Philippine literature in Englis Philippine literature in English has its roots in the efforts of the United States, then

engaged in a war with Filipino nationalist forces at the end of the 19th century. By 1901, public education was institutionalized in the Philippines, with English serving as the medium of instruction. That year, around 600 educators in the S.S. Thomas (the "Thomasites") to replace the soldiers who had been serving as the first teachers. Outside the academe, the wide availability of reading materials, such as books and newspapers in English, helped Filipinos assimilate the language quickly. Today, 52% of the population can understand or speak English (see List of countries by English-speaking population).

The Commonwealth Period

The founding of Silliman University by Presbyterian missionaries and the Philippine Normal School (PNS) in 1901 and the University of the Philippines (U.P.) in 1908, as well as of English newspapers like the Daily Bulletin 1900, The Cablenews 1902, and the Philippines Free Press1905, helped boost the spread of English. The first ten years of the century witnessed the first verse and prose efforts of Filipinos in student publications such as The Filipino Students Magazine first issue, 1905, a short-lived quarterly published in Berkeley, California, by Filipino pensionados (or government scholars); the U.P. College Folio (first issue, 1910); The Coconut of the Manila High School (first issue, 1912); and The Torch of the PNS (first issue, 1913). However, the beginnings of anything resembling a professional market for writing in English would not be realized until the 1920s with the founding of other newspapers and magazines like the Philippines Herald in 1920, the Philippine Education Magazine in 1924 (renamed Philippine Magazine in 1928), and later the Manila Tribune, the Graphic, Woman s Outlook, and Woman s Home Journal. The publications helped introduce the reading public to the works of Paz Marquez Benitez, (Jose Garcia Villa), Loreto Paras, and Casiano Calalang, among others. Cash incentives were given to writers in 1921 when the Free Press started to pay for published contributions and awarded P1,000 for the best stories. The organization in 1925 of the Philippine Writers Association and in 1927 of the University of the Philippines National Writers Workshop, which put out the Literary Apprentice,also helped encourage literary production. In 1939, the Philippine Writers League was put up by politically conscious writers, intensifying their debate with those in the "art for art s sake" school of Villa. Among the significant publications of this fertile period were: 


Filipino Poetry (1924) by Rodolfo Dato; English-German Anthology of Filipino Poets (1934) by Pablo Laslo; Jose Garcia Villa s Many Voices (1939) and Poems of Doveglion (1941); Poems (1940) by Angela Manalang-Gloria; Chorus for America: Six Philippine Poets (1942) by Carlos Bulosan; Zoilo Galang s A Child of Sorrow (1921), the first Filipino novel in English, and Box of Ashes and Other Stories (1925), the first collection of stories in book form; 


Villa s Footnote to Youth: Tales of the Philippines and Others (1933); "The Wound and the Scar" (1937) by Arturo Rotor, a collection of stories; "Winds of April" (1940) by N. V. M. Gonzalez; "His Native Soil" (1941) by Juan C. Laya;

Hamada Alejandrino Hufana Dominador Ilio Nick Joaquin F. when Tagalog was favored by the Japanese military authority. was published in the United States. the Barangay Writers Project was founded to help publish books in English. D. however. and the influential "Literature and Society" (1940) by Salvador P. Against a background marked by political unrest and government battles with Hukbalahap guerrillas. Gonzalez Sinai C. Stevan Javellana s "Without Seeing the Dawn" (1947). Dramatic writing took a backseat due to the popularity of Filipino vaudeville (bodabil) and Tagalog movies. Alejandro R. In 1946. writing in English was consigned to limbo. Brillantes Carlos Bulosan Linda Ty Casper Gilda Cordero-Fernando Amador Daguio Luis Dato Ricaredo Demetillo N. López.   Manuel Arguilla s "How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife and Other Stories" (1941). with a fervor and drive for excellence that continue to this day. among many others:                     T. Roces . Galang s "Life and Success" (1921). Among the writers who came into their own during this time were. M. Agcaoili Estrella Alfon Carlos Angeles Francisco Arcellana Gregorio C. [edit]The post-war period During the Japanese occupation. V. although it was kept alive by the playwright Wilfredo Ma. It picked up after the war. writers in English in the postwar period honed their sense of craft and techniques. the first volume of essays in English. Sionil José Virginia Moreno Vicente Rivera Jr. the first postwar novel in English. since most of the English writers are forced to write in Tagalog or joined in the underground and write English stories based on the battles to serve as propaganda pieces in boosting the morale of the guerrillas. Guerrero.

Nick Joaquin (1976).      Bienvenido Santos Abelardo and Tarrosa Subido Edilberto K. V. Tiempo Kerima Polotan Tuvera Manuel A. Tiempo. the first Commonwealth Literary Awards were given by President Manuel L. In this way were born the Silliman National Writers Workshop. usually as Fulbright or Rockefeller scholars. M. Only the last of these three awards survives today. [edit]Literary awards and competitions In 1940. Romulo (1982). Sionil José. Gonzalez. Francisco Arcellana (1990). Carlos P. Laya for "His Native Soil" (novel). Government recognition of literary merit came in the form of the Republic Cultural Heritage Awards (1960). the Pro Patria Awards for Literature (1961). A select group of local writers have also received the international Magsaysay Award. Quezon to Salvador P. Lopez for "Literature and Society"(essay). and Juan C. a number of these writers introduced New Criticism to the country and applied its tenets in literature classes and writing workshops. (2000). Nick Joaquin and Bienvenido Lumbera. and Bienvenido Lumbera (2006). Manuel Arguilla for "How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife and Other Stories" (short story). . Zulueta da Costa for "Like the Molave"(poetry). namely. Writers in English who have received the National Artist award include: Jose Garcia Villa (1973). Edith L. Sionil José (2003). and the National Artist Awards (1973). N. Viray Oscar de Zuñiga Fresh from studies in American universities. R. Rolando Tinio (1997). F. F.

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