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· Our lives are Iilled with examples oI obiects moving
in circular paths, Irom carnival rides to our planet
orbiting the sun.
· Circular motion is always around a straight line
called an axis.
· Rotation is the spinning motion that takes place
when an obiect moves around an axis located within
· Revolution is the circular motion that takes place
when an obiect moves around an axis located
outside the obiect.
· The Earth rotates around its internal axis and
revolves around an external axis through the sun.
· Does a tossed Iootball rotate or revolve?
· Does a ball whirled overhead at the end oI a string
rotate or revolve?
. Rotational Speed
· For a rotating obiect we must consider two
diIIerent measures oI speed.
rotational or angular speed (.
linear or tangential speed (v.
· Rotational speed is the number oI rotations per
unit time Ior a body around its axis.
rotations / minute
degrees / second
radians / second
· All parts oI a rigid body will rotate about their
axis in the same amount oI time.
· All parts oI the body have the same rotational
. Tangential Speed
· Tangential speed is the distance moved per unit
time by an obiect along circular path.
· The tangential speed oI an obiect moving in a
circular path increases with the radial distance Irom
the axis due to the increase in the circumIerence.
· Tangential speed M radial distance x rotational
· v ÷ r x
r in meters
in rad / s
Rotational and Tangential Speed
·Review Questions 1. Distinguish between a rotation and a
· Rotation axis within obiect; Revolution axis outside
·.Does a child on a merry-go-round revolve or rotate .
·. Distinguish between linear and rotational speed.
· Linear distance/time; rotational angle/time
· . What is linear speed called when something moves in a
· Tangential speed.
·5. At a given distance Irom the axis, how does linear speed
change as rotational speed changes?
· Directly v ÷ r
·6. At a given rotational speed, how does linear speed
change as the distance Irom the axis changes.
·Directly v ÷ r
·7. When you roll a cylinder across a surIace it Iollows a
straight-line path. A tapered cup rolled on the same surIace
Iollows a circular path. Why?
· Outer diameter has greater linear speed.
·Think and Explain 1.II you lose your grip on a rapidly
spinning merry-go-round and Iall oII, in which direction will
·Tangent to edge.
·.A ladybug sits halIway between the axis and the edge oI a
rotating turntable. What will happen to the ladybug`s linear
speed iI: the RMP is doubled; the ladybug sits at the edge;
·Doubles; doubles; quadruples.
·.Which state in the US has the greatest linear speed?
· Hawaii, closest to equator (r around axis is greatest
·. The speedometer in a car is driven by a cable connected to
the shaIt that turns the car`s wheels. Will speedometer
readings be more or less than actual speed when the car`s
wheels are replaced with smaller ones.
·5..A taxi driver wishes to increase his Iares by adiusting air
pressure in his tires. Should he inIlate the tires at low or high
·Think and Solve 1.Mars is about twice the distance Irom the
sun as is Venus. A Martian year is about three times as long as
a Venusian year. Which oI the two planets has the greater
rotational speed? Which planet has the greater linear speed?
; Venus v
/ ÷ /v
·. Turntable revolves at 10 revolutions / sec. with a laser
beam that sweeps across clouds that are 10km away. How
Iast does the spot sweep across the clouds/
÷ 6r/t ÷ 6(10km/0.1s÷6km/s
·How Iast would the spot travel iI clouds are 0 km away?
· v - r thereIore v
·What would r have to be Ior v
·Practice Page c
2 7 777
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1. Circular Motion
· Simulation 1- The Sling
· A change in the direction oI velocity is
· Circular motion is the movement oI an obiect at a
constant speed around a curved or a circular path
with a Iixed radius.
. Circular Motion Diagram
. Circular Motion
· Magnitude oI velocity (speed does not change.
· Direction oI velocity is continually changing.
· Caused by a centripetal (directed toward center
· Velocity and acceleration are perpendicular.
· II the obiect is released at any point in time it will
move with a velocity tangential to the circle.
. Centripetal Force
· In order to have acceleration (F ÷ ma an
unbalanced Iorce must be present.
· A centripetal Iorce causes an obiect to Iollow a
curved or circular path.
· A centripetal Iorce acts toward the center oI a
curved or circular path.
Iriction between wheels oI car and curved road
gravity between planet and sun
5. Centripetal Force Diagram
·Review Questions . When you whirl a can at the end oI a
string in a circular path, what is the direction oI the Iorce that
acts on the can?
·Toward the center oI the circle (your hand
·9.Does the Iorce that holds the riders on the carnival ride in
Fig. 9-1 act toward or away Irom the center?
·Toward the center.
·10. Does an inward Iorce or an outward Iorce act on the
clothes during the spin cycle oI an automatic washer?
·Think and Explain 7.A motorcycle is able to ride on the
vertical wall oI a bowl-shaped. Does the centripetal Iorce or
'centriIugal¨ Iorce act on the motorcycle?
·Centripetal Iorce acts inward.
·. When a soaring eagle turns during its Ilight, what is the
source oI the centripetal Iorce acting on it?
·Air against wings
·9. Do you think that the road could be banked so that Ior a
given speed and a given radius oI curvature a vehicle could
make a turn without Iriction?
· Yes, iI the horizontal component oI the normal Iorce is
equal to the necessary centripetal Iorce.
·10. Does centripetal Iorce do work on a rotating obiect?
· No, the direction oI the Iorce is always perpendicular to the
direction oI motion.
Physics H Announcements
· Centripetal Force
· Simulated Gravity
· Center oI Gravity
1. Centripetal Acceleration and
Centripetal Force Formulae
· Frog on Turntable Simulation
. 'CentriIugal¨ Force is a Misconception
· What would happen iI the Iriction Iorce between
the Irog`s Ieet and the turntable is insuIIicient to
hold the Irog on the table?
· What Iorce is acting on the Irog aIter it leaves the
· The Irog moves in a tangential straight-line path
due to inertia.
· 'CentriIugal¨ Iorce is a Iictitious Iorce which is a
. Simulated Gravity
· Within a stationary Irame oI reIerence centripetal Iorce
produces circular motion.
· Within a Irame oI reIerence that is rotating (non-inertial
Law does not apply an observer Ieels an
action-reaction pair oI Iorces which s/he interprets as
· This is Iictitious Iorce since it is not caused by a planetary
· To simulate 1 g at 1 RPM would require a large structure
oI km in diameter.
· The simulated value oI g would vary with the radius Irom
·Review Questions 1. A Ladybug in the bottom oI a
whirling can Ieels a 'centriIugal¨ Iorce pushing it against the
bottom oI the can. Is there an outside source oI this Iorce?
Can you identiIy this as the action Iorce oI an action-reaction
pair? II so, what is the reaction Iorce?
·No; no; there is no reaction Iorce.
·15. Why is the 'centriIugal¨ Iorce the ladybug Ieels in the
rotating Irame called a Iictitious Iorce?
· No outside source oI this Iorce.
·16. For a rotating space habitat oI a given size, what is the
relationship between the magnitude oI simulated gravity and
the habitat`s rate oI spin?
·Simulated gravity -
·17. For space habitats spinning at the same rate, what is the
relationship between simulated gravity and the radius oI the
· Simulated gravity - r
·1.Why will orbiting space stations that simulate gravity
likely be large structures?
·To simulate gravity at low rotational speeds that are not as
·Think and Explain 1. Occupants in a single space shuttle in
orbit Ieel weightless. Describe a scheme whereby occupants
in a pair oI shuttles would be able to use a long cable to
continuously a comIortably normal earthlike gravity.
· Join them together with cable and rotate.
·Think and Solve . Consider a too-small space station that
consists oI a m radius rotating sphere. A man standing
inside is m tall and his Ieet are at 1 g. What is the
acceleration oI his head? Explain why rotating structures
need to be small.
· 0.5g. Large to the diIIerence in simulated gravity across the
body is small.
·. Standing inside a rotating space station, your Ieet have a
greater linear speed and a greater centripetal acceleration
than your head. We say there is a diIIerence in g`s Irom your
head to your Ieet, and this diIIerence can be quite
uncomIortable. Studies show, however, that a diIIerence oI
1/100g produces no discomIort. What should be the radius oI
the space station compared to your height.
·Ag ÷ h/r, r ÷ 100 x height