MCRP 3-02B

Close Combat

U.S. Marine Corps
12 February 1999

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
Headquarters United States Marine Corps
Washington, D.C. 20380-1775

18 February 1999

FOREWORD

1. PURPOSE

Today’s Marines operate within a continuum of force where conflict may change from
low intensity to high intensity over a matter of hours. Marines are also engaged in
many military operations other than war, such as peacekeeping missions or noncom-
batant evacuation operations, where deadly force may not be authorized. During non-
combative engagements, Marines must determine if a situation warrants applying
deadly force. Sometimes Marines must decide in a matter of seconds because their
lives or the lives of others depend on their actions. To make the right decision,
Marines must understand both the lethal and nonlethal close combat techniques need-
ed to handle the situation responsibly without escalating the violence unnecessarily.
Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 3-02B, Close Combat, provides the tac-
tics, techniques, and procedures of Marine Corps close combat. It also provides the
doctrinal basis for the Marine Corps Close Combat Training Program (MCCCTP).

2. SCOPE

This publication guides individual Marines, unit leaders, and close combat instructors
in the proper tactics, techniques, and procedures for close combat. MCRP 3-02B is
not intended to replace supervision by appropriate unit leaders and close combat in-
struction by qualified instructors. Its role is to ensure standardization and execution of
tactics, techniques, and procedures throughout the Marine Corps.

3. SUPERSESSION

MCRP 3-02B supersedes Fleet Marine Force Manual (FMFM) 0-7, Close Combat,
dated 9 July 1993. There are significant differences between the two publications.
MCRP 3-02B should be reviewed in its entirety.

4. WARNING

Techniques described in this publication can cause serious injury or death. Practical
application in the training of these techniques will be conducted in strict accordance
with approved Entry Level Close Combat, Close Combat Instructor (CCI), and Close
Combat Instructor Trainer (CCIT) lesson plans. Where serious danger exists, the read-
er is alerted by the following:

WARNING

5. CERTIFICATION

Reviewed and approved this date.

BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS

J. E. RHODES
Lieutenant General, U.S. Marine Corps
Commanding General
Marine Corps Combat Development Command

DISTRIBUTION: 144 000066 00

OVERVIEW OF CLOSE COMBAT

1. Purpose of Close Combat one person complies with the demands imposed
by another person. This range of actions is known
as a continuum of force. Continuum of force is the
Close combat is the physical confrontation be-
concept that there is a wide range of possible ac-
tween two or more opponents. It involves armed
tions, ranging from voice commands to applica-
and unarmed and lethal and nonlethal fighting
tion of deadly force, that may be used to gain and
techniques that range from enforced compliance
maintain control of a potentially dangerous situa-
to deadly force. The purpose of close combat is to
tion (MCO 5500.6_, Arming of Security and Law
execute armed and unarmed techniques to pro-
Enforcement [LE] Personnel and the Use of
duce both lethal and nonlethal results. Unarmed
Force). Continuum of force consists of five levels
techniques include hand-to-hand combat and de-
that correspond to the behavior of the people in-
fense against hand-held weapons. Armed tech-
volved and the actions Marines use to handle the
niques include techniques applied with a rifle,
situation (see the table below). Close combat
bayonet, knife, baton, or any weapon of opportu-
techniques are executed in levels three, four, and
nity.
five.

Level One: Compliant (Cooperative)
2. Continuum of Force The subject complies with verbal commands.
Close combat techniques do not apply.
Marines will find themselves in both combative
and noncombative situations. The threat level in
these situations can rise and fall several times
Level Two: Resistant (Passive)
based on the actions of both Marines and the peo- The subject resists verbal commands but complies
ple involved. The escalation of force stops when immediately to any contact controls. Close com-
bat techniques do not apply.
.

Continuum of Force
Level Description Actions
1 Compliant (Cooperative) Verbal commands
2 Resistant (Passive) Contact controls
3 Resistant (Active) Compliance techniques
4 Assaultive (Bodily Harm) Defensive tactics
5 Assaultive (Serious Bodily Harm/ Deadly force
Death)
Note: Shading indicates levels in which Marines use close combat techniques.

vi _________________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-02B

Level Three: Resistant (Active) achieve an effect that is greater than their separate
The subject initially demonstrates physical resis- sum.
tance. Marines use compliance techniques to con-
trol the situation. Level three incorporates close Achieving a Decision
combat techniques to physically force a subject to Achieving a decision is important in close
comply. Techniques include— combat. An indecisive fight wastes energy and
possibly Marines’ lives. Whether the intent is to
l Come-along holds. control an opponent through restraint or defend
l Soft-handed stunning blows. themselves in war, Marines must have a clear pur-
l Pain compliance through joint manipulation pose before engaging in close combat and act de-
and the use of pressure points. cisively once engaged.

Level Four: Assaultive (Bodily Gaining an Advantage
Harm) A basic principle of martial arts is to use the op-
The subject may physically attack Marines, but he ponent’s strength and momentum against him to
does not use a weapon. Marines use defensive tac- gain more leverage than one’s own muscles alone
tics to neutralize the threat. Defensive tactics in- can generate, thereby gaining an advantage. In
clude the following close combat techniques: close combat, Marines must exploit every advan-
tage over an opponent to ensure a successful out-
l Blocks. come. This can include employing various
l Strikes. weapons and close combat techniques that will
l Kicks. present a dilemma to an opponent. Achieving sur-
l Enhanced pain compliance procedures. prise can also greatly increase leverage. Marines
l Nightstick blocks and blows. try to achieve surprise through deception, stealth,
and ambiguity.
Level Five: Assaultive (Serious
Speed
Bodily Harm/Death)
Marines use speed to gain the initiative and ad-
The subject usually has a weapon and will either vantage over the enemy. In close combat, the
kill or seriously injure someone if he is not speed and violence of the attack against an oppo-
stopped immediately and brought under control. nent provides Marines with a distinct advantage.
Typically, to control the subject, Marines apply Marines must know and understand the basics of
deadly force through the use of a firearm, but they close combat so they can act instinctively with
may also use armed and unarmed close combat speed to execute close combat techniques.
techniques.
Adapting
Close combat can be characterized by friction, un-
3. Marine Corps Tactical certainty, disorder, and rapid change. Each situa-
Concepts tion is a unique combination of shifting factors
that cannot be controlled with precision or cer-
tainty. For example, a crowd control mission may
Close combat techniques support the following call for Marines to employ various techniques
key Marine Corps tactical concepts. The concepts ranging from nonlethal restraint to more forceful
are not standalone ideas but are to be combined to applications. Marines who adapt quickly will
have a significant advantage.

Close Combat ______________________________________________________________________________________________ vii

Exploiting Success exploit any advantage aggressively and ruthlessly
Typically, an enemy will not normally surrender until an opportunity arises to completely domi-
simply because he was placed at a disadvantage. nate the opponent. Marines must exploit success
Marines cannot be satisfied with gaining an ad- by using every advantage that can be gained.
vantage in a close combat situation. They must

(reverse blank)

Knife Fighting Techniques 3-3 3. Balance and Off-Balancing 1-8 8. Lethal and Nonlethal Weapons Techniques 1. Nonlethal Handgun Retention Techniques 2-8 4. Angles of Approach and Movement 1-7 7. Weapons of Opportunity 3-6 4. Blocking Techniques 3-9 7. Basic Warrior Stance 1-6 6. Fundamentals of Close Combat 1. Firearm Disarmament Techniques 2-12 Chapter 3. Counters to Hand-Held Weapon Attacks 3-13 Chapter 4. Target Areas of the Body 1-3 4. Weapons of the Body 1-2 3. Bayonet Techniques 2-1 2. Combative Stick Techniques 3-7 6. Fundamentals of Combative Stick 3-6 5. Fundamentals of Knife Fighting 3-1 2. Falls 1-9 Chapter 2. Close Combat Table of Contents Page Overview of Close Combat Chapter 1. Ranges of Close Combat 1-1 2. Strikes 1. Strikes with the Lower Body 4-10 5. Counters to Strikes 4-12 . Strikes with the Upper Body 4-4 4. Punches 4-2 3. Pressure Points of the Body 1-4 5. Principles of Punches 4-1 2. Hand-Held Weapons 1. Unarmed Against Hand-Held Weapons 3-11 8. Nonlethal Rifle and Shotgun Retention Techniques 2-6 3.

Types of Chokes 6-1 2. Hip Throw 5-2 3. Chokes and Holds 1. Offensive Ground Fighting 7-1 2. Pugil Stick Training A-1 B. Turning Throw 5-1 2. Unarmed Restraints and Manipulation 8-1 2. Safety Precautions During Training B-1 . Defensive Ground Fighting 7-3 3. Throws 1. Chokes 6-1 3. Counters to Chokes and Holds 6-5 Chapter 7. Ground Fighting Chokes 7-5 Chapter 8. Leg Sweep 5-3 Chapter 6. Ground Fighting 1. Nonlethal Baton 8-9 Appendices A. Nonlethal Techniques 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat iv Page Chapter 5.

and close range. sticks. combatants en- save their lives or the lives of fellow Marines. Ranges of Close Combat Close combat engagements occur within three ranges: long range. . conflict is resolved. and together or may rapidly transition from one to an- pressure points of the body. See figure below. During any engagement. The opponent is depicted without camouflage. gage each other with rifles. they may During long range engagements. However. these ranges may blur weapons of the body. midrange. If Marines apply these fundamentals properly in a close combat situation. bayonets. 1. all techniques can be executed from either side. The Marine is depicted in camouflage utilities. Long Range niques used. These fundamentals other until either the opponent is defeated or the form the basis for all close combat techniques. CHAPTER 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOSE COMBAT This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person. The fundamentals of close combat include ranges. target areas of the body. or entrenching tools. They provide Marines with a common framework regardless of the type of confrontation or the tech.

punches.. parry. and/or block. Marines use the edge of the hand (knife edge) as a weapon. groin). to the fists. knee strikes. Marines use the heels of the palms to strike. combatants grab each other. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1-2 MCRP 3-02B Midrange Fists. Close range engagements also in- volve elbow strikes. and elbows are the arm’s in. Marines use the edge of the hand to strike soft tis- sue areas. and grappling. Weapons of the Body Hands and Arms Forearms.g. rip. forearms. combatants en. sive tool to deflect or block attacks. Marines use gage each other with knives. Close Range During close range engagements. Forearms can dividual weapons. Marines use the forearms as a defen- The hands. and tear soft tissue areas (e. Fingers. or kicks. 2. their fists as weapons to target soft tissue areas such as the throat. and fingers. Because of the palm’s padding. Edge of Hand. Marines hands. edges of break an opponent’s joints and limbs. palms. The fists’ striking surfaces are the first two knuckles of the hands or the meaty portions of the hands be- low the little fingers. The hands consist of several also be used as striking weapons to damage or areas that can be used as weapons: fists. Palms. Marines use the fingers to gouge. eyes. throat. To minimize injury During midrange engagements. sustain less self-injury when strikes are conducted .

knees are excellent weapons Eyes. an opponent. Marines use the elbows as striking weapons. Like elbows. readily accessible areas will vary with each situa- on of the body. and the toes to kick an opponent. allowing groin area is an ideal target for the knee strike if Marines to execute a secondary attack to other he is standing upright. and they are less prone to injury tion and throughout the engagement. The The legs are more powerful than any other weap. elbows are excellent weapons for 3. Knees. ears. Feet. are the preferred choice for striking. The target when striking. The eyes are excellent targets because they in the close range of close combat. Marines must be wearing boots temple. Target Areas of the Body striking during the close range of close combat. the head kills an opponent. Elbows. The opponent’s ponent to protect the area with his hands. nose. Knee strikes are soft tissue areas that are not protected by bone are most effective while fighting close to an oppo- or muscle. Attacks to this area may cause the op- nent where kicks are impractical. Because of the short distance needed to generate power. and extremities. The feet are protected by boots and areas are divided into five major groups: head. the insteps. The figure be- low illustrates target areas of the body. Marines use the Head cutting edge of the heels and the heels to stomp on The vulnerable regions of the head are the eyes. torso. Marines strive to attack the Legs accessible target areas of an opponent’s body. Marines use the balls of the feet. neck. During close combat. face following an initial attack that caused him to bend at the waist. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 1-3 with the forearms than when strikes are conducted devastating secondary attack to an opponent’s with fists and fingers. groin. Massive damage to when striking with the toes. Knee strikes can deliver a Temple Eyes Ears Nose Cervical Vertebrae Carotid Sinus Jaw Clavicle Solar Plexus Extremities Ribs Kidneys Groin Extremities . and jaw.

lips. Temple. Damage to the opponent’s ribs immobilizes fully delivered. They also use pressure points to soften or distract The weight of the head and the lack of large mus. There are nerves in the human body that. from the base of the skull to ance. The groin area is another soft tissue area not cov- ders the opponent unconscious. allow Cervical Vertebrae. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1-4 MCRP 3-02B target areas while the opponent uses his hands to and spinal cord. Attacks to the ears may cause the eardrum neys cause immobilization. which is the nervous system’s link to the brain. Any damage to this ar- cause painful injuries to the teeth and surrounding ea causes the opponent to involuntarily protect his tissues (e. usually with his hands or legs. Attacks to the opponent’s solar tering and closing of the opponent’s eyes. But this may not stop or even distract death. causes pain. Therefore. rifle butt. Rarely will an attack to the opponent’s extremi- Damage to this region causes the opponent’s tra. but they are im- chea to swell. Marines use pressure points to control an the top of the shoulders. or to rupture. through training. the scrotum is the main target hard object such as a helmet. deterio- ration of his stance. Kidneys. Torso eas of the head. The nose is very sensitive and easily bro- ken. Groin Jaw. con- heel. Carotid Sinus. The figure on page 1-5 illustrates . The opponent’s clavicle (or collar bone) temple cause permanent damage and death. Neck Extremities The front of the neck. closing his airway. However. Powerful strikes to the opponent’s Clavicle. causing immobilization of the arm. when struck forcefully. Strikes 4. individuals can condi- tion themselves to withstand attacks to the nose. Solar Plexus. plexus or center of the chest can knock the breath rendering him vulnerable to secondary attacks. The cervical vertebrae on Marines to control a subject through pain compli- the back of the neck. contains the spinal cord. ties (arms and legs) cause death. when pressure is applied or when they are struck. opponent when deadly force is not authorized. The jaw region. an opponent’s joints causes immobilization. causing loss of consciousness or death. out of him and immobilize him. permanent damage. The temple is one of the most fragile ar. or boot since even a near miss causes severe pain. and possible internal trauma. or death. but the risk of self-inju. paralysis. an opponent unless Marines powerfully deliver the strike. is a soft tis- sue area that is not covered by natural protection. injured area. Damage to to death. Ribs. Excessive damage to this area protect his eyes. which can lead portant target areas in close combat. tongue). Powerful attacks to the opponent’s kid- Ears. In ry is great unless Marines deliver strikes with a male opponents. Strikes to the jaw ered by natural protection. or throat area. him.g. traction of the lower abdominal muscles. An attack to this area causes involuntary wa. any attack to the nose must be power. The carotid sinus is located on both sides of the neck just below the jaw. can be easily fractured. It may also cause internal trauma. an opponent so a lethal or nonlethal technique can cle mass allow damage to the cervical vertebrae be employed. Nose. Pressure Points of the Body to the carotid sinus restrict blood flow to the brain.. ren.

Marines execute at. . nent. serious damage. shoulder at the joint. softening technique. Strikes and pressure ap- inward and upward pressure to this pressure point plied with the hand to the radial nerve serve as a with the fingers to distract and control the oppo. Marines l Rapidly kicking or striking pressure points. stabbing motion with l Slowly applying steady pressure to pressure the index finger. Strikes to the jugular notch cause points. The brachial plexus (tie in) is on the front of the Marines apply pressure to this nerve with an in. Jugular Notch tacks to pressure points by— The jugular notch is at the base of the neck in the notch formed at the center of the clavicle. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 1-5 the body’s pressure points. Strikes and pressure applied dex finger to control the opponent. with the hand are effective on this nerve. apply pressure in a quick. Infraorbital Nerve Brachial Plexus (Tie In) The infraorbital nerve is just below the nose. Mastoid Process Radial Nerves The mastoid process is behind the base of the ear Radial nerves are on the inside of the forearms and beneath the edge of the jaw. Marines apply along the radius bones.

Bend the knees Femoral Nerves slightly. Marines put their feet apart. Distribute body weight evenly on both legs. half step forward with the left foot. Ensure continuous to soften or distract the opponent. Keep the head forward and bing between the thumbs and index fingers where eyes on the opponent. Basic Warrior Stance Elbows In Tuck the elbows in close to protect the body. Clenching Peroneal nerves are on the outside of the thighs the fists increases muscular tension in the fore- along the femur bones. Strikes and pressure ap- plied with the hand to the ulnar nerve serve as a Feet Apart softening technique. Place feet shoulder-width apart. Chin Down dation for stability and movement that is needed Tuck the chin down to take advantage of the natu- to execute close combat techniques. Hold the fists up high There are pressure points on the feet that. l The top of the foot where the leg and foot meet. Hands Up Curl the fingers naturally into the palm of the Peroneal Nerves hand. The basic warrior stance provides the foun. Strikes to the peroneal arms and decreases speed and reaction time. 5. . Femoral nerves are on the inside of the thighs along the femur bones. nerve serve as a softening technique. To execute ral protection provided by the shoulders. edge. l The top center of the foot. when enough to protect the head. and pivot on the heels so the hips and shoulders are at To force an opponent to soften or release his grip. this pressure point or strike this pressure point with their fists. but not so high that pressure is applied or when they are struck. elbows in. with Pressure Points on the Feet the palms facing each other. pressure with the toe. or heel of their boots to the following points: l The notch below the ball of the ankle. Pressure Point on the Hand The hands contain a pressure point on the web. serve they block the field of vision. Ulnar nerves are on the outside of the forearms along the ulnar bones. Strikes to the femoral nerve serve as a softening technique. Achieving a solid stance is critical to stability and movement throughout any close combat confron- tation. and chin down. Do not clench the fists. take a the two bones of the fingers meet. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1-6 MCRP 3-02B Ulnar Nerve the basic warrior stance. hands up. approximately a 45-degree an- Marines apply pressure with their index fingers to gle to the right. above the toes. Position the thumb across the index and middle fingers. Marines apply eye contact with the opponent. Bring the hands up to the face at chin level.

keeping the toe pointed toward the opponent. ons of the body and different close combat tech- niques to attack specific target areas. This returns When facing an opponent. Once a movement is completed. l Move the right foot backward at a 45-degree angle from the body (approximately 12 to Note: Before body movement begins. the basic the right from the basic warrior stance. while maintaining the basic warrior stance. Forward to the Right. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 1-7 6. This returns Marines must know how to move in all directions Marines to the basic warrior stance. Marines— tation. toe pointing toward the faster the head turns. To move forward to the left from the basic warrior stance. 15 inches). the opponent can rely on his forward l Move the left foot backward at a 45-degree momentum and linear power to seize the tactical angle from the body (approximately 12 to advantage. cute the forward movement in reverse. Mov- ing at a 45-degree angle avoids an opponent’s strike and puts Marines in the best position to at. If a Marine is directly in front of an oppo- nent. Marines move in a 45- Marines to the basic warrior stance. Marines exe- directly in front of an opponent during a confron. Angles of Approach and Forward to the Left. keeping the toe pointed toward creases power and maximizes momentum. 15 inches). The l Bring the left foot. in front of the right foot as soon as the right foot is in place. Backward to the Left. To move backward to the tack the opponent. angle from the body (approximately 12 to tage. Maintaining execute the forward movement in reverse. To move forward to the right from the basic warrior stance. This returns Movement allows Marines to use different weap. Marines— Angles of Approach Marines move anywhere within a 360-degree cir. the legs or feet should not be Backward to the Right. in front of the right foot as soon and the quicker Marines attain visual contact as the right foot is in place. Movement in. l Move the right foot forward at a 45-degree cle around the opponent to gain a tactical advan. To move backward to crossed. Marines should avoid being left from the basic warrior stance. This returns with the opponent. areas of the opponent’s body. Marines— Movement l Move the left foot forward at a 45-degree Marines use movement to control a confrontation angle from the body (approximately 12 to and to retain a tactical advantage. By the opponent. l Bring the right foot behind the left foot as Movement soon as the left foot is in place. Marines warrior stance should be resumed. This circle provides access to different target 15 inches). degree angle to either side of the opponent. l Bring the left foot. Marines to the basic warrior stance. Marines 15 inches). . Marines gain access l Bring the right foot behind the left foot as to different target areas of the opponent’s body. soon as the left foot is in place. turn their heads quickly to the new direction. Marines to the basic warrior stance. moving around the opponent. Dur- ing any movement. toe pointing toward the opponent. the basic warrior stance protects Marines and puts Marines— them in the proper position to launch an attack against an opponent. the faster the body moves. opponent.

during ered quadrants that are at a 45-degree angle in combat a Marine may be tired or outnumbered. and rear left are consid- generated by the opponent. Depending on the generated energy and momen- tum of the opponent. Forward. either direction to the front or rear. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1-8 MCRP 3-02B 7. Marines must maintain a strong base and a low center of bal- ance. the Marine pushes the opponent to drive him to the Note: The angles correspond to the Marine’s ground. Off-balancing techniques also rely on the power forward left. or bumping the opponent with their hands. Forward right. In any close combat situation. if the opponent is charging a Marine. Balance and Off-Balancing Angles of Off-balancing There are eight angles or directions in which an Balance opponent can be off-balanced: forward. Likewise. their feet must be a shoulder-width apart. or bodies. arms. or they are used to put Marines in a po- sition for an offensive attack. provides effective results. Off-balancing Marines use off-balancing techniques to control an opponent. and they must stay on their toes to enable quick movement. The last place to be in a close combat situation is on the ground. For example. the Marine employs off-bal. Marines grab an opponent with their these techniques are particularly effective for hands and drive him forcefully to one of the rear Marines who may be outsized by their opponent quadrants or to the right or left. or lack their opponent’s strength. forward right. rear. Off-balancing techniques use the opponent’s mo- mentum to move or throw him. Marines must strive and rear left. Off-balancing Techniques ancing techniques with very little effort and still Marines off-balance an opponent by pushing. These techniques are used to throw an opponent to the ground while Marines remain standing. not the opponent’s. For example. perspective. right. the Marine pulls the opponent to drive him to the ground. Because off-balancing techniques rely on the mo- mentum and power generated by the opponent. rear right. rear. To pull. rear right. left. forward left. to maintain balance. . right. and left are straight angles. if the opponent is pulling a Marine. pulling.

tuck the chin and keep the head . To execute the front fall. 8. but use their shoulders. Fall to the side. keep the head raised off the ground. Marines use falling techniques to absorb the im- pact of a fall and to quickly return to their feet fol- lowing an opponent’s attack. Marines grab the opponent with their Fall forward. Marines— Bend the elbows and place the palms facing out in a position to spread and absorb the impact of the fall. To execute the side fall. Marines execute a side fall to break a fall on the to prevent serious personal injury. and to increase side. next to the left shoulder with the palm facing in- mobilization. buttocks) to Bring the right arm across the body so the hand is protect vital organs and bones from injury and im. Falling techniques use the body’s large muscles (back. breaking the fall with the right arm by slapping the ground and making contact from the shoulder or forearm down to the hand. At the same time. board. Falls Marines may lose their balance or be thrown to the ground during encounters with an opponent. should strike the ground simultaneous- ly. fingertips. breaking the fall with the forearms hands and drive him forcefully into one of the and palms. Offer resistance with the forearms and hands to stead of their hands to off-balance the opponent. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 1-9 To push. hips. Marines strive to reduce the force of the impact. and legs in. Marines— the chances of survival. Side Fall Whether falling or being thrown by an opponent. The forearms and hands. down to the front quadrants or to the right or left. Front Fall Marines execute a front fall to break a fall on the front. Marines execute bumping in the same manner as pushing. thighs.

The chin should be tucked Fall backward and slap the ground with the fore- to the chest at all times to prevent whiplash. Stretch the right leg out to make contact with the ground and to distribute and absorb the impact. fall from an opponent’s attack and to use the mo- mentum of the fall to get back on their feet quick- ly. Slap the ground with the left arm. To execute the forward shoulder roll. palm down. . Marines— Cross the hands in front of the chest and tuck the chin. Back Fall Marines execute a back fall to break the fall when being thrown or falling backward. allowing the foot to make con. Roll onto the right shoulder. absorbing the impact from the shoulder to the hand. Ideally. Marines use the forward shoulder roll to break a tact with the ground. arms and hands to absorb the impact of the fall and keep the head off the ground. Forward Shoulder Roll Bend the left leg. To execute the back fall. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1-10 MCRP 3-02B raised off the ground. Marines— Contact the ground with the back of the right fore- arm and upper arm. Marines execute the forward shoulder roll to a standing position so they can continue fighting. Tuck the chin into the chest. rolling diagonally across the back to land on the left hip.

ing position. Forward momentum should carry the Marine to a standing position. (reverse blank) . The right leg is bent and the left knee and leg to a squatting and then a stand- foot hits flat on the ground. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 1-11 Keep the left leg straight to absorb as much of the Bend the left leg upon impact to push off with the impact as possible.

When practic- ing offensive and defensive bayonet tech. Marines use bayonet dummies to stance. Target areas are the oppo- choice. groin. a fight. 1. It is the most dead- closely mingled and rifle fire and grenades are ly offensive technique because it causes the most impractical. such as the block and parry. grab the small of the rifle’s stock. Marines develop the courage and confidence required to effectively use a bayonet Offensive Bayonet Techniques to protect themselves and destroy the enemy. proper training. Defensive techniques. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utilities. the oppo- nent is depicted in desert camouflage utilities. The bayonet is an effective weapon if Marines are properly trained in offensive and defensive bayo. Marines hold the WARNING rifle in a modified basic warrior stance. In photographs. In drawings. CHAPTER 2 LETHAL AND NONLETHAL WEAPONS TECHNIQUES This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person. or face. such as a rifle against the hip with thrust. In Straight Thrust. To hold the rifle. All Marines armed with a rifle carry a bayonet. Use an underhanded grasp to grab the hand- guards of the rifle. Lock the buttstock of the net techniques. the bayonet becomes the weapon of trauma to an opponent. can deter the opponent’s attack and al. Through rifle toward the opponent. is a devastating attack that can quickly end the right forearm. Orient the blade end of the low Marines to regain the initiative. Marines must have bayonets ment begins and ends with the basic warrior sheathed. Marines— practice bayonet techniques. Marines use pugil sticks. Marines use the straight thrust situations where friendly and enemy troops are to disable or kill an opponent. All move- During training. Bayonet Techniques Holding the Rifle To execute bayonet techniques. nent’s throat. An offensive attack. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utili- ties. the opponent is depicted without camouflage. Use an overhanded grasp to niques student-on-student. The opponent’s chest and stomach are also excellent target areas if not . However. all techniques can be executed from either side.

Extend the left hand back toward the left shoul- der. bring the right hand back toward the hip. Marines— tal buttstroke to weaken an opponent’s defenses. Rotate the hips and shoulders into the strike. or to set him up for a kill- Lift the left leg and lunge forward off the ball of ing blow. The target area is the opponent’s neck. or to set him up for a killing . To execute the horizontal weapon forward. and legs. directly toward the opponent. buttstroke. Slash. Marines— Step forward with the right foot and drive the right hand forward. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-2 MCRP 3-02B protected by body armor or combat equipment. The movement is a slashing mo- tion so the blade cuts across the opponent’s neck. To execute the slash. to cause serious injury. and turn the cutting edge of the blade toward the opponent’s neck. Marines use the vertical buttstroke to weaken an opponent’s defenses. Vertical Buttstroke. Retract the weapon and return to the basic warrior stance. Marines use the horizon- To execute the straight thrust. Move the left hand back toward the left shoulder. Marines use the slash to kill an opponent or to create an opening in his defense. Horizontal Buttstroke. Target areas are the opponent’s head. the right foot while thrusting the blade end of the neck. to cause serious injury. Thrust the left hand forward and swing it to the right. Marines— Strike the opponent with the butt of the weapon.

moving the bayonet end of the rifle to parry the opponent’s attack. Smash. Pull the left hand back over the left shoulder. striking the op- face. Rotate to the right or left. Marines use a parry as a defensive tech- nique to redirect or deflect an attack.g. Defensive Bayonet Techniques Parry. Strike the opponent with the butt of the weapon. To execute the parry. Marines— Step forward with the right foot and place the blade end of the weapon over the left shoulder and elevate the right elbow above the shoulders. Marines— Step forward with the right foot and drive the right hand straight up. a straight thrust or a smash. Lock the weapon against the hip with the right forearm. particularly if they missed the target. Target areas are the opponent’s groin and Drive the arms straight forward. Marines use the smash as a follow-up technique to the horizontal or vertical buttstroke. A parry is a slight redirection of a linear attack by an oppo- nent. . Rota- tion is generated from the hips. To execute the smash following a buttstroke. e. Marines— Use the bayonet end of the rifle to redirect the barrel or bayonet of the opponent’s weapon. The target area is the opponent’s head. ponent with the butt of the weapon. To execute the vertical buttstroke.. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 2-3 blow.

but there is enough muscular tension in the arms to absorb the impact and deter the attack. Marines— cute the high block. Left and Right Block. To execute the low block. The elbows are bent. The elbows are bent. but there is and deter the attack. Marines— Thrust the arms forcefully to the right or left. Thrust the arms up forcefully at approximately a holding the rifle vertically in the direction of the 45-degree angle from the body. To execute the left or right block. After deflecting an opponent’s attack with a block. The weapon On occasion. Marines execute a high block against slash. Marines execute a left or right block against a horizontal buttstroke or a High Block. waist and parallel to the ponent’s weapon. enough muscular tension in the arms to absorb the impact and deter the attack. a vertical attack coming from high to low. end the fight. To exe. Marines execute the low block Counter Action Following the Block. The weapon attack. ground. the objective in any bayonet fight is to thrust forward with the blade end of the weapon to immediately against a vertical attack coming from low to high. The elbows are bent. Low Block. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-4 MCRP 3-02B Redirect or guide the opponent’s weapon away should be at or below the from the body by exerting pressure against the op. Marines may engage an opponent as a member of a group or numerous opponents by . Marines counter with a slash or a horizontal buttstroke to regain the initiative. However. but there is enough should be over the top of the head and parallel to muscular tension in the arms to absorb the impact the ground. Marines— Group Strategy Thrust the arms down forcefully at approximately a 45-degree angle from the body.

If a Offensive Strategy: Two Against One. immediately positions himself at the flank of the ers advance together. Fighters 1 and 3 engage opponents. By combin. the fighter bayonet fighters engage one opponent. If three bayonet fighters engage two opponents. the fight. Fighter 1 engages the opponent while fighter 2 swiftly and aggressively attacks the opponent’s exposed flank and destroys the opponent. Offensive Strategy: Three Against Two. Then. Marines can effectively overcome their the opponent. opponent or opponents. the fighters advance together keeping their opponents to the inside. Fighter 2 at- tacks the opponent’s exposed flank engaged by fighter 1 and destroys the opponent. the fighter engages and destroys the second opponent. of the opponent engaged by fighter 3 and destroy egies. nearest opponent and keeps that opponent be- tween himself and the other opponent. the fight- ers immediately move to the opponent’s flanks. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 2-5 one’s self or as a member of a group. . If two fighters are attacked by three opponents. Defensive Strategy: One Against Two. the fighter destroys the first opponent quickly before the second opponent moves to assist. If two fighter is attacked by two opponents. Defensive Strategy: Two Against Three. Fighters 1 and 2 turn and attack the exposed flank ing bayonet fighting movements and simple strat. Using the first opponent’s body as a shield against the second opponent.

Stand in a defensive posture. The rifle is used opponents before the third opponent closes in. Fighter 1 engages the third opponent while fighter 2 attacks the opponent’s exposed flank and de- stroys the opponent. Marines should not struggle with the individual. Marines— Apply bone pressure on the opponent’s finger to initiate pain compliance. Marines must be constantly alert to their surroundings and the people moving in and around their environment. To retain positive control of their weapons. Use the weapon to block the opponent by thrust- ing it out firmly. Marines must under- stand and apply weapons retention techniques. Marines are taught to keep their weapon with them at all times. Technique if Opponent Grabs Weapon Underhanded Usually an opponent will try to grab the weapon or block it as an instinctive action. If the opponent uses an underhand grab to seize the handguards of the weapon. otherwise known as armed manipulation. Do not try . as a barrier. Blocking Technique To execute a blocking technique. rifle. with the elbows bent. Marines— 2. Marines may be confronted by an individual who tries to take their weapons. The fol- lowing techniques can be used with either the rifle or the shotgun. Nonlethal Rifle and Shotgun Retention Techniques Trap the opponent’s closest finger(s) above the knuckle with the thumb so he cannot release his Most Marines are armed with the M16A2 service grip. If this happens. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-6 MCRP 3-02B Fighters 1 and 2 quickly attack and destroy their to hit the opponent with the rifle.

This ac. During any of the retention techniques. forearm and apply downward pressure. Butt Strikes Strikes with the butt of the weapon con- trol or ward off an attacker. quickly pivot to off- balance the opponent. Marines— Marines— Trap the opponent’s finger to hold his hand in place. Rotate the barrel to place it across the opponent’s Rotate the muzzle quickly in a circle motion. Technique if the Opponent Grabs ing pressure on the oppo- nent’s hand. weapon overhanded. Marines use the heel or cut- ting edge of the weapon to deliver butt strikes to the . Slash downward with the muzzle to release the opponent’s grip. At the same the Muzzle time. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 2-7 Rotate the barrel of the tion is similar to an armbar. Technique if Opponent Grabs Weapon Overhanded If the opponent uses an overhand grab to seize the If the opponent grabs the muzzle of the weapon. weapon up or down quickly while maintain.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-8 MCRP 3-02B inside or the outside of the opponent’s thigh. They should— Move with the momentum and movement of the opponent by pivoting in the direction of the movement by stepping back. Off-balancing Techniques Marines apply off-balancing techniques to throw an opponent to the ground and retain possession of the weapon. . swinging the butt of the weapon. Marines should not push on the weapon. If the opponent grabs the weapon and pushes. The outside butt strike targets the peroneal nerve as il- lustrated in the pho- to to the left. If a strike to one side of the thigh misses. jerking movement by lowering the muzzle and lustrated in the pho. to to the left. Strikes can be made to the outside or inside of the thighs. Ma- rines follow back through with the butt of the weapon on the other side of the thigh. The Throw the opponent to the ground with a quick inside butt strike targets the femoral nerve as il.

. or strike the opponent’s arm. deflect. Marines must be constantly alert to their surroundings and the people moving in and around the environment. Step back and away from the opponent while Sweep the opponent’s feet out from under him placing the hand on the pistol grip by hooking his leg with the leg and kicking backward. Marines perform the following blocking . To retain positive in the holster.Close Combat ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-9 If the opponent grabs the weapon and pulls. control of the Marines— weapon. Nonlethal Handgun Retention Techniques . To execute the armbar technique. Marines— Place the body between the weapon and the opponent by immediately pivoting so the weapon Step on the opponent’s foot and push forward to is away from the opponent off-balance him and drive him to the ground. Many Marines are armed with the M9 service pistol. Marines must keep their weapons in their Armbar Technique possession at all times. Marines must understand Trap the opponent’s right hand by grasping the and apply handgun opponent’s wrist or hand with the right hand and retention applying pressure against the body. Marines use the armbar technique when an Marines may be confronted by an individual who opponent uses his right hand to grab their pistol tries to take their weapons. techniques if an opponent attempts to grab their pistol in the holster. 3. Extend the left hand and block. Step back with the right foot and pivot sharply to the right to be next to the opponent. Always Blocking pivot in a direction that keeps the weapon away Technique from the opponent. Marines— . techniques.

Wristlock Technique Marines use the wristlock technique when an Reach over the opponent’s arm with the left hand opponent grabs their pistol while it is in the and grab his hand. Execute a two-handed wristlock by exerting . Pressure applied beneath the nose or on the trachea is equally effective. pivot to the left.2-10 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3–02B Step back and away from the opponent and pivot to the right so the weapon is away from the opponent. Execute a wristlock. applying pressure against his holster with his right hand. Incorporate the second hand into the wristlock and. Always pivot in a direction that keeps the weapon away from the opponent. Marines— Grasp the opponent’s wrist or hand with the right hand and apply pressure against the body. Place the left hand across the opponent’s face and apply pressure back and down to take the opponent to the ground. wristlock technique. To execute the arm with the left forearm. stepping back with the left foot.

Close Combat ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-11 downward pressure with the thumb and rotating Bone Pressure. Marines use pressure point technique.e. the arms (radial nerve).. Marines employ strikes or kicks to force the opponent to loosen his grip. If it is difficult to apply a retention Pressure Points. Marines execute the wristlock with one hand and step in toward the opponent. Marines use their fingertips to apply pressure to the webbing between the index finger and thumb. of pressure on a bone against a hard object to initiate pain compliance. Strikes to the eyes. Bone pressure is the application his hand to the left. Marines apply a slow. or shoulder (brachi- alplexus tie in) soften the opponent’s grip on the weapon. Strikes. . techniques to get the opponent to loosen his grip. steady pressure to the opponent’s hand and fingers until his grip is softened or he releases Note: If the opponent grabs the pistol with his his hold. Softening Techniques Handgun retention techniques use softening techniques applied to pressure points. hammer fist). Bone pressure and strikes with the hands (i. and drive him to the ground. Marines use their hand to trap the opponent’s Continue to pivot to off-balance the opponent hand on the weapon. The following figure illustrates pressure applied to the brachial plexus tie in. To apply bone pressure. knees. and feet are also effective softening techniques. the jugular notch. rather than away from the opponent. and the brachial plexus tie in. left hand.

or the groin are effective because the opponent is typically unprepared to counter the strike. Place the hands close to the weapon. palms out. head. Pistol to the Front This technique is used when Marines are unarmed and the opponent has a pistol pointing at their front (e. These techniques are equally effective if Marines are armed but do not have time to withdraw and .g.2-12 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3–02B present the weapon. about chest high. The technique is the same if the opponent sticks the pistol under the Marine’s chin. 4. The goal is not necessarily to get control of the opponent’s weapon. To execute the counter when an opponent is pointing a pistol toward the front of a Marine. Firearm Disarmament Techniques Marines use firearm disarmament techniques during a close-range confrontation if they are un- armed and the opponent has a firearm (pistol). Kicks and knee strikes to the peroneal nerve. Stomping on the top of the opponent’s foot may distract him or loosen his grip on the weapon. Use the left hand to grab the opponent’s forearm and push the opponent’s hand with the pistol away to clear the body from in front of the weapon. Marines—.. The goal of firearm disarmament techniques is to gain control of the situation so Marines gain the tactical advantage. the femoral nerve. chest).

Grasp and pull the opponent’s wrist or forearm away from the body while rotating the weapon. Grasp the weapon with the right hand by placing the thumb underneath the pistol and the fingers over top of the pistol.Close Combat ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-13 At the same time. muzzle and quickly rotate the pistol in the opponent’s hand so the muzzle is facing the opponent. Keep the right hand wrapped tightly around the Maintain control of the opponent’s arm. Rotate the weapon toward the opponent while pulling it up and back and out of the opponent’s . rotate the right shoulder back to clear the body from the weapon.

Step back with the left foot. . the rear. palms out. Pistol to the Rear This technique is performed when Marines are unarmed and the opponent has a pistol pointing to the back of the Marine’s head. at the same time. Marines— Pivot on the left foot to face the opponent and.2-14 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3–02B grasp Place the hands close together about chest high. Keep the left hand up. pivoting on the right foot so the side is against the opponent’s front. . Wrap the left arm tightly around the opponent’s arm above his elbow to control it. This action clears the body from the weapon’s line of fire. raise the left elbow and reach over the top of the opponent’s arm with the left arm. To execute the counter when the opponent is pointing a pistol to .

. If the weapon is too far away from the body. the opponent can be taken to the ground with a leg sweep. Note: To execute this technique.Close Combat ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-15 Push on the opponent’s shoulder with the right hand while pulling up with the left arm to achieve an armbar. If necessary. the weapon must be close to or touching the rear of the Marine. this technique would be difficult to execute or it would be ineffective. This action releases the opponent’s grip on the weapon.

However. the opponent is depicted without camouflage. experienced knife fighters em. Marines are is. However. Marines must be trained in knife fighting tech- l Reverse horizontal strike coming in parallel niques. 1. the sides and front of the Marine are issued a combat knife. In photographs.g. the face. will Target Areas of the Body Marines engage an opponent in a classical knife During any confrontation. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utili- ties. l Forward diagonal strike coming in at a 45- degree angle to the opponent. . This chapter addresses knife can be launched: the combative use of knives. body’s soft. vital target areas that are readily ac- sued a bayonet. techniques can cause enough damage and massive trauma to stop an opponent. specific weapons of opportunity. if ever. the opponent. When engaged l Forward thrust coming in a straight line to against each other. Fundamentals of Knife l Reverse diagonal strike coming in at a 45- Fighting degree angle to the opponent. ploy various maneuvers and techniques that are specific to knife fighting. In drawings. and sticks. virtually any- thing can be used as a hand-held weapon. l Vertical strike coming straight down on an opponent. Seldom. When armed with a pistol. Marines experienced in offensive knife to the ground. the oppo- nent is depicted in desert camouflage utilities. The goal in a knife fight is to attack the Note: When armed with a rifle. the lower abdomen [or groin]). neck. Marines must know how to defend against attacks Angles of Attack when an opponent is either unarmed or armed There are six angles from which an attack with a with a held-held weapon. the parts of the oppo- fight. cessible (e. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utilities. l Forward horizontal strike coming in parallel to the ground. all techniques can be executed from either side. nent’s body that are exposed or readily accessible will vary. CHAPTER 3 HAND-HELD WEAPONS This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person.

l The brachial artery. but not an excellent target which. where vantage. sive blood loss. is always facing the opponent. serves as an index point. Grip diately fatal. are good target areas because they are Marines must wear the combat knife not covered by body armor or natural protection. l The arm’s radial and ulnar nerves can cause extensive bleeding and damage. This is and prove fatal. can prove fa. the femoral commonly known as a hammer artery located on the inside of the thigh is a grip. For example. Secondary Targets. If Marines face an opponent. Marines grasp the knife’s grip with the fingers wrapped around the grip naturally as it is l The legs can cause a great deal of trauma pulled out of its sheath. This position his forward momentum to seize the tactical ad. if struck. is made in a 45-degree angle to either side of the opponent. Marines should avoid being directly in front pointing forward toward the op- of an opponent because the opponent can rely on ponent’s head. is is easily accessible to them. These target areas are not imme. The left hand is a ver- Marines can move anywhere within a 360-degree tical shield that protects either the circle around the opponent. sharp cause it is not covered by body armor. easily grabbed by an opponent. ribs or the head and neck. movement all techniques are initiated. where it is easily accessible and where it can best be retained. The heart. . the weak side hip. if not covered by body armor. There are secondary target areas that will cause substantial bleeding if an ar- tery is severed. but can become fatal if left unattended. Attacks to— The grip on the knife should be natural. located on either side of Wearing the Combat Knife the neck. edge facing forward. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-2 MCRP 3-02B Neck. The bility to different target areas of the opponent’s right elbow is bent with the blade body. if cut. will cause exten. located between the bi- ceps and triceps on the inside of the arm. tal in a matter of seconds or minutes. The lower abdo. can cause extensive bleeding and damage. blade down. mended the combat knife be worn on men (or groin region) is a good target area be. This angle avoids an opponent’s strike and places Marines in the best position to attack an opponent. This allows accessi. It is recom- Lower Abdomen (or Groin). The blade end of the knife large artery which. Stance Marines use the basic warrior stance as the foun- Movement dation for knife techniques. Marines can place it behind the magazine pouch where it Heart. Carotid arteries.

The vertical slash follows a vertical line straight down through the Snap or rotate the wrist through the slashing mo- target. Marines— balanced. Full body weight Forward Slash Technique. 2. Slashing techniques distract the opponent or damage the opponent so Marines can close in. To execute the forward slash. Marines target the opponent’s limbs. l Point the knife’s blade tip forward and to- ward the opponent. The oppo- nent has a greater chance of blocking an at- tack if the blade is brought in a wide. continuing to drag the knife down through the opponent’s body. shoulder-width across from the neck down to the waistline. l Execute movements with the knife blade within a box. Extend the right hand while simultaneously rotat- ing the palm up until the knife blade makes con- tact with the opponent. l Close with the opponent. l Apply full body weight and power in each of the knife techniques. across of the blade’s movement (slash or thrust). sweeping movement to the opponent. l Move with the knife in straight lines. To execute the vertical slash. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 3-3 Principles of Knife Fighting Maintain contact on the opponent’s body with the The following are key principles of knife fighting: blade of the knife. Knife Fighting Techniques Slashing Techniques Marines use slashing techniques to close with an enemy. the target areas of either the neck (high diagonal l Apply constant forward pressure with the slash) or abdominal region (low horizontal slash). The forward slash should be put into the attack in the direction follows a straight line in a forehand stroke. Thrust the right hand out and bring the weapon straight down on the opponent. Marines— tion to maximize blade’s contact with the oppo- nent. Typically. coming straight to the target. but any portion of the body that is presented can become a target. body and blade to keep the opponent off. Vertical Slash Technique. .

which allows them to use the thrusting technique. from left to right. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-4 MCRP 3-02B Drag the knife across the opponent’s body. It al- lows Marines both a secondary attack and the The primary objective of knife fighting is to insert ability to resume the basic warrior stance. Extend the right hand while simultaneously rotat- ing the palm down until the knife blade makes contact with the opponent. the blade into an opponent to cause extensive verse slash follows a straight line in a backhand damage and trauma. To execute the vertical thrust. in a backhand stroke. The reverse slash is Thrusting Techniques a follow-up technique to a forward attack. from Snap or rotate the wrist through the slashing mo- right to left. . across the target areas of either the neck technique. knife at the left hip with its blade oriented toward the opponent. Maintain con- tact on the opponent’s body with the blade of the knife. Drag the knife across the opponent’s body. However. Reverse Slash Technique. inserting the knife blade straight into the opponent. Marines— Thrust the right hand toward the target. Thrusting techniques are more effec- (high diagonal slash) or abdominal region (low tive than slashing techniques because of the dam- horizontal slash). To execute the reverse slash. The movement tion to maximize the blade’s contact with the op- ends with the forearm against the body and the ponent. Vertical Thrust. age they can inflict. This is done with a thrusting stroke. Marines use Marines— slashing techniques to close with the enemy so that they are closer to the opponent. The re. in a forehand stroke. The thrusting motion follows a vertical line straight up through the target (low in- to the abdomen region or high into the neck).

palm down. toward the tar- get. Marines— Bend the right arm. To execute the forward thrust. To execute the reverse thrust. . Thrust the right hand. toward the target. The reverse twist the blade. thrust follows a horizontal line straight into the opponent’s neck (high thrust) or abdominal re- gion (low thrust). crossing the arm to the left side of the body. inserting the knife blade straight into the op. Reverse Thrust. The reverse thrust is a follow- ponent. Forward Thrust. up technique to a forward attack. Drop the right elbow and bring the knife to the opposite side of the opponent’s body from where it was inserted. inserting the knife blade straight into the oppo- nent. It allows Marines both a secondary attack and the ability to Rotate the palm up once the knife is inserted to resume the basic warrior stance. At the same time. Marines— Thrust the right hand. rotate the hips and shoulders downward to bring body weight to bear on the attack. The forward thrust follows a straight line straight into the opponent’s neck (high thrust) or abdominal region (low thrust). palm up. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 3-5 Pull the knife out of the opponent.

a broken rifle. Tent Pole and Pins Marines can use tent poles and pins to block. a sharp piece of metal) to cut. takes to take control of the situation and to win. 4. Marines could throw sand or liquid in an opponent’s eyes to tem. Helmet A helmet can be used to strike an opponent on an unprotected area like the head and face. sticks. It can be an excellent weapon. metal pipes. niques. Marines must use and be able to use techniques that can be em- whatever means are available and do whatever it ployed with most weapons of opportunity. or following subparagraphs. or thrust at an opponent. slash. Marines must be ready and porarily impair his vision or smash the opponent’s able to use anything as a weapon. Weapons of Opportunity During an unarmed close combat situation. . or stab an opponent. strike. Grasp the rim of the helmet and thrust the arms forward. or Among these techniques are combative stick tech- they face the possibility of losing their lives.g. Battlefield Debris Marines can use debris on the battlefield (e. boards. hands to block attacks by an opponent. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-6 MCRP 3-02B Rotate the palm down to twist the blade once the Entrenching Tool knife is inserted.. glass. espe- cially when sharpened. even a web belt. a club. 3. For example. An entrenching tool (E-tool) is commonly carried by Marines. They must learn head with a rock or helmet. an E-tool. Marines can stretch a web belt between their nent’s body from where it was inserted. Marines can use the E- tool to block. but they should be ready and able to use anything around Stick them as a weapon. and thrust at an opponent. slash. They can also use other types of debris such as shovel or ax handles. Combative stick techniques can be used Some weapons of opportunity are discussed in the with a stick. Web Belt Bring the knife to the opposite side of the oppo. or broken rifles to strike an opponent or apply a choke. On the battlefield. striking the opponent with the top of the helmet. Fundamentals of Combative Marines use their bodies as weapons.

Combative Stick to the ground. The left hand Bend the right arm. Rotate the forearm straight down off the elbow to bring the weapon down on the opponent. Techniques l Reverse horizontal strike coming in parallel to the ground. This al- lows accessibility to different target areas of the opponent’s body and gains a tactical advantage. extending the weapon over becomes a vertical shield that the back of the right shoulder. an E-tool. Strikes are intended to inflict as much damage on an opponent as possible. Depending on how heavy the weapon is. a tent pole. an opponent. . _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 3-7 Angles of Attack Marines should avoid being directly in front of an There are six angles from which an attack with a opponent because the opponent can rely on his hand-held weapon can be launched: forward momentum to seize the tactical advan- tage. Marines can move anywhere within a 360-degree circle around the opponent. To execute the vertical strike. pipe. protects the ribs or the head and neck. Stance Vertical Strike. movement is made in a 45-degree angle to either side of the op- l Vertical strike coming straight down on an ponent. degree angle to the opponent. or a Grasp the stick about 2 inches from its base. and places Marines in the best position to attack l Forward diagonal strike coming in at a 45. This angle avoids an opponent’s strike opponent. Striking techniques ap- Grip ply to a weapon of opportunity such as a stick. The basic warrior stance serves Marines— as the foundation for combative stick techniques. l Forward thrust coming in a straight line to Strikes the opponent. l Forward horizontal strike coming in parallel 5. it should be held at a level approximately shoul- der height. a club. If Marines face an opponent. l Reverse diagonal strike coming in at a 45- degree angle to the opponent. Movement Movement during combative stick techniques is the same as it is for other close combat tech- niques. a broken rifle.

Bend the right arm with the hand near the left shoulder. Marines— right shoulder. forcefully rotate the hips and shoul- ders toward the opponent. It allows Marines both a secondary attack and the ability to resume Bend the right arm with the elbow extending out the basic warrior stance. At the same time. .To execute a reverse to the right and the weapon extended over the strike. Follow through with the strike by allowing the Forward Strike. bring the weapon down onto the opponent. Follow through with the strike by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body. Step forward with the left foot in the direction of Reverse Strike. weight of the weapon to go through the target area Marines— of the body. The reverse strike is a follow-up the strike. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-8 MCRP 3-02B Rotate the hips and shoulders forcefully toward Rotate the forearm to the right of the elbow to the opponent. To execute a forward strike. Step forward with the right foot in the direction of the strike. technique to a forward strike. The weapon is extended over the left shoulder.

Blocks Against Unarmed Attacks To block against an unarmed attack. Marines— Step forward at a 45-degree angle with either the right or left foot. lowing through like a strike. At the same time. . A block sets up Marines for a fol- Grasp the stick with the left hand. rather than hitting or fol- two hands. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 3-9 Rotate the forearm to the right of the elbow to Lift the left leg and lunge forward off the ball of bring the weapon down onto the opponent. Blocks are position where the stick can be controlled with executed by deflecting. thrusting both hands forward in a straight line. At the the right foot. the weapon directly toward the opponent by ders toward the opponent. Blocking Techniques Forward Thrust. Marines— A block is meant to deter or deflect an attack by an opponent. To execute the forward thrust. 6. This moves the body out of the line of attack. palm up. thrust the end of same time. in a low-on attack against the opponent. Follow through with the strike by allowing the weight of the weapon to go through the target area of the body. forcefully rotate the hips and shoul.

This moves the body out of the line of attack and inside the opponent’s strike. the stick can slide through and make contact on the Marine. . It is the same movement as blocking with the arm. pact of the attack: l Block the opponent’s stick by positioning the stick so it is perpendicular to the oppo- nent’s stick. Block for a Forward Strike. l Block the opponent’s wrist or forearm with the back of the left forearm. back of the left fore- arm. This moves the body out of the line the meaty portion of the of attack. except the opponent’s arm is blocked with both the stick and the arm. If the stick is not perpendicular to the opponent’s stick. This tech- nique is only used if Marines have closed with the opponent and are inside his strike. wrist or forearm with gle to the left. Employ the stick by one of two techniques: l Strike the opponent with the stick. l Strike the opponent’s attacking biceps with the stick. Marines— l Block the opponent’s Step forward with the left foot at a 45-degree an. To execute the block the attack: for a vertical strike. Note: Use the stick to block the opponent’s arm if closer to the opponent. l Use the stick to block on two points of con- tact. it serves as an incidental strike. To execute the block for a forward strike. Marines— Step forward with the left foot at a 45-degree an- gle to the left. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-10 MCRP 3-02B Raise the left arm and block the strike with the Block on two points of contact to disperse the im- meaty portion of the forearm. Block on two points of con- Blocks Against Armed Attacks tact to disperse the impact of Block for a Vertical Strike. When the stick is used to block.

Marines parry the opponent’s hand or arm to block the attack. Block the opponent’s forearm with the meaty por. They cannot afford to pact of the attack: think about getting cut or hurt. a stick. l Forward thrust coming in a straight line to Note: If closer to the opponent. Their Block on two points of contact to disperse the im. l Block the opponent’s stick by positioning the stick so it is perpendicular to the oppo- Angles of Attack nent’s stick. . To execute the basic block tech- nique. Before Marines can learn to block or counter an attack with a hand-held weapon (e. block his triceps the Marine.g. survival depends on it. l Forward horizontal strike coming in parallel to the ground. Marines— Held Weapons Step forward at a 45-degree angle with the right foot to the right.g. Unarmed Against Hand- block for a reverse strike. knife. or some other weapon of opportu- nity.. they must know from what angle the oppo- nent is attacking. a knife. Always step in the direction of the strike. l Forward diagonal strike coming in at a 45- degree angle to the Marine. This moves the body out of the If Marines are engaged against an opponent with line of attack and inside the opponent’s strike. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 3-11 Block for a Reverse Strike. with the back of the left forearm and strike his forearm with the stick.. they must establish and maintain an offen- sive mindset. to the ground. l Reverse diagonal strike coming in at a 45- degree angle to the Marine. There are six angles from which an opponent will typically attack with a hand-held weapon: l Vertical strike coming in straight down on the Marine. not a defensive mindset. knife or stick). Marines— Step forward at a 45-degree angle to move out of the line of the attack. To execute the 7. Blocks If the opponent has a hand-held weapon (e. Basic Block. stick). l Reverse horizontal strike coming in parallel tion of the left forearm.

Thrust the forearms forward. Marines— zontal strike. against Block the attack with both arms bent so the fore- the outside of the opponent’s attacking arm. and forearm. Step forward with the right foot to the outside of gle to the left to move out of the line of attack. Contact is made on arms make contact with the opponent’s biceps the opponent’s arm with the backs of the fore. To execute the block against a forward diagonal or forward hori. To execute the Block for a Vertical Strike. and Step forward with the left foot inside the oppo." . move the hips backward. Block for a Forward Strike. Block for a Reverse Strike. arms. Marines— zontal strike. To execute the Block for a Forward Thrust. arms make contact with the opponent’s triceps and forearm. jump backward with both feet to move away from nent’s attacking arm. Marines— Step forward with the left foot at a 45-degree an. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-12 MCRP 3-02B Thrust the forearms forward. This action is known as "hollowing out. block against a forward thrust. against Block the attack with both arms bent so the fore- the opponent’s attacking arm. the attack. Marines— Bend at the waist. To execute the block block against a reverse diagonal or reverse hori- against a vertical strike. hands up. the opponent’s attacking arm. hands up.

The other thumb counter and reverse armbar counter. Counters to Hand-Held Weapon Attacks Block the attack with both arms bent so the fore- arms make contact with the opponent’s biceps Principles of Counters and forearm. These tech- should be under the other hand’s index finger. Note: The first two actions are taken simulta- neously. Marines should continue to attack the oppo- nent until the fight ends. A third technique.g. Marines— Step forward with the left foot inside the oppo- nent’s attacking arm. With minor variations. Never attempt to grab the opponent’s weap- on. or a forward horizontal strike. the bent armbar counter. . To execute the for- ward armbar counter to an attack coming from a forward strike. is used to counter a vertical attack.. Forward Armbar Counter. 8). ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 3-13 Hollow out and block the attack with the arms l Block the attack. 8. joint manipulations. Counter Techniques There are two techniques that can be used to Overlap the hands slightly so one thumb is on top counter any armed attack: forward armbar of the other hand’s index finger. e. or takedowns (see chap. the following principles apply to countering the at- tack with a hand-held weapon: l Move out of the line of attack. Movement is executed in a 45-degree angle forward to the left or right. throws. Regard- less of the type of weapon or angle of attack. A counter is used to control the situation to regain the tactical advantage and end the fight. a forward diagonal strike. l Execute the appropriate follow-up to end the fight. strikes. l Take control of the weapon by controlling the hand or arm that is holding the weapon. bent and hands together on top of the attacking arm. niques can be used to counter a vertical attack. the same tech- niques are used to counter reverse strikes.

Grasp the opponent’s wrist with the left hand and twist his thumb away from the body. To exe- cute the bent armbar counter. Block the attack with both arms bent so the fore- arms make contact with the opponent’s biceps and forearm. Take the opponent to the ground with an armbar takedown if he does not drop the weapon from the Reverse Armbar Counter. Execute an armbar and continue to exert steady pressure against the arm. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-14 MCRP 3-02B Slide the left arm over the opponent’s forearm Control the opponent’s arm with the left hand and and wrap the arm tightly around his arm. Marines— Step forward with the left foot inside the oppo- nent’s attacking arm. This counter is particu- larly effective against a vertical attack. wristlock. verse armbar counter to an attack coming from a forward strike. Immediately slide the right arm over and torso. Bent Armbar Counter. Marines— Step forward with the left foot inside the oppo- nent’s attacking arm. trapping the opponent’s attacking Place the right hand on the opponent’s shoulder or arm between the biceps and torso. the opponent’s biceps and wrap the arm tightly around his arm. To execute the re. upper arm to further control his arm and to effect an armbar. trapping pivot to the right so the back is against the oppo- the opponent’s attacking arm between the biceps nent’s side. .

slide the right arm underneath the opponent’s triceps and grasp the opponent’s forearm or wrist with the right hand. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 3-15 Block the attack with both arms bent so the fore. At the same time. (reverse blank) . Grasp the opponent’s forearm with the left hand. nent. Apply downward pressure with the hands against arms make contact with the opponent’s biceps the opponent’s forearm to off-balance the oppo- and forearm.

relaxed during a close combat situation generate l Permits the hand and arm to be “cham- greater speed. knees. his opponent. Rapid Retraction When Marines deliver a punch. Weight transfer is necessary to generate power in a punch. and. neck muscles. Rapid retraction— Muscle Relaxation Muscle relaxation is crucial when executing l Returns the hand and arm to the protection punches. l Moving their body mass straight forward or Strikes use the hands. Marines must know how to execute nent. Marines who remain grab the hand or arm. tensing tack. rapid retraction of 1. Marines clench the fist to cause damage to the opponent and avoid injury to the wrist and Telegraphing hand. which results in rapid fatigue and de. feet. In drawings. . They must also know how to attack from high to low or from low to high. all techniques can be executed from either side. Telegraphing a strike occurs when body move- ments inform the opponent of the intention to launch an attack. an untrained fighter telegraphs his inten- tion to attack by drawing his hand back in view of l Rotating their hips and shoulders into the at. and improves reaction time. Principles of Punches the fist is important. CHAPTER 4 STRIKES This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person. elbows. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utilities. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utili- ties. Marines accomplish this by— Often. Staying relaxed helps to reduce Weight Transfer telegraphing. which results in greater generation bered” or “re-cocked” in preparation for de- of power. tense up. or twitching. l Prevents the opponent from being able to creased power generation. the opponent is depicted without camouflage. In photographs. Strikes are unarmed individual hitting techniques. Relaxing the forearms generates speed livering a subsequent punch. Once the hand has made contact with the target. changing facial expression. counter strikes from an opponent. At the point of im- pact. Marines quickly return to the basic warrior stance. other parts of the body as person. l Dropping their body weight into an oppo- al weapons. some instances. These movements. The natural tendency in a fight is to afforded by the basic warrior stance. the oppo- nent is depicted in desert camouflage utilities. However. Body mass can be transferred into an strikes effectively. in backward in a straight line.

To execute the rear hand punch. placed across the index and middle fingers. resuming the basic and middle fingers. with the wrist to The rear hand punch is a snapping punch execut- avoid injury to the wrist. Lead hand punches should strike soft tissue areas. while rotating the palm to the ground. he may be able to evade or counter the at. Do not clench the fist until movement has begun. Most people resort to punching be. Marines— . Its power comes from pushing off the rear leg and rotating the hips and shoulders. immediately indicate an attack is Lead Hand Punch about to be delivered. Marines must Rear Hand Punch keep the hand straight. Just before im- pact. Punches punch. movement and allows Marines to get close to the opponent. Contact the opponent with the first two knuckles ly into the palm of the hand and the thumb is of the fist. A correctly delivered punch maximizes the damage to an opponent while minimizing the risk of injury to Marines. When striking with the basic fist. Basic Fist Punches are executed using the basic fist. if possible. It is a power punch designed to inflict maximum damage on the op- ponent. warrior stance. A lead hand punch conceals tack. If the opponent is a trained The lead hand punch is a snapping straight punch fighter. If the opponent is an untrained fighter. To make the basic fist. punches should only be executed to the soft tissue areas of an opponent. It is a fast tack. This reduces muscular tension in the forearm and increases speed and reac- tion time. set up an attack. he punch designed to keep the opponent away and to may still be able to minimize the effect of an at. How- ever. Marines exert muscular tension on the hand and forearm to maxi- mize damage to the oppo- nent and reduce their chances of injury. or in line. tact should be made with the knuckles of the index Retract the hand immediately. The pur- pose of a punch is to stun the opponent or to set him up for a follow-up finishing technique. executed by the forward or lead hand. cause it is a natural reaction to a threat. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-2 MCRP 3-02B however small. Marines— Punches may be thrown during any hand-to-hand Snap the lead hand out to nearly full extension. ed by the rear (right) hand. To execute the lead hand 2. Con- Picture shows finger position only. confrontation. the fingers are curled natural.

Retract the hand immediately. When delivered to the The hook is a powerful punch that is executed chin or jaw. To execute the hook. Contact the opponent with the first two knuckles of the fist. cause extensive damage to the neck. to nearly full extension. It is delivered in close and usually follows a preparatory strike that leaves the Hook target area unprotected. thrusting the fist straight up toward the opponent’s chin or jaw. Marines— Shift body weight to the lead foot while pushing Bend the arms. Uppercut Contact the opponent with the first two knuckles of the fist. The uppercut is a powerful punch originating be- low the opponent’s line of vision. the opponent and thrust the rear hand straight out. To execute the uppercut. Marines— . distance the arms bend depends on how close the opponent is. the opponent’s body. or sever the tongue. rotating the palm inboard. It is executed in an upward motion traveling up the centerline of Retract the hand immediately. The off on the ball of the rear foot. the uppercut can render an opponent close in and is usually preceded by a preparatory strike. Rotate the hips and shoulders forcefully toward the opponent. rotating the palm down. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 4-3 Rotate the hips and shoulders forcefully toward unconscious.

chin jab. l Moving the body mass straight forward or backward in a straight line. This tech- nique inflicts maximum damage on the opponent. techniques that can be used in any type of close combat situation. Marines accomplish this by— l Rotating the hips and shoulders into the at- tack. elbow strikes. This technique allows Marines to deliver strikes effectively without exe- 3. and forcefully rotating the right shoulder and hip to. A strike should be delivered so that the weapon (e. knife hand. Strikes stun the opponent or set him up for a fol. Contact the opponent with the first two knuckles of the fist.. elbow) hits and remains on the impact site (target) and follows through the target. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-4 MCRP 3-02B Thrust the right arm in a hooking motion toward that can be used to execute strikes including the the opponent. the moment of impact. forearms. hand. i. Strikes with the Upper Body cuting full force. Movement. Marines apply muscular tension in the hand and forearm to maximize damage to the opponent and to avoid injury to the hand. er position for launching an attack against an op- and elbows are individual weapons of the arms ponent as well as providing protection. Generating Power. Contact with the opponent should be made with the arm slightly bent.. The hands.e. The arms are relaxed until following through with the fist to the target. These strikes provide a variety of ward the opponent. the strike is executed by driving through with the strike to allow the weight of the hand to go through the target area of the body. l Dropping body weight into an opponent. Strikes with the arms are executed with “heavy hands”. Principles of Execution There are several principles of execution that en- sure a strike’s effectiveness.g. Muscular Tension. keeping the elbow bent while hammer fist. The arms are relaxed until the moment of impact. Movement puts Marines in the prop- low-up finishing technique. and the arm extends as it moves through the target. At the point of impact. Body mass can be transferred into an attack from high to low or from low to high. Weight transfer is necessary to generate maximum power in a punch. Hit and Stick and Follow-Through. Continue rotating the shoulder and hip. . Retract the hand immediately. eye gouge.

At the same tend the hand into a concave position with the fin- time. Bend the right wrist back at a 90-degree angle To execute the hammer fist strike. rotate the right hip and gers slightly spread apart. vulnerable target areas. Thrust the fist forward onto the opponent while rotating the right hip and shoulder for- ward. Target Areas of the Body For each strike. To execute the chin jab. stance. when struck. there are target areas of the body that. Marines— The striking surface of the hammer fist is the meaty portion of the hand below the little finger. Ex- degree angle. Keep the right arm bent and close to the body. Make a fist and bend the arm at approximately a 45.to 90. ferred to the target. l The opponent’s available. l The position of the opponent. the palm of the hand. can have a devastating effect. maximize damage to an oppo- nent. which. Chin Jab The chin jab can immediately render an opponent Hammer Fist unconscious and cause extensive damage to the Striking with the hammer fist concentrates power neck and spine. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 4-5 Movement is initiated from the basic warrior Rotate the wrist so the hammer fist makes contact stance and ends by resuming the basic warrior on the opponent. Strikes can be performed with either the left or right arm depending upon— l The angle of attack. Pinpoint accuracy on a specific nerve is not needed for the strike to be effective. The target areas of the body are just that—areas. right shoulder backward. Marines— with the palm facing the opponent and the fingers pointing up. Strikes use gross motor skills as opposed to fine motor skills. The striking surface is the heel of in a small part of the hand. when trans. .

and verti- cal. the right hip and right shoulder backward. The at- tack should travel up the centerline of the Thrust the knife hand forward (horizontally) onto opponent’s chest to his chin. on the neck between the opponent’s body armor and helmet. Marines— The striking surface is narrow. allowing strikes Execute a knife hand. The knife Bring the right hand over the left shoulder. rotate hip forward to drive the body weight into the at. At the hand strike is executed same time. Execute a knife hand by extending and joining the fingers of the right hand and placing the thumb Keep the right arm bent and close to the side. To execute the inside knife to the top of the wrist. . Thrust the palm of the hand directly up under the opponent’s chin. inside. The striking surface is the cutting edge of the hand. the opponent while rotating the right hip and shoulder forward. which is the meaty por- tion of the hand below the little finger extending Inside Knife Hand. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-6 MCRP 3-02B Step forward with the left foot toward the oppo. This is done to close with the opponent. Knife Hand The knife hand is one of the most versatile and devastating strikes. Outside Knife Hand. rotate the right shoulder forward and from one of three angles: the left hip forward. To execute the outside nent. knife hand strike. next to the forefinger (like saluting). hand strike. tack to increase the power of the strike. Marines— width apart and the knees bent. At the same time. At the same time. outside. rotate the right Retract the right hand. keeping the feet approximately shoulder.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 4-7 Thrust the knife hand forward (horizontally) onto Eye Gouge the opponent while rotating the right hip and The eye gouge is used to attack an opponent’s shoulder forward and the left shoulder backward. Thrust the hand forward at the oppo- the knife hand strike comes straight down in a nent’s nose level so the fingers or straight line. Place the palm of the hand either toward the ground or toward the sky and thrust the right hand forward into the oppo- nent’s eyes. eyes. The striking surface is the tips of the fin- gers or thumb. To execute the eye gouge. blinding him so follow-up strikes can be ex- ecuted. Elbow strikes can be performed either vertically (upward or down- ward) or horizontally (forward or reverse). When thrown vertically. The . Vertical Knife Hand. Marines— Extend the right hand with the fingers slightly spread apart to allow entry into the eye sockets. thumb slide naturally into the grooves of the opponent’s eye sock- ets. Elbow Strikes The elbow is a powerful weapon that can be used in several different ways to attack virtually any part of an opponent’s body.

To execute an up. keeping the fist close to the Vertical Elbow Strike (Up). the opponent’s attack angle. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-8 MCRP 3-02B striking surface is 2 inches above or below the Contact the opponent with the right forearm 2 point of the elbow. and the posi- tion of the opponent. Thrust the elbow vertically upward toward the op- ponent while rotating the right shoulder and hip forward to generate additional power. To execute a downward vertical elbow strike. depending upon the angle of inches above the point of the elbow. attack. The fist is on the shoulder and the elbow is ward vertical elbow strike. Marines— Above Elbow Below Elbow Bend the right elbow. Bend the right elbow. Thrust the elbow vertically downward toward the opponent while dropping body weight into the at- tack to generate additional power. The fist is at shoulder level and the elbow is next to the torso. Vertical Elbow Strike (Down). . keeping the fist close to the body. Marines— raised well above the shoulder. body.

. Contact the opponent with the right forearm 2 es above the point of the elbow. To execute Horizontal Elbow Strike (Rear). The forearm is parallel to the ground. Thrust the right elbow horizontally forward to- ward the opponent. Marines— Tuck the right fist near the chest with the palm Tuck the right fist near the left shoulder with the heel facing the ground. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 4-9 Contact the opponent with the right triceps 2 inch. The forearm is parallel to the Rotate the right shoulder and hip forward to gen. At the same time. of the attack. palm heel facing the ground. rotate the right shoulder forward and the left hip forward. ground and the hand moves toward the direction erate additional power. inches below the point of the elbow. Marines— rear horizontal elbow strike. Horizontal Elbow Strike (Forward). Thrust the right elbow horizontally rearward to- ward the opponent. To execute the the forward horizontal elbow strike.

Marines use their feet. the rear leg is further away from the opponent so a strike with the rear leg will not contact the opponent as quickly as a strike with the lead leg. Attempting of the Marine. is effective for striking the knees. heels. Kicks with the rear leg have greater power because the hips are rotated into the attack. delivered with the lead opponent is in front of the Marine. The feet are the preferred choice for striking because they are protected by boots. and knees to execute kicks. Strikes with the Lower Body The legs are the body’s most powerful weapons Contact the opponent with the toe of the left boot because they use the largest muscle groups to or bootlaces. pivot the hips into es above the point of the elbow. The front kick is executed when the Side Kick. 4. To execute provides the enemy with a greater opportunity to the side kick. Marines— grab the leg or foot. Front Kick. is kick is executed when the opponent is to the side effective for striking below the waist. The striking surfaces are the . the attack. delivered with either the rear or lead leg. The striking surface is the outside to kick higher results in diminished balance and cutting edge of the boot near the heel. knee strikes. generate a strike. Kicks The purpose of a kick is to stop an opponent’s at- tack or to create an opening in his defense in order to launch an attack. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-10 MCRP 3-02B Rotate the right hip back and the right shoulder toe of the boot or the bootlaces. Raise the left knee waist high. The front leg. Kicks can be performed with the left (lead) leg or the right (rear) leg. front kick. and thrust the left foot forward toward the opponent. However. The side kick. The side kick. Marines— Contact the opponent with the right triceps 2 inch. and stomps. Return to the basic warrior stance. To execute the backward to generate additional power. Legs are also less prone to inju- ry.

Horizontal Knee Strike. The striking surface is the front of the leg. slightly above or below the knee. Marines— Raise the right knee. The horizontal knee Contact the opponent with the cutting edge of the strike is executed with the leg generally parallel right boot. Vertical Knee Strike. slightly above the knee. rotate the right hip forward while pivoting on the left foot. turning the foot at a 90-degree angle to maximize the striking surface on the opponent. Return to the basic warrior stance. and drive the knee horizontally into the opponent. Marines— . the opponent. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 4-11 Raise the right knee waist high and rotate the right Raise the right knee and drive it up forcefully into hip forward. with the ground while rotating the hips to gener- ate power. Contact the opponent 2 inches above the right knee. Thrust the right foot to the right side toward the opponent. Power is generated by thrusting the leg upward. The striking surface is the thigh. Contact the opponent 2 inches above the right knee. To execute the horizontal knee strike. To execute the vertical knee strike. Knee Strikes Knee strikes are excellent weapons during the close range of close combat fighting. It is often delivered to the peroneal nerve. The knee strike is generally delivered in close.

Marines to use offensive strikes to attack the op- ponent. To execute the vertical stomp. To execute the ax the opponent is down. Marines must ting edge of the right heel down onto the oppo. to rapid- ly deliver multiple blows with either foot. It is the preferred stomp. and strike. Raise the right heel above the waist. first avoid the strike. This allows strike. Marines knee slightly to drop the body weight into the must get into an offensive position. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-12 MCRP 3-02B Stomps Ax Stomp. The vertical stomp allows Marines to remain upright and balanced. and to quickly and accurately attack the target. stomp. Movement re- moves Marines from the opponent’s intended strike point and positions Marines to attack. 5. Drive the flat bottom of the right boot or the cut. The striking surface is the flat bottom of the boot or the cutting edge of the heel. Return to the basic warrior stance with the toe of . Movement is executed at approximately a 45-de- gree angle to the front or rear. Drive the cutting edge of the right heel down onto the opponent forcefully. At the same time. Movement is al- ways initiated from the basic warrior stance. At the same time. block. Regardless of the strike. the counter to a strike requires Marines to move. bend the left moving quickly and blocking. Marines take whatever target is available. Marines— Raise the right knee above the waist with the right leg bent at approximately a 90-degree angle. This is accomplished by nent forcefully. Move The first step in countering a strike is to move out of the way of the strike’s impact. an opponent will at- tempt to strike Marines with punches and kicks. Remember. keeping the right leg straight. Marines— ponent is down. The striking surface of the ax stomp Stomps are delivered with the feet. bend the left knee slightly to drop the body weight into the strike. Next. Vertical Stomp. when the op. usually when is the cutting edge of the heel. When an opponent uses a strike. Counters to Strikes In a close combat situation.

nent’s lead hand with the palm of the hand or the meaty portion of the forearm. This counter is used when the opponent throws a rear hand . Execute a finishing technique. the position of the opponent. Strike Any of the upper body or lower body strikes can be executed as a follow-on attack or part of the counter to an opponent’s strike. to the opponent’s exposed target areas. Block Different blocks are executed based on the strike. such as a strike or a kick. moving in to the outside of the opponent’s attacking arm. These will be covered by individual counters. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 4-13 the lead foot pointing toward the opponent once Raise the left arm and block or deflect the oppo- the movement is complete. This counter is Hit and stick by leaving the left arm against the used when the opponent throws a lead hand opponent’s right arm while stepping forward and punch. Counter to a Rear Hand Punch. Marines— close with the opponent. Counters to Punches Counter to a Lead Hand Punch. and the opponent’s available vulnerable target areas. Step forward and to the left at approximately a 45-degree angle. The follow-on strike is determined by the angle to the opponent. To execute the counter to the lead hand to the left at approximately a 45-degree angle to punch.

45-degree angle. Marines— Step forward and to the right at approximately a 45-degree angle. To execute the counter to a front kick. nent’s rear hand with the palm of the hand or the meaty portion of the forearm. Marines— opponent’s right arm while stepping forward and to the right at approximately a 45-degree angle to Step forward and to the left at approximately a close with the opponent. Counters to Kicks Counter to a Front Kick (Left or Lead Leg). moving in to the outside of the opponent’s striking leg. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-14 MCRP 3-02B punch. to the opponent’s exposed target areas. Execute a finishing technique. . To execute the counter to the rear hand Hit and stick by leaving the left arm against the punch. such as a strike or a Raise the left arm and block or deflect the oppo. kick. moving in to the outside of the opponent’s attacking arm. This counter is used when the opponent executes a front kick with his left leg.

Execute a finishing technique. such as a strike or a kick. to the opponent’s exposed target areas. Marines— (reverse blank) . Hit and stick by leaving the left arm against the opponent’s leg while stepping forward and to the right at approximately a 45-degree angle to close with the opponent. Step forward and to the left at approximately a nent’s leg with the palm of the hand or the meaty 45-degree angle. To execute the counter to a front kick. This counter is used when the opponent executes a front kick with his right leg. moving in to the outside of the portion of the forearm. Lower the left arm and block or deflect the oppo- nent’s leg with the palm of the hand or the meaty portion of the forearm. Hit and stick by leaving the left arm against the opponent’s leg while stepping forward and to the left at approximately a 45-degree angle to close with the opponent. Counter to a Front Kick (Right or Rear Leg). ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 4-15 Lower the left arm and block or deflect the oppo. opponent’s striking leg.

and gender-neutral. timing. Turning Throw Marines use a turning throw to take the opponent to the ground while they remain standing. all techniques can be executed from either side. When Marines execute throws. Throws apply the principles of balance. possibly caus- ing unconsciousness or broken limbs. gain control by forcing the opponent to the ground. Marines use throwing techniques to maintain the the opponent are wearing gear. The opponent is depicted without camouflage. they must maintain bal- ance and. 1. and they rely on the momentum and power generated by the opponent rather than the strength or size of the Marine. The Marine is depicted in camouflage utilities. Marines— the ground during close combat. It is particularly effective if Marines and . simultaneously. Marines also execute a throw as a devas- tating attack against an opponent. However. A turn- ing throw can also be executed from a stationary position. CHAPTER 5 THROWS This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person. To execute the tactical advantage and to throw the opponent to turning throw. leverage. Throwing techniques are effective be- cause they are size. prevent the opponent from countering a throw or escaping after being forced to the ground. and body Grasp the opponent’s right wrist with the left position to upset an opponent’s balance and to hand.

. Step forward with the right foot and place it against the outside of the opponent’s right foot. To execute the hip throw. Marines use the op- the outside of the opponent’s right foot. A hip The back of the heel should be next to the oppo- throw is particularly effective if the opponent is nent’s foot. touching the opponent with the body. Hip Throw Marines use a hip throw to take the opponent to the ground while they remain standing. keep- ing it close to the body. 2. Marines— is next to the middle of the opponent’s foot. and pivot ponent’s forward momentum to execute the hip so the back of the heel throw. Pivot to the left on the ball of the foot and contin- ue pulling downward on the opponent’s wrist while rotating the wrist outward to off-balance him. Grasp the opponent’s right wrist with the left hand. place it against moving forward or pushing. Hook the opponent’s right arm with the right arm and pinch his arm between the biceps and forearm. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-2 MCRP 3-02B Step forward with the right foot. Pull the opponent’s wrist downward.

and push his shoulder backward to off-bal- legs. close to the slightly by bending at the waist. pulling on the Marine. Marines— Rotate at the waist and hook the right hand around the back of the opponent’s body (anywhere from Grab the opponent’s his waist to his head). lift the opponent off the ground Pull the opponent’s wrist downward. 3. Marines use a leg sweep to take the opponent to Kick the foot past the opponent’s right leg. The hips must be Note: Grab the oppo- lower than the opponent’s. To execute the leg sweep. the ground while they remain standing. The back of the heel is next to the op. Rotate the hip against the opponent. The right wrist with the left side and hip should be hand and grab the op- against the opponent. nent’s clothing or gear if his wrist and shoul- Use the right hand to pull der cannot be grabbed. at the same time. Pull the opponent’s arm across the body and. Leg Sweep Raise the right knee no higher than the waist. ponent’s left shoulder with the right hand. already off-balanced and moving backward or ponent’s toe. A leg . Step forward with the left foot and place it on the outside of the op- ponent’s right foot. the opponent up on the hip to maximize contact. and rotating the body to the left. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 5-3 Step back with the left foot and rotate on the ball sweep is particularly effective if the opponent is of the foot. straightening the body. ance him. The knees are bent.

. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-4 MCRP 3-02B Use the heel of the boot to make contact with the opponent’s calf (anywhere from the top of the calf down to the Achilles tendon or on the inside of the calf). Sweep the opponent to the ground.

CHAPTER 6 CHOKES AND HOLDS This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person. A blood choke cuts off the blood ness) can be executed quickly. When Marines correctly perform a choke. ending the fight. the opponent will There are two types of chokes: an air choke and a lose consciousness within 8 to 13 seconds. all techniques can be executed from either side. Marines use the opponent’s properly. If Marines exe- cute a blood choke properly. The Marine is depicted in camouflage utilities. If Marines execute the air choke ing the opponent. tended effect (i. which carries oxygen-enriched blood from the heart to the brain. Chokes are easily performed regard. However.e. flow to the brain. The carotid artery is 1. air chokes are not 13 seconds. Chokes Air Choke An air choke is performed on the opponent’s Front Choke windpipe (or trachea). Marines must know how to apply chokes and how to counter a choke or a Blood Choke hold executed by an opponent. WARNING During training. An air choke closes off the airway to blood choke is the preferred choke because its in- the lungs. the opponent loses consciousness within . they 2 to 3 minutes. thereby preventing oxygen from reach. Types of Chokes located on both sides of the neck. recommended. Due to the length of time it takes render an opponent unconscious in as little as 8 to to immobilize the opponent. the opponent losing conscious- ing the heart. never execute a choke at full force or full speed and never hold a choke for more than 5 seconds. A blood choke is performed on the opponent’s ca- rotid artery. The opponent is depicted without camouflage. 2. less of size or gender. Both types can result in uncon- sciousness and eventual death for an opponent. The blood choke.. cutting off the air to the Marines execute a front choke when they are fac- lungs and heart.

making certain that the knuckles or the back of the hand are against the opponent’s carotid ar. Side Choke Marines execute a side choke when they are fac- ing the opponent. To exe. reach under the opponent’s right arm with the left hand. board (to the inside of the opponent’s reach). hand. . the left with the left hand. and form an X with the wrists. To execute the side choke. Press the right cute the front choke. Marines— Use the left hand to parry the opponent’s arm in- Keep the right hand against the opponent’s neck. Pull his lapel to tery on the right side of his neck. Marines— hand against the opponent’s carot- Grab the opponent’s right lapel with the right id artery. grab the opponent’s left lapel. The side choke is particularly effective when deflecting a punch thrown by an opponent. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-2 MCRP 3-02B lapels or collar to execute a front choke.

with the left hand. place the back of the forearm against the opponent’s neck just below his ear. the opponent is on the ground. Marines— Reach. Pull the opponent toward the chest by pulling the clasped hands toward the chest. around the back of the opponent’s neck and clasp the hands together. Reach. . over the opponent’s right shoulder and hook the bend of the arm around his neck. Rear Choke Note: If Marines are unable to place their fingers Marines execute a rear choke when they are be- against the opponent’s neck. with the forearm. or when they are taking the opponent to the ground. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 6-3 Bring the right arm underneath the opponent’s Exert pressure on the side of the opponent’s neck arm and up around the front of his neck. they may use the hind the opponent. To execute the rear choke. back of the thumb or wrist. with the right arm. Extend the fingers. and press the carotid artery on his neck.

If the rear choke cannot be secured. the figure-four variation is employed to increase the pressure of the choke on the opponent. Marines— Apply a rear choke. The Marine’s body should be against the opponent’s body. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-4 MCRP 3-02B Clasp both hands together. Grasp the left biceps with the right hand and place the left hand against the back of the opponent’s head. gain more leverage than the rear choke. To execute the figure-four varia- tion of the rear choke. The figure-four choke allows Marines to . Figure-Four Choke A variation of the rear choke is the figure-four choke. Maintain pressure with the biceps and forearms on both sides of the neck and draw the opponent closer by drawing the right arm in. Exert pressure with the biceps and forearms on both sides of the opponent’s neck on his carotid arteries.

they are used to loosen an opponent’s hold. Marines tuck their chins to 3. Softening techniques are not offen- sive. foot stomps. Marines use softening techniques to loosen an opponent’s Marines use a counter to a front choke when the opponent approaches from the front and uses both . Once the airway is clear. If the oppo- nent correctly applies a choke. an opponent may apply a choke or hold on a Marine. A hold allows the opponent to control a Marine and removes the Marine’s ability to attack. and counter with strikes. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 6-5 Push the opponent’s head forward and down with grip and to clear their airway. a Marine quickly loses consciousness. eye gouges. regain the tac- tical advantage. Draw the right arm in. Counters to Chokes and prevent the opponent from reapplying the choke. Although a choke causes unconsciousness in 8 to 13 seconds for a blood choke and 2 to 3 minutes for an air choke. The second movement is to tuck the chin. niques are particularly effective if Marines lack the physical strength of their opponent. the first movement in any Counter to a Front Choke counter to a choke is to clear the airway. typically a bear hug or a headlock. etc. Holds During a close combat situation. If a choke is not executed properly. Softening tech- the left hand. These techniques include groin strikes. It is important for Marines to extract themselves from chokes and holds. maintaining pressure with the bicep and forearm on both sides of the oppo- nent’s neck. it often results in a hold. rather.

foot. Counter to a Rear Choke Marines execute a counter to a rear choke when the opponent approaches from the rear and puts . Once the airway is the fingers. Marines— Grasp the opponent’s right forearm (where the el. Grasp the opponent’s forearm (at the radial nerve) bow bends) with the left hand and apply down. tuck the chin to protect the airway and to prevent the opponent from reapplying the choke. Execute a chin jab to the opponent’s chin with the right hand. To generate power into the strike. To ex. and bicep with both hands and pull down just ward pressure on the opponent’s radial nerve with enough to clear the airway. keeping both legs bent (almost in a squatting position). _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-6 MCRP 3-02B hands to choke a Marine around the throat. Marines— the counter to the rear choke. clear. bring the left foot to the outside of the opponent’s Step behind the opponent’s right leg with the left right foot and rotate the hips into the strike. To execute ecute the counter to the front choke. his right arm around a Marine’s throat.

Step forward and to the left with the left foot at a 45-degree angle. control of the opponent’s wrist throughout the move. and locks the Marine’s head against his hip. bends the Marine forward. At the same time. To execute the counter to a front headlock. Marines— Execute a sweep with the right foot against the opponent’s right leg. throwing the opponent back and to the ground. tuck the chin to protect the airway and to prevent the opponent from reapplying the choke. Maintain and shoulder to generate power in the sweep. left. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 6-7 Strike and drive the left elbow into the opponent’s Move the right hand and arm across the oppo- torso while rotating the hips and pivoting to the nent’s torso. Once the airway is clear. . Counter to a Front Headlock Marines use a counter to a front headlock when the opponent approaches from the front and puts his right arm around the Marine’s neck. push Grasp the opponent’s wrist and forearm with both against the opponent’s chest with the right arm hands and pull down to clear the airway.

Marines— Grasp the opponent’s wrist and forearm with the right hand and pull down to clear the airway. Counter to a Front Bear Hug Marines execute a counter to a front bear hug when the opponent approaches from the front and puts both of his arms around the Marine’s body. trapping the Marine’s arms to the sides. a hammer fist strike against his hip. Marines use a counter to a rear headlock when the eyes) and pull back while rising to a standing po- opponent approaches from the rear and puts his sition. Marines— Step forward and to the left with the left foot at a Reach over the opponent’s right shoulder with the 45-degree angle to the outside of the opponent’s left arm. and locks the Marine’s head Execute. Once the airway is clear. nose. right arm around the Marine’s neck. . right leg. keeping the left leg bent. To execute the counter to the rear to the opponent’s exposed throat. To exe- cute the counter to a front bear hug. headlock. tuck the chin to protect the airway and to prevent the opponent from re- applying the choke. with the right hand. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-8 MCRP 3-02B Counter to a Rear Headlock Grab any part of the opponent’s face (chin. bends the Marine forward.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 6-9 Grasp the opponent’s torso or arms to gain bal. keeping both legs bent (almost in a squatting position). It counter to a rear bear hug. bring the right leg forward and sweep the opponent’s right leg. Drive the right arm and shoulder forward and. Marines— may be helpful to hook the opponent’s right arm with the left arm. bringing him to the ground. the Marine’s arms to the sides. Step behind the opponent’s right leg with the left foot. To execute the ance and to assist in throwing the opponent. Pivot the hip. trapping (reverse blank) . turning the body to the left and throwing the opponent back over the bent leg. The left side of the body should be against the opponent’s. at the same time. Counter to a Rear Bear Hug Marines use a counter to a rear bear hug when the opponent approaches from the rear and puts both of his arms around the Marine’s body.

all techniques can be executed from either side. However. CHAPTER 7 GROUND FIGHTING This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person. In photographs. Marines— may be covered with debris and there is an in- creased risk of injury. resting on the opponent’s forearms. To execute a close combat situation because the battlefield the guard position technique. If the opponent is on top. However. Marines can also employ chokes during ing the hands on the chest so the forearms are ground fighting to quickly end a fight. are the counter to the guard and the counter to the Trap the opponent’s hands on the chest by cross- mount. The defensive positions. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utilities. Marines will usually end up in one of four positions with the opponent. Marines should avoid being on the ground during in a position to control the situation. but the Marine still has the tactical advantage because the Marine is . the opponent is depicted without camouflage. Offensive Ground Fighting Guard Position Marines execute a guard position when the oppo- nent is on top and the legs are wrapped around the opponent’s legs. the oppo- nent is depicted in desert camouflage utilities. which are used as counters when the opponent has the tactical advantage. are the guard and mount. In drawings. In any ground fighting scenario. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utili- ties. many close com- bat situations involve fighting on the ground. 1. he may try to choke the Marine. Apply pres- sure with the elbows or forearms. The offensive positions. The priority in a ground fight is for Marines to get back on their feet as quickly as possible. in which Marines have a tactical advantage.

Move the head quickly to the left and swivel the hips to the right. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-2 MCRP 3-02B Strike the outside of the opponent’s thigh with the Pull the opponent’s arm straight up and fall back cutting edge of the right heel. locking the op- ponent’s arm. To execute the mount position technique. This position is an offensive position be- cause Marines are in a better position to control the opponent and to execute ground fighting tech- niques. the Marine is sitting up with legs bent over the opponent while maintaining control of his arm. Hold them tightly against the torso. ing on his back on the ground and the Marine is on top with legs wrapped around the opponent’s body. bring up both Mount Position of the legs. Grab the opponent’s wrists or forearms with the hands. pulling his arm to the side in the direction ponent to jerk to that side. Keep legs and knees bent. Upon completion of the move. Return to standing. Maintain pressure against the opponent’s neck with the back of the right foot and against his side with the left foot underneath his armpit. . Exert downward pressure to roll him over on his back. Both legs are on the right side of the Marines execute the mount if the opponent is ly- opponent’s body. of his little finger. At the same time. sharply. Marines— Bring the right leg down. hooking the opponent’s neck and head. Grasp and maintain control of the opponent’s left arm. Squeeze the knees together. This causes the op.

Squeeze the knees together. This forc- es the opponent to separate his legs. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 7-3 Maintain control of the opponent’s arms with the Pull the opponent’s arm straight up and fall back left arm and apply pressure to the opponent’s bra. pulling his arm to the side in the direction chial plexus (tie in) with the right hand. To execute the counter to the guard posi- right foot and against his side with the left foot tion. Return to standing. with the elbows. of his little finger. sharply. Marines use this technique if the opponent is ly- ing on his back on the ground and the Marine is Keep the legs and knees bent. Maintain pressure kneeling on the ground between the opponent’s against the opponent’s neck with the back of the legs. Counter to the Guard nent’s head. Marines— which is underneath his armpit. locking the opponent’s arm. 2. Strike the opponent’s femoral nerve. located on the inside of the thigh. Defensive Ground Fighting Bring the left foot close to the opponent’s right armpit and swing the right leg across the oppo. .

bringing him down close. Counter to the Mount Marines use this technique when they are lying on their back on the ground. Throw the opponent’s leg from the inside around the outside. and the opponent’s legs are wrapped around the Marine. Draw the elbow in to bend the opponent’s elbow. above his el- over the head. Grab the opponent’s gear or clothing on his upper torso and pull him down close. Hook the left arm underneath the opponent’s right Use the right arm to hook the opponent’s left arm. Duck the head quickly and move to the left. Marines— . To execute the counter to the mount position. bow. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-4 MCRP 3-02B Strike the opponent’s groin with the right fist. knee from the inside. hook the opponent’s left leg or ankle. Strike the opponent’s side with the left hand. The opponent has the tactical advantage. With the right foot. the opponent is mounted on top of the Marine. The arm must be hooked above the opponent’s elbow in order to bend it. Return to standing.

Sometimes. To execute the ground fighting front choke. Chokes are easily performed regardless of Maintain control of the opponent’s hooked arm size or gender. right side of the oppo- nent’s neck. 6). Marines— Grab the opponent’s right lapel with the right hand. . Ground Fighting Chokes right side. The front choke employs the opponent’s la- pels or collar to execute the choke. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 7-5 Push the opponent over and roll him off to the 3. When performed correctly. Marines can quickly end a ground fight by executing a choke on the opponent. a choke can render an opponent unconscious in as little as 8 to 13 sec- onds. WARNING During training. never execute a choke at full force or full speed. Ground Fighting Front Choke The ground fighting front choke is a blood choke performed most effectively from the mount posi- tion. The chokes performed during and move to a kneeling position. carotid artery on the bow. ground fighting are the same as those performed while standing (see chap. making certain that the knuck- Move to a standing position while maintaining les or the back of the pressure on the opponent’s arm and using the hand are against the knee to apply pressure against the opponent’s el. Never hold a choke for more than 5 seconds. The priority in ground fighting is for Marines to get back on their feet as quickly as possible.

reach). Keep the fingers extended. nent’s carotid artery and pull the opponent’s left Depending on the Marine’s or the opponent’s lapel to the left with the left hand. forming an X with the wrists. Bring the right arm underneath the oppo- pel. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-6 MCRP 3-02B Keep the right hand pressed against the oppo. To execute the ground fighting side choke. place the back of the forearm against the opponent’s neck just below Keep the right hand pressed against the oppo. his ear and press the carotid artery on his neck. body configuration. Ground Fighting Side Choke The ground fighting side choke is a blood choke performed from the mount position. Marines— . and grab the opponent’s left la. reach under the right arm arm inboard (to the inside of the opponent’s with the left hand. nent’s arm and up around the front of his neck. Use the left hand to reach around the back of the opponent’s neck and clasp the hands together. the back of the thumb or wrist may press against the opponent’s neck. Use the left hand to parry the opponent’s right nent’s carotid artery. The ground fighting side choke is particularly effective when the opponent raises his arms and places them on the Marine’s chest or throat.

chest. While maintaining pressure with the biceps and fore- arms. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 7-7 Pull the opponent toward the chest. Marines— Wrap the legs around the opponent with the left foot against the inside of his left thigh and the right foot against the inside of his right thigh. Use the fore. To execute the ground fighting rear choke. draw the opponent closer by drawing the right arm in. Use the left hand to clasp both hands together. This right shoulder and hook the bend of the arm is done by pulling the clasped hands toward the around his neck. Use the right arm to reach over the opponent’s arm to exert pressure on the side of his neck. Ground Fighting Rear Choke The ground fighting rear choke is a blood choke performed when Marines are behind the oppo- nent. This applies pressure to the opponent’s carotid arteries. Exert pressure with the biceps and forearms on both sides of the opponent’s neck. To increase the effectiveness of the .

Continue to pull the opponent back with the right arm while exerting pressure for- ward with the left hand against the opponent’s head. If the rear choke cannot be secured. At the same time. push the feet against the opponent’s thighs. figure-four variation may be applied to increase the pressure of the choke on the opponent. The figure-four choke al- Draw the right arm in while maintaining pressure lows Marines to gain more leverage on the rear with the biceps and forearm on both sides of the choke. ward and down. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-8 MCRP 3-02B choke. lean backward by arching the back and Use the left hand to push the opponent’s head for- pulling the opponent back. Figure-Four Choke A variation of the ground fighting rear choke is the figure-four choke. . Increase the effectiveness of the choke by arching backward and pushing the feet against the oppo- nent’s thighs. To ex- ecute the figure-four variation of the rear choke. Marines— Apply the ground fighting rear choke. the opponent’s neck. The chest should be against the opponent’s back. Grasp the left biceps with the right hand and place the left hand against the back of the opponent’s head.

These missions require skills that span full force or full speed. par- part of the subject. force. The Marine Corps’ involvement in military oper. all techniques can be executed from either side.. and fingers). or evacuation missions—has greatly for unarmed restraints and manipulation at increased. humanitarian. But the Corps’ day- to-day existence also demands a responsible use of force. Unarmed restraints and Principles of Joint Manipulation manipulation techniques including joint manipu. within a continuum of force. In these situations.) ticularly in support of peacekeeping or humanitar. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utili- ties. (Pain compliance is the initiation of pain to get compliance on the Marines operate within a continuum of force. Marines must train to become proficient in shoulder. During training. Compliance can be achieved through the close combat techniques of— 1. the opponent is depicted without camouflage. WARNING ations other than war—e. the oppo- nent is depicted in desert camouflage utilities. ankle.g. In photographs. Pressure is ap- nonlethal techniques and to respond in a responsi. knee. Use a slow and steady the spectrum of conflict and support operations pressure to avoid injury. bend. In drawings. and takedowns can be used ance and gain control of a subject. wrist. manipulation techniques used to physically force a subject or opponent to comply. peace. l Come-along holds. come-alongs. and they are applied in l In the direction in which the joint will not the third level in the continuum of force. never apply the techniques keeping. the Marine is depicted in woodland camouflage utilities. Unarmed Restraints and Manipulation l Pain compliance using joint manipulation and pressure points. It involves the to control a subject without resorting to deadly application of pressure on the joints (elbow. joints such as the knees . Marines must act responsibly to handle a situation without resorting to deadly force. For example. CHAPTER 8 NONLETHAL TECHNIQUES This chapter describes all techniques for a right-handed person. Joint manipulation is used to initiate pain compli- lation. ian types of missions. However. plied in two ways: ble manner. These techniques are referred to as compliance techniques. Nonlethal techniques are among the Compliance Techniques skills Marines use to apply a responsible use of Compliance techniques are unarmed restraint and force.

Marines should apply slow steady pressure only until pain compliance is reached. Since each joint has a breaking point. when Marines grab the opponent’s left hand with To execute the reverse the right hand. The wrist rotates in a number of directions to the right. opponent’s hand to the rally in its range of movement (i. him and provide more lever- balancing. exerted beyond that point by bending or twisting Use the left hand to the joint. A wristlock is executed when an oppo. and twists the opponent’s ment stops naturally. Apply used to anchor the hand so downward pressure on the opponent’s hand leverage can be applied to against the chest. pain compliance can be achieved. the Marine grabs the A wristlock is a joint manipulation that can be ap- opponent’s hand so that the plied in a number of ways to achieve pain compli- Marine’s knuckles are facing ance. wristlock. In a wristlock. pressure is hand to the left. Hook the fingers across the fleshy part of the oppo- nent’s palm below the Twist the opponent’s hand to the right while step- thumb. A subject can be better controlled age on the wristlock. and then rotates and will bend in a single direction until its move. further control the nent tries to grab Marines or is successful in grab. bing Marines or their equipment. A reverse wristlock is exe- cuted when Marines grab the opponent’s right Basic Wristlock. opponent’s joint.. Note: When executing the ba- Wristlocks sic wristlock with the left hand. Leave the opponent’s hand on twist and bend the joint. Continued pressure will break the joint and may escalate the violence of Step in to the opponent to the situation. keep the opponent’s hand in close to the body to control Joint manipulation also uses the principle of off. opponent. To execute the basic wristlock. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-2 MCRP 3-02B and elbows only bend in one direction and Exert downward pressure when pressure is applied in the opposite di. right hand and wrap the ponent’s hand so that the Marine’s knuckles are fingers across the fleshy facing to the left. it no right to twist the joint. A basic wristlock is executed hand with the right hand. longer bends). A wristlock can also be performed by Marines if they wish to ini- tiate control of an opponent. Marines— Marines— Place the right palm on Use the right hand to grab the opponent’s left the back of the opponent’s hand by placing the thumb on the back of the op. Reverse Wristlock. part of his palm below his little finger. Rotate the l Beyond the point where the joint stops natu. .e. with the thumb to bend the rection. The fingers are ping in to place his hand against the chest. when he is knocked off balance. the chest to fully control the subject and to gain leverage.

Use the left joint. thumbs crossed. To ex. Both hands can be used Applying pressure against the opponent’s finger in the wristlock to maximize the leverage and joint to bend it in a direction it cannot bend (i. hanced pain compliance techniques are applied in the third and fourth levels in the continuum of force. pressure needed to bend and twist the joint. Turn to face the right side of the opponent. A common come-along hold is the escort position. Additional pain be applied to a wristlock by— Adding downward pressure to the elbow with the other hand or elbow by using the fingers to pull in on the opponent’s radial nerve located on the in- Use the left hand to side of the forearm.e. Come-Along Holds Marines use a come-along hold to control and move an opponent. ecute the two-handed wristlock. foot to step forward at a 45-de- gree angle. splitting the fingers). Two-Handed Wristlock. his direction can be con- opponent. Marines— Place both thumbs on the back of the opponent’s hand. Step into the opponent and apply pressure down. Marines— ward on the back of his hand to bend the joint and rotate his wrist away from the body to twist the Face the opponent. Hook the fingers of both hands around the fleshy part of the opponent’s palm on both sides of his hand. When pressure is added to the further control the opponent’s radial nerve. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 8-3 Lean forward to use body weight to add addition.. . En- al pressure to the joint. Enhanced Pain Compliance on Wristlock. Escort Position. To execute the escort position. trolled.

and grab his hand. keeping his wrist against the right hip. firmly grasp the wristlock come-along. Release the left hand. Maintain pressure on the op- ponent’s wrist with the right hand. . With the left hand. Use the left hand to execute a basic wristlock. his controlled hand is not in a position to grab the holstered weapon. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-4 MCRP 3-02B Use the right hand to firmly grasp the opponent’s Wristlock Come-Along. Note: This technique works well when escorting quickly reach under the an opponent on either the right or left side. The preferred escort position is from the Marine’s left side. Take opponent’s arm from be- caution when escorting an opponent by ensuring hind. Position the opponent’s controlled arm diagonally across the torso. To execute the right wrist. step forward. The Marine should be standing to the right of and behind the opponent. Marines— opponent’s right triceps. and pivot around to stand next to the opponent. so that the opponent is kept further away from the weapon. In- corporate the right hand in a two-handed wristlock for more control.

Basic Armbar. Marines— Use the right hand to grab the opponent’s right wrist. Controlling Technique. To execute a basic armbar. Marines— Armbars An armbar is a joint manipulation in which pres- sure is applied on a locked elbow. Apply downward pressure with both hands until ply downward pressure on the opponent is taken to the ground. steady pressure to gain compliance. just above the joint. An armbar has to be locked in quickly. Trap the opponent’s hand with the palm of the other hand. Rotate the opponent’s trapped hand up and on his forearm while maintaining downward pressure on his trapped hand. but still re- quires a slow. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 8-5 Use the left hand and ap. To execute the technique. . the opponent’s wrist. in the direction the joint will not bend. The following control- ling technique is used when an opponent grabs the Marine’s wrist.

Marines— Use the right hand to grab the opponent’s right Use the right foot to push down hand and execute a reverse wristlock. Marines— Armbar from a Wristlock. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-6 MCRP 3-02B Bring the left hand down on or above the oppo. Maintain control of the oppo- nent’s wrist and elbow and apply a slow. To take the oppo- nent to the ground from a wristlock come-along. Use the left hand to apply downward pressure on or above the opponent’s elbow joint while pulling up on his wrist. Bring the left hand down nent’s elbow joint. on or above the oppo- pivot to face the opponent. . Takedowns A takedown is used to bring an opponent to the ground to further control him. nent’s elbow joint. Takedown From a Wristlock Come-Along. on the opponent’s calf or Achilles tendon. To gain additional leverage. steady pressure to bring him to the ground. To execute an armbar from a wristlock. Use the left hand to apply downward pressure on or above the opponent’s elbow joint while pulling up on his wrist.

ground. Note: This technique may break the opponent’s arm. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 8-7 Armbar to a Takedown. This technique is used Lean back. Wristlock Takedown. Use the right hand to execute a basic wristlock. Marines— Bring the left hand or forearm down on or above the opponent’s elbow joint. Pivot so the back is facing the opponent and. at the same time. this technique should not be em- ployed if the objective is a nonlethal takedown. To exe- cute the takedown. lift the left elbow and slide the body so it is against the oppo- nent. Incorporate the left hand in a two-handed wristlock. . placing the body weight on the oppo- to take a noncompliant opponent to the ground nent’s arm until he complies or is taken to the from an armbar. Therefore. To execute the armbar takedown. if necessary. placing the armpit high above the opponent’s elbow joint. This technique is used to take a noncompliant opponent to the ground from a basic wristlock and to put him in a position where he can be handcuffed. Marines— Use the right hand to execute a reverse wristlock.

back. straight in the air. . Kneel down with one knee on the opponent’s derneath his armpit. Apply inward pressure with the knees to lock his arm in place. Pivot and step around the oppo- the opponent lands on his back with his arm nent’s arm to roll him on his stomach. Slide the left foot under the opponent’s back. un. pivot Apply pressure with the knee against the oppo- on the ball of the right foot. the right to take the opponent to the ground. Continue applying pressure with the knee on the Continue to apply pressure on the wrist joint as opponent’s arm. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-8 MCRP 3-02B Apply downward pressure on the wristlock. and quickly turn to nent’s triceps while pulling back on his arm. The other knee is placed on the opponent’s neck and shoulder on either side of his arm.

The grip on the baton should be firm. . defensive tactics include baton or night- pressure above the opponent’s elbow where the stick blocks and blows. Marines— Use the right hand to grasp the lower end of the baton. offensively (striking). pivot to around the baton so they are touching one another. To execute the one-handed grip. Marines must be able to employ blocks. When taking down a subject from the right side. step back and pivot to the left. Escort Position Takedown. 2. Note: This technique works well when escorting a subject on the Marine’s right or left side. but natu- ral. and restraints with the baton with the minimum of force. the right while continuing to apply downward dle of his back. Batons can be used defensively (blocking). hand to the center of his back. Nonlethal Baton A baton or nightstick can be an effective compli- ance tool when used correctly. This technique can be used to control a noncompliant opponent from the escort position. about 2 inches from the end. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 8-9 Tell the opponent to put his other hand in the mid. In the fourth level of the continuum of force (assaultive [bodily Use the left hand or forearm and apply downward harm]). Marines— Lock the opponent’s arm straight across the body while rotating his wrist away from the body. To execute the escort position takedown. bony parts of the body are considered deadly force. strikes. and as a restraining device when needed. Bring the opponent’s controlled pressure on his arm to bring him to the ground. When deadly force is not authorized. Grips One-Handed Grip. Blows to the head or other triceps meet. Step back with the right foot and. Wrap the thumb and index finger ponent’s hand controlled against the hip. keeping the op.

Use the left hand to grasp the upper end of the baton. The method of carry provides effective defensive posi- tions with a wide range of options to control a combative opponent. with the left hand higher than the baton so they touch one an. movement may be Grip the baton using the one-handed grip. One-Handed Carry. inches from the end. The same one- handed blocks used in combative stick techniques (see page 3-6) apply in nonlethal baton engage- ments. about 2 inches from the end. Be- cause the baton is often carried with two hands. Moving at a el between the belt and shoulder. Marines— Use the right hand to grasp the lower end of the baton. Orient the weapon toward the subject. This carry is effective for grip. Stance and Method of Carry The basic warrior stance serves as the foundation for initiating nonlethal baton techniques. angle to either side of the opponent. made to create distance between Marines and the opponent or to close the gap to control him. Two-handed blocks are discussed in the following subparagraphs. other. Marines move in a 45-degree Elevate the baton. warrior stance. there are also two-handed blocks that are effec- tively used from this carry. To execute the one-handed carry. Marines— Movement In a nonlethal confrontation. Wrap the thumb and index finger around Elevate the baton. To execute the two-handed Two-Handed Carry. a forward strike. When facing an opponent. the right hand. Marines— blocks. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-10 MCRP 3-02B Two-Handed Grip. To execute the two-handed carry. about 2 Grip the baton using the two-handed grip. The hands should be ap- proximately 10 to 12 inches apart. with the gripping hand at a lev. and a reverse strike. . palm down. The blocks include blocks for a vertical strike. Blocking Techniques One-handed blocks are used when carrying the baton in the one-handed carry. 45-degree angle is the best way to both avoid an opponent’s strike and to put Marines in the best Keep the left hand in the position of the basic position to control the opponent.

or elbow. Place the baton perpendicular to the opponent’s striking surface to absorb the impact of the blow. Marines— Lower the baton to a level even with or below the groin. To execute the right block. or hip. flank. groin. or fist. Marines execute a low block to deter an upward vertical attack directed at the abdomen. . or torso. fist. Bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the im- pact of the blow. Marines execute a right block to de- ter an attack directed at the head. Right Block. Rotate the hips and shoulders into the direction of the Place the baton perpendicular to the opponent’s block. knee. Bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the im- ter a downward vertical attack directed at the head pact of the blow. The baton should be in a horizontal posi- tion to block the blow. The opponent’s blow can be deliv- ered by a foot. The arms should give with the and shoulders. To execute the high block. and pivoting off the ball of the right foot. Marines execute a high block to de. Marines— Raise the baton up to a level even with or above the head. Low Block. and behind the baton. strike of the blow. The fingers of the left hand Pivot to the right by stepping with the left foot should be open and behind the baton. The arms should give with the strike of the blow. The fingers of the left hand should be open striking surface to absorb the impact of the blow. The opponent’s blow can be delivered by a foot. To execute the low block. The fingers of the left hand should be open and behind the baton. Marines— Thrust the baton in a vertical position to the right side. neck. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 8-11 High Block. The baton should be in a horizontal po- sition to block the blow. knee.

The arms should give with the strike of the blow. or abdomen. block. chest. The fingers of the left hand Thrust the baton in a vertical position to the left should be open and behind the baton. or hip. strike of the blow. Bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the im. Middle Block. The baton should be held with the left hand for- ward of the right. . Marines execute a left block to deter right block to deter an attack directed at the face. Pivot to the left by stepping with the right foot and pivoting off the ball of the left foot. The fingers of the left hand should be open and behind the baton. fist. throat. Marines— Thrust the baton in a vertical position straight out in front of the body. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-12 MCRP 3-02B Place the baton perpendicular to the opponent’s Place the baton perpendicular to the opponent’s striking surface to absorb the impact of the blow. Marines— knee. Bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the im- pact of the blow. The arms should give with the strike of the blow. Bend the elbows slightly to help absorb the im- pact of the blow. Marines execute either a left or Left Block. side. neck. or elbow. To execute the middle The opponent’s blow can be delivered by a foot. striking surface to absorb the impact of the blow. an attack directed at the head. The arms should give with the pact of the blow. flank. Place the baton perpendicular to the opponent’s striking surface to absorb the impact of the blow. To execute the left block. Rotate the hips and shoulders into the direction of the block.

reaching Use the right foot to step forward at a 45-degree around with the left hand to grasp the opponent’s angle to the left side of the opponent. The baton is biceps or shoulder. continue moving around him to get behind him. Marines— the baton with the left hand. Pull up on the low end of the baton with the right hand. across his forearm. push down on the top end of the baton with the left forearm. the thumb and/or fingers and apply pressure to his ponent who is not compliant. To execute the forearm. At the same time. At the same time. grasp the other end of strong-side armlock. . Use the right hand to run the baton up under the opponent’s left armpit. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 8-13 Restraining Technique Place the baton on the opponent’s forearm with The strong-side armlock is used to restrain an op. At the same time. Use the right hand to drive the baton forward and up so the action bends the opponent’s arm behind his back. parallel to the ground.

Primary targets are the upper arms. One-Handed Striking Techniques One-Handed Forward Strike. swing the baton from right to left. To execute Apply pressure with the foot against the bend in the one-handed forward strike. To execute arms. Arms. and buttocks are target areas that are con. Avoid striking the knee and ankle joints be- biceps with the left hand. Stand facing the opponent with the baton carried in a one-handed carry. the one-handed reverse strike. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-14 MCRP 3-02B Continue exerting downward pressure with the Legs. Marines— the opponent’s leg above his calf. cause this can cause permanent damage. in a one-handed carry. One-Handed Reverse Strike. including the chest. Avoid striking any other part of the torso. Striking Target Areas Marines must avoid striking an opponent in the head. or other bony parts with the baton be. Marines— sidered nonlethal. Buttocks. nent in a position where he is controlled and can be moved. Place the right hand palm up. the legs. Instead. spine. . and make contact with the op- ponent. agonal line using a backhand stroke. tail bone. Primary targets are the buttocks. neck. Primary targets are the thighs and lower left forearm while pulling back on the opponent’s legs. rib cage. This lowers the opponent to the ground rather than throwing him Stand facing the opponent with the baton carried to the ground and risking severe injury. A forward strike follows either a horizontal line or a downward di- agonal line using a forehand stroke. Avoid striking the shoulder and elbow and wrist joints because this can cause permanent damage. This places the oppo. A reverse strike cause this is considered deadly force and can lead follows either a horizontal line or a downward di- to serious bodily injury or death. and groin because strikes to these areas can cause permanent dam- age or death.

swing the baton from left to right. Contact the subject with the end of the baton. Marines— Front Jab. Marines thrust both hands forward in a quick generated by stepping forward with the right foot jab. Marines— Place the right hand palm down. To execute the front ton should be horizontal to the ground. To execute the two-handed reverse strike. poke to keep a subject away. Pull back with the right hand while driving the ponent. Power is gen- erated by stepping forward slightly with the left foot and rotating the left hip and shoulder into the strike. Two-Handed Striking Techniques Two-Handed Forward Strike. The baton should be close to or effective follow-up to a middle block or left over the left shoulder. This strike is effective for countering Pull back with the left hand while driving the a frontal attack. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat 8-15 Bend the right arm and cross the arm to the left Two-Handed Reverse Strike. . block. strike. The baton should be horizontal to the ground. The baton is held either horizontal to the and rotating the right hip and shoulder into the ground or at a slight downward angle. Power is jab. left hand forward toward the opponent. This strike is an side of the body. and make contact with the op. This strike is an effective follow-up to a middle block or left block. It can also be executed as a quick right hand forward toward the opponent. Contact the opponent with the end of the baton. To execute the two-handed forward strike. The ba.

This strike is effective for countering a bear hug from the rear. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-16 MCRP 3-02B Rear Jab. The baton is held either horizontal to the ground or at a slight downward angle. Marines thrust both hands rearward in a quick jab. To execute the rear jab. .

A regulation football helmet protects the service rifle. 1. It is worn completely fastened. jacket and below the helmet. The neck roll is worn above the flak tached. if pugil sticks do not have gloves built-in. Holding the Pugil Stick The pugil stick is held in the same manner as the Helmet. but safe. APPENDIX A PUGIL STICK TRAINING A pugil stick is a training device used to simulate l Use the right forearm to lock the lower end a rifle bayonet so that effective. Marines— Mouthpiece. from blows. Pugil stick training is the only “full contact” training provid. Pugil stick training builds on the ward the opponent. Groin protection protects the skills vital to success on the battlefield. Pugil Stick Training Flak Jacket. Design A pugil stick consists of a stick wrapped in pad. It also provides them with the physical and mental Groin Protection. The tied end of the neck roll faces the front. l Use the left hand to grasp the upper end of Gloves. To hold the pugil stick correctly. techniques used to throw punches. All movements come from the basic face and head. l Orient the blade end of the pugil stick to- onet techniques. groin from an accidental blow. can be conducted to build proficiency of rifle bay. chin straps must be adjusted and snapped. with the concave portion against the body. Neck Roll. and it pre. The mouthpiece is worn on the up- l Use the right hand to grasp the lower end of per teeth to protect the teeth. Marines receive a blow to the head. Marines wear gloves to protect the hands the pugil stick underhanded. during any pugil stick bout. . Safety Equipment ed to Marines in the Close Combat Program. the pugil stick overhanded. It should be pulled high around the waist to protect the groin area. The neck roll The pugil stick is approximately the same weight further supports the head and protects the neck and length of an unloaded rifle with a bayonet at. training of the pugil stick against the hip. The helmet must fit snugly and the warrior stance. pares them to deliver a blow and take a blow. Pu- gil stick training teaches Marines to function The following safety equipment must be worn when faced with stress and violence. The flak jacket provides protection to the body. The neck roll prevents whiplash if ding at both ends that can be gripped like a rifle.

A-2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-02B

Pugil Stick Screening lot. A boxing ring may be used to conduct pugil
Prior to pugil stick training, instructors must ask stick bouts; ring dimensions can vary as long as
participating Marines the following questions. If a there is ample room to execute the techniques in
Marine answers “yes” to any question, he must the training area.
see the corpsman or a competent medical authori-
ty who evaluates him and determines whether or Second Impact Syndrome
not the he can participate in the training. Second Impact Syndrome occurs when a second
blow to the head produces a second concussion
l Are you on light duty? that occurs within 1 week following a previous
l Are you restricted to running shoes by a concussion (before recovery from the first con-
corpsman or a doctor? cussion). Second Impact Syndrome causes rapid
l Have you fought in a pugil stick bout within brain swelling and can cause death. Therefore,
the last 7 days? there must be 7 days between pugil stick bouts to
l Have you received a blow to the head within reduce the risk of severe injury resulting from
the last 7 days? Second Impact Syndrome. The 7 day separation
l Have you had a concussion within the last 6 between pugil stick bouts significantly reduces
months? the possibility of injury, particularly in someone
l Have you had dental surgery within the last who may have suffered a brain injury or concus-
24 hours? sion but shows no symptoms.
l Do you have stitches or staples on your
body? Any Marine who experiences headaches or the
l Have you had a shoulder or head injury following symptoms after training must be exam-
within the last 5 years? ined by appropriate medical personnel:
l Are you taking a prescription drug?
l Do you have an ear infection or current si- l Blurred vision.
nus infection? l Ringing in the ears.
l Have you had a broken bone within the last l Dilation of the pupils.
6 months? l Slurred speech.
l Bleeding from ears or mouth.
Safety Personnel l Swelling in head or neck area.
The following safety personnel are required to l Any unnatural discoloration in head or neck
conduct pugil stick training: area.

l One close combat instructor must officiate The Marine should not be allowed to participate
the bout. in pugil stick training or any other activity where
l One close combat instructor trainer, com- a heavy blow might be sustained for a minimum
missioned officer, or staff noncommissioned of 7 days after the headache or other symptoms
officer must be in the training area to serve have subsided.
as range safety officer.
l One corpsman must be in the training area. Safety Measures
The following safety measures must be followed:
Training Area
To prevent injury, Marines train on areas with soft l Gear must be worn properly throughout
footing (i.e., sand or grass). Training mats are not training.
recommended because feet can stick to the mats, l Contact lenses or glasses will not be worn.
prohibiting movement or causing joint injuries by l False teeth will be removed from the mouth.
twisting a knee. Bouts should not take place on a l Nothing will be worn around the neck ex-
hard surface area; e.g., a flight deck or parking cept the neck roll.

____________________________________________________________________________________________
Close Combat A-3

l Competition among groups of Marines is Note: There should be enough gear so that when
authorized as long as it does not overshadow two Marines are training, two other Marines can
training objectives or compromise safety be donning safety equipment for the next bout.
procedures.
l Safety and proper techniques are paramount. During the Bout
l Safety is more important than competition. The bout begins when the close combat instructor
blows the whistle. All strikes are directed above
the waist. Upon hearing a whistle blast, all fight-
ing immediately ceases.
2. General Rules and
Regulations Governing Pugil Stopping a Bout
Stick Bouts There are two reasons for stopping a bout: deliv-
ery of a scoring blow or an unsafe condition. The
close combat instructor trainer, close combat in-
Instructors and Support Personnel structor, or the range safety officer may stop the
Requirements bout at any time an unsafe condition is observed.
At a minimum, one close combat instructor ob- Scoring Blow. A scoring blow is an offensive
serves a pugil stick bout. For safety purposes, it is technique delivered to a vulnerable area of an op-
better to have two instructors judging a bout be- ponent with sufficient force and precision to be
cause each instructor can fully observe each of the considered as a disabling or killing blow. Scoring
fighters. The best position for observation is to the blows are not judged solely on the degree of force
right of a fighter. This allows the instructor to see with which a blow is delivered, but on the accura-
the fighter’s facial expression and body move- cy and techniques employed. A scoring blow is
ment. The instructor’s position must not interfere defined as—
with the fight.
l A straight thrust with the blade end of the
In addition, one commissioned or staff noncom- weapon (red end of the pugil stick) to the
missioned officer (to serve as range safety officer) opponent’s face mask or throat.
l A slash to the side of the opponent’s helmet
and one corpsman will be in the training area.
(below the ear) or neck with the red end of
the pugil stick.
Prior to the Bout l A heavy blow to the opponent’s head with
an authorized technique (i.e., buttstroke,
Prior to the bout, Marines— smash) using the butt (black end) of the pu-
gil stick.
l Are paired according to height, weight, and
gender. When a scoring blow is delivered, the close com-
l Wear the proper safety equipment. bat instructor blows the whistle to stop the bout.

Unsafe Condition. The bout will be stopped as
Once Marines have properly donned the safety soon as an unsafe condition exists. An unsafe con-
equipment, they wait for instructions from the dition exists when a Marine is unable to defend
close combat instructor. On the command of the himself, loses his balance and falls down on one
close combat instructor, a pair of Marines will en- or two knees or falls down completely, shows in-
ter the ring. Once in the ring, the close combat in- stability (e.g., buckling at the knees), loses mus-
structor inspects each Marine for the proper safety cular tension in his neck and his head snaps back
equipment. or to one side, or appears disoriented. An unsafe

A-4 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-02B

condition also exists if a Marine lets go of one end 3. Directions for Making Pugil
of the pugil stick, the equipment (e.g., helmet,
neck roll) falls off, or a Marine fails to use the Sticks
proper techniques.
Close combat instructor trainers are taught to
make pugil sticks to standard specifications at
If any of these conditions occur—
school. It is recommended that all pugil sticks be
made under the supervision of a close combat in-
l The close combat instructor trainer, close structor trainer. Until the Marine Corps acquires a
combat instructor, range safety officer, or standardized pugil stick that units can order
anyone supervising training stops the bout through the supply system, instructors use the fol-
and separates the two Marines. lowing information and instructions to make pugil
l The corpsman evaluates the possibly injured sticks locally.
Marine to determine if the fight can contin-
ue. The corpsman— Supplies
n Ensures that he is alert and responsive,
The following supplies are needed to make one
both verbally and physically.
pugil stick:
n Talks to him to see if he is coherent.

n Makes certain he comprehends and re-
l One 45" by 2" circular, oak, wood dowel.
plies to verbal questions. l Four 9" wide by 27" long foam pad pieces to
n Makes certain his speech is not slurred. make two inner handguards of double thick-
n Checks his physical signs. ness.
n Ensures his eyes are focused and not
l Four 11" wide by 19" long foam pad pieces
dazed or glazed. to make two outer handguards of double
thickness.
n Ensures his legs are not wobbly or shaky.
l Canvas material to cover inner and outer
handguards.
The pugil stick is not used as a baseball bat. The l One foam pad cut 1/4" thick by 7" wide by
use of unauthorized techniques will result in ex- 13" long to make the centerguard.
pulsion from the bout. Only techniques taught in l One 8" wide by 14"long piece of canvas
bayonet training are authorized. These techniques material to make a pugil stick sock.
include— l Canvas material to make two pugil stick end
caps. Ideally, two different color fabrics
l Straight thrust. should be used to simulate the bayonet and
l Buttstroke (horizontal and vertical). buttstock ends of a rifle. Common colors for
end caps are black and red. Each end cap is
l Smash.
a different color to help the officiating certi-
l Slash. fied close combat instructor determine the
l Parry. scoring blow during the pugil stick bout.
l Blocks (low, high, left, right). l Two 1/4" thick by 11" wide by 54" long
foam pad pieces to make two ends.
After the Bout l Two foam pads cut 1/4" thick by 3" wide by
14 1/2" long to make two end plug inserts.
A third whistle blast is used prior to identifying l One can of 3M Photo Mount spray adhe-
the Marine who delivered the killing blow. sive (NSN 8040-01-120-4009)to adhere
foam padding to the stick. (Spray adhesive
A fourth whistle blast is used prior to demonstrat- is available from self-service.)
ing the killing technique used by the Marine who l One roll of duct tape or riggers tape (NSN
won the bout. 7510-00-266-5016) to protect foam pad and

INNER FOAM PAD . ruler. Note: It is recommended that the Fabric Repair Preparing Materials Shop be used to sew canvas sleeves and apply grommets. are required for each pugil stick. l One roll of thread strong enough to sew can- vas material together. Use the spray ad. Once fin- To make a pugil stick. Step 1. sides. or yardstick. Cut canvas material to make two cover- action of spray adhesive. Use spray adhesive to adhere the two 9" by 27" pieces of foam together.) make two coverings for the outer handguards. SPRAY ADHESIVE Step 5. Use a sewing machine to make a sleeve l Grommet machine. out of the 9" by 27" canvas. lowing steps. Insert foam pad inside the canvas sleeve l Sewing machine. (Duct tape or rig. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat A-5 canvas from wear and to reinforce gluing Step 3. and then sew down the fourth side. l One roll para-cord or 5-50 cord to tie both Two inner handguards and two outer handguards the inner and outer handguards together. Let adhesive dry before using the double-thick foam for handguards. Cut foam sleeping mat into the dimensions listed above. Step 4. l Scissors. Cut material to gers tape is available from self-service. INNER FOAM PAD hesive to adhere the two 11" by 19" pieces of foam together. ished. the inner handguards are complete. l Sixteen grommets. Cut mats to double thickness. l One foam sleeping mat (NSN 8465-01-109- 3369). ings for the inner handguards. Tools The following tools are needed to make a pugil stick: INNER HANDGUARD l Tape measure. one for each of the four corners of the inner and outer handguards. Use the grom- met machine to create holes reinforced with metal Directions grommets in each of the four corners. Repeat step 4 to make the other inner handguard and both outer handguards. Step 2. Use unserviceable foam sleeping OUTER HANDGUARD mats obtained from Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office. Marines perform the fol. Sew down three l Knife.

Shop be used to make the end cap. Step 7. Spray one side of the 7" by 13" foam pad with spray adhesive and wrap it tightly around the center of the dowel. this becomes the end cap. Roll pad in- to a tight cylinder. Apply spray adhesive on one side of the material in the shape of a cylinder with one open 11" by 54" foam pad. FOAM PLUG INNER FOAM PAD SPRAY END ADHESIVE CAP INNER FOAM PAD . END CAP OAK DOWEL Building the Centerguard Step 1. Apply spray adhe. Ensure 3 inches of the rolled rolled and taped foam pad at each end of the pugil foam pad extends past the wooden dowel for sta. bility. TAPE Step 4. Apply spray adhesive on approximately 8 ed in the end. and End Caps Step 5. stick. Note: It is recommended that the Fabric Repair Step 3. This is an important safety precau- tion to prevent injury. stick to itself when it is rolled around the end of The end cap is a colored sleeve that covers the the wooden dowel. End Plugs. inches of one end of the dowel. Once complete. the length of the cylinder should be 12 inch- es long to allow for taping). The end plug prevents the wooden dow- el from protruding beyond the edge of the rolled foam padding. Apply spray adhesive on the exposed end of the dowel and fill the hole in the end with the end plug. Slide one of the end caps over the rolled INNER FOAM PAD foam pad and tape it to the dowel. This adhesive serves to glue the foam pad to the wooden dowel. sive on one side of 3" by 14 1/2" foam pad. Measure the dimensions of the ends (typi- cally.A-6 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-02B Constructing Ends. Cut and sew canvas Step 2. Use duct tape or riggers tape to secure and reinforce the foam pad once the end plug is insert- Step 1. INNER FOAM PAD SPRAY ADHESIVE OAK DOWEL TAPE TAPE Step 6. This causes the foam pad to end.

(reverse blank) . Wrap duct tape or riggers tape around the Step 2. Fold the inner handguard around the pugil foam pad to secure. Use a sewing machine to make a tubular pugil stick sock out of the 8" by 14" piece of can- vas. Place the inner handguards (longer piece) around the dowel. Tie off the cord with a square knot above effects of the spray adhesive. The inner handguard is placed l Stick protrudes through the end caps. The outer hand- guards provide additional protection to the knuck- les and fingers and provides additional stability CANVAS for the inner handguards. all pugil sticks are inspected to ensure they are fit for use. One inner l Frayed or worn edges exist on canvas sur- handguard is needed for the left hand and one for faces. on first because it protects the wrist. Repeat steps 1-4 for the other handguard. stick and run the para-cord or 5-50 cord through the metal grommets. the right hand. End Plugs. Tighten down the corner ends of the inner handguards by pulling on the para-cord or 5-50 cord. l The stick can be felt through the pads or the padding is too soft. the pugil stick is unsafe and will not be used: Step 1. Place the outer handguards (shorter piece) over the inner handguards (longer piece). Duct tape or riggers tape protects the edges of the centerguard and reinforces the gluing Step 4. TAPE Step 5. Ensure that the oppo. then repeat steps 1 through 7 in Con- structing Ends. Finishing the Opposite End Cap After one end cap is complete and the centerguard is finished. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Close Combat A-7 Step 2. Prior to any training. If any of the follow- Fastening Handguards ing conditions exist. Slide the pugil stick sock over the rolled foam pad and secure it with the duct tape or rig- gers tape. Note: It is recommended that the Fabric Repair Shop be used to make the pugil stick sock. l End caps or handguards are not securely at- tached. FOAM Step 3. TAPE Step 3. Serviceability Inspection site color end cap is used. and End Caps for the other end of the pugil stick. the metal grommets.

ting position. they execute strikes eral times on any part of the opponent’s body that on equipment (when available) such as an air will get his attention or by saying stop. APPENDIX B SAFETY PRECAUTIONS DURING TRAINING 1. or weeks following a prior concussion (and before recovery Chokes and Ground Fighting from the first concussion). ringing in the ears. swelling in head or neck area. Safety Precautions for be used. If a technique is applied to the point that a Marine is uncomfortable. General Safety Precautions speech. This ensures they are comfortable and understand nipulation) should not be executed at full force or the technique before progressing to executing full speed. or any un- natural discoloration of head or neck. to a kneeling or squat- training that requires contact (chokes. they death. All techniques should be executed slowly at first. At no time pupils. the Marine must “tap out. Second Impact Syndrome occurs when a second concussion develops within hours. Second Impact Syn. At no time should they be permitted to execute strikes on another student. slurred during training should a choke be applied at full . they become more proficient. ground fighting. will not apply pressure to the opponent’s throat er symptoms following training must be exam. Marine-on-Marine progress from the ground. If training mats are available. Most training should be conducted on a training area with soft footing such as a sandy or grassy area. days. This instructional technique vastly reduces the risk of injury. and then to a standing position. During training. they should they become more proficient. Marines who experience headaches or oth. they applied or to immediately stop the technique. shield or a heavy bag. Marines should symptoms can include. They should not be allowed to participate in pugil stick train- When training close combat techniques. during training because the trachea and windpipe ined by appropriate medical personnel. falls from a higher profile. A hard surface area is not appropriate for Individual Techniques close combat training.” This Strikes and Punches indicates immediate release of the pressure being When training Marines to strike and punch. but are not limited to. and unarmed restraints and ma. bleeding from the ears or mouth." As Marine “taps out” by firmly tapping his hand sev. certain ing or any other activity where a heavy blow safety precautions must be adhered to to prevent might be sustained for a minimum of 7 days after injuries. The begin by executing the techniques "in the air. Chokes drome causes rapid brain swelling and can cause When training Marines to execute chokes. dialation of the They should never execute air chokes. These can be crushed. blurred vision. practice the proper procedures for blood chokes. throws. the symptoms have subsided. they should 2. Falls Marines can increase the speed of execution as When training Marines to fall.

Never apply these tech- niques at full force or at full speed. they utilize slow and steady pressure. straints and manipulation techniques. to prevent injury or death. A blow to the head during training will bruise the brain.B-2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-02B force or full speed. No choke should be held for Pugil Stick Training longer than 5 seconds. A second blow to the head can cause death. . Unarmed Restraints and This is known as the Second Impact Syndrome. Manipulation There must be 7 days between pugil stick training When training Marines to execute unarmed re.