellow in the Royal College of Radiology Fellow in the Royal College of Surgery Hons The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms M ©D nd a Honours Generally placed after a degree denoting either an additional time of study or an excellent result in the degree. In some Universities this is awarded as an honorary degree e.g. Oxford.. Medicine/Medical rA MB BS MD MS MGO MRCP MRCOG Member of …. Master of …. L. Neill PhD Doctor of Philosophy of a particular discipline Ne ill .

heart and diaphragm with aorta and oesophagus entering the abdominal cavity. L.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ©D rA Model of lungs. 176 © A. Neill ma nd a Ne ill .

Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 177 ©D The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide and Other useful Abbreviations and terms in common academic / university use ACAustralian centre of … Australian College of … ACA Australian Centre for Astrobiology ACAC Centre for Advanced Computing – Algorithms & Cryptography ACANS Australian Centre for Ancient Numismatic Studies ACEM Australasian College for Emergency Medicine ACEP Australian College of Emergency Physicians ACES Australian Centre for Educational Studies ACLM Australasian College of Legal Medicine ACLS Advanced Cardiac Life Support course ACUADS Australian Council of University Art and Design Schools the peak body of university visual arts. schools and departments. Strathfield. North Sydney. and hosts an active conference and seminar program. The Council undertakes leadership. research and community service for the sector. ACU National Australian Catholic University National – Brisbane. Canberra. ACUADS represents over 30 Australian University and TAFE art and design faculties. Neill Ne ill . policy development. L. crafts and design. The world’s largest student organisation. advocacy.000 members across more than 83 countries and rA ma nd a © A. AIESEC is a global network of 50. Ballarat and Melbourne ADFA Australian Defence Forces Academy AF application form AFTRS Australian Film Television and Radio School AHEIA Australian Higher Education Industrial Association AIESEC Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commerciales.

Neill Alma Mater Alumni ©D nd a Ne ill AMA AMDA AMEE AMET AMIS AMSA AMSE APA APS ARC ARC Grant ARIES rA ma The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ASCS ASEM ASM territories at more than 800 universities worldwide. Alumni . AIESEC facilitates international exchange of thousands of students and recent graduates each year.most schools and Universities have an office which keeps in contact with graduates and past students and or staff. college or university. Australian Medical Association Association of Medical Doctors in Asia Association for Medical Education in Europe Australian Mineral Exploration Technologies Academic Management Information System Association of Medical Students in Asia Association of Medical Schools in Europe Australian Postgraduate Award Academic Program Section Australian Research Council Australian Research Council Grant Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES) based at Macquarie University. L. Whether in a paid traineeship or as a volunteer for a non-profit organisation. The expression is used usually in relation to a person’s school.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. ARIES is the first national institute devoted to the research of education for sustainability and has been established with funding from the Federal Government. Nourishing mother. Useful for creating a network of old students and for fund raising. Australian Society for Classical Studies Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine Australian Society of Microbiology 178 .

UTS . SAIT .Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 179 ATF ATF NFA ATN ©D nd a Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms AUC AUQA AVCC BGO C4ISR rA ma CA CC CCC CAG CAL CAMEC CBB Attach to file Attach to file no further action The Australian Technology Network (ATN) is a coalition of 5 Australian universities that share a common focus on the practical application of tertiary studies and research. The network claims they have a special strength in the way each of the member universities is focused on producing practical outcomes through their academic activity. The member universities of this network are: CIT . These universities share a common background in the way they distinguished themselves as technical colleges before becoming accredited universities. L.University of Technology Sydney. Card of Acceptance Card of Confirmation Constitution Credential Committee Computer Administrators Group Copyright Agency Ltd Cardiac Arrest Medical Emergency course National Key Centre for Biodiversity & Bioresource © A. Neill . RMIT. The result is graduates and research that is closely aligned to the needs of industry and the wider society.Curtin University of Technology. strategic planning and force structure.Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University.South Australian Institute of Technology = University of South Australia. Apple User Consortium Australian Universities’ Quality Agency Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee Buildings and Grounds Office Command Control Communications Computers Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (US Pentagon term) covering weapons. and QIT Queensland Institute of Technology.

Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. L.a secondary and tertiary education provider with 9 campuses and centres across the Northern Territory. as well as challenging and occasionally overwhelming.Northern Territory University). Chief Executive Officer = Vice-Chancellor (in a University) see VC Centre for Flexible Learning University life can be very rich and rewarding. In 2004. The aim of the Chaplaincy Centre is to support students. Darwin’s Northern Territory University merged with Alice Springs’ Central College to form Charles Darwin University . staff and faculty through all the ups and downs of the University experience. Centre for International Communication Critical Incident Monitoring study in Emergency Medicine Centre for Lasers and Applications Centre for Language in Social Life Centre for Language Technology Content Management Campus Network Management Committee Centre of Australian Category Theory Centre for Open Education Council of Europe Collaborative Online Learning and Information Services rA ma The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 180 . Neill CBR CCS CDM CDO CDU ©D nd a Ne ill CEO CFL Chaplaincy Chaplains CIC CIMS CLA CLSL CLT CM CNMC CoACT COE COE COLIS Chemical Biological Radiation Critical and Cultural Studies Document Management program Career Development Office Charles Darwin University (Formerly NTU .

Generally there is an administrative structure devoted to protecting the office of the Dean. Deakin University aims to be Australia’s most progressive University Dean Deans provide academic leadership within a Division/Faculty. DEETT Disaster External Emergency Team Training rA ma nd a © A. do not look for it elsewhere such as in a dictionary. DCM Document & Content Management DCMS Department of Contemporary Music Studies Deakin Deakin University .grow with us. Each Division/Faculty is the guardian of programmes (degrees. textbook or a professional journal. Neill Ne ill . diplomas and other qualifications) in which students enrol. encyclopedia. Cyber-sloth Any student or academic who if they can not find information in cyberspace. L. It may be defined as the unauthorised and unattributed collaboration of students or others in a piece of assessed work. Council University Council CPD Centre for Professional Development CPME Standing Committee of European Doctors CPSU Community and Public Sector Union CQU Central Queensland University CRC Marsupial Cooperative Research Centre CRF Central Records File – Central Records was the preceding agency of Records and Archives Services CSU Charles Sturt University – living success CUDOS Centre for Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems CUTSD Project Teaching and Learning of Greek and Latin in Australian Universities Cyber-Plagiarism (aka Internet Plagiarism) Use of the use the Internet to “cut and paste” information to complete assignments.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide Collusion 181 ©D The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Collusion is a form of plagiarism.

(aka the cheating game. L.Plagiarism.DEFS Dep Reg DEST Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. e-cheating. & Research) English for Academic Purposes Enterprise Bargaining / executive board Evidence based laerning UN Economic and Social Council The practice of finding and downloading papers from websites. Paper Mills. Interchangeable terms. Training and Youth Affairs) Degree Granting Body = Faculty Some Universities have Divisions and others Faculties. See below . Administration. Neill DGB Division DVC EAP EB EBL ECOSOC E-Cheating ©D nd a Ne ill rA ma The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms ECU EDRM EDRMS EEO EEX EFT EFTSU ELS ELS EMSA Division of Economic and Financial Studies Deputy Registrar Commonwealth Department of Education. Science and Training (Formerly DETYA . cut and paste 101) Edith Cowan University Electronic Document & Records Management Electronic Document & Records Management System Equal Employment Opportunity Electronic Exchange Equivalent Full Time Equivalent Full Time Student Unit Emergency Life Support (course) Environmental and Life Sciences European Medical Students' Association 182 . Deputy Vice-Chancellor (There are 3 at Macquarie – Academic.Department of Education.

© A.Australian Research Council awards designed to develop and retain Australian skills The fellowships are regarded as innovative and highly prestigious. It means the doors and files of government are open and available to the public. A direct cash contribution from the Division(s)/Departments(s) concerned is a requirement of funding. Financial Management Information System Freedom of Information . Backing Australia’s Ability. student learning or assessment across whole programs or sequences of units. They were established under the Australian Government’s 2001 innovation action plan. Neill . which involve significant innovation or developments that will result in improvements to the quality of teaching.FOI is the opposite of secrecy. L. Flagship Grants are for teaching development support a small number of substantial projects contributing to strategies indicated in the Teaching and Learning Plan. incorrect or misleading and a right to have made known to them the reasons for decisions that have materially affected them. instead of being closed to all but a select few.The NSW Freedom of Information Act confers on a person a legally enforceable right of access to information held in an agency’s records. Freedom of information is an important tool for the realisation of democratic goals.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 183 EMST EPSA EYF FABLS FAMSA FATSIL FC Federation Fellowship ©D nd a Ne ill Early management of severe trauma European Pharmacy Students Association European Youth Forum The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Flagship Grant rA ma FMIS FOI FOI Act Fluorescence Applications in Biotechnology and Life Sciences Federation of African Med students' Association Federation of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Languages (Corporation) Financial Committee Federation Fellowships . a right to have official information relating to them amended where it is incomplete. Freedom of Information Act .

AKA sandstone universities. Awardees range from the traditional fields of law. Grade Point Average Griffith University – excellence.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. engineering and science to the visual and performing arts. and The University of Western Australia. Professionals and Senior Scholars. Neill FOI Officer FORC Fulbright Exchange Program ©D nd a Ne ill rA GA GDS GEMOC GHC Go8 ma The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms GPA Griffith GS Freedom of Information Officer Field of Research Concentration The Fulbright Exchange program was established in 1946 as an initiative of Senator J. The University of Sydney. William Fulbright of the USA. The University of Melbourne.500 Australians and over 1. The University of New South Wales. equity. The University of Queensland. Membership of the Group of Eight (Go8) includes Adelaide University.700 Americans have been awarded prestigious Fulbright scholarships to study. The Australian National University. Applications for Australian scholarships open on June 1 and closes on August 31 each year. Get smarter General Secretariat 184 . General Assembly Graduate Destination Survey ARC National Key Centre for Geochemical Evolution and Metallergy of Continents Global Health Council The Group of Eight (go8) markets itself as the group of ‘Australia’s Leading Universities’. research and travel in the respective countries. The Fulbright program has promoted educational and cultural exchange between America and over 140 countries throughout the world over the past 50 years. Post-Doctoral Fellows. Following the end of World War II he was committed to the ideal that mutual understanding through international education and exchange would ‘find ways and means of living in peace’. The Australian Fulbright program was established through a Binational Treaty in 1949. Monash University. Since then almost 2. L. Each year. innovation. up to 25 awards are made to Australian Post-Graduates.

This involves strategic planning. Higher Education Contribution Scheme Health Records and Information Privacy Act First rule of the con: you can’t cheat an honest man. It serves as a guideline for both parties before any documents are ratified. Governance and Reinvention in Australia Simon Marginson and Mark Considine . L. International Association of Dentist Students International Council on Archives International Committee of the Blue Shield International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property International Conference on Emergency Medicine International Council on Museums International Council on Monuments and Sites Education Australia Limited is a global organisation with more than 101 offices in some 55 countries. including quality assurance. A non-binding document outlining the main issues relevant to a tentative partnership agreement.more recently up-springing and fast-growing Australian universities (study)global utilization of Streptokinase and TPA for occluded Coronary arteries The role of each Head of School is to provide academic and management leadership to the School. Neill . you must find someone who wants something for nothing and give them nothing for something. managing the people and resources of the School and management of teaching and research programmes. © A.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 185 GSE GSM Gumtree University GUSTO Head of School Heads of Agreement ©D nd a Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms HECS HRIP Act HUSTLE rA ma IADS ICA ICBS ICROM ICEM ICOM ICOMOS IDP Graduation School of the Environment Graduate School of Management Term attributed to The Enterprise University: Power. It is the draft used by lawyers when drawing up the contract.

The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 186 . Macquarie University. experts in inforensics. IDP is an independent not-for-profit organisation. short for information forensics. International Office Intellectual Property International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War International Pharmacy Student Federation Innovative Research Universities Australia (IRU Australia) is a group of 6 universities that share a common mode of operation.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. National Member Organizations from 88 countries on six continents and represented more than 1 million medical students worldwide. In 20042005 IFMSAhad 92 members. you are leaving digital evidence or a digital trail. International English Language Testing System International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions International Federation of Medical Students Associations The International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) is an independent. Information Management International Medical Education (aka Digital detective work )Instead of dusting for fingerprints. Murdoch University and the University of Newcastle. Griffith University. The group believes that they will be able to establish research concentrations and investment across the universities. nongovernmental and non-political federation of medical students' associations throughout the world. The member universities of IRU Australia are: Flinders University. La Trobe University. You’re actually leaving more of a trail when you go online than you would anywhere else. In today’s digital world. sift through computer files. L. Neill IELTS IFLA IFMSA ©D nd a Ne ill rA IM IMET Inforensics ma IO IP IPPNW IPSF IRU Australia Owned by 38 prestigious universities in Australia and representing all education sectors.

L. Dartmouth College. and Yale) are highly selective colleges for admission but originally the designation “Ivy League” only refers to their membership in a common athletic conference. Princeton. together with common services for digital rights. Columbia. Medicolegal society Memorandum of Understanding Medecins sans Frontieres . search services and metadata management.(a league of universities and colleges in the north-eastern United States that have a reputation for scholastic achievement and social prestige) its 8 members (Brown. authorisation and identities. Harvard. Neill MLS MOU MSF International society of Aeromedical Services International Triage Scale Ivy League . Penn .Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 187 ISAS ITS Ivy League JCU JRCASE LC LEO LMO LO LOME LORA LORE LORP LPO MAMS ©D nd a Ne ill The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms rA ma © A. James Cook University Joint Research Centre for Advanced Systems Engineering Local Committee Local Exchange Officer local medical officer / locum Liaison Officer Local Officer for Medical Education Local Officer of Reproductive Health & AIDS Local Officer on Research Exchange Local Officer on human Rights and Peace Local Public Health Officer Meta access management system The MAMS project will conduct leading-edge R&D for the integration of multiple solutions to managing authentication. Cornell.University of Pennsylvania.

The building provides a number of spaces for prayer. It was founded in 1990 in WA. the University of Notre Dame in the United States. overlooks the surrounding suburbs and the mountains beyond.MSI Multi Faith Centre Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. reflection and participation in religious practices. L.Natural Hazards Research Centre National Member Organisation National Officer on Medical Education National Officer on Reproductive Health & AIDS National Officer on Research Exchange National Officer on human Rights and Peace The University of Notre Dame Australia has campuses in Fremantle and Broome. Neill ©D nd a Ne ill NAS NCELTR NGO NHMRC NHRC NMO NOME NORA NORE NORP Notre Dame Australia rA ma The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms NTEU NUS OC The Medical Student International The Griffith University Multi-Faith Centre established on the Nathan Campus on the edge of Toohey Forest. The Multi-Faith Centre provides a venue where people from different religious backgrounds can further their education in their own tradition and participate in multi-faith dialogue. maintain culture and offer education to the wider community on significant issues National Art School National Centre for English Language Teaching & Research Non-Governmental Organisation National Health and Medical Research Council Risk Frontier . National Tertiary Education Union National Union of Students Organising Committee 188 . Notre Dame declares itself to be one of Australia’s most exciting and innovative universities. The Centre is also a place where members of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities can meet. It is inspired by one of the greatest Catholic universities in the world.

Pro Vice-Chancellor Permanent Working Group of European Hospital Doctors Regional Coordinator Queensland University of Technology – a university for the real world Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Eccl. (aka Research Paper Mills or Cheat Sites). A PVC may overseas a number of Heads of School and/or may oversee a specific Unit or have a University-wide area of responsibility. essays. and term papers to students. law. L. research papers. h. Canonique.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 189 OH & S OLA OPTIVA Oxbridge Paper Mills The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms PBL PC PCE ©D nd a Ne ill PELS PPIPA Pro ViceChancellor rA ma PVC PWG RC QUT RACS Rector Occupational Health and Safety Open Learning Agency of Australia Outpatient Intravenous Therapy Association Noun :(British) general term for an ancient and prestigious and privileged university (especially Oxford or Cambridge Universities) . One who rules or governs a name given to certain officers of the Roman church.A short way of referring to Oxford and Cambridge universities. (Also © A. The PVC manages staff directly reporting to the office of the PVC. Websites which sell pre-written dissertations.v. Problem Based Learning Project Coordinator Papyri from the Rise of Christianity in Egypt. Neill . Dict. PVCs are members of the Senior Management Team (SMT) and report to the Vice-Chancellor. A project of the Ancient History Documentary Research Centre [Formerly Corpus Papyrorum Christianarum] Postgraduate Education Loans Scheme Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 (NSW) A Pro Vice-Chancellor (PVC) is a senior academic leader of the University who also has senior strategic Universitywide management responsibilities.

since 1860. and he/she serves as the permanent chair for Senate meetings. the students’ representative on the University Court. to ensure that student life at Aberdeen continues to meet the needs of all students. combined with the President of the Students’ Association and the Rector’s Assessor (her representative within the University) there is effective student representation at Court. at which all major decisions are taken. This ensures that. One of the principal duties is to chair the University Court. L. the President of the Students’ Association further serves student’s interests on the Court ex-officio. both within the University and nationally. This can sometimes be shown as numbered points giving the sequence of who should receive the file. ruler. and master). subordinate only to the Senate. The Rector is a position that is independent of both the Students’ Association and University administration. allowing the Rector a direct relationship with the students.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. leader. The Rector also spearheads wider campaigns. See Go8 190 . The Rector plays an important role in representing and supporting the students at the University. At Tel Aviv University the Rector is the highest-ranking academic official in the University. On a day-to-day level. At the University of Aberdeen the post of rector dates back to the foundation of the University in 1495. director. the Rector holds regular surgeries to which any student who would like to raise a particular issue or concern is welcome to come. A Rector and Vice-Chancellor administers the University of Ottawa. Registrar and Vice-Principal Regional Meeting Records Management Royal North Shore Hospital Royal Prince Alfred Hospita Research and Research Training Management Plan Reports Re-submit (file) an officer or officer’s name will be specified along with the date. Rectors serve for three years and appoint to the Court a Rector’s Assessor. Neill ©D nd a Ne ill rA ma Registrar RM RM RNSH RPAH RRTMR RS The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms Sandstone defined as a guider. and has been.

SCORP also works for the prevention of conflicts and human rights abuses. Southern Cross University Academic Senate Student Enquiry Service Secretary General Society for the Study of Early Christianity . It deals with the problems faced by displaced people and participates in relief efforts. gender equity. It allows students interested in medical research the possibility to experience research work in a foreign country. as well as Sexually Transmitted Infections. Standing Committee on Professional Exchange Itis the largest committee within IFMSA. Neill SCU Senate SES SG SSEC South Asian Network for Young Conservation Professionals Standing Committee Standing Committee on Medical Education It is a forum for active discussion for medical students interested in developing medical education. improvement in diet and increasing physical activity Standing Committee on Reproductive Health including AIDS It aims to raise awareness among medical students about Reproductive Health including sexual education. sexual violence. The promotion of a healthy lifestyle through the eradication of smoking. Standing Committee on Public Health Its importance is to make public health issues in medical education and more prominent to the profession and the community. Standing Committee on human Rights and Peace. L. Standing Committee on Research Exchange. The overall goal is the implementation of an optimal learning environment for all medical students around the world. More than 6000 students worldwide participate in the programme each year.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 191 University SANEYOCOP SC SCOME SCOPE SCOPH ©D nd a Ne ill rA The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms SCORA ma SCORE SCORP © A.

the University’s existing plagiarism policy. the lecturer is emailed a report highlighting any non-original content in the student’s work.The online system. L. rather than replace. Neill Swinburne TAF TDC TER TFN TOM TRIM Turnitin ©D nd a Ne ill rA The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms U3A UAC UAI U-Can UN UNAIDS UNDP UNE UNESCO UNEVOC UNFPA Swinburne University of Technology – education that works Travel Assistance Fund Technical Data Card Tertiary Entrance Rank (replaced by UAI) Tax File Number Team of Officials Meeting Tower Records and Information Management Web-based plagiarism detection system . The online system will supplement. previous students from Macquarie and other universities. University of the Third Age Universities Admission Centre University Admissions Index University of Canberra United Nations Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS United Nations Development Programme University of New England United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organisation International Project on Technical and Vocational Education United Nations Population Fund ma 192 . compares students’ assignments those of their classmates. The day after the assignment is submitted.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. called Turnitin. and with both freely available and subscription-based electronic journals .altogether billions of pages of text. with material available on the Internet.

(sometimes UniTas) University of Technology. usually refers to Oxford University or Cambridge University or 2. covers the first fifty years of UNSW’s history. Vice-Chancellor Vice-Chancellor’s Management Committee Village Concept Project . a British abbreviation of `university’. UNSW A Portrait by Professor Patrick O’Farrell.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide 193 UNHCR UNICEF Uni UniSA UNS The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms UNSW ©D nd a Ne ill UoW UQ USC USQ USS USyd UTas UTS UWA UWS Varsity rA ma © A. Sydney University of Western Australia University of Western Sydney – bringing knowledge to life Var´si`ty – Noun . a team representing a college or university – first team.a term used to describe the higher education industry after the abolition of the “binary divide” between universities and colleges of advanced education University of New South Wales. Neill VC VCMC VCP United Nations High Commission for Refugees United Nations Children's Fund University University of South Australia – experience the difference Unified National System .1. University of Wollongong – Excellence in Education since 1951 University of Queensland University of the Sunshine Coast University of Southern Queensland Undergraduate Studies Section (in common usage) University of Sydney University of Tasmania – Nationally Distinctive. L.

com The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms 194 .aspenonlinelearning. L. Terminology and other Jargon. Neill VET VPE VPI VUT WFME WFPHA WHO WHO-AFRO WHO-EMRO WHO-EURO WHO-SEARO WHO-WPRO WMA YFJ ©D nd a Ne ill Vocational Education and Training Vice-President for External Affairs Vice-President for Internal Affairs Victoria University of Technology World Federation on Medical Education World Federation of Public Health Associations World Health Organisation WHO Regional Office for Africa WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean WHO Regional Office for Europe WHO Regional Office for the South-East Asia WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific World Medical Association Youth Forum Jeunesse rA ma for more details see The A to Z of Medical and Academic Associations.Common Abbreviations and Terminology guide © A. see more detials on www. Abbreviations.

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) joint classifications listed) assessments) • The A to Z of Histological and Anatomical images • The A to Z of Skeletal Muscles • The A to Z of Medical quizzes Other proposed titles • The A to Z of the Hair.. and nerve disorders and and organ wgt. Neill What did you use this text for ? Student use Medical use .com or amanda@amandasatoz. anatomy word its articulation group section with examination builder.com fax: 61 2 9365 1000 phone: 0414 248 747 mobile: 0414 248 747 rA Research projects The A to Z of Topographical anatomical mapping in conjunction with the Forensic Institute of NSW and Anatomy Update ma Ne ill list in order of priority 196 .. BS & NS. Nails and Skin.com www. of relations. techniques for general medical qualifications movements. individual joints.aspenonlinelearning.The A to Z of Anatomical Histological and Medical terms The A to Z Project so far.com email us for complete access to the many A to Z educational aids ©D Name: E-mail: Other contact: © A.com www.. L..continuing education/patient explanation Forensic use Health professional use / other Personal use please email any comments or to order additional copies special student rates email: medicalamanda@gmail.aspenatlas. • The A to Z of Surface Anatomy. Pocket Reference Books (origins insertions actions BS & NS of each muscle listed alphabetically) (including radiology of the Skull) (including pronunciation (each bone’s features and (including a clinical guide. • The A to Z of the Head and Neck • The A to Z of Emergency Medicine • The A to Z of Anatomical Quizzes • The A to Z of Gynecological anatomy • The A to Z of Radiology nd a Websites: www.amandasatoz. abbrev.

A. Aspen Pharmacare Australia Pty Ltd 34-36 Chandos Street.au for login and passwords for the complete A to Z and the AspenAtlas online.com www. L.com 0414 248 747 Contact www.aspenpharma.amandasatoz.Dr.com. St Leonards NSW 2065 ABN 51 096 236 985 . NEILL BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS medicalamanda@gmail.

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