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(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2010

MOBINA: A Novel DBA Method Based on Second Price Auction in Ethernet Passive Optical Network
AR. Hedayati1, M.N Feshaaraki1 ,K. Badie2 , A. Khademzadeh2 and M. Davari3

Department of Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University(IAU) Hesarak ,poonak SQ, Tehran, Iran. ar.hedayati@srbiau.ac.ir

Iran Telecom Research Center North kargar str, Tehran, Iran


Department of Computer Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University Hamila Blv, poonak SQ, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: Ethernet Passive Optical Network(EPON) is one of the best solutions for implementing the next generation access networks. One of the key issue in these network is bandwidth allocation to provide the quality of service for the End users.In this paper, we present a Novel Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) method based on Second Price Auction in Ethernet Passive Optical Network. Results have shown improvements of the packet loss rate, throughput rate, and utilization line of our method when compared with other methods. Keywords: Ethernet Passive Optical Network, Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation, Second price auction, Quality of Services.

1. Introduction
Ethernet Passive Optical Network is one of the most important solutions for implementing the next generation of access networks. High capacity and low cost of implementing are among the characteristics of this technology, which can provide the required quality service in spite of expansion the quantity of user and their requests to use different multimedia services [1]. An EPON system is a point-to-multipoint fiber optical network with no active elements in the transmission path from its source, i.e., an optical line terminal (OLT), to a destination, i.e., an optical network unit (ONU). It can use different multipoint topologies, such as bus, ring, tree, and different network architectures [2]. The most typical EPON architecture is based on a tree topology and consists of an OLT, a 1:N passive star coupler (or splitter/combiner), and multiple ONUs, as shown in Figure (1). The OLT resides in a central office (CO) that connects the access network to a metropolitan area network (MAN) or a wide area network (WAN), and is connected to the passive star coupler through a single optical fiber [2]- [5].

One of the main concerns in this network is bandwidth allocation to provide end users quality of service for using multimedia service. To solve this problem, there have suggested different static and dynamic bandwidth allocation methods [2], [4]. In this paper, along with studying bandwidth allocation methods in EPON, we present a novel method named MOBINA, based on Second Price Auction. The MOBINA can allocate the users required bandwidth righteously and with high profitability. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, we introduce related work of Bandwidth allocation methods in EPON. In section 3, we explain MOBINA method in details. In section 4, we present simulation results. In section 5, we conclude this paper.

2. Related work
Bandwidth allocation methods are discussed as one of the most important QOS’s parameters in EPON [6]. In bandwidth allocating for each network unit, optical line terminal needs to provide some method based on the received bandwidth demands of optical network units and some allocation policies or service level agreements are in this content [7]. At present many methods are recommended, in general they classified in two general types: Static Bandwidth Allocation and Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation. 2.1 Static Bandwidth Allocation methods Each ONU is assigned with a constant bandwidth regardless to its actual bandwidth demand. As a result, the allocated bandwidth might either not be fully utilized, in the case of ONUs with light traffic requirement or not be adequate to accommodate heavy traffic load ONUs, resulting in both scenarios to inefficient bandwidth utilization rate. In contrast a dynamic MAC protocol could more successfully allocate bandwidth according to ONUs’ instantaneous buffer queue status increasing the bandwidth utilization rate [8]. Research initiatives in MAC protocol development over the years have attempted to enhance further bandwidth allocation of standardized PON topologies, tracing back to PONs and more intensively to more recent and lately deployed EPONs . In common to all these topologies, the feeder pathway is shared in the time domain, and as a result each ONU can utilize the whole upstream optical carrier

Figure 1. EPON’s Architecture

(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, 99 Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2010

capacity for defined, according to network penetration, and in most cases flexible duration time-slots, assigned by the OLT [7]. 2.2 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation methods To increase bandwidth utilization, the OLT must dynamically allocate a variable timeslot to each ONU based on the instantaneous bandwidth demand of the ONUs. Given that QoS is the main concern in EPONs, these methods classified into DBA with QoS support, DBA without QoS support, and describe their characteristics and performances [11]. 2.2.1 DBA without differentiated QoS support There are several DBA methods proposed for EPON which do not support differentiated services, such as IPACT [9], it employs a resource negotiation process to facilitate queue report and bandwidth allocation. The OLT polls ONUs and grants timeslots to each ONU in a round robin fashion. The timeslot granted to an ONU is determined by the queue status reported from that ONU. Therefore, the OLT is able to know the dynamic traffic load of each ONU and allocate the upstream bandwidth in accordance with the bandwidth demand of each ONU. So demanded bandwidth can be granted efficiently also there exists three different ways for the OLT to determine the granted efficiently also there exists three different ways for the OLT to determine the granted window size to allocate bandwidth so they introduced Fixed service, Gated service, Limited service as IPACT service discipline to demonstrate bandwidth allocation in this method . Development and improvement of this method is considered in IPACT GE [10], Estimationbased DBA [11] and IPACT with SARF [2]. Bandwidth guaranteed polling (BGP) is another DBA method proposed for providing bandwidth guarantees in EPONs [12]. In BGP, all ONUs are divided into two groups: bandwidth guaranteed and bandwidth non-guaranteed. The OLT performs bandwidth allocation through using couple of polling tables. The number of bandwidth units allocated to an ONU is determined by the bandwidth demand of that ONU, which is given by its SLA with a service provider. A bandwidth guaranteed ONU with more than one entry in the poling table has its entries spread through the table. This can reduce the average queuing delay because the ONU is polled more frequently. However, this leads to more grants in a cycle and thus requires more guard times between grants, which reduces channel utilization. Methods have been introduced for all best effort traffic is suitable. 2.2.2 DBA with differentiated QoS support An EPON system is expected to deliver not only the best effort data traffic, but also real-time data traffic (e.g., voice and video) that have strict bandwidth, packet delay, and delay jitter requirements. In this subsection present several DBA methods that can provide differentiated QoS support for different types of data traffic in EPON. One of the most important methods in field is fair sharing with dual SLAs (FSD-SLA) proposed a fair sharing with dual SLAs (FSDSLA) method, which employs dual SLAs in IPACT to manage the fairness for both subscribers and service

providers [13]. The primary SLA specifies those services whose minimum requirements must be guaranteed with a high priority. The secondary SLA describes the service requirements with a lower priority. This method first allocates timeslots to those services with the primary SLA to guarantee their upstream transmissions. After the services with the primary SLA are guaranteed, the next round is to accommodate the secondary SLA services. If the bandwidth is not sufficient to accommodate the secondary SLA services, the max-min policy is adopted to allocate the bandwidth with fairness. If there is excessive bandwidth, FSD-SLA will allocate the bandwidth to the primary SLA entities first and then to the secondary SLA entities, both by using max-min fair allocation. Another optimizing method for dynamic bandwidth allocation with differentiated QoS support is LSTP .during the waiting period and thus more accurately grants bandwidth to each ONU. For each class of traffic, LSTP estimates the data that arrive during the waiting period based on the data of this class that actually arrived in previous transmission cycles by using a linear predictor [14]. The bandwidth demand of an ONU is thus the reported queue length plus the estimation. The OLT arbitrates the upstream bandwidth using this estimation and reserves a portion of the upstream bandwidth for transmitting the estimated data in the earliest transmission cycle, thus reducing packet delay and loss. Other methods proposed for dynamic bandwidth allocation with differentiated QoS support are: COPS, HGP, DBAM and so forth [2].

3. The MOBINA DBA Method
The MOBINA is dynamic bandwidth allocation based on Second Price Auction. In this method, all bandwidth requests are sent to OLT by ONUs. OLT can make a dynamic and fair decision about bandwidth allocation by auction process. The steps of auction process and bandwidth allocation in the suggested method are as follows: Step 1: Kick-off the auction by OLT Step 2: Submit the bid by ONUs Step 3: Assess received bids by OLT Step 4: Schedule and allocate bandwidth to winners Step5: Update and go to next round of auction Figure (2) represents the block diagram of the MOBINA method.


(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2010

send the result to ONUs. In step 4, ONU will allocate the requested bandwidth for each user according to the timing of auction winners, considering the maximum accessible bandwidth. Equation (4) shows bandwidth allocation by OLT. BRQ onu (t ) i   BW onu (t ) =  i   0 
(ONU win )


(ONU i loss )

In step 5, OLT updates the LSTionu value of all the ONUs that have received bandwidth service in time t and will send the respective ONU. Equation (5) shows the value of LSTionu . LSTionu Figure 2.Dialgue diagram of the MOBINA method As shown in Figure (2), in Step 1 a signal is sent from OLT to ONUs in order to ONUs send their requested bandwidth allocation to OLT for participation in an auction. In step 2 based on the MOBINA method, ONUs calculate their Bid amount based on two parameters of the requested bandwidth and the last time of bandwidth allocation by OLT to ONU, and send it to OLT. Equation (1) shows the sent Bid amount by ONUi to OLT. Bid i (t ) = β BRQ ionu (t ), LSTionu (t − 1) 0 (ONU i  (t ) =  1 (ONU i  win )

loss )

Finally, after sending LSTionu values, OLT holds for a time in order to allocated bandwidth be released and the conditions for holding auction by OLT is provided.

4. Computer Simulations
To measure the performance of each bandwidth allocation methods we designed an event-driven C++ based EPON simulator. NS-2 and C# software is used as a unique system to compare simulation results. In this article we use EPON structure, as shown in Figure (1), to measure QoS parameters. The parameters considered for simulation are as illustrated in Table (1): Table 1: Simulation Parameters
Parameters Number of ONUs Bit Rate Two way delay fiber Processing Time Packet Size Ethernet Overhead Request Message Size Upstream Bandwidth Maximum Transition Window Guard Time Max cycling time Buffer capacity Guarantied Bandwidth Interval traffic randomly Traffic Type Symbol N Λ Tfiber Tproc B Beth Breq Ru Pmax Tg TMax BQmax BAga Interval CBR Value 16 5 to 57.5 MBit/s 200 µs 35 µs 15000Byte(30 Packets) 38 Byte 570 Bit 1 GBit/s 10 Packets 5 µs 2 ms 10 Mbyte 60 MBit/s 50 µs-100 µs




In Equation (1), BRQionu is the total bandwidth amount that has been requested by the users from ONUi and LSTionu Is the Boolean parameter that shown the last time of ONUi received bandwidth service. Equation (2) shows ONUi requested bandwidth. BRQ ionu (t ) =

∑ BW
J =1


R eq J

(t )


In Equation (2), BWJR e q is the bandwidth required by users connected to ONUi. Equation (3) shows the required bandwidth of each user.
P BWJReq (t ) = mJP × LJ × PJ


P In Equation (3), mJ is the number of requested packets to

send for user j. LP is the length of requested packets to J send, and PJ is the priority of the jth user. In MOBINA suggested method, the priority of all users linked to an ONU is the same and is equal to (1/j). In step 3, after receiving all the Bids based on second price auction, OLT will select ONUs that win in auction and will

All the provided results in this section which will be introduced, are measured the QoS based on proposed approach in comparison with other methods, will be analyzed by some different charts with their quantities such

(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, 101 Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2010

as delay, jitter, Throughput, Packet loss and Utilization rate . Figure (3) shows traffic packet delay. The proposed approach has less delay in comparison with the methods of bandwidth allocation without QoS, although in the previous methods of bandwidth allocation with different QoS, at the first place in this approach delay is more because of providing situation awareness for ONUs, nevertheless in the other times delay is much better.

Figure 5.The Charts for Throughput Rate

Figure 6 . The Charts for Packet Loss Rate Figure 3.The charts for average of packets Delay Also, Figure (4), shows the vector of The Average of Traffic Packet Jitter. This chart we see that BGP and FSD-SLA jitter range is higher than other methods. Albeit with increasing traffic load and good behavior of IPACT methods, they have good Jitter rather than the other methods . At the point of view in jitter charts, which is implied much better jitter ratio of proposed approach compared to the other methods. Finally, Figure (7) depicts the rate of utilization in EPON systems. This Fig demonstrates that increasing of traffic load has anonymous utilization compared to the best methods. MOBINA approach has the most rate of network Utilization. Albeit this subject, the behavior of this Approach was predictable. By increasing the traffic load to network, Utilization rate in other methods didn’t have any difference.

Figure 7.The Charts for Line Utilization rate

5. Conclusion
Figure 4.The Charts for Average of Packet Jitter In addition, The chart related to throughput and loss rate of this traffic Loads is shown in Figure (5) and (6). As a result of analyzing these charts that implied better and more sufficient throughput compared to the other methods that we mentioned completely. Also we can realize that packet lost is reduced by increasing traffic load. Bandwidth allocation is a critical issue in the design of an EPON system. Since multiple ONUs share a common upstream channel, an EPON system must efficiently utilize the limited upstream bandwidth in order to meet the bandwidth demands and quality of service requirements of end users. In this article, MOBINA method optimizes the bandwidth limitation problem. The results of the simulations showed that in comparison to other methods, the proposed method offers better performance in terms of average packet loss ratio and throughput ratio. And as a result, we improve the overall network performance.


(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 5, May 2010

[1] G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, "Ethernet passive optical network (EPON):building a next-generation optical access network," IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 66-73, 2002. [2] J. Zhenga, T. Hussein, ”A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation methods for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks ”, Elsevier Journal Optical Switching and Networking, pp. 151-162, 2009. [3] A. Xiaofeng ,s. Abdallah , “On the fairness of dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes in Ethernet passive optical networks”, Elsevier journal of computer communications, pp. 2123-2135, 2008. [4] H. Naser, H. Mouftah, “A joint-ONU interval-based dynamic scheduling algorithm for Ethernet passive optical networks”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking ,pp. 889-899 , 2006. [5] Z. J., "Efficient Bandwidth Allocation Method for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks," in Proceedings of IEE Communications, pp.464-468, 2006. [6] X. Bai, A. Shami, C. Assi, Statistical Bandwidth Multiplexing in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2005. [7] J. Zheng, H. T. Mouftah, "An Adaptive MAC Polling Protocol for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks", in Proceedings of IEEE ICC, pp. 1874-1878, 2005. [8] B. Moon, “Emergency handling in Ethernet passive optical networks using priority-based dynamic bandwidth allocation”, in Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM'08, pp. 1319_1327, 2008. . [9] S. Bhatia, R. Bartos, IPACT with smallest available report first: A new DBA method for EPON, in Proceeding. of IEEE ICC'07, pp. 2168_2173, 2007. [10] H. Song, B.-W. Kim, B. Mukherjee, Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications ,) pp. 134-142, 2009. [11] Y. Zhu, M. Ma, “IPACT with grant estimation (IPACT-GE) scheme for Ethernet passive optical networks”, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, pp. 2055-2063, 2008. [12] M. Ma, Y. Zhu, T. Cheng, “A bandwidth guaranteed polling MAC protocol for Ethernet passive optical Networks”, in Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM'03, pp. 22_31, 2003. [13] A. Banerjee, G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, “Fair sharing using dual service-level agreements to achieve open access in a passive optical network”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, pp. 32_44, 2006. [14] Y. Luo, N. Ansari, “Limited sharing with traffic prediction for dynamic bandwidth allocation and QoS provisioning over EPONs”, OSA Journal of Optical Networking, pp.561_572, 2005 .

Authors Profile
Alireza Hedayati:. received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Computer Hardware Engineering from Azad University of Tehran Central Branch and Tehran science and research branch in 2000 and 2003, respectively. He is currently studying Computer Hardware in his Ph.D. degree. His research interests include Optical Networks, Next Generation Network, Network Management and QoS. Mehdi N. Feshaaraki:. received his Ph.D. in computer Engineering from NSW university of Australia. He is currently associate professor in computer Engineering Department of IAU. . His research interests include Computer Networks, information and knowledge architecture. Kambiz Badie:. received his B.Sc., M.,Sc, and Ph.D. in electronic engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, majoring in Pattern Recognition & Arlificia1lntelligance. His major research interests are Machine Learning, Cognitive Modeling, and Systematic Knowledge Processing in general, and Analogical Knowledge Processing, ExperienceBased Modeling and Interpretative Modeling in particular with emphasis on ides and technique generation .He is currently associate professor in Iran Telecom Research Center(ITRC). Ahmad Khadem zadeh : He received the B.Sc. degree in applied physics from Ferdowsi University, Meshed, Iran, in1969 and the M.Sc., Ph.D. degrees respectively in Digital Communication and Information Theory & Error Control Coding from the University of Kent, Canterbury, U. K .He is currently associate professor in Iran Telecom Research Center and also He is the Head of Education & National Scientific and Informational Scientific Cooperation Department at Iran Telecom Research Center (ITRC). Masoud Davari:. received his B.Sc. in Computer Engineering from Azad University of Tehran Central Branch 2010. His research interests include Computer network, Network simulation and Software Engineering

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