th Anniversary Edition

The Bhagavad Gītā
WINTHROP SARGEANT Foreword by Huston Smith
Editor’s Preface by Christopher Key Chapple

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th e bhagava d g¯ t a i ¯

SUNY series in Cultural Perspectives Antonio T. de Nicolás, editor

T H E BH AGAVA D G¯ TA I ¯
Twenty-fifth-Anniversary Edition

Translated by WINTHROP SARGEANT
Edited and with a Preface by CHRISTOPHER KEY CHAPPLE Foreword by HUSTON SMITH

e xcelsior editions state uni versit y of new yor k pr e s s a lban y, new yor k

Published by State University of New York Press, Albany ©2009 State University of New York All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher. Excelsior Editions is an imprint of State University of New York Press For information, contact State University of New York Press, Albany, NY www.sunypress.edu Production by Dana Foote Marketing by Fran Keneston Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bhagavadg¯ a. English & Sanskrit. ıt¯ The Bhagavad G¯ a / translated by Winthrop Sargeant ; edited and with a preface by ıt¯ Christopher Key Chapple ; foreword by Huston Smith.—25th anniversary ed. p. cm. — (Suny series in cultural perspectives) Translated from Sanskrit. Previously published: ©1984. ISBN 978-1-4384-2841-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-1-4384-2842-0 (pbk. : alk. paper) I. Sargeant, Winthrop, 1903–1986. II. Chapple, Christopher Key, 1954– III. Title. BL1138.62.E5 2009b 294.5’92404521—dc22 2009000540 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

To my dear wife, Jane

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CONTENTS
Foreword
by Huston Smith

ix

Editor’s Preface
with a User’s Guide for the Word-by-Word Analysis of the Bhagavad Gı ta ¯¯

xix 1 3 9 35 37

Translator’s Preface The Language of the Bhagavad Gıt¯ ¯ a The Setting of the Bhagavad Gıt¯ ¯ a List of Abbreviations Used in the Vocabularies Epithets Used in the Bhagavad Gıt¯ ¯ a

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FOREWORD
Huston Smith

I have written over thirty-five forewords to books, but none with the urgency with which I write this one. Why is that the case? Because this edition of the G¯ a looks so daunting that genıt¯ eral readers are likely to conclude that it is not the one for them. But that would be a serious mistake, for the truth is that this is a multivalent book—there is something in it that will reward every serious reader. Christopher Chapple’s admirable preface summarizes the Bhagavad Gı a’s plot and ¯t¯ positions it in the vast literature of the Vedas. For Sanskrit scholars no stone is left unturned: abbreviations for grammatical usages—active, ablative, accusative, adjective, and adverb—are entered, and both English and Sanskrit grammar is remarked. It would be tedious to argue further the comprehensiveness of the book’s grammatical workout, but scholars can be assured that the coverage is exhaustive. A list of abbreviations that are used in the volume is included, as well as epithets (nicknames) that appear in the G¯ a. ıt¯ When we turn to the text proper, for every line the Sanskrit is printed, followed by the transliteration of that line, and finally, the line’s English translation. For those who only want to read the G¯ a’s story, therefore, the book is literally a page-turner, for all they ıt¯ need do is to read the verses on the bottom left-hand side of each page. However, should readers want elaboration, they will find it in the right-hand column of the page where, for example, dharma is translated as duty, law, righteousness, virtue, and honor. So it goes. I am unspeakably grateful to Christopher Chapple for attending to the foregoing material for it frees me to attend to the substance of this classic. What does the G¯ a use the foregoing machinery and underpinnings to say? Eager as I am to get ıt¯ to that substance, there is one transitional point that I want to make. There are some books that will never have definitive editions, and I am not confining myself to translations; I am thinking of the vernacular in which the substance of the texts are cast—idioms, metaphors, analogies, innuendos and their likes. The reason for this is that in a way, these classics are living creatures in at least the sense that they seek out apertures through which to move. It is as if they were intelligent, looking for ingenious ways to get their point across to their readers. There are only a very few books that I know of that can do this, with the Tao Te Ching preeminent among them. Poetry works in this way, as do stories and tales, but not expository prose. The G¯ a , ıt¯ however, manages this rare accomplishment, and I will leave it to the reader to figure out how it manages to do so.

The Bhagavad G¯ a is the summation of the Ved¯ nta, and among explicit docıt¯ a trines the Ved¯ nta stands out as one of the most direct formulations possible of what a constitutes the very essence of our spirituality. Truth being one, the G¯ a’s teachings ıt¯ find their parallels in the other revealed scriptures, but nowhere else are its teachings so succinctly stated. As Christopher Chapple has told us, the teachings of the G¯ a are presented in ıt¯ the form of a dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. The background of the battlefield imparts a dramatic charm. Sri Krishna, the teacher, is regarded by the Hindus as the Lord Himself in human form, and readers, absorbed in the book, often forget its historical character and feel as though many of its inspiring passages are directly addressed to themselves by the Lord who is the inner guide of us all. The suggestiveness of the book is almost without limit if it is read with the right attitude of mind. The G¯ a can be read as history, but it lends itself readily to being an allegory. In ıt¯ this mode, Arjuna represents the individual soul, and Sri Krishna the Supreme Soul that dwells in every heart. Arjuna’s chariot is the body. The blind king Dhr tar¯st ra is . a .. the mind under the spell of maya, ignorance, and his hundred sons are man’s numerous evil tendencies. The battle is an eternal one that is always going on between the powers of good and the powers of evil. The warrior who listens to the advice of the Lord speaking from within will triumph in this battle and attain the Highest Good. Hindu philosophers have never been satisfied with the mere intellectual understanding of religious treatises. Scripture is merely a key to the infinite storehouse of knowledge that lies within every human soul. And as for philosophy, its object is to enable the student to see the Truth—to realize it in direct experience. Hence certain moral and spiritual disciplines are necessary in order to create the right mood for study of both philosophy and the scriptures. Hinduism lays down such disciplines: discrimination between the Real and the unreal and renunciation of the unreal; and acquisition of the six virtues (control of the mind, control of the senses, restraining the mind from being distracted by worldly objects, faith in the scriptures and the words of the teacher, mental concentration, and lastly, the longing for liberation). Inwardness of spirit, cultivated through self-control and contemplation, enables the student of the scriptures to grasp their subtle meaning, which otherwise remains hidden from the merely intelligent reader. It is an immemorial custom among Hindus to read the G¯ a as a part of their daily ıt¯ devotions. Without it, prayer and meditation do not seem to be complete. In the remaining pages of this foreword, I unpack the G¯ a , so to speak. I divide ıt¯ its contents into segments that, pieced together, deliver the G¯ a’s message. These ıt¯ segments do not appear in the G¯ a ; they spin off from and expand the verse(s) of the ıt¯ G¯ a that are noted at the end of each segment. ıt¯ The Purpose of Life Happiness derived from the fulfillment of worldly desires does not last. As one grows old, one realizes that everything is transient—wealth, possessions, health, and even life itself.
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When money and the luxuries it can buy fail to bring lasting happiness, one begins to wonder what the cause of this discontent is. This inquiry leads to the discovery that besides the body and mind, there is another component of the human being that is less apparent and more important because it is more enduring and is always watching our activities. In spiritual texts the body-mind complex is called the Apparent Self and the more enduring component is called the Real Self. Eventually one realizes that the cause of the aforementioned discontent derives from attending to one’s Apparent rather than one’s Real Self, and that the purpose of life is to recognize this distinction and to identify oneself with one’s Real Self (cf. Bhagavad G¯ a , chapter 2, verse 66, ıt¯ hereafter BG II:66). Crisis of Self-Identity We have arms and legs; our five sense organs (hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell) are superior to those limbs because they control a wider range of activities. Our minds (which receive and store information) are superior to our sense organs because they generate and retrieve thoughts. Our intellects are superior to our minds because they process information, make decisions. However, superior to all of the foregoing is the soul which is the source of consciousness and life. It is the Real Self that was mentioned in the preceding paragraph (BG IV:242). Who Am I? The human soul contains a spark of the Divine, the key attributes of which are indestructibility, indivisibility, and infinity. There is but One Being, and in every human soul this one and the same being permeates fully, not partially, just as the entire sun is reflected in miniature in every dewdrop. If every human soul has the same Divine spark, then all human beings are endowed with the same potential for goodness. The knowledge, understanding, and abiding awareness of the Divine spark in every human being—the aforementioned Real Self—is the foundation of all of the human virtues (BG XV:7). The Human Soul Human beings move tranquilly through childhood, youth, and maturity, but old age is not welcomed, and approaching death is feared. In truth, however, all of these stages should be welcomed equally, for the human soul reincarnates and repeats the same stages until it reaches its release from the physical body. When the soul reincarnates, it carries with it the impressions and inclinations that it has accumulated in its past lives (BG II:2 and II:13). The Spiritual Quest The physical world is constantly changing; it is a scene of perpetual perishing. Sages, however, through deep introspection, came to the conclusion that whatever
xi

ceases to exist cannot be the ultimate reality. An all-pervading consciousness, which by its nature is eternal and indestructible, can alone be the ultimate reality. We catch glimpses of this all-pervading consciousness when we encounter people who show tremendous courage, extraordinary creativity, and boundless compassion (BG II:16–17). Different Ways for Different Temperaments There are several paths to spiritual realization. People are born with different temperaments and tendencies: some like to be active, others reflective, others affective and engaged with their feelings, and others (the show-me types) favor experiments (let’s see what works). Spiritual paths exist for each of these four types. For the active there is the Way of Work, karma yoga; for the reflective there is the Way of Knowledge, jñ¯na yoga; for the affective type in whom sentiments prevail, there is the Way of Devoa tion, bhakti yoga; and for the experimental, let’s-see-what-works type, there is the Way of Meditation, raja yoga (BG XIII:24–25). Work without Attachment One doesn’t have to renounce the world to advance spiritually—one can remain fully engaged with family, social, and professional responsibilities. All one need do is to shift one’s attention and motivation for what one does. Say one is a business person, attend to the duties of the day with disregard for what they will net one—that’s all that need be done. Both the ignorant and the wise may do the same work, but the ignorant act with a selfish motive, and the wise act without expectation of any material gain (BG II:47 and III:25). Unselfish Work—a Mind Purifier Imagine a boy playing with his dog that has a curly tail. He tries to straighten the tail, but as soon as he lets go of it, it curls up again. The parts of our lives seem to behave like that—we straighten out one component, but then a curly tail takes it place. But take heart. Mahatma Gandhi used nonviolent means to win India’s independence from British rule. At his cottage in Sevagram a prayer meeting was held at which a verse of the Bhagavad G¯ a was read. After the meetings, Gandhi would sit quietly ıt¯ for a few minutes with closed eyes, contemplating the verse. Many who attended those meetings were astonished to see the transformation in Gandhi’s expression. His face often wore a look of pain that reflected the sufferings of his countrymen because of the cruelty of the rulers’ deeds. After meditating on the G¯ a , however, ıt¯ his face glowed with love and compassion for all. The secret of Gandhi’s courage, calmness, and wisdom was his ability to reconnect his consciousness with the Divine—the source of infinite strength, infinite compassion, and infinite wisdom (BG II:48 and XII:13).
xii

When Work Becomes Worship Constant awareness of the presence of the Universal Spirit in everything can transform all work into worship. The mind becomes agitated and restless only when one works with a selfish motive. Work performed in the attitude of worship of the Universal Spirit purifies and calms the mind. It is a simple way to obtain peace of mind and enduring happiness (BG XVIII:46). The Way of Knowledge There are many kinds of knowledge. Secular knowledge does not take us beyond the material world—the world where everything is subject to change. It is impossible to find lasting happiness in things that are impermanent. Deep introspection reveals that there is correspondence between the human being (the microcosm) and the universe (the macrocosm). One discovers that the spiritual component in human beings is identical with the Universal Spirit that pervades the phenomenal world. As bliss is a primary attribute of the Universal Spirit, there must be a corresponding reservoir of happiness within all human beings. Those who seek enduring happiness must therefore guide their actions in the light of constant awareness of the divine presence in everything. The journey toward spiritual realization is beset with hindrances as well as helps, and an uncontrolled mind is one of the major hindrances. It is not easy to discipline an unsteady mind, but constant awareness of one’s identity with the Supreme Spirit is a tremendous source of strength, wisdom, and perseverance (BG XVIII:20 and XVIII:37). Imprisoned in a Cage Some desires must be met to keep us alive—the desires for food, water, and clothing. But our desires do not stop there, and striving for these additional desires does not bring us closer to lasting contentment. Superfluous desires are better called cravings. We become angry when our cravings are not fulfilled. Greed is the food that sustains cravings and feeds the ego. The ego is the cheerleader of cravings—it enshrines selfconceit, possessiveness, and jealousy (BG XVI:12–16). The Anatomy of Human Descent An uncontrolled mind, always craving gratification of sense pleasures, leads to disastrous consequences. Imagine a sense object that comes to one’s attention. A desire arises to possess and enjoy that object. These thoughts create attachments and eventually craving. If the craving is not fulfilled, one becomes frustrated and angry, and angry people lose the capacity to discriminate between right and wrong, which in turn leads to a ruined life.
xiii

and these messages create an uninterrupted flow of thought waves. Desire and Anger. Withdrawing the senses from sense objects enables the intellect to withhold identification with the mind’s activities. This is how spiritual aspirants develop the art of noncooperation with the mind. When the mind advises returning hatred with hatred. enter it. and anger.Spirituality begins with controlling one’s desires and anger. so it is essential to learn to interrupt this flow of thoughts by withdrawing the sense organs at will from their sense objects. This is the reason why an uncontrolled mind is never free from the propensities of desire. and it does no good simply to carry the staff of knowledge-that-leads-to-wisdom—one must use that staff to steady oneself. Imagine that two notorious burglars. these propensities are obstructions for the ripening of wisdom. To achieve the capacity to do this. the intellect exercises its veto power and recommends returning injury with pardon. To change the analogy. and bliss are the attributes of the Supreme Spirit (BG II:64 and II:70). Even the taste for worldly desires drops away when one directly experiences the Divine (BG II:58–59). From Knowledge to Wisdom Theoretical knowledge of the nature of the mind and how to control the mind is not enough. However. the intellect can decide to return wrongdoings with love and compassion. When the mind counsels returning injury with injury. A wise person is like an ocean that remains unmoved when rivers. even though withdrawing the senses from sense desires frees one from those desires. the journey from knowledge to wisdom can be compared to the flight of a jet plane that struggles through thunderstorms at lower altitudes before reaching clear blue skies. undivided consciousness. where it flies smoothly and seemingly effortlessly (BG II:56). When that is accomplished. The spiritual path is slippery. succeed in sneaking into a house—the burglars are adept at stealing the jewels of peace and happiness. They are unswervingly aware of the fact that indestructibility. Intellect over Mind The mind is inherently extroverted. the wise person remains absorbed in the realm of spiritual consciousness where worldly desires knock but cannot enter. even mighty one likes the Amazon. aversion. However. the taste for them lingers. the intellect must learn to exercise its supremacy over the mind. The task of protecting those jewels which are within each one of us begins with control of the mind (BG II:62–63). which requires rigorous vigilance. spiritual realization is very near. The five sense organs continuously bombard the mind with messages from the outer world. Having brought the mind under control. xiv . From Wisdom to Peace The attainment of wisdom is the hardest part of the spiritual journey.

The Way of Meditation and the Way of Devotion are the other two. Those waves do not let us see who we are. the eyes of the ignorant see pearls of different sizes and shapes. by using the mind as a powerful instrument mystics have been able to discover profound spiritual truths. and compassion. and meditation is the gate that opens that bliss to us. like pearls of a necklace. and it is meditation that does the cutting. Meditation quiets those waves (BG V:28). Preparation for Meditation The powers of the human mind tend to be dissipated like rays of light. That habit can be broken by shifting the mind to the indwelling consciousness whose bliss can be attained by deep contemplation. and then one knows who one is. but if the lake’s surface is troubled we do not see the moon clearly. Spiritual bliss is far superior to the transient pleasures of everyday life. but the mind obscures that fact with agitated waves of worldly desires. The Way of Unselfish Work and the Way of Knowledge are two of the four ways for purifying the mind. eventually the winds that ruffle the water will give up. If one remains quiet. A full moon may be reflected in the water of the lake. They are four paths to the same summit (BG V:1 and V:4). The spiritual search leads to the discovery that actually there is no place in the universe where the Supreme Spirit is absent. As we have seen. Something similar to that happens to a beginner who is seeking knowledge of the existence of the Supreme Spirit. succinctly known as meditation. It is possible but extremely difficult to comprehend the Divine Reality through knowledge alone. and stones that are dropped into it raise waves. The indwelling Spirit can be experienced by cutting the chains that bind us to the world of matter. God is constantly within us. Likewise. The prerequisite for attaining steady wisdom is a pure mind. It is the habit of the mind to wander around in the outside world all the time. the whole universe is pervaded and held together by the indwelling presence of one and the same Spirit. honesty. The Way of Meditation Those who are following either the Way of Knowledge or the Way of Unselfish Work soon discover that cravings of the mind for worldly pleasures are the greatest obstacle to spiritual realization. In fact. The waters must be calmed. requiring virtues like truthfulness. To change the analogy.Which Is the Better Way? Looking at a necklace of pearls. Each of the ways enables the aspirant to realize the Spiritual Unity behind the apparent diversity in the universe. but they do not see the string that holds the pearls together. Scientists have shown us that it is possible to unlock the secrets of nature by the powers of concentrated minds. meditation is the xv . the mind is like a lake. but purification of the mind is a slow and arduous task.

inaudible (lips move but no sound is uttered). The final step is to withdraw the mind from the senses a . or in nature. The first of these is purity. a tunnel that cuts through the base of the mountain. there is another way. The prerequisite for meditation is a firm resolve to adhere to moral values that help to purify the mind—truthfulness. which in full glory is reflected in the mind only when it is totally free of all disturbances. or a colorful horizon at sunrise or sunset. Only a devotee with a pure heart can achieve it.a a that monitor the external world and turn it toward the object of one’s concentration (BG VI:12). But if one is impatient to complete the journey. it enters into sam¯dhi. Love and Devotion The spiritualized mind. This way is for those who have emotional temperaments suitable for developing intense love and deep yearning (BG VIII:22. In the spiritual journey this shortcut is called the Way of Devotion. or unselfish work. Success in reaching this state and making it endure can be achieved with practice (BG VI:18–19 and VI:21–22). a superconscious a state where one savors bliss that endures. is the seat of Divine emotions. The Way of Devotion Whether one follows the path of knowledge. internal and external. xvi . When the mind loses all sense of being a separate identity. also known as the pure heart. In this analogy there is a shortcut. Spiritual seekers of emotional temperament adore Divinity and seek heart unity with their chosen Divine ideal. pr¯n¯y¯ma. or meditation. The focus can also be holy words or syllables that are intoned as mantras and rhythmically repeated—the repetitions can be audible. This resolve prepares one to mount the steps that ascend toward meditation. and noncovetousness. Before one enters this tunnel the wayfarer must have faith that there will be light at its end. Meditation—the Method Meditation needs something to focus on. It can be the manifestation of Divinity in religious symbol. in a human form. or mental (contemplation on the meaning of the mantra). The second step involves relaxing the mind by breathing rhythmically. Unconditional love is a potent purifier of the heart’s emotions because it washes away the desire for trivial and transient objects. the spiritual journey is difficult—it is like crossing mountain ranges by driving a car over a zigzagging road with numerous curves and many ups and downs. a serene lake in moonlight. such as a snow-covered mountain. IX:31 and IX:34). In the state of deep meditation the mind is completely detached from the outgoing senses and is fully submerged in the indwelling Divine Spirit. noninjury.method by which human beings can learn how to control and empower their minds for the spiritual journey.

one contemplates. The only way to overcome those delusions is to seek refuge in the Supreme Spirit with unyielding faith. True devotion merges with true knowledge. The truth of the matter is that one’s own efforts are not sufficient to keep the mind in a steady state. they intermingle and strengthen each other.Emotional devotees water the plant of devotion with tears of love. Actually. In true love. Finally he tires of the game and turns away. and climb across razor-sharp cliffs without help from others? Like fast-moving clouds covering the sun. a puff of wind covers the water with algae again. This is how the flower of devotion evolves into the fruit of knowledge. xvii . and falls in love with its amazing glory. As soon as he glimpses the water. wade through rushing torrents. Having experienced that Truth oneself. subside when the mind tastes the Divine bliss. agitations of the mind are always ready to disturb the intellect. The Power of Maya Imagine a child playing by the side of a pond that is covered by algae. The spiritual aspirant who wants to climb to the top of the mountain of self-realization without help will have a similar experience. the reservoir of Divine nectar is inaccessible. minds do not become completely pure. One waits. and without completely purified minds. marvels. It is important not to let one’s pride and egotism bar one from the total surrender to the Supreme (BG XVIII:58 and XVIII: 66). Work without attachment to results can protect the mind from sensory distractions. Moved by the intensity of one’s devotion. Even these imagined desires however. The Merging of the Ways When one sees the entire universe as pervaded by the single Universal Spirit. hoping that at some point success will be attained (BG VII:14). but the imagined desires will still arise in the mind and disturb its tranquility. Who would dare to leap across deep chasms. which is likewise the Supreme Truth. Overcoming Hurdles Self-effort is not enough to overcome all the hurdles that arise in the spiritual journey. Delusions of the mind cannot be completely overcome by selfeffort. one cannot truly know anything that one does not truly love (BG X:10–11). When the paths of knowledge and devotion come together. all doubts are dispelled. He repeats his act again and again with the same result. He pushes the algae aside to see the water beneath it. This love eventually turns into deep devotion and an intense yearning for direct knowledge of the Supreme Reality. One seems to be caught in a vicious circle—without the Divine nectar. every act of the devotee becomes an act of worship (BG IX:26). one’s chosen ideal will at last grant one a direct experience of the Supreme Reality.

they are three attributes of the single Reality. This does not keep him away from those brambles because the camel cannot control its nature. It is important to keep in mind that these are not three things. but one must raise one’s sail. Arriving at the Destination Spiritual life is about the spiritualizing of knowledge. Physicists think that the universe began with the Big Bang. they are unable to free themselves from the shackles of the world. sat-chit-¯nanda: Truth.” T. but what caused that Bang? Mystics say that it was God. and Bliss. And thus the conclusion of this journey through the Bhagavad G¯ a is Truth. ıt¯ xviii . As a familiar Hindu adage has it. Eliot notes that “our end is in our beginning. the question remains: to reach what destination? Destinations are the termini of journeys that have starting points. the winds of God’s love are constantly blowing.” and sages in India coined a composite word to describe the end that is also the beginning. the heart that beats in the body of the universe. Still. It proceeds through human effort supported by Divine grace. Consciousness. and work. Consciousa ness.Self-Surrender and Divine Grace A camel eats thorny brambles and its mouth bleeds. and Bliss (BG XVIII:65). love. Bound by their nature. S. In “East Coker. The only way out is to seek Divine help and surrender oneself to its ministrations (BG XVIII:62). and no matter how hard they try. human beings likewise suffer innumerable sorrows.

almost universal work of the Hindu tradition. him what is happening on the field of the Kurus. but refused to abide by the contract.” In this brief introduction. . The text begins with the blind king Dhrtar¯stra asking his minister Samjaya to tell . . Some are fascinated by its linguistic contribution. . some of them seemingly contradictory. followed by an assessment of how the many possible construals of the text in fact reflect the uniquely Hindu worldview that tolerates and in some cases requires holding together multiple positions simultaneously. lies in its multivalent quality: it explicitly advances numerous teachings. blind king Dhrtar¯st ra. and has been used in support of various others that have arisen since its composition. The Bhagavad Gı a tells a story of great crisis. a sketch of the story line is given. .EDITOR’S PREFACE with a User’s Guide to the Word-by-Word Analysis of the Bhagavad Gı a ¯t¯ The Bhagavad Gı a is one of the most studied and most translated texts in the history ¯t¯ of world literature. maparvan) of ¯t¯ ¯s the Mah¯bh¯ rata and documents one tiny event in a gargantuan epic tale. The a. “The Gı a has been ¯t¯ construed in all sorts of interpretive modalities. . Emerging from post-Vedic India. a crisis that is solved through the ¯t¯ interaction between Arjuna. The Gı a is included in the sixth book (Bhı. As Gerald Larson has noted. It also has intrigued and eluded interpreters outside India for over two centuries. By prearranged agreement. during a dice game and ceded to their cousins. Thus. the P¯ ndavas. these two sets of cousins were raised together and shared the same teachers. we arrive at the opening of the Bhagavad Gı a. Samjaya proceeds . a. to list the principal warriors on the field and then directs his focus to Arjuna and his xix . a. P¯ ndavas are forced to wage war in order to regain their rightful territory. However. a P¯ ndava warrior hesitating before battle. the battlefield. and Krishna. the hundred sons of the a. The prospect of war between the two camps is especially repugnant because so many good friends and close relatives must be killed. . a. the latter group was due to give . . both at home in India and ¯ta abroad. . Arjuna is thrust into crisis. the moment just before the battle begins. his charioteer and teacher. most of which can be argued to be more or less authentic and legitimate. a. he must ¯t¯ face the anguish of killing his relatives and friends or allow himself to be killed. The main a a plot of the larger work involves a dispute between cousins over rulership of the Kuruksetra kingdom in north central India. back rulership to the five P¯ndava brothers. it has made its mark as a standard. others are interested in sorting out the many philosophical and religious implications of the text. The kingdom had been lost by five brothers. Part of the appeal of the Gı ¯.

How does Krishna exact the transformation of Arjuna from a man filled with doubt to a man of great knowledge and resolve? He begins in chapter 2 by explaining the Yoga of Knowledge. uncles. Thinking that if all is destroyed then kingdom and pleasure would be of no use. The dialogue builds until Arjuna receives from Krishna a vision of totality that liberates him from his prior self-preoccupied identity. grandsons. Arjuna asserts to Krishna that this teaching is not enough. In a discourse on the Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge in the fourth chapter. Krishna responds that desire and anger. This is accomplished by renouncing the fruit of action (karma-phala-asan ga). he gains the earth. water does not wet it. the philosopher-king. He explains that one must see action in inaction and inaction in action. Krishna further articulates xx . staying always free from attachment (III:19). Arjuna asks Krishna to place the chariot in the center of the field and then sees arrayed before him his teachers. even though engaged in action (IV:20). philosophy. The sight overwhelms him. refusing to fight. born of passion (rajas). Arjuna is advised to perform the action that has to be done. brothers. When asked by Arjuna why a man is impelled to do evil. Krishna takes Arjuna on a philosophical journey.charioteer Krishna. that his mind is still confused. So Krishna persists. are not enough to prompt Arjuna into action. . Arjuna is unable to act. . This experience prompts Arjuna to seek new answers from Krishna. his mind overcome with grief. . however. it is clear that all will be slain. the Yoga of Action. am the doer” (III:27). conceal true knowledge and fuel the senses. Although the reasons provided by Krishna are certainly sufficient for Arjuna to move into battle. Sacrifice is cited as the model for proper action. attained perfection and tells Arjuna that he should act. attending to the holding together of the world (loka-sam graha) (III:20). only then can one be free of compulsive desire. In the third chapter. As will happen again and again over several more chapters. Such a one is said to do nothing. he gains heaven (II:37). recounting to Arjuna the insights to be gained from S¯ mkhya a. He reminds him that although contact with the objects of sense produces pleasure and pain. Krishna urges Arjuna to ready himself for battle. it is only the deluded one who thinks “I . that he needs to hear a better path. Krishna points out that it was by action alone that Janaka. He tells Arjuna that as a warrior his duty is to fight. from attachment. both are not lasting (II:14). they remain empty theories. to regard pleasure and pain. tions are done by the gunas of prakrti alone. If he wins. Only when Arjuna has renounced interest in the fruits of his action can he find true peace. He speaks of that which is beyond all change: weapons do not cut it. answers that explain how to live with an understanding in which action becomes purposeful and liberating. These sage words. In the chapters that follow. Bringing to mind the S¯ mkhya system. fire does not burn it. he throws down his bow. Krishna provides yet another teaching. the sacrifice of knowledge ( jñ¯na-yajña) is said to bring the completion of all action a (IV:33). and friends. leading to constant satisfaction and independence. the Yoga of Renunciation. Only by subduing the senses and controlling the mind can desire be overcome. if he loses. gain and loss. bringing into question Arjuna’s attachment to both himself and others. winds do not dry it (II:23). sons. In the fifth chapter. he reiterates that aca. one becomes free . By knowing that all this is only the gunas. victory and failure as the same.

he should not think of anything” (VI:24–25). the Imperishable” (XI:4). Both are said to have their origin in . the ninth chapter. mantras. saying that the wise ones see a cow. As before. with the intelligence firmly grasped. none of these teachings resolves Arjuna’s crisis. “I support this entire universe constantly with a single fraction of Myself” (X:42). . a dog. The gods stand in amazement. “If there should be in the sky a thousand suns risen all at once. Krishna explains the nature of his compassion: by appearing as so many gods. mind. the teacher Drona. In response. the Yoga of Manifestation. an elephant. such splendor would be of the splendor of that Great Being” (XI:12). who is the “seed of all beings. and intelligence are controlled. . Overwhelmed xxi . Krishna tells Arjuna of the highest self. after so much preparation and so many discourses. singing praise. and anger. Vedic hymns. Krishna continues. The vision is without beginning or end. from which all life emerges. be the mere instrument” (XI:33). O Lord. sages. In the next four chapters. Krishna speaks of the prakrti that he issues forth.the need for the relinquishment of attachment. sacrifice and devotion make their offerings to Krishna: he is witness. and the higher prakrti. Into Krishna’s many mouths. little by little he should come to rest. Krishna explains purusa as the support of things. all that inspires ascension to the true self. Krishna distinguishes between the lower prakrti. Krishna tells Arjuna to stand up. the final shelter. victories.” He declares that even those who sacrifice to lesser gods in fact sacrifice to Krishna. . the Yoga of Meditation. In knowing this. demons. To gain yoga. an outcaste. The means to achieve this are described in yet another teaching. He asks for a direct experience. Those who see the higher prakrti through . the origin. the enjoyer of all sacrifices. Prince of Yoga. the sage Bhı . Finally. a. At the end. a showing (darsana): “If Thou thinkest it possible for me to ´ see this. Hence. “within which all beings stand. In the Yoga of Royal Knowledge and of Royal Mystery. Having revealed what time ¯s . the vision . all fruits of action are transcended and peace is attained. In the Yoga of Imperishable Brahman. ma.” are cast all the players on the battlefield: the sons of Dhr tar¯stra. weapons. and foundation. “By Me these have already been struck down. and all the others. and more. studded with terrible tusks “glowing like the fires of universal destruction. “To the gods the god-worshipping go. but their fruit is of little consequence. warriors. existence and nonexistence. which is the world of the senses and the mind. Krishna reveals to Arjuna the vision that he has requested. all of them without exception. and even a learned and wise Brahmin as the same (V:18). fear. horses. . will bring. dissolution. to be attained. In chapter 10. then to me cause to be seen Thyself. trees. Arjuna asks Krishna in chapter 11 to reveal the form that is described as Lord and Highest Self. and completely restraining the multitude of senses with the mind. Krishna advises “Abandoning those desires whose origins lie in one’s intention. immortality. His mind having been fixed in the self. who has overcome desire. by which all this universe is pervaded” (VIII:22). In the Yoga of Knowledge and Discrimination. He describes the sage intent on release as one whose senses. attainable through Krishna himself. to conquer his enemies. all worlds are pervaded by it. My worshippers go surely to me” (VII:23). rivers. Krishna assures Arjuna that even a small amount of practice will be beneficial. Krishna. he declares. he has proven to be the manifestation of all that is worthy of worship. such a one is forever liberated (V:28).

at the conclusion of the Gı a . the cultivation of . Arjuna praises him as the first of gods. thus putting an end to any need for further teaching. that he has reached the point where he can in full conscience act without hesitation. change. that his vision of Krishna as Lord would utterly transform his relationship with the world. equanimity. Until this point. It might be supposed that the enlightenment experience of chapter 11 would be for Arjuna an eschatological event. Arjuna asks for further explanations on the nature of the devotion by which he has been given his vision. are resurrected in service of an enlightened way of detached action. is free to act. Arjuna stated his anguish in chapter 1 and.by Krishna’s powers. He asks Krishna to talk more about the difference between purusa. However. Arjuna’s final statement. Arjuna. From chapters 12 through 18. Arjuna has now had direct experience of what has been so lavishly praised and described by Krishna. the . received plausible advice from Krishna. Krishna elucidates the distinction between liberating and binding conditions and then. he finds out how the yogins see the highest self through the eye of wisdom. His decisions become his own. knower and what is to be known. he asks Krishna to return to his human form. He asks more about the three gunas and how they function within prakrti. indicating that Krishna’s task as teacher has been completed. the field of . Krishna’s command “Do as thou desirest!” signals that Arjuna’s knowledge has now been fully embodied. Considered separately. his instruction by Krishna in chapters 2 through 10. and the dialogue once more resumes. even after receiving the vision of totality. . and in fact the world itself. The contents of the chapter reflect concerns that Krishna has addressed consistently since the second chapter: sacrifice of the fruits of action. Rather than focusing on his own selfish concerns. I shall do as Thy command” (XVIII:73). for the next nine chapters. the importance of nondoership. Arjuna has regarded Krishna as his teacher and relied utterly on him for guidance and instruction. The true self is no longer a theoretical abstraction but has been revealed in embodied form. is as follows: “Thus to thee by Me has been expounded the knowledge that is more secret than secret. . the revelation of chapter 11. in the concluding chapter. explains the Yoga of Freedom by Renunciation. . But this is simply not the case: the vision is followed by further affirmation of what xxii . do as thou desirest” (XVIII:63). through Thy grace. the primal purusa. it might even seem that any one of the nine yogas prescribed in those chapters by Krishna would be sufficient for Arjuna to solve his dilemma. and then continued instruction in chapters 12 through 18. I stand with doubt dispelled. but with a difference. After expressing homage and obeisance. the distinctions of the gunas. Arjuna no longer implores Krishna for definite answers about what he should or should not do. by me. Having reflected on this fully. notable for its first resolve in contrast to his lack of nerve in the first chapter. is this: “Delusion is lost and wisdom gained. we have encountered a multiplicity of ¯t¯ teaching. these teachings. and prakrti. ¯t¯ In our brief overview of the Bhagavad Gı a . The unfolding of the Gı a may be summarized in four movements: the crisis of ¯t¯ Arjuna in chapter 1. all these yogas as well as everything else are ultimately negated by the vision of the True Self provided in chapter 11. Unchanging One. The pivotal verse of the last chapter. In the final chapters. the knower of the field.

trance-like obliteration of all things and thoughts. Krishna tells Arjuna of innumerable ways to achieve peace of mind. the lessons of the Gı a must be repeated again and again. Robert N. the path leading from studentship to householding to renunciation to blessedness that enables one to lead a full religious life. women. . The Gı a presents a view of reli¯t¯ gious practice at variance with the classical tradition as found in the Dharmas¯ stra. though at the same time the status of the Brahmans remains unimpaired. both traditional and modern. there will . as does Jñ¯ nes vara. the archer (Arjuna). but was generalized so as to fit all other categories of Hindu society. The instruction Arjuna received before his enlightening vision remains essential following this experience. new worlds. Sam kara (AD 788–820). . activity. while not rejecting Sam kara’s view. a sequence of chapters “which show the ‘rehabilitation’ process of a man who has seen the emptiness beyond his own old structures of meaning and does not know yet how to proceed in the interpretation of the new” (de Nicolás. Lord of Yoga. is a forever repeating experience. . to that lordship is devotion. Minor.(77) As Biardeau points out. Furthermore. and it is clear that the answers are provided not only for Arjuna but are paradigmatic for people of virtually any walk of life. and righteousness. Nothing was outside the realm of ultimate values. a ´a view that Madeleine Biardeau attributes to a more open conception of liberation characteristic of the later sections of the Mah¯bh¯ rata. if we look at the larger story of Arjuna as it unfolds in the great epic. The Brahmanic model was not lost sight of. in which Samjaya poetically proclaims: “Wherever there is Krishna. wherever there is the Son of Prth¯. its message transcends the limits of classical Hinduism. Herein lies one of the special contributions of the Bhagavad Gı a: the religious vi¯t¯ sion. including Sudras. it is no longer one path. For ´ . the generalization became easy. so have many scholars. . this is my thought” (XVIII:78). Once the ksatriya gained access to salvation through his . held many perspectives on the Bhagavad Gı a. every aspect of life is in fact a way ¯t¯ of salvation. . victory. and is also deemed helpful for all who heed it. 273). the Marathi commentator. She writes that this new approach a a gave every svadharma (one’s own duty) religious content and an access to ultimate salvation. arise and fall. It is interesting to note that just as Krishna presented many perspectives to Arjuna. Theologically. Bhaskara a ´ xxiii . and all impure castes.” Madhusudana and Venkatan¯tha. whose own position is that “the Gı a proclaims as ¯t¯ ¯t¯ its highest message the lordship of Krsna and the highest response of the human being . a surely be splendor. as ¯t¯ new circumstances. . wealth. notes several different usages of the text.Krishna has taught.. . place a more emphasis on devotion. the approach presented in the Gı a differs from generally accepted ¯t¯ notions about moksa as requiring the renunciation of the world and of sam¯dhi as a . The Gı a becomes a text ¯t¯ appropriate to all persons of all castes or no caste. This is illustrated in the final verse of the text. bhakti” (xvi). activities. even the autonomy that Arjuna achieves in chapter 18 does not help him when he attempts to enter heaven. In the model presented by the Bhagavad Gı a . to resolve his dilemma. there. . the message is the “end of the world and its accompanying ´ . like the Hindu conception of life itself.

” Minor also cites modern interpretations by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mohandas K. Few of the scholars cited here seem to agree on the meaning of the text. But how. and Sri Aurobindo. with one god. or she proves efficacious.” Antonio T. it was this phase. (40) The Vedic method which extols different gods within the same text is similar to that employed in the Bhagavad Gı a . is trivial and perhaps meaningless. of course. yet none of them can be said to be incorrect. is given life as long as it proves effective. is quite another. new questions emerge: and yet. one perspective gaining and holding ascendancy as long as it. then. how can the explicitly nontheistic S¯m khya appear alongside with the thoroughly theistic a. whether that of a god being sacrificed to or a yogic discipline being practiced. as for the time being the only god in existence with an entire forgetfulness of all other gods. and Varuna is one thing. could such a text survive? How can one account for or even describe a text that includes and is used to support a virtual cacophony of traditions and positions? Setting aside even the interpretations of the aforementioned later commentators. a twelfth-century thinker. again and again Krishna offers Arjuna yet another perspective. calling it henotheism. Gandhi. it is syncretism. It may be argued that this utter contextualization of the text causes it to fall into a fatal relativism.” Nimb¯rka. the famous dualist. To identify Indra. another chapter. and matter and its divisions. “radically reinterprets the text so that it asserts an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme. of course. Each view. because it is open to so many interpretations and has been used to confirm opposing positions ranging from ´ . the many souls. a prompted interpretations that see Krishna as teaching “innate nonidentity in identity. that the text. and Swami Vivekananda. Sam kara’s monism to Madhva’s dualism. Agni.´ . in which each time Arjuna asks Krishna for ¯t¯ one truth. he. takes issue with Sam kara’s interpretation. R¯m¯nuja used the Gı a in support of his position that “the true self is a a ¯t¯ not divine and not one with the other selves. Indra is best. Bhakti Yoga is best. so fully developed in the hymns of the Veda which I wished to mark definitely by a name of its own. Agni is best. de Nicolás has explained this phenomenon philosophically as a systematic and methodic effort to save rationality in its plural manifestations through an activity of embodiment that emancipates man from any form of xxiv . who used the text to help inspire the independence movement. of course. another yoga. Karma Yoga is best. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Paul Hacker has referred to the accommodation of multiple teachings within one tradition as “inclusivism. of course. to address either Indra or Agni or Varuna. Multiplicity is the rule. who took a syncretistic approach to the text (xvi–xix). if pressed.” Madhva (1238–1317). Varuna is best. of course. asserting that the world is a real aspect of Brahman. a Hindu will always admit. bhakti approach also taught by Krishna? Max Mueller addressed a similar issue when trying to cope with the multiplicity of gods in the Rg Veda and invented a term to describe it: . That one is then swept from its elevated position as new situations.

All the words. The ¯t¯ Jainas assert that every statement is an utterance of partial truth. if one needs to meditate. He shows the reader the possibilities offered by ¯t¯ the text. the origin and dissolution of all things. allowing him the freedom to act efficiently in any one identifiable field in the social fabric. In a manner true to the construction of the text itself.identification. (164) Just as the many gods of the Vedas are effective in different situations. whether the ancient phase of one’s own people or the heritage of ancestors other than one’s own. xxv . has given rise to ¯t¯ nearly countless interpretations. This “henocretic” text is written with a gentle tolerance. the entire problematic is obliterated when Krishna reveals his true form to Arjuna. the present rendition by Winthrop Sargeant does the least violence to the original of all the translations of the Gı a with which I am familiar. The net result is that all possibilities are present for Arjuna when he gains the knowledge that all are impermanent. the many positions proposed by Krishna do not necessarily compete with one another but rather complete one another. His work makes a unique contribution. For religious texts even one simple turn of phrase can generate multiple redactions. one uses Dhy¯na Yoga. one uses Karma Yoga. C. requires a spirit of adventure and inquiry. but also inviting the reader to experiment with creating his or her own delicacy. the Gı a is composed in the spirit of the Jaina approach to truth. often serve ¯t¯ as the portal or entry point for engaging and comprehending a worldview. inviting the reader to sample the translation he serves up. Texts. The Bhagavad Gı a sets forth a multiplicity of possible paths. any attempt to understand a text carries the risk of missing the mark. setting out in menu form variant English-language samplings for each of the Sanskrit terms. Krishna painstakingly guides Arjuna through many yogas. as noted in the translator’s preface to this book. yet. If one needs to act. In a sense. However. all the individual personalities and collective armies are swallowed up by the gaping mouth of Krishna. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada’s assertion of the primacy of Lord Krishna rooted in the Dvaita theology of Madhva to Antonio T. As we reach back in history the context can easily shift. allowing a various practices and positions to be pursued. whether the Bible or the Confucian Analects or the Bhagavad Gı a . To know the meanings of the words of any book does not guarantee understanding of authorial intent or how others following the author have interpreted the text. from A. so the many yogas are prescribed in the G¯t¯ without compromising or subordinating one to another. A panoply of per¯t¯ spectives is offered to the reader in a nonjudgmental way. The Bhagavad Gı a. USER’S GUIDE FOR THE WORD-BY-WORD ¯ ¯ ANALYSIS OF THE BHAGAVAD GI TA Reaching into another culture. ı a Mutual paths are allowed to exist in complementarity. all postulation is rendered senseless by the ultimate postulate that no words are ever totally adequate to experience (avaktavya eva). Similarly.

In the editions of 1984 and 1994. This approach gives ¯ the reader the toolbox of approaches available to the translator and provides an opportunity for the reader to develop his or her own rendering of the text within a range of reasonable possibilities. locating its verbal root origin where possible. and take heart that this book can serve many people in many ways. George Thompson surmises that the text was primarily recited or sung and chooses a simplified word flow that sounds melodious and clear in the English language. Sargeant situates the place of the Gı a within the context of Sanskrit literary history. including the now widely accepted and understood terms karma and dharma. In an attempt to capture a hint of the cadence of the original ´loka construction. related to the word Buddha or Awakened One. is often translated as the “intellect. ¯t¯ indicating its use of participles. Laurie Patton stretches each verse into eight lines. but he also retained Sanskrit word order. the text designed to gird the warrior Arjuna for battle became an inspiration for India’s nonviolent revolution. Christopher Isherwood and Swami Prabhavananda alternate between prose and verse renderings. My own training in classical yoga included the memorization of the 1943 Gita Press translation of the second chapter of the Gı a. buddhi. rules of euphonic or sound combination (samdhi). This verse includes a key technical term employed in the original. the modality of knowledge ( jñ¯na) within the buddhi guarantees ¯t¯ a freedom. indicating the importance of the first emanation of prakrti (the creative matrix). One of my favorite translations of the Bhagavad Gı a is perhaps also the most inscrutable. replete with such neologisms as “car-warriors” for what Thompson ¯t¯ renders “great chariot warriors” (35) and “self-controlled practicant” for what Patton renders as “that person whose thought is placid” (65). the buddhi also carries the residues of all past a. and the complex systems of noun endings (declensions) and . I also expanded the range of possible meanings for each word. Franklin Edgerton ¯t¯ not only translates every single term. finite conjugated verbs. In S¯mkhya. compounds (pages 3–8). For Mahatma Gandhi. utterly at variance with the original cadence and word order. It a determines the state or mood into which one awakens. we will consider verse II:49. Each translator brings a distinct methodology to the task. as in the second a. which is the . I provided a deeper analysis of each term. karma in the form of enduring inclinations or the state of being known as the bh¯vas.de Nicolás’s perspectival reading of the text based on the existential insights of Spanish philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset. symmetrical play of four sets of s eight syllables in each verse. perhaps take sides. chapter of the Gı a. Reader. a lilting. take your place. 143–215). In the very first edition of this book. Buddhi. following a convention also observed in translating Patañjali’s Yoga Su tra (see my Yoga and the Luminous. As one example of choices made by three translators. Sargeant provided a simple word equivalent for each Sanskrit term with some identification of the grammatical part of speech. buddhi-yoga. stretching the English language into amazing contortions that rival the most advanced yoga poses. Sargeant renders this verse: Action is inferior by far To the Yoga of intuitive determination. xxvi .” In S¯mkhya philosophy.

one might plunge headlong into the performance of action motivated solely by yearning for its fruits (phalahetu) rather than taking into account the larger picture. Without using insight or intuitive determination. who has many nicknames. He also retains the epithet for Arjuna while also making clear to the reader that Krishna is addressing Arjuna. Seek refuge in intuitive determination! Despicable are those whose motives are based on the fruit of action. Thompson. Patton agrees with the usage of the term insight for buddhi and retains the epithet for Arjuna. but divides his translation into three discrete sentences: Arjuna. By seeing the prominence of the term buddhi at the start of the second and third lines. Her choice of the term pitied stays closer to the original than either despicable or miserable. buddhiyog¯ d dhanamjaya a . From all three translations. .Conqueror of Wealth (Arjuna). for the sake of clarity. If we turn to the Sanskrit analysis.a. we get the sense that thinking or reflection is better than acting on one’s first impulse for the sake of greed or desire or selfishness. eliminates all of Arjuna’s variant names and makes a very different word choice for the term buddhi. the original grouping of the terms can be clearly discerned: durena hyavaram karma ¯ . scrutiny of the Sanskrit can help deepen the understanding xxvii . . action is far inferior to the yoga of insight. Those whose goal is the fruits of their actions wind up miserable. She stretches out the versification: Winner of Wealth. for those who are motivated by fruits are to be pitied. the buddhi holds the history of one’s past actions. buddhau saranam anviccha krpan¯h phalahetavah . Thompson does not attempt to retain the versification in a literal sense. Sargeant attempts to retain vestiges of the ´loka form by dividing the verse into four s lines. As previously noted. Look for refuge in insight. action is far inferior to the yoga of insight. Seek refuge in insight. and by feeling the impact of the imperative verbs “seek! wish for! desire!” at the end of the second line.

and knower ( jña). a 3. duhkha. The Gita Press version selects the word urges. according to his secretary Narayan Desai. xxviii . and jñ¯na will be easily discerned. yoga. orgasm. Additionally. impetus. lilt. Which do you prefer? 6 Go a step further. karma. Use the word analysis section in Sargeant’s translation to understand the word choices made by the other translator(s). The middle two lines exhort the reader to recognize the solution: applying and taking refuge in a disciplined (yoga) intellect (buddhi). 4. purusa. the reader can see the framing of ideas contained within the verse. Patton chooses shock. onset. Compare Sargeant’s translation with one or two others. Use the ample white space on each page to copy alternate translations and to develop your own translation and commentary. jñ¯na. variants of key terms such as yoga. October 9. Similarly. . The paraphrase follows the Sanskrit word order. 7.” Sargeant chooses the word agitation for his translation. 2. Sound out the words from the transliterated Sanskrit. ¯t¯ By examining the text repeatedly at a leisurely pace. Pay attention to his final word choice in light of various options. the reader might want to apply the following steps: 1. The a . Mahatma Gandhi. The opening and closing lines refer to the problem to be overcome: attachment to the fruits of action. while van Buitenen uses driving force. and genius of the Gı a’s composer lie in the gentle word play of the text. the word vega in VI:23 can be translated as “agitation. Decide upon your own preference. and so forth. Find a verse or set of verses that hold your interest or attention. For instance. some of the words will repeat and become familiar. . using them as a companion in his quest for social justice (lecture presented at Loyola Marymount University. 8. To fully utilize the tools set forth in this edition. such as prakrti. 5. shock. momentum. Can you find the word vega in your own experience? Which emotion do you find lying behind or associated with desire and anger? Use this technique with other passages. Make note of words that seem familiar. karma. Scan the words as suggested here. one can gain a friendly familiarity with this classic of world religious literature. Scan the English paraphrase directly beneath the Sanskrit text. 2008).of the reader. Develop a collection of verses from the Bhagavad Gı a that you find particu¯t¯ larly important. Consult the detailed assessment in the right-hand column for words of interest. Over the course of several verses. Read with greater understanding the Sargeant translation. Through a careful and creative scanning of the Sanskrit terms provided by Sargeant. taking notice of words that seem important or intriguing. . origin or cause of action (k¯ranam). a These include yoked ( yukta). dharma. one might develop a favorite section of the text for deeper study and reflection. appeal. following the pronunciation guide on pages 5–8. De Nicolás translates vega as force. committed to memory and recited daily the last nineteen verses of the second chapter.

Franklin. A classic work of world literature has found new expression. Minor. B. “The Song Celestial: Two Centuries of the Bhagavad Gı a in ¯t¯ English. Consider enrolling in a ¯t¯ Sanskrit language class at a nearby college. 1943–1971. any errors or omissions that occur are my own. The Bhagavad Gı a . My sole contribution has been editing the grammatical analysis for consistency and completeness. Householder. New Delhi: Vikas. university. xxix .” In Way of Life: a a King. resulted in this labor of love. Gerhard Oberhammer. Bhagavad Gı a As It Is. translation and elaborate purports. J. 1981. Chi¯t¯ a a cago: University of Chicago Press. Biardeau. Bhagavad Gı a : An Exegetical Commentary. 1982. Madeleine. N. or yoga center. 1975. Edgerton. Paul. Winthrop Sargeant (1903–1986) served for many decades as the premier music writer for The New Yorker. Sargeant’s Gı a was created by a ¯t¯ nonspecialist for all persons interested in this classic book. 1944. T. Christopher Key Chapple Doshi Professor of Indic and Comparative Theology Loyola Marymount University WORKS CITED The Bhagavad Gı a or The Song Divine (With Sanskrit Text and English translation). Hacker. India: Gita Press. Tens of thousands of people throughout the world have benefited from his careful rendering and analysis of the text. Renouncer: Essays in Honour of Louis Dumont. University of Vienna. Complete Edition with ¯t¯ original Sanskrit text. Inklusivismus: Eine Indische Denkform. Twenty-first edition. A. ed. A. The Bhagavad Gı a in the Mah¯bh¯rata: A Bilingual Edition. Gerald James. “The Salvation of the King in the Mah¯bh¯ rata. New York: Collier Books. Vienna: Institute for Indology. Albany: State University of New York Press. His personal fascination with Indian philosophy. van Buitenen. Massachusetts: ¯t¯ Harvard University Press. ¯t¯ Introduction by Jayadayal Goyandka. Yoga and the Luminous: Patañjali’s Spiritual Path to Freedom. the elite and arcane world of complex Sanskrit grammar has been made accessible to a wide audience.” Philosophy East and West 31 (1981): 513–41. Through his efforts. Roman transliteration. First twenty editions. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.9. we extend ourselves back through history into an appreciation of the path trod by our civilizational ancestors in India and perhaps into a deeper sense of self-understanding. not related in any way to his livelihood. Chapple. English equivalents. C. 2008. 1983. 1972. ed. Two volumes. with tools to facilitate greater understanding. Search out a study group on the Bhagavad Gı a. Larson. Christopher Key. Cambridge. New Delhi: Heritage Pub¯t¯ lisher. 1982. Madan. By reaching deeply into this text. Robert N. It has been an honor working with this edition of the book. Gorakhpur.

2008. The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. Thompson. ¯t¯ Prabhavananda. de Nicolás. xxx . New York: North Point ¯t¯ Press. New York: The New American Library. Max. London: Longmans. Swami. The Bhagavad Gı a. 2008. and Christopher Isherwood. Avatara: The Humanization of Philosophy through the Bhagavad Gı a Using the Humanistic Philosophy of Jose Ortega y Gasset. ¯t¯ Introduction by Aldous Huxley.Mueller. Green. George. New York: Nicolas Hayes. The Bhagavad Gı a : A New Translation. Antonio T. 1928. London: Penguin Books. The Song of God: Bhagavad Gı a . ¯t¯ 1976. and Company. Patton. Laurie L. 1954.

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J. B. a running vocabulary is provided. and Swami Chidbhavananda. Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood.l forms. my object has been to stick as closely as possible to literal meaning rather than to attempt a masterpiece of English prose. My excuse is that. I have consulted numerous previous translations. many approaches are possible. As an added aid. Griffith's translation of the B. if he desires. as well as the recently published first volume of his translation of the Mahabharata (University of Chicago Press) and countless works on Hindu religion and philosophy that I have read in the past. cosmology and psychology. along with such . the account given under various headings in Benjamin Walker's" The Hindu World. none that I know of presents the original Sanskrit with an interlinear word-for-word arrangement that permits the reader to learn the sound as well as the meaning of each word. referring to the Sanskrit words on each page. Surendranath Dasgupta's "History of Indian Philosophy. In making the readable translation that appears at the bottom of each page. Chakravarti Narasimhan's" The Mahabharata. Juan Mascaro and P. and what I have striven for is simple clarity along with a reproduction of something of the force and economy of the original. and all are worth considering. among them those of Franklin Edgerton. Such grand poetic concepts as appear in the translation are inherent in the poem." and in connection with other matters I have consulted the admirable prefaces to Swami Nikhilananda's "The Upanishads" as well as his translations of these works. I have found them all worth reading. I have added nothing. each.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE Why add one more to the numerous English translations of the Bhagavad GIta? It is said to have already been translated at least two hundred times. and the setting of the poem as the principal didactic jewel of the great Hindu epic. Below each stanza will be found a readable English translation which I hope will give greater coherence to what is often awkwardly expressed in the literal word-for-word interlinear translation. though many fine translations exist. Rajagopalachari's condensed version." C. Lal. along with their grammatica. as I suppose is inevitable. Dr. A. in both poetic and prose forms." Sukumari Bhattacharji's "The Indian Theogony. so that. It should also enable the studious reader to savor something of the original language. van Buitenen's translation of Ramanuja's commentary on the Bhagavad GIta.g Veda. Radhakrishnan. I have had recourse to numerous sources-Pratap Chandra Roy's translation of the Epic. In writing the introductory chapters on language. showing a slightly different approach. The arrangement also makes it possible for the reader to see the metrical formation of the poem's stanzas. and their grammatical structure. he can appreciate the sound of the original language. The line of transliteration is designed to show the reader how the words are pronounced. which is elegant and extremely concise. I have tried in the vocabularies to indicate a considerable variety of possible meaning. the Mahabharata. Eliot Deutsch. To a poem such as this." Ralph T. H. S.

and I have spent a considerable amount of time in India as a journalist. and I know many parts of it by heart in the original language. I am also grateful to Alice Morris for much patient copying and to myoid friend Louis Biancolli for encouragement. Varanasi. and for these I ask the reader's indulgence. either metrical or grammatic. I am greatly indebted to Dr. a few errors are apt to occur.useful staples of Sanskrit study as Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar. As to my own qualification:. from whom I learned my first Sanskrit many years ago. or interests him in the language in which it was originally written. and because few of them give any idea of the poem's structure. Moreover. of the University of Chicago. the great eleventh-century south Indian religious philosopher. ].. B. Petersburg Lexicon. B. who made innumerable small corrections and many suggestions. A. I would also like to express belated gratitude to the late Sarat Lahiri. and the abridged version of Bohtlingk and Roth's St. van Buitenen. nearly all of which I have followed. I have translated the poem afresh. though I am known primarily as a magazine writer and music critic. Delhi. many of them quoted from the commentary of Ramanuja. resident in New York. I have been acquainted for many years with the Bhagavad Glta in translation. who kindly offered to read the manuscript before publication. but am certainly competent for the task in hand. The work has been a labor of love. A. as translated by]. 1968. I have appended explanatory footnotes. van Buitenen. My aim has been to fill the gap by relating each word to the original. Winthrop Sargeant 2 . As a Sanskrit scholar I am largely self taught. and have found many translations somewhat unsatisfactory because of deviations in meaning.thus making it possible for the reader to make his own translation if he disagrees with mine. If it in any way clarifies the poem to the reader. Patna. a Bihari Brahman. my interest in the Sanskrit language has been of long duration. Motilal Banarsidas. my aim will have been realized. the Oxford Sanskrit Dictionary edited by Monier-Williams. In the case of stanzas which are not entirely clear in translation. and who read the proofs. In a project as complex as this one. the present translation has been read and approved by the highest authority. giving a grammatical commentary and a vocabulary from which various alternative meanings for each word may be picked .

and so on. Indians have always prided themselves on their memories. as might be expected. The written. whereas in Vedic they are usually separated. an important feature of the Vedic language was the use of aorist forms which tend to disappear in the later language. Even today there are some brahmans who look down upon the printed word as a method of preserving the literature. owing to the detailed researches of Pat:lini (350-250 B. and it is still spoken by a minority of brahmans today. Classical Sanskrit differs from Epic-PuraI)ic mainly in the increased use of long compound words. the language of the Epics. are derived from it. An occasional aorist remains (there are eight or ten of them in the Bhagavad Glta) and there is an occasional use of the prohibitive" ma" in place of the" na" 3 . it undoubtedly dates from an earlier word-of-mouth version. in proper names.D.C. for a longer time than any other known tongue. It is safe to say that it was spoken before 1. to be sure. considerable difference in vocabulary. with many cognates in ancient Greek and Latin as well as in practically every modern major European language except Finnish and Hungarian.) and the Sanskrit of later times. Also.C.researches that were not only linguistic but also concerned lingual and laryngeal anatomy Sanskrit is the only ancient language the exact pronunciation of which is known today. It is one of the ancient Indo-European languages. the Upanishads.. which have indeed been phenomenal when one considers that the whole literature of the Vedas. and much other material has been handed down by word of mouth. Purat:las and Upanishads. and it was probably first written down in the early centuries of the Christian era though like many other works which are embodied in written form. as opposed to the spoken language dates only from about 300 B.. Epic-Purat:lic Sanskrit succeeded the earlier Vedic language somewhere around 500 B. The bulk of Sanskrit literature was not written down until well into the Christian era.C. the Epics. and was itself succeeded by so-called Classical Sanskrit during the Gupta Empire and the later Princely States (circa 400-1500 A. and the Vedic Aryans before them. and there exists in India a tremendously complicated method of mnemonics by which lengthy items of literature can be memorized. Epic-Purat:lic Sanskrit is in many ways the simplest form of the language.600 B.C. and even then very little was written down.THE LANGUAGE OF THE BHAGAVAD GITA Sanskrit is a euphonious and very elegant language which has been spoken by upper-caste Indians.?) and other great Hindu grammarians . names of institutions and regions. and several modern Indian languages. There is. The later language tends to join prefixes to the words they modify.). including Hindi and Bengali. by the Aryans. There is also. The Bhagavad Gita is conceived in Epic-Purat:lic Sanskrit. It has also influenced several languages of southeast Asia including that of Indonesia. It is interesting to note that. considerable difference between Vedic Sanskrit (circa 1400-300 B. It also appears continually in modern India. but this difference is not as great as is sometimes supposed.C. the Purat:las.

has a dual form for both verbs and nouns (we two. is generally thought to date from the second or third century A. In the matter of verbs. used in the senses of " in" or " on. The cases in Sanskrit are as follows: Nominative. used for the direct object and also in the dative sense of "to. and voc. mean first person singular. Sanskrit. Locative.. except that Sanskrit has one more case." "to.. its general formation resembles that of Ancient Greek and Latin. the root is given with the preceding sign~. such as the present participle in "ant" can still be found in French (German "end." or occasionally" to.masculine." Dative. In the simpler areas of conjugation the parasmiiipada forms end in i and the iitmanepada forms 10 e. s." Vocative. used where English would use" by." "with. Accusative.. abl. and there are fascinating resemblances among the personal pronouns to the "we" (vayam). and its verbs have two distinct conjugation systems. In the vocabularies of the following translation. "you" (yiiyam) and" us" (asmiin) of modern English. acc."-or" by means of. but not always.C. tas (tus). There is also a marked similarity of the Sanskrit verbs ~bhii and ~ as.(" not") of Classical Sanskrit. used in the sense of "for. most of which describes an India of an earlier period. feminine and neuter.." "toward..D. nt endings that go with these persons in Latin. are used for singular and plural. inst. are used to designate the above described cases. or parasmiiipada." and means" to exist. mas (mus)." Genitive. however. and pI. etc. or iitmanepada." English "ing "). the abbreviations nom." or "among." Sanskrit verbs have a first person. used as in Latin in direct address (" 0 Vishnu. having a more passive or reflexive character. 2nd sg. in its written form at any rate.." Ablative. Nouns in Sanskrit are declined as they are in Latin. used for the most part in the same sense of "of" as the ablative (in many words the ablative and genitive are identical). gen. second person and third person (singular and plural) similar in construction to Latin. The past passive participle ending" ta" survives in modern Italian. the active. But the long compounds of Classical Sanskrit have not yet appeared.. Participial forms are indicated. used in the senses of "of" and "from. used for the subject of a sentence. Its verbal forms are derived from roots which also give birth to nouns and adjectives. and the middle." or "toward.. the former having our normal active meaning and the latter sometimes." and" is." Instrumental.). being slightly more complex than that of the former and much more complex than that of the latter. There are three genders of nouns and adjectives . the Mahabharata. loc.. second person singular and so on. as well as prominent cognates to German such as the verb ~V!t which is close to "werden. you two. The 4 . possibly 800 B. The Bhagavad Gita. Certain Sanskrit participial forms." or "to become" among other things. Sanskrit being one of the Indo-European group of languages. they two). being considered a later interpolation in the long Epic. and 1st sg." etc. t.. with elements of the same m (0). both of which mean" be. and sg.

There is. " push. " prude or crude. also a long 1vowel but it is practically never used. I have used Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar (Harvard University Press. "be. the same pronunciation. more prolonged. It is used by many Indians. u. " aisle. " " 0. But the ri pronunciation has been abandoned by most present-day Sanskrit scholars in favor of a simple vowel r such as appears in many Slavonic languages." and a periphrastic perfect in which the perfect forms of the verbs~as and~kr (sometimes~bhii) are used as suffixes of an accusative derivative noun stem in am. a slightly trilled vowel r. There is a long tradition involving the pronunciation ri for this vowel.. Q: 'q"r 'q"r e. imperfect. but probably originally a pure 1 vowel as in the" Ie" of "simple" (see Whitney 24)." etc. the imperative." etc. The Sanskrit alphabet is as follows: 'q" a. pronounced as ai. "stone or pole. subjunctive (which does not appear in the Bhagavad Gita except in its aorist form). I recommend any standard Sanskrit grammar. There are some special verbal forms . i. " r. For further information. theoretically. There is a gerundive form in "ya" indicating future action. having the sound of ir in " " birth" or ur in "purpose. a pioneer work which is still standard. aorist (rare) and future. " " in bet or tempo. desiderative and causative-whose applications are obvious and which are noted in the vocabularies. "to be done. and it survives in the ri of Sanskrit (Samskrta). also Oxford University Press). and the perfect active participle in "tavant" or "navant" is common. " " " as " " 1?. full. lily or it.indicative. intensive." or of" having done.jiis. B. I." 5 . " { '3" :Ji ?f[ " police. " " " " father. also a periphrastic future in which the nominative singular of a noun or of a nomen agentis type noun ending in tr combined with the verb. perfect. There are also the standard tenses for verbs . and it is recommended by Monier-Williams on grounds of euphony." "to be known. " German "Haus.the passive. the optative (usually conveying the meaning" should ").ic language. " " au. having the approximate meaning of the English present participle in "ing. . The infinitive ending in "tum" is standard in the Epic-PuraQ. m ~ a." N.gerund form ending in "ya" or "tva" is very common. pronounced by many Indians and the English as "lry" (as in revelry). pronounced as in but." "having seen. " ii.

" " " "young or royal. " " law or lead. " " " pot or hip. " " sing or kink. y. The short i at the middle or end 6 . S. ~ t. " " " " anthill. " " " shut or bush. " " pronounced ch as in church.~ ~ 'J: <J: k. " " " none. Below the line it indicates a vowel r (as in . m. " "go. " as In sure. " " " drum. ~h. "t ~ ~ ~ OJ: c. ~ ~ ~ c:l. _. th. T indicates au at the middle or end of a word (as in aT tau). " " hero or hit. gh. 9: ~ '\ ~ ~. ii." '{ . " " " redhead. pronounced as in judge or jump. <t: ~ 'l ~ 9: +{ 11: ~ . dh. ph. " " hedgehog (hejhog). J. " " French bon. ch. ur q ~ ~ I). " " dot (slightly toward the th sound). g. " " "abhor. " " loghouse. s-. v. " " man or ham. " " " adhere. " " " red or shear. p. " " like w in twine or wind. bh. " " " " uphill or shepherd. " " " beer or rub. " " " " " " " When attached to consonants. ii. below the line indicates ii (as in +f bhii). t. h. " " tone or tub. < above the line indicates a consonant r (as in l{~ marta). s. b. jh. r.!q bhrt). d. ~.indicates 0 at the middle or end of a word (as in 'fiT ko). n. pronounced chh as in birch hill. " inkhorn or bunkhouse. 1. " " " true. ~ above the line = ai (as in t rai). get or dog. vowel marks are as follows:' above the line = e (as in ~ te). or as in hinge (hinge). " " " sin or hiss. " " " nut or thin. " " " " nuthatch. kh. th. '" below the line indicates u (as in C! tu). '). " kill or meek.

all forms of u combine to make ii. a diphthong. (Theoretically at least. The long I is indicated by a similar tie to the right (as in 11T bhI). has only a short form. as the above alphabet shows. and a or a combine with 0 to form 7 . in the case of a word ending with two short syllables.f) forms. a or a combine with i or i to form e. within a given word) euphonic combination. ~ jiia. the practice for many centuries has been to use a stress accent somewhat milder than that used in English. It occurs at the end of a word.. The vowel L in practice. depending on the beginning of the following word. but in Hindu usage it is followed by a short echo of the preceding vowel.of a word is indicated by a tie to the left (as inerfcr dhrti). and is not followed by an "a" as it otherwise 'w~uld be. Long a is indicated by an extra downstroke T (as in ~ atman). or followed by more than one consonant. The aim of these laws is to enhance the elegance of sound of the language. j. a or a combine with u or ii to form 0. Although accent in Sanskrit is supposed to be quantitative as it was in Ancient Greek.) is pronounced like the English aspirate h. a or a combines with vowel r to form ar. Final t is interchangeable with d. These rules apply only to Classical and Epic-PuraQic Sanskrit. In euphonic combination all types of a (long or short) combine to made a. i and yare interchangeable. ffi kta and "i tra (the diagonal stroke within the letter always indicates a consonant r). I. The anusviira (ril or n) is a nasal sound like n in French "bon. "-J sca. which are to be found at work in virtually every phrase of Sanskrit. which I shall pass over.g. meanwhile observing the difference between long and short syllables. Vedic Sanskrit has a more complicated system of accentuation. or : (visarga)." A diagonal stroke to the right beneath a letter (11 . come in short and in long (a.e. the latter being used before a vowel and losing its independence as a syllable. It may be converted into sor ~ or r. when preceded in the same word by s or r. a or a combine with e to form ai. A long syllable is one containing a long vowel. in the case of final as into 0. on the antepenultimate. Otherwise every consonant is assumed to be followed by a short a. Diphthongs are e. The reader will probably notice it first in the peculiar behavior of s when it occurs at the end of a word.ii. and transliterated as 1. Most combined consonants are self explanatory. Other letters behave somewhat similarly. This accent falls on the penultimate syllable. and is determined by the beginning of the following word. ai. or. a long syllable is twice as long as a short syllable).) indicates that it is a final. or the laws of euphonious combination. The visarga (" :" written at the end of a word in place of s or r. All others are short. or. and sometimes also even with n. or when followed by more than one consonant) and ii under others. on the fourth from the end. External samdhi is a much more noticeable and puzzling phenomenon. and all forms of i combine to make i. ~ etc. 0 and au. or.f. There remains the complicated subject of samdhi. except for ~ k~a. nbecomes~undercertaincircumstances(e. in the case of a word ending in three short syllables. Vowels. There are laws relating to internal (i. Final n after a short vowel and before a succeeding vowel is doubled to nn. since their effects are to be found in the vocabularies. it may disappear altogether. The same thing is true of u and v. what is perhaps still more common. c and several other letters. Final r may also become: (visarga). or.

It occurs also in such words and names as "samdhi. conceive." "Jarasamdha. h or v. perform. execute. 8 . can mean put." "Samjaya. Regarding the page by page vocabularies in this edition. directly beneath its Sanskrit equivalent. I have taken the liberty. particularly at more dramatic moments. In the vocabulary attached to each stanza I have included only the meanings that are close to the ones intended in the poem. Proper pronunciation makes the transition to the following consonant as smooth as can be imagined. undergo. destine for. is used. make. as has been said. Its pronunciation. exhibit. show. etc. establish. of connected words as is the Sanskrit usage (similar to the use of "que" in Latin). incur. bring. mainly for the sake of uniformity. bestow on. e becomes a and iii becomes ii. The metre of most of the stanzas of the Bhagavad GIta is what is known as Sloka metre. It is very common. resolve upon. there is no recourse but a careful study of the subject as presented in Whitney's or some other grammar. A concluding word about the transliteration and the literal English translation: as far as is possible I have placed th-e transliterated word. it might be remarked that Sanskrit is a very ambiguous language in which a single word may have scores of meanings. especially where internal samdhi is concerned. take. however. get. sometimes contradictory ones. take hold of. and its accurate rendering is vital to the proper pronunciation of Sanskrit. fix upon. In transliteration it is written m. Thus the common verb ~dha. assume. An initial a after a final e or a is dropped and an apostrophe or avagraha is put in its place. I have also placed the word" and" (Sanskrit" ca") before the last of the words it connects. There are. is approximately like the n in French" bon". The Sloka is the all-purpose metre of the Epics as well as much popular poetry. in transliteration is often placed below the '!l instead of above it. in which the tri~tubh metre. generate. possess. seize. Its commonest occurrence is as a substitute for final m before a word beginning with a consonant or semivowel such as y. accept. according to Monier-Williams' dictionary. or sometimes Ii. In other texts. The verse is blank. as is the practice I have followed. For all the circumstances under which these changes and others occur. obtain. of introducing definite and indefinite articles (the former rarely used and the latter non-existent in Sanskrit) in order to make the meaning clearer.).iiu. produce. as weB as the translated one. appoint. "by the shores of Gitchee Gumee" etc. And so on. instead of after a couple. have. there are no rhymes. support. the anusviira (m or occasionally Ii) is not always as easy to detect. a number of stanzas. and can be conveniently remembered by the English reader as the metre of Longfellow'S " Hiawatha" (e. put on. bear. place. the dot. While most if not all the above changes will be found written out in the text. i. effect. cause. consisting of four lines of eight syllables each. create. thus a fairly indeterminate nasal sound with no closure either of the mouth or of the palate.g." etc. and is supposed to convey a warlike or powerful impression. impart. In the Sanskrit text it is indicated merely by a dot above the line. The tri~tubh metre originated as the commonest metre of the Vedas.e. constitute. however. remove. or group. Before a vowel iiu becomes iiv. wear. present. consisting of four lines of eleven syllables each. direct.

and they gave birth to the gods. the Indian allows for the infinity of time. Unlike the Hebrew and Christian conceptions of creation." (It is cognate with the English" dextrous" and its etymological ancestors. into the endless future. BMma. containing many interpolated stories and moral treatises. One of 9 . in similar cycles. the creator god. reaches heaven by a more roundabout route. animals and many other types of being. in later myth. Now.1a). It has been estimated to be seven times as long as the Iliad and the Odyssey put together. one becoming the heavens. The heroes of the battle. dying on a long pilgrimage. and MarIci's son in turn became the tremendously prolific sage-king Kasyapa." Dak~a means "intelligence" or "mastery. is merely a thin genealogical thread which leads up to the famous Battle oj Kuruk~etra." In/ any case. What I have abstracted from it here. or warrior. swinging backward and forward and not always sticking to a consistent chronology. the other the earth. along with a very much condensed narrative of that battle and its aftermath. with the help of secondary sources. until the eternal First Cause formed the Hira1. though names as personifications are common throughout the epic.. Nakula and Sahadeva. It is also a somewhat rambling work. Brahma is thought to derive from the root . The mythological ancestry and relationships between all these characters are complex. and the one in which the Bhagavad Gitii appears at a climactic moment. are Arjuna (whose colloquy with the god Krishna forms the substance of the Bhagavad Gila) and his half-brothers YudhiNhira. race is destroyed. The egg divided itself into two parts. otherwise known as the Kiiurava (Sons of Kuru) Princes. one of the two great Hindu epics (the other is the Riimiiym. demons. The one exception.THE SETTING OF THE BHAGAVAD GITA The Mahiibhiirata.1ya-garbha. and it is very Indian in its treatment of time. an earlier being. known as the Pii1. according to some sources) named MarIci.) And Pracetas means" clever" or "wise. and regards the universe as one of many that stretch. into the endless past." Kasyapa married the twelve daughters of Dak~a (who is also sometimes referred to as Prajapati). It is perhaps significant that these early names are personifications. became identified with the creator god Brahma." which floated on the cosmic waters. their cousins.1¢ava Princes. in cycles of creation and destruction. The mythology pertaining to this particular universe concerns a primaeval darkness. had a spiritual son (a product of Brahma's thumb. and. when not slain. Kasyapa impregnated the daughters of Dak~a. or "the Lord of Creatures. King Yudhi~thira. Dak~a was the son of Pracetas. the" golden foetus" or "golden egg. is a creation oj tremendous length. or nearly three times as long as the Judaeo-Christian Bible. The battle itself is a tragic episode in which nearly all the k~atriya. Brahma. the villains being killed and the heroes. The villains are the hundred Sons of Dhrtal'ii~tra. and that will stretch. and the following condensation attempts to describe them.jbrh which means "grow" or "evolve. sometimes referred to as Prajapati. eventually attaining heaven. when all was water.

Vivasvat. Among Hastin's descendants was one SarilVaral. progenitor of the Solar Race to which the sage-king Janaka (mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta.l<. another son of Manu Vaivasvata.las). and this is a bit confusing because the Pal. So ancient are the theoretical origins of this mythology that Manu Vaivasvata was merely the seventh in a long list of Manus belonging to previous universes.l<. I). He became. who was a descendant of Bharata and Kuru.l<. This he accomplished by holding a sacrifice during which a woman named Ila was created. became the father of Manu Vaivasvata (also mentioned in IV. III. and they begot Kuru. when a great king named" Poros" by the Greeks. who survived a great flood with the assistance of Vishnu (Vishnu had assumed the form of a fish for the purpose according to the Pural. and Nahu~a. with whom we need not be concerned here. By the former he begot Yadu. (It is interesting to note that apparently the Pilru.Ayu.lI. Yayati had two wives.. By the latter he begot Pilru. I).. placed the date of Vivasvat's birth at twenty-eight mahayugas (about 120 billion years) before his own time. doing for India what his ancestor Manu Vaivasvata had done for the known world. the Noah of Hindu mythology. father of the great King Yayati Nahu~a. grandfather of Rama.la who married TapatI. was defeated in a memorable battle by Alexander. after the flood.la. and begot three sons .iava and Kaurava lines. or water nymph. whose descendants founded the Kasi line of kings to which some of the warriors at the Battle of Kuruk~etra belonged. Vivasvat (which means "shining forth ").iavas (Sons of Pal. Raghu Rama.li clans from which Krishna was descended.iava and Kaurava princes were brought up. who is mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta (IV. At this point the Kauravas (Sons of Kuru) and the Pal. gave birth to the sun god. named UrvasI. IV. With Ila's help he begot nine sons. and Sudyumna. Amavasu. Among the descendants of Sudyumna was one Purilravas who married an apsarii. or Savarl.la. 20) belonged.these daughters. who lived in the eleventh century A. a daughter of the Sun god by Chaya (which means" shade "). and here w. who became the progenitor of the Yadava and V r~l.l<. as well as some territory north of the Himalaya. who became the progenitor of the Lunar Race with which we are concerned here. I). the progenitor of the human race. Yayati practically peopled the whole subcontinent of India. are closer to the immediate ancestry of our 10 .l<. progenitor of both the Pal. among whom was Ik~vaku (likewise mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta. the ancestor of Bharata. the hero of the Ramayal. named Dak~ayal. or Paurava family continued under its own name down to the time of Alexander's invasion of India.D. and later became his friend. The extraordinary scope of the Hindu imagination is illustrated by the fact that the great Indian commentator Ramanuja. DevayanI and Sarmi~tha. from which most of the heroes of the Battle of Kuruk~etra were descended. Some way further down the genealogical line we meet Prince PratIpa.) Among the early descendants of Bharata was King Hastin who founded the city of Hastinapura where the Pal.iu) are not yet differentiated. a figure that is perhaps closer to modern scientific theories of the birth of the sun than the chronologically vague account in Genesis would place it.iavas were as much "sons of Kuru" as the Kauravas were. Other early members of the Solar Race were King Sagara of Ayodhya.

Sarhtanu's first-born and proper heir. the aging king had met and admired.l<. BhI~ma was a man of great nobility.iava (or 11 . Arhbika then became the mother of Dh!"tara~tra. he went to the court of the King of the Kasi and took part in a trial of arms. Such was the extraordinary generosity of BhI~ma.that SatyavatI's sons should inherit Sarhtanu's throne. as well as the greatest teacher of the art of arms. of the PaI)." Perhaps there were more than one of these. and his half-brother Vyasa. King Vicitravlrya proved to be childless (the story of what happened to Arhba. Nakula and Sahadeva. lay with his wives. who later became formally though not actually the father of the PaI. Bhlma.iu. He appears in the Mahabharata as a respected sage. Now.iava Princes. Not only did BhI~ma make this sacrifice (continence was. a Vyasa was born whenever compiling was to be done." "arranger" or" compiler. 13) was also a son of SatyavatI. He was a son of the hermit Parasara. and is. and the great uncle. in turn. By another wife. during his lifetime. and teacher in the art of arms. Vicitravlrya. who was still a minor.l<. It is one of the universal rules of mythology that great heroes always have mysterious or divine births. as well as the villainous Duryodhana and the remaining ninety-nine sons of Dhrtara:'?tra. who refused marriage. known in the Mahabharata as "the Grandsire. thus permitting the sons of SatyavatI the royal succession. otherwise known as the River Ganges. according to the custom of levirate. Prince PratIpa was the father of King Sarhtanu. Yudhi~thira. but his birth was premarital. son of SatyavatL On the death of Sarhtanu. BhI~ma was the son of King Sarhtanu by Ganga. reigned at Hastinapura. Arjuna. as well as the Mahabharata. was the father of the great warrior BhI~ma. according to the Hindu theory of reincarnation. or perhaps. and he became.l<. When his father. Vyasa (mentioned in the Bhagavad Glta. The fisherman agreed on one condition . the blind and vacillating king of the Kauravas. in which he appears as an important character. Sarhtanu begot Citrangada and Vicitravlrya. In the great battle the PaI. approached him noting that he was an only son (this was long before the birth of Citrangada and Vicitravlrya). mentioned above. and Arhbalika became the mother of PaI). must await its place). Vyasa is supposed to have compiled the Vedas. whose daughter Satyavatl. SatyavatI. met this condition by renouncing the throne and vowing to remain childless throughout his life." actually an uncle of PaI. and that if anything happened to him the line would become extinct. the other sister.<. who. Arhbika and Arhbalika. an admired trait in India). the greatest warrior in the world. the sage. to beget sons for him. BhI~ma.<. and asked SatyavatI's father for her hand in marriage to his father. The word vyasa means" divider. as wives for his half-brother Vicitravlrya. a circumstance which is one of the causes of Arjuna's agony of indecision at the beginning of the Bhagavad Glta.principal characters. the earliest of which date from about a thousand years previously. King Sarhtanu. The birth of Vyasa as a son of SatyavatI is one of those odd features of Hindu literature that defy chronological sense. defeating all opponents and winning the daughters of that king. with BhI~ma as regent.iava Princes are arrayed against their beloved teacher BhI~ma.iu. Arhba. But after marrying Arhbika and Arhbalika. X. BhI~ma went to the house of a fisherman.

the Pal). as might be expected. offering him the garland. This was the last straw for Amba. But when the battle took place Parasurama was defeated by BhI!?ma. and. But none of them would volunteer. BhI!?ma obligingly sent her back to Salva." at which the princess made her choice among the assembled warriors. Finally.) When Bhi!?ma brought Amba to Hastinapura along with her sisters. (Such trials of arms were held traditionally whenever a princess reached marriagable age.iu) Princes. and told those present that she had chosen Salva as her future husband according to the rule of svayamvara. things got even worse: Vicitravirya refused to marry anyone whose heart was pledged to another. Bhima. became one of the warriors at the Battle of Kuruk!?etra. At the time Bhi!?ma won her as a bride for his half-brother Vicitravlrya.iin. When she returned to Hastinapura. Impatient for her next birth. She was subsequently reborn as Sikhal). or warrior. or "own choice. father Pal). but he refused her a second time. as was the case with BhI!?ma. he had defeated Salva. we must relate what happened to Amba. she went to see Parasurama (" Rama of the Axe "). She approached Salva again.<. she built a great fire and plunged into it to be burned to death. caste.iavas were also descended from Kuru through their official.iu. They not only respected the old warrior. But even Drupada. But before we get to the reasons why Yudhi!?thira. She went to the Himalaya where she practiced extreme austerities to gain the favor of the god Shiva. Sometimes the event was what was called a svayamvara. who was a mighty warrior. or he. and that while the Kauravas were very distant descendants of Kuru.Sons of Pal). He sent her back to BhI!?ma. declined to fight with Bhi!?ma. who felt humiliated by his defeat at the hands of Bhi!?ma. refused to have anything to do with her. But when she got there. and promised that she would. partici12 . and Vishnu gave her a garland. Sometimes the victor carried her off. Then Amba undertook austerities in order to gain the favor of the god Vishnu. Amba refused to marry Vicitravirya. was rather upset. barring a few supernatural interventions and a remarkable amount of substitute fatherhood. cousins. Among others. Amba then approached King Drupada of the Pancalas. King of Saubha and one of the royal personages who had participated in the trial of arms in which BhI!?ma had defeated all adversaries. Thus it will be seen that the pal). Amba became overwhelmed with hatred for Bhi!?ma. Nakula and Sahadeva were not the real sons of Pal). Parasurama also became an avatiir of the god Vishnu in honor of whom she had previously performed austerities. if not actual. on the advice of some ascetics.c. whom he felt had won her in honorable combat.iavas and the Kauravas (Descendants of Kuru) were. and then spared his life. Then she sought champions among the princes at Hastinapura who might fight and kill BhI!?ma.iu. Amba was in love with a certain Salva. He agreed to be hcr champion.<. become a man. who had been the author of all her misfortunes. Salva.<. saying that whoever wore it would become an enemy of BhI!?ma. Shiva appeared before her. they were afraid of him. but this was out of the question because of BhI!?ma's vow of chastity. she. and had vowed to exterminate the k!?atriya. Arjuna. Amba asked BhI!?ma to marry her. In due time. Amba. in her next incarnation. as Arjuna's charioteer. a famous brahman who had taken up the un-brahmanical profession of arms. son of King Drupada.<.<.

~u had two wives . By Indra. birth (it was also a virgin birth). and Madrl. and who had the appetite of a wolf. the PaI). his grandson Krishna was born.~u was also a half brother of the blind King Dhrtara~tra. however. All of the so-called Sons of PaI). Just before the battle.~u had gods for fathers.~u had the misfortune to kill a deer which w~s copulating with its mate and which was really a sage in disguise. But this happened after KarI). from the sage Durvasas with which she could summon any god to be the father of her children.~in because he knew of his reincarnation and considered him to be a woman. she begot the powerful Bhlma. paI).~u was incapable of having children.~ava Princes. and the stage was set for the sort of divine. Dhrtara~tra had a hundred sons.a who was born with earrings and a complete suit of armor. the heavenly horsemen who pull the chariot of the dawn.~u. a Yadava king (who was also the father of Vasudeva. By Vayu. PaI). the god of righteousness. Krishna's father. were of divine birth. He would die the instant he had intercourse with a woman. all the PaI). and brought up by him as his son. paI). the sage levelled a curse at paI). As a matter of fact. Once. was busy along similar lines. or magical invocation. daughter of Sura. KarI). while out hunting.~u.Kunt!. as befits heroes.~u's other wife. By Dharma. Now we come to the story of paI). Thus.~u about the mantra. whose habit was to uproot trees to use as weapons. and promptly went about becoming the mother of great heroes by various gods. though divine. he died suddenly in a moment of forgetfulness while having intercourse with Madr1. another princess. she begot Arjuna. officially the son of King Vicitravlrya but actually the son of Vicitravlrya's half brother Vyasa by Arilbalika. where he was picked up by a charioteer named Adhiratha. thus making KuntI Krishna's aunt). She had summoned the Sun god. She became the mother of the twins. or properly speaking. In the meantime. PaI). legend. she had used it once before her marriage to PaI). the stainless knight who is the hero of the Bhagavad Glta. or otherwise peculiar births that are mandatory for great heroes. Nakula and Sahadeva by the twin Asvins. and was preparing to fight against his half brothers. the god of the winds. Madrl. Kunt!. burning herself upon her husband's funeral pyre. In this combat Bhl~ma refused to defend himself against SikhaI). that she had set the child afloat in a river. and had taken her name from him (it had originally been Prtha) had once received a mantra.a had cast his lot with the Kauravas. and thought of himself as the son of a humble charioteer. who had been adopted in childhood by her father's childless cousin Kuntibhoja. at the court of King Sura.a was unaware of his miraculous birth until the Battle of Kuruk~etra. who was the son of Vyasa by Arilbika. Kunt! informed him of his divine lineage. As to paI). There had already been intimations of his divine role as the avatar of 13 .pated in the slaying of her old enemy Bhl~ma.~u. While dying. Meanwhile.~ava Princes.~u. Madrl dutifully committed suttee (or sat! as the Sanskrit has it). paI). the chief of the Vedic gods. she became the mother of the just and honorable Yudhi~thira. Thus PaI). Kunt! told her legal husband PaI). of the Yadava line. and by him had had a child named KarI).~u reigned at Hastinapura with Bhl~ma as advisor. Kunt! had been so embarrassed by this illegitimate.

an evil tyrant named Kamsa who had imprisoned King Ugrasena and usurped the throne. he is addressed in the Bhagavad GIta. and finally Krishna was forced to abandon the city. He was a sly child. The six then ascended to heaven with Krishna's help. Krishna himself was placed by Vasudeva into the hands of a cowherd named Nanda. A "barbarian" (Greek) king named Kalayavana. Krishna was brought up by Nanda and his wife among cowherds and milkmaids. King of Magadha. from Samdlpani. the abduction of a Gandhara 14 . But he also performed several heroic feats as a child. J arasamdha. by Krishna. a famous warriorsage. the gods Indra. left the milkmaids behind. a marine demon who lived at the bottom of the sea in the form of a conch. and thereafter used the conch shell Paficajanya (mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta I. Then Krishna changed his habits. Finally. DevakI's cousin. among other nicknames. There were difficulties. as many as 16. Paficajana. and delighted in stealing milk. Six children thus perished. and sent a great army against Mathura. and instruction in the art of war. heard of Kamsa's death at the hands of Krishna. attacking the city eighteen times without decisive result. in fulfillment of the sage's prophecy. Among these was Kdin. Krishna's later exploits included battles with.108 wives including his chief wife RukminL The evil Kamsa continued to try to waylay Krishna and his brother Balarama. "Ionian. joined his armies to Jarasamdha's. and the child who was born was Balarama. Vasudeva duly married DevakI. was born there had been a rolling of heavenly drums because he was to become the parent of Vishnu's avattir. But Vasudeva magically inserted the seventh into the womb of RohinI. Vasudeva. another of his wives. a niece of King Ugrasena of Mathura. king of the savage horse-demons. Krishna went to the rescue and slew Paficajana. the conquest of a large number of tribes and kings. And he pursued the opposite sex.the god Vishnu. whose daughters had married Kamsa. accumulating. When his father. but was always foiled by one stratagem or another. according to some sources. arranged that all DevakI's children should die at birth (a sage had predicted that Kamsa would be slain by a son of DevakI). VaruDa and Shiva. Along with his brother Balarama. butter and fruit. During this period. underwent purification ceremonies and acknowledged Vasudeva and DevakI as his true parents. many of whom had settled in India at this time). Kamsa's brother Sunaman then tried to avenge Kamsa's death. seeking their death. "Black Greek" (Yavana. and defeats of. IS) as a trumpet. he received spiritual instruction. The result was that the imprisoned King Ugrasena was freed and reigned again in his kingdom at Mathura. Krishna's older brother." was the Indian term for Greeks. Krishna descended into hell to bring back his six brothers whom Kamsa had caused to be slain at birth. but was slain by Balarama. Kamsa himself entered the arena and was killed. The demons and beasts being easily overcome by Krishna and Balarama. He moved his capital to a town in the Gujarat called Dvaraka (" the city of gates or doors") which then became one of India's sacred cities. Shortly afterward. Kamsa invited Krishna and Balarama to take part in an athletic contest in which he sent savage demons and wild beasts to fight them. whose death at Krishna's hands earned Krishna the epithet of Kesinisudana (Slayer of Kesin) by which. kidnapped Samdlpani's son.

as has been related. It is said that the father of both heroes. DroI)a and" the grandsire" Bhl~ma. because of his superhuman strength. He became India's ideal of manhood and a god who is worshipped to this day. But Bhlma was something of a bully. died because of the sage's curse (he had by the time of his death taken up residence in the forest with his wives and children). much to the delight of Duryodhana. and the fight was called off. and he became an t:. KarI)a. committed suttee. entrusting them to the old warrior Bhl~ma.u and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra were taught the arts of war by the older warriors Krpa. It was Arjuna who grew up to be the most skillful warrior. The sages of the forest took Kunt! and the children back to Hastinapura. palf9. and threw him into a river to drown. During this time. Meanwhile the sons of Palf9. Arjuna. father of Arjuna. Much more powerfully built than the others. Nakula and Sahadeva) grew up together with the hundred sons of Dhrtara~tra (the Kaurava princes) in typical boyish rivalry and general high spirits.U and his half brother Dhrtara~tra seem to have divided the throne at Hastinapura. became the most powerful one.aVa Princes. a magical weapon which was Indra's own and which had the power to kill even at a great distance.u. He challenged Arjuna to combat.arIy enemy of the Palf9. for Duryodhana carried KarQa off in his chariot. a kingdom some authorities identify with modern Bengal. But Indra made a proviso. the god Indra and the Sun god. appeared at Hastinapura. bound him. But there was some question as to whether KarI)a. appeared in the sky to encourage their offspring. Kuntl:. He poisoned Bhlma's food. granted KarI)a in return the use of the Sakti. allegedly the son of a charioteer. Bhlma. He appeared to KarQa in the guise df a brahman and begged from him his earrings and armor.ava Princes. astonished by this act. Knowing that such an encounter was inevitable at some point. sought to weaken KarQa. Yudhi~thira. who. was of sufficient rank to fight with Arjuna. The 15 . he delighted in grasping the Sons of Dhrtara~tra with his arms and holding them under water until their breaths gave out.aVa Princes Yudhi~thira. Duryodhana hatched a plot to wipe out the Sons of Palf9. partly because of Bhlma's bullying but also because he was afraid that Palf9. But the poison only strengthened Bhlma. disqualified because of his blindness. who burst his bonds and swam to shore.u'S eldest son. and he planned to cast Arjuna and Yudhi~thira into prison. Chief among them was Duryodhana '(" Dirty Fighter "). while Bmma. and when they climbed trees he would shake the trunks until they fell out like ripe fruit. and seize the throne himself.princess from her svayamvara and the defeat . his chief wife. Duryodhana thereupon crowned KarI)a King of Aiiga. who had been born to Kunt! by the Sun god but had been brought up as the son of a humble charioteer.of the King of Ni~ada who had attacked Dvaraka. Dhrtara~tra. and Indra. KarQa. acting as regent until the death of Palf9. But the encounter did not follow immediately. the god Indra. The children (the Palf9. remained to take care of the children while Madrl. The Sons of Dhrtara~tra hated Bhlma from infancy. the unacknowledged half-brother of the paI)9. as has been said. might succeed to the throne instead of himself.u. gave them up. who was famous for his generosity.

As has been said.la was a brahman.l9u. Drupada was angry. With the connivance of Kan)a and Sakuni. inflicting a painful and bloody wound. But one day while Kan)a slept. named Menaka when his seed fell to the ground. Drol.la. however. When the moment arrived. Kan)a went to the warlike brahman Parasurama (" Rama of the Axe") who hated all m~mbers of the kf?atriya.l9u as well as the hundred sons of Dhrtaraf?tra in the arts of war.la. in which. he spurned his former friend. ten million cattle were killed. was selected by "the grandsire" BhIf?ma to train the five Sons of Pal. and the births of Drol. Duryodhana. and the possibility that Yudhif?thira. Dhrtara~tra. They defeated the Pancalas and took Drupada prisoner. the brother-in-law of Dhrtaraf?tra.la bore the pain without flinching. but retained.la.la and Drupada were peculiar indeed. as a pledge of future friendship.la. Drupada's wife was unprepared to receive his seed. These were the twins Dhrf?tadyumna (" He whose splendor is bold") and DraupadI (" Daughter of Drupada"). to use with the Sakti. he plotted to destroy the Sons of Pal. calling him a poor beggar. or magical invocation. Only a kf?atriya.la was not the brahman he represented himself to be. thus gaining by force what he had been promised and then denied. would hear 16 . But he did not succeed. and Parasurama. Drol. Ashamed.l9u. Karl. a stinging insect burrowed into his thigh. and Drupada was born from it. he took a rapid (dru) step (pada) to stamp out the seed. But a son and a daughter sprang forth miraculously from the sacrificial fire.he would be doomed to forget the mantra at the moment he needed it most. could stand such pain without crying out. But we are getting ahead of our story. Drol. Drol. Drol. might succeed to the throne of Hastinapura. mythology demands that all heroes be born in a peculiar manner. and Parasurama taught him the proper mantra. Parasurama then knew immediately that Karl. caste.la had to confess that he was a kf?atriya. his own son. who was inclined to kindliness toward his nephews.la then forgave Drupada. In the forest hermitage of the sage Bharadvaja. He was observing a beautiful nymph. At first. after which it would return to its godly owner. Drupada was a kf?atriya.weapon could be used by Kan)a only once. He represented himself to Parasurama as a brahman. Karl.la . son of the king of the Pancalas. half the Pancala kingdom. and hoped for a son who would slay Dr0l. it is said. pronounced a curse on Karl. or member of the warrior caste. the evil elder son of the blind King Dhrtaraf?tra. instead of he. Dhrf?tadyumna did indeed slay Drol.l9ava Princes.la sent the Sons of Pal. but despite his birth became a renowned warrior. the Sons of pal. later the collective wife of the five Pal. for neither had a mother. the king of pancala. outraged by the deception." was born from a bucket into which his father's seed had fallen. And so it turned out.la.l9u on an expedition to defeat and capture Drupada. He performed a great sacrifice to this end. But when King Prf?ata died and Drupada ascended the throne of Pancala. During their childhood Drupada often spoke of giving half his kingdom to Dr0l. became enraged at the popularity and success at arms of the Pal.l9ava Princes. Many years later. or warrior. After their apprenticeship was over. Something similar had happened to Prf?ata. the great hero Drol. whose name means" bucket.la was trained in archery along with Drupada.

nothing of the plot. At midnight the palace was set aflame. he agreed to it.lu were sojourning at Ekacakra. warned Yudhif?thira that something was afoot in Varal!avata.lavas owed it to themselves to attend. the Sons of Pal!<. and the Sons of Pal!<. took a bath and then told the brahman family of his deed. The Sons of Pal!<.lu and Dhrtaraf?tra.lava Princes.lu journeyed into the forest. Only Vidura was not overcome by apparent grief. who favored the Pal!<. dragging the demon's body to the city gates. He who shot an arrow through the ring with this bow could claim DraupadJ: as his wife. Later. The Sons of PaI!<. but kept a sharp lookout. and after a long march they arrived at Pancala where they took up residence at the home of a potter. owing to the wiles and insistent arguments of Duryodhana. and princes came from many distant kingdoms to compete for her hand. He returned to the city. and which was being held in thrall by a terrible cannibalistic demon named Bakasura (" Crane Demon ").lu to stay in during their visit. During this journey they met their grandfather the sage Vyasa. often carried with their mother Kunti on the broad shoulders and hips.lava Princes.lavas had escaped. a younger brother of Pal!<. It would be a difficult feat. King Drupada had caused a revolving ring to be placed on a pole at a great height. Some 17 . who was well aware of this tactic. they heard about the svayamvara of Princess DraupadJ:. and sent a miner to dig a subterranean exit from the wax palace.lu escaped through the subterranean tunnel.lu that a great festival in honor of Shiva was to take place in the nearby city of Varal!avata. the princes stepped up to try their skill. who gave them good counsel and advised them to dress as brahmans. While the Sons of Pal!<. whose king had fled. because the people of VaraI)avata were anxious to see them.lu were still disguised as humble brahmans. DraupadJ: was a great beauty.lu took up residence in the palace. By prearrangement this palace was built of wax and other inflammable materials.lu were asleep. daughter of King Drupada (" Rapid Step") of Pancala who has already been mentioned in connection with his boyhood friend Drol!a. Before the festival took place. Dhrtaraf?tra and his sons exchanged their garments for funereal ones and performed impressive obsequies near a river for the supposedly dead Pal!<. and thus destroy them." actually "the City of the One Wheel of Dominion "). But BhJ:ma. even Krishna and his brother Balarama had come to Pancala to compete in the ceremony. Finally they arrived at a city called Ekacakra (" One Wheel. and that the Pal!<. Pretending that they knew nothing of the plot. finally threw him to the ground and broke his bones. A brahman family gave them shelter. or with the hands. Karl!a and Sakuni sent a minister named Purocana to Varal!avata to construct a palace for the Sons of Pal!<. and the gods assembled in midair to witness the spectacle. and had had a very large bow constructed which was difficult to bend. and when they learned about the demon and his insistence on tribute in the form of human flesh and other foods. The idea was to set fire to the palace while the Sons of Pal!<. But Vidura. BhJ:ma set out to destroy him. of the powerful BhJ:ma. he knew that the Pal!<. One by one. A terrific battle ensued in which the demon pulled up trees by the roots to belabor BhJ:ma with. When the great day of the svayamvara arrived. and mentioned to the Sons of Pal!<. Duryodhana.

Srutaklrti by Arjuna.a and Salya. "" Back in Hastinapura. and that none of the others would see her during this time.iavas had been joined by Dhmadyumna. son of Drupada.iu to DraupadL King Drupada objected to the marriage (polyandry was not a common practice among Hindus.could not even bend the bow.iavas.<. Both King Drupada and Princess Draupadl were overjoyed.sasana.a did not. the Sons of Kuru heard of the doings at Pancala and realized for the first time that the Sons of pal). Drol). Satanlka by Nakula and Srutakarman by Sahadeva. The wise. Duryodhana. was at first relieved to hear the news. Krishna's tribe. Sutasoma by Bhlma.iavas through experts in the art of erotics. This was a formidable group to contend with. they cried out" We have won a great prize today. DraupadI was overcome with jealousy.a agreed. should marry DraupadL But as they saw their mother. By this time the pal). but he finally yielded. though polygamy was).<. Arjuna was her favorite husband. and also by Sikhal). and when he afterward married a second wife.<. In addition. Then Arjuna stepped forward.<. took up the bow and shot five arrows straight through the ring. the capital of Dhrtara~tra's kingdom. It was arranged that Draupadl should stay two days at the house of each brother in turn. but later connived with his sons against the Pal). the eldest of them." Kunt!'s word being law.iava Princes returned home. there was nothing to do but marry all five Sons of Pal).iavas in flagrante delicto with other women. plotting the downfall of the Pal). She subsequently bore five sons. now a son of Drupada.a point that seems to be borne out by the narrative.<. the male incarnation of Arhba. and that the latter were an old settled people who preferred to gain their ends by guile and conspiracy rather than war .iin. Prativindhya by Yudhi~thira.<.<.including Kan. daughter of the King of the Kasis. • There has been some speculation among historians as to the relative customs of the Pat:t9avas and the Kauravas. Vidura was happy at this news. was infuriated. they agreed that Yudhi~thira. They considered bribing Drupada to join them against the Pal). and so was his brother Dul. They also considered fomenting jealousy among the Pal). King of Madra . Kunt!.iavas all over again. eldest of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. and none succeeded in hitting the target. Subhadra. a sister of Krishna whom he had carried off by force with Krishna's permission.iavas. 18 . that they were a northern tribe who went to war with the more civilized Kauravas.iu had not perished in the burning of the wax palace. They considered setting the sons of Kunt! (Yudhi~thira. and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra were understandably fearful." and Kunt! said" Then share the prize between you.<.<. Bhlma and Arjuna) and the sons of Madri (Nakula and Sahadeva) against each other.<. The Cambridge History of India holds that the polyandry of the Pat:t9avas is an indication of their comparative primitiveness. His brother.<.iu and giving them half the kingdom. When the Pal). the vacillating. blind King Dhrtara!?tra. The hotter-headed Duryodhana and Karl). and fomenting the jealousy of Draupadl by catching the Pal). one by each of the brothers. They consulted with their uncle Sakuni. they had been joined by Krishna and the Yadavas. though there were murmurs of objection from some who were present . aged and generous BhI~ma counselled making peace with the Sons of pal).that a brahman should win a prize reserved for warriors (Arjuna was still disguised as a brahman).

King Dhrtara~tra was reluctant to approve this idea. The result was that each wife gave birth to half a child. on the contrary. Meanwhile. which he thought unworthy of a king. and had consulted a sage about his problem. or female demon named Jara (" the Old One "). they should invite Yudhi~thira to a game of dice.9avaS had brought to Indrapra~tha. they were disguised as holy men. which was indispensable for one who sought imperial dominion. King of Magadha. and sent for Krishna to advise him whether or not he might undertake the Rajasuya Sacrifice and name himself emperor. and take back the half of the kingdom they had been given. At that moment a mango fell into the lap of the sage. "put together by J ara "). who had been in attendance. cautioned Yudhi~thira. the captive princes were released. and sought battle with him in single combat. On the thirteenth. was skilled in the tricks of dice playing. The Sons of PaI). had been childless. and proclaimed himself emperor. But Krishna pointed out that as long as his. The sage cut the mango into two halves and presented them to Brhadratha. This being accomplished. but as usual he vacillated and finally 19 . Bhlma and Arjuna set out to kill Jarasamdha and free his prisoners who would then become allies of the paI). and this inflamed. Jarasamdha. He went to his urcle Sakuni with a proposal that the Sons of Dhrtara~tra should declare war against the Sons of PaI).9U. noted the prosperity that the PaI). Jarasamdha's son was made king of Magadha and Krishna and the Sons of paI). Krishna proposed that he.9U took up residence in a new city (identified by some with modern Delhi). His father. So they set out. and there they reigned justly for thirty-six years. Now. Yudhi~thira was inclined to give up his idea. Sakuni could accomplish by peaceful means what Duryodhana wanted to gain by war. When Krishna and the PaI). They named the city Indraprastha.9u returned to Indrapra~tha. the sage Vyasa. and planned to attack and imprison a full hundred. who had also attended the ceremony. the kingdom was divided in half. Yudhi~thira performed the Rajasuya Sacrifice. but Bhima did not like this spirit of complacence. reigned.9ava Princes arrived at Jarasamdha's court. was Jarasamdha made into a complete human being (hence his name. held some eighty-six princes in prison. But the wily and evil Sakuni proposed that. After the ceremony. Arjuna was enthusiastic. and Jarasamdha welcomed them with courtesy. Bhlma killed J arasamdha. Yudhi~thira was crowned king of the other half.9avas. Yudhi~thira was not. however. He. But soon they revealed themselves as warriors.his anger even further. and prophesied evil days to come for the k~atriya race. and a very wicked one. Sakuni. J arasamdha chose Bhlma as his opponent.9avaS and bring them back to Hastinapura along with their mother and common wife. and the Sons of paI). was sent to Drupada's court to make peace with the PaI). their virtuous uncle. his natural grandfather. He grew into a man of immense strength. Duryodhana. nobody else could proclaim himself emperor. one Brhadratha.But Vidura. Yudhi~thira began to have dreams of empire. who gave each half to one of his two wives. and that only on the intervention of a rak~asI. who tied the two halves together. had had a strange birth. and they battled each other for thirteen days. Krishna's old enemy King Jarasamdha. like all the other warrior heroes in this epic.9U had too long refrained from heroic deeds.

As her robes were stripped away. was no longer his property. and even King Dhrtara~tra himself were outraged by this suggestion. partly because he had a weakness for gambling.) But when the Pal!9. it was Sakuni who had suggested the wager of DraupadI. causing a large hall of games to be built and sending his brother Vidura with an invitation to Yudhi~thira. who was a doting father. protested that the game had been rigged and that. a miracle occurred.consented. including DraupadI. (There had been a legal dilemma not only over Sakuni's right to suggest the wager of DraupadI. Duryodhana sent his brother Dul:tsasana to fetch DraupadI. the foolish Yudhi~thira began to wager his brothers Nakula. He caught her by the hair and dragged her before the assembly. and then asked Yudhi~thira to wager their common wife DraupadI. Karl!a and the remaining Sons of Dhrtara~tra shouted in exultation.avas. Even Vikarl!a. It was bad form for one side to suggest to the other what he should wager. and his brother Dul:tsasana even went to the extreme of stripping the clothes from the pal!9. Sakuni won every throw. the game began. BhIma and himself. where the Sons of Pal!9.u free was the dubious legality of this wager. BhI~ma and Vidura. to become the household servant of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. that one day he would rend the breast of Dul:tsasana and drink his blood. foreseeing the destruction of his race. spending the last of the thirteen incognito. having piled up a great heap of elegant garments. Drol!a. Krpa. upbraided his father. Vidura was filled with forebodings. contrary to the rules. but the evil Duryodhana. sheep. (This was technically against the rules. Vidura was not happy with his assignment.) The elders. but he plunged ahead. King Dhrtara~tra. Yudhi~thira accepted. Sakuni won them all. but also as to whether Yudhi~thira. Dhrtara~tra. then chariots and horses. villages. Then. Duryodhana. Yudhi~thira went on to wager cattle. The howling of animals was suddenly heard from the forest. Yudhi~thira was again summoned. The elders hung their heads in shame. This time the stake was that the defeated party go with his brothers into exile for thirteen years. Intoxicated by the game. one of Dhrtara~tra's sons. however. in desperation. citizens and all their possessions. asked them for forgiveness and restored their kingdom to them. called DraupadI and Yudhi~thira to his side. and complained that by his generous action he had strengthened their enemies again. seeing his plans frustrated. King Dhrtara~tra. from fatigue. was finally forced to cease. gave in to Duryodhana's arguments and agreed once more to a game of dice. Yudhi~thira was quite aware of Sakuni's reputation as an expert at the game. Sahadeva and finally Arjuna. At this point Bhlma swore a mighty oath. Next morning. Sakuni won again. and DraupadI was sent for. any longer had the right to wager DraupadI who. and he warned Yudhi~thira that probably no good would come of the invitation.u were put up in regal fashion by the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. and went with his retinue to Hastinapura.ava Princes had left. One of the reasons Dhrtara~tra set the Sons of Pal!9. and the crafty Sakuni again took up the dice. But Duryodhana was adamant. new ones appeared in their place. Sakuni won them all. a cloth having been spread in the hall of games. at that point. partly out of courtesy. and Dul:tsasana. In DraupadI's case. If they 20 . who had wagered and lost himself. Nevertheless. He wagered jewels and gold.

and members of a warrior tribe known as the Kekayas who had been friends of the PaI. Meanwhile. He shot it with an arrow. Arjuna did as he was told. Arjuna accepted. Vidura and Sakuni) was doomed. whose friend.19avas. Krishna had slain. during which Bhlma stumbled upon his half brother Hanuman (also a son of the wind god Vayu). But during his austerities he was charged by a wild boar. Yudhi$thira lost again. Vidura left the court and cast his lot with the Sons of paIf9u. with both legs broken. Draupadi wanted revenge.were recognized during the thirteenth year. The encounter brought joy to both brothers. But Draupadi never gave up lamenting her humiliation at the hands of the Sons of Dhrtara$tra. and another huntsman shot it at the same moment. the race of the Kauravas (the Sons of Dhrtara$tra. he went on a pilgrimage to the Himalaya. But Duryodhana slapped his thighs in derision. DroQa and Vidura were both apprehensive. King of Cedi. on the battlefield at the hands of Bhlma if he proceeded with his evil plans. against the advice of Dhrtara!}!ra.1i tribes as well as Dhmaketu. They felt that. Indra advised him to do penance to Shiva (a god who was rapidly displacing the old Vedic god Indra at this time). He was met by his father. who was disguised as a brahman.19avas in the forest. As to Arjuna himself. the second wife of Arjuna. After that. and eventually she got it. and the others to the court of Drupada. in retribution. Krishna found the PaIf9avas. which had been besieged in his absence by a certain King Salva. Krishna was busy lifting the siege of Dvaraka. This was Shiva himself. and then returned to Dvaraka with Subhadra. The PaQ9avas then went on a pilgrimage. strengthening him a hundredfold. the other great Hindu epic. They sent it away. telling those who were so inclined to go to the court of Dhrtara$tra. and their child Abhimanyu. Krishna and Balarama again visited the PaI. and Hanuman recounted the adventures he had had while assisting Rama to bring back his beloved Sita from captivity at the hands of the King of Lanka (Ceylon). He was then taken in a chariot to Indra's realm. Needless to say. and was becoming a burden to support. But Arjuna soon noticed that his opponent was unscathed while he himself was being wounded. and the Sons of PaIf9u took to the forest. though Arjuna was unaware of the fact. asked forgiveness. A great army was collecting around the PaIf9avas. and he brought along with him many men of the Bhoja and Vr$I. and the two battled. along with Dhrtara$tra himself. While Arjuna was away. and several sages told them stories to take their minds off their misfortunes. Sisupala. who had taken a heroic role in the RamayaIfa. where he practiced austerities. but stayed with them only long enough to express his sympathy. Many things happened in the forest.1c. When he heard of the dice game at Hastinapura he set out at once to find the PaI. Shiva suggested that they fight over the matter of who had killed the boar. Then Vidura pronounced a curse on Duryodhana to the effect that he would die.19aVas. There. Duryodhana and the Kauravas went to the forest to gloat over the misery of the PiiI. they attacked a group of gandharvas (heavenly musicians) and were de21 . they would agree to go into exile again for another twelve years. Then he recognized Shiva. At this point. the god Indra. and Shiva healed his wounds.!avas. rested for a while in the kingdom of the gods and obtained divine weapons.

She requested one more month's stay (it was the last month of the thirteenth year of the exile of the Sons of Paf. and. Susarman had long had an account to settle with Virata. and adventures without number came the way of the Sons of paf. and they were obliged to preserve their incognito until it ended). taking a bath and sleeping with satisfaction. later going back to his kitchen. Arjuna returned from his pilgrimage. Sahadeva became the king's cowherd. a suspicion began to grow that the Paf. They were rescued by the just and noble Yudhi~thira. Bhlma served as a cook. But rumors of the slaying of Klcaka began to reach Hastinapura. Nakula became a stable boy.iavas threw back the armies of Susarman. and she was asked to leave. slayable only by the mighty Bhlma. the thirteenth year of their exile arrived. Kan. of course. King of the Matsyas. Klcaka's death made DraupadI an object of fear at the court of King Virata. were Bhlma.iavas were at Virata's court. Yudhi~thira said. but Yudhi~thira reassured him. and the Paf. But soon DraupadI's beauty caught the eye of Klcaka.feated after a great battle. Virata's son. he was also an expert in the art of war. Karf. Her entreaties that she was merely a lowcaste serving woman were of no avail. Matsya. and now that the latter's chief of armies had been killed. and when he sawthe Kauravas arrayed. he thought it a good time to strike. was anxious to respond to this attack. in triumph. Yudhi~thira became a courtier to the king. Though he was a mere holy man. laying waste the land. released Virata and brought him back to his capital city.l<. and the two of them went out alone to tackle the whole Kaurava army. Duryodhana proposed invading Virata's realm.iava Princes be discovered. the commander in chief of Virata's armies. and they set out. and he had heard that Arjuna. and the rescue humiliated Duryodhana. with whom the gandharvas refused to fight. the stable boy and the cowherd. He asked Arjuna to serve him in this capacity.l<. 22 .iu. If Virata would permit him to arm the cook. and DraupadI became the attendant of the queen and the princesses of Virata's court.a and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. this time without Arjuna. as everybody knew Klcaka to be a man of great physical prowess. but this was such a well-known habit of his that Yudhi~thira cautioned him against it. and. Nakula and Sahadeva. and he sought to seduce her. There was a big battle. Arjuna disguised himself as a eunuch to serve the ladies of the court. Susarman attacked the dominions of Virata. Miracles occurred. they would protect him. and Virata was taken captive for a time. lest the identity of the Paf. These. Finally.iu. Bhlma at one point wanted to uproot a tree to use as a weapon. and persuaded Bhlma to go in her place. Careless of revealing the identities of the Sons of Paf. Duryodhana had attacked Virata's realm from the opposite side and was stealing the cattle that were part of Virata's wealth. When Klcaka appeared. they came to the court of Virata.iu.l<.la agreed. It was Uttara'sfirst battle. Prince Uttara. where they took up domestic service. Bhlma took his place in a chariot. had at one time been a charioteer. Bhlma pounded him to a pulp.l<. she arranged for an assignation with Klcaka. Virata regretted the loss of his general. though a eunuch (still disguised). and was enthusiastically supported by King Susarman of Trigarta (which lay in the neighborhood of modern Lahore).l<. to protect Virata and defeat Susarman and the Kauravas. Klcaka pursued her and tried to rape her. in various disguises. Meanwhile.l<.

They left Virata's capital and settled in the city of Upaplavya.1a would remain to give battle to Arjuna. King of the Pancalas. and assumed his former effeminate garb as a eunuch. But the period of thirteen years had expired. and Duryodhana the army.1Qavas with a huge army.. he hid his arms in the tree again.ma was in favor of the settlement.1Qin (the former Amba) and his twin brother Dhr:. along with SikhaI.1Qava Princes immediately disclosed their true identity. Arjuna chose Krishna. unarmed. Salya. and a kinsman of Krishna) was present also. he noticed that his son. but KarI. but Duryodhana extended exaggerated hospitality toward him and his troops.1a was for war. and the PaI. and they were forced to return to Hastinapura in disgrace. The King of the Kasis and Saibya. BhI:. Balrama was in favor of this move.. Finally. Krpa. and his army.1a. and KarI. he made Uttara his charioteer. this mighty gathering of warriors thought of sending a last peace envoy to the Kauravas. but Uttara soon turned up. saying that the young Uttara had won a glorious victory. along with many Yadava warriors. another place in Virata's realm. Salya was an uncle of Nakula and 23 . Those who had briefly joined the PaI. defeating them all and finally using a magic weapon that made them fall down unconscious. sounding his conch horn Devadatta. But Satyaki deplored the idea as unworthy of warriors. and to leave another part to seize Virata's cattle.1a.1a tribesmen..1Qavas in the forest returned. Arjuna sent word back to the court of Virata. Meanwhile.tadyumna. DroI.. and. Krishna and Balarama arrived with Arjuna's second wife Subhadra and their son Abhimanyu. Balarama decided to abstain from the battle. arrived with their retinues. the NarayaI. was missing. Meanwhile a tremendous mobilization took place on both sides. Krishna agreed to serve as Arjuna's charioteer.tra agree to return the lands they had taken from the Sons of PaI. The aged BhI:.1Qu. the settlement being that the Sons of Dhrtara:. Asvatthiiman.1a advised the Kauravas to let Duryodhana return to Hastinapura with part of the army. Satyaki (otherwise known as Yuyudhiina. Duryodhana approached Krishna asking for his help in the coming battle. On the way back. Krishna and Balarama regarded themselves as neutrals. He then stripped their clothes off. Then he returned to fight with the Kaurava forces. On being questioned. No longer was it necessary for them to maintain their incognito. and when Salya asked how he could repay it. which he did.Arjuna was at some pains to keep him from fleeing the field. and Drupada agreed. When Virata returned to his court after the victory over Susarman. DrOl)a and BhI:.ma had already recognized him. Led by Krishna. and at the same time managed to put the cattle stealers to flight.ma. Here they summoned their friends and relatives. Krishna offered Duryodhana and Arjuna each a choice between himself. prepared for battle. Duryodhana asked him to join the side of the Kauravas. intending to join them. brought a considerable army. Uttara. friendly to both sides. King of the Sibis. But Arjuna pursued Duryodhana. DroI. Drupada. son of DroI. he gave all the credit for the victory to Arjuna. King of Madra Desa. sending him to retrieve some weapons he had hidden in a tree. A brahman was nevertheless sent to Hastinapura with proposals to Duryodhana for a peaceful settlement. marched toward the PaI..

First the Sons of PaIfcju. Kunt!.a. but it was too late to withdraw from battle against his half brothers. "Son of Kunt!". This gratified KarIfa. the PaIfcjavas mobilized a force of seven divisions. Bhlma and Arjuna. There was no recourse but war. Two last minute efforts were made to avoid war. Yudhi~thira. son of Prtha or Kunt! by the wind god Vayu. but he is by far the most powerful of the PaIfcjava Princes. and was very much for war. Krishna made a trip to see the Kauravas without much hope. but her own son by the Sun god. and sometimes referred to as Vrkodara ("the Wolf-bellied") because of his insatiable appetite. was prepared to sacrifice anything for revenge. He is not the most intelligent. One more thing happened just before hostilities broke out. The Kauravas. mobilized a much larger force of eleven divisions. otherwise known as the PaIfcjavas (the Good Guys): (" He who is steady in battle "). at their headquarters in Upaplavya. three times as many horsemen and five times as many foot soldiers. at Hastinapura. however.090 chariots. By count. a man accustomed to uprooting trees to assail his enemies with. under the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. an equal number of elephants. was spurned by Duryodhana. 459.270 horsemen and 765. He is also a half brother of Hanuman. sent his minister Sarhjaya to plead for peace with the PaIfcjavas. it might be wise to review our cast of main characters. but Sarhjaya was merely the personal envoy of a monarch who confessed he could not control his own sons. and. Dhrtara~tra. the PaIfcjavas had an army of 153. 721. had an army of 240.cjava Princes.710 horsemen and over a million foot soldiers.870 chariots. king of Indraprastha.570 elephants. the blind and weak-minded king of the Kauravas. DraupadI. 153.570 chariots. "Son of Prtha. Thus. 240. the collective wife of the PaIfcjavas.a while he was at prayers near a river. of the epic The Ramayal).) He is a blameless knight (his name means" Silver White") and a powerful warrior noted particularly for his skill as an archer. Bhlma. he is often referred to as Partha. these were armies of colossal dimensions. remained with the PaIfcjavas. tremendously large armies were prepared to fight. Now that we are on the eve of the great Battle of Kuruk~etra. During the final stages Yudhi~thira 24 . in Virata's kingdom.450 foot soldiers. Arjuna. the monkey god who assisted the great hero Rama. son of Prtha or Kunt! by the god Indra. perhaps similar to the massive armies of contemporary Persia. and he promised Yudhi~thira that if he were to become KarIfa's charioteer when KarIfa attacked Arjuna. Ultimately. Each division consisted of 2 I . the eldest of the Pal). after the slaying of Jarasarhdha. and thus he cast his lot against them just to keep a promise. His sympathies. and hero of the Bhagavad Gita. met Karl). mother of the Pal)." or Kaunteya. and far exceeding in number those of the contemporary Greeks. (Because of his mother's two names. rightful inheritor of the throne at Hastinapura. son of Prtha or Kunt! by the god Dharma (" Righteousness" or "Law"). He is a great slayer of demons. as he expected. while the Kauravas. he would hamper KarIfa's efforts. known for his uprightness of character.090 elephants.Sahadeva. and. and informed him that he was not the humble charioteer's son he thought he was. Even allowing for the exaggerations common in epics. emperor.cjava Princes.

9aVa Princes. King of Magadha.i tribe. a kinsman of Krishna and King of the V r~l). Satyaki (" He whose Nature is Truth "). The King of the Kasis. son of MadrI by the other of the Asvins. he tears apart the evil Kaurava. and commander in chief of the Pandava armies. Sahadeva (" Accompanied by the gods "). became grandmothers of the Pal). son of BhIma by a rak~asi. mother of the Sons of pal).9u. and brother-in-law of Abhimanyu. King of the Cedis. the Vatsas. son of Arjuna by a Naga (Serpent-demon) princess. a reincarnation of Arilba. a prince. Dhr~tadyumna (" He whose Splendor is Bold "). but acting as Arjuna's charioteer. Saibya (" Relating to the Sibis ").9ava Princes had taken refuge in disguise during the thirteenth year of their exile. Now. King of the Sib is. and thus half rak~asa. Uttara (" Superior ").now a powerful warrior. who had refused to marry VicitravIrya .9in (" He who w~a~s a Tuft of Hair "). at whose court the Pal). Dhr~taketu (" He whose Brightness is Bold "). He is the avatar of Vishnu.a name derived from the fact that he was bald). and hence their uncle. ally of the Pal). father of Arilba. Krishna (" Black" or "Dark "). King of Paficala. theoretically a neutral. Arilbika and Arilbalika.-:otables. the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. The Asvins were Vedic gods of very early origin. and he speaks most of the lines of the Bhagavad Glta. N ext. being the brother of Kunt!.9avas. the Dasarnas. by Vyasa. father of Dhr~tadyumna and of his twin DraupadI. King of Matsya. otherwise known as the Kauravas or the Sons of Kuru (the Bad Guys): 25 . and the Yadavas (members of Krishna's tribe). Iravat (" Comtortable "). and twin brother of Nakula. Du\:lsasana." N akula (" Color of the Mongoose "). the Karu~a.9aVa Princes. or demon. inhabitants of a country of that name. Cekitana (" Intelligent "). Sikhal). the last two of whom married Vicitravlrya and.of the Battle of Kuruk~etra. son of the dead J arasarildha. Sahadeva (" Accompanied by the Gods "). and drinks his blood. son of Drupada. the divine horsemen who draw the chariot of the dawn. a people from south-east of Madhya Desa. not to be confused with the pal). son of Drupada. or the Supreme Spirit. Virata (" Ruling Widely").9ava army contained members of the Abhisara tribe of \Vest Kashmir. Nakula led the Vatsa tribesmen in the great battle. otherwise known as Yuyudhana (" Anxious to Fight "). the Pal). Ghatotkaca (" Shining like a Jug" .9ava Prince of that name. son of Virata. their allies: Drupada (" Rapid Step "). He is also related to the Pal). though still regarded by BhI~ma as female. son of MadrI by one of the Asvins. Abhimanyu (" Into Anger "). Besides thpse . son of Arjuna by his second wife Subhadra. This army was mobilized at Upaplavya in the land of Matsya. the collective wife of the pal). ruled by Virata. "Bhlma" means" terrible" or "awful. thus their father-inlaw. an out caste tribe related to the Cedis.9aVas by marriage.

He was the great uncle of both the Sons of PaI). Arhba~tha. Dul. like Bhlma's means "terrible" or "awful.a by Krpa's sister KrpI. Bahlika 26 . A counsellor to Duryodhana. A brahman by birth. a country near the Indus River. "pity"). Siirasena (" He whose Army is Valiant "). Krpa (a name related to krpa. because of his sagacity in matters of war. Salya ("Spear"). Sudak~iI). f. BhI~ma. Kekaya. teacher of the princes on both sides of the Battle of Kuruk~etra. an allied warrior. and hence an unacknowledged half brother of the paI). a great warrior and teacher of warriors.Duryodhana (" Dirty Fighter ").Qu. he was unaware of his true identity. general of the Kaurava forces. and the father of Asvatthaman. one of the elder warriors at Kuruk~etra. and to rule in his place. brother-in-law of King Dhrtara~tra and maternal uncle of the Kaurava Princes. Citrasena (" He whose Army is Excellent "). son of DroI). King of Madra. Until just before the battle. And along with these notables. brother of Pal)\lu's second wife. a son of Dhrtara~tra and the warrior who dragged DraupadI by the hair before the assembled Kauravas after the first dice game. a son of Dhrtara~tra.a (" Having a good Right Hand "). King of Pragjyoti~a (modern Assam). a son of Dhrtara~tra. Darada.a (" Bucket "). adopted son of King Sarhtanu. son of King Somadatta of the Bahlikas (Bactrians). Asvatthaman (" Hewho has the Strength of a Horse"). and he was reluctant participant in the battle. His name. who led the Kirata. A powerful warrior and great general. King of Mathura. a son of Kunt! by the Sun god before her marriage to PaI). Salva (" Son of the Salvas "). warrior and teacher of warriors.Qu and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra.sasana (" Of Bad Commands "). Bhagadatta (" He who is Given by Bhaga. tribe in the battle. Sakuni (" Large Bird" or "Cock "). However." a god who bestows wealth). The Kambojas of the Mahabharata are located north of Kuruksetra. Malava. King of Sindhu-Sauvlra. MUI). Vinda. Krtavarman (" He whose Armor is Ready"). Sibi (which had members on both sides). He was left afloat in a river as an infant and brought up by a charioteer.a (" Ear" . KarJ). K~udraka. King of the Kambojas. Ni~ada. King of the Salva people. he was made generalissimo of the Kaurava forces until he was slain by Arjuna and his charioteer SikhaI). and at one point. His primary aim was to deny Yudhi~thira the throne of Hastinapura. the Kaurava army contained members of the Andhaka. Jayadratha (" He whose Chariot is Victorious ").Qava Princes. or barbarian.Qin. Sindhu. Salva. Kalinga. Madri" and thus a maternal uncle of the Pandava Princes Nakula and Sahadeva. a mleccha.a name perhaps derived from the fact that he was born wearing a pair of earrings).Qa. aged warrior." DroI). eldest son of Dhrtara~tra and instigator of the events that led up to the Battle of Kuruk~etra. Bhiirisravas (" He whose Praise Abounds ").

who were engaged in interpreting. to draw up the chariot between the two armies. The great Yale Sanskritist Franklin Edgerton has called this a dramatic absurdity. conch blowers or attendants. Single combats were supposed to be only among equals.). With all due respect. Anyone leaving the field or sitting in Yoga posture was supposed to be immune from attack. and during the last days of the battle they were not observed at all. plus some territory to the East and West. Vanga (Bengal). to 300 A. asked Krishna. Fighting was to take place only in daylight. and. which were. it was a time of enormous intellectual ferment among the brahmans.yakas. And it also included what is now practically the whole of North India.B. Mounted warriors could fight only with other mounted warriors. these rules rapidly broke down as passions rose. Videha and Vidarbha tribes.C.the Australoids and paleolithic Negritos. Animals were not to be killed unnecessarily or deliberately. northern India was divided into small. adhered to in the very beginning. though the warriors at Kurukl?etra (with the exception of Krishna) were not' particularly involved in intellectual pursuits. however. I do not agree. and adding to. the BriihmaQ. of which it forms a part. It was also a country comprising a wide variety of races: Dravidians (the inhabitants at the time of the Aryan invasion).D. and was probably in process of compilation from 400 B. his charioteer. and no attacks could be made on drummers. Mongols. and it is set at a point of climax in the epic where what follows is a foregone tragic conclusion.was spoken between Krishna and Arjuna. As in all wars. In fact. (N. I consider this frozen moment a dramatic triumph. is vague as to dates. warlike kingdoms. teachers and friends.(Bactrian). At the time of this legendary. Just as the first day of battle started. everybody mixed in friendship. Greeks and many primitive tribes that may have originated in the preDravidian races . Warriors in chariots could fight only with other chariot-borne warriors.all 2. and the Bhagavad GWi . Arjuna. the Upanishads and the AraQ. Horsemen were prohibited from attacking foot soldiers. Scyths. the Mahiibharata. Anyone momentarily disengaged was prohibited from attacking one already engaged. the Vedas. The India portrayed in the Mahabharata still retained some of the warlike traditions of the Aryans who had invaded the subcontinent less than a thousand years previously.. Persians. overcome with grief at the prospect of killing relatives. Anyone disarmed could not be attacked. It was the time of the later" Vedic" works.as. battle. Anyone who surrendered was to be spared. it is not illogical for time to stand still while armies stand frozen in their places. 27 . When God speaks.800 lines of it . including charioteers. Though the date of the Battle of Kurukl?etra has been tentatively placed by authorities at some point between 800 and 600 B. in fact. The blind King Dhrtariil?tra stood behind the Kaurava lines and listened while his minister Samjaya described the battle to him. along with some Yiidavas. The great battle was supposed to be fought according to certain rules of knightly etiquette. and also probably historic.C. After sunset.

but he did not succeed in killing BhI~ma. and for a time held off the whole Kaurava army single-handed.la and BhI~ma attacked Yudhi~thira. Salya and Citrasena surrounded Abhimanyu and attacked him. This angered Arjuna.¢ava army.a and Duryodhana. including BhI~ma. and 28 . Bhlma's son Ghatotkaca came to his defense. hit by Bhlma's arrows. Bhlma and his son Ghatotkaca attacked Duryodhana with heroism. BhI~ma. He picked up a new one and cut Duryodhana's bow in two. The Pal). BhI~ma supported the Kaliiigas: Satyaki and others supported Bhlma and Abhimanyu. Bhlma's bow was shattered. Drot.l¢ava commander in chief. The Kauravas were turned back at the end of the day. arrayed his army very carefully. Duryodhana criticized BhI~ma for lack of zeal.!avas scattered. Arjuna's son and his own great grand nephew. By nightfall the Pat. Virata. But BhI~ma attacked it with fearful results.l<. but Bhlma came to his aid and carried him off in his chariot. Arjuna. the Kauravas attacked Arjuna. Then BhI~ma and Drol).!avas were downcast as the sun set. Dhr~tadyumna and Bhlma came to his assistance (this had been a fight between the oldest and the youngest warriors present). came to his rescue. Uttara (his son). Abhimanyu rescued Satyaki. attacked Salya. Uttara attacked Salya.<. On the second day Dhr~tadyumna. and Salya promptly killed Uttara (first casualty). Bhlma slew Kauravas by the score. gallantly complimenting him on his technique. but BhI~ma finally killed him (second casualty) and went on to harass the pal).l<. When he was hard pressed by BhI~ma.la was attacking Dhr~tadyumna. the Pat. Then Bhlma appeared. But Uttara's elephant continued to fight until it was killed. On the fourth day the Kauravas advanced under BhI~ma. Eight of Duryodhana's brothers were killed by Bhlma. The Kauravas tried to protect BhI~ma but Arjuna fought them off.!ava generalissimo. On the first day the Pat. Satyaki killed BhI~ma's charioteer (foul play) and BhI~ma was forced to flee. Krishna egged on Arjuna to attack BhI~ma. Sveta.!ava warrior.l<. Duryodhana swooned in his chariot. Abhimanyu became a great hero. continually praised his opponents. The latter was hard pressed.<. Duryodhana smote Bhlma so heavily that he was forced to sit upon the ground. accidentally killing Salya's horse.a regrouped the Kauravas and Duryodhana returned to the field. the Pat. BhI~ma hit Krishna (Arjuna's charioteer) with an arrow.!avas. but his father.l<. The gods came down to witness the battle.l<.!avas fared badly. Asvatthaman. "The grandsire (BhI~ma) must be slain. BhI~ma then made a tremendous attack on the Pat. and the Pal).Then the battle started. Sakuni attacked Satyaki and Abhimanyu. Bhiirisravas. whose chariot had been destroyed. and was forced to retreat. a Pat. The Kauravas were routed. Duryodhana then sent the Kaliiiga army against Bhlma who slew great numbers. On the third day. with great gallantry." Arjuna attacked. BhI~ma fought with Abhimanyu. At another point in the battlefield Drot. Arjuna said to Krishna. and Dhr~tadyumna arrived with reinforcements. Bhlma then attacked Duryodhana and nearly killed him. Drol).!avas had won a victory. but Arjuna's heart was not in it. He scattered them all and caused panic among the Kauravas. and the Kauravas sent a large force of elephants against him.

BhI~ma and Salya together attacked Bhlma. scattered them and pursued them on foot wielding his mace. Sakuni performed a similar service for Krpa.9aVa victory. used a secret weapon (the Pramohana.9in and compelled him to withdraw. Duryodhana's army was demoralized. Duryodhana complained to DroI)a about the weakness of the Kaurava attacks. but BhI~ma held his own against all five. He considered Sikhal). DroI)a then attacked Satyaki and Bhlma came to his defense. being surrounded along with Bhlma. Drol). Arjuna's son by his Naga princess wife. On the fifth day BhI~ma attacked the PaI)9aVaS and caused considerable havoc. fighting until both fell.a. Yudhi~thira defeated Srutayu. Satyaki had attacked Bhiirisravas in an effort to protect them. the warriors of both sides retired to their tents. But Yudhi~thira came on with a large force to support Bhlma. But the Kauravas were getting the worst of it. who promptly revived and joined in. Duryodhana rescued Bhiirisravas. BhI~ma advised suing for peace. Bhj~ma scattered the Piil).9aVa Princes joined in. Arjuna was downcast. but Duryodhana wouldn't listen to him.a as a student. At this point BhI~ma turned away. Then Duryodhana arrived with a similar secret weapon (it must have resembled tear. Virata was defeated by Drol). confused battle in which the sons of Satyaki were slain. killing his charioteer and horses (more foul play). Ghatotkaca attacked the Kauravas with great slaughter. DroI)a attacked Sikhal). and the day was declared a victory for the Kiiuravas.9aVas by the thousand. On the sixth day Drol).9avas.a's charioteer was killed (foul play). and with it stupefied the Kauravas. Drol). nursing their wounds. Cekitana attacked Krpa. There ensued a big. It was a big Pal). Later. Dhr~tadyumna took refuge in Abhimanyu's chariot. Arjuna slew thousands.a killed Dhr~tadyumna's horses (foul play) and shattered his chariot. and he would not fight with women. He got behind the Kaurava lines and Dhr~tadyumna went to rescue him. At this point Dhr~tadyumna. Krpa retaliated by engaging Cekitana in single combat on the ground. Arjuna then attacked BhI~ma. On the eighth day Bhlma killed eight of Dhrtara~tra's sons. Abhimanyu defeated 29 . At sunset. On the ninth day BhI~ma slew pal). Bhlma rescued Satyaki. "that which bewilders the mind") which he had received from Drol). Sixteen sons of Dhrtara~tra were killed that day. There was great slaughter. but Bhiirisravas killed them all. but Sikhal). Bhlma took Cekitana away in his chariot. being rescued at the last minute by Drol). BhI~ma attacked Abhimanyu.the Kauravas were downcast. Virata's son Samga was killed (this was the third of Virata's sons to be slain). wounded and exhausted. Iravat. The Piil).a. or nerve gas) and stupefied the Piil). On the seventh day there were many single combats. Duryodhana and the other Kauravas attacked Bhlma and Dhr~tadyumna who were in their midst. Duryodhana advanced and was almost killed by Ghatotkaca. but Abhimanyu was rescued by his father Arjuna.9in to be a woman. Duryodhana was wounded by Bhlma and rescued by Krpa.a. was killed by the rak~asa warrior Alambu~a.9avas wavered. Bhlma fought eleven of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra all by himself. kiliing his horses and charioteer (foul play).9in came to the rescue.9avas. The other four Pal).

a.<. supported by a cushion of arrows." they said. again. There was single combat between Sahadeva and Sakuni.<. Krishna suggested that Arjuna kill BhI~ma. Drol). who forced Drol). On the twelfth day the Kauravas. The battle stopped while both sides paid homage to the old warrior. or she. Arjuna attacked him with Sikhal). Water sprang forth. remembered that Yudhi~thira was the rightful heir to the throne of Hastinapura." or northern phase of the sun. and Drol). Karl). BhI~ma still counselled peace.a approached him asking for his blessing. but was foiled by Arjuna. On the eleventh day Drol). It was Duryodhana's idea. along with his four brothers. But Karl).a (see footnote to stanza 23. Duryodhana's fundamental purpose was to get Yudhi~thira into another game of dice. BhI~ma asked for water. Virata engaged Karl).iin had missed. Satyaki engaged Krtavarman. or to be more p!. The day was a defeat for the Kauravas."ecise.a attempted to capture Yudhi~thira. though SikhaI)<.a avoided him to get at Arjuna. Arjuna had not the heart to kill his old teacher. He delivered several didactic discourses: he was still living.a to retreat..a. in fact. but.iin as his charioteer (BhI~ma had already prophesied that he would be invincible except in the presence of Sikhal).iin. He slew them all. BhI~ma died very slowly. Salya was defeated by Nakula.a insisted that since he had cast his lot with Duryodhana.the rak~asa warrior Alambu~a. made a plan to draw Arjuna off and kill him. piercing BhI~ma's armor at points that Sikhal). mortally wounded.iin shot arrows at BhI~ma. Exasperated. Susarman. BhI~ma survived for fifty-eight days (he kept himself alive deliberately so that he could die during the" upper going.<. but Yudhi~thira fled on a swift horse. holding that it was no disgrace for a warrior to flee before a brahman. BhI~ma advised him not to fight. however.<. The Kauravas then made a plan to capture Yudhi~thira alive. and thus attain nirval). "Ganga (the Ganges) has come up to quench her son's thirst. Bhlma defeated Salya. Dhr~tadyumna attacked Drol). DroI)a again attempted to capture Yudhi~thira. The day was generally victorious for the Kauravas. The PaI)<. On the tenth day BhI~ma was killed.iavas.a took it up gladly because he did not want to see Yudhi~thira killed (it will be.a with Arjuna. he had no choice but to continue. but Arjuna pulled him back.<. but Drol). and that Duryodhana was seeking to deprive him of the right). heard of the plan and made their preparations to counter it. Arjuna sent a hail of arrows. book VIII of the GIta).. The Kauravas began to lose courage. Dhrstaketu was defeated by Krpa. seeing that they could not capture Yudhi~t­ hira while Arjuna was present in the field.iin felt that he. Sikhal). chief of the army of the King of Trigarta. Krishna got down from the chariot and proposed to attack BhI~ma on foot. attacked Arjuna. and Arjuna shot an arrow into the ground. He claimed that he had been killed by Arjuna (an honor). Satyaki duelled with Asvatthaman.iavas. Abhimanyu engaged four prominent Kauravas at once. but Dhr~tadyumna and the other Pancala Princes stood by to protect him. The gods folded their hands in reverent salutation as BhI~ma was defeated. and BhI~ma again attacked the Pal). had fulfilled Amba's vow by bringing the great son of King Samtanu to his end. 30 . whom he considered to be a woman). DroI)a again tried to capture Yudhi~thira. after the battle had ended.

killing him.a failed in all his attempts to capture Yudhi~thira. BhYma attacked a Kaurava warrior named J alasamdha. elephants and warriors.la attacked him. Arjuna. and proceeded through the Kaurava lines.a rushed at BhYma. KarI).la. was indignant over the rout of the Kauravas. Prince of the Bahllkas. DroI). who was fighting on the PaI). and many Kauravas fled. inflicting wounds and driving the animal mad. son of Dul. including an elephant force brought against him by the Aiigas and Kaliiigas. struck him to the ground. including Duryodhana. another Paficala prince.a's army with the object of getting at Jayadratha.a. sent Satyaki to the rescue. Dul. penetrated the Kaurava ranks.tsasana's force. raining showers of arrows. Arjuna who was fighting the army of J ayadratha. Arjuna proceeded against DroI). On the thirteenth day Arjuna.a's protection. King of Pragjyoti~a. King of the Sindhus. He continued to fight with a chariot wheel as his only weapon.a with some success. and Dul. but was forced to flee. Sakuni attacked Arjuna.a. on foot. Yudhi~thira. tried to rally the Kaurava forces. but were killed by Arjuna. and caused him to retreat. The Kauravas. Bhagadatta was attacked on all sides by the PaI).Drupada stood in his way.9avas. Seeing the Kaurava forces slaughtered by Satyaki. fled. Son of Dhrtara~tra. but were prevented.a rushed toward him. seeking DroI).9ava side. and Virata's son SatanYka was killed by Drot. he fended off the entire Kaurava army. were killed. Drot. Paficalya. DroI). Yudhamanyu and Uttamaujas followed him to protect him. BhYma attacked DroI). The Pat. and suspecting that Arjuna was in trouble. Meanwhile. advanced against 31 . was killed by Drot. All these were unfair tactics. But Arjuna pierced the elephant host. Lak~maI).la while SatanYka was attempting to attack him. then made a tremendous attack on Bhagadatta. who was indirectly responsible (he had helped to trap Abhimanyu) The battle continued. hearing it. In a tremendous display of valor. Finally. At that point. but the rules of war were rapidly breaking down. and found himself surrounded. broke through the line of the Kaurava forces. Yudhi~thira blamed himself for the death of Abhimanyu. Arjuna slew horses. but he dispatched them all. Dhrtara~tra's son Yuyutsu. Bhagadatta. blew his conch horn. Sakuni's brothers.tsasana himself. He attacked BhYma and destroyed his chariot and horses. seeking Arjuna.tsasana became infuriated. and then made for Yudhi~thira. Arjuna was told about his son's death. attacked the underside of Bhagadatta's elephant. was so disgusted by this performance that he left the field. ganged up on Abhimanyu and disarmed him. On the fourteenth day Bhiirisravas. killing both him and his elephant. but Bhagadatta's maddened elephant caused great havoc among them. with Krishna as his charioteer. and vowed vengeance on Jayadratha. Then occurred one of the most heroic feats of the entire battle. and rushed against Arjuna with a force of elephants.tsasana. V r~a and Acala. Arjuna smote the Kaurava army. along with Dul. Five of Dhrtara~tra's sons attacked BhYma.l9avas tried to get to Abhimanyu to rescue him. The Kaurava forces were stampeded. BhYma. Two Paficala princes. Abhimanyu. throwing good form to the winds. Arjuna's son. Vrka and Satyajit. Then. while Yudhi~thira engaged Krtavarman and Dhr~tadyumna engaged DroI).

a rather surprising state considering that he was the avatar of Vishnu or the Supreme Spirit.a slew his old enemy Drupada as well as Vira~a. cutting off his right arm.a challenged Yudhi~thira to fight.a's son and then killing the animal. sent a stream of arrows at Bhlirisravas. caused a stream of arrows to convey the head into the lap of his father. At one point a wheel of Karl). He appealed to Yudhi~thira for confirmation knowing that Yudhi~thira never lied.a took charge of the Kaurava army. A little later Sahadeva slew Sakuni and Yudhi~thira slew Salya. recalling Draupadfs humiliation after the dice game. Asvat32 . confirming the death of Asvatthaman.a's attack. On the evening of the fifteenth day all knightly ethics were totally discarded. who had previously fled before Karl). Satyaki then beheaded Bhlirisravas as he sat. and he would have turned on his brother to kill him.Satyaki and brought him to the ground. but for the intervention of Krishna (even the pal). who was meditating nearby. After Salya's death. Krishna egged Arjuna on. Drol). He fled and concealed himself in a nearby lake (he possessed the power of remaining under water). and Arjuna unethically slew Karl). After the death of Karl).a.a. Yudhi~thira.sasana.iava elephants Asvatthiiman. When his father roused himself from meditation. Bhlirisravas sat upon the ground in Yoga position. and asked Arjuna not to attack him while he was engaged in this task. but Drol). dragging him by the hair and striking him on the chest with his feet. and the Pal). from a distance where he was engaged with Jayadratha. reproached Arjuna for not supporting him at the time. The warriors on both sides were horrified by Bhlma's act. Salya assumed command of the Kaurava forces. he let his son's head fall to the ground and his head burst into a hundred pieces.a's chariot became stuck in the mud.<. On the sixteenth day Karl). Arjuna pressed J ayadratha.a. he could not remember it.<. who had dragged DraupadI before the assembled Kauravas. grieving. During a lull in the fighting. He also thought of the mantra that he had learned from the brahman warrior Parasurama to use with the Sakti. Arjuna. after Drol). On the seventeenth day there was a long and terrible duel between Arjuna and Karl). Krishna informed Arjuna of this vow. as predicted.iavas were now quarreling among themselves). Even Krishna had lost all sense of honor .a's death.<.a. Seeing Satyaki's plight. A little later. But. as he beheaded Jayadratha. tore him apart and drank his blood as he had promised to do. and Arjuna. He invoked the laws of chivalry. But honor was at such a low ebb that Yudhi~thira did lie.<.iavas attacked Drol). Karl). Duryodhana was now practically alone.a. A little later Bhlma. On the eighteenth and last day the tide turned definitely in favor of the Pal). This enraged Arjuna. The battle continued into the night by torchlight. There had been a vow made by Jayadratha's father Vrddhak~atra that the head of whoever caused his son's head to fall to the ground would burst into a hundred pieces.a was told that Asvatthiiman was dead. attacked Dul). The idea was carried out. and thought that he had lost his son. but during the ensuing combat Yudhi~thira ignominously fled for the second time. and he was forced to leap to the ground to try to raise it. laid down his arms and was promptly decapitated by Dhr~tadyumna. After Drol). Drol).iavas. He suggested naming one of the Pal).

The PaQ9ava Princes. Bhlma gave the jewel to DraupadI. Next he killed SikhaQ9in who was also asleep. He taunted Duryodhana. Bhlma fought with Asvatthaman and overcame him. A tremendous battle with clubs ensued betwefn Bhlma and Duryodhana. Asvatthaman first killed his father's slayer. and pursued him furiously. Only three of the warriors on the Kaurava side . Yudhi~thira's reign lasted for fifteen years. Parik~it came alive again. Yudhi~!hira was proclaimed King of Hastinapura.he slew the unborn Parik~it. returning to their camp.thaman took charge of the Kaurava forces. wife of Dhrtara~!ra and mother of his hundred sons. who was still in his mother's womb. This unfair and brutal act aroused the anger of Yudhi~!hira. calling him the son of a slave (an allusion to his cowherd foster father). Balarama. broke both Duryodhana's legs with his club. laid upon a great funeral pyre and burned. and was so disgusted that he attacked Bhlma with a plow (Balarama's customary weapon). The bodies of the slain warriors were gathered up. He was stopped by Krishna. and forced him to emerge. Prativindhya. Asvatthaman then killed the five young sons of DraupadI by her five husbands. Krpa and Krtavarman took no part in this cowardly slaughter. Yudhi~!hira reigned at Hastinapura. Then Asvatthaman took an oath to exterminate the PaQ9avas. who later presented it to Yudhi~!hira as an ornament for his crown. Krishna's brother. owing to Krishna's magic intervention. but he was not happy. and left angrily for their capital city Dvaraka.Krpa. who struck Bhlma across the face and asked Arjuna to take him away. Duryodhana. Satanlka and Srutaklrti. saying that they were the heads of the five PaQ9ava Princes. as well as the warriors Uttamaujas. Using a magic weapon (the brahmastra). and trampled upon his body. Krpa and Krtavarman. Asvatthaman and Krtavarman . Finally. but he went along. The battle was over. saw what Asvatthaman had done. but nevertheless blessed the paQ9avas. Bhlma. Then he searched for Duryodhana and discovered his hiding place in the lake. son of Abhimanyu. and egged on by the dying Duryodhana. and Dhrtara~tra crushed it to powder. Krpa was against this idea. Bhlma next killed all the remaining Sons of Dhrtara~tra except the absent Duryodhana. Sutasoma. he. approaching the PaQ9avas in their camp. still alive. The PaQ9ava Princes were away at the time. The children of the PaQ9avas had all been killed except Arjuna's grandchild Parik~it. But when Bhlma was announced to the blind king. Then he died. GandharI. Dhr~tadyumna by stamping on him as he slept. did not forgive. But Duryodhana knew better. Dhrtara~tra mourned the loss of his hundred sons. However. had finally appeared on the field. Asvatthaman brought the five heads of the sons of DraupadI back to Duryodhana. and he reproached Asvatthaman for slaying innocent children. had witnessed Bhlma's foul blow. Krishna returned to Dvaraka. they were keeping watch at the gates of the camp. Krishna put a metal statue in his place. wrapped in perfumed linen.survived. rebuked Krishna. the last remaining Kaurava nobles decided on a night raid. hitting below the belt. Asvatthaman took a jewel from his forehead and presented it to Bhlma in token of defeat. He embraced Yudhi~thira as a token of peace. during which he treated the 33 .

Balarama was so disgusted at this that he retired to the forest. Krishna realized that the time had come to end his role as the avatar of Vishnu. Then Arjuna and Bhima died.lava Princes and KarI).c. Then they departed for the Himalaya along with DraupadI. the Olympos of India.a. Gandhari and his minister Samjaya. however. he practiced austerities and went to live in the forest. Then heaven opened. The god Indra sent a chariot to take Yudhi~thira to heaven but would not take the dog. Yudhi~tl:tira had become fond of the dog and refused to go without it.blind Dhrtara~tra with respect. much to his disgust. As for Dhrtara~tra himself. A messenger took Yudhi~thira through a sort of hades. found Duryodhana there. A dog had joined him. 34 .lavas crowned Parik~it. Yudhi~thira alone was left. Samjaya. In one of their drunken orgies Krishna's son. accompanied by Kuntl. and grandson of Arjuna. Sahadeva and Nakula died. but his tribe. Draupadi. On the way. and. It had been the god Dharma (Yudhi~t­ hira's father) in disguise. gave themselves up to drunken revelry. escaped the fire and went to the Himalaya as a samnyasin. Then the dog vanished. The PaI). son of Abhimanyu and Uttara. the Yadavas. or renouncer of all the things of life. Pradyumna. and he continued to climb. They returned after three years only to be burned to death as their house caught fire. and also Satyaki were killed. Krishna ruled in Dvaraka for thirty-six years. assumed a Yoga position and died. He was shot by a hunter as the avatar escaped. He chose to remain with them. king. where he found the other PaI). Yudhi~thira finally found himself on Mount Meru.c. and Yudhi~thira and the others became godlike.

" i." " north-east. irreg.. In Sanskrit: maharatha.e.. locative. nominative.. he whose hat is hard." indicating the last member of a compound." "at the end of a compound. Karmadharaya compound. indic." (c) both members are adjectives. passive. a thief who is a gentleman. ifc. A compound which is always adjectival to a noun or pronoun. esp. plural. sarhdhi . gen." " king-sage. instrumental.e. locative absolute. genitive. fut. such that their beginnings are unmanifest.. " "devajana.. n. ·KD cpd.e...not an abbreviation. adverb. f. Examples 1fi English: 35 ." lit.. i... accusative. adj. "boy-actress" (in Shakespeare's time). There are three types: (a) the first member is an adjective.e. dative. Examplesin English:" pale-red.." in Sanskrit: "mahadhana. but a term indicating an alteration in accord with the laws of euphonious combination of words.." " uttarapiirva. mababaho (vocative). dat. feminine.. especially. anantariipa. he whose beard is blue. literally loc." Examples in Sanskrit: "dhiimarohita. DV cpd. interrogative."" snow-white. m." i. Example in English: "gentleman-thief." (b) both members are nouns.... indicative. past. "hardhat. he whose chariot is mighty. adjective.e. ·BV cpd.. 0 Thou whose arms are mighty. the second a noun. either expressed or implicit.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE VOCABULARIES abl. ablative. "in fine compositi. pass. loco absol." i. future. Bahuvrihi compound. Dhrtara~tra (proper name). neuter. adv. ""TP cpd. pI.. singular. Tatpuru!?a compound.. an actress who is really a boy. masculine.. pr. Examples in Sanskrit: " rajar~i. interrog. sg... irregular." "greyish red. A compound of two words which would ordinarily have different case endings. he by whom the kingdom is held. mid. active. p. inst. nom. present.." "great wealth... middle.. Dvandva (copulative) compound." Examples can readily be found in English: "redneck. he whose neck is red.. "bluebeard.... Example in English: " highway.. a compound the members of which have the same case." "god people." i. Its structure can be most simply explained by examples: "He whose B (last member) is A (first member) " or "This of which the B (last member) is A (first member). act. that of which the form is unending: avyaktadini. The last member is a noun and the first usually an adjective. acc.

loka. A. the world of the living. B. Indra."mountain peak. vocative. 36 . etc. chief).. king. van Buitenen of the University of Chicago for these remarkably clear definitions of Sanskrit compounds. rajendra (raja.e. In Sanskrit: jlvaloka (jlva. voc. etc. They are far preferable to the ones listed in Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar." i. world). living. the peak of a mountain. The members of these compounds are nouns. chief of kings. • I am indebted to the Sanskrit scholar J.

Descend:mt of Madhu (a Yadava or Madhava patriarch).Mighty Armed One (a general epithet of warriors).Thousand-armed One (voc. Bharata .Descendant of Yadu.Lord of Creatures.). Mahiibaho . Kesava . Infinite Form. Govinda .Incomparable .Son of Kuru.Descendant of Bharata (a general epithet.eya . Aprameya .Destroyer of the Enemy. And in the Great Manifestation of Kurusre!?tha .Chief Kuru * Hero. ravas (Sons of Kuru). Kapidhvaja .whose self is great. Puru!?ar!?abha .Son of Prthii.Ambidextrous Archer. Bharatasattama . Madhava .iu.Agitator of Men.Destroyer of the Demon Madhu (properly an epithet of Vishnu). or Mankind-tormenting (an epithet of Vishnu).* Anagha . Prabho .Blameless One. Acyuta . Paramtapa .<. Arisiidana . Gu<. Kurunandana . Madhusiidana .Clansman of the Vrsnis.Chief of Herdsmen.Lord of Gods.Tiger among Men.Imperishable One. Bhagavan .u .Best of the Embodied. also applied to King Dhrtara!?!ra)..9avas and the KauDeva.Conqueror of Wealth.EPITHETS (NICKNAMES) USED IN THE BHAGAVAD GITA For Arjuna: Dhanamjaya . Mahiibaho .iakda .Son of PaQ. or Joy of Kuru. Yadava . testifies to the fact that he was the common Isam I<.Supreme Spirit. Devda (Deva Isa) . 37 For Krishna: Hr!?Ikda . is). Sahasrabaho . Vasudeva .Best of Kurus. of Men. Apratimaprabhiiva . Kurupravlra .Diademed One. Partha . Book XI: Puru!?ottama . or Best KirI!in . . Dehabhrtam Vara .whose form is endless. Kaunteya . Puru!?avyaghra .iava .Highest of the BhaVisQ.Bull among Men.Mighty Armed One (a general epithet of warriors). Reference to the ancient patriarch Kuru Glory.Vishnu (whose avatar Krishna ratas. Kdinisiidana . Bharatasre!?!ha .Son of Kunt1.Bull of the Bharatas.Blessed One.Son of Vasudeva.Thick-haired One.Slayer of the Demon Kdin.The Bristling-haired One. * Savyasacin . Mahiitman . Anantariipa . Bharatar!?abha .iyam .<. or One who has not Fallen.Best of the Bharatas. Var!?Q.Lord to be Praised.).Scorcher of the Foe. PaQ.God.Immeasurable One. Janardana .Splendid One (voc. Prajapati .The Monkey-bannered (a descriptive term rather than an epithet).The Handsome-haired One. ancestor of both the PaQ.

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participle sam ava . Sanjaya? • Kuruk~etra is an actual place.Jyudh). desiring to fight. samavetas (m. 1 OT+f~~~~~ dharmak~etre kuruk~etre* when in the field of virtue. nom. means "He by whom the kingdom is held. in the field. The name. law. honor. nom. nom. .BOOK I ~·~I < .). they did. in the field of the Kurus. 39 . loc. minister to King Dhrtara~va." Dhritarashtra spoke: When they were in the field of virtue. he said. what? akurvata (3rd imperf. a small plain in the Panjab north of Delhi near Panipat. What did my army and that of the Sons ofPandu do. p. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). middle . the royal dynasty to which Dhrtara~~ra belongs." uvaca (3rd sg. in the field of Kuru mm1:f1:f~:1 samaveta yuyutsavab assembled together. kim (interrog. he spoke.). pafJ4avas (m. pI. loco sg. pI. Kuru. eva. who relates to him the bulk of the Bhagavad Glta. desiring to fight ~: '1fUS?ITm miimakiib pii1}¢aviis ciiiva mine and the Sons of Pal). samjaya (voc. on the field. Assembled together. his minister. the Sons of Pa~4u. SariIjaya. yuyutsavas (m. nom. from . k~etre (n. nom.).Jvac). k~etre (n. sg. pass. righteousness.Ji). desiring to do battle.). the blind Kuru king to whom the Bhagavad Gita is to be related by SariIjaya. desiderative adj. desiring to fight. my. assembled. pl.<ju f'fi+{~~11 kim akurvata samjaya what they did? Samjaya? dharma (m. mamakas (m. perfect act. come together. a BY cpd. sg. on the field. virtue. dh~tara~!ras dhrtarii~tra uviica Dhrtara~tra spoke: (m.. kuru (m. mine.).Jk~). battlehungry. duty. D~ara~~ra. in the field.). The name means "completely victorious. and. ca.).). pl.

Spoke these words: dJ:~fVii (gerund . speech. he said. here referring to Duryodhana. pertaining to the Sons of Piindu. (piifJ4ava-anfkam. acc.lQu. royal personage. n. approaching.). King Duryodhana. indeed. he said. chief of the Kiiurava (Kuru) army.Jgam).~ava army ~~<r1~CRTI vyurjharh duryodhanas tada arrayed. the King. word. acc. sg.). <:ri!l ~<.. sg. perfect act. iiciiryam (m. to the teacher. act. riijii (m.m~ I samjdyas (m. truly. face. fighting force.). he Samjaya spoke: 2 ~'1~'"'rf. nom. imperf. abravft (3rd sg. teacher. 40 . Duryodhana.).) vyu4ham (m. seeing. nom. sg.). n. uviica (3rd sg. upasmngamya (gerund upa sam .I B'.).). duryodhanas (m.fm II raja vacanaln 'abravit the King (Duryodhana) word he spoke: Sanjaya spoke: Seeing indeed the army Of the sons of Pandu arrayed. having seen. at that time.Jdrs). sg. tu. master. anf~~ (m.la). then. he spoke.Jvac). TP cpd. sg.). n. the narrator.a) approaching. dr#va tu palJrjavanikarh seeing indeed the PaI). . m." tadii. sg. minis- sarhjaya uvaca ter to King spoke. going up to. Duryodhana then "'l1"lI~liqfi'lnr acaryalnupasarhgalnya the Master (DroI). acc. to the master (DroI. army of the Sons of PiiI. appearance. arrayed.. ybru). acc. army. son of Dhrtariistra and chief inciter of the battle. sg. drawn up in battle formation. The na~e means "Dirty fighter. nom. acc. piifJ4ava (adj. approaching his Master (Drona). edge. Dhrtarii~~ra. vacanam (n. sg.

division of warriors. sg. this. acc. lost his seed at the sight of Menaka. participle vi . Hence his name "rapid step.Jpas) .I 3 pasyiiitiiJz Pii1}¢~putrii1}iim ~qIO:Sif>tIOIl+t paSya (2nd imperative act.. 0 Master. sg. * who has instructed many warriors on both sides of the battle). inst. vyudham (f. Wise by your instruction. of thee. Pandu. this great army Of the sons of Pandu Arrayed by the son of Drupada. army.). camum (f. an apsara (nymph). * father of Dhr~!adyumna.see chapter on the setting of the Bhagavad Gita.). The name means "rapid step.). Pr~ata. inst. i. "by the to be taught.). gen." Nevertheless." tava (gen. sg. who is chief of the pal).). 0 Teacher (here applied to the aged warrior Drol). by the son. pl. by wise. sg. by intelligent. O<fGT ~'1~Tfur vyiiq. Behold 0 Master. inst. mahatfm (f. acc.). sg. wife of a Gandharvll (flereal being). sg. great. had odd births. acc." putreTJa (m. .). behold! perceive! see! etam (f.Qu ~ll@"T~1 iiciirya mahatim camum Master. whose name means "bold splendor" or "audacious majesty.y~ (voc.a. aca. Drupada's father. lost his seed under similar circumstances. Drupada. as befits great heroes in mythology. It fell into a bucket he was carrying. He tried to trample out the seed. mighty. pass.lava army. as a student. si~eTJG (m." by student.J'vah) .c. Bharadvaja.hiilh drupadaputrelJa arrayed by the Son of Drupada ~ f~ e:irtrnr II tava si~ye1}a dhimatii of thee as student wise. arrayed. 41 . dhfmata (m.. drupada. Drol)a's father.). Drol)a means " bucket" . Drupada was born from this seed. arranged in battle formation. paTJefuputra1]iim (m. sg. the great army.). • Both Drol)a and Drupada. acc. sg. by Dhr~!adyumna. of the Sons of behold this of the sons of Piil). p.e.

mighty archers. mighty warrior (as BV cpd." or "awful. brother of Arjuna. Here are heroes. Equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna. Yuyudhiina.lavas once took refuge. 42 .l<. nom.). epithet for Drupada. mahe~vasas (m. and. drupadas (m.). nom. Yuyudhana and Virata. nom. And Drupada.). Drupada ("Rapid Step"). means "silver white. in this case.). pl.l<.) yudhi (m. son of Kuntl or Prthii. equal. pI. A PiiQ<. a warrior king with whom the PiiI.. heroes. equal to Bhlma and AIjuna. nom. pl. yuyudhano viratas ca Yuyudhana and Virata ~~:II drupadas ca maharathal. The name means "tremendous. son of Satyaka. a PiiI. The name means "anxious to fight. Virii\a. here. sg.).). suras (m. bhfma." arjuna. he whose chariot is great. in fighting. a powerful warrior. AIjuna. and.Iava ally.). ca. A PiiI. The name refers to a district in India. sg. mahiirathas (m. yuyudhiinas (m. mahii i~u asas "mighty arrow hurlers. (bhfma-arjuna-samas m. 53 above). nom. nom. loco sg." mighty archers. ca.). TP cpd. pl. Bhlma. nom. the warrior hero of the Bhagavad Gltii. atra.lava ally.. sg. sg. the same. whose chariot is great.lava warrior (see footnote on p. the great warrior. in battle." virafas (m.).l<. The name . mighty archers -r~<rn+rr '{fer I bhimarjunasamii yudhi Bhima and Arjuna equal to in battle." samas (m. son of Kuntl by the wind god Viiyu. and Drupada. equivalent.I 4 ~~~p'l~\S<mll atra siira mahe~asa here (are) heroes. nom.

man-bull: Dhrishtaketu. having adopted Prtha. kuntibhojas (m.). The name means "he who conquers widely. valorous. brother of Kuntibhoja. ally of the PaI. their father-in-law. sg. a prince of the Kunti people. and. ~." cekitanas (m. man. sg. or Kaunteya (Son of Kunti).). nom. a prince.1Qava princes (Yudhi~thira.lQavas. sg. thought to be a tribe inhabiting the vicinity of modem Benares. Kuntibhoja. nom.). Siiibya. sg. dhmaketus (m. King of the Sibis. And the valorous King of Kashi. Throughout the Bhagavad Gita Arjuna is referred to as Partha (Son of Prtha). thus belonged to the Yadava clan." 43 . man-bull. ca. an ally of the paI. and. ca. a PaI. and. was her brother (and a son of Sura).). a PaI. Chekitana. ca. sg. who was also a Yadava prince. saipyas (m. sg.) • Kuntibhoja.I 5 ~~'RlR: Dhr~tsaketu. nom.). nom. bull among men. bull among men. sg. Prthli took her foster father's name and became known as Kunt!..lQava ally.). nom. the King of the Kasis.). pufigavas (m.jfii"'lCf~.). by adoption. Kunti.lQava ally. The name means "bold leader. Vasudeva. and Saibya. The name means "highly intelligent. has an interesting relationship with the PliI. full of heroism. whose father. and was an aunt of Krishna. daughter of his cousin Sura. Purojit and Kuntibhoja And Shaibya. sg. nom. as well as KarI. purujit (m. a Yadava prince. Bhlma and Arjuna).1Qava princes.1a. formerly Prthli. Ultimately she became the mother of the first three PaI." A PaI.lQava ally. valorous. Dhr~(aketu. sg. nara (m. Upon adoption." klisirajas (m.lQavas. Cekitiina. viryavan (m. a PiiI. nom. (narapufigavas m.jf"q: 'fjf~~ purujit kuntibhojas ca Purujit and Kuntibhoja ~~~:II siiibyas ca narapungaval.See chapter on "The Setting of the Bhagavad Glta.1 kiiSiriijas ca viryaviin and the King of Kasi. bull.).lQava ally. He is. dhr#~ketus cekitiinalJ Cekitana ml<l. nom. nom. . King of Cedi.

pl.Jkram). There were five sons of DriiupadI: Prativindhya ~by Yudhi~!hira).). vikriintas (m. uttamiiujas (m. siiubhadras (m." ca. full of heroism. p.z of all of whom the chariots are great. a warrior ally of the Piil)<. pass. bold. courageou~.). nom. who abducted her with Krishna's consent. those whose chariots are great. And mighty Yudhamanyu And valorous Uttamaujas.). yudhiimanyus ca vikriinta and Yudhamanyu. Yudhiimanyu. ~i<niT~~~ siiubhadro driiupadeyiis ca the Son of Subhadra and the Sons of Draupadi ~ t:.iavas. valorous. sarva (samdhi for sarve. all. sg. and. striding forth." ca. the son of Subhadrii (Krishna's sister) by Arjuna. and.). Sutaspma (by BhIma). valorous.). nom. 44 . nom.). eva. ca. nom. sg. ~~~q~1 uttamiiujas ca viryaviin and Uttamaujas. pl. sg. sg. great warriors. The name means "fighting with spirit.lava princes and the daughter of Drupada. mahiirathiis (m. (as BY cpd. SatiinIlca (by Nakula) and Srutakarman (by Sahadeva). sg.I 6 lf~~f~ '<> '<> yudhiimanyus (m.l<. The son of Subhadra and the sons of Draupadi.e. vfryaviin (m. Uttamiiujas. nom. nom. the son of Subhadrii.Gf ~~: II sarva eva mahiirathii/. SrutakIrti (by Arjuna). The name means "of highest power" or "of supreme valor.).iavas. a warrior ally of the Piil)<.). indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). nom. and. i. All indeed great warriors. driiupadeyiis (m. participle vi . who was the collective wife of the five PiiI. nom. mighty. pl. the Sons of DriiupadI. Abhimanyu.

a.)..Jbrii). indeed. voc. truly. know! understand! dvija (m. asmakam tu visl4a ye ours indeed distinguished who ~ f.). particular. I speak. for the purpose of knowing. highest chief. gen. pl. nom. 0 Highest of the Twice-born. leaders. pl. distinguished. pl. n. . pl.). p.. nom. ours. act. (dvijottama. samjiiartham (sam jiia artham. nom.r"ht f~ffi+r I tan nibodha dvijottama them know! OHighest of the Twice-born ~lll1~ nayaka mama sainyasya leaders of my army B'm~ <:rq ~crTfl1 ~ II saf!ljiiartham tan bravimi te for information I name to thee: Those of ours who are indeed distinguished. our. TP cpd. sg. participle vi J§i![). of me. The leaders of my army I name for you by proper names: 45 . n. preeminent. I tell. of mine. for information. acc. pass. most excellent.). of troops.). bravfmi (I st sg. mama (gen.). refers to Drol). imperative act. sg. them.). member of one of the three highest castes. pI. tan (acc. I name. Know them! 0 highest of the Twiceborn. acc. of army. m. nibodha (2nd sg. to thee. ni . pr. them. uttama (m. commanders. chiefs. te (dat.) nayakas (m. sg. who..). tu. twice-born. tan (m. vi§istas (m. sainyasya (m. sg.). ye (m. of my.I 7 ~~fqf~r~ asmakam (gen. sg.). pl. indic. by proper names.Jbudh).).

sg. ca.la. a Kaurava warrior and teacher of warriors. sg. sg. thus. He has an old family grudge against AIjuna. son of Drol.lQava princes. and. sg.). bhavan (honorific. karfJlls (m. 46 . Your Lordship and Bhishma and Karna and Kripa. bhaviin bhi§mas ca kar1}as ca Thy Lordship and Bhl~ma and Kan:ta ~m+rfm:1 krpas ca samitithjayaIJ and Krpa. and. before her marriage to pal.la and Kwi (sister of Kwa).la ~Tlr~f~~:q II siiumadattis tathiiiva ca and the Son of Somadatta also. sg.I 8 ~ ~')mrn :q . sg.lQava princes.). sg. nom. always victorious in battIe." a reference to the fact that Kwa was found in a clump of grass as an infant. nom. of Asvatthaman). and.). unacknowledged half-brother of Arjuna and the other Pal. m. nom. samitiinjayas (m. and "compassionately" adopted by King Sariltanu (see chapter "The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita). also. He is a reluctant participant in the battle. a Kaurava warrior.)." vikarlJas (m. nom. tatha. ca. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ca. in its feminine form kl:pii." ca. Bhi~ma. The name means "having the strength of a horse. sg. victorious in battle ~qrm fCfCfi1lT~ asvatthiimii vihar1}as ca Asvatthaman and VikarI.).).). and. Kwa. Thy Lordship. Kaurava warrior. The name. and. Ashvatthama and Vikarna and the son of Somadatta also. who is fighting on the other side. KafI. (The name means either "without ears" or "having wide ears. means "pity" or "compassion. eva. nom. ' Cfiuro :q . asvatthama (m. nom. The name means "awe-inspiring." ca. bhi~~S (m. aged Kaurava warrior. brother-in-law of Drona. a son of King Dh{tara~!ra and a Kaurava warrior. thou. nom. known as "the grand-sire. by the Sun God Siirya. sometimes known as Kwacarya. nom.lQu. Your Lordship. of Prtha or Kunti. He is the son. victorious in battle. saumadattis (m. the Son of Somadatta." "terrible" or "awful. and a warrior prince on the Kaurava side." great uncle of the Pal. Refers to Drona. Kfpas (m.

nom.prahara~u. oohawu (m. m. lit.lperienced. (!aslra. nom. from pro J ilt:) . yutidlm (n.) sorvt (m. nom. p/. ~Iinquished. pI. BY epd. they whote lives Ire riaked. 'f'T madarthe .. SlE(OI I: niiniiJastraprahaTa~4i.). Ioc::..). ca.. adj. and. '11'. e. fighl. pl. various.. {or my sake. nom. . lar41 (m.).).'as (m. pl . heroes. allY" (m. m.I· various weapon assailing ri ¢crnrro: 11 sarve yuddhaviJtiradti/:l all battle-skilled. other. many. wtra (n.Iyaktajivitti!. nom. (lyalltajrvit4l.). . 1'1 Pilt".).. nom. throw ing weapons. pl. all skilled in battle.JtyaJ)." Iyalc/a (m. (Juddha ·.UdrtU!4s (m. of me in purpose. nom. attacking with various weapons. TP cpd. pau. throwing. sulking . p .) 114114. i'". lives.'Js. baule. prahorQ"!lIJ (n. And many other heroes whose lives art risked for my sake. dinincl. cient.)." 47 . nom. madD"I" (m.. nom.r for my sake whose lives are risked . p l. others.iMrad4r.l Jurd and other many heroes ~~)f<mT : '"""~. pI. assailing.) • The compound /ollrapraharm. nom.. abandoned . TP cpd. profi. nom. pl.). pl .). skilled.I 9 anye co bahofJa/. participle .. skilled in baule.b mea ns literally "weapons 10 strike and weapons to hurl. discharging. pI. all. different. . weapon. m.

Piil). participle abhi ':. ours. strength. sg. but though.). gen. which still survives. A. equal. insufficient. Insufficient though is The force guarded by Bhima . n. In that version. to us. Bhima. B. guarded by BhYma. unlimited. sg. guarded by BhY~ma.). idam (n. of these. nom. nom. brother of Arjuna. force. protected. this.).\ ~ aparyaptam tad asmakam insufficient this of ours aparyaptam (m. the old Kiiurava warrior. The Vulgate version. pass. strength. pass. sg. according to van Buitenen. sg.rak~). force.-March 1965). protected. tad (m. 85.) ~ '+i't~rf'lRf~ I balam bhi~mabhirak~itam (the) force (by) Bhi~ma guarded. nom. balam (n.Qava princes and a chief of the Kiiurave army. Jan.. sg. participle a pari .). p. sufficient. van Buitenen has investigated the matter and published his conclusions in the Journal of the American Oriental Society (Vol. preceded by another version used by Bhaskara the Vedantin. Bhi~ma.) paryaptam (n. p. TP cpd. unequal. abhirak!iitam (n. guarded. (4) the words sound unnatural corning from Duryodhana who is supposed to be encouraging his forces with a pep talk. asmakam (gen. (Bhima-abhivak!iitam. nom. from which practically all translations have been made.. nom.. was. participle abhi . nom.. n. (3) Bhi~ma is generally regarded as a much greater leader of troops than Bhima. Sufficient is that force of ours Guarded by Bhishma.9aVaS (therefore hardly" insufficient").Jrak!i). No. etqam (m. . tu. nom. unbounded. (2) tad" that" seems to refer to something nearby while idam "this" seems to refer to something far off. in the ninth century or thereabouts. pass. incomplete.Jap). I. p. nom. participle pari --lap). pi).Qava warrior. to them. that. sg. pass. guarded. The eminent Sanskrit scholar J. p. the names Bhi~ma and Bhima are transposed and the stanza reads: aparyaptam tad asmakam balam bhimabhirak~itam paryaptam tv idam ete~am balam bhismabhirak~itam 48 . this. q<jTqfk~~ paryaptam tv idam ete~am sufficient though that of these ~ <1T+nf'lRf~ II balam bhimabhirak#tam (the) force (by) Bhima guarded.). pl. balam (n. sg. nom. (Bhi!ima-abhirak!iitam. of us. abundant.I 10 ~<1rl:(f a-. This stanza has puzzled many translators because (I) Duryodhana's (the speaker's) forces are actually greater than those of the Pal). sg. nom. great uncle of the Piil). abhirak~itam (m.

in movements. pl. 49 . eva. All of you. thus indeed. each in his respective place. pl. Bhl~ma. On the other hand. p. avasthitas (m. Protect Bhishma! which in van Buitenen's translation reads: " That army guarded by Bhima is not equal to us. placed. m. guarded by Bhi~ma is equal to them. the old Kiiurava warrior chief. participle ava Jstha).. according to shares. all. yathiibhagam (adv. in positions. Bhf~mam (m. pl. nom.). <1~'l1T'Pt . of course. in all. though Bhi~ma is the leader of the Kauravas. Edgerton thinks the name Bhima is chosen in order to make a word play on the two names. protect ye! protect! bhavantas (honorific nom.).Cff~11 bhavantal}.).). loco pl. Stationed each in his respective place.) hi. in goings. pass.rqfp·mr: I yathiibhagam avasthital}.). indeed. ye. imperative abhi Jrak~). loc. ayane~u And in all movements. in progress. indeed.). sarvqu (n..P:R~ 'q ri~ ayanefU ca sarvefU and in all movements. sarva eva hi your lordships all. and. pI. Bhima is not the leader of the Pal)<. indeed (used here for emphasis. abhirak~antu (3rd pI. sarva (samdhi for sarve. sg. eva. (n. nom. acc. truly. following (as of a command). this army.Iavas. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler).I 11 . ca. stationed.:r~ rzcrrfmw<1 bhi~mam evabhirak~antu Bhi~ma indeed protect ~:~1J. your lordships. in respective places stationed ." Actually.

aged. roaring a lion's roar on high q~e+rhC'lIqql't II crying. searingly. member of the Kuru tribe. sg. simhaniidam vinadyocciiil. joy... 50 . by high.). bringing forth. full of dignity. to him. smnjanayan (m. har!fam (m. roaring a lion's roar. delight.Jtap). bellowing. Roaring like a lion. sg.) ucciiis (inst.Jdhamii).). his grandsire.). sam . acc. gen. of him. adj. nom. pass. act. sg. n.).[:f~:1 kuruvrddhal.). pratiipaviin (m.). elevated. to Duryodhana. Kuru. acc.. i. full of sankham dadhmiiu pratiipaviin conch horn he blew powerfully Making him (Duryodhana) happy. nom. sg. nom.Jjan). lit. loud sound. roar. saiikham (m. strength. dadhmiiu (3rd sg. of him (Duryodhana) ~<J:. grown larger. (simhaniidam vinadya.JVI:dh). he blew. from pra . participle caus. acc. vinadya (gerund vi . niidam (m. loudly. pr. the Grandfather. p. producing. participle the Aged Kuru. (m. sg. Blew his conch horn powerfully." descriptive of BhI~ma. The aged Kuru.). by loud. sg. sg.Jnad). full of power. kuru (m.e. simha (m. adverb).I 12 ~~<J:~ tasya samjanayan har~am tasya (m. perfect . sounding forth. nom. "great father. pitiimahal. on high. full of energy. pI. pitiimahas (m. f~<fRfq'1~i)~: . grandfather. v~ddhas producing joy. lion. conch horn. sg.

).JbhU). uproar. sas (m. drums and trumpets All at once were sounded. ca.z saiikhiis ca bheryas ca tatas. all at once. saiikhiis (m. trumpets. pass. this. noisy. m. quickly. abhi .). 51 . drum.). pl. syllable. lit. it became.) sahasa (n. pl. and. The cymbals. they sounded. ca. And thereupon the conch horns and the kettledrums.).. drums and trumpets.). the.nt~ tatal. act . sg. sabdas (m.). pI. drum. imperf. DV cpd. nom. bheryas (f. imperf. abhavat (3rd sg. tumulas (m. nom. nom. and. sg. nom. eva. the cymbals. nom. drums.). it was.Jhan). pafJava (m. then. nom. inst.). and thereupon the conch horns and the kettledrums q1lf<rT'i'filT~: I pa~aviinakagomukhiil. pl.I 13 mr:~. The uproar was tremendous. nom. bull-mouths (trumpets) ~ sahasiiiviibhyahanyanta all at once they were sounded ~~~~II sa sabdas tumulo ' bhavat the uproar tumultuous it was. sg. they were struck. conch horns. thereupon. gomukhas (m. kettledrums. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).z the cymbals. (pafJavanakagomukhiis. abhyahanyanta (3rd. sound. suddenly. froZV thence. sg..). anaka (m. . pI. "bullmouths" or "bull faces" (the plural refers to the whole compound). tumultuous. cymbal.

dual). nom.. pra . Q.~: II divyau saiikhiiu pradadhmatulJ divine conch horns they blew forth. nom.Jdhma). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). situated. acc. with white. p. Pal)qu was a brother of Dhrtara~!ra and officially the father of the five Pal)qava brothers. Krishna's tribe. yukte (m. saiikhiiu (m.9U (Arjuna) thus f~r qr>r~t. Arjuna. inst. pass. from thence . standing in the great chariot Yoked with white horses. nom. including Arjuna. eva. descendant of Madhu.q<'.).:J tatalJ svetair hayair yukte then with white horses yoked ~a ~ f~?Rfr I mahati syandane sthitau in the great chariot standing lfNCf: qlo:s<'. ca.javascaiva the Descendant of Madhu (Krishna) and the Son of pal). participle . pl. with horses.). acc.). loco sg. pl. standing. tatas. n. svetais (m. inst. nom. sg. divyau (m.I 14 (iff: ~ m. nom.).Jyuj). Then. Madhavas (m. • Arjuna's chariot is drawn by four horses. 52 . n. they two blew forth.. sthitau (m..j madhavalJ paIJr. mahati (m. the two heavenly. loco sg. dual). yoked. pradadhmatus (3rd dual perfect act. Krishna (the Yadavas. hayais (m. in yoke.-' ~ . pa1]4avas (m. Son of Pal)qu.." in the chariot. the two conch horns. syandane (m. in the "fast-running. in the mighty. Krishna and Arjuna Sounded forth their divine conch horns. not to be confused with the asura Madhu who was killed by Vishnu). joined. the two divine. and. dual).j~. <rffi . was descended from Madhu. loco sg. by white. sg.. thereupon. then. by horses.. in the great.).

" a very frequent epithet of Krishna. BY cpd. nom. terrible in action. sg. mahti. thought to be a brother of Krishna.) (v~ka-udara.. nom. sg. (The epithet v~kodara was applied to Bhlma because of his enormous appetite.). stomach." name of AIjuna's conch horn. dadhmau (3rd sg. sg. sg.). sankham (m. acc. the Bristling Haired One (Krishna). terrible in action. BY cpd. Conqueror of Wealth (Arjuna) q-r~ ~e"l[r ~ piiu1Jt!ram dadhmiiu mahiisaiikham paul)." "Erect Hair. While Bhima. he blew. dhanamjayas (m.). h~~[keSas (m. 53 . n. great. perfect act.). belly." very common epithet of AIjuna. udaras (m. wolf. "God Given. v~ka (m. name of Krishna's conch horn which was taken from the demon Paficajana after Krishna slew him.). Arjuna blew Devadatta. ~~:I devadattam dhanamjayal. pawyJram (m. mighty. nom.). whose actions are terrible.Jdhma). "Conqueror of Wealth. . sg. nom. bhfmakarma (m. Blew the great conch horn Paundra. acc.). (Bhlma) the Wolf-bellied Krishna blew his Panchajanya.). +r~ffi~:11 bhimakarmii vrkodaral. Devadatta. sg.) piiiicajanyam hr~ikeso Paficajanya.). acc. m. devadattam (m. acc. "Bristling Haired.I 15 ql~"l"1~lj ~~T pancajanyam (m. conch horn.qra he blew. nom. Possibly named for a king of a people in Eastern India. the great conch horn. sg. sg. terrible In action. name of Bhlma's conch horn. sg. wolfbellied one.

nom. sg. sg.I 16 ~m~ alUlntavijayam (m.z son of KuntI Yudhil?thira ~:~Q:~*~"" nakulal. A Piil}Qava prince. Mal}ipu~paka. sg. The name means "accompanied by the gods. son of Miidri by the other Asvin. sg. sg. Nakula and Sahadeva Blew Sughosa and Manipushpaka. Son ofKunti. nom. kuntfputras (m.). and.). born to Piindu's second wife. DV cpd. Anantivijaya. malJipu~paktiu (m. blew Anantavijaya.). sugho~a. acc. (sugho~amalJipu~paktiu. The name means "unending victory." raja (m. son of KuntL yudhi~rhiras (m.kuntiputro yudhifthiral.z sahadevaS ca Nakula and Sahadeva ~~111 sughofama1Jipufpakau Sughol?a and Mal." sahadevas (m. . Miidri by one of the Asv·ins. Yudhisthira's conch horn. sugho~a and mal}ipu~paka.). anantavijayam raja Anantavijaya the king ~rrn7iferf~: I . dual).) 54 . acc.lipul?paka King Yudhishthira.). dual.). sg.!he other twin. Nakula. nom. The name means "color of the mongoose." ca. king. nom. nom. Sahadeva. son of Kunfi by Dharma. god of justice and law. IUlkulas (m. m. acc. one of the twins. the name of Nakula's conch horn (meaning "making a great noise"). Yudhi~!hira. eldest of the Piil}Qava princes. A PiiI}Qava prince. the name of Sahadeva's conch horn (meaning "jewel bracelet").

m. nom.c. son of Satyaka and an ally of the Piil). great ~arrior. sg.lava warrior. i~u. sg. (as a BV cpd.). invincible. nom. sg.lava princes took refuge during the thirteenth year of their exile. best archer. hurler). supreme. parama (m. Dhrishtadyumna and Virata And Satyaki.).iin. great warrior. nom. i~viisas (m. son of Drupada and brother of DriiupadI. unconquered. and eventual killer of Bhlsma who would not fight with a woman. (parama-i~viisas. sg.). Piil}<. and. ca. and. ca. siityakis (m. sg.z and the King of the Kiisis.\avas. nom. the invincible.I 17 ~q(ij&ll*l: kiiSyas ca parame~iisa!. bowman. born as a girl and miraculously changed to a male. nom.). sg." ca."'lq(lf~: II siityakiSciipariijita!. highest. the King of the Kiisis. 55 . supreme archer. and. ~~+:<fTf~ dhr~tadyumno G '''' Sikhandi ca mahiirathah viriitas ca Dhr~tadyumna and Virlita ~ifl:. with whom the Piil}<. virii!as (m.z and Satyaki. nom. sg. maht'irathas (m. son of Drupada.). the invincible: And the King of Kashi. a tribe in a district identified with modern Benares.lava warrior. Yuyudhiina. dhmadyumnas (m. sg. Viriita. ca. f~r:q~:1 and Sikhal)<. apariijitas (m. archer.) sikhafJ4hr (m. And Shikhandi.). KD cpd.). nom.. The name means "one whose nature is truth. kiiSyas (m. of Sikhal}<. . nom.lin). arrow. and. a Piil}<. warrior king of a particular district in India. iisa. sg.) he whose chariot is great. supreme archer. nom. that great warrior.

sg. dadhmus (3rd pI. 0 Lord of the Earth (Dhrtara~tra) ~T~~~: siiubhadras ca mahiibiihul:z and the Son of Subadra. pl." king of the Paiicalas and father of Dhrstadyumna. nom. sg. And the strong anned son of Subhadra Blew their conch horns. entirely.lQin and DraupadI.. nom. 0 Lord of the Earth.). mahii.) safikhiin (m. sg. 0 Lord of the Earth.. nom. (mahiibiihus. one by one. strong armed ~~ ~1!: 1:~ 1:~~ II saiikhiin dadhmul:z Prthak Prthak conch horns they blew respectively Drupada and the sons of Draup. nom.lQu princes. arm. the sons of DraupadI. nom. "Rapid Step. perfect act. and. viz. conch horns. sarvasas (adv. driiupadeyiis (m. sg.. acc.). siiubhadras (m. Jdhmii).). biihus (m. mighty. refers here to D~ara~\fa. BY cpd. each his own. the son of Subhadra. to whom the scene is being described by Samjaya.). strong. drupado driiupadeyiis ca Drupada and the Sons of Dr1iupadi ~~: 1:f~q'"'rm I sarvasal:z prthivipate all together.). the 'latter the common wife of the five PaJ. son of Arjuna and Subhadra. 56 . p~thivfpate (m. sg. SikhaJ.). his second wife.). each in tum. voc. respectively.ldi All together. altogether. p~thak P':thak. ca. having mighty arms. Abhimanyu.I 18 ~1:f~'-Ts::1q~41~~ drupadas (m. pl. they blew. wholly.

hearts. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). nom. cry. ca. ptthivim (f. nom.1 hrdayiinivyadiirayat the hearts it burst asunder . nom. act. tumulas (m. eva.). of the sons of Dhrtarastra. causative act. nabhas (n. gho~as (m. nom. it caused to burst.I 19 ~ 'Effq) <lla ~JtS?IOI i sa gho~o dhiirtarii~trii1'}ii:m the noise of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. gen. earth.).Jnad). it tore. tumult.Jghu~). sg. The noise burst asunder The hearts of the sons ofDhritarashtra.). acc. and. And the tumult caused The sky and the earth to resound. noise. sg ). sky. it burst. hr:dayani (n. ~.n:r~ crf~r ~ nabhal ca Prthivim ciiiva and the sky and the earth ~) ~<j<jl~ll<j II tu-:nulo vyanun'adayan the tumult causing to resound sas (m. ca. causative imperf. and.). causing to howl. acc. sound. dhiirtara~!ra1Jiim (m.:r~~1<1l<'1.Jdr:). pl. tumultuous. it lacerated. 57 . pl. vyanunadayan (m. pr. vyadarayat (3rd sg. this. from . tumult. finnament. vi . it rent. the. sg. causing to make resonant. participle vi anu . sg. sg. sg. acc. causing to thunder.

monkey.). seeing.) pravr:tte (m.). pass. raising up. drawn up in battle array having seen. having seen. kapi (~. sg.).). Arjuna. the bow raising. dhiirtarii~rriin dmvii (gerund . banner.). then. TP cpd. the monkey god. sg.. weapon . clash of the weapons. in the coming forth. <mhIGCI'1 'iifi:re~: I . loco sg. p. m. participle vi ava . confluence (sam .) (pravr:tte sastrasGlnpiite. ar- dhiirtar aWan kapidhvajal. bow. Son of Pa~Qu (Arjuna). standard.. • Arjuna's standard was a flag with the symbol of a monkey. dhanur udyamya palpJaval. in the Ramayana. . nom. in the occurring. udyamya (gerund ud . nom. nom.Jpat). m. his wife. having seen the sons of Dhritarashtra Drawn up in battle array. vyavasthitiin (m. page 70 atha. loco absol. who assisted Rama in bringing back the kidnapped SUa.). flourishing. piilJqavas (m. dhvajas (m. in the coming together. ape. the Monkey Bannered (Arjuna) >JCf~ ~lf?f<8q 18 pravrtte sastrasampate in the coming forth of the clash of weapons. 58 .. drawn up in battle array. brandishing.Jsthii). encounter. collision. (sastra-sGinpiite.) dhanus (m. (m.). BV cpd. pI. flag. rayed.9U Then. pl. Incidentally. sg.Jyam). m. sGinpiite (m. acc. (kapi-dhvajas.I 20 'l. banner of the monkey. Raised his bow as the clash of weapons began. ~~~:II . acc. the monkey was Hanuman. loco sg. sastra (m. the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. sg. when the clash of weapons began. the Son of pal). acc. in the resulting.). loco sg.Jd~s). the sons of Dhrtarastra.1~~~~ atha vyavasthitan drftva then.

not fallen.I 21 ~~~~'!: hr:~r (f. gen. ratham (m. sg. madhye (n. cause to stand.) tada. cause to be situated. speech. perf. . idam (n. vakyam (n.). act. erect.jsthti). TP cpd.). sg. Cause my chariot to stand in the middle Between the two armies.) senayos (f. acc. voc. Imperishable One Arjuna then spoke these words to Krishna: o Lord of the earth. voc.). sg.). sg. dual). loco sg. word.). keSam (m. imperishable. he said.). sg. acc. unchanging. of me.). in the midst of. then. 59 . acc. causative imperative act. .). m~~-m. mahf (f. sg. chariot.. (hr:~fkeSa. pate (m. (mahfpate. an epithet of Vishnu-Krishna. aha (3rd sg. m. 0 Ruler.r~~ senayor ubhayor madhye of the two armies both in the middle ~~lr~<:fll ratham sthiip"'aya me 'cyuta the chariot cause to stand of me. dual). voc. Imperishable One. sg.jah).). sg. the earth. acyuta (m. of the two armies. 0 Lord. ubhayos (f. unshaken. pie (gen. hrsikeSam tada vakyam to the Bristling Haired One (Krishna) then word ~~~T~I idam aha mahipate this he said: 0 Lord of the Earth. in the middle. gen. acc. sthtipaya (2nd sg. firm. 0 Master. hair. nom. this. Bristling Haired a common nickname for Krishna. bristling.). 0 Lord of the Earth. sg. of both.

). acc. Until I behold these warriors. in lifting. pl. TP cpd. aham (nom.). kais (m. derivative noun from sam ud . arrayed. loco sg. sg. pl. arranged in battle formation. acc. yoddhavyam (n. etan (m.). pI. I see. anxious to fight. yoddhukiiman (m. +r<rr ~ lI'T:irolI'~ kair maya saha yoddhavyam with whom? by me together to be fought ~f~\Urnmll .J[k~). along with. rafJa also means joy. with me.e 'ham until these I behold. loco sg. conflict. sg. pleasure. in undertaking.. delight. Battle-hungry and arrayed..). With whom must I fight In undertaking this battle? yavad. nir . saha.Jyam). in readiness for. battle. inst.). pl. rafJa (m. yoddhukaman avasthitan battle-hungry arrayed. in readiness for battle. asmin (m. acc. sg. ~.) 60 . hungry for battle. inst. together. loco pI. lI').Jyudh used impersonally). in setting about. I.[~~~1 . these. in raising. as much. avasthitan (m. nom.). as many.). by me. samudyame (m. in this. <F<. mid. interrog. I. (rafJa-samudyame. and in its use here means battle as an object of delight.I 22 ~~f<rU~~ yavad etan nirw. to be fought. I behold. gerundive . until. m. '" asmin rat}asamudyame in this battle in undertaking. by whom? with whom? maya (m.). wishing to fight. nir[k~e (1st sg.

in warfare. TP cpd. pI. wishing to perform. I behold. in this respect. aham (nom. nom. those who are about to give battle. sg. of evil mind. 1. pr. wishing to do a service." I behold those who are about to give battle. who these here come together ~~~4:a\ dhiirtariiftrasya durbuddher of the Son of Dhrtara!}tra of evil mind '!. ava . of cik[r~u. ya. pI. 61 . Wishing to do service in warfare For the evil-minded son ofDhritarashtra (Duryodhana). dear. pl. priya (n.Jyudh). assembled. participle . in battle.). atra. sg.e. who. Having come together here. avekfe (rst sg. nom. durbuddhes (m. desiderative adjective from . loco sg.Jk1:). acc. sg.I 23 <{'\ttl! +! 1'11 i wr~ ~ yotsyamiiniin (m. service. mid. gen.) yotsyamiiniin avek~e 'ham those who are about to gIve battle I behold. nom. I see.).J[k~). I. of evil intuition. i.). pI). ete (m.. wishing to do a kindness. BV cpd. nom. mid. in this place. (priyacikfr~avas.. of the Son of Dhrtarii~!ra. lj'~y.). pI. gen. samdhi for ye (m.). whose mind is evil. wishing to do. nom. dhiirtarii~frasya (m. in battle wishing to do service. here. Duryodhana. indic.[ fwn~~: II yuddhe priyacikir~ava!. these. kindness. come together. cik[r~avas (m.r~:1 ya ete 'tra samiigatii!. yuddhe (n. fut. m. samiigatiis (m.).). pl. act.

• Dhrtara~tra the blind king to whom the scene is being described. gen.). in the middle.~Ii1 "ll'mf I evam.). kesas (m.). ubhayos (f. causing to stand. senayos (f.). gu4ii (f. loco sg.. acc. sg.). standing on end. dual). bristling. hair. m. thick. sg. uktas (m. rathottamam (ratha uttamam. inst. madhye (n. ke§a (m. thus. sg. a ball.). by the Thick Haired One.I 24 ~~T~~ evam uk to hr~keso thus addressed. dual). the chief chariot. sthiipayitvii rathottamam having caused to stand the chief chariot Thus Krishna was addressed by Arjuna. of the two armies. addressed. o Dhritarashtra. sg.) bOOrata (m. pass. in this manner. o Descendant of Bharata ~<in. by Arjuna. nom. sg. hair. the highest chariot. 62 . having caused to stand.: ~l"\ ~ senayor ubhayor madhye of the two armies of both in the middle ~~~ ('If'l'd+i+( II said. p. m. Having caused the chief chariot To stand in the middle between the two armies.Jvac). stOOpayitvii (causative gerund . (gudiike§ena. erect. the Bristling Haired One (Krishna) '1:S1if. gen.JstOO) . participle . gutjiikesena bhiirata by the Thick Haired One (Arjuna). voc. bespoken.). thickened juice of the sugar cane. of both. nom. 0 Descendant of Bharata (here referring to Dhrtarii~(ra whom Sariljaya is addressing). h~~f (f. shock of hair. molasses.

rulers (bhflfma-drof!G-pramukhatas. samavetiin kurtin iti come together the Kurus.) sarvelliim (m.e. the Son of Prtha. gen. pl.). mahf (f. drof!G.. klfitiim (m. 63 . he said. these. be- hold! look at! see! etiin (m./pa§).I 25 "4'l<Sii~lOISl~: bhflfma.). piirthas (m./vac). from which both the PaQQavas and the Kauravas are descended. i. of earth-rulers. and frequently. and. gen. p. a Brahman by birth and. Arjuna. Kaurava warrior. like BhI~ma. samavetiin (m.). lit. (. pI. pl.. acc. united. gen. Kurus. of world- rulers. paSya (2nd sg. TP cpd. kun'in (m. assembled. before the eyes of. pl. thus. acc. participle sam ava . the ancient tribe Before the eyes ofBhishma and Doona And all these rulers of the earth. pass. acc. come together. TP cpd. a teacher of warfare.). in front of.~~~11 opposite. pramukhatas (adv. (mahfklfitiim.). "before the face.) uviica (3rd sg. voc.. the elderly Kaurava warrior.a in front of rnt:q~1f~1 sarve~iim uncle of AIjuna. earth. thus..). imperf. at the close of a quotation). act." ca mahi~itiim and of all these rulers of the earth ~crr:q '1T~ ~ uviica piirtha pasyiiitiin said the Son of Prtha: Behold these M4dl1.. Arjuna said: Behold these Kurus assembled.). iti. pl. indeed (used here. pI. of governors./i).. imperative act. sg. m. . . ca. Bhi~ma and Drol). world. great bhipnadrottapramukhatal./klfi ). in front of BhI~ma and DroQa. of all these...

matuliin (m. iiciiryiin (m. Sons. acc. brothers. m:qr~~ 'lfRft acaryan matulan bhratfn teachers. as well. putriin (m. Teachers. piiutriin (m. standing situated. pitiimahiin (m. apa. sthitiin (m. . pl.). sg. nom. maternal uncles. teachers. then grandfathers.Jsthii). pitfn (m. maternal uncles. sons. pl. p. participle . then grandfathers.). pl. pl. pl. acc.:j: ffiCT~ i9"~n II putran pautran sakhilis tatha sons. f~qN: tatrapasyat sthitan parthalJ there he saw standing. tatra.). brothers. there. grandsons. atha.). pI. TIT"!: q-h"f.Jpasj. friends as well Arjuna saw standing there Fathers.). grandsons. maternal uncles. then. friends as well.). masters.). pass. acc. acc. brothers. companions.). the Son of Prthii.). bhriitfn (m.'>uq4114. epithet frequently applied to Arjuna. sakhfn (m. acc. 64 . acc. acc.I 26 t1'. and. he saw. pl. grandsons. the Son of Prtha (Arjuna) fqq1: ~~ fqt1I'l~W\ I pitfn atha pitamahan fathers. likewise. acc. grandfathers. fathers. piirthas (m. tatoo. imperfect act. acc. pl. thither. pl.ryat (3rd sg. friends.

api. acc. nom. them. sg. he. acc. contemplating. samfkifya (gerund sam Jfkif). 65 . also. regarding. pl. pl.'rq OJ svasuran suhrdascaiva fathers in law and companions m~~1"\mq-1 svasuran (m. sg. pass. pl.) tan (m.). acc. And contemplated All his kinsmen. the Son of KuntI. loco dual).. pI.). arrayed. nom. this.).). acc. kinsmen. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). acc. in all two <:fl'"i\~T~~Cfim: tan samik~ya sa kaunteya/:l them contemplating. pl. bandhUn (m. all. In the two armies.I 27 ~u. epithet often applied to AIjuna. the son of Kunti. sas (m. ca. he. sarvan (m.). p. arrayed.). arranged in battIe order.: ~~<. even. ubhayos (f. loco dual).). kaunteyas (m. (m. relatives. looking at. avasthitan (m. and. in all two. eva. companions. (ubhayor api. pl. in both. senayos (f. fathers-in-law. in the two armies. companions. suh~das senayor ubhayor api in the two armies. sarvan bandhun avasthitan all relatlves arrayed Arjuna saw fathers-in-law. participle). acc.

sg. by pity. abravft (3rd sg. desiderative adjective from . samupasthitam (m. dark. ~l:ffit ~~ II Filled with infinite pity.I 28 w:rn ~Gfl5GT krpayii parayiivi#o filled with infinite pity fqQ"~ ~ vifidann idam abravit desponding. vi~fdan (m. anxious to fight. nom. p. acc.). sg. AIjuna's charioteer. by profound./visj. acc. standing near. by infinite. approaching. sg. participle sam upa ':. parayii (f. this. despondent. act. entered. acc.. own people. sg. own family. sg. 66 . idam (n. sg. sg. he said. participle vi . dwvii (gerund .Jyudh). coming near. desiring to fight. subject to.Jsad) . filled with. n. Krishna. iivis{as (m. sg. participle ii . .y:tsu~ samupasthitam desiring to fight. seeing. this. sg.). despairing. having seen. possessed by. he spoke. yuyutsum (m. by deep.Jdrsj.ta "having seen this. he said this: Having seen my own people. the avatar of Vishnu and the principal spokesman in the Bhagavad Gitii. p. with pity. approaching. acc. . pass.sthii). sg. Desiring to fight. imperf. my own people Krishna.). pass. k~payii (f. pr.).. I drftvemam svajanam krP.). imam (m. acc. inst.. k~~1JO (m. Despondent. approaching.Jbru). or dark blue). this he said: ~~~ G • " mrcfre. Krishna (the name means black. voc. svajanam (m.). inst.

TP cpd. My mouth dries up. . And my hair stands on end. face.Jsad). sg. ca.) ca. limbs. pr. parisu~ati (3rd sg. a trembling. sg. my.I 29 ~fl<n~ l1+1lJT'i!'Tfur sidantt' mama gatra1}£ "they sink down. and.Jgii. act. har~as (m. body hair. indic. me (gen. it makes dry. sg. ca.).). sg.). it is brought forth. standing erect. a quivering. sg. pr. My limbs sink down. mukham (n.sg. My body trembles.). giitriilJi (n. a qUaking. it dries up. jiiyate (3rd sg. indic. mama (gen. indic. sfdanti (3rd pI. vepathus (m. bristling. in the body.Jvip). hair. act. nom. legs. nom.). they sink down. pari . from . of me. my limbs '" '" mukham ca par£s~yati ~ 'i'f qf"W&lf('fl and (my) mouth dries up ~~m'R~ vepathus ca sarire me and trembling in the body of me romahar~as ~~~II ca jayate and bristling of the hair is brought forth. it is born. pl. derivative noun . my. pr. nom. bristling of the hair. go).Jh~~). standing on end. sarire (m. and. m. (roma-har~as. instruments of motion (from . they sit..Jsu~). 67 . passive . produced. and.Jjan). of me. loco sg. nom. roma (n.). nom. mouth.

sg. me (gen. it burns. My skin burns. and. ca. I can. avasthiitum (infinitive ava . indic. as it were. eva. tvac (f. it wanders. mid . and. And my mind seems to ramble. and (my) skin it burns "'q~~~ na ca saknomy avasthiitum and not I am able to remain as I am. sramsate (3rd sg. nom. manas (n. I am unable to remain as I am. of me. nom.). iva. to remain as I am.I 30 ~'T<tm~ gii1. understanding. the name of Arjuna's bow. bhramati (3rd sg. and it rambles-like of me the mind.). sg. 68 .Jsak). sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). it drops.Jbhram). passive pari . pr. it rambles. ~')-q 'q it +R: II bhramativa ca me mana!.Jsthii).lIva. mind. indic. . from the hand.lrjivam sramsate hastiit GaQ. to stand. it falls. pr. I am able. I have the power to. it is burned. pr. pr. saknomi (1St. . intellect.Jsrams). nom.). sg. paridahyate (3rd sg. act. .Jdah). na. sg. sg. GiiI}<. skin. indic.). hastiit (m. Gandiva (Arjuna's bow) falls from (my) hand. act. abl.). indic. ca. not. like.91va falls from (my) hand ~:tcrqf~1 tvak ciiiva paridahyate giilJqivam (n.

). sg.:r~+r nimittani (n. I see. pa§yami (1st sg. marks. tokens. acc. good fortune. na.). 0 Handsome-haired One.). anu . I foresee. ca. omens. sg. acc. own kinsmen. signs. svajanam (m. viparftani (n. sreyas (n. pr. voc.). in challenge. prosperity. acc. ca. .Jhan). act. pl. perverse. having killed. sg..Jpas). .Jhve). o 69 . ke§ava (m. :q ~+r nimittiini ca pasyiimi and omens I perceive fcrn:RlTf.:q ~ s. I perceive. killing. pro indic. Krishna. acc. 0 Handsome-haired One. anupa§yami (1st sg. m I viparitiini kesava inauspicious. I perceive inauspicious omens. loco sg. not.I 31 f"lflfflTf. slaying. own people. from a . act.. '" na ca sreyo 'nupasyiimi and not welfare I foresee ~~~II hatvii svajanam iihave having destroyed own people in battle. indic. inauspicious. and . welfare. and. hatva (gerund . having destroyed. in warfare. I anticipate.).. ahave (m. pl. destroying. And I foresee misfortune In destroying my own people in battle. in battIe.Jpas).

. Nor kingship nor pleasures. not. the interpretation of which is moot among scholars." epithet of Krishna. Krishna? What are enjoyments.). kingship. kim (interrog.). I hanker after. even life? na. sg.. not. acc. by kingship. rajyena (n. or. indic. What is kingship to us. often translated "Chief of Cowherds. conquest. pl. what? bhogais (m. joys. acc. ca. fef. vijayam (m. and.rTfCR kim no riijyena govinda what' to us with kingship.). na. ca. I desire. what? nas (dat.). but this is the translation usually accepted. I wish for. Krishna. Krishna .). kiiflk~e (1st sg. voc. pl.). Krishna . victory. inst.). with enjoyments. sg. or. rajyam (n.. "f ~ ~~. pl. kingdom.). "Cow Finder.). "cow finder "). pr. sg. with pleasures.). jivitena (n. with kingdom.). sg. "Chief of Cowherds" presumes an adoption into Sanskrit of the Prakrit "gopendra" (gopa Indra). "f I na ca riijyam sukhiini ca and not kingship and pleasures. acc. sukhani (n. kim (interrog. by life. govinda (m. kI:~l'Ja (m. . CfiTS\~m ~ na kiink~e vijayam knrJa not I desire victory." because of a presumed Prakrit derivation. pleasures. inst. to us. happinesses. or. sg. va. 70 . voc.I 32 . sg.Jkiiflk~). Govinda (lit. . inst. Chief of Cowherds (Krishna)? fef. . See footnote. kingly power. mid .. with kingship. with life. "l1~ \1f1f~ err II kim bhogiiir jivitena vii what with enjoyments or with life? I do not desire victory.ft ~ . and.

. these.:fT ye~am arthe kafik#tam no of whom for the sake desired of us <F<t . sg. acc. kingship. and pleasures. they. acc. having abandoned.. pleasures. pass. pl. sukhani (n.&l~. sukhani ca kingship. nom. pl. pI.). participle ava . standing. wished for.Jtyaj). tyaktva (gerund .). ca. arranged in battle formation.).). participle . relinquishing. nom. gen. loco sg. rajyam (n. They are arrayed here in battle. yuddhe (n.).TlJr: ~f.Jstha). ~ I rajyam bhogal.). dhanani (n. m. avasthitas (m. pass. pralJan (m. pl. pl. in battle.). and. booty. desired. arthe (m.). ime (m. pI.) vital breaths. abandoning. enjoyments and pleasures. hankered after. nas (gen. comforts. 71 . nom. Abandoning their lives and riches. ta (samdhi for te. by us. pl. these arrayed in battle. nom. riches. and.). of us. for the sake of. sacrificing. Q~lfsqf~~ ta ime 'vasthita yuddhe they.Jkaiik~). p. enjoyments (of eating in particular). of whom. lives. in warfare. pl. enjoyments. nom.I 33 ~ ~~ 'li1fs. ~~CFl1f"~11 pra1}ans tyaktva dhanani ca vital breaths abandoning and riches. loco sg. ca. p. arrayed. in sake. nom. pleasures. Those for whose sake we desire Kingship. pl. yqam (m. sg. nom. sovereignty. bhogas (m.). kaiik~itam (n.

thus. putras (m.). pitaras (m.I 34 ~: f~: Tffi!: acaryas (m. ~~:qf~:1 tathiiiva ca pitiimahiilJ and also grandfathers. svasuras (m. maternal uncles. tatha.).). pl. pl. pautras (m. grandsons. kinsmen. miituias (m. 72 . Maternal uncles. sons. thus. nom. iiciiryiilJ pitaralJ putriis teachers. And also grandfathers. fathers. tatha. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). grandsons. safnbandhinas (m. also. grandsons. nom. ~:~~T:q-m: miituliilJ svasuriilJ piiutriilJ maternal uncles.). nom. ca. sons. teachers. pl. pl. brothers-in-law. and other kinsmen. eva. pl. nom. fathers-in-law. nom.).). Syalas (m. nom. also. masters. nom. sons. fathers-in-law. relatives.). ~:~~~~II syiiliil. fathers. kinsmen thus Teachers. smhbandhinas tathii brothers in law. pitamahas (m. nom. pl. nom.). Brothers-in-law.). and. pl. fathers in law. pl. fathers. grandfathers. pl.

Even for the sovereignty of the three worlds. -li~). for the sovereignty. what? how? nu.). sg.).). Krishna. not. gen. Slayer of Madhu. the paradise of the gods. sg. now. to kill. those who are about to kill.'lj api trailokyarajyasya even for the sovereignty of the three worlds t<rl f. How much less then for the earth? etan (m. rajyasya (n. because.). trailokya (n. 73 . acc. them. the realm of atmospheric beings and the earth.1I'. hantum (infinitive -lhan).~Mlif<Ol (1. viz. I wish. for the sovereignty of the three worlds. kim (interrog. loco sg. ghnato 'pi madhusudana who are also killing. of the sovereignty. P1~)sfq-~. voc. indic. madhusudana (m. epithet of Vishnu-Krishna. (trailokyarajyasya. to slay. also. gen. act. Slayer of the Demon Madhu. TP cpd. pr. api. indeed.. then.. This Madhu is not to be confused with the Yiidava patriarch who was Krishna's ancestor. n.). abl. pl. acc. sg. mq. even. for the earth. for the sake of the created world. icchdmi (rst sg. on account of.) hetos (m. those who are killing.). the three worlds.I 35 ~"~~11 elan na hantum icchami them not to slay I desire.* '1 ~~ II hetol.). mahfkt:te (m. these. kim nu mahikrte on account. pr. participle -lhan). how then for the earth? I do not desire to kill Them who are bent on killing. pI. ghnatas (m. api. na. sg. also. I desire. cause. even.

. 0 Agitator of Men? ~u:c:rr~~ . felons. striking down.).). sg. What joy would it be for us To strike down the sons of Dhritarashtra. acc. voc. eva. optative act. us. might it be. pl. Jard. papam (n.). dhiirtara!i!ran (m.). or gen.).).). pl. piipam eviisrayed asmiin evil thus should cling to us ~ mffifTf<r. syat (3rd sg. hatva (gerund Jhan). iT: nihatya dhiirtarii~triin nalJ striking down the Sons of to us <fiT >rTf(\": ~ ~ I Dhrtara~tra kii priti~ syiij janiirdana what joy should it be. nom. it should be. harm.r: II hatviiitiin iitatiiyina~ having killed these aggressors. acc.). sg. trouble. take hold of. pleasure. lit. asrayet (3rd sg. to us. joy. even so. killing. it should lean on. attackers. pl. . sg. . 74 . a J sri). 0 Krishna? Evil thus would cling to us. aggressors. the Sons of Dhrtariistra. etan (m. frequent epithet of Krishna (from jana. optative act. these. ka (f. interrog. sg. acc.). pl. killing. evil. what? prftis (f. . Agitator of Men. man. nom. nom. asman (acc. having killed.I 36 f~ emro~. Janardana. nas (d~t. Jas). janardana (m. atatayinas (m. pl. Having killed these aggressors . thus. move). it should cling to. of whom Krishna is the earthly avatar. nihatya (gerund ni Jhan) . " Agitator of Men" is an epithet of the god Vishnu. "having bows drawn" (from a Jtan). murderers. torment. agitate.

killing. acc. ~f~~~ svajanam hi katham hatvii own people surely how. optative act. voc. arhiis (m. acc.). nom. we. miidhava (m. W<l{if: ~ lfNCf II sukhinalJ syiima miidhava happy we should be.).). to smite. nom. Krishna's race. . justified. how? hatvii (gerund . sg. possessing happiness. pI. own people. progenitor of the Yiidavas. Descendant of Madhu? tasmiit (abl. indeed. deserving. having killed. to kill. How.J han). na. pl. thus an epithet of Krishna. hi. pl. from Jarh) . not.). we should be.). Therefore we are not justified in killing The sons of Dhritarashtra.I 37 ~'f$~~ tasmiin niirhii vayam hantum therefore not justified we to kill 'C1I8<:I"'cOl"I~1 .). the Sons of Dhrtariistra. syiima (1st pI. acc. surely. Krishna? 75 . svaba~dhaviin (m.). we might be. own relatives. dhiirtar ii#riin svabiindhaviin the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. own kinsmen. own kinsmen. svajanam (m. pl. hantum (infinitive Jhan). katham (interrog. having killed.). pl. therefore. dhiirtariiwan (m. Could we be happy. happy. Jas). having killed our own people. vayam (nom. . sg. our own kinsmen. Descendant of Madhu. sg. sukhinas (m. entitled to. from this.

76 .. even. greed. acc. caused.). and. api. if. acc. participle .. nom. cetasas (n. na. m.~i). done.Jk. participle upa . pl. thoughts. nom. nom. lit.Jhan). made.). crime. labha (m.). (mitradrohe. pl. ) kula (n. (upahatacetasas. BV cpd. overpowered. wrong.) da~am (m. ~~~ kulak~ayakrtam do~am the destruction-of-family-caused wrong f~:q~11 mitradrohe ca piitakam and in the friend-treachery crime. not. yadyapyete na pasyanti if even these not they see (:?T+rlq~d=<id(l: I lobhopahatacetasal. k~aya (m.).). loco sg. in treachery.). p. caused destruction of family. paSyanti (3rd pI. Even if those Whose thoughts are overpowered by greed do not perceive The wrong caused by the destruction of the family. loco sg. desire. sg. greed overpowered in thought.). with thoughts overpowered. whose thoughts are overpowered.) ca. upahata (p. act. they see. in mischief. "that which causes to fall" (. evil.JkJ:). m. in injury.Jpat). evil. And the crime of treachery to friends. kJ:tam (m.).Jpas). piitakam (n. noun from . acc. pass. (kula-k~aya-k~tam.. n.I 38 lf~i'f~~ yadi. TP cpd. acc. destroying. sg. ete (m. sg. they perceive. family. mUra (m. destruction. pass. treachery to a friend. p. drahe (m. pr. . indic. friend. these.. sg.

) dO!fam (m. nivartitum (infinitive ni -JV1:t). sg. o Krishna? 77 . destruction. to be how not to be known by us ~ mm. by discerning. m. Through discernment of the wrong caused By the destruction of the family. epithet of Vishnu-Krishna.). done.). the destruction-of-family-caused evil. acc. acc. by discernment. sg. ~f~~11 prapasyadbhir janiirdana caused destruction of family. p. abl. janardana (m. caused. (kula-k!faya-kr:tam. sg. evil. from wrong. made. jfieyam (gerundive -Jjfia). inst. TP cpd. by us.). to tum back. by discernment. acc. wrong. pl. with us.from this.:y: f<=r<n~ I PiiPiid asmiin nivartitum understood.).I 39 'fi~" ~~ m+rrf+r: katham na jfieyam asmiibhilJ katham (interrog. making. papat (n. sg. from evil from this to turn back ~~G:T~ kulakFayakrtam dOFam doing. pr. Why should we not know enough To turn back from this evil. sg. prapa§yadbhis (m.). participle -Jkr:). family. asmabhis (m. sg. inst.).). kr:tam (m. not. from evil.. how? na. kula (n. Agitator of Men? Mover of Men. to be known. pI. pass. voc. noun from -Jksi). Agitator of Men. asmat (n. participle pra vpa§). abl. k!faya (m.

Lawlessness overpowers the entire family also. overpowers. dhrame (m. conquers. ancient. it overcomes. m. When the law has perished. they vanish ~~1h:~:1 kuladharmiil.) pralJa§yanti (3rd pI. nom. loco sg. surpasses. kula (n. also.). (kula-k~aye. family. a noun from . rights. dutilessness.).). and. duties. na~!e (loc.. sg. kula (n. entire.. The ancient family laws vanish. abhibhavati (3rd sg. eternal.I 40 ~~~~ kulak~aye prat. pl.zasyanti in destruction of family.jna§). uta. pl. ancient. act. the family entire ~1:l111 sf~ II adharmo 'bhibhavatyuta lawlessness it overpowers also In the destruction of the family. pass. act. k~aye (m. sg. dharmiis (m.). loco sg. acc. pr.). pI. participle . indic. indic. adharmas (m. primaeval. <ni<f1'i~~ dharme na~te kulam krtsnam when law perishes. laws of family. destruction of family. (dharme-na~!e.).) kulam (n. (kula-dharmiis. acc. family. loco absol.). in duty. they perish. when law perishes. TP cpd. in law. in the perishing. even.jbhu).) saniitaniis (m.). loco sg. they are lost. sg. in destruction.. pr. abhi . m. family. lawlessness. laws. in the loss. the family laws. they vanish. TP cpd.jna§). customs. sg. nom. nom.. 78 . nom. predominates. saniitaniil. pra . kftsnam (n. p.jk~i).

vOC. pl. nom. sg. corrupted. they are corrupted. loco absol. pra . to which Krishna belongs.. the family women. they become spoiled. pradu~anti (3rd pI. pr. color. when women are corrupted. adharmabhibhavat (m. from overpowering by lawlessness. m.li ("potent. salhkaras (m. from sam . p. women of the family. passive . nom. 0 Clansman of Vr~l).). ~~¢~:I pradu~yanti lawlessness. sg. Clansman of Vf~l. ~P!~~ stri~ du~tiisu viir~1}eya m women corrupted. nom. intermixture of caste. (varfJa-smhkaras. family. kl:~IJa. because of the ascendancy of lawlessness (adharma. intermixture. loco pl.) strf~u (f. in women.). The family women are corrupted. they are corrupted. The intermixture of caste is born.).Jjan).).Jk~). jayate (3rd sg. TP cpd.) 79 .). Krishna. When women are corrupted.). it is produced. sg. striyas (f. becoming confused. or another closely related tribe. (stri~u du~!asu. act. sg. kulastriyal.. (kula-striyas.). o Krishna. pr. from over-powering). ~ <f1lfrn: II jiiyate var1}asamkaral. voc. indic. du~!asu (f. participle . pouring together..li.Jdu~). it is born. spoiled.Jdu~). nom. lawlessness. caste." "manly") is a name of the Yiidava or Miidhava tribe.i. (m. pass. sg. loco pI. varfJa (m. kula (n. f.I 41 ~"l1hf+nl'ffi!: ~ adharmiibhibhaviit krrtJa from overpowenng' by Krishna. frequent epithet of Krishna. pI. abl. Krishna.) var~fJeya (m. abhibhavat. indic. is born the intermixture of caste Because of the ascendancy of lawlessness. women. Vf~l.

the fathers. (luptapilJq. of family destroyers. ca. g.).odakakriyiis. narakiiya (m. and.). pl. nom. intermixture. ) kulasya (n. eva. deprived of offerings of balls of rice. too.Jk(). patanti (3rd pI. pl.:a. robbed. TP cpd. pI. kriyiis (f.).f~T ~ . the manes. m. p. the ancestors.Jpat).). and water. ball. g. act. lump. sg. patanti pitaro hye~iim they fall. pl. (kuliighiiniim.) family. participle . cake.. rites. nom. nom..) sarizkaro narakiiyiiiva intermixture to hell ?m<rt~"fl kulaghniiniiriz kulasya ca of the family destroyers and of the family q-ffi.. to hell. truly. indic. from sam . hi. pl. . indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). pass. deprived of offerings of rice and water Intermixture brings to hell The family destroyers and the family. nom. they fall. gen. indeed. pouring together.). sg.Jhan). udaka (n. pr. plundered. qiim (m. The ancestors of these indeed fall.). DV cpd. of these. water. lupta (m. of the family. 80 . deprived. pilJq.). m. pI. offerings.Jlup).). Deprived of offerings of rice and water.a (m. dat. gen.I 42 ~T~ samkaras (m. mouthful of rice (offered to ancestors). kula (n. the ancestors indeed of these ~gf~"fi<IT: II luptapi1}tjodakakriyii/. pitaras (m. sg. destroyers (ghna from . ghniiniim (m.

pI. Producing intermixture of caste.l they are abolished.rrf~I~T pouring together. duties.). nom.). pl. by sins. birth..Jkf). gen. by wrongs. kulaghnaniim (m. from sam . 81 . leave off. pI.) kuladharmas (m. etais (m. nom. (varlJasamkarakarakiiis. and. by creating.l and family laws eternal By these wrongs of the family destroyers. karakais (m.). pl. by creating intermixture of caste. family duties. of the family de- by wrongs these of the family destroyers ~Cfi(Cfii(4): I stroyers.).l kulaghniiniim evils. jati (f. color. passive causative ud -I sad). '3@~~ . caste. by intermixture of caste producing.. pl. by etiii/. m. they utsiidyante jiitidharmii/. intermixture. pl. inst. they are abolished. nom. laws of caste. m. by pro- ducing. samkara (m. rights. pl. TP cpd.).l varlJa (m. dharmas (m. they are obliterated.. laws. caste duties. nom. varIJasamkarakiirakiii/.Jk1:). by making. Caste duties are abolished.). they are withdrawn. (jati-dharmas. pI. caste. eternal.I 4-3 ~~:~m<rt do~iilr dOiiiiis (m. ~~:II kuladharmiis ca siisvatii/. And eternal family laws also. indic. continuing. ca. they disappear. perpetual. from . inst. family laws. by these.). pl.). inst. pr. inst. lineage. sasvatas (m. race. TP cpd.) utsadyante (3rd pI.

dwelling.. there is. sg. frequent epithet of Krishna. we have heard repeatedly. m. pl. uncertainly. obliterated. janardana (m. participle ud .J3 vas). Dwell indefmitely in hell. unrestrictedly. derivative noun . BY cpd. . of laws.). narake (m. Agitator of Men. act. gen.r~ I ~ manUFyii1Jiim janiirdana of men. pI.:I 1.. pass.). pr. irregularly. o Krishna. act. disappeared. gen. kula (n. nom. vasas (m. it is. aniyatam (adv.r. (utsannakuladharmalJiim. iti. bhavati (3rd sg.)"':' bhavatityanuiusruma it is.JbM). voc.).).Jsru). utsanna (p. 82 . abolished. eternally. whose family laws are obliterated.I 44 utsannakuladharmii1Jiim of obliterated family laws lfi!~. of men. thus. thus we have heard repeatedly. pl. indefinitely. Thus we have heard repeatedly. dharmalJiim (m. of duties. sg. in hell.Jsad). anu . family. we have heard. loco sg. gen. anususruma (rst pI. 0 Agitator of Men ~sf~cmit narake 'niyatam viiso in hell indefinitely dwelling 'l1<ffi~~~ II '.. Men whose family laws have been obliterated.) manu~alJiim (m. perf. indic. of mankind.).).

).) hantum (infinitive Jhan). TP cpd. Which is to be intent on killing Our own people. aha. rdjya (n.. n. p. 'b . (rdjyasukhalobhena. udyatds (m.. pI. yad (n. acc. participle vi ava . by greed. inst. to perpetrate. vayam (nom. kingship. prepared for.). to do. sg. sg.). lobhena (m. determined. acc. nom. with greed. to slay. alas! mahat (n. wickedness. kartum vyavasitii vayam to do resolved upon we ~ (1\T4~(Gj~1 ~ yad riijyasukhalobhena which with greed for royal pleasures ~~~:II <!. pI. inst. finished. 83 . kartum (infinitive . participle ud -". hantum svajanam udyatiil} to kill own people prepared for./so).). Ah! Alas! We are resolved To do a great evil. undertaken. through greed for royal pleasures. which. p.I 45 ~TGRf~m aho bata mahat piipam ah! alas! great evil ~ oqqfmrr Cfl1ll1 " . sukha (m. svajanam (m. we.). ah! bata. intent on. eager for. great.yam).). pass. m.). sg.). resolved. acc.jk~). ended. nom. with greed for royal pleasures. evil. pleasure. own people. pdpam (m. vyavasitds (m. to kill. sg. pass. sg. commenced. sg. royal. acc. sg.

optative act. pI. greater ease. nom. of me. if. sg. This would be a greater happiness for me. they may kill.). me. tad (n. those whose hands are with weapons ~1~hltSC:I~~ . they should kill. sg.JbhU). ~:Hf"1qloI4: I asastram sastrapii1}ayal. in battle.). unresisting.) dhdrtarawas (m. ~-~"!. 10 the Sons of should kill battle they <r. that. this.) hand (Sastrapa'!Gyas. mam (acc.z unarmed. me (gen. to me. If the armed sons of Dhritarashtra Should kill me in battle While I was unresisting and unarmed. it would be. sastra (m.) weapon pafJayalJ (m.. bhavet (3rd sg. sg. (as BY cpd. nom. greater happiness. 84 . weapon anned.). dhiirtarii~trii ra1}e hanyus Dhrtara~tra. greater tranquility..flr~~11 tan me k~emataram bhavet this to me greater happiness would be. rafJe (~. nom. without weapon. nom. without return. asastram (n. hanyus (3rd pI. apratfkaram or apratikaram (m. loco sg.I 46 <rf~~mffi~ yadi miim apratikiiram if me. unresisting.). m. pl. BY cpd. adv. . without remedy.. yadi. klfemataram (comparative).).). in the joy of battle. sg. those anned with weapons. the Sons of DlJrtarastra. unopposing. they might kill.. . unanned.Jhan) . sg. optative act. from a prati Jk~). acc. acc.) whose hands are with weapons. pI.

starting back. bow. Thus having spoken on the battlefield. soka (m. act. evam.). overcome. loc. sg. visl:jya (gerund vi . car. samkhye (n. sg. sorrow. With a heart overcome by sorrow. spirit. together with arrow. Arjuna. capam (m. in the battle. Arjuna sat down upon the seat of the chariot. sg. sg.). having spoken. sg. in the conflict. ~q<d ¥j (. sg.). nom. upastha (m. participle sam . sg. speaking. samdhi for rathopasthe. uktva (gerund . acc. on the chariot seat. grief.).) End of Book I The Despondency of Arjuna 85 . m. he sat down.. ratha (m. Throwing down both arrow and bow. recoiling. arjunas (m.Js~j).) upavisat (3rd sg. Arjuna.Hi: II sokasamvignamanasalJ with a heart overcome by sorrow. seat. throwing down. sasaram (n.I 47 ~~s... (rathopastha.). manasas (m. acc.f<1m evam uktva 'rjuna samkhye thus having spoken. stool. samvigna (p. f~~m~ visrjya sasaram capam throwing down both arrow and bow. in the battle <:~~~I rathopastha upavisat upon the chariot seat sat down.Jvac) . he settled upon. m.). thus.).. pass. mind.ln. nom.Jvis) . imperf. nom. whose heart was overcome by sorrow. chariot. so. (sokasamvignamanasas.). upa a . as BY cpd.Jvij). heart. loc. with a heart overcome by sorrow.. in the challenge. casting aside.

vakyam (n.Jflq). downcast. sg. Krishna spoke these words: n. speech. pilrlJa (p. pass. whose eyes were filled with tears and downcast. by pity.BOOK II ~\RRf1 sainjayas (m. sg. he said. sorrow.). tear. act. word. taken possession of. sg. nom. despairing. perf. .). sg.). sg. in this way. participle .). participle a fallen into. as kI:paya (f. eye. dejected. fqq:~~G'~ full of. Madhusildanas (m. sg. 1 a~~q<nf~ tam tathii krpayiivi~tam tam (m. acc. act. nom. he spoke. epithet of Krishna referring to Vishnu-Krishna's slaying of the demon Madhu. . asru (n. uvaca (3rd sg. pr. despairing. the minis- samjaya uviica Samjaya spoke: ter of the blind King Dhrtarii~lra. Whose eyes were filled with tears and downcast. pass.). him. vi#dantam idam viikyam despairing. acc. he said. this word \RRf ~G'f: II uviica madhusiidanal. overcome by. Sainjaya. tatha. acc. BV cpd. disturbed. by avistam (m. thus. 86 . sg. he spoke. acc. fk~alJam (n.). sg. perf. this. also. acc.).. inst. acc.Jp~). Slayer of Madhu. who is narrating the story. idam (n. -!vis) . p.Jvac). whose eyes were filled with tears and downcast. sg. to him. desponding. from . sg.) vi~fdantam (n.). participle vi . ~So1:~oi I~~~ I asrupiiT1pikulek~a1Jam well. (asrupilrlJakulek~alJam. acc. uvaca (3rd sg. akula (adj.Jsad).z said the Slayer of Madhu Sanjaya spoke: To him thus overcome by pity. to him thus overcome by pity.Jvac). filled with.

loco sg. he said. aniiryaju~tam asvargyam not befitting an Aryan.) arjuna (m.Jstha). not suitable to an Aryan. sg. idam (n. not acceptable in an Aryan. Arjuna. akirtikaram arjuna disgrace causing.). acc. act . Arjuna. :q11~.). f~~~1 vi~ame samupasthitam in danger come. perf. sg.j\tCli ~ "" . unaryan. sg. not leading to heaven (svarga. not leading to heaven. thee. sg. The Blessed Lord spoke: Whence has this timidity of yours Come to you in time of danger? It is not acceptable in you. this. sg.). jU:f!am (n. n. in danger. in misfortune. welcome. (anaryaju:f!am.). (aklrti-karam. voc. n. karam (n.) asvargyam (n. causing.Jvac). acc. sg. And causes disgrace. in difficulty. impurity. .II ~~. nom. kasmalam (n. acc. acc. come near to. agreeable. sg. not honorable. sg. n. timidity. the Blessed One. in distress. acc. acc. sg.). acceptable. heaven). faintheartedness. vi~ame (m.). anarya (adj.). sg.). sg.). acc. making.). 2 ~~~ kutastvii kasmalam idam whence of thee timidity this.. does not lead to heaven. TP cpd. Arjuna? kutas (interrog.). whence? from where? from whom? wherefore? how? tva (acc. 87 . he spoke. infamy. uvaca (3rd sg. the Blessed Lord. causing disgrace. akfrti (f.). samupasthitam (n. participle sam upa .ro-:ql sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m.. acc. approaching. disgrace. to thee.

lack of strength.). impotence.Jpad). sg. nom. Do not become a coward. aorist sUbjunctive . sg. frequent epithet of Arjuna. (h~dayadaurbalyam. ma (prohibitive). having abandoned. Stand up. imperative act. not. sg. k~udram (n. base.II 3 ~ lIT ~ lfl1: qpt klaibyam (n. acc. weakness. cowardice.Jstha). daurbalyam (n. pr.). sg. h~daya (n.Jgam). it is suitable. gamas (2nd sg. upa . acc. it is possible. acc. Abandoning base faintheartedness.). stand up! arise! paramtapa (m.Jtyaj). Son of Prthii ~~~qq%ld I naitat tvayyupapadyate not this in thee it is suitable.). referring to his mother Prthii or KuntI. sma. ud . faintheartedness. na. This is not suitable to you. never. voc.z partha cowardice never indeed thou shouldst entertain. utti~(ha (2nd sg. sg. Scorcher of the Foe. thou shouldst partake of. indic.. stand up! Scorcher of the Foe. klaibyam ma sma gamal. not. mid. despicable.) tyaktva '(gerund . acc. it is according to rule. low. sg. in truth. ~~~ kfUdram hrdayadaurbalyam base faintheartedness ~1f~~11 tyaktvotti~tha par am tapa abandoning. thou shouldst entertain. in thee. Arjuna. Son of Prthii. thou shouldst undergo. abandoning.). voc.).). etad (n. do not become a coward.). Arjuna! 88 . sg. n. sg. tvayi (loc. (klaibyam ma gamas. upapadyate (3rd sg. indeed. this. heart.) partha (m.

nom.II ~. (piijarhau. slayer. m. foe. deserving. perfect act. great uncle of Arjuna. veneration. I shall attack. acc. sg. in battle.. samkhye (n. uvaca (3rd sg. reverence. madhusiidana.). with arrows.).~ arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. acc. sg. two reverence-worthy. he said. prati Jyudh) . DrOI~a. and. he spoke. 0 Krishna? 89 . Jvac). (arisiidana. acc. 0 Slayer of Madhu ~f>r: mdlll<:fllI fll i~bhil:t pratiyotsyiimi with arrows I shall fight against ~~II piijiirhiivarisiidana the two reverence-worthy. worthy. acc. sg. arhau (m. fut. 0 Krishna? How can I fight with arrows against These two venerable men. sg.). piija (f. sg.). voc.). epithet of Krishna.). dual). ca. i~ubhis (m. epithet of Krishna. voc. 0 Slayer of the Foe (Krishna)? katham (interrog. sg. I. pratiyotsyami (1st sg. drolJam (m. pl.). Slayer of the Enemy. (m. BhI~ma. TP cpd. siidana (m.. fighting on the Kaurava side. two venerable. the old Kaurava warrior. inst. acc. dual.). I shall fight against. nom.).). Slayer of Madhu. sg.) bhi~mam Arjuna spoke: How can I kill in battle Bhishma and Drona.). a brahman and Arjuna's teacher. sg. 'fi~>r~~~ katham bhi~mam aham samkhye how BhI~ma I in battle m"f~1 dro1}am ca madhusudana and Drol!a. enemy.) ari (m. honor. loc. Arjuna. slaying. in conflict. how? in what way? (m. by arrows. aham (nom. m.

instead of slaying these noble gurus It would be preferable to live on alms here on earth.II 5· ~~f~~ gurun ahatva hi mahanubhavan the gurus instead of slaying. tTi~!ubh 90 . This differs from the sloka metre (eight syllables per line) used in most of the poem. I should eat. pI. teachers.) bhiiik~am • This and the next three stanzas are in metre. api. indeed.Jdih. gains. hatvii (gerund Jhan). acc. eleven syllables to the line. mendicancy. kiimiin (m. covered.). acc. noble. here below. from pra . smeared with blood. BY cpd. also.). pradigdhiin (m. slaying. high-minded. red. sg.). not slaying. loco sg. here. from pra . of great might. enjoyments. bloody. Having slain the gurus. m.) tu. mahiinubhiiviin (m. han). acc.). acc. artha (m. but. gurun (m. acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). acc.. acc. bhuiijlya (1st sg. to eat. the gurus here on earth. mighty. indeed.). teachers. bhoktum (infinitive Jbhuj). property. ~~~'1~$ hatvarthakamans tu gurun ihaiva having slain. iha. even. I should enjoy.Jdih) . acc. m. iha. object. pl. pl. elders.). on earth. in truth. bhogiin (m. rudhira (adj. hi. smeared. (rudhirapradigdhiin. lake (m. ahatvii (gerund a . (arthakiimiin. acc. (n. with desire for gain indeed. I would enjoy here on earth delights smeared with blood. preferable. pI. desirous of gain. booty. opt.). desires..). with desire for worldly gain. ~~'4~~~1 Sreyo bhoktum bhiiik~yamaPiha loke preferable to eat the food of mendicancy here on earth gurun (m. eva. gurus. elders. ~T<r+f~~~~ II bhuiijiya bhogan rudhirapradigdhan I should enjoy enjoyments smeared with blood Indeed. instead of slaying. the noble.Jbhu}). pl. indeed. pleasures. to enjoy. pl.. having slain. living on alms. pI. mid . . here in the world.). here in the world. pl. here on earth. TPcpd. otherwise known as the k~atriya metre. greed. sreyas (comparative) better. begging. gurus. generous.

act. desiderative act.Jji). pass. opt. etad (n. they. kataran no gariyo· not and this we know. pl. if. whom.). pl. they should conquer. nom. va. <i sqf~~: m 'CwhltSCO I: '<> ~ te 'vasthitiil. yad va. heavier.). of us. sg. act. . pl. nas (acc.). dual). not. more precious. this.Jstha) . yadi.II 6 'l ~ fcrq: ~. Dhartarastras (m. jayema (1st pI. pr. they standing before us. arrayed. whether we should conquer. .).Jji) .Jjfv). jijfvi~amas (rst pI. we know. which of two? nas (dat. whether. pl. garfyas (comparative). we should prevail. to us.:fT m: I '<> yad vii jayema yadi vii no jayeyul. we should conquer. if either. pl. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ca. not. killing. eva. preferable. and. acc.). or if us they should conquer ~~~'lf~1f~ yiin eva hatvii na jijivi~iimas whom having killed. pramukhe dhiirtarii~triil. pI. acc. loco sg. katarat (n. for us. the Sons of Dhrtaral?tra And this we do not know: which for us is preferable. if. 91 . having killed whom we would not wish to live.). nom. yan (m. na. jayeyus (3rd pI. more important. Are standing before us. having killed.not uncommon in tri1!ubh metre. hatva (gerund .Jvid). • The first two lines of this stanza contain an extra syllable apiece . face to face. pramukhe (n. . na. we desire to live. participle ava . p. acc. te (m. which for us (is) preferable lR <IT ~ m ~f~ <IT. or. arrayed in battle order. they should be victorious over. before us.:fT tR:m ~ ~ na ciiitad vidmal. act. us. vidmas (rst pI.Jhan). the Sons of Dh!1ara~!ra. not we desire to live. opt. indic. Whether we should conquer them or they should conquer us.). avasthitas (m. nom. standing. The sons of Dhritarashtra. .

thee. sin. participle upa .) yad (n. surely. pass. . of thee.). " . ni§citam (adv. BY cpd. confused. participle pra . brl1hi (2nd sg. for certain. nom. (kiirparJyado~opahatasvabhtivas. I beg you. My own being is overcome by pity and weakness. svabhavas (nom. te (gen. overcome. without doubt. .). imperative act. do~a (m. dam- aged. discour-aged..Jhan).). cetiis (n. nom. n. sg. crazed.ff >rrnlf II . §reyas (comparative). to thee.. p. pupil. heart. L §adhi (2nd sg. syan niscitam briihi tan me which preferably should it be for certain? Tell that to me. 92 . correct! order! miim (acc.). law. suppliant. of thee. ~: ~ f'lfffi rl'~ ~ iT " . better. My mind is confused as to my duty. uncertain. own being. whose own being was overcome by the weakness of pity. prapannam (acc.). I pray.Jas). mf<-r +rt «. sg. participle sam . thee. that.). I. pass.J§adh). .. it should be. upahata (p. sg. whose mind is confused as to duty. say! tell! tad (n. your pupil. mind. me (dat. kiirparJya (n. sg. sg.). sg.Jmuh) . right. me. dharma (m. BY cpd.). sg. wrong. sg. pity.). thoughts. tviim (acc. . pass. correct me.). §i!(yas (m. sg. si~yas te 'ham siidhi mam tviim prapannam pupil of thee. to me. indic. sg. acc. fallen before the feet.). sg. sg. preferable.). nom. weakness.Jpad). (dharmasammI14hacetiis.). thy suppliant. syiit (3rd sg.). which. Correct me.ft~4+i~(f)"'dl: I Prcchiimi tviim dharmasammiifjhacetii/.Jbrl1). this.) pJ:cchtimi (1st sg. aham (nom. poorness of spirit. for certain? Tell that to me. imperative act. sg. afflicted. yacchreyal. I ask thee. optative .). duty.. f~ ~ ~. student. duty uncertain in thought..II 7 ifllqo4~lq~: karpa'. tviim (acc. I ask. sg.lyado~opahatasvabhiiva/. bewildered..Jprach) . I ask you Which is preferable. act. salnml14ha (p. nom. what. nom. pr. pity-weakness-overcome own being ~lf«.

of the senses.). kingship. bhllmiiu (f. optative act. obtaining. attaining. dominion. apa . truly. I see.Pi"llq1~1'{ na hi prapasyiimi mamiipanudyiid not indeed I perceive of me it should dispel ~~~~l1~~llIOII"l1 . .liim what. gen. sg. sg. what.). of the powers. sovereignty.Jnud). having obtained. mama (gen. sg. acc. of the gods. aviipya (gerund ava . acc.). sokam (m. in the world. rulership. riijyam (n. hi. fddham (n. sg. pro indic. Even if I should obtain on earth unrivaled and Prosperous royal power. prosperous. or even the sovereignty of the gods.liim api ciidhipatyam royal power. the sorrow. it should take away.). ~~~ '" G aviipya bhumiivasapatnam rddham (even) having obtained on earth unrivaled prosperous ~~mq-'i:fTf~ II riijyam surii1. of me. 93 . I perceive." Indeed. uccho:jafJam (m. na. acc. . indriyiifJiim (m. pl.lam indriyii1. the sovereignty. indeed.Jsu:j). pl. acc. drying up. which. iidhipatyam (m. not with a rival. asapatnam (n. and even. loco sg. acc. drying up of the senses. yacchokam uccho~aT. I do not see what will dispel This sorrow of mine which dries up my senses. acc. or even. unrivaled. royal power.). sorrow. acc. sg. or of the gods even. it should remove. yad (n. having attained.). apanudyiit (3rd sg. sg. act.).).II 8 rrf~~.). it should dispel. pra . from ud . on earth. sg. not. sg.Jpaf). suriifJiim (m.). prapa§yiimi (1st sg. api ca. gen.Jiip).

.~~a-. govindam (m. uvaca (3rd sg. acc. epithet of AIjuna. na.rrr~ na yotsya iti govindam "not I shall fight. "I shall not fight. paramtapa (m. having said. invented to explain gu4akesa. . perfect act.t paramtapa The Thick Haired One. I shall fight.Jvac). yotsye (rst sg. 0 Scorcher of the gufjiikesal. .).Jvac). evam. the Thick Haired One. silent he became in truth. sg. . t gwjakesa has been translated by some native translators as gu4aka lsa.). in truth. saying. tU!if!fm (adv. the Chief Cowherd. the narrator. silently. • 8/oka metre resumes.)." It is generally believed that gu4aka. the Bristling Haired One. act. "sleep.JbhU).). he spoke.. smhjaya uviica Sarhjaya spoke: minister to the blind king Dhrtarii~fra. frequent epithet of Krishna. I will fight. "Conqueror of Sleep.) iti. "Cow Finder." thus to the Chief of Cowherds ~~~~II uktva tU~lJfm babhuva ha having spoken. ha (asseverative particle). 0 Scorcher of the Foe. 9 ~~~~ evam uktvii hr~ikesam'" thus having addressed the Bristling Haired One. Sanjaya spoke: Thus having addressed Krishna. gU{!akeSas (m. indeed." And having spoken. not. Foe. to whom the battle of Kuruk~etra is being described." is an artificial word. to the Chief of Cowherds. Sariljaya. thus. (Sarildhi changes final vowel from e to a before a vowel. future mid . and not the other way around. he said. perf. he was. having addressed. lit. 94 . he became. sg.II ~~I samjayas (nom. having spoken.Jvac). pr. uktva (gerund . voc. Arjuna said." epithet of Krishna. hf!ifkeSam (m.Jyudh). babhuva (3rd sg.). thus. often used to close a quotation. he became silent. sg.). nom. speaking. uktva (gerund .. epithet of warriors (here applied to King Dhrtarii~fra). sg. acc. sg.

the Bristling Haired One. to him spoke the Bristling Haired One ~~~I tam (m. dejected. the king to whom the scene is being described. acc.).).). perf. sg. this. voc. epithet here of Dhrtarii~~ra. laughing. sg. dual). gen. participle pra . sg. sg. loco sg. he said. so to speak. nom. sunk down. of the two armies. madhye (m.Jvac). Beginning to laugh. idam (n. despondent. dejected. uvaca (3rd sg. gen. pr.Jha$). (m.). sg. acc. word. iva. sg.II 10 ~~~~: tam uviica hr~ikesal. speech. .). nom. he spoke.Jsad). viifldantam (m. beginning to laugh. senayos (f. so to speak. smiling. pr. of both. acc. this word: To him. vacas (n. acc . bharata (m. h~iflkeSas prahasann iva bhiirata beginning to laugh. 0 Descendant of Bharata. in the middle. 0 Descendant of Bharata.). m~~<if\~ senayor ubhayor madhye of armies of both in the middle. prahasant (m. f~~~fl:11 vipdantam idam vacal. to him. acc. Spoke these words: 95 . dual). participle vi '. the dejected Arjuna. like. him. Krishna. Krishna. 0 Dhritarashtra. sg. In the middle between the two armies. ubhayos (f.

indic. imperfect act. they mourn. wisdom. anusacanti (3rd pI.). bha~ase (2nd sg. nom. acc.).<. the not dead. not to be mourned. pr. not. the pal). tvam (nom. asu. 11 '*if'l~I'1. acc. asocyiin anvasocas tvam asacyan (m. wisdom words.). vadan (m. he said. thou hast mourned. 2nd sg.f~:a<rRI kibhagaviin uviica The Blessed Lord spoke: sribhagavan (m. acc. sg./bha~). gatasiin (m.II s>.). nom. m. and. the gone. pl. anu "/suc)./vac). he spoke. thou hast lamented.suc) ..e. acc.. agatasiin (m. BY cpd.. mid .). thou. ""~Cl4n"'l*l C<t . the not to be mourned. words that appear to be wisdom though they are not.) TP cpd. . BY cpd. ca. thou hast mourned. pl. 96 .c. pa'!q. ca. words. The wise do not mourn for the dead or for the living. na. thou. act. And you speak words as if with wisdom. pI. prajna (f. thou speakest.:q qf~T: II niinusocanti par.lits The Blessed Lord spoke: You have mourned those that should not be mourned./suc). sg. the dead (from gala. and. not to be lamented. pl. the not gone. anu :'. anvasacas (anu a sacas. thou sayest. S!:nIClI'~i'i"'l ~ I prajfiiiviidiiils ca bh~ase and (yet) wisdom words thou speakest . gerundive a . pI. acc.).itas (m. uvaca (3rd sg.). the Blessed One. they lament. perf. gone.. not they mourn. breath). the wise men. (prajnavadan.iits. ~~4"f gatiisiin agatiisiiils ca the dead and the not dead ''IT'!'iTRf'. i. the Blessed Lord. act. the paI). .uJitiil. pl.

act.~~. Nor you. sg.. and.Jas) . imperf. further on. we. thou. eva. pl. tvam (nom..flt ~<m: I na tvath neme janadhipal. nom. ca. tu. not. atas.II 12 ..). rulers of men. na. nor. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). acc.fq . . pl.). Truly there was never a time when I was not. pl. I was. And neither will there be a time when we shall cease to be From this time onward. act .) na tvevahath jatu nasath not truly I ever not I was . we shall be. nom. pl. all. after.). I existed. eva. not. henceforth. ime (m. lords of men. . ever. not. truly. from this time onward. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). sg. nor thou nor these lords of men . nom. aham (nom.). indeed.. sg. na.Jbhu). beyond. nor. 1.). fut.). bhaviD'i'imas (3rd pI. not. vayam (nom. mCf&TTl1: na caiva na bhavi~yamal. these. not. na.). nor. na. not. (atal] param. ji'itu. f<i. sarve (m. i'isam (rst sg. nor these lords of men. :. or. na. param (adj. we shall exist. from here. and not either not we shall be ri~~:~11 sarve vayam ata~l param all we from this time onward. either. jani'idhipi'is (m. TP cpd.:mi na. 97 .

nom. in this matter. advent. obtaining another body. dehe (m. kaumaram yauvanam jara childhood. asmin (m. nom. .:f ~ I dehinas (m. yiiuvanam (m.)" wise one. * i. acquisition. he is deluded. body. that which is in.() he (the embodied being) acquires another body. sg. muhyati (3rd sg. youth. So a1<. he is confused. priiptis (f. pr. as. nom. age.). 98 . Just as in the body childhood. kiiumiiram (n. sg. childhood.). reaching. in which way. ~?1T {€fIR! (!OIl f[\ tatha dehantarapraptir so also acquisition of another body.e. sg. i. adulthood. sg. tatoo. tr"'Tw <:f?f if ~~ II . nom. yathii.). jarii (f. of the embodied. and old age Happen to an embodied being. indic. deha (m. attainment.). from pra . na. youth and age. TP cpd. another.) dhfras (m. • The embodied.ln. The wise one is not deluded about this.ln. loco sg. act. other.. antara. the body.e. but not of. nom. wise man.II 13 ~~ sf~ If?1T ~ dehino 'smin yatha dehe of the embodied. in this way. old age. viz. the lltman. or self. obtaining. as in this body.Jiip). in the body. Cfi~ If)q. the iitman or soul. there.). loco sg. tatra. so. (deha-antara-priiptis. arrival at. gen. sg.Jmuh).). not. in this. in that. -0 dhfras tatra na muhyati the wise one in this not he is deluded. so also. in this.). sg.

Descendant of Bharata.). measure.). going.) tu. touchings.). suffix). Physical sensations. but. anityas (m. pI. Come and go and are impermanent. coming. nom. desiderative . pleasure. heat. pI.). transient.Jgam). sg. Arjuna. impermanent. pleasure.Jsp~s). truly. Descendant of Bharata. So manage to endure them. sukha (n. causing. '~ltlll'j I q I flI'1T sfw:m:J: iigamiipiiyino 'nityiis coming and going.'iim miitriisparsiis tu kiiunteya material sensations. dulJkha (n. epithet of Arjuna. (matra-sparsas.). KD cpd. sparSas (m. indeed. thou must endeavor to endure. referring to his mother PI1ha or Kunt!.). sensations. 99 . m.). not eternal.Jtij). Arjuna. bringing about. acc. derivative noun from . nom. pI. Causing cold. epithet of AIjuna. apayinas (m. happiness. from apa . imperative mid. pl.). u~.. or pain. material sensations. 0 Son of Kunn. truly. das (m. matra (f. voc. impermanent. nom. agama (from a . misfortune. titik~asva (2nd sg. do manage to endure! bhiirata (m. ~fm~~~11 tiins titik~asva bhiirata them thou must endeavor to endure. sUa (n. 0 Son of Kunt!.II 14 l'jl"llfqiill~:t <j.). nom. quantity. heat. sg. tan (m. nom.!a (n. iifI til MI ~<-q (~?~RT: I sito~1}asukhadubkhadiib cold heat pleasure pain causing. pain. truly. them. kaunteya (voc. material. cold. pI.Ji).

the same. this. am~tatviiya (n. pl. nom. he. sg. voc. he is fit. these. nom.).Jklp).). 0 Bull among Men. equal. vyathayanti (3rd pI. to whom happiness and unhappiness are the same. sg.khasukham dhiram constant in pain and pleasure. causative act. not. sukham (n. hi. they cause to tremble. mid .. . 100 . Indeed. dulJkha (n. wise man.). ete (m. The wise one. misfortune.). . sg. to whom pain and pleasure are alike. o Arjuna.e. acc. sg.). the sensations) do not afflict. whom. nom. acc. sg. he is adapted.). truly. ~:~ofrt samadul. ~TSl!~~11 so '1!lrtatviiya kalpate he for immortality is ready.II 15 li f~ "f O<P'1<f ~\~ d" yam hi na vyathayantyete whom indeed not they afHict these ~~ml pur~am puru~ar~abha the man. Is ready for inunortality. for immortality. pain. the man whom these (i. puru!iar!iabha (m. 0 Leader among Men. happiness. they afflict. acc.). sg. man. dat. yam (m. OMan-Bull. the WIse one. na.). puru!iam (m. indeed. he is ready. constant. acc. to immortality. indic.Jvyath).) (pur!ia ~!iabha).) dhiram (m. pleasure. BY cpd. kalpate (3rd sg. pr. he is prepared. sg. sarna. BY cpd. sas (m. acc. 0 Man-Bull. spirit. (samadulJkhasukham. wise one. m. sg. wise.

pass .jd~s). participle . from . tu.j2 vid). ubhayos (m. of the true. nom. pr. even. indeed. reality. being. not being.jd~s TP cpd.q'1lilfa. IS found rrrm<fT f<I'£T~ mr: I nabhavo vidyate satal.j2 vid). but. participle a . not becoming. vidyate (3rd sg. seen. truth. pr. gen. ~mmq-~T~ . abhavas (m. in the not non-existent. inst. api. of both. dual). sg. anayos (m. ubhayor api duto 'ntas of both surely perceived the certainty . perceived. end. .). . sg. participle .). indic. there coming to be. indeed.). satas (n. "thatness.jas). also. It is found that there is no non-being of the real.jas). sg. The certainty of both these propositions is indeed surely seen By the perceivers of truth. of the real. by the discerners. by the perceivers. p. vidyate (3rd sg.). not. na. it is found. gen. nom. pass. nom. antas (m. there is found the real. of the existent. dual). . certainty. na. pr.II 16 <mffiT f<r?ri\" mciT niisato vidyate bhavo not of the non-existent. sg. of these two. 101 . dmas (n. discerned. indic. gen. becoming. surely.). nom. of these two by the truth perceivers. sg. gen.q~fm<1: II tvanayor tattvadarSibhil. coming to be. pr. of the nonexistent. by the knowers. it is found. tattva (n. not. by the seers. pass . of the not real." ri<ldibhis (m. It is found that the unreal has no being. sg. conclusion. bhavas (m. not existing. asatas (n. pI. .

sg. acc . anyone. gen. viddhi (2nd sg. No one is able to accomplish The destruction of the imperishable." tatam (n. of this. but. .Jarh). of the eternal. he is capable.). from a vi . • I. kascid. not to be lost.Jvid). know! ~~~~I yena sarvam idam tatam by which all this universe pervaded f~ ~ &Ill ("£j I("£j vinasam avyayasyasya destruction of the imperishable.).Jnas). pr. tu. tad (n. participle . sg. .). .). by which. imperative act. Know that that by which all this universe Is pervaded is indeed indestructible. pass. indic. vintisam (m.<tif~$~~11 na kaScit kartum arhati not anyone to accomplish is capable. p. avyayasya (n. of it. pervaded. arhati (3rd sg.Jnas). sarvam idam (n. not. the iitman (self) or Brahman. acc. kartum (infinitive . extended. this.).II 17 ~<Alf~ ~ ~ fqf~ avinasi (n.Jtan). to accomplish. acc. diffused. sg. that. to do. inst. sg. na. from vi . gen. of the imperishable. he is able. indestructible. acc. indeed. 102 . of this. loss.. he is worthy.JkI:). asya (n. acc.e. sg. sg. anyone whoever. know! learn! yena (n. destruction. used in the meaning of "all this visible universe. sg. sg. all this. to make. acc. avinasi tu tad viddhi indestructible indeed that.

of the iitman. Therefore fight.Jnas). derivative noun a . having an end these bodies f.:t. sg. sg. from that. gen. fight! join in battle! bhiirata (m. the litman or Brahman. nom.). yudhyasva (2nd sg. abl. the immeasurable embodied Self. Descendant of Bharata ! These bodies inhabited by the eternal. aniisinas (m. gen. gen. p. pI. imperative mid . these. Descendant of Bharata. epithet of AIjuna. sg. said. pl.). of the embodied. sg.e.Jmii). Are said to come to an end. of the soul. of the not to be measured. nom. therefore. of the immeasurable. ime (m. ~ 'i~"l1rui II tasmad yudhyasva bharata therefore fight. 103 . having an end. voc. nom. .4flil'i"flI:m:lf~: I nityasyoktaJ. of the eternal. ~m~~ anaSino 'prameyasya of the indestructible. uktiis (m. of the embodied. of the eternal. tasmiit (m.II 18 ~~~~~ antavanta ime deha antavantas (m. impermanent. sg. nityasya (m. declared.Jvac). participle . pass.).).Jyudh). derivative noun from a pra . aprameyasya (m. Arjuna! • I. of the undying.). gen. pl. of the not lost. sarfril']as (m. sg. dehiis (m. said. nom. pl. of the indestructible. of the immeasurable.).). bodies. sariri1}aJ. The indestructible.

slain.. mid . not. acc. 00.). nom. both. manyate (3rd sg. vijanftas (3rd dual pro indic. they two know. sg. nor is it slain.). sg. sg.Jhan). he imagines. killer.r:f ~~. acc. killed.. yas (m.). this. not. pass . he is slain.II 19 ~~. they two. p. ayam (m. he kills. dual).Jhan).Jvid). He who imagines this (the embodied Self) the slayer And he who imagines this (the embodied Self) the slain.. acc. mid. who. pro indie. not. . pro indic. nom. vi . this.). eoom (m.:f~~~ ya enam vetti hantaram who this he thinks the slayer ~~~I yascainam manyate hatam and who this he thinks slain ~TGT. acc. . hanti (3rd sg. tau (m. he knows. eoom (m. lO4 . which. sg. act. vetti (3rd sg.Jhan). slayer.). yas (m. sg. who. nom.f~rm ubhau tau na vijanito both they two not they understand . 00. . this. they two understand. he is killed. dual). pro indie. pro indic. . nom. ~ II nayam hanti na hanyate not this it slays. act. nom. hatam (m. he thinks. he imagines. pass. Neither of them understands This (the embodied Self) does not slay.Jman). he slays. sg. derivative noun from . hantaram (m. and. hanyate (3rd sg. sg.Jjfta). he thinks. ubhiiu (m. ca.Jhan). participle . 00. not it is slain.

not. pr. -. perpetual. not. indestructible..). loco sg. it is killed. eternal. will be. sg. it will become. pass. pr. it nor this. eternal. . dies neither at any time " " niiyam bhiitvii bhavitii vii na bhiiya/. having been.:r 'll<f: I dead. he is slain. loco sg. from former time.ft f"Rlf: ~ sri ~T ajo nitya/.). va-va. not. sasvatas (m.lo unborn. will come to be or not again. na.:r~~m:"rtll na hanyate hanyamiine sarire* not it is slain in being slain in the body Neither is this (the embodied Self) born nor does it die at any time. at any time.Jmf). having been. nom.Jjan). having been. sg. puralJas (m. na..). sg. pass . primordial.Jbhil). primaeval. sg. sg. . pro indic. perpetual this. bhUyas (m. in the body. sg. It is not slain when the body is slain. mriyate (3rd sg. participle . Birthless. he. in being killed.Jhan).Jbhil). nom. will it again come not to be. he is na jiiyate mriyate vii kadiicin not it is born. nom.amane (m. nityas (m.:r ~ f-wre. he is born. nom. na. primaeval. kadacit. ayam (m. . birthless. nom. primaeval. bhavita (3rd sg.l siisvato 'yam purii1. periphrastic fut . it is slain. eternal. ~. again. in being slain. he dies. pr. unborn. being.). this.Jhan). this. ajas (m. han). • Trii/ubh metre. bhUtva (gerund .).l ~ +WIT '+Tf<reT err . . either-or. pass . continuing. hanyate (3rd sg. he. nom. nom. Jjan). not. mid. at any time whatever. jayate (3rd sg. sg. ayam (m. sarfre (m.err crof'q na.). perpetual.).II 20 . 105 . Nor.

sg. man.nf~ f. eternal. avilU'isinam (n. .). ~~~~~I ya enam ajam avyayam who this.Jhan). the imperishable. birthless. the indestructible. puru~as (m. sg. indestructible. who.). ~ '<m!<lfcr ~~ ~ II kam ghiitayati hanti kam'" whom he causes to slay? he slays whom? veda (3rd sg. 106 . . how? in what way? sas (m. enam (m.). nom.Jnas).). the eternal.). nom. avyayam (n. The birthless. interrog. sg. sg. sg. causative act.wi vediiviniisinam nityam he knows. kam (m. Arjuna? Whom does he slay? • Sloka metre resumes. nom. sg. . acc. acc. the indestructible. epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother Prthii.). "'~~~: qNkatham sa puru~af:z piirtha in what way this man. this. the. 0 Son of Prthii. not subject to loss. imperishable. yas (m. acc. whom? which? ghiitayati (3rd sg. acc.Jhan). nom. he causes to slay.Jvid. sg.). kam (m. hanti (3rd sg. voc. acc. nityam (n. In what way does this man cause to be slain. perf. acc. from a vi . sg. sg. interrog.II 21 ~q. the eternal. act. pr. Son of Prtha.). indie. he. sg. ajam (n. katham (interrog. unborn. whom? He who knows this. acc. he slays. the unborn the imperishable. act . partha (m.).). with present meaning). this. he knows. sg.).

crrf<f ~r II anyiini samyiiti naviini dehi"" others it encounters. acc. the iitman. worn out. vihaya (gerund vi . indic.00). act. pl. jfrlJiini (n.). tatoo. casting away. sarfriifJi (n. the embodied.). casting away. act. old. in which way. acc. others ~m mt-ufur f~:Jf~ tathii saririi1}i vihiiya jir1}iiny so bodies casting away. he meets with. g~hlJiiti (3rd sg.). new. as.. jfrlJiini (n.crrf. sam -/yii).). The embodied Self encounters other.. indic. new. acc. pr. a man. pl.). after casting away worn out garments.). acc. the soul. naviini (n. pl. man. viOOya (gerund vi "'/00). he grasps. nom.). sg. after casting away worn out bodies. . nom. pl.).. As. -Igrabh) . he seizes. so. pr. sg. 107 . gannents.-u S'rofur I viisiimsi (n. A man later takes new ones. he takes..). acc. naviini grh1Jiit£ naro 'parii1}i new he takes.. old. clothes. others. acc. pl. bodies. naras (m. pl. in this way. pl. acc. naviini (n. the embodied one. worn out. apariifJi (n. ~<f ~~. acc. new ones. abandoning. worn out. new. pl. anyiini (n. sarizyiiti (3rd sg.II 22 mrtf~ :Jf"fuhf<f lp. ~rf~ . the self. abandoning. dehf (m. • TriNubh metre. So. yatOO. he encounters.lT f~ viisiimsi jirt}tini yathii vihiiya garments worn out as casting away.). others.

II 23 ~f~~~~ur not. not. indie.). Weapons do not pierce this (the embodied Self).). they moisten. they chop. the wind. sg. they cause to become wet. it causes to wither. na. dahati (3rd sg. nor. they cut.). not. sg. nom. sg. niiinam chindanti sastrii1Ji not this they pierce. the wind. ~ ~a qrq<fi: I niiinam dahati piivakaJ. it causes to dry. the waters .Jdah). weapons. chindanti (3rd pI. .Jklid). pr. not. enam (m. :Jsu~). na. Nor does the wind cause it to wither. indic. pl. . • 8loka metre resumes.). it burns.z not this it burns. indic. acc. they wet. pr. sastralJi (n. nom.. and. pl. nom.). pavakas (m. act. sg. causative act. sg. Fire does not burn this.m. fire. ca. indie. so~ayati (3rd sg. the waters . iipas (f. acc. this. flame.Jchid).). . m<na. pr. nom. marutas (m. this. eoom (m. acc. weapons. wind. kledayanti (3rd pI. act. they pierce. causative act. 00. pr.a: II na so~ayati miirutaJ. this. waters.z* nor it causes to wither.). "~~<::4"4Iqr na ciiinam kledayantyiipo and not this they cause to wet. 108 . 00. Water does not wet this. fire. enam (m.

not to be dried. sg. this. this. acalas (m. eternal. aso:ryas (m. not to be pierced. this." all pervading. fixed.Jdah). nom. saniitanas (m.).Jchid). fIxed.). all pervading. sg.).). eva. ayam (m. ayam (m. this. nom. f"Rlr:~: ~~ nityal. ancient. nom. not to be wetted. nom. gerundive a .II 24~T~~nift~ acchedyo 'yam adiihyo 'yam acchedyas (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. sg. sg.). sarvagatas (m. primordial. nom. fixed. all pervading. nom. primaeval. not to be pierced. immovable. gerundive . gerundive a . ~~T~~:ql 'so~ya akledyo eva ca not to be wetted and not to be withered. This is unmoving and primeval. standing firmly.t unmoving. immovable. and. nom.).JSUIf). unmoving. nom. nom. sg. burned. ayam (m. ~s<f~:11 acalo 'yam saniitanal.t sthii1Jur eternal.). nom.). gerundive a . sg. this. "all going. sg. not to be burned. ca. not to be burned. sg. sg. 109 . nom. eternal.t sarvagatal. imperishable. akledyas (m.Jklid) . nityas (m. sg. this. nom. This is eternal. sthiilJus (m. Wetted or withered. primaeval This cannot be pierced. adiihyas (m. sg.

not. avyaktas (m. nom. nom. gerund a . participle a vi ~aftj). thou art worthy. p. nom. having understood in this way. arhasi (2nd sg.Jsuc). it is spoken. 'J. the foregoing propositions. avikiiryas (m. sg. this. You should not mourn. sg. sg. abl. thus. na. knowing. . indic.Jarh).).). to mourn. acintyas (m. tasmiit (m. nom. viditvii (gerund . . ayam (m. anusoeitum (infinitive anu .ff~1~~1 avikiiryo 'yam ucyate unchanging this. therefore.Jvac). • I. invariable. pro indic. unthinkable. this. unchanging.). act .II 25 ~T Slfl1 'J. nom. having known. nom. sg. unmanifest. from this. pr. avyakto 'yam acintyo 'yam unmanifest this. unthinkable this. ucyate (3rd sg.Jeint). sg.). sg. thou art obliged. ayam (m.Jvid).ff"'-. Therefore. sg. undisplayed. pass. to lament. evam. It is said that this is unmanifest. ayam (m.Jkl:). pass . it is said.:1I1 Slfl1 . ~Tf~~~11 niinuSocitum arhasi not to mourn thou shouldst. . enam (m. sg. Unthinkable. this. thou shouldst. acc. and unchanging.). it is said./n. this. 110 . unimaginable. ~~f<rfm tasmiid evam viditviiinam therefore thus having known this.e. gerund a vi . thou art able.

sg. and moreover. thou thinkest. na. tvam (nom. also applied to other warriors. pro indic. and if. atha ca. 0 Mighty Armed One. born. enam. dead.t. vii. mid . Arjuna. voc. sg.. . . tatOOpi (tatoo api). being eternally born. acc. m~tam (m. thou believest.) nityam (adv. eternally. arhasi (2nd sg.Jman). eternal. p. thou imaginest. thou.).fmr~~11 niiinam socitumarhasi not this to mourn thou shouldst. (nityajiitam. and further. thou art obliged.Jarh). thou art able. dying.Jm~). pass. Mighty Armed One. nityam vii manyase mrtam or eternally. KD cpd. or.). to lament. to mourn. then even. thou shouldst. acc.). And moreover even if you think this To be eternally born or eternally dead. imperishable.Jsuc).II 26 'l. dead.). this. participle . not. indic. 111 . a~fqf<f~ tathiipi tvam mahiibiiho then even thou. eternally. enam (m. nitya (adj. act.). . manyase (2nd sg. frequent eipthet of Arjuna. thou thinkest. eternally born. to be sorrowful. sg. acc. sg. this. socitum (infinitive . jiitam (m.). pr.f~~f~ atha ciiinam nityajiitam and moreover (if) this. thou art worthy. Even then You should not mourn for this. mahiibiiho (m.

). socitum (infinitive . sg. gen. nom.~mr~~11 'Ita tvam socitumarhasi not thou. hi. truly. act . arthe (m. . not. to mourn.). sg. sg.). in unavoidable.). indic. m~tasya (m.Jarh). For the dead there is certainly birth. sg. thou. . in purpose. dhruvam (n. tvam (nom. in inevitable. For the born. na.). safe. nom. sg. thou art able. sg. certain. tasmiit (abJ. therefore. undoubted. in consequence. in aim. loc. nom. certain. janma (n. dhruvas (n. fixed. to lament.). sg.II 27 ~ f~ qqT ~~Ii \ jiitasya hi dhruvo mrlyur of the born indeed certain death jiitsaya (m. Therefore. of the born. for this. gen. dhruvam janma mrtasya ca and certain birth of the dead ~~s~ tasmiidaparihiirye 'rthe therefore. death is certain. from this. thou art obliged. loc.). ca. sg. indeed. aparihiirye (m. inevitable in purpose.). m~tyus (m. 112 . You should not mourn. pr. thou shouldst. sg. gerundive a pari .Jsuc). sg.. death. of the dead. birth. arhasi (2nd sg.Jh~). to mourn thou shouldst. inevitable in consequence. and. nom.). for this.

avyakta (p. creatures. again. such that their ends are unmanifest.f0<fflif<T~ avyaktanidhiiniinyeva unmanifest ends again. unmanifest. pI. manifest. pl. vyakta (p.Jaftj) . interrog. deaths. nom.). n.). what complaint? Beings are such that their beginnings are unmanifest. (avyaktanidhiiniini. such that their beginnings are unmanifest.Jaft}). nom. nom.) eva. complaint. Descendant of Bharata. sg. pI.II 28 ~Tf<T~<T avyaktiidini bhiitiini unmanifest beginnings. Descendant of Bharata. beings. BV cpd.). nidhiiniini (n. there. beginnings. (avyaktiidfni. sg. n. about this.Jaftj) . Their middles are manifest. ~fil1Cmf<T m<::a I vyaktamadhyiini bhiirata manifest middles. pass. lamentation. unmanifest.. participle vi .) bhiirata (m. beings. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). pI. such that their middles are manifest. What complaint can there be over this? 113 . avyakta (p. And their ends are unmanifest again. 3. what? paridevanii (f. nom. voc. ends. pass. commencements. sg. over this. pass. kii (f. <:r"1<fiTqf~11 tatra kii paridevanii over this.). acc. iidini (n. nom. I BV cpd. nom. madhyiini (n.) bhiitiini (n.. participle a vi . pl. epithet of Arjuna. BV cpd. pl. middles.). tatra.. nom. pl. participle a vi .). nom. n. nom. (vyaktamadhyiini.).

he knows. he hears. eva. Still another hears of this as a wonder. • Triltubh metre with second line one syllable too long. sg. he perceives. act. thls. anyas (m. kascid. he says. pr. this knows not thus anyone. another. having heard. acc. Jpas). vadati (3rd sg. act. iiScaryavad vadati tathiiiva ciinyal. this. this. eva. m~~ CfGfaa~'ifI'i'lI": I iiscaryavat (adv. api.:zoti and wondrously this another he hears. Jvid.. acc. this. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). ca. t This stanza explains the mystical nature of Brahman and the atman. and. kascid. paiyati (3rd sg. Another declares this as a wonder. anything. sg. veda (3rd sg. he tells.).). thus. another.). anyone. nom. s~1Joti (3rd sg. sg. pr. nom. other.~Cfif~ II '" . act. he declares. marvellously. and wondrously he declares indeed another. Someone perceives this as a wonder. wondrously. and. pr. full of marvels. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). w<r: ~1fa iiScaryavacciiinam anyal. act. indic. Jvad). tathii. not. sg. with present meaning). and. s!. even also. 1I4 . he sees. iiscaryavat (adv. enam (m. iiScaryavat (adv. wondrously. srutviipyenam veda na ciiiva kascit* mmCfM and having heard this. hearing. anyone. perf. na. enam (m. ca. marvellously. wondrously.). enam (m.). indeed.).). anyas (m. ca. indic. srutvii (gerund Jsru). someone. Jsru). acc. ~~. no one knows it. indic. other.II 29 iiscaryavat pasyati kascidenam wondrously he perceives someone. But even having heard of this. sg.

Arjuna.). Therefore you should not mourn For any being.). gen. dehe (m. acc. the soul. rata. Descendant of Bha- therefore all beings rr~~)f~~11 na tvam socitumarhasi not thou to mourn shouldst.Jarh). in the body. sg.).II 30 ~Tf~~)s. the embodied. Descendant of Bharata.. creatures. to mourn. nom. bhiUani (n. sg. sometimes applied to other worthies of the tribe. sg. of anyone. nom. to lament. pl. ~m-ur~<r tasmiit sarviit}i bhiitiini ayam (m. bOOrata (m. sarvafJi (n. from this. . nom. the embodied Self. not to be harmed. beings. pr. is eternally indestructible In the body of all. indic. sg. na. arhasi (2nd sg. nom. of all. acc. pl. This. • Sloka metre resumes. epithet of Arjuna. nityam (adv. thou art able.f dehl (m.). sarvasya (m.).). thou shouldst. act. this. thou art obliged. sg. tasmat (abl. vOC.). avadhyas (m.Jvadh). all.). therefore. eternally.). the atman. of everyone.!n. ~~~"l1rof1 inviolable. socitum (infinitive . loco sg. dehi nityam avadhyo 'yam'" embodied (one) eternally inviolable. thou. this. not. sg. sg. dehe sarvasya bhiirata in the body of all. 115 . gerundive a .).Jsuc). tvam (m.

of the member of the warrior caste. although. not. gen. pr. abl. beholding. other. thou shouldst. looking at. than battle. na. J 2 vid). anything superior to righteous battle Does not exist for the kshatriya (man of warrior caste). Indeed. avek!!Ja (gerund ava Jrk!!). preferable. abl. k!!atriyasya (m. of the k!!atriya. pr. it is found.:rfmll k~atriyasya ~f<t~41"'~~T~ for the k~atriya na vidyate not it is found. or warrior. sg.1if~ I na vikampitum arhasi not to tremble thou shouldst dhar~yiid dhi)/Uddhacchreyo 'nyat than righteous indeed battle. thou art able. act. api ca. svadharmam (m. n. Jarh) . indic. anyat (n. vikampitum (infinitive vi Jkamp). sg. greater other ~~. indie. better. sreyas (comparative).). yuddhiit (n. 116 . perceiving. of the warrior. You should not tremble. to tremble. own duty. truly. sg. thou art obliged. to waver. dharmyiit (n. s.). vidyate (3rd sg. perceiving your own caste duty.).:r fffi~+I: l. just. not. sg. than righteous. pass.). na.II 31 ~~+I:mq-~~ svadharmam api ciivek~ya and own (caste) duty just perceiving. acc. And. dhi = hi.). even though. here "own caste duty" as a k!!atriya. indeed. arhasi (2nd sg. . from fighting. than lawful.

they attain. .). And if by good fortune they gain The open gate of heaven. the k!!atriyas. heaven.. gate.). mid .). Son of Prtha. ~~: ~lIT: qr~ sukhinalJ k~atriyiilJ piirtha happy k~atriyas. sukhinas (m.Jvr). lucky. Happy are the kshatriyas.. door. unconcealed. svarga (m. pl.). When they encounter such a fight. labhante (3rd pI.. apiiVl:tam (acc.).II 32 ~~:q~ yadrcchayii copapannam and by good fortune gained ~n::+1~qICld+/ I . they encounter. happened. sg. sg. p. indic. " labhante yuddham idrsam when they encounter battle such yadrcchayii (f. gained. and. by good fortune. by a lucky chance. participle upa . pr. pl. happy. TP cpd. inst. upapannam (n. ~<r. sg.).Jlabh).). piirtha (m. by accident. dviiram (n. epithet of Arjuna. sg. acc. nom. members of the warrior caste. voc. sg. idrsam (n. G. p. fighting. sg. of such a kind. ca. acc. pass. fallen to one's lot. 117 . pass. open. k!!atriyiis (m. the warriors. such. ~. acc. Son of Prtha. battle. sg. Arjuna. acc.[lf~11 ~ .). yuddham (n. participle apa ii .Jpad) . svargadviiram apiivrtam the gate of heaven open. nom. they find.

. if. fight. samgriimam (m. proper. army. now. acc.). acc. aviipsyasi (2nd sg. tatas. kirtim (f. Now. and.). etc.). kari~asi (2nd sg. having avoided. ava .Jhii). .). if you will not undertake This righteous war. having avoided your own duty and glory. imam (m. sg.Jiip). sg.Jkr:).). sg. this. evil thou shalt incur. piipam (n. thou shalt undertake. act . acc. evil. acc. then. hitvii (gerund . fut. glory. acc. then.II 33 :q~~~~~~ atha eet tvam imam dharmyam now if thou this proper atha. tvam (nom. ced. ca. sin. acc. dutiful. having left. combat. fut. thou. sg. 00. thereupon. sg. sg. not. 118 . thou shalt incur. svadharmam (m. <fif~f~ I satizgramam na kari~yasi engagement not thou shalt undertake <:re: ~ 1fi1f~ :q tatal:z svadharmam kirtimca thereupon. sg. thou shalt do. fame.). lawful. make. own duty and glory f~ '1r1ll: ~~ II hitva papam avapsyasi having avoided. Thereupon. act. engagement. m+f. thou shalt attain. own duty. assembly. You shall incur evil.). dharmyam (m.

r '" akirtim ciipi bhutiini and disgrace also people ~lflSlff'i1 ~ ~ I kathayi~yanti te ' vyayiim they will relate of thee. of thee. akfrtis (f. they will tell how it was. atiricyate (3rd sg. infamy. ati Jric). nom. they will relate. absence of glory. pr. disgrace. nom.). and. indic. forever. saJhbhavitasya (m.). ~~ :q("CfiTf~ sambhiivitasya ciikirtir and for the honored. and. te (gen. api. disgrace. bhUtani (n. And. acc. ca. sg. beings. sg. of the esteemed. of the honored. pass. sg. act.fbhu) . And also people will relate Your undying infamy. also. maralJat (n. than dying.II 3+ Wlilfci' :.). kathayi~anti (3rd pI.. ca. causative participle sam . sg. fut. sg. sg. 119 . . it exceeds. akfrtim (f. disgrace ~mffi~11 marat. abI. p. people. acc. it surpasses.iid atiricyate than dying it is worse. mid.). Jkath) .gen. of the famous.). sg. infamy. from dying. for one who has been honored. undying. Disgrace is worse than dying. eternal. avyayam (f.ffi'1 mrrf.).

). abstaining. the great warriors.). pass. participle upa . p. pl. gen. from delight in battle.Jman). nom. (as BY cpd. thou. from delight abstaining. matas (m. sg. sg. mahsyante (3rd pI. fut. mid .Jya). mahiirathiis (m. many. having been. ral?at (m. much thought of "iffi <iWIf~ ~ II bhiitvii yiisyasi liighavam having been. ceased. The great warriors will think That you have abstained from the battle through fear. uparatam (m. sg.). stopped. thou shalt come to lightness. . the great warriors.). tvam (nom.II 35 'l1'l!'R ~ ~~ . thou shalt go. lightness. esteemed. bhutva (gerund . bhayat (n. sg. nom.Jman). laghavam (m. of whom.) "those whose chariots are great. from battle. acc. . they will think.).Jram). sg. tvam (acc. fut. yasyasi (2nd sg.)." ye~am (m. pl. And among those by whom you have been held in high esteem You shall come to be held lightly. they will believe. acc. and. ca. from fear. sg. bahu (m. ll'~m~: 10 battle mansyante tviim mahiirathiil} they will think thee. . thee.Jbhu). abl. act.). thou shalt come. ~:q~~ ye~iim ca tvam bahumato and among whom thou. withdrawn from. among whom. pass. through fear. abl. thought. 120 .). bhayiid ra1}iid uparatam through fear. much. participle . sg. insignificance. believed.

). deriding. what? And your enemies will speak many words of you that should not be spoken. but. tava (gen. much. hostile.II 36 'I)I"I(""'I"I(Gi~:q ~ aviicyaviidiiflSca bahiin and not to be spoken words. the hostile ones. act. bahun (m. of thee. greater misery. capacity. f~ GCfm+r~<f nindantas tava siimarthyam deriding of thee the capacity. words. fut. siimarthyam (n. dulJkhataram (n. pl. greater hardship. acc. sg. vadi~anti (3rd pI. act. nom. fitness. pl. acc.Jvac). pr. ca.Jvad). indeed. noxious. kim (interrog. many qf~~ . ahitiis (m. nom. greater pain. they will say. acc.). speeches. power.. What greater hardship is there than that? aviicya (gerundive a . . what? 121 . strength. thy.). tava (gen.crrf~: I vadi~yanti taviihitii/. many. sg. sg. deriding your capacity. indeed. lalas. nindantas (m.Jnind). acc. adequacy.lkhataram tu kim than that greater hardship. enemies.). ridiculing. pI. of thee.l they will speak of thee. not to be spoken. comparative).). they will speak. lu. sg. viidiin (m. participle . from thence. pl. and. ffifT ~:~ C! f<fi~ II tato du/.).). from that.

Jstha).II 37 ~err~~m hato vii priipsyasi svargam slain either. having conquered. tasmat (ab!. jitva (gerund . s. mahfm (f. nom. made. stand up! arise! kaunteya (m. f~ err. p. thou shalt enjoy.aT11 'lld f"1ti~4: II yuddhiiya krtaniscayal.). to fighting. Son of Kuntl. to battle. participle . either-or.). '!. Resolved to fight. n. fut.. kI:taniscayas (m.Jhan). from this. heaven. prapsyasi (2nd sg.). dat. therefore. mid .). the earth. sg. or. sg. thou shalt attain. thou shalt attain heaven. having conquered. imperative act. ud .). sg. Son of KuntI. jitvii vii bhok~yase mahim having conquered. va . epithet of AIjuna.Jji). slain. thou shalt eat. sg. killed. sg. Therefore stand up. acc.z to battle resolved. act. Or. thou shalt enJoy the earth. niscaya. thou shalt reach. 122 . ~~~Cfi~ tasmiid utti~tha kiiunteya therefore stand up.va. sg. you shall enjoy the earth.Jbhuj). yuddhaya (m.). uttiHha (2nd sg. you shall attain heaven. conviction). svargam (m. pra . Either. pass. acc. resolved (kI:ta. Arjuna.Jap). having been slain.n~ ~r+{ I hatas (m.. bhok~ase (2nd sg. fut. voc. .

fut. to battle. Holding pleasure and pain to be alike. gain and loss (/abha alabha). . imperative mid .). acc.). alike.Jyuj) . misery. thou shalt incur. tatas. victory and defeat. DV cpd. acc. jayajayau (m. (suklwdulJkhe. ava . from there. pain. to fighting. nom. dual). then. thou shalt attain. sin. acc. victory and defeat (jaya ajaya). acc. happiness. dual). in similar state. evam. dual). pleasure. victory and defeat. pleasure and pain. n. ~1~11 liibhiiliibhiiu jayiijayiiu gain and loss. having made. papam (n.II 38 ~:~wr~m sukhadul}khe same krtvii suklw (n. dual). k~tva (gerund . join! engage! yoke thyself! 00. dual DV cpd. evil.Jk~). mlT~~ tato yuddhiiya yujyasva then to battle yoke thyself! . pleasure and pain alike having made. labhiilabhiiu (m. DV cpd.. acc. yujyasva (2nd sg. sg.). avapsyasi (2nd sg. Likewise gain and loss. yuddhiiya (n. the same. thus.) same (n. act. Then engage in battle! Thus you shall not incur evil. 123 . having done.:fcf~~~11 niiivam piipam aViipsyasi not thus evil thou shalt incur.Jap). dat. acc. not. thou shalt obtain. dulJkhe (n. sg.

bondage. and one of the oldest. Now hear it as applied in arduous practice. however. however. acc.) and is known as the" reason method" of salvation. in the Siirhkhya philosophy. Arjuna. loc. yoge (m. bandham (m. by which. sg. as declared in the theory of Sankhya. Yoked with this determination. thou shalt leave. yayii (f. sg. pass. p. sg.). sg.). declared." The two often overlap in the Bhagavad Gita.).. In this. Siimkhya is the older of the two. acc. p.).).) prahdsyasi (2nd sg. Son of Prtha. sg.Yoga (the Yoga of action) is the "action method. imiim (f. I t postulates a cosmology in which results are implied in causes. Nothing is ever created. Son of Prthii. Viiise#ka. in Yoga. Yoga. participle abhi -Idhd). participle -Iyuj). or at least karma. pra -Ihd). m. one of the six traditional systems of Hindu philosophy. nom. (karma-bandham.II 39 e~a ~~sfm~~ te ' bhihita samkhye this to thee declared in the Sarnkhya. in arduous practice.). From it comes the concept of the gU!las. S~IJU (2nd sg. enlightenment. loco sg.). the sum of one's gast actions by which one is bound in a future life. fut. here untranslated). imperative act.). voc. this. buddhir yoge tvimam srreu insight in yoga. nom. It is said to have influenced Buddhism. with insight. called. yoked. sg. disciplined. named.. • Sdmkhya. spoken. while Yoga. Siimkhya has a parallel in the modern scientific theory of the conservation of matter and energy. intelligence. joined. Siirhkhye (m. this hear! buddhya yukto yaya partha by insight yoked by which. to thee. You shall rid yourself of the bondage of karma. and Nyiiya.). sg. this. Everything is a manifestation or mutation of what has always existed. sg. mental determination. pass. nom.C. sg. yuktas (m. among the followers of the Sii~­ khya. inst. Vediinta. ~~~II karmabandham prahasyasi karma-bondage thou shalt avoid. and in which the universe remains constant. inst. Piirtha (m. bondage of karma. sg. The Siimkhya system is attributed to the sage Kapila (circa SOO B. 124 . te (dat. Siimkhya does not recognize gods or sacrifices.). acc. thou shalt avoid. insight. TP cpd. This (insight) is wisdom. thou shalt abandon. sg. -Isru). nothing new ever being added to or subtracted from it. by insight. The others are Mfmiimsii. nom. 8g. and are not always distinct. epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother Prtha or KuntL karma (n. act. qii (f. but. indeed. sg. tu. abhihitii (f. hear! learn! buddhyii (f. Thus death is merely a transitory state leading to other states. buddhis (f.

) (abhikrama-niisa. of law. abhikrama (m. api. 125 . there is. very small. vidyate (3rd sg. pr. destruction. sg. sg. deasti (3rd sg. not. reverse not it is found. decrease. nom. disappearance. sg. it rescues. nom. from great.). loss. pr.f~~~sf~ 00. ~~m<:T~ svalpam apy asya dharmasya a little even of it. abl.). svalpam (m. >Ias). sg. also. Still other means of salvation mentioned in the Glta are meditation and love of God. pass.). of discipline. It is known as "the way of knowledge. '!fT1fcr +r@l ~ II triiyate mahato bhayiit protects from great danger. ~T" fCI£T~ I pratyaviiyo na vidyate iha. derivative noun from >loos). dharmasya (m. acc. abl. effort. here. of this. pr. TP cpd. little. sg. Here (in the yoga doctrine of practice) no effort is lost. bhayiit (n. indic. not. indic. opposite action. fromprati ava >Ii). of it. from fear. gen. >ltriii). >12 vid)." and it proposes knowledge as the principal means of salvation. it protects. contrary course. mahatas (n.). m. undertaking. indic..). it is found. reverse. sg. struction of effort.). Even a little of this discipline Protects one from great danger. it is. nom. sg. niisas (m. of this discipline. of virtue. mid. triiyate (3rd sg. nehiibhikramaniiso 'sti not in this an effort lost it is. pratyaviiyas (m. asya (gen. here in the world. na. from danger. even.II 40 . sg. Nor is any loss of progress found. diminution.

resolve. and. of the irresolute.). having no end. of the nature of. Here there is a single resolute understanding. epithet of AIjuna. buddhayo'vyavasiiyiniim the insights of the irresolute. of the wavering. ifc. endless. nom.). in this matter. sg. insight. nom.). iitmikii (f. truly. Arjuna. pl. noun from vi ava . progenitor of both Pii~<. referring to the ancestor of the Kuru people. intelligence. . sg. here. in this place. siikhiis (f.II 41 0ll<t*l14Ik~aff~ vyavasaya (m. indeed endless. thus the ancestor of most of the warriors on both sides in the Battle of Kuruksetra. indeed. kurunandana (m. enlightenment. "selved. intention. infinite. ekii (f. enlightenments. indeed. hi. branches. intelligences.).).. one. ca. from a vi ava ". avyavasiiyiniim (m. pI. insights." buddhis (f.). much. in this world. purpose.). buddhayas (f. vyavasiiyiitmikii buddhir resolute-natured insight ~~~I ekeha kurunandana one in this matter. ~~~'1"3I1i'i\ bahusiikhii hyanantiis ca having many branches. nom. gen. determination.Iu and Dhrtarii~tra.[41 ~~'f II '" . Gf. sg. anantiis (f. bahu. nom. endless. many. The thoughts of the irresolute Have many branches and are. iha. voc. nom. Descendant of Kuru./so). pl.Jso). pl. 126 . Descendant of Kuru (Arjuna). nom. sg.

nom. sg. (veda-vada-ratas. language. 4~G(1~ «(11: '1N vedaviidaratalJ partha delighting in the word of the Veda.). acc. pra . they declare. nom. the ignorant ones.). viida (m. discourse. delighted. flowery. delighting in the letter of the Veda.. vacam (f. pr.). quotation.II 42 lfTll:~~~~ yam imam pu~pitam vacam yam (f. nom. word. Delighting in the letter of the Veda And saying.as). pl. other. participle . which. avipascitas (m. nom. sg.). holding doctrinally. p. acc. iti. not. Son of Prthii. it is. 'lT~ mq1f~ cnf~: II nanyad astiti vadinalJ " not anything else there is" thus saying. imam (f. they proclaim. indic. nom. speech. Arjuna. indic. . veda (m. there is. sg. m. pravadanti (3rd pI.Jvad). word.. Son of Prtha (Arjuna).). voc.Jram). na. pl. asti (3rd sg. declaring. TP cpd. pI. pI.) partha (m. pr. sg. acc. delighting. which. doctrine.). pu~pitam (f." 127 . anyat (n.). epithet of Arjuna.). The ignorant ones proclaim This flowery discourse. acc. else. pass. this. the Veda. "There is nothing else. this flowery word ~crrf~:1 pravadantyavipascitalJ they proclaim. viidinas (m. act. the ignorant ones. thus (used to close a quotation).). anything. saying. sg.). ratas (m. sg.

sg. fruit. phala (n.). (f.!: I janmakarmaphalapradiim offering rebirth as the fruit of action.). path. pleasure. offering. many. 128 . men of desirous natures. pradam (f. birth. giving. kiimiitmanas (m. pI.). lordliness. intent on. • I. the goal of enjoyment and power. sg. And are addicted to many specific rites Aimed at the goal of enjoyment and power. addicted to many various rites. various. esp. abounding in various species of rites. (bhogaisvaryagatim. nom. sg. ifc..). offering rebirth as the fruit of action. in regard to.). They offer rebirth as the fruit of action. karma (n. pI. goal. in the vicinity of. "lrT~~a.. doing. enjoyment. aisvarya (n. those whose selves are desirous. sg. acc. paras (m.). intent on heaven. BY cpd. (adv. f.. gatim (f.>!fa II bhogiiisvaryagatim prati enjoyment and power goal with regard to Full of desires. much. the "ignorant ones" of the preceding stanza. acc. a religious or ritual act. acc. heaven.). nom.). differentiation.e. f. TP cpd. action. varieties of. TP cpd. sg. TP cpd. specification. (kriyavisqabahulam. especially in eating.). performing. svarga (m.) prati. acc. (janmakarmaphalapradam.). intent on heaven ~14q){JISjGI. sg.) kriya (f. aim.). rite. having as highest object.) bhoga (m. acc. opposite. acc.). bahulam (f.). f~<rrfq~lq<ig{JIi kriyiivise~abahuliim abounding in many specific rites. vise~a (vi si~). making. janma (n.II 43 CfiTlfWWf: mtro kiimiitmiinal} svargaparii Being of desirious natures. power.

loco sg. by this.II 44 ~4!HI'ffiI<1i bhoga (m. gen. Whose thought is stolen away by this kind of talk. resolute-natured insight ~T .Jbhuj).) vyavasiiya (from vi ava .) enjoyment-and-power-attached tayiipahrtacetasiim of the by-this (i.). "selved. participle apa . pl. cpd." buddhis (f. not. p. iiisvarya (n.Jdhii). of minds. this discourse)stolen-a way-thoughts. apahr:ta (n. Resolute insight In meditation is not granted. having the nature of. (tayapahr:tacetasiim. power. of those whose thoughts are stolen away by this. lordship.. insight. m. pI. o4cH1141~~f~: vyavasiiyiitmikii buddhil.. 129 . enjoyment. iitmikii (f.).) taya (f. BV cpd. gen.). of those attached to pleasure and power. it is granted.). inst. vidhiyate (3rd sg. intelligence. fCf<T"'l<:rn II samiidhiiu na vidhiyate in meditation not it is granted. pass.e. samiidhiiu (m. na. ifc. sg. in meditation. p. gen..). from . stolen away. nom. plea- bhogiiisvaryaprasaktiiniirh sure." "natured. pI. it is given. sg. pl. cetasiim (n. of the attached. indic. BV of the (pI. resolution.JhT:). To those (the ignorant ones) attached to enjoyment and power. nom. prasaktanam (m. gen. (bhogiiisvaryaprasaktiiniim.). enlightenment.).. sg.Jso). of thoughts. passive vi .

without the pairs of opposites (heat. m. nom.). niryogak~emas (m. pl. pleasure. imperative act. bhava (2nd sg. belonging to.). and possessed of the Self. eternally fixed in truth.as. possessed of the self.). Indifferent toward the pairs of opposites. 130 . sg. nistraigu'lyas (m. The Vedas are such that their scope is confined to the three qualities. atmavan (m.). vi~ayas (m. nom.4 *1 . nirdvandvas (m. indifferent to the pairs of opposites. eternally. pl. staying. (adv . nom.) vedas (m. m. full of the self.as.as. voc. fi1<rm~">II.). II niryogak~ema iitmaviin free from (thoughts of) acqUlsitlOn and comfort.as. possessed of the self.II 45 of~mn~~ vedii three gUl)as territories in the Vedas triiigu1Jyavi~ayii f~tn1T~1 nistriiigu1JYo bhaviirjuna without the three gUQas be! Arjuna f~T f'1. be! exist! become! arjuna (m. category. Free from thoughts of acquisition and comfort. pI.<I t<il' nirdvandvo nityasattvastho indifferent toward the pairs of opposites. abiding. etc./bhU). . TP cpd. reality.). nom. sg. eternal. without the three gUl). eternally fixed in truth.). nom. cold. (traigu'la-vi~agas. spheres of action. territories.). sattva (n. without thoughts of acquisition and conservation. nom. without the triad of gUl).). sg. three gUl).. pain.). Arjuna..). sg. indifferent to the polarities. -sthas (suffix. Be free from those three qualities. Arjuna. fixed.). the triad of gUl). nom. sg.as. belonging to the three gUl). standing. sg. the Vedas. nitya. truth.Jj<lI1. nom. goodness. traigulJya (n.

in water.plu). vijanatas (m. participle sam '. gen. nom.). n. sg. sg.).lasya vijiinatalJ for the brahman. on all sides. (adv. as much value in a well ~::ec~a1G .). as much. vedqu (m. sarvatas. in a well. nom. so much. wise. with water. in all. . salnpluta (p. sarve~u (m. sg. overflowing with water. for the brahman. gen. 131 . brahmalJOsya (m. in the Vedas. So much is the value in all the Vedas For a brahman who knows.).).. knowing.Jjiia). samplutodake when on every side. overflowing. so much.II 46 ~~ yiiviin artha udapiine yavan (m. nom. loco pl.). aim. pass. knowing. sg. loco sg. of the brahman. (sampluta-udake. participle vi . value. udake (n. loco sg.). As much value as there is in a well When water is flooding on every side. use.) tavan (m. everywhere. loco pl. KD cpd. ~IGlIr:ecTq '" tiiviin sarve~u vede~u '" fu so much in all the Vedas ~1@Olfll f~: II briihma1. object. loco sg.). sg. ~~ I sarvataJ. arthas (m. water overflowing.). pr. udapane (m.

let there be! akarmalJi (n. at any time." which is not to be confused with irresponsible or careless action. of thee. astu (3rd sg. '" ma phale~u kadacana never in fruits at any time. jurisdiction. not. authority.). in results.la. action prompted by greed. The first of these is really action without desire for the fruits.\ ~ ma karmaphalahetur bhilr never action-fruit motive should arise. Never let there be attachment to inaction in you.. adhikiiras (m. in inaction. and those that arise from delusion (see XVIII 23. TP cpd. not. phale~u (n.). though the singular phalam is used in the Sanskrit) mean the results of action. privilege. Action prompted by delusion (see above) is also associated with tamas. The second and third are related to desire. action which is a duty. nom. desire for power. (karma-phala-hetus. fruit of action. According to the law of karma an individual is responsible for his actions throughout eternity. eva. alone. karmaphala (n.one of the evils associated with the gU1. saiigas (m. loco sg.Ia of tamas. ma (prohibitive). never. sg. 25). attachment. and they are of three kinds: those of obligatory action. at any time whatsoever. nom. kadacana.).yevadhikaraste in action alone the jurisdiction of thee. nom.i. rna (prohibitive). thy. or darkness. motive in fruit-of-action. prerogative. It refers to "disinterested action. 24. i. never of thee attachment let there be m inaction. nom. in nonaction.II 47 Cfi~<rrf~ karmalJi (n.). (adv. aorist subjunctive . or desire for fame is not advised. lIT Cfi4 'hM®. . it should be. in deeds. • Acting without regard or desire for the fruits of action is one of the most constant teachings of the Bhagavad Gitii. loco sg. sg. and the elimination of desire for the fruits of action is basic to the GUll's teaching. Never to its fruits at any time.). about "inaction" is an injunction against sloth . in action. thy. not. Your right is to action alone. hetus (m. lIT~~1 lIT~~T~~11f II ma te safigo 'stv akarmat. result of action. te (gen. te (gen. Thus. claim. sg. never.Jbhii).). motive. it should arise. loco pl. desire for wealth. rna (prohibitive). in fruits. cause. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). m. office. sg. Never should the fruits of action be your motive. of thee. karmat. or until he achieves nirvii1.e. The" fruits" (usually translated in the plural. those of action prompted by desire.).). sg. 132 . sg. The last line.Jas). never.).) bhiis (3rd sg.). imperative act.

nom. fulfillment. steadfastness. attainment. clinging.).li in Yoga fixed. loco dual. sg. -sthas (m. acc. sg. indifferent (as between two alternatives). f. asiddhi (f. actions. yogas (m. JkI:). sg. adherence. success. 133 . equal. sg. Arjuna. being.). attachment. ucyate (3rd sg. perform actions. acc. tyaktva (gerund J tyaj) . bhutva (gerund JbhU) . in success or failure. abandoning. imperative act. equanimity. the same. siddhi (f. passive Jvac). deeds. becoming. Con- siddhyasiddhyol. it is said. ~~~I lfFrN: ~ <filhfur sangam tyaktva dhanamjaya attachment having abandoned. pr.). equableness. Yoga. Yoga. abiding in.z samo bhUtva to success or failure indifferent having become ~lf1<r~11 samatvam yoga ucyate indifference (is) Yoga. in success and failure. sg. voc. suffix).II 48 '" yogasthal. nom. Having abandoned attachment. indic. Fixed in yoga. sg. indifference. yoga (m.z kuru karma1.) samas (m. discipline. frequent epithet of AIjuna. nom. it is said. it is declared. samatvam (n. failure.). non-success. (siddhyasiddhyos.). perform actions. It is said that evenness of mind is yoga. fixed. sangam (m. kuru (2nd sg. having abandoned.).). queror of Wealth. And having become indifferent to success or failure. Conqueror of Wealth. having become. pl. do! make! perform! karmafJi (n. nom. dhanainjaya (m.).).

below. buddhiyogiit (m. phalahetaval. in enlightenment. sg. nom. abl. intelligence.). 134 . those who are motivated by the fruit. sg. despicable. sg. buddhtiu (f.). acc. to mental determination. nom. refuge. nom. anviccha (2nd imperative act. buddhiiu sara1}am anviccha in insight refuge seek. indeed.). TP cpd. seek! wish for! desire! kr:pafJiis (m. dhanalnjaya. low. BV cpd. inferior. frequent epithet of Arjuna. Conqueror of Wealth. pl. hi. nom.). saralJam (n.). (m.). sg.). inst. those whose motives are based on fruit.II 49 ~~CfiIt diire1}a hyavaram karma diirelJa (n. buddhiyogiid dhanamjaya. Conqueror of Wealth. from the Yoga of to intelligence-discipline. ~:~:II krpa1}iil. Action is inferior by far To the yoga of wisdom. sg. indeed.Ji~). inferior. by far. making. sg. despicable (are) those who are motivated by fruit. intuitive determination. action unimportant. by a long way. loc. Seek refuge in wisdom! Despicable are those whose motives are based on the fruit of action. avaram (n. karma (n. in mental determination. doing. sg. anu . pI.). in intelligence. by distance.). action. to the Yoga of intelligence. voc. in insight. phalahetavas (m. pitiable. by far. Arjuna.

the yoked intelligence.). dat. health. nom. karmasu (n.). ~~~~~ . dual). skill. here in the world.) tasmat (abl. pass. He whose wisdom is established Casts off. kausalam (n. sg. loco pl.). good and evil deeds. acc. good deed. imperative mid . to Yoga. acc. here. in actions. evil deeds. dual. acc. both good and evil actions. he leaves. jahiiti (3rd sg.n~fiT~~ '" '" buddhiyuktas (m. . iha. pro indic.) he who is disciplined in intuitive determination. (s~k~tadul!kT:te.). yoke! yoke thyself! join thyself! yogas (m. sg. sukr!a (m. act.Jyuj) .II 50 buddhiyukto jahiitiha He who is disciplined in intuitive determination casts off here in the world . duskrte (n. the disciplined in mental determination. therefore. Therefore devote yourself to yoga! Yoga is skill in action. dual).Jyuj). from this. .). n. sg. ubhe (n. both. participle .). sg. ~~~I ubhe sukrtadu~krte both good and evil deeds. sg. nom. here in the world. ease. (as BV cpd. Yoga. yogaya (m. 135 .Jhii). nom. '" tasmiid yogiiya yujyasva therefore to Yoga yoke thyself! ~'M: Cfi~ Cfi~ II yoga~ karmasu kiiusalam Yoga in actions (is) skill. he casts off. p. in deeds. yujyasva (2nd sg. the disciplined in intelligence. discipline. acc.

). m.. freed from the bondage of rebirth. vinirmuktas (m.). janmabandhavinirmuktiil} rebirth bondage freed from. joined. wise ones. released. aniimayam (n. acc. healthy. who have abandoned the fruit born of action. pha/am (n. manf~ifJ<ls (m. salubrious. indeed.II 51 '" '" karmajam buddhiyuktii hi ~ <rf. result. pI. sg. pI. p. bondage. born of action. sg. 136 . born of action. abandoning.). way. they go. sg. pI. nom.) padam (n. produced by action. nom. free from pain.1wT f~ karmajam (karma Jja. yoked. freed from. participle Jyuj). pl.a1. acc. having abandoned.. the intelligence-disciplined (pI. gacchanti (3rd pI.). Jgam). act. ~ ~~"'I'1lijlj+f II ~ ~ padam gacchanty aniimayam (to the) place they go.).).lal} fruit having abandoned. Go to the place that is free from pain. disciplined. n. enlightenment. free from disease. having cast aside. sg. abode.) indeed. buddhi (f. ~ ~ t:R')fQ1JT: I phalam tyaktvii mani#1. free from pain. nom. hi. Those who are established in wisdom. rebirth. pass. (janmabandhavinirmuktas. nom. fruit. And are freed from the bondage of rebirth. The wise ones. intelligence. tyaktva (gerund . intuitive detennination. wise.). janma (n. birth. yuktas (m. bandha (m. pro indic. the wise. participle vi nir Jmuc)./tyaj). place. acc. acc.).

gen.I '" .). buddhis (f. intelligence. periphrastic fut. and. of that which has been heard. then. when. enlightenment. sg. thy. disgusted.. disgust. gen.f~ Olffmlf~a. act. sg. sg. kalilam (m. nom. yadii..u:). tadii. vyatitari:fYati (3rd sg. acc.). gerundive 'Jsru). nirvedam (m. gantiisi (2nd sg.gam). When your intellect crosses beyond The thicket of delusion. te (gen. vi ati ".). acc. it shall pass beyond.II 52 <RTa-~~~ yada te mohakalilam when of thee the delusion-thicket ". mental determination. srotavyasya (m. fut.). with that which is to be heard. heap. of thee. participle ". 137 . of the to-be-heard. of the heard. thicket. p. buddhir vyatitari~yati the intelligence shall cross beyond ~<RITf~f~ tada gantasi nirvedam then thou shalt become disgusted ~~~:qll srotavyasya srutasya ca with the to-be-heard and with the heard. moha (m. act . . it shall cross over. ca. srutasya (m. delusion.). confusion. then you shall become disgusted With that which is yet to be heard And with that which has been heard (in the Veda). sg. sg.sru). pass. sg. thou shalt go.

motionless. ava . in deep meditation. nom. perplexed. When your intellect stands flXed in deep meditation. contrary to yada sthiisyati niscala when it shall stand unmoving ~~ samadhavacalabuddhis in deep meditation. (thine) intelligence. it shall stand.). . heard. of thee. sthiisyati (3rd sg.) TP cpd. mental determination.Jap). samadhiiu (m. avapsyasi (2nd sg. loco sg. nom. te (gen. then you shall attain Self-realization. yogam (m. nom. unmoving. participle vi prati .Jpad)..). when. acc. sg. niscaia (f.II 53 ~mq>rf~it srutivipratipanna te disregarding ritual-centered revelation (i.). acalii (f. sg. thou shalt reach. nom. pass.Jstha). then. sg. nom. buddhis (f. ritual-centered revelation. sg.). sg. fixed. of thee l!(IT~(I'f~1 sruti (f. yada. fut. immovable. by thee. false. of the Veda). act. what is heard. p. sg. fut. thou shalt attain. mistaken. disregarding Vedic doctrine. sg. tada. disregarding Vedic doctrine. thine. contrary. f. act.).). (srutivipratipanna. in meditation. Yoga. vipratipanna (f. unmoving. intelligence. immovable. unmoving. ~lT~~~11 tada yogam avapsyasi then Yoga thou shalt attain. 138 . thou shalt obtain.e.).

act. how he should speak? fCfii{ ~ffi mfCfii{ II kim iisita vrajeta kim how should he sit. . kim (interrog.Jbhali). gen. definition. opt. AIjuna. he should proceed. what description? ~~ml samiidhisthasya keiava of him who is steadfast in deep meditation. he who is steady in thought. act. sg. he should travel. of him who is steady of insight.Jvraj). he might speak. man of stable thoughts. frequent epithet of Krishna. BY cpd. he spoke. nom. BY cpd.II ~if\3<fR I arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. kim (interrog.). he might go. pra . sthitadhfs (f. opt. Handsome Haired One (Krishna)? f~r:f~~ sth£tadhi!. he said.). . what? how? sthitaprajfiasya kii bhii~ii of him who is steady of insight. kim (interrog. of him who is steadfast in deep meditation. he should move how? Arjuna spoke: How does one describe him who is of steady wisdom. speech. kdava (m.). opt. he might sit. what? bhalia (f.). sg. sg. identification. interrog. kim Prabhii~eta he who is steady in thought. BY cpd. description. Handsome Haired One. nom.). per. nom. mid .). uvaca (3rd sg. kii (f.). mid . sanuidhisthasya (m.). he should sit.). what? how? asfta (3rd sg. voc. what? how? prabhalieta (3rd sg.). :Jvac) . Who is steadfast in deep meditation. vrajeta (3rd sg. sg. sg. he should speak. nom. sg. Krishna? How does he who is steady in wisdom speak? How does he sit? How does he move? 139 . gen. language. he should move. sg. 54 f~CfiT'llm sthitaprajnasya (m.Jas).

emerging from the mind. tu~tas (m. indic. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ucyate (3rd sg. originating in the mind. he leaves behind.:ij(*¥1'11 ~: iitmanyeviitmanii t~talJ in the self by the self contented. atmani (m. satisfied. atmana (m. then.. nom.)..II ssr~~1 Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m.). sg. steady of insight. acc. Arjuna. kaman (m.fvac).ftu~). pr. addictions.). voc.). Son of Prtha. perf. 140 . he abandons.fvac). act." emerging from the mind. the Blessed Lord. pl. tada.). partha (m.) one whose insight is steady. pl.). by the self. p. nom. contented. . sg. acc. all.. pra . pass. he is said to be. he said. eva. Son of Prtha. acc. sg. indic.¥1.). pl. "mind gone. the blessed one. desires ~qp. inst. TP cpd. he relinquishes. And is contented in the Self by the Self. when. 55 ~8'lRT~ prajahiiti yadii kiimiin prajahiiti (3rd sg. ~1. loco sg. cravings. wise. frequent epithet of Arjuna.f 1'I"ll 1Idl'1 I ~ ~ sarviin piirtha manogatiin all.fhii). sg. he renounces. passive . pr. sg. (as BV cpd. sarvan (m. in the self. sthitaprajnas (m. yada. when. act. manogatan (m. nom.. The Blessed Lord spoke: When he leaves behind all desires Emerging from the mind. desires. he spoke. he leaves behind.). participle . uvaca (3rd sg. f~~aSl~w(:f~ II 1S sthitaprajfiastadocyate one whose insight is steady then he said to be. it is said. prudent. Then he is said to be one whose wisdom is steady.

he is called. ucyate (3rd sg.Jvij). in joys. And whose meditation is steady. vigataspt:has (m. passion. gone. nom. wise man. whose passion..) whose meditation is steady.). m. nom. and anger have departed. ifc. sg. in unhappinesses. fear and anger have departed. (as BY cpd. danger. sg. loco pl.khe~vanudvignamaniil. fear. fear.) sukhe~u (n. sage. a sage he is said to be. freed from desire.). in misfortunes. manas (m. sg.Ji). vita (p. departed passion. participle an ud . pass . sthitadhir munir ucyate steady in thought. (anudvignamanas. anudvigna (p. anger. nom. mind. sg. steady in meditation.). minded. nom.).). pass. in misfortunes not agitated the mind mrnf~:1 ~" ~ < sukhe~u vigatasprhal. participle vi .) sthitadhfs (f. in pleasures. bhaya (n. He whose mind is not agitated in misfortune.II 56 ~:~~: dul.) whose desire has disappeared. indic.. sg. sg.). nom. in pleasures freed from desire Cf~lI"fiTer: vitariigabhayakrodhal. sg. raga (m.Jvac). steady of thought.). fear. freed from greed.). BY cpd. not agitated. whose mind is not agitated. f~~+rf~~11 '''' . in miseries. pass." (as BY cpd. is said to beasage. nom. departed. anger. krodhas (m. loco pl. free from anxiety.). he is said to be. Whose passion. "gone away desire. Whose desire for pleasures has disappeared. free from perplexity. m. in happinesses. . munis (m. it is said. (vitaragabhayakrodhas. dulJkhe~u 141 . nom. (n. BY cpd. pr.

discrimination. he dislikes. he approves. he hates. tasya (gen. without affection.). am. from an abhi . established. sg. pr. sg. sg. ya/. He who is without attachment on all sides. abhinandati (3rd sg. p. prajfid (f. pleasant or unpleasant. nondesirous. act. incurring. nom.Jnand). everywhere. subha asubha). on all sides. . [fISC ntibhinandati na dve~ti not he rejoices. abhi .). of it.Jap). wisdom. Encountering this or that.Jdvi~). . not he dislikes ~ srnT srl'ml>OaT II tasya prajiiti prati~thitti of him the wisdom standing firm. indic.'Sl"J'ClI"~1 tattat prtipya Subhtisubham this or that encountering. dve~fi (3rd sg. sarvatra. 142 . pass. nom.z sarvatranabhisnehas who on all sides non-desirous. His wisdom stands firm.Jsnih).). of him. sg. na. who. nom.II 57 <1:mr. prapya (gerund pra '. standing firm. participle). he salutes. unimpassioned. pro indic. na. knowledge. In all things. sg. pratiHhita (f. judgement. of this. nom. nom. this or that. subhliSubham (n. pleasant or unpleasant. not. sg. anabhisnehas (m. obtaining.:nf~a-. not. yas (m. encountering. DV cpd. pleasant or unpleasant. attaining. he rejoices.n~. tat tad (n. act. acc. understanding..). pleasant and unpleasant. Neither rejoicing nor disliking.. sg.

indriyarthebhyas (m. safnharate (3rd. sg. pl.Jstha). sg. His wisdom stands fIrm. tortoise.). indic.). this. aflgani (n. legs and arms. sg.zindriyiirthebhyas the senses from the objects of the sense. discrimination. tasya (m. powers.). nom. As a tortoise withdraws its limbs into its shell. iva. he draws together. p.II 58 lRT~~~ yada. pl. limbs. completely.Jhl:). established.). of him. like. wholly.). acc. abl. senses. turtle. and. prati. sg. indriyaIJi (n. acc. ~-~-~l~lftf~~ indriyiit. pr. standing firm. understanding. participle prati . yadii smhharate ciiyarit and when he withdraws. sam . similarly.). nom. sarvasas. karmas (m. sg. pl. this one. wisdom. ca. this one. nom. from the objects of sense. of it.). judgement. he withdraws. nom. pass. gen. CfBr >mr >ifffil>Om II tasya prajiiii prat#thitii of him the wisdom standing firm. sg. 143 . ~+r1 SWRT<r I kurmo 'figiiniva sarvasa/:t m: the tortoise-limbs-like completely. TP cpd. from the objects of the senses.rrhita (f. of this. prajfla (f. altogether. ayam (m. And when he withdraws completely The senses from the objects of the senses. when. mid.

even. indic. food). pl. pr. sg. acc. from the fasting. rasas (m. flavor. sg. of him. vi~ayas vinivartante the objects turn away ['1 <ltOl <fll ~t:'1": I nirahiirasya dehina/. sg. mid. objects. havmg seen.II 59 f«tMfcrf~ (m.). most basic of desires. from nir ahara. indie.). asya (m. with the exception of. flavor also from him. t The atman.Jvr:t). taste. spheres of influence. pr. it turns away. gen. they tum away. 144 . But the taste for them remains. of the embodied one. of the self. varjam (adv. vi ni . of the litman. But the taste also turns away From him who has seen the Supreme.). taste.t from the fasting of the embodied one. also. nivartate (3rd sg. dehinas (m.Jdr:s). vinivartante (3rd pI. mid.): the hi~hest. flavor. gen. it turns away. sg. dmva (gerund . ~~T~ vi~aya rasavarjam raso 'pyasya flavor excepted. niraharasya (m. api. excluding. nom.. rasa (m. ~~f~ll • « param dr~tva nivartate the supreme having seen. • Flavor being the object of hunger. gen. nom. seemg.).). t~e supreme. TP cpd. param (m.). ni . Sense objects turn away from the abstinent man. sg. dominions. from the withoutfood.Jvr:t).

gen. sg. Even of the striving man of wisdom. the powers. tearing.).II 60 ~~q-<f. rending. voc. ~~1lT SIlt'Nlf-r indriyiit. tormenting. ~ h. vipascitas (m. they carry away forcibly the mind. puru~asya (m.). sg. manas (n. Arjuna. act. they carry away. gen. truly. indeed. violently. gen.~ yatatas (m. frequent epithet of Arjuna. pl. they take. of wisdom. kiiunteya (m. 145 . of the one who strives. sg. Son of KuntI. act.).). nom. of the eager. harassing. sg. pro indie. acc. from Jvip). pr. the senses. sg. thoughts.zi pramiithini the senses tormenting ¢~~+rrr:11 of the striving. Son of Kunti. of the man. participle Jyat). nom. even.:). of the man of wisdom. haranti prasabham manalJ. of learning. ~fqqf~:1 purUfasya vipaScitalJ.). also. yatato hyapi kiiunteya of the striving. mind. indriyiifJi (n. they seize. pl. indeed even. The turbulent senses Carry away forcibly The mind. pramiithfni (n. forcibly. destroying. api. prasabham (adv. haranti (3rd pI.). hi.

in wish. '" yukta iisita matparal.). mid. sg. restraining.Jas). of him. gen. the senses.). the senses) all restraining ~~ffi~:1 tani (n. in control. pl. matparas (m. established. crof~~~11f vase hi yasyendriyiilJi in control surely of whom the senses. of this. nom. Disciplined.e. he should sit. Restraining all these senses. participle prati . yasya (m.). of whom. joined (usually refers to being steadfast in Yoga). holding back. loc. yuktas (m. stabilized.Jsthti).).z disciplined. 146 . gen. these. nom. pl. p. vase (m.Jyam). me intent on. acc. with me as highest object. sg.). tasya (m. sarvalJi (n. prajiiii (f. safnyamya (gerund sam .II 61 an. standing firm. discrimination. His wisdom stands firm. sg. acc. He whose senses are controlled. sg. me intent on. intent on Me. he should sit. wisdom. p. pl. in dominion. ~11f ~ ttini sarvtilJi samyamya these (i. opt. prati~!hita (f. understanding. sg. yoked. sg. pass. hi.). indriyalJi (n. asfta (3rd sg.Jyuj). truly. nom. steadfast. all. he should sit. '. surely. the powers. ~ >I'm >rfaf~ II tasya prajiiii prat#thitii of him the wisdom standing firm. indeed. disciplined. nom.). sg. in desire. nom. pass.).. participle .

vi!!ayan (m. 147 .). craving. it is produced. nom. contemplating objects. fury. it is produced. and do not necessarily convey any difference in meaning. sangas (m.: dhyayatas (m. pr. from ~~~I sangas te~iiPajayate attachment to them it is born ~~CfiTlf: sangat samjayate kamal. dhyayato v#ayan pumsal. it is born. sainjayate* (3rd pI.II 62 ~Tf~. gen. departments. of contemplating. for a man. indic. such prefixes are sometimes used merely for elegance (in this case avoidance of repetition). greed. desire. sg. passive upa vjan). • The use of three different prefixes to jiiyate (it is born). nom. to them. kamat (m. pUinsas (m./jan). of a man. upa. From attachment. An attachment to them is born. sg. testifies to the fact that in Sanskrit. acc. attachment. kamat krodho 'bhijayate from desire anger is born For a man dwelling on the objects of the senses.). objects. sg. desire is born. sam. clinging. sg. it is produced. aMi. anger is born. clinging. krodhas (m. it is born. abhijayate* (3rd sg.).). tqu (m. indic.). for a man spheres of action. upajayate* (3rd sg. sg. passive sam vjan). gen. viz. pr. wrath. fields. nom. loco pl. passive abhi . from attachment. pl. it is born.). pr.). anger. From desire. from crav- from attachment is born desire ~~T~sf~11 ing. abl. sangat (m. in them. indic. provinces. pr. kamas (m. abl.. of dwelling on. sg. from desire.). sg. act participle 'Jdhya).

one is destroyed. abl. pra . bhramsat (m. one is lost. delusion.Jmuh) . buddhi (f. sg. sg. from delusion. nom.) pralJaSyati (3rd sg. from vi . TP cpd. m. nasas (m. ~r(f~<rf~ . loss. ~~rfficn-1+1: I sammohiit smrtivibhramalJ. from loss of the intelligence. from anger arises delusion. from wandering. '" . '" ~ smrtibhrathSiid buddhinaso from memory wandering. from destruction of the intelligence. memory. sg. sg.Jnas).. memory. From anger arises delusion. bhil). sg. From delusion.). from confusion. from delusion.). from destruction. destruction of discrimination.). (buddhinasat. sammohat (m. wisdom remembered.). nom.).. from memory wandering away. sg. 148 . abl.). (sm~tibhramsat. nom. <rf~~(fll buddhiniisiit pra1}asyati from intelligence-destruction one is lost.rcrf'(f~: krodhiit(m. from sam . krodhiid bhavati sammohalJ. nasdt (m.Jbhram). abl. sg. pr.). intelligence. loss of the memory. destruction.). he is lost. intelligence.. sm~ti (f. confusion. buddhi (f. abl. it is.) TP cpd. From destruction of discrimination one is lost. . vibhramas (m. it arises. sm~ti (f. From loss of the memory. wisdom remembered. abi. abi. TP cpd. TP cpd. wandering away. he is destroyed.). sg. intelligence destruction. sammohas (m. indie. act. from anger. memory wandering.II 63 ~~ -. it comes to be. from wrath.. sg. bhavati (3rd sg .

objects. however. sg. tranquility. indriyafs (n. p. desire. hatred. eliminated. to be subdued. spheres of action.). earan (m. loathing.a-:r\ f~ iitmavaSyiiir vidheyiitmii by self-restraint.). acc. raga (m..Jear). tu. With the elimination of desire and hatred.). act. peace. by self-controls.1 vi~ayiin indriyiiiicaran (even though) objects by the senses engagmg. 5fmqm~("f11 prasiidam adhigacchati tranquility he attains. unjoined. self.::T¥ir::q". nom. (vidheyatma. with self-restraints. sg. dve~a 149 .).~.) prasadam (m. acc. nom. atmavasyais (m.. however. indic. He who is controlled by the Self.t!rr. vi~ayan (m. adhi . pl.II 64 ~~~ riigadve~aviyuktas tu desire and hate eliminated.). fields. pr. he attains. attains tranquility. but. BY cpd. ". Even though moving among the objects of the senses.I. to be governed. sg. sg. to be enjoined. he goes to. adhigaeehati (3rd sg. nom. he reaches. participle act. provinces. passion.Jgam). inst. viyuktas (m. atma (m. pl. the self-controlled. pass. pl. moving. inst. f~ m~a~~"'1 '<1. to be controlled. (m.). . m. engaging.Jyuj). nom. By self-restraint.Jdha). vidheya (gerundive vi . he whose self is controllable.). with the senses. by the senses. pr. sg. controlled by selfrestraints. participle vi ..

(prasannacetasas. tranquil. truly. nom.loc. gen. asya (m. of misfortunes. of it. pr. it is born. withdrawal.).) hi. of mind. passive upa ~jan). it is produced. hiinis (f. immediately. of him whose mind is tranquil. cessation. dulJkhiiniim (n. intelligence.Jsthii). indic. pari ava . all. sarva. in peace. leave). minded. upajiiyate (3rd sg. sg. participle pra .). gen.. pr. sg. from . paryavati~fhate (3rd sg. enlightenment. at once buddhil.). placid. indeed. 150 . pass. bright. prasiide (m. at once. In tranquility the cessation of all sorrows Is born for him. pl. in tranquility. it becomes steady. of him. for the tranquil-minded The intellect at once becomes steady. discrimination.).II 65 ~~:~ prasadesarvad~khanam in tranquility. it steadies. it stands.z paryava#fthate the intelligence it becomes steady. indic. clear. m. indeed. gen. BV cpd. prasanna (p. for him.). buddhis (f. sg. mid. Indeed. quickly. gen. sg. S/~I'$I~Ml ~ prasannacetaso hyiiJu of the tranquil minded.). of all sorrows ¢''f\ 'I fli'l q"" III (\ I hanir asyopajayate cessation for him it is born. of sorrows.Jhii. sg. of thought. iisu (adv.Jsad). cetasas (m. sg. nom.

ca. sg. joy. sg. of the undisciplined one. ayuktasya (m.).Jas).) of the uncontrolled. na. bhiivana (f. of the non-meditating. tranquility.II 66 '" . concentration. peace. whence happiness? There is no wisdom in him who is uncontrolled. and. peace. concentration. of the non-perceiving. abhiivayatas (m. buddhis (f. and. of the unsteadfast in Yoga. of the nonconcentrating.). whence? from where? sukham (n.). pr. gen.). gen. there is no peace. na. asti (3rd sg. sg. discrimination. na ciiyuktasya bhiivanii and not of the uncontrolled. of the unpeaceful one. nom. of the uncontrolled. 'fTf~orf~~ na. of him who is undisciplined. sg. happiness. How can there be happiness for him who is not peaceful? 151 . good fortune. perception. intelligence. nom. it is.).). of the undisciplined. kutas (interrog. nom. And in him who does not concentrate.). santis (f. gen. ca. '" niisti buddhir ayuktasya not there is intelligence of the uncontrolled. acc. intuitive determination. there is. not.). 'wm~f4~:~11 aSiintasya kutal} sukham of the unpeaceful. "f~:mf~ na ciibhiivayatal} siintir and not of the non-concentrating. gen. of the unpeaceful. not. not. sg. asantasya (m. sg. sg. And there is likewise no concentration in him who is uncontrolled. meditation. ayuktasya (m. indic. sg.

thought. mind. harati (3rd sg. like.)./dhti). manas (n. sg. sg. 1:J"!: lRT ~fGf<ft<ffll yan mano 'nuvidhiyate when the mind is guided by. of it. on the water. nom. act. then. hi.. wandering. passive anu vi . . nom. it is regulated.). ship. when.). it carries away. asya (gen. of him. sg.II 67 ~~f~~ indriyalJiim (n. which. it is guided. what. that. of the indriya1Jam hi carat am powers. viiyus (m.).). indeed.). pr.. ambhasi (n. loco sg. sg. truly. tad (n.). iva. vayur niivam iviimbhasi steals. Jhr). of the senses. gen. sg. When the mind runs After the wandering senses.). ~¢~srnt yad (n. sg. Then it carries away one's understanding. 152 . it is led. acc. of of the senses. nom. prajfiiim (f. gen. it is ordered. acc./car).). boat. wisdom. sg. wandering. pr. discrimination. nom. caratam (m. this. navam (f. indeed. As the wind carries away a ship on the waters. understand- ing. participle . pl. wind. wind-a-ship-like on the water. anuvidhfyate (3rd sg. it tadasya harati prajiiiim then of him it carries away the understanding <:fT<R: i'fTCI+T ~~ II ". of roving. pI.

indriyiirthebhyas (m.). sg. f~ffiTf. sg. pass. sarvasas (adv.m: I nigrhitiini sarvasal} withdrawn on all sides ~~lf. suppressed. of which.). abl. therefore. 153 . tasya prajiiii prati~thitii of him the wisdom standing firm.). mahiibiiho (m. tasya (m. sg. held back. participle ni J grah).. nom. senses. p. voc. 0 Arjuna. prati~rhitii (f. The wisdom of him whose senses Are withdrawn from the objects of the senses. pl. from this. pl. of it. yasya (m. 0 Mighty Armed One.II 68 ~~~) ~ tasmiid yasya mahiibiiho therefore of whom. standing firm. gen. indriyiilJi (n. pI. also applied to other warriers.). That wisdom stands ftrm. abl.sr:rr~ indriyii1}indriyiirthebhyas the senses from the objects of the senses ~ >1m >rfaf~ II tasmiit (m.). withdrawn. gen. participle prati. wisdom. frequent epithet of Atjuna. nom. of this. from the objects of the senses.Jsthii). understanding. Mighty Armed One. sg. sg.). pass. of whom.). nig~hftiini (n. p. prajfiii (f. on all sides. of him.. powers. nom. nom. established. in all respects. sg. Therefore.).

sg. bhiitani (n. they are wakeful. which is dark as night to others. what. of the sage.Jpas). jagrati (3rd pI.. yasyam (f. act. loco sg.). nisa (f. of the seeing. while the others see the light of the senses which is dark as night to the sage. they are watchful. gen. of all beings. pr. loco sg. sa (f.). existences. pro participle . .). indic. yasyam jagrati bhiitani in what they are wakeful. night. in this. beings. nom. he is watchful. of the perceiving. nom. this. beings.). in it. nom. which. the man of restraint. in what. he is wakeful.Jjag~). sg. sarvabhiitanam (n. munes (m. tasyam (f. act. sg.). nom.II 69 <rrf<rnr~ ya nisa sarvabhiitanam ya (f. paSyatas (m. night. gen.). sg. that. smhyami (m. pl. of the wise man. The time in which all beings are awake Is night for the sage who sees. the man of restraint. in that which. gen. nom. Meaning that the" sage who sees" perceives the light of the atman.).). jagarti (3rd sg. the restrained one. . what (is) the night of all beings ~ ~aB7:fI1T I tasyam jagarti samyami in this he is wakeful. indic. sa nisa pasyato munelJ that (is) the night of the seeing sage. sg.).Jjag~). 154 . sg. nisa (f. sg. pl. The man of restraint is awake In that which is night for all beings. pr. nom. .).

sarve (m. appetites.:) becoming filled. the waters. as. not so the man who is full of desire. he. sea. they encounter. nom. they enter. not the desirer of desires. tranquility.).).). pra Jvis). not. they sit upon.). acc. from prati Jsthii) . TP cpd. (acalaprati~fham.. act. act. pra Jvis). they dissolve in. the waters they enter in which way. participle from a Jp . yadvat. apnoti (3rd sg. sg. desires. pr. standing still. !dimas (m.!TIfTf~Pf CfiIW·wfr II sa Siintim iipnoti na kiimakiimi he peace attains. • Trinubh metre. 'Jap) . ocean. ~ mq-: >lfcrofi'(!' ~ I . pl. 155 . apas (f. nom. BY epd. prati~fham (n. acc. aec. whom. sg. sg. indic.~ samudram iipalJ pravisanti yadvat the ocean.). sg.II 70 :q1')\4¥lIOI~:q-~~ apiiryamalJllm (m. n. sg.). peace. so. desirer of the objects of desire. becoming full. pl. acc. pro indie. which becomes filled yet remains unmoved and stands still As the waters enter it. water.). he attains. they enter.). pr. unmoving. sg. Like the ocean. sas (m. unmoved. all. nom. pravisanti (3rd pI. he obtains. sg. stable. na.) samudram (n. kamakamf (m. pravisanti (3rd pI. acala (m. sg. in which way. yam (m. tadvat. acc. he reaches. in this way. ~ CfiTlIT li >lfcrofi'(!' ri tadvat kiimii yam pravisanti sarve in this way desires whom they enter all ~ mf~ 'J. nom. mid. desirer of desires. '" . acc. pl. He whom all desires enter and who remains unmoved Attains peace. act. iipiiryamii'IJam acalaprat#tham"" becoming filled (yet) unmoved.). nom. santim (f. which is unmoved and standing still. they dissolve in. standing still.

cravings. The man who abandons all desires Acts free from longing. nom. nirmamas (m. sg. act.Jgam). sarvan (m. he moves. pl. nirahamlWras (m. He attains peace. sg. adhi . adhigacchati (3rd sg. siintim (f. all.). he attains. indic. he acts. free from lust.:~~: I pumiiitScarati nil. nom. pl.). carati (3rd sg. sarviin* abandoning desires who all.II vihiiya kiimiin yalz. sg. • Sloka metre resumes. frn:im f~: nirmamo nirahamkiiral. abandoning. ~~~~f~a-II vihiiya (gerund vi . Ti i~"«fa.).). sg. peace. this. sg. nom. the man acts free from lust.). nom. pumiin (m. act.). sas (m. he lives." free from egotism. . indifferent to "mine. pr. IWmiin (m. desires. sg. Indifferent to possessions. free from egotism. who.f.). he. free from desire. free from egoticism.Jhd).). yas (m. acc. nom. he goes to. free from "I making." indifferent to possessions. indifferent to possessions. sa Siintim adhigacchati he peace attains.). sg.. casting away.Jcar). man. the man. nilJsp~has (m. 156 . pr. acc. indic.sPrhal. a man.acc. nom.

blow-means "blown out" in the sense that a candle is blown out). brahmf sthitis (f. he is deluded. nom. per- . acc. pr. even. brahmf(adj. api. in it. taining to Brahman. also. this. loco sg. sg. he is not deluded. sg.).f. he is deluded. in this. indie.a he reaches.). at time of death even ~~~~all brahmanirvtiIJam rcchati brahmanirvaI). divine. r:cchati (3rd sg. partha. the nirviil). vf Jmuh) . this having attained. ft~ ~ ~. Fixed in it. asyam (f. act. Having attained this.a (ceasing to exist) in Brahman (the word nirviil). he reaches. he is confused.va. End of Book II The Yoga of Knowledge 157 . sthitva (gerund Jstha). loco sg. holy.). Arjuna. qa (f.).:rt >rro:r f~a I ntiintim prtipya vimuhyati not. the state of Brahman.). He reaches the bliss of God. fixed.a. na. Jr:). in time of end. standing firm. This is the divine state. this.:q"'I~ sfq- sthitvti ' sytim antaktile 'pi fixed in it. Son of Prthii. Brahmanirviil).. attaining. Son of Prt ha . indic. state concerning Brahman. act. acc. f. sg. ptirtha this the brahmanic position. Brahmanic position.a-from nir :'. sg. Brahmanic state. at time of death.). pr. frequent epithet of Arjuna. having attained. not. sg. even at the hour of death. vimuhyati (3rd sg.II 72 ~~Tf~a:qr~ e~ti brtihmi sthitil. he attains.). brahmanirvafJam (n. enam (f. antakale (m. prapya (gerund pra Jap) . nom. nom.

Arjuna. superior. mata (f. than action. sg.). ni -. epithet of Krishna.). Agitator of Men. kdava (m. sublime. sg. sg. sg. kim (n. ced. 0 Krishna.g:'Ji'lla'l I latkim karma1. than deeds.).). pro indic. perf.Zi ghore mam then why to action terrible me f~~~11 niyojayasi kesava thou urgest. thought. he spoke. conviction. what? why? karmalJi (n.Jvac).). te (gen.BOOK III ~"~I arjunas (m. sg. thy. nom.). causative act. sg. sg. miim (acc. 0 Handsome Haired One./yuj). to me. buddhis (f. nom. . he said. abl. mental determination. act. larger. voc. of thee. intelligence. then. comparative). venerable. thou causest to yoke. nom. nom. Mover of Men. uvaca (3rd sg. nom.). nom. loco sg. jyayasi eel karma1. janiirdana. me. Agitator of Men. sg. loco sg. :.). Then why do You urge me to engage in this terrible action? 158 . intelligence. better. sg. niyqjayasi (2nd sg. idea. (m.). voc.). jyayasi (f. karmalJas (n. arjuna uvaea Arjuna spoke: 1 ~ln~~ir 'irn Cfill~ ~ . thou urgest. Handsome Haired One? ArjlU1a spoke: If it is Your conviction that knowledge Is better than action.Zas te better if than action of thee mata'"buddhirjanardana thought.).). cn~ Cfilffur ~'rt +IT 11m . enlightenment. sg. sg. ghore (n. if. awful. tad (n.n. terrible. interrog. to action. frightful. epithet of Krishna. in action. stronger.

aham (nom. sg. acc. Jmuh). buddhim (f. II . surely. that. 1. ~~~f<rf~ tad ekam vada niscitya this one tell! surely ~~ ~:q1'141+J. nom. by distracted. discrimination. opt. causative act. vada (2nd sg. like. apnuyam (rst sg. sg. by troubled. act. inst. the higher good. iva. imperative act. yena (inst. mixed.III 2 &ITflf~Of~ vyiimisre1Jeva viikyena by equivocal-like speech vyamisrelJ<l (n. me (gen. ekam (n. I should attain. thou deludest. intelligence. sg. sg. by words. of me. of me. sg. from vi a Jmis). the supreme good. so to speak. Jap). with which. with words. sg. thou confusest. by which. my. You confuse my intelligence. mohayasi (2nd sg. sg. acc. sg. without doubt. iva like.). compar. tell! say! niscitya (gerund nis J ci).). inst.).n~ lf~')q lr I yena sreyo 'ham iipnuyiim by which the highest good I should attain. I should reach. Jvad) .). one. sreyas (n. With speech that seems equivocal.). sg. by manifold. tad (n. Tell me surely this one thing: How should I attain the highest good? 159 . acc. vakyena (n. this. by equivocal.).).). with speech. by '" buddhim mohayasiva me the intelligence thou confusest-like. as it were.

sg. nom. steadfastness. . sg. yoginam (m. the Blessed One. loco sg. jiianayogena (m.). maya (inst. by the Yoga of action. perfect act.).1~~1 sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. proclaimed. nom. In this world there is a two-fold basis (of devotion) Taught since ancient times by Me. pl. of the followers of Yoga. in this.).). sg. nom. participle pra .the yoga of the followers of Sankhya And that of action .III l'. of the Yogins. attachment. ~TiR~ jiianayogena samkhyanam by knowledge Yoga of the Sarhkhyas. inst. nom. anciently. he spoke. Blameless One (Arjuna).). of the followers of the Siirilkhya doctrine. loco sg. taught. sg. 160 . sg. of the Siirilkyas. in the world. previously. epithet of Arjuna. he said. gen.). by action Yoga. sg. by action Yoga of the Yogins. anagha (m.)./vac).:rq' I pura prokta maya 'nagha anciently taught by me. twofold. CfilhrTiR lfTf'A1+{ II karmayogena yoginam loke (m. of two kinds. by knowledgeYoga.)./vac). sarhkhyanam* (m.the yoga of the yogins.). pl. gen. Blameless One. sg.. TP cpd. o Arjuna: That of knowledge . declared. basis. two-fold basis (of devotion) qu 5fl<Rrr ll<IT s. from ni .).. • See footnote on p.. in older times. p. TP cpd. prokta (f. 3 ~ sf~ fID'<r<IT f~ loke 'smin dvividhii ni~tha in world in this. voc. 13 6 . nisfhii (f. dvividhii (f./sthii) . by the Yoga of knowledge. karmayogena (m. pura (adv. pass. uvaca (3rd sg. The Blessed Lord spoke. the Blessed Lord. sg.). asmin (m. by me. inst.

:r :. fulfillment. alone (often used as a rhythmic filler). acc. from abstention. pl. not.myasanat (n. he surpasses. he approaches. ca.a. sa. eva. Not by abstention from actions Does a man attain the state beyond karma. sg. siddhim (f. perfection. . state beyond karma. asnute (3rd sg.). abl. inactivity.:r~~ na karmmpim aniirambhiin not of actions from non-commencement ~~q-T~~I niii~karmyam puru~o na..:p:ii'll'6<\ I~Cl na ca samnyasaniideva and not from renunciation alone fm~ '6+rl'~~ II siddhim samadhigacchati perfection he approaches. And not by renunciation alone Does he approach perfection. sam adhi 'Jgam). from non-commencement. pr. sg. he attains. sg. nai!!karmyam (n. r. act. spirit. from nonundertaking. karmalJiim (n. acc. sg. of actions.). gen. indic. abl. mid .Jas).).Jrambh). pr. 161 . not. of deeds. freedom from action. from renunciation. from an a . anarambhiit (m. and. nom. puru!!as (m. man.). 'snute the state beyond karma a man he attains . sg. he comes near. indic.). from relinquishment. from actions. samadhigacchati (3rd sg.III 4 . indeed. success.

kascid. action. prakrtijiiir gm. not. anyone whatsoever. ~~:Cf>"ll kiiryate hyavasal. action. everyone. ever. karma he is forced to perform. pro indic.).). even action which is against his will. 162 . jatu. nom. at any time. not performing action. By the qualities which originate in material nature. also.). causative . the twinkling of an eye. . nom. all.. he remains.III 5 'f f~ 'fif~q: ~q- na hi kascit k~attamapi not indeed anyone in the twinkling of an eye even ~ fd GOl:lI Cf>4Cf>d I - . anyone. he is caused to perform. a moment. even in the twinkling of an eye. gUlJiiis (m. indeed without will. sg. sg. Everyone is forced to perform action.Jstha). nom. an instant. he exists. by original sources born. na. sg. sarval.). truly.). akarmakl:t (m. by the gUl:laS. no one. indeed. ti!!rhati (3rd sg. he stands. pl.. act. even. k!!alJam (n.as Indeed. everyone by the nature-born gUl). api.iiil. karma (n. indic. against will. karyate (3rd sg. pass. prakl:tijais (m. avasas (m. jiitu ti~thatyakarmakrt ever he exists not doing action. without will.). hi. nom. pr. Ever exists without perfonning action. sg.JkI:). hi. ~ ~. indeed. truly. he is forced to perform. by material nature born. pl. inst. acc.). not action doing. inst. sg. sarvas (m.

163 . sg. sg. which. nom. self. While in his mind brooding over The objects of the senses. He who sits. karma indriyafJi). objects of the powers.).). nom. indic. pro indic. deluded. remembering. If mm 11"Im ~ I ya iiste manasii smaran who he sits by the mind remembering ~~lfT~ fC! ~ GI. m. TP cpd. passive Jvac). he is called. he sits. subduing. a hypocrite. deluded self. this.. inst. pI.). mid. Is said to be a hypocrite. indriyiirthiin vimur/hiitmii the objects of the senses. atma (m. thinking of. nom. action-powers.. sg. vimiictha (p. he.). restraining. indriyarthan (indriya arthan. objects of the senses. confused. nom. sas (m. Jas). participle Jsml:). sense-objects. f+r~:~~11 mithyiiciiral:z sa ucyate a hypocrite. sg. acc. he. nom. pr. restraining his organs of action.). smaran (m. aste (3rd sg. acc. pr. . TP cpd.). powers of action. samyamya (gerund sam Jyam). yas (m. who. controlling. by the mind.~ I .III 6 'fi1i~~ur~ karmendriyafJi (n. manasa (n. hypocrisy. with a deluded mind. sg. sg. it is said. karmendriyiilJi samyamya action powers restraining. with the mind. mithyacaras (m. pI. ucyate (3rd sg. participle vi Jmuh). offalse behavior. it is said. he is said to be. pass.

he is distinguished. pass.).' . sg. I niyamytirabhate'rjuna controlling he undertakes. arabhate (3rd sg.. vi . V(:. pass.Jyam).. is superior. without attachment. pl. TP cpd. subduing. pl.. with the mind. m. nom. AIjuna. pr. participle a . visi~yate (3rd sg..Jrambh). niyamya (gerund ni . TP cpd. sg. inst. sg. indic. sg. arjuna (m. voc. But he who undertakes the control of the senses by the mind.III 7 ~~ k~~ur IT''I'm yas tvindriyti1}i manasti who but the senses by the mind f'14~1<~ S\if.). engages the organs of action in the yoga of action. acc. action yoga. he engages. by the mind. karmendriyais (karma indriyais. manasa (n. he commences. yas (m. the Yoga of action. karmayogam by the action-organs. karmayogam (m. pr. he is distinguished. unattached. who. this. acc. he. karmendriytiil. sg. he is superior.. p. inst.).).Jsaflj). mid. controlling. a .). 164 . tu. not hanging onto.. sg. actionYoga.::. he undertakes. nom. ~: ij"fqf~ II asaktal. senses. Cfil:rl~: ~I'I+. Arjuna.). by the organs of action. sa viSi~yate unattached. he begins. Arjuna. by the powers of action. powers..). but... nom. asaktas (m. and.Jsi~). indriyalJi (n. sas (m.

nom. pass. sg. hi.tal. it might be accomplished. 165 .). opt. abl. action better indeed than non-action m:~q-'ifi'f sarirayatrapi ca te and body conduct even of thee . tvam (nom. action. indeed. conduct. without action. also. deeds. participle ni -!yam). not. subdued. Perfonn your duty. na. it should be attained. p. sg. prasiddhyet (3rd sg. pra -!sidh). superior.:nm ~ 'fi+T ~ niyatam kuru karma tvam enjoined perform action thou. from inaction. For action is indeed better than nonaction. imperative act.). even.). better. thou karma (n. not it could be accomplished without action. -!k1:). it should succeed. it should be accomplished. abl. acc. niyatam (m. sarira (n.). api. kuru (2nd sg. thy. of thee.:r5lf~~:11 na prasiddhyed akarmat. sg. akarmafJas (n. jyiiyas (comparative). sg. from non-action. yii trii (f.tal. sg. nom.). and. peform! do! karma (n. sg. te (gen. body. And even the mere maintenance of your body Could not be accomplished without action.III 8 f. sg. 'fi+T \TlfTlrT~: I karma jyayo hyakarmat.). act. from inaction. acc. than non-action. ca. enjoined. action. akarmafJas (n.). maintenance.). truly. sg.

aim. nom.). attachment. abl.). saiigas (m. acc.) such that it is bound by action. released. mukta (p.. perform! accomplish! yajfiiirthiit karma1}o 'nyatra from sacrifice-purpose from action aside. participle . epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother.Jcar).luiuna.). aside from. action. karmabandhanas (m. Perform action for the purpose of sacrifice. adv. m. world this action-bound ~~~'fiRi<1 tadartham karma kiiunteya (for) that purpose. from object. kiiunteya (m. freed. artham (m. Free from attachment. abl. 166 . voc. anyatra. action. elsewhere. arthat (m. otherwise.Jmuc). sg . sg. purpose. Son of Kunt!. sg. for the purpose of sacrifice. nom. sg.Jsaftj). that. TP cpd. nom. BV cpd. samiicara free from attachment. perform! Aside from action for the purpose of sacrifice. . abl. sg. (muktasaiigas. sg. sg. world. BV cpd.. imperative act. sg.). sg. nom.). sg.). nom. sg. takas (m. sacrifice. deeds. clinging. acc. object. this. m. acc. sg. this. from purpose. tad (n. (yajfliirthiit. ayam (m.) karmalJas (n. from action. sam a . ~TS<t~:1 loko 'yam karmabandhanal. from aim..) samiicara (2nd sg.). Son of KuntI.). pass. This world is bound by action. ~:~II muktasangal.In 9 l1m~mT~ yajiia (m. being free from attachment.). karma (n.

. anena (m. purii (adv. prajiis (f. inst. imperative future act. sahayajiiiis (f. having let go. may you bring forth! bring ye forth! elias (m. also applied to other figures. vas (gen. Brahma. along with sacrifices. "By this (i. Granting Desires. pl. by this.. prajiipatis (m. sg.). uviica (3rd sg. acc. pra . astu (3rd sg..z prajii/. progeny. Lord of Creatures. he said. sg. sg.Jsu). sWvii (gerund ". May this be your wishfulfilling cow. may it be! i!f(akiimadhuk (f. having created. pl.). (2nd pI.III 10 rr. previously.). perf. of you.:m. G . . TT1'T e~a vo ' stvi~takiimadhuk this of you may it be the milch cow of desires.Jas). ". pl. anciently.). imperative act. in olden ~~~~:I times. together with sacri- fices.z mtvii together with sacrifices mankind having created. nom.e.).).. sacrifice). he puroviica prajiipati/.).z anciently said Prajapati (the Lord of Creatures) mm<.).Jvac). your. having sent forth. this. may you bring forth. sg. Prajapati. nom. (the Lord of Creatures) anciently said. prasavi~adhvam anena prasavi~yadhvam "by this may ye bring forth. . name of the Cow of Plenty." 167 ..IsO). qT sf«<l'SCCflI ti~ '" . acc. nom.f&f'C~ spoke. act.rr: ~: ~ ""-'~" sahayajfiii/. Having created mankind along with sacrifice. mankind.

welfare. pr. sg. anena (m. particple ." 168 . pI. "may you cherish. . This is by no means the only place in religiQus literature where a mutual creation is hinted at . sg. ava . pl." The metaphysical inference is interesting. deviin bhiivayatiinena "the gods may you cherish by this a-~~q:1 te devii bhiivayantu val. bliss.jbhu.jbhu). pl.).e. in short. cherishing. . the gods. the gods." "prosper ye" or "may you nourish. may they foster. and in return the gods cause man to be.).f~~11 sreyal. "be. acc. te (m. pl." "exist.III 11 ~ +l1<tllC1I~'1 deviin (m. param (n." Thus its literal meaning is "may you cause (the gods) to be.). may they increase the well-being of." sreyas (n. acc. one another. "causing to be. sacrifice). lit. sg. highest. you shall attain the highest welfare. bhiivayantas (m.jbhU).jbhU) . inst.!(by) each other cherishing ~:'Rl\'J." • bhiivayate. bhiivayantu (3rd pI. deviis (m. causative imperative act. bhiivayata (2nd pI. may they produce.!. "may they cause to be.!they the gods may they cherish you.). causative opt. "may you cause to be. may you cherish. they.jiip) . pl. sacrifice) may you nourish the gods and may the gods nourish yoU. nom. Man causes the gods to be. God himself. act. The idea also reminds one of William James' statement in "Essays on Faith and Morals": " I confess that I do not see why the very existence of an invisible world may not depend in part on the personal response which anyone of us may make to the religious appeal." is actually a causative form of the root.param aViipsyatha welfare the highest will you attain "By this (i. aviipsyatha (2nd pI. happiness. fostering. nom. ~~: parasparam bhiivayantal.).). yeo parasparam. may you foster.e. you shall attain." may you produce.). lit. each other. may they cherish. nom. you. you shall achieve. supreme. by nourishing each other." vas (acc. by this (i. lit. future mid. may you increase the well-being of." sometimes translated "may you foster.man creating god and god creating man. . may draw vital strength and increase of very being from our fidelity. you shall reach. acc.

cr~: II yo bhufikte stena eva sal. acc. tiiir dattiin apradiiyiiibhyo by these gifts not offering to them lfT~mr. to you. sg. nom. nom. bhuiikte (3rd sg. dattdn (m. pI. devas (m. participle . yajiiabhiivitas (yajiia + m.J00). nom.).Jdd). inst.).). pI. the gods. p. desired. eva. dasyante (3rd pI. pl. who he enjoys. apradiiya (gerund a pra . pl. indic. ebhyas (m.Ji~). he. wished for. tdis (m. sg. sacrifice-produced. nourished by the sacrifice. stenas (m. sacrifice-produced. pass. to them. pl. he. bhogan (m.Jbhuj). hi. . enjoyments." iluan (m. they will give.) brought into being by sacrifice.).). . yas (m. p. participle . not offering. gifts. asked for. only (often used as a rhythmic filler). indeed. sought for.-<iT . vas (dat.). sas (m. future mid . mid . pleasures. this. he enjoys.). they will give.. Is a thief. sg. . dat. nom. pass. indeed.In 12 ~"+JT<rq f~ <rT ~ i~tiin bhogiin hi vo devii "desired enjoyments indeed to you the gods ~ lr~plTf<ffiT : I diisyante yajiiabhiivitiil. ~~~~. thief. truly. pl. he eats." "The gods.).). nom. he possesses. not giving. who. pl. by these. pr. Will indeed give you desired enjoyments. a thief. pl. acc. He who enjoys these gifts while not offering to them in return. 169 .Jbhu) . acc. (as TP cpd.

nom. existing. act. sarvakilbi~ais (n. indic. atma (n. those who eat the remainder of the sacrifice. they cook. The good. passive . who eat the remainder of the sacrifice. sg.Jas). pl. nom.). abl. indic. acc. pI.Jpac). the wicked. Eat their own impurity.). they are released.III 13 <rnf~~:~T yajfiaSi~taSina!z santo the sacrifice remainder eating. own. from cause. ye (m..). kara1Jiit (n. But the wicked. from wrongs. evils the wicked ~q~'\lll. mucyante (3rd pI. from . m. mid . pl. nom. . good. pacanti (3rd pI. who. they are liberated. agham (n. pr. (n. for the sake of. pl. pl. (yajiiasi~lasinas. impurity. self. te (m.. bhuiijate (3rd pI.). the "sacrifice remainder" which is eaten by the faithful after the gods and priests have consumed their share. .Jbhuj). nom. true.Jmuc). '<!~ ~ ~ qrtIT bhufijate te tvagham papa they eat they indeed. by sins.). TP cpd. pro indic. inst. KD cpd. n. enjoying. but. nom.) santas (m. sg. pain. the good. (atmakiiraf]at. from evils. eating.). sg. they digest.+l<flI(OII~t II ye pacantyatmakarmJat who they cook for own sake. pr. from all evils. pI.). suffering. papas (m. abl. who cook only for their own sake. ~~Cfik~:1 '" mucyante sarvakilbi~ai!z they are released from all evils. TP cpd. for their own sake. they enjoy.) yajiiasi~la 170 . the evil ones. they eat. indeed. Minas (m. nom. pl. Are released from all evils. tu. they. from reason.).).

they are. worship.) yajfu'it (m. nom. abl. bhavati (3rd sg.). trn': ifl4*1~%"I: II yajfial. food the origin. he. as here. sg. they exist. from sam ud Jbhu). BV cpd. karma* (n. samudbhavas (m. nom. from sacrifice.). nom. abl. (annasGlhbhavas. m. Food is brought into being by rain.). nom. origin.). sg. the rain god. At still other places it has the meaning of the sum of past actions that is carried into a future life.. nom. he.). pro indic. sacrifice.z sacrifice action origin Beings exist from food. the rain cloud. the word karma (action) is used in several senses. Jbhu). act. Jbhu).z karmasamudbhaval. nom.). sg. whose origin is in action. And sacrifice is brought into being by action. source. it. sg. ~~~+!Cf:1 parjanYiid annasambhaval.) • Throughout the Bhagavad Gitii. sGlhbhavas (m. sg. doing. abl.z from the rain god. origin. parjanyat (m. m. sg. Sometimes. act.). it refers to religious action. it. pro indic. from food. food. comes to be. 171 . parjanyas (m. they come to be.). annat (n.III 14 anniid bhavanti bhiitiini from food they exist. sg. action. bhutani (n. of which food is the source. brought into being by action. nom. Rain from sacrifice. bhavanti (3rd pI. deeds. exists. sg. sg. BV cpd. (karmasamudbhavas. Elsewhere it refers to the warlike action proper to the warrior caste to which Arjuna belongs. cause of being. living beings. yajfias (m. from the rain cloud.). anna (n. existences.. from the rain god. sg. beings. beings. the ritual action of the priest performing the sacrifice. source. ~+r<rf(f~) yajfiiid bhavati parjanyo from sacrifice exists the rain god.

Therefore the all-pervading Brahman Is eternally established in sacrifice. standing. yajiie (m. in sacrifice. brahmodbhavam (m. originating. participle prati .).Jvid). but an intermediate term. acc. sg.). acc. Brahman. sg. arising from. acc. of which imperishable Brahman is the source). sg. (brahmiik~arasamudbhavam.III 15 Cfilf 'iI"W~ fcn.Jbhu). the Vedas. acc. brahma (n. know! ~&1(lj14"1'i. eternal. established. originating in Brahman. sg. brahma (n. the Vedas. nom. eternally. pass. sg. Brahman.). omnipresent. originating. Know that ritual action originates in Brahman (the Vedas) And Brahman arises from the Imperishable.). loco sg. sg. • Edgerton has pointed out that this stanza does not constitute the logical syllogism that it seems on first reading to be. indestructible.. all-pervading.). nom. Here meaning the Vedas. deeds. acc. abi. sg.a karma brahmodbhavam viddhi action Brahman origin.1 brahmiik~arasamudbhavam Brahman the imperishable arising from ~~'Rf~W tasmiit sarvagatam brahma therefore all-pervading Brahman fi'Wi lIlf 5!fm~ II nityam yajiie prat#thitam eternally in sacrifice established. know! learn! brahma (n. therefore. Brahman. sarvagatam (n.). sg.Jsthii) .).).). remaining. from ud . prati~fhitam (n. udbhavam (m. imperishable. m. samudbhavam (m.). ak~ara (adj. 172 . nityam (adv. coming to be. origin. karma (n.). "Sacrifice" is not the starting point of the series. imperative act. nom. . BV cpd. sg. p. from this. coming to be. origin. tasmiit (n. viddhi (2nd sg. action. the all-pervading spirit of the universe. TP cpd.

causative act. +1M" qr~' ~ \.). Tum the wheel thus set in motion. the rain god.ljro+rT aghiiyurindriyiiriimo malicious. aghayus (m. intending to injure malicious. he lives. arama. wheel. pr.). indriyaramas (m.). here on earth.). voc. epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother. acc. sg.III 16 ~<t 5fCffa-a' ~ evam.frod II mogham piirtha sa jivati vain. sacrifice. act. jrvati (3rd sg. mogham (adv. sg. Lives. this one. vain. partha (m. causative p. Maliciously. here on earth. . not. vainly. anuvartayati (3rd sg. pravartitam (n. he lives. set in motion. cakram (n. participle pra . anu . iha. delight).). one whose senses are delighted (indriya. sg. useless. full of sense delights. etc. nom. here in the world. food.).?. na. sg.. beings. nom.). Arjuna. 173 .Jvrt). the rain god. nom. (as BV cpd. Son of Prtha. he. sense-delighted.Jvrt). he causes to turn. Son of Prthii. who. Prthii or KuntL sas (m. thus. ~f<:f. The circular sequence: sacrifice. uselessly. pass. etc. indic. sg. who. yas (m. so. and in vain. nom. He who does. sg. acc. sense-delighted.Jjfv). fruitlessly. evam pravartitam cakram thus set in motion the wheel 'i I'1(Hlljd~ <r: I nii~uvartayatiha yal} not he causes to turn (the wheel) here in the world. senses. sg.).e. • I. turning.

to-bedone. n. vidyate (3rd sg. karyam (n. content. who is content in the self. gen. t~ptas (m. it is found.) ca. indeed. what. sg. sg. f. not. satisfied. BY cpd. nom. p.). participle . pleasure. a man.. passive . . nom.). self. ratis (f. task. only (often used as a rhythmic filler). whose delight is in the self. eva. sg. nom. indeed. indic. the man ~<f"f~ iitmanyeva ca samtu~tas and in the self content ~miffmll tasya kiiryam na vidyate of him the to-he-done. gratified. and. content.Jk/:). which. sg. sg. sg. nom. nom. self. atmani (m.) eva. who. sg. man. duty. He whose delight is only in the Self. na. For him the need to act does not exist. indeed. tu. Whose satisfaction is in the Self. nom. act .z and satisfied in the self.). BY cpd.).). sg.Jt~p). only (often used as a rhythmic filler).. atma (m. and. yastviitmaratireva syiid who only gratified in the self he should he ~~ lfT'iCf: I iitmatrptasca manava/. pleased. (atmat~ptas.). tasya (m. nom. he may be. miinavas (m. pleased.). to be accomplished. pr.sn:frn ~ yas (m. of him.). syat (3rd sg. And who is content only in the Self. in the self. 174 .J2 vid). he should be.Jas). loco sg. gerundive . opt. pleased. not it is found.III 17 1I «'''I I. (atmaratis. ca. samtu~fas (m. the primal ancestor. sg. atma (m. nom. a descendant of Manu. pass. satisfied.

acquisition. acquisition. TP cpd. any whatever. of it. with deeds. iha. na. of him.). anyone whoever. gen. nom. in this case. kascana. asya (m. nom. tasya (m. sg. arthas (m. vyapiiSrayas (m. sarvabhutqu (m. loco pl. Or in non-action. sg. And he has no need of any being For any purpose whatsoever. sg. any whatever purpose need He has no purpose at all in action. kascid. sg. sg. purpose. depending on. pass. participle -ikr) . of this. aim.) need of purpose. need. eva. naiva tasya krtenartho not indeed of him with action a purpose <fT'fI~ ~<f I nakrteneha kaicana nor with non-action whatever. clinging to. na. of him. needing. not. with inaction. p. nom. with non-action. krtena (n. akrtena (inst. in all beings. in all existences. artha-vyapasrayas (m. not. aim. pass. 175 . by in-action. gen. p. purpose.). sg.).). here. with action.III 18 ~~"i~~1 na.). inst. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). 10 this case any <f"'fWi~ na casya sarvabhutefU and not of him in all beings Cfif~~~~: II kascid arthavyapasrayal. anything whatever. from vi apa a -Isri). ca. not. artha (m. participle a -ikl:). sg. and.

tasmiid asaktal} satatam therefore unattached constantly 'fiT<f~~1 kiiryam karma samiicara to be done action perform! mreir ~1:q. apnoti (3rd sg. not clinging. sg. sg. constantly. Man attains the Supreme. to be accomplished.). sg.Jsafzj). Perfonn that action which is your duty. unattached. nom. not clinging. he obtains.Jsafzj). imperative act. always. the highest. • The" therefore" is not a consequence of the preceding stanzas. q-q ~rfCf~: II param iipnoti puru~al} the Supreme he attains. sg. spirit. in order to attain the state described in III 17 and 18.). param (m. deeds. performing. acting. man.III 19 ~mrei:mRt tasmat (m. indeed. a . from this. perform! practice! conduct! act! asaktas (m. by performing action while unattached. sam a . truly. practicing. Therefore. samiicara (2nd sg. task.Jear). therefore. nom. he reaches. sg. to be done. man. nom. gerundive . action. aearan (m.Jap) . acc. asaktas (m. Indeed. perpetually. he attains. kiiryam (n. karma (n. act. indic.Jkl:). actions. pr. p. sg. sg. . satatam (adv. p. deeds. hi.(~<fl4 asakto hyiicarankarma unattached indeed performing action.).Jear). sg. acc. pass. pro participle act. karma (n. This stanza is the advice to Arjuna to perform action while unattached. nom. constantly unattached. unattached. which describe the person who has attained complete concentration on the atman. duty. the supreme. abl.). 176 .). participle a .). acc. puru~as (m. participle a . pass. sg. acc.

/kl:).. with his priest and adviser.III 20 'lilluiCf f~ karmatpiiva hi samsiddhim by action only indeed perfection mf~~"1'1if)I~ll: I mm. He was the father of Sita. TPcpd. also. to do.. truly. kartum (infinitive . • Janaka. indeed. thou art able.. arhasi (2nd sg. maintenance of the world. those (kings) whose first was Janaka. seeing. fulfillment. He is thought to have influenced the Buddha.pas). maintenance. karmalJii (n. world. though a member of the warrior caste. BV cpd. nom./arh).. participle act. or royal seer.!. acc.). indie. pass. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).) "they whose first was. claiming that he himself. sampaSyan (m. holding together. sg. indeed. commencing with. nom. Eventually he became a brahman and a riijar$i. ~~f~11 . sg. obtained. 177 .). The reference is to J anaka. observing. participle ii .).. attained. laka-samgraham (m.. opposed the brahman priesthood." (janakiidayas.) laka (m. api. ~~'~q­ lokasamgrahamevapi the world holding together even. pl. the heroine of the Ramayat)a. p. samgraham (m. even. sg. as a k~atriya (warrior or doer) attaining perfection through deeds rather than austerities. Perfection was attained by kings like Tanaka With action alone. beholding. to act thou shouldst.). pI. to act. by action. thou art obliged. For the mere maintenance of the world. * name of an ancient philosopherking. pr. samsiddhim (f. m. inst." the Sanskrit equivalent of "and so forth. nom. Yajfiavalkya.). . nom. eva. by deeds. pI. janaka. sg. could perform sacrifices without brahman help. acc. You should act. (as BV cpd. sam :'. acc." "and others. a famous philosopher king who. success./sthii). eva. thou shouldst. act." "etcetera. iidayas (m.« sampasyan kartum arhasi beholding.a-r iisthitii janakiidayalJ attained lanaka* commencing with. pI. beginning with. only (often used as a rhythmic filler).). sg. perfection. iisthitii (m. '"'. who was also a member of the k~atriya caste. hi.

JkI:). takas (m. janas (m.).Jma). aggregate of people. he behaves. Whatever the greatest man does. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). the rest. this and that. a . itaras (m. sg.Jcar). he sets.). anu . mid . anuvartate (3rd sg. acc. sg. this. pr. he makes. this. sg. he practices. the other. what. whatever.). most excellent. tad (n. frompra . another. sg.). indic. world. sg. tattad (tad tad).). nom. nom. The world follows that.JV1:t). that. measure. srqrhas (m. best. sas (m. super!. sg. he does. standard. Thus do the rest. he.). which. man. it follows. kurute (3rd sg. .). the. yad yad. sg. acc. pro indic.~T~:I tattad evetaro janal. ~ <rq: 'Sfll11Jt ~~ sa yat pramii~am kurute he what standard sets lokastadanuvartate the world that it follows. mid. pro indic. most splendid. 178 . Whatever standard he sets. scale. nom. act. nom. eva. this and that. acc.III 21 ~~a-~ yadyad iicarati ire~thas whatever he does the best ~Q. nom. man. yad (n. acarati (3rd sg. thus the rest. prama]Jam (n. sg.

na. tri~u (m.q:q~ur II varta eva ca karma1}i I engage nevertheless in action. sg. I work. loco sg. there is to-bedone f~~~f~1 tri~ loke~ kimcana in the three worlds anything whatever . gerundive JkI:). p. not reached. pl. sg.dhi for varte. nom. not attained. to be accomplished. acc. eva ca. epithet of Arjuna. indic. pr. lokqu (m. <mU. Son of Prtha. indic. it is. to be attained. karmalJi (n. anything whatever. partha (m. to be done. sg. 1st sg. of me. 179 .). in the three. I engage. avaptavyam(m. unattained. my. anavaptam (m. na. notwithstanding. I move. pr. acc. J as). in deeds. kimcana. sg. anyone whoever. there is. not. JV1:t). 0 Arjuna.n. me (gen. mid.).). participle an ava Jap) . Nevertheless I engage in action.III 22 <f it qpffi~ ~ na me piirthiisti kartavyam not of me. nor. varta (san. voc. gerundiveavaJap).). not. there is nothing whatever To be done in the three worlds. kartavyam (n. pass. in action. For Me. loc. in the worlds. loco pl. to be reached. Nor is there anything not attained to be attained. asti (3rd sg. Son of Prtha.:rqrg+r<rrgo<f niinaviiptamaviiptavyam nor not attained to be attained. sg.). nevertheless.

they follow. universally. vOC. unwearie~ should not engage In action at all. hi. at all. my. not.III 23 m<:: ~~ . epithet of Arjuna.). vartma (n. turning. sg. jdtu.). piirtha sarvasal. aham (nom. anu . loco sg. Mankind would follow My path everywhere. men. varteyam (1st sg. pl. mama (gen.). manuryas (m. 0 Arjuna. Indeed. +nr~~ mama vartmiinuvartante of me the path they follow +r'l~: '1T~ manu~yiil. everywhere. wholly. everywhere. partha (m. way. mankind. path. mid. free from lassitude. indic. opt.JVI:t).Jv. indeed. mankind. completely.).). altogether. na. unwearied.:t). sg. sg. nom. act . nom. atandritas (m.). karmalJi (n. unwearied. in action. sg. Son of Prthii. I should be occupied with. pr. ever. anuvartante (3rd pI. at all in action. 1. Son of Prthii.). in deeds. . I should jiitu karmm. acc. if I. sg. sarvasas (adv. cffi<t yadi hyaham na varteyam if indeed I not should engage ~~Ire":1 yadi. truly. '" m: II engage..zyatandrital. if. 180 . of me.).

). samkarasya ca karta syam and of confusion maker I should be.). and. maker. karta (m.). these.Jsad). I should be. IfI did not perfonn action. people. I should do. of confusion.:. imas (f. these. salnkarasya (m. 181 . lokas (m.. na. performer. not. upahanyiim (1st sg. ud . they would sink down. pl. gen.III 24 ~rq~~~ utsideyur ime loka they would perish. syiim (1st sg. progeny. ~~:q'Rl'l~ utsideyus (3rd pI. These worlds would perish And I would be the cause of confusion. aham (nom. sg. prajas (f. these worlds. ~:>t. . nom. ime (m. act. offspring. kuryam (1st sg. if. act. . I. acc.). opt. '3%~41lJ.Jhan). acc. . descendants.Jas). nom. beings. pl. sg. sg.). doer. nom pl. action.). karma (n.rr: /I upahanyam imal} prajal} I should destroy these creatures." or scattering to-gether. deeds. ca. opt. worlds. acc.Jkl:). sg. opt. I should smite. I should destroy. opt. act. ced. "of together-pouring.).~'filT~1 na kuryam karma cedaham not I should perform action. I would destroy these creatures. pl. creatures. creator.). they should perish. upa . if I. I should perform.

pass. desiring to do. he should perform. clinging. the unwise ones. p. 182 . the unwise ~¥f~~1 yathii kurvanti bhiirata as they act. Intending to maintain the welfare of the world. attached. he should do. . they do.). nom.III 25 ~:~<mm saktii/:z karma?Zyavidviimso saktas (m. act. desiderative ~k~).) attached in action. (loka-smngraham. m. yatha. pI. So the wise should act without attachment.Jsaflj). world. in which way. sg. vidvan (m. bharata (m. ~f~i1~ kuryiid vidviins tathiisaktas he should act. participle .Jvid). the wise one. pass. While those who are unwise act From attachment to action. not clinging. in this way. acc. thus. perf.Jk~). kuryat (3rd sg.). pI. participle a .Jvid). TP cpd. Bharata was the patriarch of the dominant tribes about whom the Mahiibhiirata was sung. holding together. kurvanti (3rd pI. they act. nom. ciklr~us (3rd sg. pr. nom. in action. sg. sg.Jkr). maintenance of the world. nom. and later written. karmalJi (n. unattached. desiring to make. as. avidvamas (m. smngraham (m. Descendant of Bharata. maintenance. acc. [oka (m. loco pl. sg.. indic. asaktas (m. and others. intending to do. tatha. the unwise. in deeds. p. he should act. f:q<fi~~~~ II cikirfur lokasamgraham intending to do the holding together of the world. act. the wise. participle . Descendant of Bharata (Arjuna).Jsaflj). sg. opt.). . unattached. the wise. particple a . so.). epithet of AIjuna. act. so. 0 Arjuna. voc.

participle . disciplined. stead-fast in Yoga. fragmentation of the mind.:. While himself performing actions in a disciplined manner. practicing. yoked. bursting. act. pass. 00. sarvakarmaIJi (n. yuktas (m. vidvan (m. rupture. II . joined. performing. causative act.[~~ '" . pl. pr.). TP cpd.. na buddhibhedarh janayed not intelligence-fragmentation one should produce buddhi (f. acc. . nom. sg.). sg. he should cause to arise.). p. f<!'irA" <rei: ~ ¥it:q (~. he should cause to delight. acc.r~~TfiJrl jo~ayet sarvakarmii1}i one should cause (them) to enjoy all actions. ~<fi4m~ ajiianarh karmasanginarh of the ignorant. 183 . the wise. opt. sg. he should cause to enjoy. tearing. participle act. bhedam (m. acc. nom. the wise one. samacaran (m. all actions.) janayet (3rd sg. ajiianam (m./car). observing. jO:fayet (3rd sg. of the actionattached. fragmentation.. one should produce. among the ignorant ones. (buddhibhedam. gen. gen. he should give birth to. rending. karmasaflginam (m. (as TP cpd. sam a . sg. m. "/jan). '" vidvan yuktab samacaran the wise. pl. pl. nom.). sg. from "/bhid). not. intelligence. of the action attached.) of those who cling to action. opt. caus./yuj). breaking. disciplined performing. The wise one should cause them to enjoy all actions. One should not unsettle the minds of The ignorant who are attached to action. "/jU:f). splitting. of the ignorant..).III 26 'forf.

gUIJais (m.).hiitmii the egotism-confused self ~+J:~f~~11 kartiiham iti manyate "doer I" thus he thinks. mid. nom. vimiil!ha (m. of nature. kriyamii1}fini of material nature performed Ti: 'filhfur m: I gUlJiiil. iti. he believes. BV cpd. everywhere. lit. nom. sg.. in all cases. he thinks.). participle Jkl:). prakl:tes (f. entirely. mid. gen. performed. thus (used to close quotations)." egotism. by the gUl)aS.III 27 ~: f"fi?:fll111lTf<r prakrtel. p. "I making. (ahmnkiiravimulfhiitma. being performed.). ahafhkiira (m. self. "I am the doer. Actions in all cases are perfonned By the qualities of material nature./man). pass. of material nature. pr. deluded. sg. pl. nom. He whose mind is confused by egoism Imagines. aham (nom.).las. he imagines.) karta (m. pI. nom. 1. actions in all cases ~q1<tI. inst. '. adv.ama1Jiini (n." 184 . sarvasas. sg. doer. altogether. kriy. m. by the gUI.. pl.ill ahamkiiravimuq. creator. participle vi 'Jmuh) . confused. karmiilJi sarvasal. he whose self is confused by egotism. manyate (3rd sg. sg.). actions. nom. sg. karmiiIJi (n. atma (m.).)..

as. ''1he qualities work among the qualities. vartantaJsamdhi for vartante. 3rd pI. loco pl. ~<nn<T(ft: I tattvavid (m. sajjate (3rd sg." tu.a. thus. of the two roles of gUl). pr. they work.). TP cpd. 185 . action .). they act. but. gU1Jakarmavibhiigayo/.. in the two spheres. matvii (gerund . thinking. .as. 0 Mighty Armed. the gUl).). but. gen. in the gUl). pl. indic. About the two roles of the qualities and action. indic. m. vibhiigayos (m. sg. (guTJGkarmavibhiigayos. having iti matvii na sajjate thus having thought. thinking. Mighty Armed One. nom." ~Q 'I1\<lT"f ~ II gUlJe~u (m. truth-knowing.as. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors.a and action.). voc. dual). mahiibiiho (m. pr. loc. karma (n. gen. v~t). in the two roles.). nom.Jman). he is attached. But he who knows the truth.Jsaflj).) gUlJiis (m. o Long Armed. gU1Jii gU1Je~u vartanta "the gUlfas in the gUlfas they are working. na. gUl).z gUlfa and action of the two roles .III 28 ~qq:<1~ tattvavit tu mahiibiiho The truth-knowing. gUl). mid . gUlJa (m.). sg. 0 Arjuna.." Is not attached. not he is attached. in the two shares. thought. iti. "that- ness knowing. not.

acc. loco pl.jcal). the complete knower. gUfJa (m. gUl. indic. G . vi. 186 . dullards. he should cause to waver. not knowing the whole. acc.). nom. not knowing the entirety.. of material nature. sg. opt.).a-deluded ~~I sajjante gU1}akarmasu they are attached in gUI). those who are deluded. fools.. pr.). pl.. incomplete knowing. mandan (m. pl. gen. :)safij). The perfect knower should not disturb The foolish men of incomplete knowledge..las. (guna-sammiiqhas.). na. viealayet (3rd sg. they are attached. causative act. pl. pI. in gUl.III 29 ~iJ'1lT~: eo . the gUI). of nature.). '¢ C'\ prakrter gU1}aSammUtjhti/.a actions ffi'f :q'RRf<fiiT ~ . h:tsnavin na viciilayet the complete knower not he should disturb. acc. tan (m. not. sg.) sajjante (3rd pI. m. nom. mid. tan akrtsnavido mandan them incomplete-knowing. foolish. Those deluded by the qualities of material nature Are attached to the actions of the qualities. nom. sa/nmiiqhas (m.la.). TP cpd.). krtsnavid (m. ak~tsnavidas (m. pl. foolish.). those who are deluded by the gUl.la actions. gUfJakarmasu (n. the knower of the whole.l of material nature. the deluded. them. prakl:tes (f.

in me. " adhyiitmacetasii (n. allowing God to initiate all actions. vigata-jvaras (m. not wishing for. yudhyasva (2nd imperative mid. one whose fever is departed. being. 187 . Deferring all actions in Me. nom. not niriisir nirmamo bhiitvii free from desire. acc.JbhU) .). free from asking.). ~ fq. niriiSfs (m. bhUtvii (gerund . sg. sg. entrusting. actions deeds. fight! engage in battle! vigata (p. sarviilJi (n.Jgam) . pl. With your fever departed. I<:"1 \Tq (: II yudhyasva vigatajvara1. sg. sanmyasya (gerund sam ni Jas). renouncing. asking for. sg. having become. disappeared. relinquish- mayi sarviirJi karmiirJi on Me all actions ~I ing. sg. BY cpd. sg.).). fever. grief.). indifferent to "mine.). samnyasyiidhyiitmacetasii relinquishing. becoming. fight! . meditating on the Supreme Spirit f'fmT~ f"flhit +Tffi . indifferent to "mine" having become. gone away. nom. karmiilJi (n. by meditating on the Supreme Spirit (adhyiitma) . departed. Having become free from desire and selfishness.t fight! gone away fever. all. Meditating on the supreme Spirit. having been.e. by thinking on the Supreme Self. • I. pass. to me. jvaras (m.). on me.III 30 l1f~ ~ur Cfilhfur mayi (loc. nirmamas (m. acc. pl. . nom.).Jyudh). nom. participle vi . inst. free from desire." free from desire for possessions.

). of me. thought. Are also released from the bondage of actions.). not sneering. even.). not caviling.Jasiiya). (m. pass. sg. believing. nom. men. inst.). pl. they practice. they follow. not sneering. anuti~!hanti (3rd pI. also.). . nityam (adv. pr. not grumbling. by actions.Jsthii) . perpetually. they are released. mucyante (3rd pI.III 31 ~ lr ltalT ~ f~ . nom. ~ ~ sf'1 Cfi1ff''f: II '" mucyante te 'pi karmabhilJ they are released. api. me (gen. which. men. sraddhiivantas (m. anasiiyantas (m. te. 188 . pl.). pI. participle an . from actions.). acc. nom. sg. not envious. pr. not spiteful. they are liberated. Men who constantly practice This teaching of Mine. mankind. Believing. not sneering. they also by actions. not speaking ill of.). nom. pr. not showing jealousy. ye me matam idam nityam who of me doctrine this constantly ~~~ +!l"'fCIT: I anuti~thanti miinaviilJ they practice. ~s~ sr addhiivanto 'nasuyanto believing. Jmuc). matam (n. act. karmabhis (n. this. who. indic. they carry out. acc. nom. eternally. pl. idam (n. pl. my.). full of faith. progenitor of the human race. anu . ye (m. constantly. descendants of Manu. pl. miinaviis (m. doctrine. they. sg.

n. caviling. sarva. anu . showing ill will. them fqf. But those who. lost. pass. abhyasuyantas (m. but. participle abhi :. niinuti~thanti me matam not they practice of me the doctrine. of me. acc. pl. pr.). acc. knowledge. (sarva-jfiana-vimu4hiin. sg. anuti~!hanti (3rd pl. . doctrine.Jna§). nom.Jmuh).f~~lT ~ I '" ' ~~<1T'f '" . . pass. pI. acc.). participle vi . sg. . them whose minds are not. acc. they carry out.III 32 <t~~~ ye tvetad abhyasiiyanto who. but.).. me (gen. acc.Jvid). deluding. pr. pl. not. ye (m. confusing.). act. Do not practice My teaching. jfiana (n. (n.). indic. this. TP cpd. p. na. wisdom. acc. sarvajfiiinavimiir/hiiizs tiin all wisdom confusing. sneering. imperative act. the stupid ones. vimu4hiin (m.). my. thought.g: ~~~: II viddhi na~tiin acetasaJ. confusing all knowledge. pI. acetasas (m. pl. Confusing all wisdom. know to be lost and mindless. nom. tu.. matam (n.Jsthii) . all. this sneering at. 189 . destroyed.) tan (m. sg. Know them to be lost and mindless. who.). viddhi (2nd sg. them.asuya) . pI. them who are mindless. m. pI. they practice. acc. p. know! learn! na~!an (m. participle . etad. they follow. sneering at this.

act. kim kari~yati restraint what it will accomplish? sadr:sam (adv. one struggles. Even the wise man does so. it will do.). what? kari~ati (3rd sg.). even.Jce~O. beings. . wise man. material nature. svasyas (f. from own. one moves. it will accomplish. kim (interrog. subduing. full of wisdom. wise. they follow.). Beings follow their own material nature.III 33 ~~~: sadrsam ceFtate svasyiil} according to one acts from own ~~mq-I prakrter jfiiinaviin api material nature. nom. existences. also. f~: f~ Cfif~a. they go.Jkr:) . gen.). sg. . sg. she. according to. mid . gen.II nigrahal. pl. through own. nigrahas (m.Jya). pr. he. beings. one acts. What will restraint accomplish? 190 . sg. One acts according to one's own material nature. cqtate (3rd sg. it will make. prakr:tes (f. the wise man even. yanti (3rd pI. bhUtani (n. . indic. jfianavan (m. one strives. nom. control. from material nature. api.). nom. sg. pr. sg. prakrtim yiinti bhittiini material nature they follow. future act . restraint. prakl:tim (f.). indic. acc.).).

of one. aversion.) vyavasthitau (m. one should come. asya (m. sg. paripanthinau (m. object. agacchet (3rd sg. two antagonists. two enemies. nom. 191 . of a power.. sg. Passion and hatred are seated In the senses in relation to their objects. of it. (indriyasyendriyasyarthe. (raiadve~au. dual). opt.). m. a .).). two antagonists. <roll' ~ 1.). dvesa (m. purpose. of a sense in relation to an object of that sense. gen. tayor na vasam agacchet of these two not the power one should come under. of a power. d"1~l:ff~~111 tau hyasya paripanthinau they two indeed. hi. dual p. tayas (m.) raga (m. They are indeed one's enemies. dual DV cpd..). of these two. sg. acc. participle vi ava .1 .)... of a sense. not. passion. indeed. gen.III 34 ~~~ indriyasyendriyasyarthe in of a sense of a sense-object ~1 0<fCff~11 indriyasya (n. of one. control. will. tau (m. one should come near. gen. truly. two adversaries.. desire. ragadveFau vyavasthitau passion and hatred seated. dual). One should not come under the power of these two. dual).. indriyasya (n.JstM). power. sg. one should fall into. . nom. passion and hatred. seated. . pass.Jgam). act. m. authority. two things that stand in the way. of him. nom.03(1. gen. abiding in.). nom. loco sg. hatred. artha (m. CflrR . two hindrances. one should come under. them two. na. vasam (m. they two. of a sense.

bhaya (n.). sg. svadharme nidhanarh sreyal. nom. danger inviting. superior. compar. fear. death. sv. good. ~!:1lff~~: ~~~I '''' . preferable. sg. than done. TP cpd. abl. better. superior. (bhaya-iivahalJ.). deficient. pass. in own duty death better. sreyas (n. anu~!hitiit (abl. nom. comparative). sg. ~1~:11 paradharmo bhayavahal. participle anu . well performed. unsuccessful. preferable.loc.).). bringing.. sg. p. ineffective. nom.). end.) paradharmal svanu~thilal than duty of another (caste). than performed. danger. own duty (here meaning duty of one's own caste). sg. opposite duty. in own caste duty.). nidhanam (n. svadharme(m. sg. imperfect. settling down. duty of another. than practiced. paradharmas (m. sg. sg. in own duty. sg. inviting. svadharmas (m. '" sreyan svadharmo viguIJal. nom.). Better is death in one's own duty. than duty of another (here meaning of another caste). duty of another (caste). iivahas (from ii ". better own duty deficient sreyiin (m. better. nom.Jsthii).Jvah). bringing fear.III 35 ~ ~1 fCJ1T1lT: . nom. vigufJas (m. paradharmiit (m. su well. The duty of another invites danger. Better one's own duty though deficient 1han the duty of another well perfonned.). 192 . from duty of another. nom. m.

). misfortune. 0 Krishna. by what impelled this q-rq' :.li.:r ~T s<t atha kena prayukto 'yam then. sg. participle pra ".). nom. also. like. Unwillingly even. sg. from strength. As if urged by force? atha. act. not desiring. attached to. . not wishing. he acts. evil he commits a man m~q~ anicchannapi Varf1Jeya unwillingly even.jcar).). by what Does a man commit this evil. spirit. pass. from force. nom.III " arjuna uvaca Arjuna spoke: m~1 arjunas (m. as if. nom. iva. participle causative ni . he commits. harm. abl. nom. ayam (m. unwilling.). niyojitas (m. caused. Clansman of Vr~lfi ~ ~ f<r<il'f.). p. even. piiru~as (m. sg. uvaca (3rd sg. enjoined.~: I papam carati purufal. papam (n. 36 'q"q if. in this case. he said.m : II baliid iva niyojital.. sg. pro indic. sg. perf. 193 . then. nom. anicchan (m. urged. "Jvac). not the avatar of Vishnu which entered Krishna's body). sg. ordered.. commanded. pr. act. he moves. pass. var~1Jeya (m.ji~). p.nfa.jyuj). impelled. from force. sg.yuj) . urged Arjuna spoke: Then impelled. as if. epithet of Krishna. refers to the race of the Yadavas or Miidhavas. sg. evil. interrog. nom. sg. acc. api. voc. Vrsni was the name of a Yiidava dynasty to' 'which Krishna traced his lineage (this refers to the earthly Krishna. balat (n. by what? prayuktas (m. this.). man. he spoke. kena (inst. sg.). Arjuna. set in motion. participle an . carati (3rd sg. Clansman of Vr~l.

a the source ~ij€flqICl'j1 mahasano mahapapma mighty eating.). sg. gUfJa (m. 37 <fil11 Q. crime. this. samudbhavas (m. nom. desire. great. sg. sg. in this case. kamas (m.la or rajas. greatly injurious f~~~cff~11 viddhyenam iha vairir. uvaca (3rd sg. (mahtisanas. born of the guna of rajas.Jas). papma (m. anger. TP cpd. nom. act. nom. nom.Jvac). (rajo-gulJa-samudbhavas. nom. this force is anger. injurious. the gUl. hostile. gUl. acc. asana (n. pr. acc. m. great.). nom. sg. the Blessed One. of desire and power. cause. greed.III l!1~~1 Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavdn (m. nom.Jvid).am know this.. the enemy. perf. nom. he said. sg. nom. evil. nom. sg. participle . origin. acc. m.) mahti. eating.). iha. e~as (m. wrath. sin. sg. sg. BY cpd. he spoke. know! learn! enam (m. The Blessed Lord spoke: This force is desire.) viddhi (2nd sg. 194 . e~as (m.). Its source is the rajas guna.). sg.Jbhu).). mighty. fury. sg. sg. Voracious and greatly injurious. enemy. misfortune. m. krodhas (m. in this case. here. from sam ud .asamudbhaval} ('Jil'IOI*lij~: I rajas gUI). sg."ll ~ ~ kama e~a krodha e~a desire this anger this '" " rajogUl.la. (mahapapmas. nom. this (refers to the "force" of stanza 36). Know this to be the enemy. rajas (n. this.). hurtful. . in this matter. voracious. love.. sg.). imperative act.). vairifJam (m.) mahti.). source. it of which the evil is great. foe. the Blessed Lord. mighty. consuming. .

in which way. sg. covered. inst. by smoke. sg. pass. 195 . enveloped. sg. who bears oblations to the gods).).III 38 ~mqf~ dhiimeniivriyate vahnir dhiimena (m. (f~ ~mcra+r II .). pr. that. sg. from a '. charioteers. inst. by dust. enveloped. nom. sg. embryo. similarly as. mirror. pass. womb. As the embryo is enveloped by the membrane. tena (n. ulbena (n. tathii tenedam iivrtam thus by this that covered. by envelope. participle a :jv~).). so. sg. av~tas (m. yatha. yatha. garbhas (m.Jd~s). inst. malena (n. the bearer (Agni. participle a :jv~). sg. a . sg. thus. G .). avriyate (3rd sg. by this. tatha. in which way. yatholbeniivrto garbhas as membrane-covered.JVI:).). p. similarly as. nom. the embryo. sg. av~tam (n. inst. and.). he is enveloped. by membrane. god of fire). foetus. indic. ca. adarsas (m. here to Agni. nom. nom. As fire is obscured by smoke. nom. by smoke he is covered. lf~~1~:q1 yathii ' darso malena ca and as similarly a mirror by dust. lf~·fl<:"4 '11 <l ti'r G m . idam (n. the god of fire. with smoke. this. vahnis (m.). So the intellect is obscured by passion. p. pass. And a mirror by dust. bearer (applied to draught animals. he is covered. with dust. covered. nom. sg.

vairilJa (m. jfianam (n.III 39 m¥~~ iivrtam jiiiinam etena covered knowledge by this mf.). Son of Kunt!.). etena (m. knowledge. pass. inst. du~purelJa o Arjuna. desire. sg. the knowing. by insatiable. nom. by the adversary. sg.. p. inst. ca. with that. enveloped. Which is as insatiable fire. covered. by fire. the wise ones. analena (m. with the ~~""W<:f kiimariipe1Ja kiiunteya by the form of desire. participle a :JV/:).).). sg. sg. with fire. m. Having the fonn of desire. inst. by this. sg. imperishable. epithet ca and by hard-to-fill fire. by the form. nom.). by hard to fill. eternal. nitya (adj. Son of Kun(i. (m. of Arjuna referring to his mother. sg. sg. rupelJa (n. pl.) kdunteya (m. ~{ijli'1M'1 'if II du~piire1Jiinalena shape. inst. (kama-rupe!JG. wisdom.:rr f~<:'lTT I jiiiinino nityaviiiri1Jii of the knowers by the eternal enemy aV/:tam (n. inst. jfianinas (m.).). sg. sg. by the enemy. the knowledge even of the wise ones is obscured By this eternal enemy.). kama (m. with the form of desire.).. TC cpd. voc. nom. lust. instr.). obscured. and. 196 ..

/vr). manas (n. the mind. senses. avrtya (gerund a .). this. The senses. the embodied one. abode. jiianam (n.Jmuh). the atman. buddhis (f.e. it is said.).lrlITf1Jf lA"T ~~ indriyii?Zi mano buddhir indriyalJi (n. it confuses the embodied one. e. obscuring. intelligence.~1 I asyiidhi~thiinam ucyate of it the abode. nom. it confuses.). ~~(lf~~11 jfiiinam iivrtya dehinam knowledge-obscuring. pr. dehinam (m. the intelligence ~"'I\S61'1lj. sg. the mind and the intellect Are said to be its (i. it confuses. indic.). Obscuring his knowledge.). the embodied one. sg.).). powers. sg.flt~ etiiir vimohayatye~a with these. sg. of it. this. the eternal enemy's) abode. ~f<. pl. acc. the senses. adhiHhiinam (n. mind. causative act. vi . knowledge. asya (m.Jvac). enveloping. etais (m. inst.. gen. sg. it causes to confuse. nom. the embodied soul. pl. pr.). resting place. nom. passive . sg. intuitive knowledge. of this. thought. wisdom. with these.ras (m. covering.). With these. it deludes. nom. it is said. vimohayati (3rd sg. ucyate (3rd sg..III 40 ~f. nom. sg. indic. 197 . acc. by these..

. acc.Jnas). niyamya (gerund ni . from this. restraining. Kill this evil demon Which destroys knowledge and discrimination. jiiana (n. pra .). tvam (nom.r piipmiinam prajahi hyenam evil demon kill indeed this m.!i (n. Therefore. 198 . tasmat tvam indriyii1. imperative act. vijiiana (n. kill! destroy! hi. epithet of Arjuna. loco sg.fiHII '1 '11 ~ 1 '! II '1 jfliinavijfliinaniisanam knowledge and discrimination destroying. discrimination. abl. devil. this. in the beginning. adau (m. nasanam (m. sg. the senses first f~~1 niyamya bharatarfabha restraining.III 41 ~~~~~T . truly. sg. destroying. knowledge and discrimination-destroying. the senses.). thou. indriya.). pl.lyiidiiu tasmat (m. from .). sg. indeed..). acc. (jiitinavijiiananasanam. acc. m. losing. enam (n.). knowledge. papmanam (m. prajahi (2nd sg.) therefore thou. understanding. TP cpd. sg. acc. evil being. Bull of the Bharatas. sg. sg. subduing. ~~~~. therefore.. Bull of the Bharatas.Jyam). at first. acc.Jhan) . sg.). restraining the senses First.).). in first. bharatar~abha (m. 0 Atjuna. voc. controlling.

superior. highest. manasas (n. imporahus (3rd pI. they assert. nom. intelligence.). the intellect is superior to the mind. nom. nom. stanza) They say that the senses are superior.). sas (m. sg. pl. but.e. Moreover. perfect . The mind is superior to the senses. but. sg. from the senses.).).).li para1. elevated. higher.). • I.~: \I the mind. from the mind. what. nom. yo buddhelJ paratas tu salJ which than the intelligence much higher indeed. IRT "!f~\ manasas tu para buddhir than the mind. nom. paratas (adv. moreover. without desire for the fruits of action. mind.). buddhes (f. tu. with present mean- indriya1. manas (n. ing). who. indriyebhyalJ param manalJ than the senses higher. sg. sg. sg. which. para (f.). abl. see foIl. higher.). this (i. buddhis (f. see following stanza. ~~: qi l1<f: I tant. abl. they say. abl. pl.). indeed. higher. 199 . higher.). paraTJi (n. also stanzas 40 and 41.lyahur the senses high. the intelligence. nom. 4')~:~<J. pl. than the intelligence. moreover. indeed.e. senses. indriyebhyas (n. from the intelligence.). the atman or self. acc. That which is superior to the intellect is the Self. this.Jah. the mind. high. sg. they say. than +r<tmJ: <J. sg.III 42 ~f. yas (m. nom. sg. than the senses. param (n. the Yoga of action.~ur q (I 0 41§ \ indriyaTJi (n. tu.

).. acc. voc. enemy. Which has the form of desire and is difficult to conquer. iitmiinam (m. abl. acc. evam buddhel. samstabhya (gerund sam .rf~~~) jahi satrum mahabaho kill the enemy. thus. sg. sg. sg.). iitmanii (m. upholding. than the intelligence. duriisadam (n.)./han). mahiibiiho (m.). desire-form. adversary. nom.). from the intelligence. (as BY cpd. 0 Mighty Armed One. param (n. 0 Arjuna. by the self. kill! destroy! satrum (m.). End of Book III The Yoga of Action 200 . Kill the enemy. together sustaining. kiimariipam (n. having learned. epithet of AIjuna and other warriors. encountered wtih difficulty. Thus having known that which is higher than the intellect. ~ . having the form of desire. jahi (2nd sg. param buddhva thus than the intelligence higher having learned. self. imperative act. sg. difficult to approach./stabh). buddhes (f. acc. even so. sg. ~~AlI\lll'1¥t ~ I samstabhyatmanam atmana together sustaining the self by the self ..). 0 Mighty Armed One. sg. inst. sg..:>.).III 43 =i«:~~GfT ~-. buddhvii (gerund Jbudh). evam. ~~II kamarupam durasadam having the form of desire.. difficult to approach. . higher. acc..) which has the form of desire. Sustaining the self by the Self. sg.

Jbru) . Yoga ~~~I proktavan aham avyayam having declared.Jvac). eternal. . acc. 1. vivasvate (m. to Ik~vaku. sg. manave (m. perfect act. sg.). yogam (m. abravft (3rd sg. vivasviin (m. act. sg. imperishable.).). ik~viikave (m. father of Manu Vaivasvata who was the seventh of the fourteen Manus.). he told. sg. he said. avyayam (m. nom. Manu. and founder of a dynasty of kings. he related. imperf. sg. • Vivasvat. acc. dat. participle pra .Jvac). sg. uviica (3rd sg. imperishable. he imparted.Jah). t Ik~vaku. Ik~vaku was a son of Manu Vaivasvata.e. +r'f<: ~~~ ~m II The Blessed Lord spoke: I proclaimed this imperishable yoga to Vivasvat. acc. i. pra . to Vivasvat. And Manu imparted it to Ikshvaku. imam vivasvate yogam this. son of Manu Vaivasvata. Vivasvat communicated it to Manu. Yoga.). nom. son of the Sun god. the Sun god.). this. nom. nom. See chapter on "The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita. Manu. to Vivasvat.n'ur lk~vakave " bravit Manu to Ik~vaku imparted. Vivas vat. proktaviin (m. he told. sg. f~~>m?: vivasvan manave praha Vivasvat to Manu communicated. manus (m. the Noah of Hindu mythology and the progenitor of the human race.). act." t 201 . . see above. Manu Vaivasvata. priiha (3rd sg. having declared.. he communicated. declaring. sg. perf.). All are early legendary figures.). m. dat. Manu Vaivasvata. "Shining Forth. aham (nom. perf. sg. sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: 1 ~f~~m imam (m. to Manu. the Blessed Lord. the Blessed One. Manu Vaivasvata. sg.)." the Sun God. act.BOOK IV ~~~I srfbhagaviin (m. I. he spoke. dat. sg.

obtained. here on earth. so. p. thus. mahata (m. in time. This yoga has been lost. sg. ~~~ sa kaleneha mahata this with time here on earth long.IV 2 ~ q (I:q :(1 511 <R evam paramparapraptam thus. Scorcher of the Foe. this.). epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. sg. sg. sg. yogas (m. royal J:sis. parampara (f. great. destroyed. succession-received. extended. nom. here. nom. lost. ~rr)~:~11 yogo na~tab paramtapa Yoga lost. paralntapa (m. it. Arjuna. acc.).). ~~)f~:1 imam rajar~ayo vidub this the royal seers they knew. sg. received. The royal seers knew this. inst.Jvid).). by time. sas (m.). p. 202 . vidus (3rd sg. nom. na~{as(m. kiilena (m. inst. iha. sg. they knew. Scorcher of the Foe. praptam (acc. attained. After a long time here on earth. nom. one to another. pass. Yoga. pI. rajar~ayas (m. .Jnas). participle . succession. raja J:sayas). sg. perfect act. long. participle pra yap). this. pass. nom. imam (m. voc. sg. evam. royal seers. sg. Thus received by succession. with time.).).

indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). sg. participle pra Jvac) . this. devoted. Since you are My devotee and friend. p.). nom. private. mfiT sf~ if mcrr 'i!rf~ bhakto 'si me sakha ceti devoted thou art of me.). iti. ayam (m. This secret is supreme indeed. nom. eso- ~~~~II rahasyam hyetad uttamam secret indeed this supreme. adya.). and thus. sg. proclaimed. pass. maya (inst. truly. nom. it. thou art. sg. Yoga. nom. sg. sg. comrade. sg. worshipped. nom. nom. sg. by me. de- votee. sakha (m. friend. nom.IV 3 ~~lflIT~m sas (m. hi. today. pass. nom. indeed. this. primaeval. nowadays. asi (2nd sg. imparted. shared. of me. sg. nom. now.). described. ca. comrade.). proktas (m. of olden times. declared.).). ancient. sg.).). Jas). 203 . declared. nom. sa evayam maya te 'dya it this by me to thee today liFT: mm:~: I yogalJ proktalJ puratanalJ Yoga. me (gen. te (dat. so. sg. puratanas (m. indic. uttamam (n. This ancient yoga is today Declared by Me to you. participle Jbhaj) . to thee. ancient yogas (m. etad (n. and. sg. pr. thus. sg. rahasyam (n. sg. bhaktas (m. secret. this. supreme. p.).). eva. teric teaching.

param (n.). sg. 4 . sg.). not previous. gen. not earlier. katham (interrog. birth. ".. sg. janma (n. tvam adau proktavan iti thou in the beginning declaring thus? Arjuna spoke: Your birth was later.I'RT ~ ~a. How should I understand this. . sg. aparam bhavato janma later of your lordship the birth qi~f~:1 param janma vivasvatal} earlier the birth of Vivasvat. vijanfyam (rst sg. sg. nom. having declared. act. he said. this. That You declared it in the beginning? 204 . nom. birth. act. gen.I. how? etad (n.II . acc. of Vivasvat. adau (Ioc.).).r1:!i: +T<ffi"f ~ aparam (n. previous. Arjuna.Jjiia).). declaring.Jvac). of the Sun God. . ~~f~T<rt .). uvaca (3rd sg. nom. opt. proktavan (m. sg. nom. sg.IV ~~I arjuna uvaca Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. sg. nom. janma (n. participle pra .). in the beginning.). m. of you. katham etad vijaniyam how this I should understand ~ '. tvam (nom. sg. I should understand.Jvac). thou. I should comprehend. nom.). The birth of Vivasvat earlier. iti. sg. bhavatas (formal address.).). so. later. earlier. vivasvatas (m. sg. of your lordship. act. vi . he spoke. prior. perf. thus. perf.

5 ~. sarviiTJi (n. And also yours. 1. thou. nom. Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed One. the Blessed Lord. of me. sg. ca.). with present na tvam vettha paramtapa meaning). perfect act. sg.).:r bahuni me vyatitiini many of me passed away ~~'<Ff~1 bahiini (n.). I know.). Scorcher of the Foe. acc. perfect act. pass. Arjuna. pI. Jvac). of thee. Jvid. nom. pl. I know them all. my. sg. acc.). them. Foe. nom. births. participle vi ati Ji). tava (gen. me (gen. Jvid. with present meaning). vettha (2nd sg.IV s>. Arjuna. 205 . passed away. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. tiini (n. nom. vyatitiini (n. Arjuna.). he the Blessed Lord spoke: spoke. sg.f~~1 sribhagawin (m. uviica (3rd sg. janmiini tava ciirjuna births. sg. not. aham (nom. pl. You do not know them. Scorcher of the not thou knowest.). arjuna (m. and. he said.:r~~~11 na. sg. pl. perf.). pl. voc. act. sg.). p. all.. voc.). thy. gone away. The Blessed Lord spoke: Many of My births have passed away. them I know all .).:r 1r <XrnTffif. thou knowest. and of thee Arjuna ~~~1lT tiinyaham veda sarvii1}i janmiini (n. many. paramtapa (m. veda (1st sg. passings away. tvam (nom.

imperishable. but Krishna's "births" refer to his "giving forth" of himself . unborn. sainbhavami (1st sg. nom. pr. imperishable self). ~~ro+rm~ prakrtim sviim adhifthiiya material nature own controlling ~"+Iq":<:m+i~ II sambhaviimyiitmamiiyayii I come into being by own supernatural power. TP cpd. pr.). standing over.+i I ajo 'pi sann avyayiitmii birthless although being. sg.). Yet. f. by controlling My own material nature. svam (f. • There appears to be a contradiction here between "birthless" and "many of my births" of the preceding stanza. prakJ:tim (f. KD cpd. ajas (m. sg. gen. by supernatural power.).see following stanza. inst. indic. self. by magic. sg. own. nom. although. nom. acc. lord. sg. ~~sf'1~1 '" . although. governing. pr. act. own. participle Jas).) Although I am birthless and My nature is imperishable.). material nature. birthless.IV 6 ~T sf'1 ~.. (armamayaya. nom. sg. api. bhiitiiniim iSvaro 'pi san of beings. sg. acc. sg. miiyaya (f. by own supernatural power. bhUtanam (m. san (m.). sam JbhU). san (m. being. even. nom. even. I originate myself.). atma (m. I come into being by My own power. imperishable self. Although I am the Lord of all beings. atma (m. (avyaya-atma. sg. inst. controlling. shelf. sg.. adhi!i!hiiya (gerund adhi J sthii). pl. api. avyaya (m. of beings. lSvaras (m. by power of illusion. I come into being. being. sg. the lord although being.q 0lI111. m. nom. 206 .).).). participle Jas).

voc. it exists. tada. it is. dharmasya (m. bhtirata (m. myself.).). sg. of law. of unlawfulness. decrease.IV 7 <RT<RTf~~ yada yada. standing up. aham (nom. Then I manifest Myself.).). gltinis (f. atmanam (m.Js~j). indeed. 1. And there is a rising up of unrighteousness.Jstha). . acc. of righteousness. adharmasya (m. Whenever a decrease of righteousness Exists. abhyutthanam (n. rising up. Descendant of Bharata. I let go. tada 'tmanam srjamyaham then myself give forth I.). sg. Arjuna. self. indic. it comes to be. yada yada hi dharmasya whenever indeed of righteousness ~~~a+m:Cf1 glanir bhavati bharata decrease exists. sg. act. truly. exhaustion. pr. whenever. bhavati (3rd sg. pr. verbal noun from abhi ud . indic. gen. sg. hi. sg. s~jami (rst sg. of duty. of unrighteousness. 207 .). I create. gen. I give forth. abhyutthanam adharmasya rising up of unrighteousness (fGT S~~\ifIRl~¥j II . emerging. of undutifulness. . sg. nom. J bhii). then. acc. act. sg. epithet of Arjuna. Descendant of Bharata.

to the loss.). from vi --loot). I originate myself. dharma (m. ca. the establishing. of the virtuous ones. Messianic Judaism. dat. loco sg.IV 8 qf~~ paritrii1piya siidhUniim to protecting of the good f~:q~1 viniisiiya ca du~krtiim and to the destruction of evil doers ~~ dharmasamsthdpandrthiiya for the sake of establishing righteousness.). arthtiya (m. sg. righteousness. dat.). to the destruction. to preservation. dat. I come into being. ) sambhavami (rst sg. du~k1:tam (m. sam --IbM). sg. (dharmasamsthtipanarthtiya. for the sake of the establishing of righteousness. TP cpd. of the righteous. duty. • This conception of the" coming into being" from age to age to protect the good and punish the evil is not confined to Hunduism. to refuge. of the good. dat. For the protection of the good And the destruction of evil doers. sg.). causative noun from sam --Isthti). m. from pari --Itra). of evil doers. indic. vinasiiya (m. from age to age. paritral'Jiiya (n. to protecting. law. act. to the perishing. gen. though they require only one visitation of the Messiah. gen. pl.). sg. or avatar of God. pr. The conception of the Hindu yuga is explained at length in a footnote to stanza 17 of Book VIII. for the purpose of. I am born in every age. with the aim of. yuge yuge (n.. ~qrf+r l!<T ~ II sambhaviimi yuge yuge I come into being from age to age. stidMniim (m. to deliverance. in age after age. and. For the sake of establishing righteousness. pl. and thus Christianity. of doers of wicked deeds. 208 . Buddhism has a Buddha who arrives at different times for that purpose. have parallels. for the sake of. safhsthtipana (pr.

action. evam. sg.). body.ff(f mlf lif(f ~T S II "' niiiti miim eti so '"'rjuna not he goes. "by thatness. birth.Jtyaj).). yas (m. "again birth. me.). sg. godlike. na. indic. karma (n. 209 . acc. my. sg.).). having abandoned. having left. sg. pr. ca. material body. arjuna (m. heavenly. acc. divine. not. (to) rebirth . act. he knows. .). deham (n.Ji). '*" He who knows in truth My divine birth and action. to me. indic. . Arjuna. he is Not reborn.). Arjuna. vetti (3rd sg.). he comes. me (gen. eti (3rd sg. nom. in truth. thus." rebirth. sas (m. acc.rrT1 'fill :q if f~ janma karma ca me divyam birth and action of me divine ~<rT~~~:1 evam yo vetti tattvatal} thus who knows in truth ~~~ tyaktvii deham punarjanma having left the body. pr. divyam (n. act . sg." by the truth about. abandoning. he comes. tyaktvii (gerund . act. who. he. Having left his body.Ji).). truly. sg.). . acc. Atjuna. sg. pr. he goes. of me. the. sg.). acc. eti (3rd sg. sg. leaving. janma (n. he goes. this. sg.IV 9 . renouncing. indic. acc. nom.Jvid). tattvatas (adv. punarjanma (n. deeds. he comes to Me.. miim (m. voc. to me goes he. and.

(as BV cpd. mam (acc. free of passion. pI. absorbed in me. nom. vita (p. pass. pass. Many whose greed. disappeared greed. p.). participle Jpu).). pl. clinging to. disappeared. pl. me. fear and anger. nom. Have attained My state of being. greed. purified. my state of being (have) attained. nom. fear. participle upa a J sri). agatas (m. anger. fear and anger have departed.). bahavas (m. fear and anger.IV 10 q~ vitaragabhayakrodhii gone passion fear and anger ~~~~:I manmaya mam upiiSrita/. inst. madbhavam (m. participle vi Ji).). pI. 210 . thinking solely of me. sg. resorting to Me. bhaya (n. resorting to. putas (m. nom. ~:j1I'1aq~1 bahavojfianatapasa many. (vftaragabhayakrodhiis.). pI.).) whose greed. pass. p.) manmaya (m. purified. by knowledge-austerity. many. upasritas (m. fear. nom." my state of being. pI. nom. attained. absorbed in me. sg. sg. passion. by knowledge austerity ~~~:II puta madbhiivam agata/. come to. acc. reached. by the austerity of wisdom. me resorting to. participle a J gam). p. Thinking solely of Me. m. nom. krodhiis (m. jiianatapasa (n.). pass. TP cpd. cleansed. pl. danger. raga (m. gone away. Purified by the austerity of knowledge.). and anger have departed. "of me being.

Son of Prtha. 211 . prapadyante (3rd pI. in this way. tam (m. partha (m. my. they take refuge in. I reward. sg. act. 1. share with. pr. in whatever way Me they take refuge in ~ ~. epithet of Arjuna.). tatha. indic. manu~as (m. everywhere. in which way. sg. Son of Prtha. Arjuna. '< ye (m.~GPl'J1I "4 C!+!. anuvartante (3rd pI.. pl. anu -:.). I love.).. sg. mama (gen. as. sg. mam (acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). so. I . men. acc. acc. mid.).Jbhaj). Men take refuge in Me. mid. turning. Follow My path. human beings. pr.). eva. In whatever way. them.IV 11 ~'~m~ ye yathii miim prapadyante who. I reward them. yatha. sarvasas (adv. indie. pl.). .). pr. path. indic. bhajami (I st sg. who. men.Jpad). thus. pra .). nom. sg. mama vartmiinuvartante my path they follow ~:qr~·m:11 man~yal. piirtha sarvasal.). road. pl. Men everywhere. on all sides. of me. they resort to. everywhere.z they follow. nom.VI:t). tams tathaiva bhajamyaham them thus reward I. me. aham (nom. voc. vartma (n.

siddhim (f. pl. truly. wishing for.). act. nom. desiring.) siddhis (f. accomplish- siddhir bhavati karmajii the success comes to be (of ritual) acts born.. of acts. loco sg. karmajii (f. pI. to the godheads.IV 12 <m\!\1i'i1: ~1Jft kiifik~antal} fm-. m.). . they sacrifice. hi. indic. ment. instantly. in the human world. to the yajanta iha devatiil} they sacrifice here m the world to the (Vedic) godheads f~f~~~~ ~iprarh Vedic godheads. born of action. pr. born of Desiring the success of ritual acts. iha. pl. bhavati (3rd sg. in human. 212 . nom. belonging to hi miinu~e loke quickly indeed in the human world mankind. 3rd pI. pr. sg. mid . success. here in the world. here. (miinulfe loke. it is. indic. ritual acts. of ritual acts. loco sg.Jkaiiklf).[ karmm.~ II . sg.). nom. yajanta (sarhdhi for yajante. pr. fulfillment. quickly. in the world. participle .Jyaj). here on earth. sg. accomplish- ment.). men. . in the world of fm-~:"li<ffa. klfipram (adv.). they worship. Quickly indeed in the world of men Ritual acts bring success.). indeed. miinulfe (m. success. hankering after. loke (m. acc. gen.iirh siddhirh desiring of (ritual) acts the success ~~~:I kaiik!!antas (m. acc.). it comes to be. Men sacrifice here on earth to the Vedic gods. loco sg. devatiis (f. fulfillment. karmalJiim (n.Jbhii).).

Know Me to be the eternal non-doer.a action-distribution according to. acc. . me. sg. from vi . api.IV 13 ~+r<rr~ ciiturvar1}yam mayii sr~tam the four caste system by me created ~~:I gU1}akarmavibhiigasal. s~!ftam (n. -sas (adverbial suffix). of it. participle . mdm (acc. nom. pass. gUf!!l (m. Although I am the creator of this (the system)..). one who does not act.).). kartaram (m. imperative act. .). ~~qfq-llt caturvanJyam (n.gll'fld I (ij ~ II . According to the distribution of the qualities and their acts.). let go. by me. also. system of four castes. four-caste sys- tem. viddhi (2nd sg. avyayam (m. according to the distribution of the gUl)as and their acts. although. maker.) tasya (m. created. adverbial TP cpd. distribution.Jvid). sg. of this. creator.Isd). imperishable. eternal. p. The system of four castes was created by Me. 213 . (guf!!lkarmavibhdgasas.). gen. sg. sg. sg. non-doer. karma (n. know! learn! akartaram (m. sg. sg. vibhdga (m. gUI). tasya kartiiram api miim of it the creator although me fq. sg. acc. brought forth.).). even. . action. sharing.Jbhaj). according to. nom. maya (inst. viddhyakartiiram avyayam know (me to be) non-doer eternal. acc. gUl)a.).

karmabhis (n. Thus he who comprehends Me Is not bound by actions. sg. so.). sprhti (f.). na. miim (acc. they befoul. they smear.). yas (m. me. not. my.). covetousness. iti. nom. sg. he. Actions do not taint Me. act. actions. nom. karmaphale (n. sg. pl. sg. indic. me. he is bound. abhi Jjliii). nom. they defile. of me. abhijiiniiti (3rd sg. who. sg. pr. not. he understands. me (gen. passive Jbandh). by actions. pr. sg. indic. I have no desire for the fruit of action. thus.). he is fettered.). karmiilJi (n. limpanti (3rd pI. miim (acc. he comprehends.). sas (m. pr. in the fruit of action. desire. badhyate (3rd sg. na. 214 . not. pl. in action fruit. na. loco sg. act. nom.).).IV 14 if mCfi1hfvr f~iQ na mam karma!li limpanti not me actions they befoul if1:t~~1 na me karmaphale sprha not of me in action-fruit desire ~am~sf~a iti mam yo 'bhijanati thus me who comprehends Cfilif~ if ~ ~ II karmabhir na sa badhyate by actions not he is bound. indic. Jlip) . by deeds. inst.

therefore. by the desirers of release. inst. tasmat (m. eva. pl. kr:tam (n.z by the ancients. kuru (2nd sg. action. -1kr:). participle -Ikr:). by the ancients. p. pass. made. kuru karmiiiva tasmiit tvam perform action therefore thou ~:~~II purvail.). thus. performed. jnatva (gerund -1jna) . p. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). having known. acc. acc. sg. pI. deeds. do! perform! make! karma (n. piirvataram (comparative). Having known this.IV 15 ~ mro ~ 'fi"lf G evam jiiiitvii krtam karma thus having known performed action ~mq~~f~:1 purviiir api mumukfubhil. by the seekers for release. thou. knowing. tvam (nom. ~m~~ '-' . by the prior ones. sg. Seeking release. the ancients. by the prior ones. by the ancients. action. acc. piirvais (m. even. Therefore perfonn action As it was earlier perfonned by the ancients. sg. earlier. made. also. from this. performed.z purvataram krtam (as was) by the ancients earlier done. also. evam.).). sg. kr:tam (n. in olden times. imperative act. done. mumuk~ubhis (inst. participle -1kr:) . by the seekers of liberation. piirvais (inst. abl.). 215 . done. acc. pl. desiderative noun from -1muc).). sg. karma (n. pass. also perfonned action. api.

you shall be released from evil.rmr~: I kim (interrog.). mokfjase (2nd sg. sg. acc. te (dat. pravakfjiimi (1st sg. sg. from evil. poets. yad (n. thus (often used to close a quotation). in this respect. even the wise are confused in this matter. having known. in verse. acc. future passive Jmuc). I shall explain. acc. api. to thee. pass. • kavayas. "What is action? What is inaction?" Thus. confused. yaj jiiiitvii mok~yase ' subhiit which having known thou shalt be released from evil. future act. nom. inaction. abl. non-action. kavayo 'py atra mohitii/. deluded. karma (n.). pl. 216 .IV 16 f~ CfilT f<fill: ~f(f kim (interrog. kavayas (m. atra. One must remember that much of Sanskrit religious literature was conceived in poetic form. which. mt ~ CfilT 5fOf~11 tat te karma pravak~yiimi this to thee action I shall explain <nr~m~~11 . here. sg.). action. from viciousness. action. I shall declare.). sages.). even. from sin. poets. thou shalt be liberated.z the poets even in this matter confused. what? karma (n.w. thou shalt be released. I shall speak.). Having known which. nom. '" .). iti. sg. Thus "poets" here (often translated "sages") were religious teachers who wrote. that. participle Jmuh). from the disagreeable. or rather sang. also.). p.). sg. what? akarrrlfl (n. knowing. non-action?" thus ~T SQ{ . pI. kim karma kim akarmeti "what. sg. nom. tad (n. asubhiit (m. nom. mohitiis (m. jniitvii (gerund Jjna). this. This action I shall explain to you. pra Jvac).). action? what. in this matter.

gatis (f.). hard to comprehend. indeed. sg. sg. profound. to be taught. One must know the nature of action. of action the way. of action. ca. karma7J(lS (n.). "f~"ff~:1 boddhavyam ca vikarma~al.Jbudh). nom. deep. and to be known of wrong action ~~~ boddhavyam and of non-action to be known akarma~asca iJW'IT mr 'Tfo-: II gahanii karma~o gatil.).aO<f karma~ohyapiboddhavyam of action indeed also to be known. dense. difficult to understand.).Jbudh). boddhavyam (n. gen."fr. to be learned. to be enlightened. nom. gerundive . The way of action is profowtd. sg. of wrong action. gahanii (f. way.). of unsuitable action. and. vikarma7J(ls (n. hi. sg.IV 17 mr wfq. to be enlightened. And also the nature of inaction. truly. 217 . sg. of non-action. profound. gen. even. sg.). gen. sg. of action. road. going. to be known. nom. gerundive . karmalJas (n. and. ca. nom. of inaction. also. thick. akarmalJas (n. gen. boddhavyam (n. The nature of wrong action. path. api. to be known. sg.

who.n~~ sa buddhiman manu~ye~ he wise among men.). wise. akarmafJi (n.). pl. He who perceives inaction in action.:r 'fi1t If: . yas (m. karmafJi (n. in deeds. sg. He is a yogi and performs all actions. sg. nom. pass. disciplined.loc. karma (n. action. pasyet (3rd sg. karma (n. intelligent. whole. yuktas (m. And action in inaction. nom. he. sg. suffix). sg. he should perceive. sas (m. 218 . sg.). inaction.Jyuj). acc.Jpas). loc. Is wise among men. yoked. non-action. doing.z and in non-action.).). this. in men. nom. ~. all. action. sg. this. among men. nom. sa yuktal. he should see. participle .). full of wisdom. tion.). sg. ~ lim: ~CRr " '" < . optative act. buddhimdn (m.). sg. nom. he. sg. and. the. in non-action. p. nom. acc. yas (m. action. sas (m. making.IV 18 'fi1tU<iCfi4" If: ~ karmat:zyakarma ya/. performing.).). who. sg. .). entire. ~1lT:.z pasyed in action non-action who should perceive. in action. ca. in inac- akarmat:zi ca karma ya/. the. k~tsna (adj. loc. krtsnakarmakrt he disciplined all action performing. akarma (n. steadfast in Yoga. manuryelfu (m. sg. nom. who.). -krt (n.

(jfiiiniignidagdhakarmiilJam..Qit.Jdah). And has consumed his karma in the fire of knowledge. acc. sarve (m.. kama (m. pass. sg.JV1j). samkalpa (m. fire. dagdha (p. sg. gen. nom. pal). ace. undertakings.~ tam ahul.iit. ones who have excluded desirous intentions. yasya sarve samarambhal. pl.. m.). wisdom.).Jrambh). him. withheld. they say. paIJ4itam (m. karmiilJam (m. from sam ii . desire. He who has excluded desire and motive From all his enterprises. agni (m.) jiiiina (n.). the wise ones. iihus (3rd pI.). sg. a+r ma-: qf~~: II '" . all. purpose.Jrabh. action. acc.Jah. they designate. participle .IV 19 ~ri~: yasya (m. pass.) tam (m. budhiis (m. Him the wise men call a sage. p. enterprises. the intelligent. . sg.). pundit.). this.). the wise ones. of whom. excluded. he who has consumed his karma in the fire of knowledge. m.t of whom all enterprises CflI*i41. pI. love. burned.). pI. acc.f>('QCjfGlqr: I kamasamkaZpavarjital.t desire and purpose excluded. participle . the god of fire. used in present sense). 219 . varjitiis (m. karma. BY cpd.).<.t him they call paI).. deeds. perfect acc . (kama-samkalpa-varjitiis. nom. nom. sg.t patpJitam budhal. nom. knowledge. m<ITf~ twisted off. wise man. BY jiianagnidagdhakarma1}Om who has consumed his karma in the fire of knowledge. pI. samiirambhiis (m. aim. they call.).. nom. pl. consumed. cpd.

). sas (m.Jtl:P). fruit. Does.). pass. karma (n.) nitya. nothing at all. nom. sg. attachment. kilhcid. p. TP cpd.Jkl:). Even when performing action. he. not dependent. karmafJi (n. not anything does he. f~gT f. he performs. 220 .:ro~: I abandoned. clinging. nityatrpto niriiSrayal. whose dependence is lacking. na. in effect. sg.Jsri). proceeding. niriisrayas (m. not dependent. abhipraVl:ttas (m. result. eva. pendent.IV 20 ~ Cflii 'h~ i'a 1\: tyaktvii (gerund . not de- karmmJY abhipravrtto 'pi in action proceeding even .). anything whatever. iisafigam (m. sg.JVl:t). pro indic. always satisfied. sg. nom. karoti (3rd sg. api. nis ii . act. participle abhi pra . turning ahead. phala (n. .. not. always. participle . this one. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). pass.Jtyaj). nom. engaging. He who has abandoned all attachment to the fruits of action. acc. p.). m. eternally. attachment to the fruit of action. CflltU<J:m~T sfq- satisfied. (karmaphaliisafigam. sg. not resorting to. acc. even.). abandoning. in action. loco sg. having tyaktvii karmaphaliisangam having abandoned action-fruit attachment. nom. also. he makes. sg. Always content. he does.tor f~:qg: cn:Tf9"~: II niiiva kimcit karoti sal. content. fl:ptas (m. action.

. pass. sg. guilt. making. He incurs no evil. pass. sg. With all motives of acquisition abandone~ niriiSis (m. mind. nom. sarva. restrained in thought and self. Performing action with the body alone. citta (n. he obtains. na.Jgrah).Jtyaj). doing.Jap). acc. <ref~ nirasir yatacittatma without wish. having a self with a controlled mind. participle . nom. apnoti (3rd sg.). acc. abandoned. only.ll'ffi*l<iqf~: I tyaktasarvaparigrahal. sg. merely.JkI:).Jyam). act. BY cpd. not he incurs guilt. . left. sg. acc. sarfram (n. evil. restrained. nom. free from desires.). possessions.. acc. kurvan (m. karma (n. pr. not. (yata-citta-atma. yata (m. exclusively. atma (m. performing. controlled. he reaches. pr. 221 . Without wish. self. kevalam (n. sg. abandoned all acquisition. m. p. act. nom. hopeless. with the body. sg. acquisition. property. sg. from pari . action. thought. he incurs.). fault. restrained thought and self. indifferent. bodily.). without wishes.). ~'rt~CfilT sariram kevalam karma (with) the body alone action R <mrTfa. all. renounced. getting. he attains. alone.IV 21 f<rmrn. sg.. nom.f'fik~ II kurvan napnoti kilbi~am performing. participle . indic.) tyakta (p. kilbi~am (n. parigrahas (m.). attaining. sg.). grasping. participle .

nom.Jk~). loco sg. sg. sg. pairs. having acted. in accomplishment. atftas (m. polarity of opposites. loco sg. gone beyond opposites. content. in nonsuccess. transcending. sg.) dvandva (n. api. k~tvii (gerund . (f. nom. obtaining.). making. ~:f~m~l:q samal:z siddhiiv asiddhiiu ca constant in success and in failure. m.tu~). (dvandva-atftas. pain. Constant in mind whether in success or in failure. indic. and. going beyond.IV 22 yadrcchiiliibhasamtu#o chance gain content. sg. free from envy.. free from greed. participle ati . p. Transcending the dualities (i. chance. m.). in failure. Even though he acts. free from malice. siddhiiu (f. BY cpd.). free from envy. liibha (m. free from envy. iiffi sf'1<f f~ II krtvii 'pi na nibadhyate having acted even. asiddhiiu (f. he is bound. pleasure. samas (m. indifferent. participle sam :'. p.Jbadh).). samtu~fas (m. 222 . having made. nom.). satisfied. also. nibadhyate (3rd sg. etc. nom. nom. not. sg. even.Ji). nom. pass.. he is bound down. accidental. pr. nom. spontaneous. one who has contentment. ca. he is not bound. na. having done.).). (liibha-samtu~fas. passive ni . BY cpd.). Rffirmf~:1 ~ yad~cchii dvandviitito vimatsaral:z the dualities transcending. Content with whatever comes to him. sg. gain. sg. pass. constant. dualities.e.) vimatsaras (m. the same. not he is bound. in success. whose envy is gone.

m gen. of the released.). ritual action. cetasas (n. sg. Who does work only as a sacrifice.Jsthii). (as BY cpd. ii .). wholly. action ~ m<n?"'r:ffi II samagram praviliyate wholly it melts away.. sg. (jnaniivasthitacetasas. gen.). of him whose thought is established in knowledge. participle act.) yajiiiiya (m. sg. in the aggregate. gone. pass. karma (n. it becomes dissolved. (gatasaiigasya. jiltina (n.Jcar). pr. gatasangasya muktasya of the free from attachment. p. indic. Is wholly dissolved. moving towards. of thought. undertaking.. dat. Whose thought is established in knowledge. iicaratas (m. sg.). knowledge. of clinging.) muktasya (m.). sg. of the released. avasthita (p. pass. pra vi . who is liberated. of mind. 223 . p. gen.Jmuc).). samagram (adv. BY cpd.IV 23 lld*l1j·fl! ~ gata (m.) of one from whom attachment is gone. gen. sg. ~~:I jiiiiniivasthitacetasal} of him whose thought knowledge. participle . is is melted away. pr. pass. saiigasya (m. for sacrifice. sg. 4#1141'q(d: ~ IS established ill yajiiiiyiicaratal} karma for sacrifice undertaking. m. participle . sg. gen.JZl). pass. it vanishes. participle ava . of the liberated one. to sacrifice. established. supported.Jgam). pravillyate (3rd sg. of attachment. nom. nom. of the free from attachment. together. The work of one who is free from attachment. action.

van Buitenen. by absorption.Jhu). Brahman action. tr. action of Brahman: samt'idhina (m. p. offering. inst.). oblation. brahma (n.. by it by him. sg. BV cpd.through his acts.). by one who contemplates the action of Brahman.) • "The entire act consists of Brahman because it is of Brahman's nature: the sacrifice is Brahman. eva. brahma (n. loco sg. Brahman.. (brahma-agnau. sg. sg. hutam (m. loco sg. gantavyam (gerundive Jgam). Brahman. in contemplation. brahma (n. contemplates the act-as-Brahman.r1 ~ ga+( I brahmagnau brahmalJa hutam in the fire of Brahman by Brahman poured out $~~ brahmaiva tena gantavyam Brahman by him to be attained <jf~Cfi*ll:lIr<RT II brahmakarmasamadhina by him who contemplates the action of Brahman. nom.). Brahman is to be attained by him Who always sees Brahman in action. the fire in which the sacrifice is offered is Brahman. nom.. entrusting.).). the utensils are Brahman. because his acts are of Brahman's nature. inst. inst.Jdha). nom. participle . sg. to be approached..) brahmaTJii (n. Such a one is capable of knowing the proper form of the titman which is Brahman . agnau (m. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). havis (n. pass. m. acc. Brahman is the offering. Brahman the oblation.). TP cpd. arpafJam (n. Brahman.).IV 24 ~'iIW~~ brahmarpalJam brahma havir Brahman the offering. brahma (n. by Brahman. sg. He who contemplates this insight. to be accomplished. by contemplating. the acts performed by an aspirant have the form of knowledge because they imply the realization that they consist of Brahman and are therefore a means of contemplating the titman . nom.. the sacrificer himself is Brahman.. poured out into the sacrificial fire. to be attained. (brahmakarmasamadhina. pouring out. sg. ~wrr. inst. 224 . brahmakarma (n. Brahman is the oblation Poured out by Brahman into the fire of Brahman. tena (m. In other words.).).. nom. from sam a . m. sg. in the fire. Ramanuja. placing upon.). Brahman. sg. sg. in the fire of Brahman. to be gone.

sacrifice. sacrifice. yajiiam (m.owit<ri daivam (m. ~~. act. eva. they practice. 225 .). indic. yogins. pl. pl.). upa .). in the fire of Brahman. sacrifice. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). sg. Some yogins perfonn Sacrifice to the gods. loco sg. acc. nom.:rll yajnenaivopajuhvati by sacrifice (itself) they offer. others. sg.). sacrifice. religious offering. By sacrifice itself. Others offer sacrifice. nom. by sacrifice.rn<ri brahmagnav apare yajnam in the fire of Brahman. they present oblations. eva. some. sg. daivam evapare yajnam to a god some. acc.jhu). in the fire of Brahman.). others. paryupasate (3rd pI.). pr.IV 25 ~1J. yajiiam (m. in Brahman fire. they sacrifice. religious offering. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). brahmagnau (m. apare (m.). sg. to a god. acc. upajuhvati (3rd pI. they offer. mid. inst. yoginas (m. paryupasate yogins they practice ~. lilf'T'1: ~ I yoginal. apare (m. indic. pr. pari upa vas). nom. others. some. relating to a god. yajiiena (m. pl.

in the fires of control. "whose first was. they offer. commencing with.). and so forth. indic. provinces of the senses.jhu).lY anye srotra (n. pr. pl. nom. indic. anya (samdhi for anye. m. senses.jhu). adfn (m. sabda (m. anye (m. Still others offer sound and other objects of the senses In the fire of the senses.~~ Srotriidinindriyii1. they honor. Others offer senses like hearing In the fire of restraint. Ioc. act. 226 . commencing with. in sense fires. and so forth. others. in restraint fires. in the fires of restraint.). acc. sound. juhvati (3rd pI.IV 26 mm:r. objects of the senses. pl. hearing like senses others ~'J"!~(fl satityamiigni~u juhvati in the restraint fires they offer ~l9:f~~ sabdiidin v#ayiin anya sound commencing with. lit. others.). "whose first was." indriyalJi (n. pr. m. juhvati (3rd pI. they sacrifice. pl. pl. they offer.). they sacrifice. pl. in the fires of the senses." vi!!ayan (m acc.). hearing. . acc.).). adfni (n. . acc.). sg. nom. pl. act.).r1f. samyamagni!!u (samyama agni!!u.). loco pl.. indriyagni!!u (m. powers. objects of the senses others ~~'J"! ~(f II indriyiigni~ juhvati in the sense fires they offer.

loe.). Which is kindled by knowledge. nom. 227 . TP cpd. they sacrifice. sarviitJindriyakarmiitJi all sense actions ~Tfur~1 actions of the senses. pl. sg. act. m. self restraint. sg. participle . actions.). knowledge. apare (m. yogiigniiu (m. pl. p. karmalJi (n. others.Jdfp). some. TP priitJakarmiitJi ciipare and vital breath action others 'J. acc.) Others offer all actions of the senses And actions of the vital breath In the fire of the yoga of self-restraint. in Yoga fire. acc. jliiina (n.) juhvati (3rd pI. ca. all. and.). acc. pl. pass.l 1\14 ~ "114 "I"'!lmrr iitmasamyamayogiigniiu in the self-restraint-of-Yoga fire ¢a-~Tf~11 juhvati jiiiinadipite they offer. pl. (iitmasamyamayogiigniiu. priiT!a (m. loc. pr.). vital breath. indriyakarmiiT!i (n.~~ur sarviiT!i (n.Jhu). kindled by knowledge.). self control.. loc. cpd. . in kindled. iitmasamyama. sense actions. they offer. dfpite (m.IV 27 ~1f. in the fire of the Yoga of self restraint. (jliiinadfpite. caus. in knowledge kindled. m. sg. sg.. loc. indic.).).

Jsi). BV cpd. pl. offerings. pI. whose sacrifices are made with material things. sacrifices. and. BV cpd. pl. nom. those material possession sacrifices. pI. others. (svtidhytiyajfitinayajfitis. m.). yatayas (m. pI. ascetics.) ca. sacrifices. pl. BV cpd. While ascetics of severe vows Offer study of the scriptures and knowledge as sacrifice.IV 28 s= Olll<ali ~ (flTT<rm dravya (n. m. wisdom. thus some. pl. thing. yajfitis (m.). some. svtidhytiya (m. jfitina (n.). those whose sacrifices take the fotm of Yoga. nom. austerity. m. reciting the Veda to oneself. rules. offerings. mate- dravyayajiiiis tapoyajiiii rial possession.). (yogayajfitis. austerity sacrifices. object. nom. whetted. yajfitis (m. (dravyayajfitis. men of austerity. nom. nom. knowledge.. nom. sacrifices. ~:~f~:11 yatayal} samsitavratiil} ascetics (with) sharpened vows. apare (m. ~~~~I yogayajiiiis tathiipare Yoga sacrifices.). npm.).). yajfitis (m. nom.). pass. Some offer as sacrifice their material possessions Or their austerities and practice of yoga. self-denial. vows. commands.). ~ 11I$11'111$1~ sViidhyiiyajiiiinayajiiiisca whose sacrifices consist of Vedic recitation and the knowledge sacrifice. ordinances. (tapoyajfitis. pI. Yoga.). yajfitis (m. pl.). Veda study.. nom. pl. offerings..) tapas (n. saTnsita (p. likewise.) tatha. substance. thus. nom.. 228 . those whose sacrifices consist of Veda study and the knowledge sacrifice. vrattis (m. nom. those whose sacrifices are made in the fotm of austerity. offerings. BV cpd. m. pl. also. sharpened.). sacrifices. participle sam . ) yoga (m.

ruddhvii (gerund . control. And others exhalation into inhalation. from ii . intent upon.Jyam). in exhalation. ifc. some. which is their meaning here). sg. exhalation. pl. they offer. restraining.).). act. vital breath. Restraining the path of inhalation and exhalation. prii7]iipiinagatf (f. sg. apiinam (m. Intent on control of the vital breath. inhalation.Jhu) .).1<1 i11-qeGfT prii'!lapiinagatiruddhvii the path of inhalation and exhalation restraining. pI.!ain in exhalation they offer inhalation. dual). thus. acc. as yet understood by few in the West. acc. apare (m. prii7]e (m. also. indic. stopping. nom. intent on breath control. pr.). tathii. vital breath. Some offer inhalation into exhalation. priilJ(l (m. but familiar to all Yogins. apiine (m. in the vital breath. exhalation thus others Sli Oil q 1. (prii7]iiyiima-paruya7]iis. and the abdominal breath (apana). the abdominal breath. the paths of inhalation and exhalation. pariiya7]iis (m. though the two terms were also used for inhalation and exhalation respectively. nom. dominal breath (the Hindus believed in two breaths: the vital breath (pral).a). iiyiima (m. in inhalation. nom. others. inhalation. in the ab- 5ITtiT sqR (f~ I prii'!le 'piinam tathiipare in inhalation. priilJ(lm (m. pI. juhvati (3rd pI. acc. 229 . m. supposed to have been breathed through the anus.).). .IV 29 ~~(f>rruf apane juhvati pra. SlI01141 l jq(1401i : II priiniiyii1napariiya~ii~ control of the breath intent upon..J2 rudh). loco sg.) • These are Yoga breathing excercises. they sacrifice. loco sg.). TPcpd.

nom. niyatiihiiriis (m. causative participle . sacrifice-destroyed. they sacrifice. And their evils have been destroyed through sacrifice. nom.) breaths. indic. whose evils have been destroyed through sacrifice. yajfiavidas (m. inhalations. in inhalations. kalma~iis (m.J4k~i). nom. priilJeSu (m. pl. some. 230 . pl. pl. pl. also.). ete (m. nom.). pI. acc. pl.). wrongs. those with knowledge of sacrifice. others. Others who have restricted their foods Offer the life breath into the life breath. priilJiin (m. ri~~~cro apare (m. nom.). in vital juhvati (3rd pI. pI. pl. pl. vital breaths. All these are knowers of sacrifice. nom. pass. evils. all. nom. loc. (yajfiak~apitakalma~iis. sarve (m.). sarve 'pyete yajiiavido all even these sacrifice knowing ~e:rfqdCfl("+lqJ: II yajiia~apitakalma~iilJ whose evils have been destroyed through sacrifice. yajfiak~apita (yajfia + p.). the sacrifice-knowing.). BY cpd. BY cpd. api. act. m. these. .IV 30 ~ft f"illd 1(101 (I: apare niyatiihiiriilJ others who have been restrained in foods JITOTl"{ ~ ~Wd" I prii1}iin prii1}e~ juhvati inhalations into inhalations they offer. who have been restrained in food. they offer.. even. pr.).Jhu). destroyed by sacrifice.

they come. to Brahman. . voc. how? anyas (m. takas (m. sacrifice remainder.). . Not even this world is for the non-sacrificing..). Arjuna? (n.:i'nTW'(1<iI("'l~ I yiinti brahma saniitanam they go to Brahman. acc. sg. pl.). Highest of Kurus. Best of Kurus. pr. amrta (n. ~. gen. nom. yanti (3rd sg. pr. pI. (yajiiasi~!a-amrta-bhujas. nom. primaeval. kutas (interrog. nectar. ayajiiasya (m. epithet of Arjuna.). sacrifice-remnant-nectar-enjoying ones. s. this. remainder consumed after the gods have taken their portion of the sacrifice. other. they go. sg. Brahman.). it is. ancient. sg.). acc. for the non-sacrificing one. world. na. eating. 231 . asti (3rd sg. G '" yajiiasi~!a yajfiasiftiimrtabhujo the sacrifice-remnant-nectar-enjoying zrrf. act. sg. Best of Kurus? The enjoyers of the nectar of the sacrificial remnants Go to primeval Brahman.).). ".:l!": ~ II kuto 'nyal} kurusattama how the other. kurusattama (m. remainder of the offering. f.ya) . ayam (m. primaeval. nom.. How then the other. sg. enjoying. nom.). abl.Jas). BY. sg. aged. bhujas (f..wi~Ff. sanatanam (n.).). not. sg. indic . indic. brahma (n.IV 31 <rnf:il Q IlOj <:P1"\ij·. nom. immortality."~~ niiyam loko 'sty ayajiiasya not this world it is for the nonsacrificing. of the nonsacrificing.

Thus sacrifices are of many kinds. pass.cf~a. pl. spread. Spread out before Brahman. acc.~~ evam bahuvidhii yajiiii thus of many kinds. . p. nom. Know them all to be born of action.f. pass. Thus knowing. vi . 232 . participle vi . of Brahman.:r ~ action.). pl. born of vitatii brahma1}o mukhe arranged of Brahman in the mouth. sarviin (m. arranged. thou shalt be released. jiiiitvii (gerund . of many kinds. arising from action. acc. nom. all.Jmuc). karma}iin viddhi tii~ sarviin action born. pl. thou shalt be liberated. this. knowing. nom. in the face. thou evam jiiiitvii vimok~yase thus knowing. gen.). ~~fcniT~11 ~ fa. in the mouth.Jtan). know! learn! tiin (m. sacrifices. action born. loco sg. karmajiin (m. sg.). offerings. having known. fqmrr~T~1 evam. mukhe (n.IV 32 q. sg. vitatiis (m. vimok-rYase (2nd sg. shalt be released. stretched. of many sorts.g: m. sacrifices. pI. imperative act . yajiiiis (m.).). pl. bahuvidhiis (m. evam. brahmalJils (n. accordingly. pl.Jvid). thus.).).Jjiiii) . viddhi (2nd sg. fut. acc. thus. know them all (to be). them. you shall be released.

). sg. abl. 233 .). TPcpd. in knowledge. than substance. sg.). sg.Jiip).).).). Arjuna. nom. comparative). all. Scorcher of the Foe. offering. Son of P!1ha. All action without exception.\~ sreyiin (m. sg.. knowledge. abl. sg. epithet of Arjuna. jiiiina (n. ~ Cfi1hf~~ qN sarvam karmiikhilam piirtha all action without a gap. than sacrifice. indie. sacrifice. than property. yajiias (m. sg.IV 33 ~~O£P:lljl. than material. parisamiipyate (3rd sg. completely. Arjuna.) paramtapa (m. (jiiiina-yajiias. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. voc. wisdom. material possessions. loco sg. sg. karma (n. it is fully comprehended. Scorcher of the Foe.).). without a gap. akhilam (adv.). Better than the sacrifice of material possessions Is the wisdom sacrifice. passive pari sam . it is contained in. it is finished. nom. dravyamayiit (n. pr. than consisting of jfiiinayajfia/:t parmiztapa (is) knowledge sacrifice. piirtha (m. nom. Son of Prtha mor qfUll'll Clj <1 II jfiiine parisamiipyate in knowledge is fully comprehended. Is fully comprehended in wisdom. sacrifice of knowledge. voc. nom. than offering. without exception. sarvam (n. sg. action. yajiiii( (m.). nom. sreyiin dravyamayiid yajfiiij better than material-possession sacrifice ~:~~I preferable. better. jiiiine (n. in wisdom. m. sg.

). by enquiry. 234 . know! learn! pralJipdtena (m. act. The knowing ones.).. they will point out.e: 5ff~ tad. te (dat. pl. perceivers.Jprach). mf~~~:11 jfiiininas tattvadarSinalJ the knowing.) tad viddhi pra1Jipiitena this know! by humble submission. understanders. sg. tattva (n. acc. upa . upadeksyanti (3rd pI. from pra ni . m. the perceivers of truth.Jdis). pI. through service (on your own part). pI. (n. by prostrating oneself.). qf~~1 pariprasnena sevayii by enquiry.). nom.IV 34 ~ fcrf. from . "thatness. Through enquiry.Jvid). to thee. sg. knowledge. dadinas (m.Jpat). thee. from pari . nom. acc.). they will teach. they will instruct. the wise ones." truth. . that. pariprasnena (m. sg. imperative act. by waiting on. sg. inst. by humble submission. wisdom.) this.Jd~s). TP cpd. sevayd (f. viddhi (2nd sg. jndninas (m. seers of truth. by service. seers. ~~~a-m upadek~yanti te jfiiinam they will teach to thee knowledge. Know this! Through hmnble submission. fut. the knowing. by service. Will be led to teach you knowledge. by bowing respectfully to. sg. jndnam (n. (tattva-darsinas. by attendance. inst. the perceivers of truth. by interrogation. nom. sg. inst.

fut.). jfultvii (gerund Jjfiii) . thou shalt fall into.). mayi (loc. inst. Arjuna. what.Qu. with which. sg. sg. thus.011 II dra~yasy atmany atho mayi thou shalt see in thyself.). punar. yiisyasi (2nd sg.). thou shalt perceive. in thyself. sg.). piiIJ4ava (m. act. knowing. not. acc. fut. in me. in the self. inst. Son of Pa1). and also in Me. Jyii). dralqyasi (2nd sg. thou shalt come to. by which. acc. thou shalt go to. moham (m. which. sg. evam.9u yena bhUtany ase~e1}a by which beings without remainder ~~ ~wit. voc. not again delusion ~~~~I yad (n. thou shalt see. na. thou shalt behold. delusion. evam yasyasi pa1}{iava thus thou shalt fall into. without remainder. Son of Piil). iitmani (m.). having known. 235 . sg. Jdrs). so. Knowing that. you shall not again Fall into delusion. yena (m. And by that knowledge you shall see all beings In yourself. creatures. having known. then. bhutiini (n.).IV 35 ~mffi'f~~ yaj jiiatva na punar moham which. confusion. epithet of Arjuna. sg. all. loco sg. then in me. atho.). beings. asqelJa (m. again. acc. act. sg.

sinfulness. n.jt~).). inst. superl. (jfiiiplavena. sg.jas). of evil-doers. pr. ced. api. samtariD'asi (2nd sg. abl. sarvam (n.).IV 36 mq~m~~: api ced asi piipebhyab even if thou art of evil-doers ~: QIQ'll'i"1¥l: I sarvebhyab piipakrttamab of all the most evil doing.). piipebhyas (m.r~mn~~11 vrjinam samtarif)'asi wickedness thou shalt transcend. the most evil-doing. fut. pl.). by the boat of knowledge. abl. sg. 236 . by the boat. inst. thou shalt cross over. sg. m. of sinners.) eva. also. acc.). v~jinam (n. You would cross over all wickedness By the boat of knowledge. thou art. wickedness. the greatest sinner. knowledge. piipak~ttamas (m. ~#1I'\~44Of sarvam jiiiinaplaveniiiva all by knowledge boat . thou shalt transcend. asi (2nd sg. even. sarvebhyas (m. sg. of all. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sam . jiiiina (n. acc. if. Even if you were the most evil Of all evildoers.. indic . TP cpd.). plavena (m. nom. the greatest evil-doer. . act. pl. all.). sg.

:~Tfur yatha.. bhasmasiit (adv . to ashes it reduces so. sg. KD cpd. mid . set on fire. 237 . + 3rd sg. . Arjuna. all.. thus.). pl. it reduces to ashes. So the fire of knowledge Reduces all actions to ashes.JkI:). edhamsi (n.). p. actions. Arjuna. ~. as. fire. '" bhasmasiit kurute 'rjuna to ashes it reduces. nom. agnis (m. . jfziina (n. nom. participle sam . sg. nom. fire. kurute (3rd sg. m. nom. indic. samiddhas (m. As the kindled fire Reduces firewood to ashes. sg. agnis (m. to ashes. kindling. wisdom. the fire of knowledge. voc. bhasmasiit kurute (bhasmasiit adv. kindled.). sg.).) sarva. sarvakarmii1Ji the fire of knowledge all actions ~?<I"d"~11 bhasmasiit kurute tathii duces. tatha.). firewood. (jfziiniignis. in which way. pr.. nom.JkI:).. in this way. it re- jiiiiniignil. pass. Arjuna. mid. arjuna (m.IV 37 ~~mtr. sg. pl. knowledge.Jindh). so. acc. pro indic. karmiifJi (n.).[T sf~ yathaidharhsi sam~'ddho 'gnir as firewood the kindled fire +lfiHlld'!j(i(\ ~ I .).

samsiddhas (m. pavitram (n.). inst. by time. (yoga-samsiddhas. vidyate (3rd sg. hi.. in time. iha. 238 .). sg. sg. passive --12 vid). participle sam . pr.). TP cpd. ~mlfTmif~: tat svayam yogasamsiddhal} that himself the perfected in Yoga CflIJ"m+if. yoga (m. m. successful. indeed.). perfected. Yoga. sg. one finds.) l(ii/eoo (m. svayam (adv.. sad~sam (n. equal. sg. here. sg. inst. purifier.IV 38 .). here in the world. himself. No purifier equal to knowledge Is found here in the world. indie.f~m. p.J2 vid).Jsidh). cleanser. acc .~ na hi jiiiinena sadrsam not. to knowledge. iitmani (m. self. pass.. nom. it is found. in the self. (n. loco sg.). with time. sg.). nom. accomplished. 00. sg. pro indic. nom.).f~a II kiileniitmani vindati with time in the self he finds. . similar. that. nom. perfected in yoga. jiiiineoo (n. He who is himself perfected in yoga In time finds that knowledge in the Self. acc.. he finds. own. by knowledge. tad. vindati (3rd sg. not indeed to knowledge similar qf~~f<rn~1 pavitram iha vidyate purifier here in the world it is found.

sg. pr. Devoted to that (knowledge). by not slowly. he goes. sg. restraining sense. power. restraining. highest. Having attained knowledge. he attains. jiitinam (n. samyata (p. peace. indic. supreme. wisdom.IV 39 ~ • ~m<f Sraddhiiviiitliabhate jiiiinam possessing faith he attains knowledge ~:~"1:<r:1 tatparal. tranquility. attaining. acc. act. nom.). m ~<rr q"ti" mf~ jiiiinam labdhvii pariim siintim knowledge having attained. wisdom. he meets with.). nom. sg.).Jlabh). sg. knowledge. that. indriyas (m.). indic.). .Jgam). acirefJa (adv. sense. he obtains. participle sam . restraining his senses. samyatendriyal. He who possesses faith attains knowledge. he meets with. acc. m. (samyata-indriyas. adhigacchati (3rd sg..).). possessing faith. paras (m. adhi .. speedily. stintim (f. 239 . obtaining. he quickly attains Supreme peace. sg. acc.) jiitinam (n.). full of faith. pr. sg. acc. holding as highest object. soon. mid . knowledge. to supreme peace m~~~11 acire1}iidhigacchati not slowly he goes. devoted to. sg. sg.). partim (f. he attains. having attained. acc. labdhvti (gerund .Jabh). one with restrained senses. BY cpd. controlling. nom. tad (m. sg. nom. by not for long. subduing. nom. pass.Jyam). devoted to that. sraddhiivtin (m. labhate (3rd sg.

lacking in resolution. is destroyed. qit nayam loko 'sti na para not this world it is. agreeableness. distant. sg. not happiness for the doubting self. sg. happiness. na. from sam . BY cpd. doubting. Who is of a doubting nature. of the self.). this.Jas). and. ajnas (m. for the self. .. gen. without giving faith.). nom.l'j1 f~<:r I sa1nsayatma vinasyati he whose self is doubtful is destroyed. not. nom. joy.) 240 . .).. sg. asti (3rd sg. vi . not.) vinaSyati (3rd sg. he whose self doubts. nom.IV 40 ~~~ ajnascafraddadhiinaSca and ignorant and not faith giving ~~11I1. atma (m. he is destroyed. nor. sg. "~~~11I1. former. sg.). nom. hesitating.l'j'1: II na sukham samsayatmanal. act. na. self. Nor happiness. bliss. there is. samsaya (m.Jsi). hesitating. pr. ca.). indic . unknowing. paras. sg. (smhsayatma. sukham (n. doubting. and does not have faith. nom. sg. The man who is ignorant. is for him who doubts. from sam . nom.Jsi). lokas (m.T sf~ .:t ~f. nor beyond. smhsaya (m. and. (samsayatmanas. for him whose self is doubtful. sg. m. remote. of the self of him who doubts. ignorant.:n. sg. not placing faith.. indic.).). it is. gen. beyond. ayam (m. delight. world. nom. atmanas (m.Jnas). later. ca. pleasure. Neither this world nor that beyond. na. not giving faith. asraddadhanas (m. comfort. BY cpd. not.t. he is lost. pr.

Arjuna. sg. renounced. doubt. nom. having a self. BY cpd. irresolution. pl. hesitation. And who is possessed of the Self. they bind down. pr. not actions f. abandoned. not. yogasamnyastakarmii1:zam him whose actions are renounced Yoga. karmii1}i (n. whose doubt is cut away by knowledge. Whose doubt is cut away by knowledge.). m.. CfilITfur iitmavantam na karmii1}i self-possessed. acc. Conqueror of Wealth. 241 . ni Jbadh Jbandh). prudent. knowledge.). acc. samnyasta (p.) jniina (n. cut away. acc. give up. (jfiiinasamchinnasamsayam. acc. self possessed. voc. act. epithet of Arjuna.. Conqueror of Wealth. they bind. indic. sg.) iitmavantam (m. (yogasamnyastakarmiilJ(lm. Yoga. actions. nibadhnanti (3rd pI.-q ~ II nwadhnantidhanamjaya they bind. sg.). participle sam Jchid) . participle sam ni J2 as).IV 41 l:j'w:ii'lf~Cfi4rvr yoga (m.f. severed. samsayam (m. dhanamjaya (m.r. pass.re-. Action does not bind him Who has renounced action through yoga.).).). ~~~I In jiiiinasamchinnasamsayam whose doubt is cut away by knowledge. karmiilJ(lm (n.+1 c( '"<'t' . sg. pass. samchinna (p. they fetter. action. n.:. sg. acc. him who has renounced action in Yoga. BY cpd..). :q 1. thrown down. sg. composed. na.:.

ajiit'ina (n.flf~~~11 iiti~thotti~tha bhiirata resort! stand up! Descendant of Bharata. having severed.).). produced by. proceeding from. sainbhutam (m. from this. ing. knowledge. sg. acc. acc. this. hesitation. epithet of AIjuna. own.). TP cpd.). asint'i (m. sg. gen. having cut away. Descendant of Bha- rata. Arjuna. with thine own knowledge-sword from thyself f~~~ lfFr+1~ knife.).).) t'itmanas (m. sainsayam (m. with the knife. acc.Jstht'i). sg. voc. m. t'i -:'. re- sort! go towards! perform! utti!ffha (2nd sg. therefore. jiit'ina (n. with your own sword of knowledge. abiding in the heart. sever- chittviiinam samsayam yogam having cut away this doubt. doubt. abiding in the heart. having cut away.). originating in. imperative act. sg. enam (m.stht'i). imperative act.. situated in the heart. t'iti!ffha (2nd sg.). abl. Therefore.). ins!. ignorance. Yoga. sg. (jiit'ina-asint'i.IV 42 ~~ tasmiid ajiiiinasambhutam therefore ignorance proceeding from ~~ m<rrfwrr~: I tasmt'it (m. Resort to yoga! Stand up. irresolution. to Yoga 'l. inst. ud . sg.). by the hrtstham jiiiiniisinii 'tmana!. yogam (m. stand up! arise! bht'irata (m. sg. of the self.). cutting away.Jchid). hr:tstham (m. of thyself. End of Book IV The Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge 242 . This doubt that proceeds from ignorance and abides in your heart. with the sword of knowledge. sg. to Yoga. sg.. non-knowledge. acc. acc. by the sword. sg. chittvt'i (gerund .

k1:!f1Ja (m. . thou declarest. that. ~<r~~~ yacchreya etayor ekam which better of these two.). sg. pr. renunciation. Krishna. perf. AIjuna. definitely. voc.). he said. act.Jsams). ekam (acc. And again You praise yoga. to me. sg. sg. of deeds. dual). tad (n. this. in a settled way. he spoke. imperative act. act. of actions. thou praisest. preferable. etayos (m. nom. Arjuna spoke: You praise renunciation of actions. :. one. pl. 243 . nom. acc. yogam (m. sg.J2 as). the one. yad (n. better. ca. sg. and. wr\ <rm" m~ I punar yogam ca samsasi and again Yoga thou praisest.). Krishna.Jbru) . renunciation of actions. uvaca (3rd sg. me (dat. Arjuna spoke: 1 ~Cfilfurt~ samnyiisam karma1}iim krf1}a samnyasam (m. again. Which one is the better of these two? Tell this to me definitely.Jvac). acc. from sam ni. throwing down. which. Krishna. Yoga. punar.). acc.). samsasi (2nd sg.BOOK V ~~I arjuna uviica arjunas (m. abandonment. sg. karmalJam (n.Jci). tell! say! suniscitam (adv.).). gen. of these two.). firmly resolved. from p. participle su nis . thou approvest. sg. thou recitest. sg. . gen. indic. sreyas. bruhi (2nd sg. what. the one? cq if <ilf~ W'1f~ II tan me briihi suniscitam this to me tell definitely. pass.

the Yoga of action. dual). actionYoga. the Yoga of action. however. leading to bliss.~ tayos tu karmasamnyiisiil of the two.). sg. visi/fjate (3rd sg. nom. gen.. highest happiness. of the two.) ubhiiu (m. both. inviting.). karmayogas (m. uviica (3rd sg. Of the two.). it is distinguished.). • Ramanuja:" Both the Yoga of action and the Yoga of knowledge are . (nilJsreyasa-karau. sg. m. Jvac). effecting. samnyiisas (m. from renunciation of action. it excels. he spoke. nom. TP cpd. ultimate bliss. a<rrnn~~RlI'lAld . . but. The aim of both is the same.). however. than renunciation of action.). abandonment. making for. he said. tu. karmasamnyiisiit (m. but the Yoga of knowledge cannot be attained without the prior acquisition of the Yoga of action. renuncIatIOn. equally autonomous means of attaining beatitude. rnFrTfqf~ II karmayogo visi~yate the Yoga of action is better. leading to. passive J si~). nom. than renunciation of action. TP cpd. both. 244 . of these two. the Blessed Lord. nilJsreyasa (n. du. sg.. pro indie. perfect act. . it is better.. intending to accomplish. nom. the yoga of action Is superior to the renunciation of action.:iill'IACfi<I<{ ~'t I nilJsreyasakariiv ubhiiu ultimate bliss effecting.). sg. kariiu (m. nom. however. tayos (m. nom. dual.V ~~~I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m." The reason is that the atman can be secured through the Yoga of action. throwing down. TP cpd. it is superior. abl. sg. nom. ca. karmayogas (m. the Blessed One. The Blessed Lord spoke: Both renunciation and the yoga of action Lead to incomparable bliss. incomparable bliss. 2 ~:rn~ samnyiisalJ karmayogasca renunciation and the Yoga of action f. But the Yoga of action is better than the Yoga of knowledge. and. dual).

who. he is released. pleasantly. sg. sukham (adv. . he the eternal renouncer. pro indic. indifferent to pairs of opposites (heat.). 00. 245 . indeed. He is to be known as the eternal sannyasi Who neither hates nor desires. he is liberated. sg. act. sg. from bondage. sg.). f~)f~~) throws down. hi. one who lit . Who is indifferent to the pairs of opposites. 0 Arjuna.). sas (m. kiiiik~ati (3rd sg.Jjiiii). passive pra . nom.v 3 W. pleasure pain. etc. nom. nom. kiiiiklf) . ~~5fli~11 sukham bandhiit pramucyate easily from bondage he is liberated.. sg.). cm.). eternal perpetual. not. nirdvandvo hi mahiibiiho indifferent to the opposites. he. sg. bandhiit (m. to be known. nom.r: ~ f~-.Jmuc).Jdvi~).). cold. sarimyiisf (m. mahiibiiho (m. epithet of Atjuna and other warriors. he hates. not. dve~{i (3rd sg. nor. pramucyate (3rd sg. [f1SC . 00.). 0 Mighty Armed One. gerundive . abl.=lf'mr jiieyal} sa nityasamnyiisi to be known. sg. o Mighty Armed One. he desires. voc. nitya. pro indic.~~ I yo na dve~ti na kiiii~ati who not he hates not he desires. yas (m. the. pro indic. He is easily liberated from bondage. m truth. jiieyas (m. nom.). he covets. easily.. nirdvandvas (m. truly. renouncer. act.

pr.Jsthii).).<ti+I'~~~: ~ .J2 vid). sg.) true. vindate (3rd sg. indic. childish. pr. qf~: I pravadanti na pmp!ital:z declare. nom. One finds the fruit of both. one. not the wise. pafJ4itas (m. acc. p~thak (adv. of both. nom. dual).). pass. nom. pravadanti (3rd sg. correctly. pl. na. not. foolish. mid . Siirilkhya. asthitas (m. performed. indic. gen. dual DV cpd. ekam (n. yogau (m. one of the oldest of Hindu philosophies." The childish declare. they declare. 11. (adj. non-theistic. act. MIas (m.. pra . the childish SI'CRf~. right.). pl. one finds.). fruit. participle a . . ubhayos (m.<. sg. ubhayor vindate phalam of both one finds the fruit. he finds. samyag one even practiced correctly ~Rf~~11 . sGlnyanc (adv. not the paI). nom. single. sg. practiced.iits. . undertaken. Yoga. api.). even. separate. followed. they maintain. concerned with theory (see discussion in footnote to II 39). paI~4its. distinct. samkhya.). wise men. nom. p. one by one. practiced correctly. phalam (n.). .v ~i!§lll:f'tlI1q-~: ~ samkhyayogau Prthagbalal:z sarhkhya and yoga distinct. 246 .Jvad). "Sankhya and yoga are different. ekam apy asthita!. Even with one of them. .

sas (m. pr. it is reached.). sg. inst.~ I . he per- yaJ:r pasyati sa pasyati who perceives. nom. gamyate (3rd sg. who. priipyate (3rd sg. He who perceives this. sthiinam (n.). also.). it is attained. . he sees. yas (m. place.jgam). SariJkhya. he. ceives. nom. ekam (m. it is obtained. by the fol- tad yogiiir api gamyate that by Y ogas also it is attained. act. api. sg. passive pra . it is at- tained. pa§yati (3rd sg. what. indie. he sees. . that. it is reached. ceives. ca. inst. the place. by the Sarilkhyas.jpas). it is gone to. acc. standing. he perceives. yogiiis (m. sg. pl. nom. pl. this. by the followers of the SariJkhya doctrine. yogam (m. yad (n.). ekam siimkhyam ca yogam ca one Samkhya and Yoga ll":q-~i'fu"~i'f II ca.). indic.). sg. sg. sg. pr.). scuhkhyiiis (m. pr. even. acc. Sankhya and yoga are one.v 5 ~~:~~~ y~t siimkhyiii/:l priipyate sthiinam which by the Samkhyas is attained.). pr. posi- 1R ll"1<T' mq. one. Yoga. nom.jpas). passive . .jiip). pa§yati (3rd sg. acc. tad (n. he per- The place that is attained by the followers of Sankhya Is also attained by the followers of yoga. ~u~:qll"m:q lowers of Yoga. 247 . tion. and. which. act. sg. sg.). and. truly perceives. acc. siimkhyam (m. by Yogas.).

0 Mighty Armed One. to encounter.).. Renunciation indeed. sg. Yoga disciplined.. he attains.). to obtain.Jiip). voc. renunciation. abl. adhi . wise man. he reaches. ~:~m~~:1 du~kham iiptum ayogata~ difficult to attain without yoga <r~lif~~ yogayukto munir brahma the Yoga-disciplined sage Brahman '1f:. The sage who is disciplined in yoga Quickly attains Brahman. nom. act. brahma (n. nacirelJ<l (adv. quickly. dulJkham (n. indeed.). without Yoga. nom. Yoga yoked. sg. throwing down. Is difficult to attain without yoga. 248 . nom. sg. pr. adhigacchati (3rd sg. yogayuktas (m. to attain. sg. in no long time. acc. sage. difficult.Jgam). samnyiisas (m. iiptum (infinitive . but.)..v 6 ~i).~omT sarimyiisas tu mahiibiiho renunciation indeed. Brahman. sg. 0 Arjuna. indic. nom.). ayogatas (m. painful.) disciplined in Yoga. munis (m.). mahiibiiho (m. 0 Mighty Armed One.). sg. sg.). tu.iidhigacchati in no long time he attains. (as TP cpd.ftunf~f<:r II nacirer. epithet of AIjuna and other warriors.

" " sarvabhiitiitmabhiitiitmii whose self has become the self of all beings.Jji). nom. self. ending). subdued. pr. whose self is conquered. He who is devoted to yoga. participle vi . indie. (sarvabhUtatmabhutatmii. whose senses are conquered. sg. (visuddhatma. being. not. .). self. nom. 249 . sg. whose self is purified. m. doing. Is not tainted even when acting.. whose self is cleansed. sg. whose self has become the self of all beings. he who is yoked to Yoga.JkJ:). pass. participle vi . m. nom. self.) kurvan (pr. whose senses are conquered. (vijitatmii. cleansed. sg. whose self is purified.).). sg. whose self is purified. BY cpd. bhuta (m. acting. BY cpd. controlled.. sg. atma (m. participle . being. nom. nom. sense.) jita (p. he is smeared. whose self is subdued..). BY cpd. also. nom. becoming. yogayukto vifuddhiitmii he who is yoked to Yoga. bhUta (m. api. atma (m. whose self is subdued. ~mq-. purified.Jlip).v 7 ~ f"ltilog".. subdued. nom. conquered. pass. fqf~f~~:1 '" ~ viiitiitmii iitendriyal. all. sg. (jitendriyas. he is befouled. TP cpd.Jsudh).) sarva. nom. pass. indriyas (n. nom. atma (m. lipyate (3rd sg. self. na. controlled. with m. sg. BY cpd..f~11 ~ kurvann api na lipyate acting even. viSuddha (p. atma (m. sg. he who is disciplined in Yoga.).). m.). passive .Jji). he is defiled. Whose self is subdued. m.) vijita (p. participle act.:"l I yogayuktas (m. Whose self has become the self of all beings. conquered. even. whose senses are conquered. he is not befouled.

~m. asoon (m. karomi (1st sg. participle . walking. s~. participle . scenting. yoked in Yoga. the knower of truth. act. pasyaiiSr1Jvan sP!saiijighrann seeing. act. I do. sleeping. act. hearing.v 8 . nom. sg. participle . sg. anything. pr. paSyan (m. tattvavid (m.tq fCfifi<:J: ~lf1:i not. svallan (m. sg. pro act. pr. he thinks. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. blowing.svap). nom.a oOf<1. anything whatever..Jman). sg. sleeping. fixed in Yoga. nom. pr. nom. "I do not do anything.Jsru). pr.Jyuj).Jas). eva. jighran (m. thus (often used to close a quotation).. . nom. breathing. breathing. p. sg. sg. nom. eating. nom.Jpas).:r~ . pr. participle. pr. yuktas (m. act. seeing. touching. act. hearing. . manyate (3rd sg. walking. smelling." thus. participle . act.. sg.!van (m. disciplined. going. participle . observing. mid . sp~san (m. sg.JsprS). Steadfast in yoga. pass. pr. steadfast. the knower of truth should think. nom. svasan (m. touching. 250 .). qlp:p>. the knower of "thatness.. kificid or kirhcid. indic. smelling. act. even a little. nom. ~) ~ i:iffiqq: I yukto manyate tattvavit steadfast. participle. . Whether seeing. 00.Jghrii). participle . sg. act. naiva kiiicit karomiti "not anything I do. Eating. I make." thus.Jk1:).. touching. smelling. hearing.Jsvas). he thinks. nom. pr. perceiving. gacchan (m. sleeping. walking. ~ lf~'( ~CfW( II aman gacchan svapaiiSvasan eating." the knower of truth. I act. iti.Jgam). ~ . pr. indic. participle "'. breathing.

iti. visr:jan (m.v 9 >T~ f~ ~~1lf{ praiapan visrjan grh1}ann talking. sg.ran (m. grasping. they dwell. in the objects of the senses. sg. nom. . they abide." praIapan (m. . participle pra ·jzap). they work. powers.Jmil!). Talking. laying hold of. pr. Opening the eyes and shutting the eyes. shutting the eyes also. in the sense objects. being convinced. ~~ fTff~ m'1l . sg. pl. indic . loc. thus (often used to close a quotation). participle ni . nom. gr:hnan (m. chattering. shutting the eyes. grasping. nom. defecating.). nom. also. participle . act./sr:j). sg. resolving. opening the eyes. vartanta (samdhi for vartante. maintaining. letting go. 251 .. mid. even. causative act. eliminating. act. pr. act. ~~')f~ indriyii1}indriyiirthefU "the senses in the objects of the senses ~~a~11 vartanta iti dhiirayan abide. indriytiTJi (n. senses.fgrah). they tum. pr. pr. talking. indriytirthel!u (n.). act. evacuating the bowels. excreting.Jmil!). act. participle ud .Jvr:t). 3rd pI. pr. participle vi . participle . sg. believing. addressing. excreting. pr.JdhrJ. nom. pl. sg. grasping. sending forth." thus believing. pr. nom. discharging. Believing "The senses abide in the objects of the senses. api. nimil!an (m. unmifan nimifann api opening the eyes. dhtirayan (m. unmi. nom.

sg.).). lotus.z attachment having abandoned. iidhiiya (gerund ii . nom. nom.v 10 ~~ memr 'fi1hfur brahmalJi (n.Jdhii). who. who f~<f~~ abandoned. pr. leaf. sg. placing. deeds. abandoning. on Brah- brahmat}y iidhiiya karmii1}i on Brahman placing actions. (padma-pattra.. nom. piipena (n.. na.. he is lipyate na sa piipena defiled not he by evil ~~mll padmapattram iviimbhasii lotus-leaf-like by water. sg. sg.). ambhasii (n.) iva. padma (m.). he acts. saiigam (m. sg. he acts. smeared. this. acc. ~ ~CfiUf~ If: I man.. .). Offering his actions to Brahman. indic. inst. karmiilJi (n. by water. like. pl. by evil.). clinging. tyaktvii (gerund . he is befouled. actions.).). He who acts is not tainted by evil Any more than a lotus leaf by water. Having abandoned attachment. pattram (n.). he. karoti (3rd sg. by wrong.Jlip). passive . sg. n. not. nom. sg. having safigam tyaktvii karoti ya/. 252 . lipyate (3rd sg. yas (m. pr. tyaj). in Brahman. attachment. sas (m. acc.JkI:). putting. he is defiled. KD cpd. lotus leaf. loco sg. inst. act .

yogins. by the senses. api. (atma-suddhaye. also. tyaktva (gerund . by the body. sg. with the intelligence.). nom.Jk/:). with the intelligence. wholly. acc. inst. with the kevaliiir indriyiiir api merely with the senses even ll'TfiR": Cfi1t ~~ yoginal.v 11 ~ 11"rnT ~lIT kiiyena (m. having abandoned.). . sg. atma (m. abandoning. pl. saiigam (m. merely. pl. 253 . act. with the mind. Even merely with the senses. even. sg. indriyais (m. yoginas (m. kurvanti (3rd pI. sg. with the senses. with the intellect. toward purification. attachment.).). action. with the mind. to purification. sg. body. with the kiiyena manasii buddhyii with the body. manasa (n. dat. self. dat. sg. suddhaye (f. they make.).). clinging. inst. karma (n. inst. acc. pl. own. pr. TP cp. buddhya (f.). The yogins perform action toward self-purification. they perform. karma kurvanti the yogins action perform ~~~II safigam tyaktvii 'tmasuddhaye attachment having abandoned. alone.). by the mind. kevalais (m. for self purification. toward self purification.Jtyaj). inst. Having abandoned attachment. ) With the body. inst. indic. solely. they do.).. f. sg.). by the intelligence. mind.

last. pro indic. sg.). saktas (m. highest. apnoti (3rd sg. Wffli: "'I +I "'I'{ol <> ayuktal. steady. acc. Is bound by actions prompted by desire. by action resulting from desire. attached to fruit.Jtyaj). acc.a he who is undisciplined. abandoning. he is bound. yuktal.). complete. Jap) . nibadhyate (3rd sg. peace. mf~(f . undisciplined. tranquility. The undisciplined one. sg. having abandoned the fruit of action. in fruit. decided. participle . by desire-action. sg.z karmaphalam tyaktvii he who is disciplined.z kiimakiire1J. he attains. by desire-action. Attains steady peace. sg. he obtains. disciplined. final. sg. ~~f~11 phale sakto nibadhyate in fruit attached. action fruit. fruit of action. act.Jbandh).). tyaktva (gerund . ntii~{hikim (f.Jyuj). acc. ktimaktirelJa (m. unsteadfast. He who is disciplined in yoga. pass. participle . ayuktas (m. attached. fixed in Yoga. he is bound down. inst. santim (f. steadfast. action fruit having abandoned.ff'1SOcfiTl!: 1 siintimiipnoti nii#thikim peace he attains complete.). 254 . passive ni . karmaphalam (n.Jsaiij).). having abandoned. nom. he is fettered.). pass. unfixed in Yoga. clinging. definitive. pro indic. phale (n. sg. p. nom.v 12 l{ffi:~~ yuktas (m. nom. sg. p. loco sg. he reaches. he is bound.

all. vasf (m. loco sg. at all. nava. happily. Renouncing all actions with the mind. na. the atman. kiirayan (m. by the samnyasyiiste sukham vast renouncing it sits happily. causative act. dehf (m. inst. participle . actions. sg. making. (navadvare. not. .) pure (m.). the embodied soul. ruler ~~~T navadviire pure deht in the nine-gated city. m. loco sg.). acting. as the ruler Within the city of nine gates. lord. Not acting at all. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). inside the gate. not.v 13 mmr1Jf+Rm sarvakarmii:tzi manasii sarva. • "the city whose gates are nine. the mouth and the organs of excretion and generation. The" nine gates" are the two eyes.jas). sa/hnyasya (gerund sam ni mind. The embodied one sits happily. all actions with the mind ~i'lj~ 1«1 ~ <roT I manasa (n. . loco sg. sg. participle Jkr:). he sits. within the gate. aste (3rd sg. mid . deeds. causing action.. BV cpd. sg. dvare (m. in the city. throwing down. act. whose gates are nine. pr." The "city" is the body. the two nostrils.. nor. the embodied one. 255 .~ II niiiva kurvan na kiirayan not at all acting. nine. ruler. having mastery.). na. <fq~t={. causing to act. sg.. indic. not causing to act.). sukham (adv.. nom. renouncing. nom. in the gate. karmalJi (n. pr. sg. kurvan (m.jkr). with the mind.12 as). acc.). the two ears. nom.). nor causing action. it sits. pleasantly. doing. eva. nom.). the embodied one. causing deeds. pr. pl.

m.). it proceeds. phala (n. (karmaphalasamyogam. proceeds. actions. karma (n. ~~~II svabhavas tu pravartate inherent nature.. of people.)./Sl. 'flhf1lT na kartrtvam na karmatzi not agency not actions <. The Lord does not create Either the agency (the means of action) or the actions of people. sarhyogam (m. Nature. sg. na. the atman or self. it lets flow.. TP cpd.. pravartate (3rd sg. pl. acc.)~~m<:i~:1 lokasya srjati prabhul. but. means of action. on the other hand. the union of action with its fruit. it works. nor. na. nature.). he creates. kartT:tvam (n. gen.). acc. nom. proceeds (in all this). the Lord. on the other hand. sg. of the world.. pro indic. on the other hand. yoking together. it creates. not.jati (3rd sg. not. spontaneousness (in the sense of nature's spontaneousness) . state of performing action.j). the Mighty One. agency. Or the union of action with its fruit.. not.) svabhavas (m.). sg.. of people He creates. act . karmiifJi (n.t). lokasya (m.. sg. o '" . pra . 256 . action. prabhus (m. na. fruit. pro indic.). tu. ~~ .v 14 ./Vl. acc.). sg. the Lord. he brings forth. it turns.). . acc. 'filf~1<f na karmaphalasathyogam nor action-fruit union. sg. nor. union. mid. nom. sl.

it takes. participle ii . they are deluded. not. piipam (n. nom. goodness. :'. it accepts. nom. virtue. sg. . sg. act . pass. concealed. either. pro indic. the All Pervading. sin. tena (n. ii . living beings. sg.Jdii). acc. inst. vibhus (m. eva. na.v 15 ~~:qq:qM niidatte kasyacit piipam not it receives of anyone the evil if '<hr ~ fonr: I na ciiiva sukrtam vibhul. wisdom.).t by it (i. the Omnipresent.).). sg. inst. jiiiinam (n. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). surrounded. good doing. by it.v~). the Eternal. sg.). and. jantavas (m.t and not either the good doing. ignorance) they are deluded the people. of anyone whatever. ~~~~' ajiiiineniivrtam jiiiinam by ignorance (is) enveloped knowledge ~~i'(!'~:11 . iiv~tam (n. wrong. By it (ignorance) people are deluded. pro indic. 257 . it receives. Knowledge is enveloped by ignorance.). they are crazed. nom.). suk~tam (n. offspring. the atman. evil. pl. gen.Jmuh).). not. they are confused. sg. enveloped. acc. sg. muhyanti (3rd pI.e. people. by ignorance. of anyone." tena muhyanti jantaval. kasyacid (m. iidatte (3rd sg. na. sg. the Omnipresent. The Lord does not receive Either the evil or the good deeds of anyone. p. men. mid. ca. by this . nom. ajfiiinena (n.). knowledge.

gen. this. causative p. like the sun.). But for those in whom this ignorance of the Self Is destroyed by knowledge. sg. knowledge. nom. pass. ajiidnam (n.rf~~: I jiianena (n. sg.). tad (n. however. however. participle Jnas).)..).). pl. tad (n. sg. nom. pl. that. sg. lost. tu. it illumines. 258 . it causes to shine. but. gen. nasitam (n. sg. this ignorance ~~t. te~am (m. nom. nom. sg. inst. by knowledge.). of them.) destroyed of the self ~mf~m te~am adityavaj jfianam of them like the sun knowledge wrnr:rf~ ~ ~ II . . adityavat. jiianam (n. gen. it causes to appear. nom. nom.). of whom. atmanas (m.). param (n. causative act. prakasayati (3rd sg.v 16 ~~~~ jfianena tu tad ajfianam by knowledge. yqam (m. yesam nasitam almanalJ of whom (pl. this. sg. pra Jkas).). prakasayati tat param it illumines that Supreme. ignorance. that. That knowledge of theirs Causes the Supreme to shine like the SlUl. with knowledge. sg. destroyed. Supreme Highest. of the self.

(apunariivrttim. they who hold that as highest object.:rf~~:11 jfiiinanirdhutakalma~ii!:t their evils shaken off by knowledge. they whose basis is that.) jfiiina (n. rebirth. they whose foundation is that.. sg. from ii "/vrt). nom. m. pI. to the end of rebirth.). gam). avrttim (f. tadiitmiinas (m. gacchanti (3rd pI. shaken off. wisdom.). act. BV cpd.) 259 . tadbuddhyas (m. BV cpd. tadbuddhayas tadiitmiinas they whose minds are absorbed in that. pI. not again. Whose evils have been shaken off by knowledge.¥W1*!. apunar. to rebirthlessness. nom. nom. whose selves are fixed on that. who hold that as highest object.). from tad ni~!hii). BV cpd. they whose minds are absorbed in that.). the Supreme). they whose evils have been shaken off by knowledge. nom. tanni~!hiis (m. nom. return. BV cpd. BV cpd.v 17 ~~ \1<. pI. shaken.q (Ill 011: I tanni~thiis tatpar iiympi!:t whose basis is that. nirdhUta (p.). pI. go to the end of rebirth. m. pass. Whose selves are fixed on that. pl. ll~'\lI':0 (11f~ gacchantyapunariivrttim they go to rebirthlessness. sg./dhu).>I. f. participle. they go. tatparayatyis (m. acc.e. nom. wrongs.. ffi?f1SO~ \1. who hold that as the highest object. pI. nir . indic. They whose minds are absorbed in that (i. knowledge. they whose selves are fixed on that. acc. Whose basis is that. pr. (jfiananirdhutakalma~as.. evils. kalma~iis (m.

J vidyiivinayasampanne on a wisdom and cultivation endowed ~~Cf~~'1"1 briihmat}e gavi hastini Brahman.loc. observing.iits the same seeing. or of a prostitute.). vinaya (m. on an elephant.). m. impartially. Such people served as public executioners and in other menial or unpleasant occupations. nom. on an the Pal). gavi (f. on a cow. endowed. or of parents of various foreign mountain tribes. p. cultivated. cultivation. loco sg.<. (vidyii-vinaya-smnpanne.). offspring of a sadra father and a brahman mother. loco sg. sarhpanne (m. loco sg. seeing. pl. In a cow. wisdom. or of parents of a mixed ktatriya and sadra lineage. sg. (adv. participle sam . educated. same. hastini (m. and. The wise see the same (Atman) In a bralunan endowed with wisdom and cultivation. • Dog-cooker. training.).v 18 f<RTTf<l 'i4 ~ q.) briihmafJe (m. suni (m. 260 . loco sg.. looking. And even in a dog or in an outcaste. pafJ4itiis (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). loco sg. eva. from vi -Inf). sg. loco sg. endowed with education and wisdom. nom pl.. on a dog. accomplished. TPcpd.). or of mixed ktatriya and vaisya lineage.). wise men. knowledge. svapiike (m.). and. outcaste.). suni ciiiva svapiike ca and on a dog and on a dog-cooker'*' qf~:~~:11 pa1}¢itii~ samadarSina~ ca. ca. a type of outcaste. sama.). on a cow. in an elephant. on a member of the priestly caste. or offspring of a cal:u!ala (son of a sadra father and a brahman mother). on an elephant ~'1"~~~:q vidyii (f. finding. pass. darSinas (m. equally. paQQits. on a dog-cooker./pad). on a Brahman.

by those.).v 19 ~q <:h: f. by them.). f<RW f~~: 'XW nirdo~am hi samam brahma guiltless. in sameness. indeed impartial. sargas (m. silmye (n.f~: II tasmad brahma1}i te sthita!. here. sg. te. nom.).). gen. sg.. abiding in. brahma (n." i. nirdo~am (n. subdued. same. jitas (m. ye~ilm (m. remaining. Brahman is spotless and impartial. without evil. disinterested. pl. truly. abiding in. rebirth is conquered By those whose mind is established in impartiality. to The word" impartial" refers to those who "see the same. sg. inst. in disinterestedness. therefore.). situated. situated. thought. dispassionate. tasmilt (m. ihaiva tair jita!. Therefore they are established in Brahman. indeed. established. impartial. nom.. participle .).rn: wrT . loco sg. coming forth. pass. hi. sg. from this. sargo here on earth by those conquered birth. Brahman. sthitils (m.e. nom. loco sg.). mind. iha. Brahman ~ 'X¢1lT a. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). therefore in Brahman they established.). pl. of whom.Jji) . tilis (m.. see that all atmans are identical with their own (see introductory chapter on Cosmology). they.). . guiltless.). sg.). in equability. manas (n. of whom in impartiality established the mind. conquered. equable. in equality. nom. in Brahman. ~-qt ~ f~ +1'1: I ye~am samye sthitam mana!. p. brahmafJi (n. sthitam (n. nom. pl. in impartiality. 261 . Even here on earth.. established. sg. equal. abl. eva. samam (n. here on earth. controlled.). nom. sg. nom. sg. nom. birth.

sg. optative act. the cherished attaining. mm >rf'ClJ "I'lf5fll'lr. ~~~urf~:11 brahmavid brahma1Ji sthital. With finn intellect. non-dear. prah~ryet (3rd sg. reaching. participle a sam Jmuh). Nor should one shudder upon encountering what is unpleasant. in Brahman. 262 . buddhis (f.). nom. 'sthirabuddhir asammut/ho (with) firm intelligence. na. the preferred. sg.v 20 if ~ fw:t >rr=<r na prahnyet priyam priipya not one should rejoice. p. reaching. acc. intelligence..). Brahman knowing. solid. brahmavid (m. attaining.). undeluded. undesired. ) asammu4has (m. sthira (f. attaining. and. firm intelligence. attaining the uncherished. brahmalJi (n.). sg. loco sg. one should shudder. opt. sg. the cherished. prapya (gerundpra Jap). I . ud Jvij). sthitas (m. one should rejoice. sg. unconfused. unshakable. (sthira-buddhis. firm. established. prapya (gerundpra Jap). nom. priyam (m. sg. situated. apriyam (m. pass. ca. na. One should not rejoice upon attaining what is pleasant. one should tremble. udvijet (3rd sg. nodvijet priipya ciipriyam and not one should shudder. nom. abiding. act. KD cpd. pra Jh~~). f. Brahman knowing. acc. undeluded. nom.). Knowing Brahman. sg. in Brahman (one is) established. the dear. not.). not. uncherished.). one is established in Brahman. one should be excited. nom. undeluded. a knower of Brahman.

sukham (n. yad (n. sg. happiness.ill biihyasparse~vasaktiitmii whose self is unattached to external contacts. he whose self is unattached to external sensations.. BY cpd. who happiness. atmani (m. united.ill sa brahmayogayuktiitmii he whose self is united with Brahman by Yoga. what. bliss.) sukham (n. imperishable. loco pI. He whose self is unattached to external sensations. sas (m. sg. nom.).Jsafij) . sg. biihya. in the self. Who finds happiness in the Self. yoga (m. acc. yoked.Jyuj) . BY cpd.). from . sg. outside. . nom. in contacts. acc. Reaches imperishable happiness.). nom. indestructible. f4~'klll. he reaches. situated without. not clinging. this. acc. nom. sg. Brahman. Yoga. he attains. self.v 21 411!H::q~TtS4*lffil. soul. m. yukta (p. ~~~~~II sukham ak~ayam asnute happiness imperishable he reaches. joined.). he finds.). who.il PI" «<l: ~ I vindatyiitmani yat sukham he finds in the self. which.). sg. in touchings. . acc. unattached. pr. ak/iayam (n. asakta (p. participle .. (brahmayogayuktatma. Whose Self is united with Brahman through yoga. happiness. indic. sg. he. 263 . bliss. sparsqu (m.) vindati (3rd sg. atma (m. brahma (n. pr. participle a . ~~1'11ffil.).Jas) .Jsprs). atma (m. self. (bahyasparSe/ivasaktatma.).J2 vid). sg. p ss.). pass. mid . asnute (3rd sg.). act. loco sg. sg. indic. nom. whose self is united in Yoga with Brahman. m.

sg. born of touching.e. '" " na te~u ramate budhab not in them he is content. man of intelligence. having. (dulJkha-yonayas. Jram). TP cpd.). pl. ye (m. rich in. are not eternal). loco pl.). sources) of pain. dulJkha (n. pl. adi. Arjuna. sg.e. (adyantavantas. beginning. tending toward. indeed. who. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). nom. mid.) kaunteya (m. they. The wise man is not content with them. samsparsajas (m.v 22 ~fpl\q~I"11 m<rr ye hi smizsparsajii bhogii which indeed contact-born pleasures ~:~). he rejoices.e. Are wombs (i. ramate (3rd sg.). nom. voc. nom. he is delighted. misery. nom. sg. bhogas (m. budhas (m. yonayas (m. nom. which.). they ~~:Cfim iidyantavantab kiiunteya having a beginning and an end.). the wise man. wise man. pI. pl. not. sources of pain. suffix). 264 .:r:r~~ I dubkhayonayaeva u wombs (i. in them. . Sun of Kunti. born of contact.).~m<r~: II Pleasures born of contact. pI. pl.). m. he is content. truly.. nom. te (m. indeed.) eva. gratifications. nom.. epithet of Arjuna. wombs. Since they have a beginning and an end (i. pleasures. Son of KuntI.. na. pI.). te~u (m. commencement. sources. -vantas (m. m. unhappiness. nom. having a beginning and an end. pain. sources) of pain. end. n. hi. anta.

indic.Jsak).Jmuc).Jsah). (sariravimok~alJat. sg.. sg. he can. onset. fixed in Yoga. yas (m. abl. sg. this. body. prak (pranc. who. previously. to tolerate. iha. yuktas (m. n.). nom. sg. vimok~a/Jat (m. naras (m. sg. man. nom. he is a happy man. 265 . sg. to bear. wrath. here. happy. he. sg. impetus. act. nom. from release. he. udbhavam (m. acc. love. he is able. sas (m.) kama (m. sarira.). sg. sol/hum (infinitive .). to endure.. anger. greed. He who is able to endure here on earth. krodha (m.). sg. he happy man. liberation from the body. p. priik sariravimo~a1. 5Trefi mro<rm~ I .liit before liberation from the body ~T<T~~ kiimakrodhodbhavam vegam desire-and-anger-origination agitation ~~:~~rrr<:: II sa yuktal.). here on earth.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). participle . shock. acc. abl. desire.v 23 mffift~<r 1:1: ~ saknoti (3rd sg.). bodily frame. nom. pass. fortunate. sukhf (m. former. saknotihiiiva yal. disciplined. to endure.. orgasm. nom. sas (m.).).). origination. The agitation that arises from desire and anger. nom. verbal noun from vi . pr. . sg. m. from liberation.Jyuj). Before liberation from the body. sg. who. he disciplined. vegam (m. Is disciplined. this. agitation. eva. nom. . sorfhum he is able here on earth. momentum. steadfast in Yoga. before.. sa sukhi naral.

antarjyotis (n. ness. nom. interior brightness.a. sg.a. which the Hindus (Buddhists of the Theravada School too) regard as the ultimately desirable state of nonbeing. (as BV cpd.). This yogin attains the bliss of Brahman. nom. he attains. refers to the final extinction of the "self. nom. yas (m." having happiness within. sg.). content within.). adhi . tatha. radiance within. as a consequence. (f~1f~~lf: 1 . interior contentment. It is related to the Hindu belief that to be born at all is a tragedy. sg.v 2+ lfT Rf:~ SkI (I (I'i~ yo 'nta~sukho 'ntariiriimas who (having) happiness within. eva. sas (m. act. thus who ~ lfrr'T ~il<frot sa yogi brahmanirvii1Jam this yogin Brahmanirval).vii. this. sg.). he ascends to. acc. 266 .Jgam). his delight within. antariiriimas (m. nom. Brahmanirval). in this way. yogf (m. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).dhigacchati absorbed in Brahman. . indentical in being with Brahman. he attains. he. nom. the extinction of the self in Brahman. pr. brahmabhutas (m. delight within. And his light within.). who. (as BV cpd. from nir ". sg. antalJsukhas (m. sg.) he who has happiness within. brahmanirviilJOm (n. absorbed in Brahman. nom. yogin. inner radiance. delight within. the nirval). sg. he goes.).).). nom. thus. who. ~Tsf~(fll brahmabhiito.) he who has delight within.) he who has radiance within. interior delight. indie. becoming Brahman. nom.a of Brahman. yas (m. (as BV cpd.). "blowout" as a candle is blown out. He who finds his happiness within. • nirviiIJa. adhigacchati (3rd sg. "withinhappi- tathiintarjyotir eva ya~ as a consequence inner radiance." following the round of rebirths. sg.

bhiifa (m. sins. controlled. participle .Jram). p. they acquire. destroyed. whose doubts are dispelled. cut away.).Jlabh). they attain. (chinna-dvaidhiis. whose selves are restrained. sg.Jdhii).. pI. (k~ffJa-kalma~as. f~err iO@. loco sg. passed away. hite (m. acc. pr.). evils.) sarva. pass. (yata-atmanas. BV cpd. nom.). severed. participle . the seers (of) destroyed evils. disputes. kalma~as (m. pI.) ratas (m. k~ilJa (m. whose evils are diminished. m.. dualities. pl. in favorableness. whose evils have been destroyed. pass. rejoicing. p. Whose doubts have been cut away. pl. nom. the nirvalJa of Brahman. in benefit. doubts. in the welfare of all beings. delighted. whose selves are restrained. restrained. participle . participle . in friendship. pI. wrongs. all. k~i1}akalma~ii!. pl. dvaidhas (m. . p. selves. the f~is the seers. participle Jksi) . nom.v 25 ~~~ labhante brahmanirvii1}am they attain BrahmanirviiIfa ~: &fjuICfl<-"I"1I: I uaya!. pass. pI.Jyam) . atmanas (m. BV cpd. m. they obtain. (sarvabhiitahite.) chinna (p. being.. pass. nom. in advantage. m. creature. BV cpd. souls.). pl. Who delight in the welfare of all beings. nom..). whose selves are restrained.Jchid). content. labhante (3rd pI. made an end of. the extinction of the self in Brahman. Attain the bliss of Brahman. m.) yata (p. mid . nom."II"1: chinnadviiidhii yatiitmiina!.). brahmanirvalJam (n. 267 . nom. nom. uncertainties. who delight in the welfare of all beings The seers. pass. loco sg. ~ffi~~:11 sarvabhiitahite ratii!. indic. in welfare. twofold states. whose doubts have been cut away. f~ayas (m.

gen. the nirvii. .). indic. BY cpd. nom. of the souls. m. m'RfT 'ilWf~ abhito brahmanirvii1}am close BrahmanirvaQa ~fqf~~11 vartate viditiitmaniim it lies.!a of Brahman. p. participle . anger. the extinction of the self in Brahman.) yatfniim (m. it exists. of the unyoked.. it turns.!am (n. pass. of the knowing selves.). 268 .). desire. gen. of the restrained in thought. yatacetasiim (m. of those who are separated from desire and anger. greed. of the disjoined. gen. participle vi .). m.). of those to whom the self is known. pI. (kiimakrodhaviyuktiiniim. pl. of the separated from. pl. Whose thought is controlled. of the restrained m thought. it works. learned. I kama (m. vartate (3rd sg.Jv~t).. close. gen. iitmaniim (m. knowing. pl.:rt 1I (1 '<l ~HII '!. of the ascetics. To those ascetics who have cast aside desire and anger.v 26 ~f~ kiimakrodhaviyuktiiniim of the desire-and-anger-separated-from <rn'). knower. TP cpd.Jyuj). krodha (m. abhitas (adv.).Jvid). mid . wrath. of the knowers of the self. pI. Who are knowers of the Self. The bliss of Brahman exists everywhere. gen.). gen.) of those whose thoughts are controlled. viyuktiiniim (m.) yatiniim yatacetasiim of the ascetics. love. near. brahmanirvii. pr. pass. (viditiitmaniim. sg. known. pI. it lies. (as BY cpd. vidita (p. of the selves.

).) samiiu (m. kt:tva (gerund Jk1:). and the abdominal breath. dual). nose.). seeing. (praIJapanau. exhalation. (nasdbhyantaraeariIJau. Equalizing the inhalation and exhalation. touchings. within. acc. m. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). perform- ing. excluded. '" '" ~1W11~ of the two brows. imd. praIJa (m. eva. abdominal breath. acc. having performed. bahyan (m. keeping them there steadily. similar. inside. eye movement is apt to accompany thought.). inhalation. bahis (adv. dual). of the two eyebrows. foreign. kt:tva (gerund Jkt:). eye. acc. having made. sg. even such unconscious thought as occurs in dreams. bhruvos (f. acc. earinau (dual from Jear). ea. m. apana (m. :q~~~~:1 cak~uScaivantare sparsan (m. nasa (f. It might be remarked that. loc. outside. according to modern physiology and psychology.v 27 ~~<n~~ sparsan krtva baht'r bahyams contacts having made outside (to be) expelled. pl. abhyantara.). is a method of inhibiting thought. equal. inhalation and exhalation. pI. wellknown to all yogins. antare (m. " Putting the gaze between the two eyebrows. moving within the nose. doing. The other directions are for Yoga breathing exercises.) • These are elementary Yoga exercises. dual." in other words rolling the eyeballs to their highest attainable point and drawing them toward the nose. gaze. the vital breath prafJapanau samau krtva inhalation and exhalation equal making. acc. bhruvol:z and the gaze in between the two brows.). moving. exterior. ~~111 nasabhyantaracarifJau the nose within moving. Moving within the nostrils. vital breath. 269 . making. contacts. external. interiorly. expelled. eaksus (m. sg. Expelling outside contacts And fixing the gaze between the two eyebrows. from JsPt:s). the same. having made. in between. making. gen.). dual.

nom.. who.:n: +rT~: . whose highest course is release. (with) release as highest aim. he. lff.). (vigatecchabhayakrodhas. a"'01 ~Teit vigatecchiibhayakrodho gone desire. muktas (m. f. sense. sg. m. fear. sage. pass. sg. sg.).Jgam) . participle . mind. mind and intelligence. this one. fear and anger have departed. perpetually. fear and anger. sada. controlled. 270 . p. If:~~qq~: " yal} sadii mukta eva salJ..). manas (n.).). whose senses. always. Is forever liberated. anger. sensation. nom. participle . krodhas (m. forever. he.). released. from whom desire. '" . nom. wise man. yata (p. sg. BV cpd. disappeared. sas (m. BV cpd.). participle vi . indriya (n. mind and intelligence are controlled.). nom. icchii (f. wrath. subdued.Jyam). fear and anger have disappeared. ["'. who.. The sage whose highest aim is release. nom. forever released. nom. sg.) yas (m. mental detennination. pass. buddhis (f.). sg. BV cpd. mok!iaparayalJas (m. nom. sg. From whom desire.) munis (m.). nom. munir mok~apariiya1Jal} the sage. Whose senses. pass. nom. bhaya (n. intuition. eva. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). liberated.v 28 yatendriyamanobuddhir with controlled sense.Jmuc). sg. vigata (p. sg. (yatendriyamanobuddhis. who has release as highest aim. intelligence. desire. mind and intellect are controlled. gone away.

).). acc.). m. mml1tmf~(f II jiiatva mam santimrcchati having known me. tranquility. End of Book V The Yoga of Renunciation 271 . . tapasam (n. he obtains. n. the enjoyer of sacrifices and austerities. Having known Me. acc. sg. yajiia (m. gen. mighty Lord of all the world. The mighty Lord of all the world.. The friend of all creatures. of the heatings. of the sacrificial austerities. acc. peace he attains. sg. Mighty Lord. ~cchati (3rd sg.). companion. all. mam (acc. of all creatures. having known. world. act. of all beings. maheSvaram (m. sacrifice. he attains. pl. (sarva-loka-maheSvaram. gen.). He (the sage) attains peace. peace. pI. of the austerities. TP cpd. ) sarva.). sg. sarvabhUtanam (m.). me."' ~40iifll"l ~ ~I sarvalokamahesvaram (of) all the world the Mighty Lord.v 29 ~~ bhoktaram (m.J~). sg. he ascends to. enjoyer. sacrificial. friend. knowing. acc. he reaches. loka (m. eater. indic. gen.~~ suhrdam sarvabhiitanam friend of all creatures..).Jjiia). pr. (yajiiatapasam. sg. pl. jiiatva (gerund .) suh~dam (m. offering. acc. bhoktiirain yajiiatapasiiin the enjoyer of the sacrificial austerities . santim (f.). sg. ~.

he.rfssra: 'fi1t~ aniisrital. renouncer. he said. nom.). sg. without <r f~~ <r :qrf~: II na niragnir na ciikriyal. gerundive -Jk1:). sg. (as BY cpd. pr. niragnis (m.'1: I kiiryam karma karoti yal. and. not.f. acc. Is a renunciant and a yogin. -Jk1:). he does. and who fails to perform sacred rites. Not he who is without a consecrated fire. perfect act. who.. nom. karoti (3rd sg. acc.). nom. and without sacred rites. he performs. sg. who ~ ~r:q '1Frr:q sa samnyiisi ca yogi ca he a renouncer and a yogin done. p. akriyas (m. karma (n. participle an ii -Jsri) . karmaphalam (n. and. sg. the to-he-done (ritual) action he does.). (as BY cpd. The Blessed Lord spoke: He who performs that action which is his duty. action fruit. sg. sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: the Blessed One. prescribed duty. ca. not (he who is) without a (consecrated) fire. sg. sas (m.) he who is without sacred rites.). nor. -Jvac). without ritual action. yogin. nom.BOOK VI ~~~I srfbhdgaviin (n. nom.) he who is without a consecrated fire. not. consecrated fire. action. saf!lnyiisf (m. sg. nom. 1 'l. nom. act. not depending on. indic. not resorting to. pass. ca. sg. kiiryam (m. na. without sacred rites. acc. nom.). this. sg. ca.). without fire. he spoke.). the fruit of action. yogf (m. yas (m. sg. karmaphalam not depending (on) action fruit aniisritas (m.). thrower down. ritual action. to be <fiTlf 'fi1t CfiiTfa. and. 272 . sg. While renouncing the fruit of action. the Blessed Lord. uviica (3rd sg. na.).

act. Know that to be yoga. without renounced. without renounced purpose. sg. voc.Jah with present meaning). sg. kascana.). viddhi (2nd sg. hi. acc. know! learn! piiIJ4ava (m.f<n4. tam (m. (asamnyasta-samkalpus.Jvid). yogin." ~ I yogam tam viddhi piit. Arjuna. pra . priihus (3rd pI. casting aside. this. No one becomes a yogin.). it. sg. nom. not. yam (m.). he becomes. Without renouncing selfish purpose. thus.) yogi (m. anyone whatever.). purpose. not renounced. epithet of Arjuna. pr. sg.). That which they call renunciation. he is. nom. samkatpas (m. acc. sg. yogam (m. anyone. Son of PaI)9U .Jbhu). bhavati (3rd sg. . throwing down. anyone.. renunCIatIon. sg. m. acc. Son of Pa1)Qu.:r~~4r4W4<fl('q') na hy asamnyastasamkalpo not indeed without renounced purpose lfFrT '1<lfQ" ~ II yogi bhavati kascana a yogin he becomes. indeed. 273 . na. indic. sg. Yoga. imperative act.VI 2 <i~~Q"~~ yam samnyiisam iti priihur which renunciation thus they call lfFT a. acc. which. desire. they say. they call. perfect act. nom. asamnyasta (m.zrfava Yoga it know. smnnyiisam (m.). . truly.). volition. sg.). iti.

).). Rllmllnuja. for then all desires have gone. passive Jvac).). lfllllNf4 rn-q yogiiriitjhasya tasyiiiva of the Yoga-ascended. calmness.). gen. acc. of the sage.e. of the sage.). ~:~~II samalJ kiirat}am ucyate (m. iiruruk~os tranquility the means it is said. Action is said to be the means. When a man wishes to attain Yoga. gen. sg. then he can only do so by practicing karmayoga. or in corresponding acts. sg. karmayoga will cause him to succeed. indic.). cause him to succeed. quiet. of the wise man. i. of the desirous of climbing. karma (n. nom. indie. For him who has already attained yoga. yoga. it is said. munes (m. Now. sg. pass. desiderative noun from ii J ruh).VI 3 ~~li~lfm muner yogam of the desirous of ascending. to Yoga iiruruk~or 'lilt CfiT\1JT~ ~ I karma kiira'!lam ucyate action the means it is said. eva. acc. it is said. When a man aspires to the contemplation. kiiralJam (n. because naturally he does not experience anything but the iitman. sg. means. sg. sg.e. pr. p. sg. to release. (as TP cpd. pr. only when the contemplation of the iitman has already been secured. yogam (m.) of him who has ascended to Yoga. inactivity. in other words. kiiralJam (n. of him. a man must perform acts until he has attained release.). For the sage desirous of attaining yoga. ucyate (3rd sg. • By karmayoga (the Yoga of Action) one is able to succeed in Yoga because in karmayoga one does not risk being negligent about it.J ruh). sg. tranquility. action. for at that stage one is still unable not to experience the objects and therefore karmayoga is one's only resource. samas (m. nom. or. when has a man attained Yoga? When the yogin is no longer able to interest himself in the objects of prakrti (material nature) differing from the litman. deeds. acc. of the desirous of ascending. method. it is called. yogiiru4hasya (m. participle yoga ii . gen. sg. willjiiiinayoga (the Yoga of Knowledge). to yoga. tasya (m. Tranquility is said to be the means. of him. cause. means. i. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). passive Jvac). of the Yoga ascended. one should save oneself by disengaging one's mind from its interest in objects and not perish by neglecting to do so. However. it is called. gen. 274 . because karmayoga means practicing one's interest in objects. of this. ucyate (3rd sg. method.

arudhas (m. When he is attached neither to the objects of the senses Nor to actions. he hangs onto. pr. sg. participle a . in actions. anu .). 275 . then. sg. sarvasamkalpa (m. ascended. mounted to Yoga. in deeds.. when. loco pl. na.)vac). all resolve. TP cpd.)saj .). He is then said to have attained yoga. pass. nom.VI 41RT f~ .). samnyasf (m. all purpose.) tada. indriyarthqu (n. anusajjate (3rd sg.). sg.. Yoga. in the objects of the senses. renouncing all purpose. renouncing.Jruh). mid. ucyate (3rd. m. hi. m. ascended to Yoga. (yogaruqhas.) yoga (m.). throwing down. renouncing all determination. not. sg. nom. nor. he is said to be. • See footnote previous stanza.ff. sg. indic. yada. passive . indeed. p. casting aside. he is attached. indie.~~ yada hi nendriyarthe~u when indeed not in the objects of the senses if~~1 na karmasv anusajjate nor in actions he is attached ~~~Cfld~i'lIl'Gr sarvasamkalpasamnyiisi all purpose renouncing lf~~11 yogaruif. all determination. TP cpd. na. truly. he clings. it is said. climbed. not.. nom. karmasu (n. loco pl.has tadocyate Yoga-ascended then he is said to be.)saiij). And has renounced all purpose. (sarvasamkalpasmnyasf. pr. nom.

sg.). the mind (manas) will be his friend.VI 5 ~=q~~ uddharet (3rd sg. who thus equates manas (mind) with iitman (self) in interpreting this stanza. sg.). sg.). atmanas (m.). of the self. the self alone enemy of the self. nom. alone. atmanas (m. niitmiinam avasiidayet not the self one should degrade. indeed.freely adapted from Ramanuja. friend. nom. And the Self alone can be an enemy of oneself. For the Self alone can be a friend to oneself. the self. 276 .). not. acc. acc. self. one should cause to sink. enemy. sg. eva. in the case of one who wishes not to perish by neglecting to so disengage his mind. sg. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). of the self. one should degrade. • In the case of one who is saving himself by disengaging his mind from its interest in the objects of sense. by the self. nom.). alone. atmanam (m. the self. gen. atmana (m. sg. alone. atmanam (m. gen. eva. avasadayet (3rd sg.). hi. One should uplift oneself by the Self. na. ripus (m. atma (m. one should uplift. optative act.).). ud Jdh~). companion. self. ~rn~T~~ iitmiiiva hyiitmano bandhur the self indeed of the self a friend ~f~~:11 iitmiiiva ripur iitmana!. relative. nom. truly. mind (manas) will be his enemy and bring about the opposite of beatitude . indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). one should render downhearted. uddhared iUmanii 'tmiinam one should uplift by the self the self. causative act. inst. bandhus (m. sg. optative ava Jsad). atma (m. one should lift up. sg. One should not degrade oneself. sg. he should rise up.

the self. gen. sg. tasya (m.11'11 f~: I yenalmaivatmana jital. The Self is a friend. like an enemy. in enmity vartetatmaiva satruvat it would exist. atmanas (m. atma (m.). by whom the self by the self conquered ~'1I. relative. p. satruvat (n.) for him whose self is not. of him. in rivalry. like an enemy Gfdcll. (as BV cpd. sg. like an enemy. yena (m.). atma (m. anatmanas (m. self.). nom. atmana (m. inst. participle . sg. subdued. gen. it should exist. in enmity. But for him who has not conquered himself. sg. conquered. it might exist.). by whom.B'1*l . nom. loco sg.). satrutve (m. nom.4Gf ~ II '" . but. tu. of this. sg.Jji). nom.Jv~t). For him who has conquered himself by the Self. of the self. of the not-self. inst. indeed. varteta (3rd sg. friend. of the unconquered self.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). atma (m. sg. self. pass.). sg. The Self remains hostile. nom. • See previous footnote. optative mid . by the self. sg.). eva. however.). sg. gen. 277 .). nom. in the manner of an enemy. indeed.VI 6 ~~~~ "" . sg. in hostility.). eva. self. controlled. . bandhur atma 'tmanas tasya a friend the self of the self of him ~"1I<:4Gf 1.:r~~ . companion.~ '" anatmanas tu satrutve he whose self is not. bandhus (m.. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). jitas (m.

combined. Thus also in honor and dishonor. pass. Supreme Self. pleasure..). of the self. thus. The highest Self of him who has conquered himself And is peaceful. steadfast. apamana (m. dulJkha (n. jita (p. n. participle pra . loco DV cpd. is steadfast In cold.Jji). praiantasya of the conquered self. 278 . ill fame. subdued.VI 7 f~: 51t!II"dfli jitatmanalJ. happiness. in cold. gen. dual. gen. pain. (jitamanas. collected. devoted. heat.khe~ in cold. conquered. nom. sg. (sfto~lJasukhadulJkhe~u. of him who has conquered himself. and pain. paramatma (m. nom. misery. heat. m. participle . pleasure and pain.). mana (m. atmanas (m.). pain. in honor and dishonor. composed. pleasure. sg. dishonor. of him who is peaceful.).) prasantasya (m. m.Jsam). in this way. heat.). participle sam a . honor. pass. sukha (n.) • Highest self. pleasure. fame..) tatha. p. thus (also) in honor and dishonor. (f~ Ii 1'1 Iqli l'1lfT: II tatha manapamanayolJ. pride. sg. the highest self (is) steadfast. loco pI. of the peaceful ~wnf~:1 paramatma samahitalJ. of the peaceful. sfta (n. heat. the self which has been exalted by Yoga practice.).Jdha). sg. pass. united. highest self. (manapamanayos.). til"jij t)Q1W-'1~:~ "n ' Sito~1Jasukhadul. BV cpd. p. gen. sg. DV cpd. cold. samahitas (m.). U:ffJ£l (n.

jizana (n. he is said to be. immovable. participle -Jt~p). unchanging.). nom. understanding. pass. the same. participle -Jyu}). satisfied. The yogin who is satisfied with knowledge and discrimination. discrimination. and gold are the same.) • Discrimination. to whom a clod. vijizana (n.). sg. m. indriyas (m. yogin. a stone and gold are the same. knowledge. perception. (jizanavijizanat~ptatma.""1:<l": I kiitastho vljitendriyal.) ku{asthas (m. sg. atma (m. participle vi -Jji). a stone. nom. sg.ffif. one whose senses are subdued.).. n. sense. knowledge of the iitman as well as of the iitman as a different entity from prakrti (material nature). Who is unchanging.). p. unchanging. gold. kiiizcanas (m. (samalo~tasmakaizcanas.). with conquered senses. thus.. similar. m. sama. lump of clay. stone. <rni~~lfmr '" '" yukta ityucyate yogi disciplined. a stone and gold are the same. power. conquered. Is said to have attained samadhi.VI 8 mrrf~~ jiianavijiianatrptatma the knowledge-discrimination-satisfied self ~~~T f<lf.. vijita (p. pr. equal. subdued. nom. nom. asma (m. 279 .).) yuktas (m. passive -Jvac). indic. nom.e.. ucyate (3rd sg. standing at the top.). clod. IS said to be.:>-'9'1: II samalo~tasmakaiicanal. t~pta (p. yogi (m. sg. (vi}ita-indriyah. he whose self is satisfied with knowledge and discrimination. nom. the to whom a clod. nom. sg. i. fixed in Yoga. BV cpd. (with) conquered sense. sg. steadfast. disciplined. nom. m. sg. BV cpd. content. pass. he is called. lo~{a (m. BV cpd..). To whom a dod. sg. pass.). iti. self. sg. thus he yogm ~~lSCl~Wfll.

enemy. companion. impartial minded.) siidhu~u (m. loco pl. and neutral among enemies and kinsmen.) he who is of impartial insight. (as BV cpd. neutral. also.:r:. and. • A consequence of contemplation of the dtman exclusively. mitra (m. evil. madhyastha (m. udasfna (m. And who is impartial among the righteous and also among the companion and enemy. pape~u (m. companion.). mid. 280 . disinterested. loco pI. friend. ari (m. (suh~nmitraryudasfnamadhyasthadve~abandhu~u.).). among the evil ones.. visi~ate (3rd sg. Is to be distinguished among men. kinsman. loco pl. slttmg apart. companion. foe. impartial. free from affection or hatred. and enemy. dispassionate.). he is to be distinguished. samabuddhis (f. dve~a (m. Who is neutral among enemies and kinsmen. api. he IS to be distinguished. .). friend.rrfmrRsuhrnmitriiryudiisinafriend-companion-enemy sitting apart. associate. companion.VI 9 w-. m. He who is equal-minded toward friend.). bandhu (m. sg. among the sinful.). even. standing in the middle. pro indic." . he is preeminent. ca.). vi si~). pro participle ud -las). in-different. among the good.). nom. among the righteous." siidhu~v suh~d (m. impartial toward friend. enemy. ife~~~~1 madhyasthadve~yabandhu~u standing in the middle among enemIes and kinsmen ~mq-~~ . api ca piiPe~u among the righteous and also among the evil ~~fqf~11 samabuddhir visi~yate impartial minded.

m. sg. sg. sg.). he should concentrate. p. with controlled thought and self.. ekakf (m. on the self.).). nom. 281 .). yufijfta (3rd sg. nom.fTlr'T '1:3fmmrn+t yogi yuiijita satatam the yogin should concentrate constantly ~~~f~~:1 iitmiinam rahasi sthital. without wish. without possessions or a wife. remaining. nom.).). KD cpd. alone. Having no desires and destitute of possessions. he should discipline himself. sthitas (m. rahasi (n. nonaccepting. constantly. yogf (m. sg. The yogin should concentrate constantly On the Self. nom. acc. ~'Tlfflf~ ekiiki yatacittiitmii alone controlled thought and self f. sg.). solitary. Jyuj) . thought.) niraSfs (m. aparigrahas (m. controlled. in solitude. Alone. participle Jstha). nom. without desires.VI 10 . (yata-citta-atma. yata (p. optative mid. subdued. self. remaining in solitude.Jyam) . the self. he should yoke himself. on the self.).fqf~: II niriiSfr aparigrahal. atma (m. sg. satatam (adv. alone. nom. in solitude remaining.. participle . with controlled mind and body. sg.). situated. to the self. having no desires. yogin. atmanam (m. pass. pass. loco sg.:fmT~ 'l. destitute of possessions. destitute. citta (n. nom. without asking. mind. sg.

from ati ni . atmanas (m. The kusa grass is on the bottom. acc. participle ati ud . a kind of fragrant grass. bottom.). in holy. seat. Establishing a firm seat for himself In a clean place. acc. na.Jstha). caila (m. sg. sg. ultimate layer. This was the proper seat for the meditating yogin.VI 11 ~1~>rf~ sucau (f. cloth. prati~{hapya (causative gerund prati . establishing. in a region. firm. sg. too short. acc. not.J2 afic). and the cloth topmost.) sucau dese prati~thapya in a clean place establishing f~~~~:1 sthiram asanam atmanal. in undefiled.). Covered with a cloth. an antelope skin and kusa grass cover. 282 . a firm seat for himself natyucchritam natinicam not too high.). atinlcam (n. in white.. (cailajinakusottaram. ajina (n. sg. an antelope skin.B.).). covering. too base. not too low. sg. sg. for himself. loc. not too low. in clean.).). deSe (m. sg. uttaram (n. gen. ~~~II cailajinakusottaram a cloth.Jsri). and kusha grass. • N. too much elevated. sg. in virtuous. too mean. kusa (m. sthiram (m. atyucchritam (m. BY cpd. antelope hide and kusa grass. whose covering is cloth. na. steady. not. the antelope skin on top of it. in a place. acc. raised too high. n. causing to fix. acc.).). asanam (n. in radiant. kusa grass. too low. loc. Not too high. acc. sg. locating. skin of an antelope. pass. in pure. in a spot. of himself. p.

~~~~ upavisyasane yuiijiid seating himself on the seat. sg. m. It is very difficult for the average person to keep the mind concentrated on a single object for any length of time. sg. participle "/yam). concentrated on a single object. optative act. on the seat. manas (n. ekagram (n. thought. sg. (yatacittendriyakriyas. krtva (gerund .). for purfication of self.Jkr). restrained. he should practice. • Directing the mind (concentrating it) on a single point or object is one of the preliminary techniques of Yoga.. controlling thought and sense-activity. TP cpd. activity of the senses. acc. . having performed. directed to a single point. to purification. BV cpd. nom. seating himself. nom.). yata (p. indriyakriyas (m. he should fix himself. f./yuj). there.) upavirya (gerund.) tatraikagram manal.). ~~~11 There. he who controls the activity of thought and the senses.). Yoga. Its purpose is control of the mind. sg. toward purification. visuddhaye (f. he should yoke himself. controlled. having made.).). making. thought. sg. acc.). mind. sitting. sg. loco sg. sg. asane (n. Seating himself on the seat. upa "/vis).. he should concentrate. for the purpose of purification. having directed his mind to a single object. pass. directed to a single object the mind having made 1fflfm~'Jfi<r: I yatacittendriyakriyal. yogam (m.VI 12 ~Wf:~ tatra. self.). acc. yuiijat (3rd sg. With his thought and the activity of the senses controlled. dat. to Yoga. 283 . he should practice '" yogamatmavisuddhaye yoga to self purification. krtva there. he should practice Yoga for the purpose of self-purification. (atma-visuddhaye. sense activity. dat. which tends to wander.. citta (n. atma (m.

pl.). motionless. acc. concentrating the eyes on. quarters. equal. unmoving. nom. not looking toward. own. Motionless and steady. the lotus position with legs intertwined and feet emerging behind the opposite knee. nom. sg. and. of oneself. body.). nom. steady. anavalokayan (m. sg. nose. grfvam (m. Gazing at the tip of his own nose And not looking in any direction.). head and neck erect. acc. causative act. sg. acc. !>alanced. acalam (m. pr. samam (m. placing. m. sg. causative participle Jdhl:).).). sg. 284 . immovable. 10k). head and neck. siras (n. sg. participle an ava".5~ II disaSciinavalokayan and (any) direction not looking towards. (kiiyasirogrfvam. acc. regions. pr. directions. head.) dharayan (m. indic.). foremost point. Holding the body.). acc. The sitting position is. sg.).VI 13 ~ GfiTlifmrnW samam kiiyasirogrivath erect the body.. ca. svam (m.l holding. • This and the following stanza concern yoga techniques aimed at controlling the mind. looking at. sainprek~a (gerund sam pra Jfk~). agram (n. neck. not looking. sg. kiiya (m. acc. nostril. of course.). tip.). acc. disas (f. motionless. body. nasikii (f. sg. sthiras (m. holding. erect. steady B>1~ 'f1f~ Bf samprek~ya niisikiigram svam looking at the tip of the nose own f~~I~"'I"Fl':. head and neck ~~f~~:1 dhiirayann acalam sthira/.

lfffi ~ffi~: II concentrated he should sit. p. vigata (p. KD cpd. in brahmacann vow. thinking of me. satnyamya maccitto the mind controlling. controlling. quieted. sg. disciplined. in pledge of chastity. '" yukta iisita matpara!. he should sit. thoughts fixed on me. smnyamya (gerund sam .VI 14 5l*flifl k141 r<!1Rf'fr~ prasiintiitmii vigatabhir prastinta (m. bhls (f. concentrated. mind. nom. devoted toMe. p.). devoted to me. sg.Jyuj). sg. manas (n. lA":~m~) mana!. thought. steadfast. participle . acc.Jgam) .Jtis). tislta (3rd sg. He should sit.Jsam). self. sg.). established. maccittas (m. nom.). participle pra . f. sg. gone away. participle vi . nom. banishing fear. disappeared. made peaceful. fear. dread. (vigata-bhls. pass. sg. in vow of continence. sg. optative mod . in brahmacarin vow (of continence) established. nom. .. nom. (with) quieted self. ~~r~~:1 brahmaciirivrate sthita!. nom. sg. banishing.). yoked. devoted to me.).). thoughts fixed on me. sthitas (m. loco sg. With quieted mind. pass. nom. matparas (m. apprehension. Established in the brahmacharin vow of celibacy. subduing. banishing fear. yuktas (m.Jyam) . titmti (m. 285 . with thoughts fixed on Me. holding me as highest object. standing. Controlling the mind. banishing fear. pass. banished. concentrated. fright.) brahmactirivrate (n.).

) whose mind is subdued. sg. acc. Thus. nom. paramam (f. continually disciplining himself. atmanam (m. he goes. thus. (as BV cpd. nirvana supreme. supreme. sg. disciplining. yogf(m.). participle . nirvaI:la.). acc.VI 15 ~~~~~ yunjann evam sadii 'tmiinam disciplining thus always himself. lIl<rTf<i4dlil'HI: I yufijan (m." union with me. santim (f. highest. KD cpd. "me together standing. sada (adv. nom. to supreme peace. gen. sg. (nirvana-paramtim. indic.Jyuj). sg.Jgam). extinction of the self in Brahman. acc. acc. nirvalJ(J. peace.z the yogin of subdued mind ~~f<1<:jIQlq(lii santim nirvii1Japaramiim to peace. he goes. sg. he attains. to nirvaI:la supreme ~m~CfII matsamsthiim adhigacchati to union with me. adhi .) matsalnsthtim (f.).). pro act.). yogin. evam. of subdued yogi niyatamiinasal. 286 . sg. acc. pr. tranquility. sg.. niyatamanasas (m. himself. concentrating. sg.). mind. adhigacchati (3rd sg. act. The yogin whose mind is subdued Goes to nirvana. To union with Me.). perpetually. f. always.

). there is. indic. ekantam (adv. of habit. Silasya (m. sg. not. indeed. pr. And not the habit of sleeping too much. oversleeping.). Yoga it is '1"~~:1 na caikantam anasnatal. <it<it sf~ na. too much sleeping. pr. na. asti (3rd sg. not dissimilar to the" middle way" of the Buddha. but.). sg. na. absolutely.VI 16 '11. of one who does not eat. it is. natyasnatas tu yogo ' sti not of eating too much. sg.. Arjuna. And not keeping awake either. anasnatas (m. tu. sg. sg. gen. of usage. gen. (atisvapnaSilasya. participle Jjag~). of eating too much. of awakening. of him who has the habit of sleeping too much. and. of custom. arjuna (m. pr. Yoga. solely. participle ati Jas). of being watchful. exclusively. na.). gen. atyasnatas (m. J as). • This statement. Yoga is not eating too much. not. gen.tq~11 jagrato naiva carjuna and of keeping awake not either.). 287 . ca. Nor is it not eating at all. is among several references in the Bhagavad GItll to extreme practices on the part of some ascetics. of necessity. atisvapna (m. and. m. ca. AIjuna. not. only. act. BV cpd. pro participle an J as). nom. sg.) jagratas (m. voc. and. ca. The following stanza continues the idea. and not absolutely of not eating '1"~~~ na catisvapnasilasya and not of the too-much-sleeping habit ~). of keeping awake. sg. indeed. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). gen. eva. not. yogas (m. of one who refrains from food.lili"ld*t (]. Arjuna.

disciplined. sg. participle . sg. loco pl. participle . m.Jyuj). act . (yuktasvapnavabodhasya. disciplined. moderate. gen. BY cpd. bhavati (3rd sg. ahiira (m.Jhan).).). m. moderate. BY cpd. of sport. of actions.) karmasu (n. moderate.khahii yoga it is sorrow destroying. it becomes. vihiirasya (m. dulJkhahii (m. sg. of play. 288 . g. yukta (p. it is.). m.. disciplined. gen. Yoga destroys all sorrow. pr. who is moderate in sleeping and staying awake. 'i'ffifCl\'lICl<lr~ 10 performance of yuktasvapniivabodhasya of the moderate in sleep and waking "1mr "flqfa. in actions. gen. sleep.).). svapna (m. gen. (yuktace~!asya. yoked.).) yukta (p. ce~!asya (m.VI 17 'i'ffiI~I<f~ yuktiihiiravihiirasya yukta (p. . Yoga.) yogas (m.Jbhu). 'i'ffi'<ttSCf"Pfiii~ I yuktace#asya karmasu of the disciplined actions. sg.Jyuj). pass. sg.. avabodhasya (m. of waking. BY cpd. of being awake. from dulJkha .Jyuj).~:~ II yogo bhavati dul. sg. of the moderate in food and diversion. For him who is moderate in food and diversion. (yukta-ahiira-vihiirasya. nom. sg. nom. gen. Who is moderate in sleep and waking. indic. one moderate in food and diversion. participle . whose actions are disciplined. sg. food. pass. Whose actions are disciplined. pass. of diversion.. sorrow destroying.).

participle vi ni . With controlled mind. mid. pass. thought.VI 18 liGT fCffmf~ yada viniyatam cittam yada. 289 . he remains. sg. tada. nom. free from desire. Free from longing. he is called.). all. Then he is said to be a saint. kiimebhyas (m.). eva. free from longing.). sg. from all desires.Jvac). nom. ni"sPl:has (m. cittam (n. he is said to be. viniyatam (n. in the self.). yuktas (m. steadfast. he abides in. he is absorbed. ucyate (3rd sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). nom. pr. iti. then. nom. indie. controlled. loe. atmani (m. p. sg. yukta ity ucyate tada "disciplined" thus. sg. f<f:~~: ~l:IT ni/:zsprha/:z sarvakamebbyo G free from longing. avati~rhate (3rd sg. from lust. When he is absorbed in the Self alone. sarva. he is said to be. passive . sg. ava .). subdued.Jyam). indie. from all desires. abl.Jsthi'i). then. sg. lfffi~~~11 " . when (with) controlled thought ~~~I iitmany eViivat#thate in the self alone he is absorbed. thus. pr. from desires. when. disciplined.

being not it flickers. lantern.). BV cpd. of him of controlled thought. of the shelf. '!3f~ lI"ftn:{~: II yufijato yogam iitmanaiJ of performing the Yoga of the self. nom.). act. of one of subdued thought. situated in.).VI 19 lI"qr~mf~q) yatha dipo niviitastho as a lamp in a windless place . na. md . of the yogin. Performing the yoga of the Self. gen.Jiiig). yuiijatas (m. nom. it stirs. sg. yoginas (m. of performing. sg. lamp. windless.Jsmr:). . iitmanas (m. pr.). yatacittasya (m. pass. indic. without wind. 290 . gen. sg. -sthas (m. standing in. p. iiigate (3rd sg. sg.Jyuj) .f~~)qm~1 nefigate sopamii smrtii yathii. not. nom. participle . gen. participle . sg. of controlled thought. of concentrated. thought. it flickers. As a lamp in a windless place Does not flicker.). sas (m. in which way. gen. nom. niviita (m. recorded. acc. yogam (m. suffix). to such is compared The yogin of controlled mind. Yoga. remembered. sg.). smr:tii (f. dfpas (m. simile. of steadfast. the simile is recorded lI"Tf~)~~ yogino yatacittasya of the yogin. pr. sg.). sg. as. sg. situated.

pafyan (m. by the self. sg. loco sg. upa . seeing.). where. by practice of yoga. atmana (m. pass. by practice. eva.). acc. 291 . thought. it stops. and. it pauses. restrained. niruddham (n. (yoga-sevaya.). he is satisfied.VI 20 llflq(l4cl f~ yatroparamate cittam where it is at rest. thought fNll"~1 niruddham yogasevayii restrained by Yoga practice zr. inst. sg.jrudh). reflection.). the self. participle ni . Restrained by the practice of yoga.f '<T<m+r<rr ~ yatra ciiiviitmanii 'tmiinam and where by the self the self ~~"~QII pasyann iitmani t~yati beholding in the self he is content.jtu~).). where. inst. When the mind comes to rest. atmanam (m. pr. sg. ca. it ceases. atmani (m. f. yatra.jram). nom. sg. nom.jpas). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). he is content. TP cpd. And when beholding the Self. . indic. sg. sg. act. indic. it is at rest.) yatra. yoga (m. He is content in the Self.. pr. in the self. tu~ati (3rd sg. p. held back.). by service.. Yoga. participle act. . beholding. sg. uparamate (3rd sg. sevaya (f. nom. cittam (n. mid. it is inactive. inst. by the self. pr.

acc. nom. which. he knows. ca. indic. vetti (3rd sg. standing. atfndriyam (n. he moves. established. endless. acc. acc. that. yatra. sg. yad (n.). where. act. Does not deviate from the truth. happiness. grasped by the intelligence. sg. sg.). acc. perpetual. this. and.. act. acc.: sukham iityantikam yat tad happiness infinite which that ~. buddhigriihyam (n.).). and not this (one). he deviates. infinite. nom. And. eva. this one. not. .~1 sukham (n. indic. abiding. ayam (m.Jvid). established there. abl. buddhigriihyam atindriyam (by) intelligence grasped." from the truth.VI 21 ~lJ: ~~ «<l: en. he. sg. beyond the realm of the senses. acc. transcending the senses ~D<r?T<r~ vetti yatrq na ciiiviiyam he knows where.). .Jcal). joy. tattvatas (n. na. sg. sg. 292 . this.). tad (n. he deviates from the truth.). from "thatness. He knows that inftnite happiness Which is grasped by the intellect and transcends the senses. iityantikam (n. sg.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sthitas (m. fp1(f~m(f(f~: II sthitascalati tattvatal} established. pleasure. sg.). transcending the senses. calati (3rd sg. sg.a~~1f. pr. pr.

greater. obtaining. na. other. sg. attaining. having obtained. by misfortune. attainment. 'I~qf~11 gurur. sthitas (m. not.. viciilyate (3rd sg. established. acc. m~ f~T" ~:@. additional.). by profound. not. by heavy. gain. causative passive vi "'Jcal). superior.t yam labdhvii ciiparam liibham yam (m.rfl:'l'f. he imagines.). mr: I manyatc: niidhikam tatalJ he thinks not greater from there. acc. manyate (3rd sg. other gain +r«ra-. ace. tatas (m. sg. acc. 293 . inst. abiding in. He is not moved even by profound sorrow.). api. situated. obtainment. abl.). he is shaken. inst.iipi viciilyate profound even. dulJkhena (n. gurulJii (n. having attained. who. adhikam (m. which. indic. also. sg.). in which.:r yasmin sthito na dulJkhena in which established not by sorrow. he thinks. loco sg. and. from there.VI 22 <t ~e<rT ~ m-. sg. sg. liibham (m.). No greater gain can he imagine. Established in this. nom. yasmin (m. pr. he is shaken. in whom. he is moved.). aparam (m. by sorrow. na. from this point. Jman). ca. subsequent. labdhvii (gerund Jabh). sg. sg. pro indic. Having attained this.). and which having attained. sg.). mid. even.

viyogam (m. sg. pass. dissolution. with absence of doubt. known as yoga. sg. the dissolution of union with pain.lacetasii Yoga with undismayed mind. gerundive . TP cpd. union. may it be known.).). known as. KD cpd. moving apart. this. participle from noun samjiiii). TPcpd. with thought. not downcast.:rfqOOI"'~~11I yogo 'nirvilp. nom. cognized as. sg. sg. sunder- fcr:rm trmfmfl\ I viyogam yogasamjfiitam dissolution. from nis . sg. nom. pain. with mind. acc. sg. to be practiced. sg. acc.) yoga (m. (anirvifJfJacetasii. let it be known. active optative .. with undismayed mind. coming together.).) 294 . samyoga (m. undismayed. Yoga.Jvid). with determination to be practiced.. with thoughts which are not downcast. sg. with determination. sg. this. it. sg. acc. Yoga called ~f~tr~ ing. inst.Jvid). re- sa niscayena yoktavyo this. Let this. anirvifJlJ<l (p. yogas (m. let it be known. nom. sg. inst.).Jyuj). niscayena (m. to be concentrated on. m. this yoga Is to be practiced with detennination And with an undismayed mind. vidyiit (3rd sg. (duI!kha-samyoga-viyogam.).) sas (m. acc. participle a nir . by de- trmr sf. Be known as yoga. him. termination. (yoga-samjiiitam. sg. samjiiitam (m. called. cetasii (n. inst.). m. Yoga. nom. m..). duI!kha (n. p.Jci). pass.). union-with-paintam (m. acc. yoktavyas (m. dissolution of union with pain. he. acc.VI 23 ~f~~:~mtam vidyiid dul}khasamyogathis.

m. All of them.) ktiman (m. wholly.). born. manasa (n. wholly. the aggregate of senses. entirely. by mind. without exception. desires ~~'q~:1 tyaktvii sarviin ase~atal} having abandoned all without remainder. pl. subduing.). ase~atas (adv.). BY cpd. pl. Abandoning those desires whose origins lie in one's intention. tyaktva (gerund Jtyaj). acc. desires. controlling. sg. intention. acc. ~~Tl::f manasiiivendriyagriimam by the mind the multitude of senses. And completely restraining The multitude of senses with the mind. fqf~~:11 viniyamya samantatal} restraining completely. completely. without remainder.VI 24 ~~ samkalpaprabhaviin kiimiiits whose origins lie in one's intention. lusts.). having forsaken. prabhavan (m. the multitude of senses. viniyamya (gerund vi ni Jyam). all. aim. come into being.). restraining. by thought. whose origins lie in one's intention. pI. samantatas (adv. acc. pl. 295 . purpose. (samkalpaprabhavan. origins. abandoning. eva. cravings. having renounced. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. acc. indriyagramam (m.). having abandoned. inst. acc.). samkalpa (m). produced.. sarvan (m.

VI
25
~:~~ , ,

saniii!; saniiir uparamed by little by little he should cease from action
~ m~Tcr<:rr I Co
..,;:).... Co

buddhyii dhrtigrhitayii with the intelligence firmly grasped.
~mlffip:t If.T: ~

iitmasamstham mana!; krtvii the self fixed, the mind having made,
'f f'fif~ mil f~ II na kimcid api cintayet not anything even he should think of.

Little by little, he should come to rest, With the intellect finnly held. His mind having been established in the Self, He should not think of anything.

sanai" saniiis (adv.), little by little, gradually. uparamet (3rd sg. optative act. upa .Jram), he should cease from action, he should renounce action, he should be quiet. budhya (f. inst. sg.), by the intelligence, with the intelligence. dh~ti (f.), firmness, firm, firmly . g~hitaya (f. inst. sg. p. pass. participle .Jgrah), grasped, controlled, gripped. (dh~ti-g~hftaya, f. instr. sg. KD cpd., firmly grasped.) atma- (m.), self, own. salnstham (m. acc. sg.), "together standing," fixed, situated together with. manas (n. acc. sg.), mind, thought. k~tva (gerund .Jk~), making, having made. na, not. kirheid, anything, anything whatever. api, even, also. eintayet (3rd sg. causative optative act. .Jeint), he should think of, he should reflect on, he should consider.

296

VI
26

lRfT <reT f~Cf
yato yato niscarati wheresoever it wanders away,
~~mt~1

manascancalam asthiram the mind, moving to and fro, unsteady,

mmffiT f"'W:4d,\
tatastato niyamyaitad from thence holding back this (i.e. the mind)
~ Q;Cf <ffi ~ II iitmany eva vasam nayet

yatas yatas, whensoever, whencesoever, wheresoever. niscarati (3rd sg. pro indic. act. nis.Jcar), it moves away, it wanders away. manas (n. nom. sg.), mind, thought. cancalam (n. nom. sg. intensive verbal noun from .Jcal), moving to and fro, dancing here and there, wandering. asthiram (n. nom. sg.), unsteady, unfixed. tatas tatas, from thence, from there. niyamya (gerund ni .Jyam), holding back, subduing, controlling. etad (n. acc. sg.), this. iitmani (m. loco sg.), in the self. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). vasam (m. acc. sg.), control, dominance, to the will, to the control. nayet (3rd sg. optative act. .Jnf), he should lead, he should direct.

in the self to control he should lead. Whenever the Wlsteady mind, Moving to and fro, wanders away, He should restrain it And control it in the Self.

297

VI
27
SI~II"dll"Hi ~
prasiinta (n. p. pass. participle pra '/sam), composed, peaceful. manasam (m. acc. sg.), mind. (prasiintamanasam, m. acc. sg. BV cpd., whose mind is tranquil.) hi, indeed, truly. enam (m. acc. sg.), him, this. yoginam (m. acc. sg.), yogin. sukham (n. nom. sg.), happiness, joy, bliss. uttamam (n. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. upiiiti (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. upa .,; i), he approaches, he attains, he goes to. siinta (m.), calmed, pacified, appeased. rajasam (m. acc. sg.), passion, emotion. (siintarajasam (m. acc. sg. BV cpd., whose passions are calmed.) brahmabhUtam (m. acc. sg.), one with Brahman, united with Brahman, become one with Brahman. akalma!iam (m. acc. sg.), without wrong, free of evil.

praSiintamanasam hyenam composed in mind indeed, him
l1Tf~~~1

yoginam sukham uttamam the yogin; happiness supreme
~fa ~11"d <"'~

upaiti Siintarajasam he approaches, pacified passion
~~~II

brahmabhutam akalma~am one with Brahman become, without evil.

The yogin whose mind is peaceful, Whose passions are calmed, Who is free of evil and has become one with Brahman, Attains the highest bliss.

298

VI
28
yufijann evam sada 'tmiinam practicing Yoga thus constantly himself
11mrfq'ldif)~l'1(1: I

'{~~~~

yogi vigatakalma~al} the yogin, freed from evil,
~;;f~Hifq~l¥\

sukhena brahmasamsparSam easily Brahman contact

w<Rf~~11 atyantam sukham asnute beyond end happiness he attains.

yufijan (m. nom. sg. pr. participle act. .Jyuj), practicing Yoga, yoking, performing Yoga. evam, thus. sadii, always, constantly, perpetually. iitmiinam (m. acc. sg.), himself. yogi (m. nom. sg.), yogin. vigatakalma~as (m. nom. sg.), "gone away evil," freed from sin, freed from evil, vanished evil, (as BV cpd.) whose evil has vanished. sukhena (n. inst. sg.), by happiness, easily, readily. brahmasafnsparsam (n. acc. sg.), contact with Brahman, touching Brahman, encountering Brahman. atyantam (n. acc. sg.), beyond end, endless, boundless. sukham (n. acc. sg.), happiness, joy, bliss. asnute (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid. ::.;as), he attains, he reaches.

Thus constantly disciplining himself, The yogin, freed from evil, Easily encountering Brahman, Attains happiness beyond end.

299

VI

29
sarvabhutastham iitmiinam present in all beings, the self,
rnmfif~ifl
sarvabhiitastham (n. acc. sg.), existing in all beings, present in all beings. atmanam (m. acc. sg.), self. sarvabhiitani (n. acc. pl.), all beings, all creatures. ca, and. atmani (m. loco sg.), in the self. fk~ate (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid. Jfk~), he sees, he observes. yogayukta (m.), disciplined in Yoga, steadfast in Yoga, yoked to Yoga. atma (m. nom. sg.), self. (yogayuktatma, m. nom. sg. BV cpd., whose self is disciplined by Yoga.) sarvatra, at all times, everywhere, in all cases. samadarsanas (m. nom. sg.), seeing the same, * seeing equally.

'" sarvabhutiini ciitmani and a'l beings in the self,

{mr ~'t<r<{mKlIT yogayuktiitmii he sees, the yoga-disciplined self
ik~ate

m'~:11

sarvatra samadarsanal; at all times seeing the same.'"

He who is disciplined by yoga sees The Self present in all beings, And all beings present in the Self. He sees the same (Self) at all times.

• Samadarsana has a special meaning which the words "seeing the same" scarcely convey. The iitmalls, or selves, of all creatures are conceived to be the same once they have been separated from the material nature with which they are temporarily conjoined in life. "A person who has brought his iitman into Yoga, will see similarity in all iitmans when separated from prakrti (material nature); he will see that all beings are in his own iitman; in other words he will see that his own iitman has the same ferm as the iitmalls of all other beings and contrariwise, so that he has seen all that is iitman when he has seen one iitman." - Ramanuja.

300

VI
30
lfT+Tt~(fm
yas (m. nom. sg.), who. mam (m. acc. sg.), me. pasyati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. -Jpas), he sees,

yo mam pasyati sarvatra who me he sees everywhere

he observes, he perceives.
sarvatra, everywhere, at all times, in every-

w.f :q mlf ~(f
sarvam ca mayi pasyati and all in me he sees,
~;; 5!1lT~+T

thing.
sarvam (m. acc. sg.), all.

tasyaham na prm.lasyami of him I not I am lost
~ :q ?r ;; 5!1lT~(f II

sa ca me na pral}asyati and he of me not he is lost.

ca, and. mayi (m. loc. sg.), in me. paSyati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. -Jpas), he sees. tasya (m. gen. sg.), of him, to him. aham (nom. sg.), 1. na, not. prafJilSyami (rst sg. pr. indic. act. pra -Jnas), I am lost. sas (m. nom. sg.), he. ca, and. me (gen. sg.), of me, to me. na, not. prafJaSyati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. pra -Jnas), he is lost, he is destroyed.

He who sees Me everywhere, And sees all things in Me; I am not lost to him, And he is not lost to Me.

• Krishna (the Supreme Spirit) is here equating himself with the atman.

301

VI

sarvabhUtasthitam (m. acc. sg. TP cpd.),

sarvabhiitasthitam yo mam (as) all-beings-abiding who me
~~mf~:1 , ,

abiding in all beings, situated in all beings.
yas (m. nom. sg.), who.

mam (acc. sg.), me.
bhajati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. .Jbhaj), he

honors, he worships, he resorts to.
ekatvam (n. nom. sg.), oneness. iisthitas (n. nom. sg. p. pass. participle ii .Jsthii), established in, abiding in, resorting

bhajaty ekatvam iisthital; he honors, oneness established in,
~~~)sfq­

to, having regard for, practiced in.

sarvatha vartamtino 'pi in whatever way (otherwise) acting even
~p:iT.,.r +rflf ~ II

sarvathii, in whatever way. vartamiinas (m. nom. sg. pro middle participle .Jvr:t), turning, moving, existing, act-

ing.
api, even, also. sas (m. nom. sg.), he, this. yogf(m. nom. sg.), yogin. mayi (loc. sg.), in me. vartate (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid . .Jvr:t) , he

sa yogi mayi vartate he, the yogin, in me he dwells.

lives, he dwells, he abides, he turns.

The yogin who, established in oneness, Honors Me as abiding in all beings, In whatever way he otherwise acts, Dwells in Me.

• I.e. who recognizes that all iitmans are one, and all pervaded by the Supreme Spirit.

302

VI
32
~~m
atma (m.), self, himself, oneself. aupamyena (n. inst. sg.), by comparison, by resemblance, by analogy. sarvatra (adv.), in all cases, everywhere. samam (m. acc. sg.), the same similarly. pa§yati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. "Jpa§), he sees, he considers. yas (m. nom. sg.), who. arjuna (m. voc. sg.), AIjuna. sukham* (n. acc. sg.), pleasure, happiness. va yadi va, whether, or if. duIJkham* (n. acc. sg.), pain, misery. sas (m. nom. sg.), he, this. yog! (m. nom. sg.), yogin. paramas (m. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. matas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle J man), thought, thought to be.

iitmiiupamyena sarvatra himself by comparison in all cases
~+f ~(f liT ~ I

samam pasyati yo 'rjuna the same he sees, who, Arjuna,
~ err <rf~ err ~:~

sukham vii yadi vii dulJkham* pleasure whether or pain,
~ liNT ~ l1\f: II

sa yogi paramo matalJ he a yogin supreme thought to be.

He who sees equality in everything In the image of his own Self, Arjuna, Whether in pleasure or in pain, Is thought to be a supreme yogin.

• It is perhaps amusing to note the etymology of the words" sukha" (pleasure, comfort, bliss) and "dul;kha" (misery, unhappiness, pain). The ancient Aryans who brought the Sanskrit language to India were a nomadic, horse- and cattle-breeding people who travelled in horse- or ox-drawn vehicles. "Su" and "dus" are prefixes indicating good or bad. The word" kha," in later Sanskrit meaning " sky," "ether," or "space," was originally the word for "hole," particularly an axle hole of one of the Aryan's vehicles. Thus .. sukha" (a BV cpd.) meant, originally, .. having a good axle hole," while" dul;kha" meant" having a poor axle hole," leading to discomfort. t I.e. that pleasure and pain in others is the same as pleasure and pain in himself, since the selves of all beings are equal to his own self, or identical with it.

303

VI
~;:;~I

arjuna uvaca

Arjuna spoke:

arjunas (m. nom. sg.), AIjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. -!vac), he said, he spoke.

33

lfT s<t lfT<r~ ~ >rTffi: yo 'yam yogas tvaya proktal.z
which this yoga by thee declared
~+r~1 samyena madhusudana

with evenness of mind, Slayer of Madhu,
~~;:;~+r

etasyaham na pasyami of this I, not I perceive,
:q.".:q<i'l\ClI~ f~ci" f~ II

cancalatvat sthitim sthiram

because of instability the foundation permanent.
ArjIDla spoke: This yoga which is declared by You As evenness of mind, Krishna, I do not perceive The steady continuance of this because of (the mind's) instability.

yas (m. nom. sg.), which, who. ayam (m. nom. sg.), this. yogas (m. nom. sg.), Yoga. tvaya (inst. sg.), by thee. proktas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle pra -!vac), declared, propounded, explained. samyena (n. inst. sg.), with eveness of mind, with eqUilibrium, with impartiality. madhusiidana, (m. voc. sg.), Slayer of Madhu, epithet of Krishna, referring to an asura, or demon, killed by Vishnu (Krishna), not to be confused with Madhu, the Yadava, who was Krishna's ancestor. etasya (m. gen. sg.), of this. aham (nom. sg.), I. na, not. pa§yami (rst sg. pr. indic. act. -!pas), I see, I perceive. caflcalatvat (m. abl. sg.), from instability, from unsteadiness, from capriciousness, because of instability. sthitim (f. acc. sg.), foundation, standing, maintenance, permanence, continued existence. sthiram (f. acc. sg.), permanent, immovable, fixed, steady, changeless.

304

VI
34
~~f~l1rf:~

caiicalmn hi manalJ knrJa unstable indeed the mind, Krishna,
5flITf~ ~¥~ I pramathi balavad drt;lham troubling, powerful, intense,

~f~~ tasyaham nigraham manye of it I restraining, I think,
<lW~ ~or '1~\$'fI <'l.. II

vayor iva sud~karam of-the-wind-like difficult to achieve.

cancalam (n. nom. sg.), unstable, unsteady, wandering. hi, indeed, truly. manas (n. nom. acc. sg.), mind. kr:~1Ja (m. voc. sg.), Krishna. pramathi (n. nom. sg.), troubling, harassing, destroying. balavat (n. nom. sg.), powerful, strong. dr:4ham (n. nom. sg.), intense, hard, fixed, massive, unyielding. tasya (n. gen. sg.), of it, of this. aham (nom. sg.), I. nigraham (m. acc. sg. noun from ni .Jgrah), keeping back, restraining, suppression, subjugation. manye (1st sg. pr. indic. mid . .Jman), I think, I believe. vayas (m. gen. sg.), of the wind. iva, like. sudu~karam (n. acc. sg.), difficult to do, hard to achieve, hard to bring about.

The mind, indeed, is unstable, Krlslma, Turbulent, powerful and obstinate; I think it is as difficult To control as the wind.

305

VI
~~~I Sribhagaviin uviica
srfbhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed Lord, the Blessed One. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. Jvac), he said, he spoke.

the Blessed Lord spoke:

35
~~ asmhSayam mahiibiiho without doubt, 0 Mighty Armed One, lA"T~~~l mano durnigraham calam
asamsayam (adv.), without doubt, doubtless.
mahtibtiho (m. voc. sg.), 0 Mighty Armed

the mind difficult to restrain, unsteady;
~~'fiRP1 abhyiisena tu kiiunteya

by practice, but, Son of Kuntl,
~~lT~1\ viiiriigye1Ja ca grhyate
~

and by indifference it is restrained.

One, epithet of Atjuna and other warriors. manas (n. nom. sg.), mind. durnigraham (n. nom. sg. from dur ni J grah), difficult to restrain, hard to control, hard to subdue. calam (n. nom. sg.), moving, unsteady, unstable, restless. abhyasena (m. inst. sg.), by practice, by performance. tu, but. kiiunteya (m. voc. sg.), Son of KuntI, epithet of Arjuna. vairagyelJa (n. inst. sg.), by indifference, by disgust, by aversion to worldly objects. ca, and. g~hyate (3rd sg. pr. indic. passive Jgrah), it is restrained, it is gripped, it is subdued, it is controlled.

The Blessed Lord spoke: Without doubt, 0 ArjtU1a, The mind is unsteady and difficult to restrain; But by practice, ArjtU1a, And by indifference to worldly objects, it is restrained.

306

VI
36
~ ij lldi (il '11 lI"FTT
asamyata (p. pass. participle a sam -.lyam) , uncontrolled, unsubdued. iUmana (m. inst. sg.), by the self. (asamyatatmanii, m. inst. sg. BY cpd., by him whose self is uncontrolled.) yogas (m. nom. sg.), Yoga. du~prapas (m. nom. sg. from du~ pra -.lap), difficult to attain, hard to reach. iti, thus. me (gen. sg.), of me, my. matis (f. nom. sg.), thought, opinion. va§ya (m.), controlled, subject to the will. iitmanii (m. inst. sg.), by the self. (va§yatmana, m. inst. sg. BY cpd., by him whose self is controlled.) tu, but, however. yatata (m. inst. sg. pro act. participle -.lyat), by striving, with effort. sakyas (m. nom. sg. gerund -.lsak), possible, able. avaptum (infinitive ava -.lap), to attain, to reach, to obtain. upaya (m.), means, course. -tas (adverbial suffix), through, by.

asamyatiitmanii yogo

by him whose self is uncontrolled, Yoga
~mairma:1
du~priipa

iti me matil:z

difficult to attain, thus of me the thought;
'WI kil '11
~ l:ffiffi

vasyiitmanii tu yatatii

by him whose self is controlled, but, by striving,
~Ts<IT~~:11

sakyo 'vtiptum upiiyatal:z

possible to attain through a (proper) course. I agree that yoga is difficult to attain By him whose self is uncontrolled; but By him whose self is controlled, By striving, it is possible to attain through proper means.

307

VI
~"~I
arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke:
arjunas (m. nom. sg.), Arjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perf. act. :.Jvac), he said, he spoke.

37
~a:~)ire"T
ayatis (m. nom. sg.), the uncontrolled one, the unsubdued one. sraddhaya (f. inst. sg.), by faith, with faith. upetas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle upa Ji), arrived at. yogat (m. abl. sg.), from Yoga. calita (p. pass. participle J cal), moved, gone astray, deviated, fallen away. miinasas (m. nom. sg.), mind, spirit. (calitamanasas, m. nom. sg. BV cpd., whose mind has fallen away.) aprapya (gerund a pra Jap), not attaining, not reaching, without attaining. yogasamsiddhim (f. acc. sg.), Yoga-perfection, perfection in Yoga. kam (f. acc. sg. interrog.), what? gatim (f. acc. sg.), road, goal, path. kr~lJa (m. voc. sg.), Krishna. gacchati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. J gam), he goes, he walks, he moves.

ayatilJ sraddhayopeto the uncontrolled one who has arrived at faith,
<r~0<:f'"lI"H1: I

yogiiccalitamiinasal; whose mind has fallen away from Yoga
~<rFrnfm~

apriipya yogasamsiddhim not attaining Yoga-perfection

<fit m~ 'l'1SUf ~a II
kiim gatim krfl}a gacchati what road, Krishna, he goes?

Arjuna spoke; One who is uncontrolled though he has faith, Whose mind has fallen away from yoga, Who does not attain perfection in yoga, Which way, Krishna, does he go?

308

VI
38
'lif~.,nm-q~

kaccin nobhayavibhra~tas is it that not (from) both (worlds) fallen,
fmn"l;if~~q ~a- I

kaccid, is it that? na, not. ubhaya (m.), both.
vibhra~fas

(m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle vi

.Jbhrans), fallen, failed, deserted.

chinnabhram iva nasyati disappearing-claud-like, he is lost,
mrf~T~T
aprati~tho

mahiibiiho having no solid ground, 0 Mighty Armed One (Krishna),

f~T~:qf~11

vimurjho brahma1}a~ pathi confused of Brahman on the path?

Is he not lost like a disappearing
clou~

(m. nom. sg. TP cpd., failed in both.) chinna (p. pass. participle .Jchid) , cut off, split, pierced, effaced, blotted out, disappeared. abhram (n. nom. sg.), cloud, thunder cloud. (chinna-abhram, m. nom. sg. KD cpd., blotted-out cloud.) iva, like. nasyati (3rd sg. pr. indie. act. .Jnas) , he is lost, he is destroyed. aprastiqlJas (m. nom. sg.), having no solid ground, fluctuating, unsafe. mahabiiho (m. voc. sg.), 0 Mighty Armed One, epithet here applied to Krishna. vimii£!has (m. nom. sg. p. pass participle vi .Jmuh), confused, deluded. brahmalJas (n. gen. sg.), of Brahman. pathi (m. loco sg.), on the path, on the road.

ubhaya-vibhra~fas,

Having fallen from both worlds, Having no solid ground, 0 Krishna, Confused on the path of Brahman?

" "Both worlds," viz. the here and the hereafter, earth and heaven. t This is one of two instances in the Bhagavad Citii where Krishna is addressed as "Mighty Armed," usually Arjuna's nickname. The other instance is in XI 23. The nickname is used throughout the Mahiibhiirata as a designation for eminent warriors.

309

VI
39
~lrm~ etan me samsayam kTf'Ja this of me doubt, Krishna ~~'J;[~~~:I chettum arhasy ase~atalJ to efface thou art able without remainder;,
~: ~~14f4lf4

tvadanyalJ samsayasyiisya other than thee, of (this) doubt, of it,

~"~~II
chettii na hy upapadyate an effacer not indeed he comes forth.

etad (n. acc. sg.), this. me (gen. sg.), of me, my. samsayam (m. acc. sg.), doubt, uncertainty, irresolution. k~~1Jfl (m. voc. sg.), Krisha. chettum (infinitive .Jchid), to cut away, to efface. arhasi (2nd sg. pr. indic. act . .Jarh), thou art able, thou art capable, please to. ase~atas (adv.), without remainder, wholly, totally. tvadanyas (m. nom. sg.), other than thee. samsayasya (m. gen. sg.), of doubt, ofuncertainty. asya (m. gen. sg.), of it, of this. chetta (m. nom. sg.), cutter-away, effacer. na, not. hi, indeed, truly. upapadyate (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid. upa ../pad), he arrives, he comes forth, he exists.

You are able, Krishna, To dispel the totality of this doubt of mine; Other than You, no one Comes forth to help me erase this doubt.

310

of this. sg. kascid anyone. neither here on earth. The Blessed Lord spoke: Arjuna." to misfortune. eva. indic. na. nor. '" I. my son. sg. Son of Prthii.). of him. nom. my son.f~~~ 'fif~ na hi kalya1.. na. neither here on earth nor in heaven above Is there found to be destruction of . virtuous. doing good. father (term of affection between seniors and juniors). not. sg. gen. My Son. nom. voc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). here. nom. perfect act. passive . anyone whatever. he said. tasya (m. not. uvaca (3rd sg.Jvac). epithet of Arjuna. it is to be found. na.lakrt kascid not indeed good-doing anyone ~a' GTcf ~f(f II durgatiriz tata gacchati to misfortune. the uncontrolled man who has arrived at faith but has fallen from Yoga. it is found. "hard road. sg. pr.).VI ?l~~ sribhagavan uvaca srfbhagavan (m. vinasas (m. sg. there in heaven. here on earth. him' No one who does good Goes to misfortune.Jnas). he goes. he walks. misfortune. nor there above f~~f<rn~1 vinasas tasya vidyate destruction of him it is found . kaly'alJakft (m. neither. loss. durgatim (f. amutra (adv. not. truly. iha. the Blessed Lord spoke: 40 q-r~~<fTlP piirtha naiveha namutra partha (m. hi. tata (m.Jgam). the Blessed Lord. Son of Prthii. indeed. pr. acc.). indic. voc.). destruction. there above. act. .).e. sg. . verbal noun from vi . from kalyalJa + JkI:).J2 vid). to the unfortunate goal. the Blessed One. gacchati (3rd sg. 311 . sg.). vidyate (3rd sg. he goes. he spoke.

loco sg. worlds.Jbhrahs). sama!. lawn (m. BY cpd. acc. pl.[Gc't sf~ II 'bhijayate he who has fallen from Yoga.fRt :»r'"'lmrt ~ sucinam srimatam gehe of the radiant and of the illustrious in the dwelling '" yogabhra~to (fm. having dwelt.). 312 .). of the meritorious u#tva sasvati!. lost to Yoga. pl. of the good doing. dwelling.. gen. Attaining the worlds of the meritorious. gehe (n..Jap) . of the virtuous acting. of the happy. he is born. pl. pl. participle yoga . in the house. nom. sucinam (m. samas (f. perpetual. pl. fallen from Yoga.. pass. the worlds ~1WfT~r:~: I prapya (gerund pra .) in the dwelling. pUfJyakt:tam (m. p. reach- ing. He who has fallen from yoga is bom again In the dwelling of the radiant and the illustrious. gen. srimatam (m. he is born again. constant. abhijayate (3rd sg. ace.). gen./3 vas). sg. of the auspicious making. Having dwelt there for endless years.. gone from Yoga.). having dwelt for endless years ~:. he is reborn. pl. endless. acc.). of the famous. he is born again_ acting. attaining. years.VI 41 >no:r~-~ prapya PU?lyakrtam lokan attaining of the meritorious doing. of the illustrious.). of the radiant. pro indic.Jjan).-. Utiitva (gerund . sasvatis (f. yogabhras!as (m. passive abhi ..

pro indic. of yogins. ~f~~m!i etad dhi durlabhataram this indeed more difficult to attain ~~ '1f"Tf lR ~ II . which. truly.). sg. dhimatiim (m. in the family. harder to obtain. pl. of wise. hi. of such a kind. sg. in the world. he comes to be. yoginiim (m. loke janma yad idrsam in the world birth which such.). JbhU). gen. loco sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). of the wise.VI 42 ~~1:1Tf~tzCf athavii. loco sg. durlabhataram (n. sg. this. janma (n. otherwise. idfsam (n. bhavati (3rd sg. lake (m. indeed. etad (n.).). nom. nom. act.). nom. of the learned ones.). Such a birth as this is very difficult To attain in the world. sg. gen. such. kule (n. G . sg.). Or he may be born in the family Of wise yogins. nom. 313 . nom. birth.). more difficult to attain. he exists. yad (n. pl. athavii yoginiim eva or else of yogins ~ <TCff~ eft1fflTl{ I kule bhavati dhimatiim in the family he comes to be. comparative). eva. or else.

314 . he obtains. it. and. joining together of knowledge. this. ~ "f ear -rr: yatate ca tata bhuyal. kurunandana (m. loc. again. Son of Kuru. acc. sg. mid . tatra. TP cpd.Jlabh) . from a former body. Joy of Kuru. acc. from thence. he makes effort.). epithet of Arjuna. pro indic. tam (m. from there. sg. labhate (3rd sg.Jyat) .). intelligence-accretion. ~q'1cf~f~1 labhate piiurvadehikam he receives. from a previous birth. toward perfection. accretion of experience.). derived from a former incarnation.). he receives. bhuyas (adv. There he regains the knowledge Derived from a former body. him. sg. . intelligence-accretion. sg. piiurvadehikam (m.). indic. accretion of knowledge. ArjIDla. toward success. ca. tatas. there. acc. And he strives onward once more Toward perfection. Descendant of Kuru. pr.). voc. buddhisamyogam (m. mid . he strives. and he strives from thence once more m~1~11 samsiddhiiu kurunandana toward perfection. once more. sg.VI 43 ~a'"frnFt tatra tam buddhisamyagath there it. derived from a former body. . yatate (3rd sg. samsiddhiiu (f.

by it.). yogasya (m. also. nom. api. By prior practice. sg.).e. acc. against will.) ativartate (3rd sg. Brahman. nom. indeed. acc. even. inst. (sabda-brahma. KD cpd. api. by this. pr. n. mid. nom. anxious to know. of Yoga ~1$<:. pr. he is carried on.VI 44 ~m piirviibhyiisena teniiiva by prior practice. wordbrahman. he. f~mq'<r~ jijfiiisur api yogasya the wishing to know even. desirous of knowing. also. He is carried on.). without will. sg. exammmg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sabda (m. indeed against will even. avasas (m. sg. hriyate (3rd sg. he goes beyond. truly.e. 315 . sg. ati -Jv~t). indic.~sfq'~:1 h~iyate hy avaso 'pi sal} he is carried on. passive -Jh~). even against his will.). he is conveyed. by it.). of Yoga. piirva-abhyiisena (m. Vedic recitation). jijfziisus (m.~@lr~1I sabdabrahmiitivartate word Brahman (i. sg. sg. from desiderative -Jjfiii). sound. indic. tena (m. by prior performance. without wish. KD cpd. sg. Vedic recitation) he transcends. sg. sas (m.). this. hi.). word. wishing to know.. eva. by prior practice. he. f~W. brahma (n. even. he transcends. he is brought. He who even wishes to know of yoga Transcends Brahman in the fonn of SOWld (i. inst. gen.

from persevering effort.e. birth. successful through many incarnations. completely cleansed of guilt. act. prayatnat (m. janma (n. yati (3rd sg. to the supreme. samsiddhas (m. the supreme. participle sam Jsudh). sg. not one. restrained. yatamanas (m. nom. BV cpd. from there. successful. sg. sin. to the highest. from exertion. indeed. pr. participle). t!~'fl'Jj~144f~ anekajanmasamsiddhas not-one-birth-perfected. nom. indic. many.). he goes. sg. pr. yogi (m. The yogin. 316 .). who is completely cleansed of evil. controlled. evil. sg. abl. sg. nom. acc. nom. completely purified. (samsuddhakilbi~as. gatim (f. nom. TP cpd.). p. And perfected through many births. participle sam Jsidh). pass. m.). sg. guilt.. sg. then.). perfected through many births. J ya). sg. perfected.) aneka (n. abl. sg.VI 45 ~ llcP'lI'Ht <I prayatnad yatamanas tu from presevering effort (and) controlled mind indeed yogi sa1itSuddhakilbi~alJ the yogin. kilbi~as (m. eRrr llTfcr q-U 'lfi:r II tato yiiti param gatim then he goes to the Supreme Goal. pass. completely cleansed.) tatas (m. nom. path. param (f. but.. mid. m. sg.). Through persevering effort and controlled mind. tu. samsuddha (p. (anekajanmasamsiddhas.).). i. acc. goal. yogin. completely cleansed of evil. Then goes to the supreme goal.

).). pass. Arjuna. nom. He is also thought to be superior to the learned. And the yogin is superior to those who perform ritual works.). going beyond. to the active. believed to be.). adhikas (m. The yogin is superior to the ascetics.). yogi (m. to the ascetics. going beyond. voc. api. superior. bhava (2nd sg. yogin. nom. sg. m[<n-'-TT sf'1lRrT sf"l'Ji: I jnanibhyo 'pi mato 'dhika/. pl. imperative act.VI 46 ~~lfT sf"l'JiT ll1<rr tapasvibhyas (m. therefore. abl. abl. sg. to the knowing. ca. yogi (m. thought. to those active in ritual. superior. '1if~ '<ITf"l'JiT l1mr karmibhyas cadhiko yogi and to the active (in ritual) superior the yogm ~l1mr~11 . even. thought to be. from this. pl.). nom. yogin.). sg. also.Jbhu). . 317 . jfitinibhyas (m. adhikas (m. nom.Jman). p. matas (m. A1juna. tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yogi to the ascetics superior the yogin. nom. Therefore. nom. be a yogin. be! arjuna (m. yogi (m. tasmtit (m. '" tasmiid yogi bhaviirjuna therefore a yogin be! Arjuna. karmibhyas (m. sg. sg. superior. participle . and. pl. adhikas (m. yogin. to the learned.). abl.t to the learned also thought to be superior.).). sg.). nom. abl. sg. going beyond. sg. sg.

). ~ffi<fT+rt Sraddhiivan bhajate yo mam full of faith he honors. with the inner self. believed to be. sg. sraddhiiviin (m. api. through bhokti.). Of all these yogins. inst. participle. nom. nom. most devoted. of the yogins even. sg. of . gen. madgatena (m. he. part. most steadfast. me ~lf~+ffi: II sa m~ yuktatamo mata!.). full of faith. sas (m. thought. pro indic. sg. me (dat. gone to me. 318 . or love. of all these. inst. rich in faith. most attached.). also.). sg.).). sg. nom. he loves. believed. nom. by the inner self. gen. matas (m. . this. by going to me. p.VI 47 <fn~mtfmt yoginam api sarve~am yoginiim (m. who.e.). End of Book VI The Yoga of Meditation • I. pass.Jyuj). Is thought to be the most devoted toMe. yuktatamas (m. superlative of yukta. who. full of faith. sg. miim (acc. or the Supreme Spirit. thought to be. madgatenantaratmana to me by going with inner self. sg. to me. he worships. yas (m.Jman). whose mind is perpetually fixed on God. of the yogins.). of all these.Jbhaj) . even. sg. sg. me. pl. He who has merged his inner Self in Me. bhajate (3rd sg. he honors. p. sarve~iim (m. he to me the most devoted thought to be. pl. antariitmanii (m. Honors Me. pass. nom. mid .

nom. participle . ST:1Ju (2nd sg. dependent on me. samagram (adv. wholly. Yoga practicing. me. . pr. yogam (m.). intent on. dependent on Me. thought. acc. pass. attached to.BOOK VII ~~~I srfbhagavan (m. future act. entirely.). dependent on me.) partha (m. mantis (n. uvaca (3rd sg. madasrayas (m.Jyuj). partha in me whose mind is absorbed.:\1: '1T~ mayi (loc. entirely me. that hear! The Blessed Lord spoke: With mind absorbed in Me. sg. without irresolution. one whose mind is absorbed. he said. absorbed mayy asaktamanal. voc. epithet of Arjuna. hear that! whose mind is attached. devo- Pr tha . Yoga. nom. sg. he spoke. Practicing yoga.). in which way. Without doubt. ~~+rt asamsayam samagram mam without doubt. You shall know Me completely.rVp>t 1*1 'ffi 14 . practicing. yufijan (m. Son of Pl1ha. (asaktamantis. ace. the Blessed Lord. asamsayam (adv. participle a . in me. mind. . <rmm+ro~:1 tion. Arjuna. sg. one yogam yuiijan madasrayal. this. sg. sg. how. sg.Jsafij). performing. without doubt.). jfiasyasi (2nd sg. imperative . yatha.). nom. mam (acc. sg. 1 . perfect act. m. <r~ IDBrf*1" ~ur II yatha jiiasyast t~c chr1}u how thou shalt know. nom..). taking refuge in me. BY cpd. tad (n.).Jsru). Son of in. sg. sg. thou shalt know.). sg. hear! 319 . asakta (p. nom. that.).). without qualification.Jjfia). sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: the Blessed One.Jvac).

wisdom. sg. indic. sg. yad (n. knowledge. acc. sg. savijiiiinam (n.).). as "having been understood"). having understood (here in a passive sense. sg.Jsi!!). aham (nom. Along with realization. to thee.VII 2 m<t~~m~ jiiiinam te 'ham savijiiiinam jiiiinam (n. here. 1. not here the world further (anything) other ~:wn~11 III jiiiitavyam avaSiFyate to be known it remains. jiiiitavyam (n.). further. other. Which. bhUyas. acc. avasi~ate (3rd sg. na.Jjiiii). iha. sg. nothing further Remains to be known here in the world. knowledge to thee I. along with discrimination. having been understood.). to be known. nom. acc. I shall tell. not. anyat (n. ase!!atas (adv. it remains. vak~iimi (1st sg.Jvac). acc. 320 . sg. ~q~~:1 idam vakFyiimy aseFata/J this I shall explain without remainder ~mm~'rl)~ yaj jiiiitvii neha bhUyo ' nyaj which.). here on earth.). with discrimination. this. passive ava . having been known. nom. having known. along with discrimination.). which. again. with understanding. I shall say. knowing. To you I shall explain in full this knowledge.). without remainder.Jjiiii). pr. idam (n. (adv. future act. sg.). it is left. sg. gerundive . jiiiitvii (gerund . . te (dat. I shall explain. in full.

yatatiim (gen.VII 3 JOt"1tS4l ojj ~ '" "'<""1 manu~ya1}am sahasre~u of mankind in thousands <fif~ <refa. he strives. sahasrelfu (m. . scarcely anyone).). pl. Scarcely anyone knows Me in truth. tattvatas (adv.).). of the perfected. of mankind. kaScin mam vetti tattvatalJ (scarcely) anyone me he knows in reality. api. siddhiiniim (m. to perfection.). anyone. of the striving. sg. anyone whatever (here. in reality. act. Even of the striving and the perfected. pro indic. gen. me.Jyat). ~~fq-f~ yatatam api siddhanam of the striving even. participle . even. of men. kascid. . yatati (3rd sg.Jvid). kascid.). of the perfected.Jyat). he knows. truly. siddhaye (f. gen. miim (acc. scarcely anyone). dat. Scarcely anyone strives for perfection. vetti (3rd sg. toward perfection. pl. 321 . anyone (here. loco pl. <fif~ +IT ~~ m<m: II manuryiilJiim (m. pro act. (scarcely) anyone strives for perfection. pI. also. he stretches. pro indic. act . in thousands.fm I kascid yatati siddhayc.). sg. Of thousands of men.

).). sky. sg. nom. mind. ~ +!'fT ~. bhinna (f. nom. • These are Siimkhya categories. "egotism"). nature. water.VII bhiimir apo 'nalo vayw. sg. sg. of me. participle. analas (m. so. iti. prak~tis (f. sg. sg. my. divided. intelligence and ~~r:ti:r ahamkara itiyam me self consciousness thus this of me f"+!?IT ~~ ~err II bhinna prakrtir a~tadha divided nature eightfold. 322 . thought. nom. Ether. p. fire. iyam (f. nom.). apas (f. me (gen. wind. this. nom. eva. sg. nom. vayus (m. the waters. a~(adhii (adv. My material nature. sg. intelligence.). split.). pl. sg. eightfold. is divided into eight parts.). earth. manas (n." consciousness of the self (sometimes. fire.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). sg. intellect And egoism this. mind. air. bhUmis (f. water. earth.). nom. sg. nom. sg. nom. space. "I making. kham (n. and. ether.). ahmnkiiras (m. fire. pass. Earth. material nature. thus.).a~ ~ "f I kham mana buddhir eva ca ether. nom. buddhis (f. water. nom.Jbhid).). wind. mind. ca.

dhiiryate (3rd sg. a lower and a higher one. 323 . is not of the same order of this non-spiritual prahrti which solely consists of the objects experienced by the spiritual beings.). iyam (f. 0 Mighty Armed One.). consisting of the jfvas. here. however.VII 5 ~~~~ apareyam itas tv anyiim inferior this. universe. viddhi (2nd sg. sg." . -Jvid). learn! me (gen. supreme.). sg. "God's higher prahrti. sg. prakr:tim (f. sg. sg. itas. pariim (f.. imperative act. consisting of souls. Such is My inferior nature. idam (n. but other ~cf f<if{r l'r em+!: I aparii (f. sg. nom. it is supported. my. tu. sg.). this.Ramanuja. sg. pr.). indeed. world. By which this universe is sustained.). yayii (f. 0 Mighty Armed One ~~~II beings. this. anyiim (f. nom.). other. consisting of spiritua jivabhiitiim mahiibiiho the spiritual beings. yayedam dhiiryate jagat by which this it is sustained the universe. The lower one is the prahrti of this world consisting of endless various objects. the jivas. of me. nom. jagat (n. mahiibiiho (m.). but is constituted by the spiritual beings themselves. acc. it is sustained.). sg. inferior. sg. acc. sg. acc. the Self. by which. this.). inst. means and occasions of material experience and divided into eight categories" (see stanza 4) . know! prakrtim viddhi me pariim nature know of me the highest. jfvabhutiim (f. epithet of Aljuna and other warriors. highest. voc. nom. lower.. acc.). nature. But know it as different from My highest nature. • God has two prahrtis. indic. 0 Arjuna. causative passive -Jdhr:).

(etadyonini bhiitani sarvafJi.VII 6 ~RTf'f~'f etadyonini bhiLtiini this (my highest nature) the wombs (of) beings. gen.). origin.). yonini (n. thus. sg. gen. 324 . beings.). all.). origins. I of the entire universe 'Sl~: ~~?IT II prabhaval.). wombs. this. pl. all creatures have their wombs in this. ~~~I etad (n. nom. sarvafJi (n. sg. ceasing to exist. nom. also. sg. tatha. of the universe. of the whole.). Understand this! I am the origin and also the dissolution Of the entire universe. pl. of the world. imperative upa -:. pralayas tathii the origin and the dissolution also. pralayas (m. pro indic. prabhavas (m. All creatures have their birth in this. sg. jagatas (n. creatures. causative act. nom.). prehend! aham (nom.). My highest nature. bhiitani (n. sg. thus. pl. nom. kI:tsnasya (n. upadharaya (2nd sg. dissolution. sg.}dhl:).). nom. coming to be. understand! com- aharh krtsnasya jagatal. I. of the entire. thus understand! ~~~: iti. nom.) sarviil/ity upadhiiraya all.

woven.re-:~~ IIUlttas (abl. . strung. other.). higher. clusters of pearls. than me. from me. o Arjuna. sg. comparative). all. not. in me. dhanamjaya (m. Conqueror of Wealth. protam (n. sg.). sg. anything whatever. siitre (n.). pl. nom. anything. nom. superior. clusters of jewels. na. voc. indic . nom. nom.f~ mm <R. matta!.). asti (3rd sg. sg. parataram niinyat than me higher not other fit. epithet of AIjuna. this. Conqueror of Wealth. anyat (n. iva. participle pra . IIUllJigmJiis (m. on a thread.f111 kimcid asti dhanamjaya anything there is.). parataram (n. lIUlyi (loc. nom. pearls.). like. it is.ii iva on-a-thread-pearls-like.). on me.). Nothing higher than Me exists. idam (n. sg. 325 . On Me all this universe is strung Like pearls on a thread. sarvam (n.Jas).igm.. loco sg. sg.Jve). sg. sg. there is. nom.VII 7 . kimcid. +rflT~~m mayi sarvam idam protam on me all this universe strung ~ +rf1lJlT1llT ~ II sutre mm. pr.

virility. i. loco sg. aham (nom. >!1JfGf:~ pralJaval. liquidity. surya (m. in the ether. I am the radiance in the moon and sun. gen.). 5Tmf~m~T:1 prabhiismi saSisuryayol. in all the Vedas.). sg.!'\ II ~ sabdal. rasas (m. nom. prabha (f. in the waters. nom..e. along with sasiiilka (rabbit marked) one of the most common of all Sanskrit terms for the moon. taste. indic . m. in the air. manhood.). sg. I am the liquidity in the waters. Son of Kunt!. I am. the moon.). sarvavede~u the sacred syllable (Om) in all the Vedas ~:~q~.). the sun. the sacred syllable "Om. dual. The sound in the air. radiance. sg. voc.) pralJGvas (m. sabdas (m. The sacred syllable (Om) in all the Vedas. and the manhood in men. pr. of the moon and sun.). loco pl. that which contains the rabbit (Sasa). pauru!iam (n. in men. potency. (sasisuryayos. khe piiuruwm nNu the sound in the air.Jas). kaunteya (m. splendor. the radiance I am in that which contains the rabbit.). nom.)." 326 . flavor. sg. nom. the manhood in men.). epithet of Arjuna. loco pl.). in water. sg. apsu (f. asmi (1st sg. sasi (m.).VII 8 ~T~~'fi~ raso 'ham apsu kiiunteya. • "That which contains the rabbit" (SaSin). khe (n. sg. m:!iu (m. 1. light. . '"' and the sun. sg. sound. loco pl. . said to arise because the Hindus saw a "rabbit in the moon.). Arjuna. Son of KuntI." sarvavedqu (m. nom. the liquidity I in the waters.).

auspicious. and. austerity. loco pl. fragrance. sacred.). loco pl. And the brilliance in the ftre. brilliance. in flame. asmi (rst sg. splendor. nom. The life in all beings.jfl "''1 ~~ '" '" jivanarh sarvabhute~u the life in all beings (1q"ffif'flT ~~ II '" tapaiciismi tapasvi~u and the austerity I am in ascetics. tapas (n.). nom. . 327 . of the earth. ca. indic . in holy men.VII 9 ~) '1"0i: ~~ 'if pur. pleasant. in all beings. . vibhtivasau (m.). I am.). I am. in the earth. .). sg. pu"yas (m.yo gandha~ prthivyiirh ca and the pure fragrance in the earth. nom. ca. I am the pure fragrance in the earth.). sg. radiance. asmi (rst sg. and. nom. ~ffifflT f<nrr<m11 tejaiciismi vibhiivasiiu and the brilliance I am in the sun. tejas (n. selfdenial. heat. in ascetics.Jas). gandhas (m.loc. sg.). jfvanam (n. pr.). nom.Jas).). ca. sg. And the austerity in ascetics. indie . smell. pure. sg. and. sg. loco sg. pr. tapasvi~u (m. in the sun. p~thivyam (f. life. sarvabhiitqu (m.

sg. gen. am I. 1. . germ. sg. epithet of Arjuna. viddhi piirtha saniitanam know.). ~ ~ buddhir buddhimatiim asmi the intelligence of the intelligent I am ~~ ~.Jvid). buddhis (f. of the brilliant.).. of all creatures.. sg. splendor.).. nom. imperative act .). brilliance. primaeval. tejas (n. me. nom. . The splendor of the splendid. tejasviniim (m. ArjW1a. intelligence. of the intelligent. pl. voc.. buddhimatiim (m. sg. viddhi (2nd sg. pl. ancient. I am the intelligence of the intelligent.)..g: qr~ (1 '11 d '1 S!. nom. seed. aham. Know Me to be the primeval seed Of all creatures. sg.). asmi (1st sg.Jas). primaeval crf~crf~m~ . primary cause. of those who are intelligent. of all creatures fcrf. sanatanam (n. of the splendid. of the radiant. me. the seed.. radiance.VII 10 Gf'hf+rt~ bijam miim sarvabhutiiniim bijam (n. pr. 328 ..rf~~~ II tejas tejasviniim··aham the splendor of the splendid. Son of Prtha. of all beings.). sg.).1. . Son of Prthii. I am.). gen. nom. sarvabhutiinam (m. miim (acc. pl. gen. know! learn! piirtha (m. indic .

pass. I. loco pl. pro indic.).). of the mighty. strength. sg. bharatar~abha (m. desire. love. diverted from passion. freed from passion.).) dharma (m. balavatiim (m. desire. riigavivarjitam (n. Bull of the Bharatas. 329 . duty.). Arjuna. nom. sg. rule. TP cpd. (dharma-aviruddhas. pass. nom. of the strong. love. ca.) bhiitqu (m.. nom. justice. sg. (kama-riiga-vivarjitam. according to. sg. participle raga vi -. voc. in beings. freed from passion and desire. aviruddhas (m. sg. pl. consistent with. nom. nom.). I am. asmi (1st sg. ~ffi~1 kamaragavivarjitam desire and passion freed from. participle a vi -. and. And I am that desire in beings Which is according to law. sg. and the might of the mighty. aham (nom. Which is freed from lust and passion. not encountering resistance from. gen.lrudh). And the might of the mighty I am. ~~T+!~ " '" dharmaviruddho bhiitefu according to law in beings CfiTliT sf~ ~+T II kamo ' sf!li bharatar~abha love I am.lv~j). nom. epithet of Arjuna. m. kamas (m.). might.). not opposed to law. kama (m. with passion set aside.VII 11 ~~~ balain balavatam caham balam (n. not opposed to. in creatures. -. n. TP cpd. Bull of the Bharatas. p.. law.). sg.las). I. force. p. sg.

). nom. loco sg. pl. siittvikiis (m. te!ju (m. <t I riijasiis tiimasiisca ye rajasic and tamasic which ~~~~f<n. and. nom. I in them.~~~~llflf II na tv aham te~u te mayi not. 330 . states of being. modes of behavior. tu. which. depend on God whose body they constitute. rajasic. from me. are se$as (remainders) of God and depend on God inasmuch as they constitute his body. mayi (m. rajasas (m.). tamasic. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler) . but. pl.).VII 12 <t ~ ~~ '+lIcIT ye ciiiva siittvikii bhiivii and which (are) sattvic states of being ~ d ll'Hm"l ye (m.. which. Know that they proceed from Me. matlas (abl. I. and God himself is modified by all these entities of which He is the iilman. they are in Me. material objects and their causes.). eva. tamasas (m. pl. aham (m. .. nom. imperative act. not. they In me. .). . in them. derived from the rajas gUl)a (gul)a of passion and power). them. loco pl. ca. pl. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).>m.).). sg. derived from the sattva gUl)a (the gUl)a of goodness). acc. God himself. pl. comings into existence.). And those states ofbeing which are sattvic. te (m. These entities which are of the nature of sattva. senses. thus. ca. who. they. All these entities with their peculiar individuality and characteristics have originated from God. sattvic. pl. And those which are rajasic and tamasic.). know! learn! na.). viddhi (2nd sg. nom. iti. But I am not in them.Riimiinuja.Jvid). nom. tan (m. who. in me. nom.[ matta eveti tan viddhi from Me indeed them know! . does not depend on them.). eva. pl. ye (m. nom. derived from the tamas gUl)a (gul)a of darkness and sloth). but.). however. and. bhiivas (m. sg. pl. rajas and lamas and which exist in this world in the form of body.

abhijaniiti (3rd sg. it perceives. sg. by gUl). determining his mental outlook and his actions. sarvam (n.).were originally thought.zas. avyayam (m. But most men will be found to have elements of gur. highest.VII 13 f~~~~ tribhir gU1}amayiiir bhiiviiir by the three gUQa-made states of being. than these. All the universe and all the things in it are the creations of Sagur. 331 .zas. sg.. The word gUl:za means" strand. from these. na. Only the sages are able to lift the veil of maya and perceive the reality that is Brahman behind it.). nom. causative participle .a formed.za Brahman. . rajas.zas. And only those who persevere in meditation. sg.zas. not. abhi . A man whose nature is dominated by sattva will be clear thinking. inst. inst.). by the Samkhya philosophers who first identified and named them. by gUl). They can exist in different proportions in a single being.e. Composed of the qualities. and eternal.za or the nirvar. nom. by states of being. gUl']amayais (m. all. radiant and truthful. this. and attain liberation and union with Brahman. it becomes aware of. pl. acc. mam (acc. finally to reach Brahmanirvar. not it recognizes lfTll.zas.). The gur. by the three.). nom.za Brahman creates and maintains the world (or the cosmic illusion) by its powers of projection and concealment.a produced. pl. to be substances. sativa is intelligence.zas different from their dominating ones.. this Sagur. me. quick to anger and greedy.). act. or illumination and truth. higher. mohitam (n.). sloth and dullness . ebhis (m. are constituents of that maya. sg. lazy and stubborn. or power of illusion. ebhi~ sarvam idam jagat by these. The aim of the upward reaching atman. is to transcend the gUlJas. i. pl. The three gUl). pl. According to still another interpretation. • bhavais (m.za) Brahman. jagat (n.Jjfiii). right action and the aquisition of knowledge through many lives are permitted to voyage beyond maya and the gur. sg. Later they became attributes of the psyche. possessed by Qualified (Sagur. rajas is movement and tamas is obstruction. lfTf~m~~ mohitam niibhijiiniiti deluded. and tamas or darkness.~: qnr ~ II miim ebhya~ param avyayam me. Through the gur. All this universe is deluded by these three states of being. imperishable.' . sg. eternal. . world. by three.as .). and all are subject to the influences of the gur. pl. all this universe tribhis (m. abl. Sattva has been equated with essence. rajas with energy and tamas with mass. inst. universe. Who am higher than these. ""+r:m~~1 '-'. nom. A man whose nature is dominated by rajas will be passionate.sativa. sg.a made. break free of their bondage. by these. idam (n. confused. by modes of behavior. deluded.). ebhyas (m. or passion and desire. moreover. It does not recognize Me.). or self. param (m.).za of Brahman. to be motivated by a combination of gur. pr. They chain down the soul to thought and matter. by gUl). A man whose nature is dominated by tamas will be stupid. or material nature is conceived as a cord woven from the three gur. it recognizes.zas." and prakrti." "thread" or "rope. indic. inst. than these higher (and) eternal. acc.Jmuh).

from dur ati :'. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). who. gUlJamayl (f. te (m. sg.).). illusion.VII 14 ~<frw.).). nom.). 332 . mama (gen. nom. they resort to. nom. nom. difficult to penetrate. sg. they penetrate. they pass beyond. hard to go beyond. indic. heavenly. pra -Jpad). prapadyante (3rd pI. acc.~~r diiivi hy efii gw:zamayi divine indeed this gUl). they take refuge with. sg. difficult to penetrate. indic. sg. e~a (f. sg. And difficult to penetrate. ye (m. they. gUl}a-made. illusion. my.). etam (f. mam (acc. miiyam (f. they attain. Divine indeed is this illusion of Mine made up of the three qualities. this. hi. mid.).). magic. indeed. they.). sg. nom.). power. nom. magic power. they transcend. gUl}aproduced. Only those who resort to Me Transcend this illusion. duratyaya (f. difficult to master. of me. truly. act. eva. miim eva ye prapadyante me only who they resort to l1l7n+{ ~ ~~ ff II miiyiim etiim taranti te illusion this they transcend.)U:).a-made l1l1m<rr~1 mama mayii duratyayii of me illusion. acc. pr. sg. this. me. sg. divine. pl. . daivl (f. pr. sg.0. pl. +m1~~~ . nom. taranti (3rd pI. maya (f.

jfliiniis (m. taken by illusion bereft of knowledge ~~mf~:11 iisuram bhtivam iisritiil} away. being. pr. pl. sg. removed. pI. apahr:ta (p. bhiivam (m. not. nom. participle apa . acc. pl. sg. Do not seek Me. demon. pl. m. bereft. pra vpad). by illusion. wisdom (plural because of nariis. acc. knowledge has been carried away.). sg. resorting to. they resort to. nom.Jmuh). nom. lowest of men. prapadyante (3rd pI.) iisuram (m. pI. mudhiis (m. having re- Evil doers. p.). nom.m~~~: na mtim du~krtino miirjhtil} na. they attain.). miim (acc. by magic miiyayiipahrtaJiiiinii power. carried off. lowest. 333 . adhamiis (m. they take refuge prapadyante nariidhamiil} they resort to. existence. demonic.). pI. iisritiis (m. du~kr:tinas not me evil-doers deluded ~~:I (m. attached. vilest.VII 15 . whose demon existence attached. (apahr:tajfliiniis. Attached as they are to a demoniacal existence. sg. wrong doers.. men). participle . nom. participle ii . evil doers. mid. knowledge.). p. pl. nom. course to. pass. pass.). BV cpd. deluded. pass.Jsri). confused. men. Deprived of knowledge by illusion. miiyayii (f. inst.Jhr:). me.). worst. narii (m. indic. nom. men lowest ~14l:nq&:a*1111 with..).

" which is favored by many native translators. arjuna (m. p. Arjuna. sukftinas (m. of four kinds. jiianf (m. he who is desirous of wealth. bhajante (3rd pI.h~1 arto. bharatar~abha (m.). ~1f~w. And the man of wisdom. sg. and. nom. nom. benevolent. sg. voc. mid . nom. from desiderative . four kinds worship Me. epithet of Arjuna. he who desires the Highest Truth. the desirous of wealth. they honor. pro indic. sg. they worship. Sri Krishna Prem has suggested that" artha " here refers to the paramiirtha. sg. Arjuna. artas (m. or highest spiritual knowledge. voc. Arjuna: The distressed. 334 . me. participle a . pl. . jijiiasur artharthi those bereft who seek to regain spiritual power.). ca.JbhaJ). pl. nom. he who is desirous of knowing. afflicted. Arjuna. men. sg.).). fourfold. Bull of the Bharatas. of arthiirthin) refers to "those who aspire to acquire knowledge of the iitman as distinct fromprakrti. miim (acc.VII 16 ~crm~+rt caturvidha bhajante math caturvidhiis (m. Among benevolent men. pass. arthiirthf(m. nom. • The common translation " desirous of wealth. sg. Bull of the Bharatas. Those who desire knowledge. learned man. sg. bereft. man of wisdom. jijiiasus (m. gooddoing.). '*' ~r"f~11 jiiani ca bharatar~abha and the man of wisdom. suffering. The meaning of the last three catagories of "benevolent men" is further explained in the next book (VIII) from stanza 8 onward. janas (m." or material nature. sg.Jf ). pl. wise man. nom.). that it cannot be entertained by the thoughtful reader. Ramanuja says that the expression arthiirthl (which is the nom.Jjiiii). those who desire knowledge. is obviously so much at odds with the other teachings of the Bhagavad Gita.). desirous of knowledge. those who desire wealth. nom. four kinds they honor me ~:~~T$I jana& suhrtino 'rjuna (among) men good-doing.).

of them. eternally steadfast." de- ekabhaktir visi~yate devoted to one alone. exceedingly. wise man. sg. nom. mama (gen. voted to one alone. fond. sas (m.). of the wise man. I am indeed exceedingly fond of the man of wisdom. ca. indeed. and he of Me fond.). jfziininas (m.).jsi~). priyas (m. joined to Yoga.). man of wisdom.). of me. dear. eternally. jfziinf (m. nom. And he is fond of Me. sg. fond. truly. ~fni\fqf~1 ekabhaktis (f. sg. indic.).). imperishably. sg. sg.). hi. gen. Of them the man of wisdom. sg. and. sg. dear. nom.). passive vi . gen.). sg. nitya (adv. sg. yuktas (m.).). viSi~ate (3rd. is preeminent. aham (nom. atyartham (adv. he. steadfast. he is pre-eminent f5T<iT f~ mf'1"fT ~~ priyo hi jiiiinino 'tyartham fond indeed of the man of wisdom exceedingly ~ ~ "pm f5T<i: II aham sa ca mama priyalJ I. the man of wisdom. learned man. priyas (m. pr. 335 . tqiim (m. sg.). worshipping a single god or absolute (as BV cpd. extraordinarily. nom. "one devoted.VII 17 ~m<fTf~ te~iim jiiiini nityayukta of them. Devoted to the One alone. nom. whose devotion is to one. 1. he is distinct. disciplined. he is distinguished. eternally steadfast. nom. pl. he is preeminent. of the man of wisdom.

). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). he indeed. miim eviinuttamiim gatim me. pl. all. atma (m. pl. indeed. path.VII 18 'Rro:~~ udiiriilJ sarva eviiite udaras (m. indeed.). exalted. sg. the self thus of me thought to be. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). nom. sg.). But the man of wisdom is thought to be My very Self. situated in. thought. noble. me (gen. wise man. gatim (f.). sg.). unsurpassed. but.). sg. nom. anuttamam (f.). eva. goal. ete (m. sarve (m. abiding in. All these are indeed noble. sg. 336 . sg. nom. nom. whose self is steadfast.). eva. pl. BV cpd. thought to be. the Supreme Goal. asthitas (m. these. supreme. me. truly.). way. He. acc. Abides in Me. the supreme goal. hi. man of wisdom. sg. jiiani (m. sg. mtim (acc. sas (m. the steadfast self. but. tu. nom. nom. this. my. nom.). sg. eva. acc. nom. noble all indeed these. whose mind is steadfast. he. matam (n.). mf~~:~fl2:~ iisthitalJ sa hi yuktiitmii abiding in. nom. jiiiinf tv iitmiiiva me matam the man of wisdom. self.).). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. of me. yuktatma (m.

sg. iti. pl. at the end. pl. of much.e. nom. nom. janmanam (n. in the end. Krishna. nom. nom. man of wisdom. descendant of Yadu." thus ij"~~:11 sa mahiitmii sudurlabha!.) one whose self is great.). sg. At the end of many births. great self. this. sg. from su dur vZabh) . of births. bahiiniim (n." Such a great soul is hard to find. Thinking "Vasudeva (Krishna) is all. sarvam iti "Vasudeva (Krishna) (is) all. • Vasudeva. 337 . all. gen. nom. Krishna) was to be born into his family. sudurZabhas(m. vasudevas (m. great soul." or Krishna. literally" the son of Vasudeva. hard to find. he takes refuge in. whose father was a son of Sura.). the gods sounded the heavenly drums. this great soul hard to find.). sg. Son of Vasudeva. jfianavan (m. sg.). sg.Qu princes (see chapter" The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita "). (as BV cpd. mahatma (m.). he attains.). the father. ante (m.e. sarvam (n. wise man.VII 19 <iR<rt~~ bahiiniirit janmaniim ante of many births at the end ~+rt~1 jfiiinaviin miirit prapadyate the man of wisdom me he resorts to ~:~~a- viisudeva!. The man of wisdom resorts to Me. pra vpad). gen. nom. pro indic. prapadyate (3rd sg. At the birth of Vasudeva. sg. miim (acc.). i. loc. difficult to obtain. Here Krishna is identified with Brahman. me. sg.). he resorts to. thus. sas (m. Krishna was a brother of Kunti. he.). mother of the three principal Pal). knowing that an avatiir of Vishnu (i. of many. mid.

h~ta (p. pr. participle . by lusts. knowledge. nom. prapadyante 'nyadevatal. pass. sg.). bereft. pl. nom. niyamam (m. constrained. pl. by desires. bereft of knowledge ~~:I kiimiiis (m. jfziiniis (m. tam tam (m.). svaya by nature constrained by own.. prak~tyii (f. be these and those. stolen away. worship. inst. resort to other gods. indic.).). Men whose knowledge has been carried away By these and those desires. pra . inst. they take refuge with. inst. anya-. acc. whose knowledge has been carried away. niyatiis (m. sg. pl. nom. by own. Constrained by their own material natures.VII 20 ~~e-~~: kiimais taistair hrtajiianal. by desires. iisthiiya (gerund ii . sg. religious obligation.). they worship. this or that. gods.Jh~).).).). 338 . Having recourse to this and that religious rite. godheads. acc. pI. by material nature./pad) .) prapadyante (3rd pI. sg. nom. pl. wisdom. pl. other. practicing. subdued. controlled. BV cpd. by these and those. they resort to other gods ~f~~~ tam tam niyamam asthaya this or that religious obligation having recourse to 'Sl~f~:~11 prakrtya niyatal. they resort to. (h~tajfziiniis..Jsthii) . held down. having recourse to. mid. following. tiiis tiiis (m. taken away.. devatiis (m. m.). inst. discipline. svayii (f.

I establish. to honor. sraddhaya (f.). yas yas (m. on whoever he is. he wishes. act. vi . gen. acc. sraddhiim (f. eva. 1. sg. tasya tasya (m. sg. faith. nom. nom. pr. participle . body.Jbhaj).: yo yo yam yam tanum bhaktalJ whoever whatever form worshipped ~~~a-I sraddhayarcitum icchati with belief to honor he desires. it. immovable. acc. to praise. acc. honored.). . I grant.VII 21 <1T <1T lit lit a1 +m. sg. worshipped. 339 . with faith. tam (f. tanum or tanum (f. whoever. On him I bestow Immovable faith.). sg. acc. p. sg. sg. yam yam (f. acalam (f. indic. acc. form. Whoever desires to honor with belief Whatever worshiped form.).). I. sg.). act. whatever. to worship. I bestow. pr. he desires. indic. on him. pass. this. inst. arcitum (infinitive .Ji~). aham (nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). steadfast. bhaktas (m.). sg. icchati (3rd sg. ~df4I:q<"'li~ tasya tasyacalath Sraddhiim on him on him immovable faith d1l!~f~~~~11 tam eva vidadhamy aham it I bestow. unmoving. sg.dhii). steady. with belief. sg. vidadhiimi (I st sg.Jarc).)..).

nom. decreed. this. begged from whatever gods. kiiman (m. kiimiin and he receives from thence (his) desires ~f<n~f~<:I'"r'(11 mayiiiva vihitiin hi tiin by me decreed. ltabh) . acc. indic. with faith. indeed. tan (m. them. sa tayii sraddhayii yuktas he with this faith endowed ~~~lf~ ~~I tasyiiriidhanam ihate of this (source) propitiation he desires. nom. joined. he.). vihitan (m. talas. tabhate (3rd sg.). of him. and that all boons. [hate (3rd sg. sg. inst.). propitiation. acc. by faith. desires. also of its religious tolerance. sg.). from a lriidh). pro indic. gen. acc. of it. He. inst. from there. he obtains. sg. participle lyuj). sg. yoked to. and. 340 . by me.). determined. ariidhanam (n. hi. mid. truly. eva. wishes. yuktas (m.). sg. them. he is eager for. indeed. mid. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). maya (inst. endowed. pass.VII 22 '" . participle vi ldhii). sraddhaya (f. pI. are granted by Him alone. with this. by this. of this. from thence. ca. • All religions are subsumed here. who. p. lfh). endowed with this faith. tasya (m. taya (f.). sg. sg. he desires to obtain. acc. Desires to propitiate that fonn. The stanza is an instance of the strong monotheistic element in the Gltli. pl. of whatever kind. pl. Receives from it his desires Because those desires are decreed by Me. he receives. p. ~"fmr:~ labhate ca tatal. and the speaking God explains that all worship. ordained. sas (m. pr. pass. goes to Him.

pr. pl. nom. api. they go to me surely. sg.VII 23 ~~~~ antavat tu phalam te~iim temporary. those who worship the gods. it is.). antavat (n. of them. indic . pI. for them. . they go. surely. nom. the god worshipping. Jya).JbM). tad bhavaty alpamedhasiim this it becomes." those who worship' me. but. they attain. My worshippers come surely to Me.). that. nom. of those of little intelligence. bhavati (3rd sg.). ~~~~ deviin devayajo yiinti to the gods.). but. indic. having an end.Jyaj). of the small in understanding. phalam (n. the gods.). pl. madbhaktas (m. result.). pr. nom. fleeting. tad (n. yanti (3rd pI. to me. from deva . devayajas (m. even. me. sg.). nom. this. . pl. indeed. the god-worshipping they go ~ ~~ +rTll: mq. it becomes.II madbhaktii yiinti miim api the me-worshipping. But temporary is the fruit For those of small understanding. alpamedhasam (m. of the small in understanding. tu. the fruit for them ~'l1CR«~fl11 " . act. they go. pro indic. fruit. devan (m. to the gods. they attain. temporary. To the gods the godworshipers go. yanti (3rd pI.Jya). indeed. sg. miim (acc. gen. pl. tqam (gen. sg. act. "those worshipping me.). acc. 341 .

invisible. p. pass. nom. anuttamam (m. * This stanza discusses idolatry. avyaktam (m. sg. the worship of the God "fallen into manifestation.). p. acc. they think me.). Though I am unmanifest. eternal. entered into.). me. existence. param (m.). ~m<fll. sg.Jman) . pI. sg. abuddhayas (m. indic. my. or even an animal or inanimate object.VII ~~ O<ff~ mtfi avyaktam vyaktim iipannam (though) unmanifest. unapparent. unmanifest. mid . sg. pr. participle a vi :Jafij). imperishable. sg.). the unintelligent. ajlinantas (m. sg. vyaktim (f. sg. highest. sg. acc. mlim (acc. acc. lipannam (m.Jpad) . being." i. bhiivam (m.[<r: I manyante miim abuddhayal. not knowing.>station. of me. the stupid ones. incomparable. or image. 342 . mama (gen. changed into. pl. unsurpassed.). not being aware of. . fallen into.e. manifestation. participle a .). the unintelligent Think ofMe as having manifi. Not knowing My higher being Which is imperishable and unsurpassed. acc. participle Ii . visibility. they imagine. sg. nom.Jjiili). or as a human being. manyante (3rd pI. acc.). acc.~~) param bhiivam ajiinanto higher being not knowing mamiivyayam anuttamam of me imperishable. unsurpassed. avyayam (m. the unintelligent. pr. pass. manifestation fallen into ~ +rT11 ~. they think. as a statue. acc. sg. higher.

prakasas (m.). sg. it perceives.). sarvasya na. shining.. imperishable. sg. sg. sarvasya (m. Being enveloped in yoga maya. TP cpd. me. aham (nom. ajam (m. this not it recognizes. to all. gen.). gerund a vi . yoga (m. The birthless and imperishable. ~T'F) llTj:t ~ 'J. not. p. manifest. not passing away. pro indic. confused. pass. avyayam (m.f0lf<:[+J: II loko rniirn ajam avyayam the world. apparent. samav~tas (m.Jjiia). sg. Yoga magic enveloped. p. unborn. lokas (m. mam (acc. participle . me. act. sg.Jv~).Ji). sg. unborn. sg. nom. enveloped.). nom. acc.). abhijanati (3rd sg. deluded. nom.).Jmuh). sg. I am not manifest to all. imperishable. <r'rTlWmf~: I yogarniiyiisamiivrta!. 343 . This deluded world does not recognize Me.) mudhas (m. abhi . nom.). nom.). world. na. not. (yoga-maya-samav~tas. this. m. 1. covered by the illusion of my yoga. pass. not I manifest to all. Yoga. maya (f. birthless. sg. ~) s<t '1Tf~'1TfQ rnu¢ho 'yani niihhijiiniiti deluded.VII 25 '!T~5f'Fm: ~~ niiham prakiisa!. nom. of all. magic. sg. sg.). participle sam a . it recognizes. ayam (m. power of illusion. acc. visible. eternal. covered.

but. ArjIDla.).:r veda (1st sg. existing. and. ca. 1. sg. the departed.:r I vartamiiniini ciirjuna and the living. creatures. I know. he knows not anyone. tu. samatftiini (n. anyone whatever.Jvid with present meaning). and. pI. beings.Jvid with present vediiham samatitiini I know. acc. pl. not. but. bhavi~iifJi (n. ka§Cana. arjuna (m. sg. yet to be. living. I know the departed beings And the living. na. acc. bhiitiini (n. . But no one knows Me. the crossed over. he knows. turning. perfect. veda (3rd sg.JVI:t).). the dead. perfect act. me. vartamiiniini (n. act. indeed. the departed cffiltRlf. pr. . moving.).:r~1I miim tu veda na kascana me. about to become. acc. participle . miim (acc. voc. aham (nom. the passed beyond.Ji). Arjuna m~11f:q¢. participle sam ati . 344 .).:r bhavi~yii1Ji meaning). future. Arjuna. And those who are yet to be. pl. acc. ca.). anyone. sg. I. ca bhUtiini and the yet-to-be beings +rt<!~. pI.VII 26 ~~Tmf.:r~.

from sam ud . nom. 345 .).VII 27 i~chiidve~~samutthena by de~:re ~~(~ and hatred rising up ~'$~I dvandvamohena bhiirata by duality delusion. Scorcher of the Foe. pr.). paraintapa (m. loco sg.). desire. m. samutthena (m. they fall into. (m. sg. inst. by the rising up. sg. sg.). etc. Descendant of Bharata.). (iccha-dve~a-samutthena. sainmoham (n. at birth. sg.). inst. ~. beings. heatcold. loathing. Atjuna. act.~~ sarvabhiitiini sammoham all beings delusion ~<nf~qimll " sarge yiinti paramtapa at birth they fall into. All beings fall into delusion At birth. acc. by the coming forth. epithet of Arjuna. iccha (f. bharata (m. sarva -.Jya). instr.. pl.).. sg. at creation. sg. all. Scorcher of the Foe. Descendant of Bharata. bhutani (n. dve~a Because of the arising of desire and hatred. aversion.). creatures. they go. by the delusion of the dualities (desire-hatred. voc. yanti (3rd pI.). antipathy. they go to.) dvandvamohena (m. delusion. Because of the deluding (power) of the opposites. by the arising of desire and hatred. indic. sarge (m. confusion.Jstha) . hatred. . voc. TP cpd. epithet of Arjuna.

of those of righteous acts. me. gen. mid . They. come-to-an-end evil. they worship me (with) firm vows. But those in whom evil has come to an end.Jgam).). moha (m. but. TP cpd. participle anta . liberated from duality and delusion. ordinances. indic.). sin." papam (m. nom. vratas (m.Jmuc) .) bhajante (3rd pI. gone to an end. m. sg. delusion. miim (acc. they worship. freed from. dvandva (n.Jbhaj). janiiniim (m. vows.). solid.) of those whose actions are pure. (dvandva-moha-nirmuktas. p. of those of good deeds.Rl1¥rnimT te dvandvamohanirmuktii they. pl. "end gone. duality. come to an end. gen.). they honor. pI. tu. a. ~lli~:11 bhajante miim drr}havratii}. firm.) 346 . nom. but. confusion.VII 28 ~t~~qN ye~iim tv antagatarn piipam of whom. of those of pure actions. nom. pl. BY cpd. Those men whose actions are pure. pI.). gen. wrong.iim of men whose actions are pure. whose vows are firm.). participle nir . acc. nom. stable. . sg. antagatam (m. of whom. Worship Me with firm vows. yqam (m.). pr. nirmuktas (m. acc.). (as BY cpd. sg. . they. evil. of men. d~4ha (m. p. pl. pI.). m. pUlJyakarmalJiim (n. pl. pl. (d~4havratas. duality delusion liberated from.). te (m. commands. liberated from. nom. polarity.. pass. ~~OlfCfl4oll"ll janiiniim pu'!yakarmar.. liberated from the deluding power of the opposites. pass.

brahma (n. the Adhyiitman. yatanti (3rd pI. and. without a gap. that. depending on Me. nom. nom. Brahman. perfect act. mararJG (n. TP cpd. sg. sg. pl.). ca.) miim (acc. sg. old age. m. they strive. dat. acc.). As well as the Self and all action.VII 29 "'<lll<OI'1l~ jariimarm. me. they strive. pl. entirely. mok~iiya 347 .Jyat).). toward release.Jvid with present meaning).z krtsnam they Brahman this they know entirely ~ 'fill "f1f~ II adhyiitmmiz karma ciikhilam the Supreme Self and action without gap.). they stretch.).). Those who strive toward release from Old age and death.). dat. sg.). tad (n.Jsri). sg. iisritya (gerund ii . kr:tsnam (adv. act. acc. deeds. karma (n.). action. toward old age and dying release from m+!. completely. akhilam (adv. vidus (3rd pI.). to liberation.. acc. ye (m.). toward release from old age and dying. adhyatmam (m. taking refuge in. who. this. wholly. sg. the Supreme Self. dying. they know. depending on. sg.lamok~iiya jara (f. te (m. . (m. they. . Know Brahman thoroughly. (jariimaralJamok~iiya.). who e-~~f~:~ te brahma tad vidul. acc. pro indic. resorting to. 'mfswr ~~ ~ I miim iisritya yatanti ye me depending on.

also. '*' me sa. The two terms are further explained in the following chapter. 348 . with.). adhidaivam (m.). adhibhUta (m.(prefix). BY cpd. yuktacetasas (m. vidus (3rd pI. sg. pl. and.).). adhiyajfzam (m.). they. they know. who they know Sl4101"'1~ sfq-:qlit praya1}akale 'pi ca math and at departure time even me a-~'i~:ll te vidur yuktacetasal} they know. perfect act. sg. me. me.). ca. those whose thought is steadfast. nom. They who know Me as the Adhibhuta and the Adhidaiva. sg. they know. at the time of departure. . sadhiyajiiam ca ye vidul} and along with the chief sacrifice. nom. As well as the chief of sacrifice. Supreme Being.VII sadhibhidadhidaivath math along with the adhibhiita.).Jvid with present meaning). They truly know Me with steadfast thought Even at the hour of death. pI. along with. who. along with. Supreme God. at the time of death. acc. sa.(prefix). Chief Sacrifice. te (m. vidus (3rd pI. mfm:q <t f~: I Lord of Sacrifice. nom. loco sg. miim (acc.). pl. prayalJakale (m. api. ye (m. Basis of Sacrifice. having steadfast thought. acc. ca.). with steadfast thought. sg. perfect act. J vid with present meaning). End of Book VII The Yoga of Knowledge and Discrimination • adhibhata (supreme being) and adhidiiiva (supreme god) are sometimes translated as "the penetrating influence of the Supreme Spirit" and "the divine agent operating on material objects" respectively. and. at the hour of death. miim (acc. even. with. '*' and the adhidaiva.

). sg. m~o':. pro passive . nom. perfect act. sg. nom. what? karma (n. Highest among Men. sg. what the adhyatma? fir. sg. sg.). n.:rf~~ " . aggregate of physical elements. what? tat (n.). nom. adhidaivam (n. what? adhyatmam (n. puru~ottama (m. sg. ~ ~~tf('t1l'l I kim karma puru~ottama what action? highest among spirits. brahma (n. it is said to be. sg.).).). what? ucyate (3rd sg. what? proktam (n. participle pra -Jvac) . declared. sg. uvaca (3rd sg. he spoke. voc. action. this.). here applied to Krishna. aggregate of elements of the individual self. Brahman. Supreme Self.BOOK VIII ~'f~1 arjunas (m. kim (interrog. said to be. nom. nom. nom. Arjuna spoke: What is this Brahman? What is the Adhyatma? What is action. ca. n. nom. what is it declared to be? And the Adhidaiva. adhibhutam (n.Jvac). '" arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: 1 fir. sg. sg.). and.). it is said. ~ ~w fCfi~ ~ kim tad brahma kim adhyiitmam what this Brahman. n. what is it said to be? 349 . kim (ingerrog. sg. Supreme God. sg. 0 highest among Spirits? And the Adhibhuta.). sg. -Jvac). declared to be. nom. nom. adhibhiitam ca kim proktam and adhibiita what declared to be? m~fCfil{ ~ II adhidiiivam kim ucyate and adhidaiva what it is said to be? kim (interrog. he said. sg. nom. nom. kim (interrog. Arjuna. n. that.). n.). kim (interrog. nom.). Supreme Being. nom. Highest among Spirits.

Jjiiii). pI.'lf~: II jneyo 'si niyatatmabhil. in this instance. in this. Basis of Sacrifice... pass. and.). Lord of Sacrifice.Jas). dehe (n..). nom. vOC.). sg.). nom. 0 Slayer of Madhu 514 IOI<flIM :q 'fi~ adhiyajiias (m. pl. to be known thou art by the controlled selves Madhu. how? ~ sf~f'1l1al. nom.). how? in what way? jiieyas (m. at the time of departure. epithet of Krishna-Vishnu referring to his killing of the demon Madhu.pi 'fiT S"f adhiyajnal. niyata (m. loco sg. controlled. at the hour of death. what? here ~sf~~1 dehe 'smin madhusudana in the body. asmin (n. BV cpd.. indic .). in this case. prayiifJakiile (m.. katham (interrog. (niyatatmabhis. sg. gerundive . sg. in the body.) In what manner. asi (2nd sg. inst. ca. Chief Sacrifice. participle ni . inst. madhusiidana (m. katham (interrog. pr. 0 Krishna? And how at the hour of death Are You to be known by those who are self-controlled? 350 . m. by selves. subdued. p. katham ko 'tra the Adhiyajiia in what manner. is the Adhiyajna Here in this body.Jyam). and what. in this. atmabhis (m.).).VIII 2 m. loco sg. interrog. who. sg. to be known.p:rn: . Slayer of praya1}akale ca katham and at time of death. by those whose selves are controlled.). what? atra. at the time of death. . here. loco sg. how? in what manner? kas (m. thou art.

Karma has many meanings. perfect act . nom. ~)~~I svabhiivo ' dhyiitmam ucyate inherent nature the adhyatman it is said.). the Blessed One. nom. is to be feared and avoided. to originate.f~~tn:+t ak~aram brahma paramam imperishable Brahman supreme. from samjfiii). svabhiivas (m.). sg. sg. own nature. sending forth.). it is called. sg. adhyiitmam (n. udbhava (m. (bhiitabhiivodbhavakaras. which originates the being of creatures. karas (m. existence. sg. imperishable.VIn ~.). nom. sg." The point is debatable. An aspirant to kiiiviilya (complete detachment of the iitman from material nature) should know that all this.:rl sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. pro indic. he said. passive .). karma (n. brahma (n. action known as. bhUtabhiiva (m. doing. smnjfiitas (n. which causes him to be reborn in this or that condition of being). and all that is connected with it.). origin.).). nom. ~~) "- bhutabhiivodbhavakaro which originates the being of creatures. 3 9. sg. nom. he spoke. nom. sg. understood to be. sg. sg.Jvac). Supreme Self. nom. called.Jvac). ucyate (3rd sg. it is said.). The Blessed Lord spoke: Brahman is the supreme imperishable.). the Blessed Lord. nom. And Adhyatma is said to be the inherent nature of the individual. etc. Action is known as the creative power (of the individual. state of being. making. TP cpd. action. discharging.ft~~:. causing. supreme. Which originates the being of creatures. 351 . • But Ramanuja says: "Karman (action) is the procreative act connected with a woman which causes a human being. nom.). inherent nature. production.) visargas (m. f~:~mmf:11 visarga/:t karmasamjflital:z creative power. uviica (3rd sg. creative power. akliaram (n. . eternal. aggregation of elements of the individual personality. sg. highest. Brahman.. m. nom. nom. known as.. paramam (n. sg.

The Adhibhuta is the perishable nature of being (or the sphere of the supreme Spirit in acting on the individual. perishable. Ramanuja identifies the Adhyiitman with svabhiiva (inherent disposition) or prakrti (material nature) . aggregate ofphysical elements." The Adhibhuta.' The Adhiyajiia is GodHe who is to be propitiated by sacrifice. is "the transitoriness of the elements. sg.). dehabhrtiim vara (m. of which elements sound.. Divine agent. the adhibhiita perishable existence . 0 Best of the Embodied. ether. nom. sg. The Adhiyajna (Lord of Sacrifice) is Myself.. in this case. atra. adhibhatam (n.)." The Adhidiiivata "connotes the purufa. Chief of Sacrifice. dehe (n. nom. • All the terms here are technical and sometimes puzzling. eva. and. applied to AIjuna. touch. are developments.e. existence. nom. 0 Arjuna. Edgerton regards the language of these stanzas as grandiloquent. bOOvas (m. Here in this body. adhidiiivatam (n. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). in the body. sg. sg. nom. according to him. loco sg. here. i. k!faras (m.). and some of their definiions are included here. 0 Best of the Embodied. Basis of Sacrifice.). being.!~q~"'lf~1 purzqaiciidhidiiivatam and the Spirit (is the) Supreme Divine Agent m~r~~ adhiyajiio 'ham eviitra the adhiyajiia I here ~~~II dehe dehabhrtiim vara in the body. sg. puru!fa (m. soul. etc. destructible." 352 . But native commentators take it very seriously. nom. Lord of Sacrifice. vOC. aham (nom. noun from Jk!far). ca. man.VIII ~f~ m:r)lTGf: adhibhutam ~aro bhtival. etc.).). nom. sg.). Prajapati. sg. it means' being beyond the pantheon of Indra."that which is not the self. but is conjoined with the self. 0 Chosen of the Embodied. spirit. nature).). sg. adhiyajiias (m. Supreme. I. etc. The Adhidaivata is the supreme divine Agent itself (the purusha).

he dies." ca. this. smaran muktvii kalevaram remembering. in this case. here. sg. yati (3rd sg. having been liberated from. act.Jya). asti (3rd sg.VIII 5 ~:. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). he who dies remembering Me. nom. Having relinquished the body. he departs. he to my state of being <rrf~~~~~:11 yiiti niisty atra samsayalJ he goes. to my state of being. . act. who. lit. miim (acc. at the time of departure. cadaver. having relinquished. doubt. me.Jas).). remembering. na. thinking on.. prayati (3rd sg. smaran (pr. pr. sg. not. acc. madbhiivam (m. to my being. muktva (gerund . sg. yas (m. having relinquished the body. there is. pro indic. not there is in this case doubt. samsayas (m. antakiile ca miim eva and at the end-time me ~1l'R<IT~1 .). participle .Jmuc). it is. loco sg. "at end time. at the hour of death. kalevaram (m. sg. nom. act. he. '1": >r<nf~ ~ ~ yalJ prayiiti sa madbhiivam who dies. nom.ya).). and. . he attains.:rl1Tl{~ antakiile (m. pra . ':.).). relinquishing. body. indic . pro indic. he is. sas (m. he goes. in this instance. Goes to My state of being.). eva. irresolution. which. sg. acc. . my state of being. sg. In this matter there is no doubt. question. thinking of.. atra.JsmT:). And at the hour of death. 353 .).

that. bhiivitas (m. tam tam (repetition indicates distribution. body. act. bhii. sg.). . sg.VIn 6 li li ~1: +net yam yam viipi smaran bhiivam whatever. being.. act. pr. vii api. remembering. loco sg. acc. physical body. mer a' a' ~<:f 'fiRrr tam tam eviiiti kiiunteya to respectively that he goes. TP cpd. causative participle . being.Ji).). always. Arjuna.y tyaj).). remembering. invariably. pr. m. yam yam (m. . in the end.). eti (3rd sg. acc. kalevaram (m. thinking of. tyaJan (3rd sg.va:n (m. state of being ~w€t~l!:1 tyajaty ante kalevaram (when) he gives up at the end the body. kiiunteya (m. respectively that. sg. bhiiva (m. whatever state of being he remembers When he gives up the body at the end.). 0 Son of Kunt! (Arjuna) ~ qr<fmfCf<:f: II sadii tadbhiivabhiivita~ always that state of being caused to become. sg. act. m. participle . 0 Son of KunU. nom. caused to become. 354 . sg. to that. whatever.). He goes respectively to that state of being. st~te of being. nom. pro mdlc. ante (m.Jbhu) . sadii. sg. transformed into that state of being. sg. at the end. sg. tad (n. moreover. he goes.) Moreover.JsmJ:) . epithet of Arjuna. (bhiiva-bhiivitas.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). this.). he abandons. state of being. indic. acc. voc. eva. nom.. smaran (m. nom. he attains. transformed into. sg. he gives up. moreover. Transformed into that state of being. or also. acc.

. at all times Meditate on Me. eva. to me.).). arpita (m. sg. imperative act. placed. sg. from this. miim (acc.). and fight ~i. BV cpd. having mind and intelligence fixed.). kiile:fu (m. loco pl. . me. remember! think of! mam anusmara yudhya ca me remember. m.).Ji). in times. at all. entrusted. aSGlnsayam (adv. without doubt.). thou shalt attain. mayi (m. nom.Jyudh). Therefore. loco sg.Jsm~).VIII 7 ~~~ tasmat sarve~u kale~u therefore at all times tasmiit (abl. In this way. and. nom. With your mind and intellect fixed on Me. anu . sg. thou shalt come. anusmara (2nd sg. (arpitamanobuddhis.). lITl{~~~11 mam eva#yasy asmnsayam to me thus thou shalt come. imperative act. mind and intelligence. sarvqu (m. therefore.) miim (acc. loco pl. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. on me.). e:fYasi (2nd sg. in all. sg. you shall surely come toMe. . manobuddhis (f. fight! ca.ff~~f~ mayy arpitamanobuddhir on me fixed mind and intelligence yudhya (2nd sg. future act. fixed.). me. 355 . at times. without doubt. surely. in me.

anya. disciplined by the practice of Yoga. . which does not tum to anything else. to the Supreme Spirit.). stanzas 8. anucintayan (m. Soul. inst. other. puru~am (m.). sg. by going.Jya). to the Supreme. To the divine supreme Spirit He goes." He is the "desirous of knowledge" of VII I 6. nom. yoga (m. Son of Prthii.) paramam (m.) divyam (m. who sees God in terms of God's power. acc. m. With a mind disciplined by the practice of yoga. the Supreme Spirit. m. sg. yuktena (m. divine. Person. indic. not. pro act. Spirit. the Highest.).VIII 8 ~~ abhyiisayogayuktena by the practice of Yoga disciplined. 9 and 10 refer to the tiisvarytirthin (He who aims at superhuman power). inst. practice. pr.. sg. meditating on Him. TP cpd. sg. meditating (on him).J2 as). heavenly. Son of Prtha. lR~~q'f~' paramam purUfam divyam to the Supreme Spirit divine yiiti piirthiinucintayan one goes. by no other going toward. she. causative participle anu . act. sg.). acc. sg. from abhi . acc. (paramam puru~am. by one who is disciplined. Yoga. thinking of.Jcint). where he is referred to as the jijfitisu. TP cpd.). sg. sg. inst. performance. ~~lATl abhyasa (m. by going toward. Arjuna. yati (3rd sg. partha (m. voc. inst. • According to Ramanuja's commentary. meditating. (nanyagamina. he. sg. Which does not tum to anything else. and who" remains fixed on God as the result of daily practice of Yoga.). by thought. by mind. it. epithet of Arjuna.). na. gamina (m.. acc.) cetasa (n. cetasii niinyagiiminii by thought. sg. inst. sg. m. one goes. 356 . (abhyasayogayuktena.)..

acc. acc.) iiditya (m. He who meditates on the ancient seer. sarvasya dhiitiiram acintyarupam of all supporter.) puriilJam (m. controller. sg.).4 ¥. caste. 357 . sg.. sg. the poet. from the atom. former. abl."l{ilmanuja. the creator of all. acc. the ruler kavim (m.. governor. chastiser. acc. anu . acc. the seer. color. beyond.Jsmr:). he should call to mind. acc. anusiisitiiram (m. represents God to himself as the omniscient.Jsiis) . form. sg.). sg. unthinkable. the one who places or puts. The ruler. unimaginable. aiivarya (power) which God himself possesses. anusmaret (3rd sg. BV cpd. Much Sanskrit religious thought was expressed in poetry. subtler. more minute. ruler.). sg. entity.). sg. subtler than the jfva (monad of the life principle). with his mind unwavering because all samskaras (preparatory reformations of the mind) have been passed.) tamasas (n. (acintyarupam. sg. of all..). alJos (m. acintya (n. beyond darkness. from darkness beyond. BV cpd. whose form is unthinkable. rupam (n. mf~~:~11 iidityavartJam tamasalJ parastiit the color of the sun. comparative). alJlyiiinsam (m. acc. sg. acc. varlJam (m. atJor atJiyiimsam anusmared yalJ than the atom subtler. n. smaller than the atom. previous.).). parastiit (n. (iidityavarlJam. the unthinkable form. Who is the supporter of all. sg. sg. shape. dhiitiiram (m. acc. whose color is that of the sun. further.B. sg.). smaller.q ll. whose proper form is of another order than everything else and who is possessed of a divine form peculiar to none but Him. he should meditate on.).). he should meditate on. sg. m.). abl. whose form is unthinkable. nom. optative act. abl. than the atom. noun from anu . punisher. sarvasya (m. than darkness. when he has concentrated his pra!la (vital breath) between the brows and then. the sun. t "He will attain the • Tri~!ubh metre. ancient. who ~ emrR:l! m:q.). gen. yas (m. censor. primaeval Lord of the universe. who. sg. (N. And who is effulgent like the sun. hence the poet was its chronicler or expositor. the supporter.VIII 9 'fif~ ~ ~mfmrro{ kavim puriitJam anusiisitiiram* the poet. in virtue of his daily practiced worship. the ancient.

358 . aveSya (causative gerund a . nom. loco sg. dual). lj" (f qi ~ '3'ifa. upaiti (3rd sg.). pass. bhaktya (f.). Having made the vital breath enter between the two eyebrows. participle .0 " "\ " .. Endowed with devotion and with the power of yoga. acc. properly. sg. of the two eyebrows. he goes to. acc. with worship. manasa (n. inst.for I bhaktyii yukto yogabalena ciiiva with devotion yoked and with Yoga power ~ ll"lf m1JIl1 m~ lj"~ . sg. with umnoving mind. t As in several such Yoga techniques. with love. pralJam (m.. sg. held. eva. yuktas (m. heavenly. indic. yoked.).f~ II sa tam param puru~am uPiiiti divyam he this Supreme Spirit approaches. by mind.). him. sg.).. sg. madhye (m. The last line is one syllable too long. in one direction. param (m.). bhruvos (f. motionless. he approaches.).Jvis). the vital breath entering correctly. the vital breath.). sg. tam (m. yogabalena (m.). inst. At the hour of death. prayiilJakiile manasiicalena* at departure time with mind unmoving ~ ll"ffiT ~~<i':. with devotion.). at departure. puru~am (m. samyak (adv. gen. with the strength of Yoga. Spirit. this. • Tri~!ubh metre continues. loco sg. Soul. and. ca. sas (m. pr. by unmoving. divine. united. with mind. He reaches this divine supreme Spirit. act. acc. correctly. sg.Jyuj). Supreme. joined. with Yoga power. acc. bhruvor madhye priilJam iivesya samyak of the two eyebrows in the middle. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler) . he. having caused to enter. this. sg. sg. the anatomical elements arc vague to the non-yogin. in the middle. acalena (n.). Highest. nom. upa . inst.Ji). united. divine. p. acc. directly.VIII 10 5l11101<fi1~ 14<ilj l"il~<i prayaTJakiile (m. inst. divyam (m.).). at the time of death. sg. sg.

).VIII 11 ~ ~~-. acc. in brief. the performers of austerities. nom.). pl. samgrahelJa (m. • Tri~tubh metre continues. which. future pra Jvac). sg. acc. they call. yatayas (m. participle Ji~). sg. sg. they pervade. life of a Brahmaciirin. yail (n. the strivers. act. pro indic. sg. that.). nom.). vitaragas (m. I shall speak of. path. they say. sg. Which the ascetics. which. inst.:: M<r~T GRf~ yail (n. acc. yad ak~aram vedavido vadanti* which the imperishable the Veda-knowing they call. Jvad).). pl. visanti (3rd pI. sg. padam (n. pI. sg. life of chastity. ~ a. pro indic. briefly. those versed in the Vedas.). they enter. pl. the free from passion. nom. caranti (3rd pI. a life of chastity they follow. acc. 359 . enter.). te (dat. nom. act. I shall explain. vadanti (3rd pI. free from passion.Q ~ l:ffi<fT <r'Rrn<rr: I visanti yad yatayo vitariigiil} they enter which the ascetics. ak~aram (n.~ ~ 5fq~<t II tat te padam salilgrahe1Ja pravak~ye that to thee path in brief I shall declare. step. wishing for. nom. this. Desiring which they follow a life of chastity. pravak~e (rst sg. they say to be. desiring. icchantas (m. sg. imperishable. J car). they move.). eternal. pro indic.). free from lust.).).. free from desire. vedavidas (m. I shall declare.). pro act. yad (n. sg. which. they follow. Jvis). That which those who know the Vedas call the imperishable. nom. free from passion. or adv. they go into. tad (n. the Veda-knowing. to thee. act. ~~T~:erf~~ yad icchanto brahmacarYalh car anti which desiring. the ascetics. nom. fcrof. brahmacaryam (n. That path I shall explain to you briefly.

doors. shutting up. yogadhiira1]iim (f. two nostrils. viz.ft~~:ql mana hrdi nirudhya ca the body. situated in. and the mind in the heart shutting up. sg. lle~'{ m~: >fT1IT~ murdhny iidhiiyiitmanal} prii1}am in the head having placed own vital breath. samyamya (gerund sam . loco sg. Yoga fixation. Established in yoga concentration. mouth. and.VIII 12 ~1lT~~ sarvii-. established.). two ears. pl. acc. vital breath.. suppressing.. in the heart.). dviiriil]i (n. acc. mf~~T~m~11 iisthito yogadhiira1}iim confining./yam). acc./rudh). +r. organ of generation. acc. And confining the mind in the heart.). the two eyes. ht:di (n. priil]Gm (m.. sg. iisthitas (m. 360 . organ of excretion. loco sg. sg. gen.).). sg. Closing all the gates of the body. inhalation. t Gates of the body. nom./dhii) . placing. miirdhni (n. • Sloka metre resumes. Having placed the vital breath in the head. manas (n. ca.). iitmanas (m. gates. iidhiiya (gerund ii . seated. established in Yoga concentration. gates of sarvadviirii1}i samyamya* all the gates (of the body) controlling. controlling.).). in the head. mind. having placed. nine in number. nirudhya (gerund ni . all. own. sg. Yoga concentration. of the self.

'-!.!n. act. Brahman. sg. he goes forth. iti.VIII 13 ~T+!~~~~ om ity ekiik~aram brahma "Om" thus. the sacred syllable..). this one. body. ~: >r:rrfa ~ ~ ya/:l prayiiti tyajan deham who he goes forth. deham (m. anusmaran (m. sg. He is mentioned in VII 16. . act. nom. sg. meditating on. the single-syllabled Brahman ~'lf111 tl'1 Pi ---"l1Q. acc. ('1 I . pronouncing.). He who goes forth. paramam (f. ~ <nfa crort 'TfalJ: II sa yiiti paramiim gatim he goes to the highest goal. . as the artharthin. vyiiharan miim anusmaran uttering.jya). mtim (acc.). nom. sas (m. sg. single syllabled. pr. indic. remembering. stanzas and 13 refer to the kaivalyarthin (seeker of complete detachment) who seeks the complete severance of the atman from the body. nom. path. me meditating on.. acc.jtyaj).jsm~). sg. sg. speaking..jhr). .). 'V om. renouncing. yas (m. pr.. participle anu . or seeker of knowledge of the atman as different from prakrti. he. me. acc. acc. gatim (f. ekak~aram (n. thus.). pra .. indic. pr. acc.). sg. sg.). . Goes to the supreme goal. sg. Uttering the single-syllable "Om" Brahman Meditating on Me. nom. renouncing the body. tyajan (m. prayati (3rd sg. act.. participle act. one syllabled. to the supreme. uttering. he goes.. and worships God as the ak~ara. pr. participle vi a . he dies. 12 361 . or material nature.jya). goal. This is the" Highest Truth" of VII 16. According to Ramanuja's commentary. or indestructible. act. yati (3rd sg. to the highest. vyaharan (pr. he attains. sg. said to embrace all the secrets of the universe. thinking about. renouncing the body. brahma (n. who. abandoning.). eternal essence (Brahman).

Son of Prtha. sg. ever. Son of Prtha. Arjuna.). me. (as BY cpd. who. sg. sg. BV cpd.)." According to the same source.). easy to attain. nityayuktasya (m. Jsm~).). And God himself. of the yogin.VIII 14 . He who thinks of Me constantly.). for the constantly yoked yogin. or God. yas (m. of the constantly disciplined. aham (nom.). he remembers. miim (acc." who is never without direct concentration on God. "his mind focussed on God alone because God is incomparably dear to him. But the kiiivalyiirthin (stanzas 12 and 13) and the jfiiinin. of the eternally yoked in Yoga. ~~:qr~ tasyaham sulabhal. smarati (3rd sg. nityasas (adv. sulabhas (m. • According to Ramanuja's commentary. nom.) of him who is constantly yoked. for him. are not reborn. f~~ <rnlf'1": II nityayuktasya yoginal. tasya (m.). the yogin who is constantly devoted. always. epithet of Arjuna.. nom.q '1 '"4 '<\ d nre~ ananyacetal. Whose mind does not ever go elsewhere. this and stanzas 15 and 16 are devoted to thejiilillin of VII 16. will choose him. perpetually. I am easy to reach. gen. he thinks of. sg. the iiisvaryiirthin (stanza 8 et seq. indic. satatam whose mind does not go elsewhere.). ever. act. for the yogin. voc. but go to union with Brahman. sg. who me he thinks of constantly.). pr. 1. partha for him I casy to reach. unable to endure separation from his worshipper.).) is reborn. piirtha (m. sg. and because he cannot sustain his iitman without representing God (to himself). sg. gen. gen. . satatam (adv. yoginas (m. of him. <rT +IT ~d" f~: I yo mam slllarati nityasal.). described in this and the following stanzas. whose mind does not go elsewhere. 362 . . For him. the" man of wisdom. sg. easy to reach. ananyacetiis (m. sg. constantly. nom.

" rebirth. (dulJkha-alayam. home of misery. punarjanma (n. rebirth ~:~~I du!. misery. perfection. coming near to. abode. to perfection. acc.) those whose selves are great. inconstant. impermanent. act.. m. pass. sg. home. na. dulJkha (n..). TP cpd. sg. 363 . acc. acc. to perfection the highest gone.Ii). not. gone. sainsiddhim (f. those whose souls are great. pl. ap). apnuvanti (3rd pI. pr. Who have gone to the supreme perfection. miim (acc. highest. mm.). sg.il:" trort iTffi': II sarhsiddhirh paramiirh gatii!. not they incur. indic. to me. supreme. unhappiness.).VIII 15 lfTl{~~ miim upetya punarjanma me approaching. the great selves. mahiitmanas (m. pI. sg. That impermanent home of misfortune. they attain. sg. gatas (m. misfortune.). approaching. paramam (f. nom. upetya (gerund upa '. ~~41~I\41I"1: niipnuvanti mahiitmiina!. alayam (m. sg. (as pI. they incur. p.). they reach.). participle Jgam). Approaching Me.).) asasvatam (m. acc. great selves. great souls. acc. me.khiilayam asiisvatam misfortune home. "again birth. to success. to accomplishment. Do not incur rebirth. acc. BY cpd. sg. nom.). impermanent.

up to. approaching. to Brahman's world. sg. Arjuna. kiiunteya (m. Up to Brahma's realm of being. sg.). to.). abl. Son of Kuntl. +n+f ~ ~ 'll'Rtli mam upetya tu kaunteya me approaching. vidyate (3rd sg. pl. nom.).J2 vid).). tu. The worlds are subject to successive rebirths. Son of Kunti. it is found.). worlds. rebirths. pl. 364 . "again birth. but. sg. nom. up to Brahman's realm of being. But he who reaches Me Is not reborn. passive . coming near to." rebirth. return to successive births. but. voc. voc. the worlds ~~T$I punaravartino 'rjuna subject to again return. nom.VIII 16 m~~m: a brahmabhuvanalloka/. miim (acc.. Arjuna. Arjuna.). punarjanma (n. na. punarjanma na vidyate rebirth not it is found. to Brahman's realm of being. upetya (gerund upa . punariivartinas (m. ~. brahmabhuvaniit (n. sg. arjuna (m. not. pr. indic. lokiis (m. epithet of Arjuna. peoples.fmll ii.Ji).). sg. me.

p{'lfl ~f. to make a kalpa.). acc. end. janas (m. yad (n. antam (f.000 years and is named for the side of the die marked with four dots. is a period of predominant evil and is named for the side of the die marked with a single dot. sg.. the day which of Brahma. which.320.). It takes a thousand mahayugas. which lasts for 1. * paryantam (m.).). sahasrayugaparyantam a thousand yugas"" extending as far as.000. day and night knowing.). And that the night of Brahrna ends only in a thousand yugas. acc. sg.. pl. they know.728. extremity. day. . acc. they the day and night knowing men. ratrim (f. yuga. nom. acc. perfect act. TP cpd. TP cpd. We are. they. There are four yugas: the krtayuga.079th year of a kali yuga that began on February 18. They are men who know day and night. sg. which is less virtuous and is named for the side of the die with three dots. (sahasra-yuga-paryantam. pl. extending as far as.). (yuga-sahasra-antam. those who know day and night. sahasra (n. . ending in a thousand yugas. ~~~Tf~:1 ahar yad brahmar. yuga (n.).320. and the kali yuga.000 years.). night. which lasts for 864. border. or dark age.. pl. m. age.o viduJ. or 4.'Il~d i riitrim yugasahasriintiim the night a thousand yugas ending a. 365 . sg. yuga.). nom. of Brahma.~R:rn'GfG:T. extending as far as a thousand yugas. a thousand. or period of 4. represents a growing predominance of evil over good and is named for the side of the die marked with two dots. * sahasra (n.) te (m. which lasts for 1. acc. which is a division of a mahayuga.'Illllq~r(11i '" . The treta yuga. yuga (n).C.296. age. acc. limit. acc.VIII 17 fl~f.:. or golden age. an equal number to make one night of Brahmii. men.) ahar (n. the dvapara yuga. an "age" of the world.000 years.). f. a thousand. brahmafJas (n.). as this volume goes to press. vidus (3rd pI. nom. sg.n: II te ' horiitravido janiiJ.000 years. sg. or one day of Brahmli. ahoratravidas (m.).Jvid with present meaning). They who know that the day of Brahma Extends as far as a thousand yugas. which lasts for 432. in the 5.000 years. they know 'uF. sg. yuga. gen.000 years. 3102 B. ending.r. end. sg.

loco sg. whose name is the unmanifest. prabhavanti (3rd pI. pass. from the invisible. at the arrival of day. (avyaktasamjiiake.z sarviil. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). (of Brahma). vyaktayas (f. in that case. indic. they are dissolved.). nom. BV cpd. avyakttit (m.Jbhu). pra . rtitrytigame (m. pr.). at the arrival of night. known as.. in known as. <:1~<l10lj'ffi4~~ II tatriiiviivyaktasamjfiake there the unmanifest known as. they disappear. <1?lj1'1~ ~~ riitryiigame praliyante at the arrival of (Brahma's) night. they are dissolved. indic.). At that point to be known as the munanifest again. act. tatra. abl. unmanifest. sarvtis (f. they come forth. ahartigame (m. nom.).Jlf).).) From the urunanifest. to be known as.VIII 18 \I Oll'ffi I ~ 0lfffilI": ~: avyaktiid vyaktayal. loco sg.z from the unmanifest the manifestations all ~~~I prabhavanty ahariigame they come forth at the arrival of the day . pra .). all. pl.). they are reabsorbed. pr. they are dissolved. all manifestations Come forth at the arrival of (Brahma's) day. sg. eva. At the arrival of (Brahma's) night. from the unmanifest. 366 . appearances. loco sg. avyakta (m. manifestations. samjiiake (m. they originate. there. loco sg. pl. m. when known as. pralfyante (3rd pI.

000. this. ratryagame (m. it is reabsorbed. Son of Pr tha . prallyate (3rd sg. see footnote to VIII 17). nom. partha (m. Arjuna. avasas (m. to go through their much smaller lives and reincarnations.320.). aggregate of beings. 367 . Son of Prthii. loco sg." when they pass into the unmanifest again. sg. "unmanifest" form. Having come to be again and again. At the arrival of the "day of Brahma.). it disappears. The" night of Brahma" which lasts for a kalpa (4.). it arises. nom. having come into being again and again. he. loco sg. it. pra . indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. prabhavati (3rd sg. this. The day of Brahma is equal in length to the night of Brahma. at the arrival of day. indic. nom.). pr. it is dissolved. ayam (m.crr<t bhiitagramal} sa evayarh the multitude of existences it this m<!T "l1CcfT >I<'?'l<r€t I <-<-bhutagramas (m. without will. voc. inevitably. sg. bhiitva bhiitva praliyate having come to be again and agam. vegetable and mineral. coming into existence again and again.000 years. pra . pr. bhl!tva bhUtva (gerund . animal. and during this time all life is in latent. are created again.).qel'lflll prabhavaty aharagame it comes into existence at the arrival of day.). aharagame (m.J1f). ~.). • This and the previous stanza describe the periodic creation of all beings and their subsequent dissolution. at the arrival of night. it comes into existence. act. sas (m.JbhU). dissolved (1'>41'lfl IS scm: qr~ ratryagame 'vasal} partha at the arrival of night without will. epithet of Arjuna." all beings.JbhU) . pass. And it comes into existence again at the arrival of day. sg.VIII 19 ~:~r. sg. nom. is dissolved Helplessly at the arrival of night. all of which end at the recurrence of the" night of Brahma. willy-nilly. eva. This multitude of beings. multitude of existences.

). yas (m. who. than the unmanifest. naSyatsu (m. loco pl. sg. mcfT Si'lfT paras tasmat tu bhavo 'nyo higher than this. indeed. vinaSyati (3rd sg. sg. vi . paras (m.). sarvqu (m. loco absol. sas (m.VIII 20 rroJ: ~ <]. it perishes. p. loco pl. nom. avyaktat (m.).). state of being. nom. sg. state of being other SOlffiiT so<rnmr~: I 'vyakto 'vyaktat sanatanal} unmanifest. in all. act. nom. indic. IT:~m<1~ " '" " yal} sa sarve~u bhute~u which it in all beings ~~f~qll nasyatsu na vinasyati in the perishings not it perishes. avyaktas (m. it dies.) na.. sg. pass.Jnas). other. when all beings perish. sg. than the unmanifest pnmaeval. in the perishings. Which. it. (sarve~u bhiitqu naSyatsu. not. pr.). sanatanas (m.). bhiite~u (m. sg. which. in the losses. ancient.). But higher than this state of being Is another unrnanifest state of being Higher than the primeval unrnanifest. invisible. higher. when all beings perish.).). it is lost. but. primaeval. existence. but. abl. nom. unmanifest. sg. nom. nom. 368 . tu. than this. tasmat (abl. sg.). participle a vi :Jafij). bhiivas (m. does not perish.). anyas (m. this. from this. nom. sg. in beings. loco pl. from the unmanifest. in existences.

uktas (m. sg.).). This is My supreme dwelling place. sg. said. tad dhiima paramam mama that the dwelling place supreme of me. invisible. pr. supreme. nom. sg. acc. This unmanifest is the imperishable. it. ak. dhiima (n. acc. They call it the supreme goal. priipya (gerundpra Jiip) . sg.f~ meaning).). perfect act. thus said. abode. participle a vi avyakto 'k~ara ity uktas the unmanifest (is) the imperishable. indic. nom. they do not return. nom.:. paramiim gatim it they call the supreme goal. gatim (f. ~ vwr ~ +11111 na.VIII 21 ~TS&1~~~ avyaktas (m.raras (m. mama (gen. reaching.). sg. acc. goal. <i~.). sg. not they return. this. way. dwelling place. p. sg. they turn back. Attaining which.). pass. yam priipya na nivartante which attaining. imperishable. highest. supreme. highest. they return.). do- main. participle Jvac). thus. ni J vr:t) . path. nom. iihus (3rd pI. declared. nom. tam (m. this. they declare. (1l{ mg: ~ 'lf~l1: I :jan)). yam (m. so. pass. J ah with present tam iihul. thus it is said. of me. acc. attaining. that. sg.). my. inde- structib Ie. paramiim (f. paramam (n. 369 . nivartante (3rd pI. sg. iti. sg. acc. eternal. which. they say.). not. sg. unmanifest. tad (n. mid. p.

Arjuna. pass. p.). sg. Within which all beings stand. all this. ~:t~. sg. nom. of which. by which.). sarvam idam (n. sg.VIII 22 ~!f: ~ ~: '1T~ puru~al} puru~as (m. inst. pl.). not by it directed elsewhere. but. to be attained. sg. And by which all this universe is pervaded. stretched. 370 . nom. sg. nom. bhiUiini (n.). spirit. participle . Son of Pltha. ~~~~I sas (m. sg. This is the supreme Spirit. pervaded. labhyas (m. indeed. sg. gen. sg. all beings. bhaiaYii (f. standing within. all this universe. sg. tu.). ananyayii (f. paras (m. nom. inst. this. nom. pl. tatam (n. epithet of bhaktyii labhyas tv ananyayii by devotion attainable. voc. man. by worship. yena (m. gerundive . Attainable by one-pointed devotion. inst. indeed. nom. yasya (m.). Son of Prtha. Arjuna referring to his mother KuntI or Prtha. attainable.). sa paral} piirtha spirit this supreme.:r~. existing within. he.). highest.). sg. piirtha (m.Jtan).). beings. by devotion. supreme.r~~~11 yena sarvam idam tatam by which all this (universe) pervaded.). antalJsthiini (n. nom. nom.Jlabh). not by other.:r yasyiintal}sthiini bhiitiini of which within-standing (all) beings <t.

. dying. Of these times I shall speak.:r: I . non-return. yogins. acc.Jya). eva. Bull of the Bharatas. But at which times the yogins Return or do not return. him. indeed. nom. sg. kale (m. bharatar~abha (m.fq If)fq. in time. sg.). acc. pI. this. loco sg. they go.). vakryami (1st sg.VIII 23 yatra where.Jya). yanti (3rd pI. mcrf\i :.). iivrttim ciiiva yogina/:z and return the yogins avr:ttim (f. Arjuna. ca. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). return. I shall speak. epithet of Arjuna. and. wmrr lI1f~ ~ ~ prayiitii yiinti tam kiilam departing they go.).). time. As they depart at death. tam (m.). whither.). yoginas (m. yatra kiile tv aniivrttim where in time. . aniivr:ttim (f.Jvac). but. pro participle pra . nom. acc. sg. turning back. not turn- ing back. acc. prayatas (m. sg. but. non-return tu. I shall speak. voc. (of) this time q~lf~thrll vak~yiimi bharatar~abha departing. pl. 371 . sg. Bull of the Bharatas. act. kalam (m. future act.

the northern phase of the sun. day. the distinction between those who follow the path of light and those who follow the path of darkness lies not only in the time of death but also between those who meditate on the "five fires" (viz. the latter going the path of darkness and rebirth..). sg. to Brahman. suklas (n. Fire. pl. gacchanti (3rd pI..). nom. sg. sg. sg.. 5. pI. thither. tatra prayata gacchanti there departing. . Brahman.. Brahman know- ing. the Brahman-knowing men.e. lfUlffilT agnis (m.Jgam). dying.). the Rain god. pr.VIII 24 m<:n: ~n~ n<.(14 I+1. In the BrhadaraQyaka Upanishad. men. nom.Jyti) .). jantis (m. ~a1}masa uttaraymJam the six months of the upper goingt (northern phase of the sun). ahar (n. pr. fire. tatra.-""'l~ .). The six months of the northern course of the sun: Departing then. there. six months. Heaven. praytittis (m. the bright lunar fortnight. I U the sun. participle pra . nom. the World. brahmavidas (m. . they attain. lfalJmtistis (m. indic. sg. Man and Woman) and those who merelY perform rituals. pl.: ~1F?: . nom. upper going of '3" . nom.).. 15 and 16. There is also a shorter reference in Chandyoga IV 15. acc. and in the BrhadaraQyaka Upanishad. day. they go. I to 5. brightness. t "upper going" means northern because the north of India is higher than the south. nom. brightness. they go brahma (n. bright. day. which does not mention the" dark" path. sg.).. nom.:.. 'lW ~GRT 'JR"T: II brahma brahmavido jana/:t to Brahman. nom. pl. <1"?f '5l""11RfT ~f~ departing. " This and the following stanzas present a formula to be found in the Chandogya Upanishad. nom. V 9. brightness.). i. god of fire. the bright lunar fortnight. jyotis (n. 372 .). the bright lunar fort- night. uttartiyalJam (n. agnir jyotir aha!l sukla/:t fire. VI 2. act. the men who know Brahman Go forth to Brahman.

night.Jvr:t). sg. sg. and so the dark lunar fortnight. reaching.). yogi priipya nivartate the yogin attaining. yogin.o tatra ciindramasam jyotir there lunar brightness lfFr1~f~11 (also the name Krishna. light. acc. he returns. he turns back.). he is born again. the dark lunar fortnight. thither. nom. jyotis (n. nom. six months. acc. "the right hand going. tatra. Attaining by these the lunar light. the Hindu faces east where the sun rises. prapya (gerundpra yap). brightness.). candramasam (n. nom.).ln. night.). 373 . he is born again. there. sg. Thus" right hand" means south. but that is not meant here). pl. sg. . lfOlrnIT ~f~ 1 dhUmas (m. the dark lunar fortnight ~a1Jmiisii dak#1Jiiyanam the six months of the right hand going (southern phase of the sun).VIII 25 <lifT m?f~ ~~~: 0.). nivartate (3rd sg.). The six: months of the southern course of the sun. The yogin is born again. night. nom. nom. thus. so. yogf (m. tatha. mid. sg. nom. smoke.)." the southern phase of the sun. sg. l!alJmasas (m. dhumo riitris tathii krpJalJ smoke. lunar. sg. ratris (f. ni . • When identifying directions. kI:l!lJas (m. dakl!inayanam (n. attaining.. Smoke.

ete (f. hi. yati (3rd sg. dual). sg. acc.Jya). he turns back. truly. again. gatl (f. mid. nonreturn.Ti: II (f. by the other. thought. By one he does not return. . punar (adv.see chapter" The Setting of the Bhagavad GitiL)" The existence of the "two paths" (light and dark) must seem rather arbitrary to the Western reader. a .. sg. nom. light and dark. (Cf. eternal. two goals. dual). But this does not explain the element of free will which allows the yogin to fix the time of his death and choose between the two paths.VIII 26 ~ifM'lit\Ol m=rr ~ suklakr~1Je gati hyete light and dark two paths indeed these ~:~~ jagatalJ siisvate mate for the universe eternal thought to be ~~~~ ekayii yiity aniivrttim by one he goes to non-return ~. act.).). inst.). mate (f. once more. sg. the case of Bhi~ma.Jv~t). he attains. of the universe. he returns. who delayed his death at the Battle of Kuruk~etra . perpetual. dual). gen.). nom. these two. two paths. suklak~~lJe anyayiivartate punalJ by the other he returns again.. . indeed. nom. ekaya (f. By the other he returns again. light and dark. avartate (3rd sg. inst. dual). and the iiiivarYiirthin of the same stanza on the other. he goes. antiv~ttim (f. one goes. anyaya (f. for the world. These are the two paths. Ramanuja refers them to the jiiiinin and kiiivalyiirthin of VII 16 on the one hand. The literature abounds with yogins who have delayed their deaths so as to reach the half-year that will eventuate in either return or non-return. to non-return. by one. nom. 374 . thought to be. sg.).ol!llIOld-a. Thought to be eternal for the universe. nom. jagatas (n. sasvate (f. dual). The choice of whether to return or not is apparently up to the yogin.

JPiii). knowing. participle . Arjuna. at all. . voc. yoga-yuktas (m. voc. Son of Prtha. jiinan (I?' nom. loco pl. two wanderings. in any way. abl. Knowing these two paths The yogin is not confused at all. nom. AIjuna. sg. he is confused. tasmiit (m. . at times. Arjuna. nom. kiilqu (m. ll1<rr~i9"~1 yogi muhyati kascana the yogin he is confused at all <:fBITq: ~ 'fiT~ tasmat sarve~u kale~u therefore at all times yogayukto bhavarjuna steadfast in Yoga be. TP cpd. Therefore. yoked. loco pl. these two. at all times. nom. from this. sarve~u (m. muhyati (3rd sg. yogf (m. act. pr.VIII 27 ~~i9"rqr*~ G ' na.). Be steadfast in yoga. 375 . indic. be! arjuna (m. naite srti partha janan not these two paths. ' bhava (3rd sg. in all.Jbhii). knowmg.).Jmuh). imperative act. p. sg. piirt~ (m. in times. pass participle ~yuj). two roads. sg. act. ete (f. epithet of ArJuna.).). pr. at all. sg.). two paths.). kascana. steadfast. united to Yoga disciplined. nom. therefore. not. he is deluded. dual). dual). sg. yogin. sg. Sftf (f. Son of Prtha.

station. the supreme. austerities. adyam (n. acc. nom. eva.).Jvid) . tapal]su (m. knowing. vedesu (m.r~ '" '" ~ vede~u yajfie~u tapal:zsu ciiiva* in the Vedas. sg. this. In diine~u ~~~5!f~1 yat pU1Jyaphalam pradi~tam in gifts. sg.Jdis).. act. ca. diine~u (n. all this having known limT Iii ~~ '. sg. upiiiti (3rd sg.) pradi~(am (n. he goes beyond. and.). 376 . ca. pass. sg. acc. in sacrifices. fruit. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). he transcends. participle pra . sg. he attains.). goes beyond The pure fruit of action which comes from study of the Vedas. sg. all this. pure fruit. loco pl. state. and. acc. which pure fruit ordained ~f~~~~fqfWfT atyeti tat sarvam idam viditvii he goes beyond that.Ji). atyeti (3rd sg. being at the beginning.VIn 28 ~m~:. sg. p. sacred. in gifts. in charities. sg. acc. and gifts. sthiinam (n.). upa . place. (m.). ca. yog! (m. yajfie~u End of Book VIn The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman • Tri${ubh metre. KD cpd. (punya-phalam. loco pl. viditvii (gerund .). commanded. pro indic. param (n. in austerities. pure. acc. and. ati :ji). acc. act.jqf(f ~l!: II yogi param sthiinam uPiiiti ciidyam and the yogin to the supreme state he goes. original. The yogin. yogin. Sacrifices. sg. abode. And goes to the supreme primal state. he goes. sg. loco pl. having known all this. loco pl. yad (n. ordained.). in the Vedas. acc. phalam (n. tad (n. acc. to the highest.). primal. n. which.). in sacrifices and austerities. acc. having known. that.). sarvam idam (n. ancient. primal. prescribed.).).). pu'!ya (n.

sahitam (n. I shall declare.BOOK IX ?1~~1 srlbhagavtin (m.Jjfzti) . nom. this.).). acc. dat. idam (n.). together with. the Blessed One. ab!. sg. to the not disbelieving. .Jvac). sg. which. to thee the most secret 5I<T~~1 anasuyave I shall declare. tu. sg. but. I shall explain. having known. from impurity. sg. vijfztina (n. • Sioha metre resumes. asubhtit (m.Jvac). from evil. 377 . indeed. knowledge. combined. pravak~ytimi (rst sg.<rn m+mr II . ~ ~ l1T!?. to the not disbelieving. sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: 1 ~~a-~~ idarh tu te guhyatamarh* this. uvtica (3rd sg.:ff~~ jiiiinarh vzjiiiinasahitarh knowledge and discrimination combined.). yad (n. acc. thou shalt be liberated. discrimination.Jmuc) . realization. who do not disbelieve: Knowledge and realization combined. most secret. he spoke.). sg. pravak~yiimy m. acc. guhyatamam (super!. thou shalt be The Blessed Lord spoke: But this most secret thing I shall declare to you. thou shalt be released. he said. sg. jfztinam (n. jfztitvti (gerund . mok~ase (2nd sg. Having learned which you shall be released from evil. the Blessed Lord. pra . to thee. . released from evil. knowing. understanding. future pass . sg. acc. placed together.). yaj jfiatva mok!iyase 'subhat ~ which having known. thou shalt be freed.).). but. sg. to the not sneering. anasiiyave (m. te (dat. perfect act.). . future act.).

JkI:). rajavidya rajaguhyam royal knowledge.). understanding. royal wisdom. intelligible. avagamam (n. sg. purifier.). which is intelligible before the eyes. sg. imperishable. n. idam (n. righteous. nom. sg. nom. BV cpd. lawful. righteous. kartum (infinitive . before the eyes. to practice. royal secret. royal knowledge. sg. (pratyak~avagamam. sg. imperishable. cleanser.). avyayam (n. highest. ~~~ pratyak~avagamam dharmyam as if before the eyes. nom. nom. uttamam (n.. nom. nom. pavitram (n.).).). qf~ ~ ~t+Pt. Plainly intelligible. which can be plainly understood. nom.). this.) dharmyam (n. a royal secret. royal secret. A supreme purifier. sg. whose understanding is before the eyes. sg. nom. imperishable. This is royal knowledge. sg.1 pavitram idam uttamam purifier this supreme.). nom. pratyak~a. supreme. pleasant. rajaguhyam (n. intelligible.IX 2 <FIf<RrT~ rajavidya (f. sg. to do.). 378 . easy. righteous. ~~~II susukham kartum avyayam easy to practice. Easy to practice. nom. eternal. sg. susukham (n.

in the path. n. succession of rebirths. me. to me.IX 3 ~~<rAT:~T aSraddadhana~ puru~a who do not give faith men. paralntapa (m. participle a sradda . indic. sg. ~mf~ aprapya mam nivartante not attaining to me. death.).). vartmani (n. loco sg.JVI:t). . without giving faith. loco sg. voc. II . TP cpd.). asraddadhaniis (m. sg.. Not attaining to Me. pI.) Men who have no faith In this knowledge.). (mrtyu-samstira-vartmani. pl.. asya (m..Jtip). without faith. Scorcher of the Foe. non-faith-holding. men. pr.). of it. not reaching. mrtyu (m. ni . "liif41+:4 ~ I dharmasyasya parmittapa of this law. spirits. smnstira (m.Jdha).). mid. of this rule. they are reborn. transmigration. gen. of law..4~*l1 (""ii f. aprtipya (gerund a pra . 379 .. sg. mrtyusamsaravartmani in the death transmigration path. nom. of this worship. pr. sg. in the path of death and transmigration.). they are born again. not attaining. dharmasya (m. of this law. they are born again ¥l. are born again In the path of death and transmigration.). Scorcher of the Foe. of it. puru~tis (m. mtim (acc. nom. epithet of Arjuna. gen. nivartante (3rd pI. Arjuna.

sg. sg. nom. sarvam (n. sg. nom.).. " jagad avyaktamiirtina universe by unmanifest aspect ~'~Ol{ttllifWfT I +m=mfiT~iT matsthani sarvabhiitani me abiding all beings iT "mf ~~ ~~~: II na cahath te~v avasthitalJ and not I in them abiding. by me whose aspect is unmanifest. I do not abide in them. abiding.).Jtan). entire. by unmanifest aspect. pass. by image. nom. ) matsthani (n. all. and. maya (inst.). resting. whole. idam (n. sarvabhutani (n. universe. inst. unmanifest. not. sg. p. All beings abide in Me. avasthitas (m. by me.Janj). tqu (n.).. participle a vi . sg. murtina (f.).). pl. pl. tatam (n. 380 .IX 4 l1l1T~~~ maya tatam idath sarvath by me pervaded this whole . this. loe. na. sg. in me situated. stretched. (avyaktamurtina.). nom. inst. 1. nom. participle . nom. sg.). in me abiding.). avyakta (p. jagat (n. sg. by aspect. as BY cpd. all creatures. standing. pervaded. This whole universe is pervaded By Me in My unmanifest aspect. sg. world. aham (nom. ace. pass. in them.). all beings. pl. ca. f.

Radhakrishnan.).). sg.. na. sg. ~. nom. nom. bearing beings. . nom. God supports all beings. causing beings to be. ~~:II mamiitmii bhiltabhiivanal} myself beings causing to be. my. pr.). sg. sustaining. not. pa§ya (2nd sg. power. beings dwelling in. alma (m.). bhutabhiivanas (m. imperative act. 381 .). bhutasthas (m. pl. beings. abiding in beings. acc. acc. acc. behold! see! me (gen. sg. nom. self.. and. mama (gen. but no being is of use to him. matsthiini (n. aisvaram (m. sg. existing in beings. na. bhulabht:t (m.). of me. acc. • The explanation of the apparent paradox follows: "God is the source of all phenomena. ~ lr <iT<r+( ~ I pasya me yogam iiisvaram behold of me the power majestic! bhiltabhrn na ca bhiltastho beings sustaining and not beings dwelling in. and.). yogam (m..Jpas). And yet beings do not abide in Me. lordly.). abiding in me. sustaining beings.).freely excerpted from Ramanuja. sg." . ca. but is not touched by them" . pl. bhutani (n. t "God pervades beings by virtue of his will . supporting beings. my.).. Behold my divine yoga! Sustaining beings and not dwelling in beings Is my Self. na ca matsthiini bhiltiini and (yet) not from me abiding beings. causing beings to come into existence. sg.IX 5 iT 'if +m=~nf. creatures. majestic. beings. sg. of me. not. Yoga. ca. causing beings to be.

). viiyus (m.). mahan (m.). "everywhere going. sg. iti. so. creatures.). nom. pl. pl. bhUtiini (n. iikasa. wind. this." omnipresent. in me abiding. sg. as. matsthani (n. in which way. vayu~ ~~~1lf~" tatha sarva1Ji bhUtani so all beings ~R<1:~11 yatha.). nom. in me existing. consider! reflect! matsthantty upadharaya in me abiding. pro imperative causative act. nom.!n. situated.). mighty. in this way. So all beings Dwell in Me. perpetually.(m. ether. pl. beings.:wi yathiikasasthito nityatiz as (in) space dwelling eternally CfT1!: m<Tr ~ I sarvatrago mahan the wind everywhere going. space.Jdhl:). upadharaya (2nd sg. Dwells eternally in space. nom. dwelling in.IX 6 ~~~f. strong. thus. nom. sg. nom. tatha.). Consider this! 382 . eternally. sg. upa .). all.). nityam (adv. sthitas (m. going everywhere. mighty. nom. thus consider! As the mighty wind. sarvatragas (m. sarviilJi (n.

they go. they. vis~jami (I st sg. vi . they go. sg. sarvabhiitiini kiiunteya all beings. at the originating of a kalpa. indic. At the beginning of a kalpa. kiiunteya (m. at the beginning of a kalpa. at the end of a kalpa. kalpaklfaye (m. sg. I send forth. pl.).e. Son of Kunti. punar. see Book VIII 17.). Jya). mamikiim (f. note (i. aham (nom. acc. I. act. ~~~mf. nom. epithet of Aljuna referring to his mother. all beings. loc.). acc. kalpak~aye punas tiini at the end of a kalpa.). Go to My own material nature At the end of a kalpa. sg. loc. yanti (3rd pI. sg. I.).000. kalpadau (m. sg. Kunti or Prthii. I send them forth. • Day of Brahman.. 4. them. voc.).). acc. my own. at the burning of a kalpa. tani (n. material nature.. mine. act. to material nature. pl. at the destruction of a kalpa.J s~j).IX 7 ~-rcrrf. pr.). All beings. again.320. Son of Kunti ~~<rrf~mf~ I prakrtirh yiinti miimikiim (into) material nature. sg. 'fiRl<r sarvabhiU[mi (n. my own. '*' again them ~lf~~~~11 kalpiidiiu visrjiimy aham at the beginning of a kalpa I send forth. prakl:tim (f. I create.000 years). AtjlUla. 383 . my. I let go.

• God creates these beings anew (at the beginning of a new kalpa). men.IX 8 ~~~~ prakrtim svam ava~tabhya material nature own resting on. sg. by the power. imam (m. VII 4 and following stanza). I send forth again and again This entire multitude of beings.Js~j). sg. sg. of material nature. f~::. sg. swim (f. . acc. which is capable of development into various shapes. from the will. God creates the fourfold creation of gods.). the aggregate of beings. acc.). bhufagramam imam krtsnam multitude of beings this entire. by the power of My material nature. ~ ~ <ffiTq: II prakl:tim (f. propped up by. from the will. acc. act.). ava~fabhya (gerund ava . of material nature.rrf+r Tf: Tf: I visrjami puna~ puna~ I send forth again and again ~f1s+i~ ". k~tsnam (m. prak~tes (f. entire. resting on. avasam prakrter vasat without will. punalJ punalJ.). material nature. pro indic. from the power. gen. own. He develops this prakrti into eight forms (cf. powerless. . the multitude of beings. abl. send forth. animals and immovables every now and then because of his bewildering prakrti which consists of gu'. sg. vasat (m. bhiitagramam (m. acc.).Rlimlinuja. visrjami (1st sg. willy-nilly.las.).). whole. without will. sg. supported by. acc. 384 . sg. avasam (m.). reposing upon his own prakrti (material nature).Jstabh). this. again and again. acc. Resting on My own material nature. I create. Which is powerless. vi . sg.

loco pl. 385 . they bind down. 'if lIT ('I'lf. sitting. Conqueror of Wealth.. sg. Arjlll1a. tqu (n. unattached. pro indie. karmasu (n. voc. karmiiTJi (n. act. participle a .Jsanj).).f~~1 nibadhnanti dhanamjaya they bind.IX 9 . in these. conqueror of wealth. asfnam (m. seated. loco pl. these. p. as). dhanmnjaya (m. nom. not. pass. Unattached to these actions. epithet of AIjuna. they fetter. "like one sitting apart. acc. ~mr~~'R+l: udasinavad asinam indifferently sitting ~ffi ~ 'Pl'1. sg. sg. deeds. ca. in deeds. pl. from".). udasfnavat (adv." indifferently.. asaktam (m. and. acc. nibadhnanti (3rd pI. sg.Jbadh). nom. me tani (n. they bind. in actions.).).). II asaktam te~u karmasu unattached in these actions.. And these actions do not bind Me. pl. mam (acc. na ca mam tani karma!}i and not me these actions f~-.).). actions. impartially. 'fi1hfur na. to actions. not clinging. ni . I sit indifferently.

voc. from cause. inst. by cause. world.IX 10 lfllTe<:f~ ~~: mayiidhyak~e1Ja prakrtil. jagad viparivartate the universe.). kdunteya (m. Son of KuntI. mid. I siiyate sacariicaram it produces both animate and inanimate (things) duces. material nature maya (inst. by this. anena (m. viparivartate (3rd sg. it revolves. material nature Produces all things animate and inanimate. both the moving and the unmoving.). adhyak:jelYl (m.). sg. by reason. From this cause.'HSJ.). with me. sg. sg. with ~Cfim hetuniinena kiiunteya from this cause. as in- spector. as eye witness. pr. pr. inst. indic. ~fqqf~11 this. ArjlUla. both the animate(cara) and inanimate (acara). DV cpd. material nature. sg. nom. 386 . jagat (n.). it creates. universe. Son of KuntI. mid. with me as overseer. prak1:tis (f. sg. suyate (3rd sg. epithet of Arjuna.).). it exists. from this.). by me. acc. Jsu). it pro- w:rn ~"'HI. it revolves. With Me as overseer. it impels. from reason. sg. as overseer. sacaracaram (m. vi pari J v~t). indic. sg. acc. The universe revolves. inst. hetuna (m. nom.

ignorant of. sg. acc. me. sg. sg. sg. Not knowing My higher being As the great Lord of beings. acc. they despise. sg.). acc. indic. nom. of me. TP cpd. creature.). acc. acc. fools. pass.IX 11 ~~+rt11(fl " avajiinanti miith mfujhii they despise me. sg. Great Lord of Beings. they disesteem.. sg. pr. not knowing.). sg. bhiita (m. the deluded. great lord. the confused ones. higher. sg. the Great Lord of Beings. participle a . param (m. body. bhtivam (m. m. mtinusfm (f. pass. employing. acc. dwelling in. act. p. (maheSvaram. tanum (f. asritam (m. acc.) 387 . p.). The deluded despise Me. using. a -JjM). mahesvaram (m.). participle act. pI. miidhas (m. form. having recourse to. ava -JjM). mtim (acc. being.). pr. pI. miinu{ith tanum iisritam human form assuming qimcq~T parath bhiivam ajiinanto higher being not knowing l1l1~11 mama bhiitamahesvaram of me. existence. my. nom.). Clad in human fonn. ajanantas (m. mama (gen. human. the deluded.Jsri).). avajananti (3rd pI. participle -Jmuh). assuming. being. they treat with contempt. mighty lord.

abiding." but is part of a simple attribute. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). l1Tf~T f!Q'ID: II prakrtim* mohinim sritiib nature delusive abiding. without thought. those of vain knowledges.). delusive.. asurfm (f. participle . p. BV cpd. and. prak1:tim (f. pl. nom. sg. nature. moghiisii moghakarmii1Jo those of vain hopes. pI. evil.) those whose thoughts are lacking. pl. acc. acc. nom. (as BV cpd. ~~1~~T. acc. those whose hopes are vain. resorting to. devoid of &saimination. acc. resting on. confused. pass. l1~f~:1 moghajiiiinii vicetasab vain know ledges. nom. BV cpd. mohinfm (f.). those whose knowledges are vain. Vain knowledge.). those of vain hopes. clinging to.). character. those of vain actions. fiendish. rak~asfm (f. BV cpd. moghakarmalJas (m. those whose actions are vain. eva. vain actions.4 1011 moghasas (mogha asas.).Jsri). vain actions. nom. Abide in a fiendish and demoniacal nature. pI. 388 . pl. m. Which is deluding. Those of vain hopes. pI. ca. nom. vicetasas (m. pertaining to devils. pI.IX 12 111<mTr to{l "l ".). without thought. moghajnanas (m.rCf riik~asim iisurim ciiiva fiendish and demonic thus 51~i. sritas (m.). sg. without sense. demonic.). • prakrtim (nature) is not used here in the usual sense of" material nature.

~~1"41'l1~1 bhajanty ananyamanaso they worship not other-mindedly. (as BY cpd. resting on. bhajanti (3rd pI. sg. Knowing Me as the origin of beings and as the imperishable. heavenly.) those whose selves are great. pr. nom. nature. p. having known. But those whose souls are great. sg.). tu. sg. imperishable. sg. participle ii Jsri). great selves. epithet of Arjuna. they share with. Son of Prthii. BY cpd. abiding in. . knowing. jiiiitvii (gerund Jjiiii). they worship. pI. character. piirtha (m.). the origin of beings. &cr151~~ ~~: I diiivim prakrtim iisritiil} celestial nature abiding in. Jbhaj).IX 13 1'li3: 1<:I'll"H( ~lltqr~ mahiitmiinas (m. Worship Me single-mindedly. ananyamanasas (m. jiiiitvii bhutiidim avyayam knowing (me as) the beginning of beings. pI.). they honor. ~T 41\I1f~ ~~ II " . Partaking of a celestial nature. act. indic. clinging to. mahiitmiinas tu miim piirtha those whose selves are great. me. sg. pl. pass. the Imperishable. the beginning of beings. me.). but. celestial. divine. acc. iisritiis (m. sg. those whose minds are not elsewhere. nom. 389 .). voc. prakl:tim (f. bhutiidim (m. but.). acc. nom. Arjuna. Son of Prthii. avyayam (m. eternal. diiivfm (f. great souls.).). resorting to. mighty souls. miim (acc. acc. acc.

BY cpd.). participle . sg.) namasyantas (m. nom. they honor. with devotion. participle . nom. and striving with firm vows "Pif4"t1~'iI +IT ~ namasyantaica mam bhaktya and honoring me with devotion '" nityayukta upasate ever steadfast they worship. ever. satatam (adv. m. klrtayantas (m.). pass. with piety. pI. ca. firm. making mention of. (d~4havratas. me. nitya (adv. yatantas (m. miim (acc. inst.Jnam). mid. yuktas (m.). they worship Me. stretching. paying homage to.Jas) . participle . act.Jyat). sincere. nom.IX 14 mffi 'fi~ +IT satatam kirtayanto mam perpetually glorifying me yatantaica drr!havratal. glorifying. those vows are firm. pr. praising. continually. perpetually. indic. honoring. participle . act. upasate (3rd pI. steadfast. and. me. ca.Jyuj). pass. And honoring Me with devotion.). p. pI..). eternally. and. pr. sg. d~4ha (p. Ever steadfast. with love. striving. 390 . pI. vow. sg. pI. solid. upa .).Jd~h). vrata (n. fi'f~ll<ffiT ~ II Perpetually glorifying Me And striving with firm vows. mdm (acc. pr.Jklrt). yoked. united in Yoga. nom. pr. they worship. bhaktya (f. celebrating. always. causative participle . pI. nom.

by the knowledge sacrifice. anye (m. inst. variously manifested. variously placed. ~T+m(~1 also yajanto miim upiisate sacrificing. they worship. by manifoldness. Variously manifested. pI. sacrificing. also. visvatomukham (adv. upiisate (3rd pI. indic. And by the wisdom sacrifice. facing in all directions.). by oneness. me they worship ~~~ o ekatvena prthaktvena as the one. as the manifold. worshipping. ca.). facing in all directions. pl. pr. as the manifold. inst. miim (ace. me.). inst. ~<IT f~~l{ II bahudhii visvatomukham variously manifested.). they honor.IX 15 ~1'14ii'1 ~~ jiiiinayajnena ciipy anye and by the knowledge-sacrifice others. sg. sacrificing.). Others.e. sg.). as the one. worship Me As the one and as the manifold. omniscient. mid. sg. sg. yajantas (m. omniscient). jiiiinayajiiena (m. upa . and. nom. by the sacrifice of knowledge. participle :'. p~thaktvena (n. api. even. act. ekatvena (n. others. nom.yaj).Jiis).). pr. 391 . facing in all directions (i. bahudhii (adv.

aham kratur aham yajnaft I the ritual.). plan. svadha (n. ajyam (n.). sg. nom.). I.). I the medicinal herb. sg. sg. formula. aham. ritual. I. I am the offering. mantras (m. intention. I. nom. sg. ~~mlJ\~~11 aham agnir aham hutam I the fire. nom. I. offering. nom. yajnas (m. aham. I am the medicinal herb. eva. aham. I the pouring out: I am the ritual. sg. ghee. remedy. medicinal herb. nom. fire.). the oblation. aham I.I~~<rn": aham (nom. the pouring out. 392 . sg. aham. ~T~~~lJ:t:!. ceremony. au~adham (n. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). Br~~~M~1 svadhaham aham a~adham the offering I.). I. sacred text. I am the fire. hutam (n. I the sacrifice. sacrifice. sg. sg. kratus (m. I also the clarified butter. nom. and I am the pouring out (of the oblation). I am also the clarified butter. nom.).). aham. I am the sacred text. clarified butter. I.IX 16 ~~<. agnis (m. I.~ mantro 'ham aham evajyam the sacred text I. nom. sg. medicine. I am the sacrifice. aham.).

the purifier. sg. mata (f. Themother. Yajur Veda. the second to the traditions of chant applied largely to the same verses. of the world. sg.the grandfather." ~ml1~<.:~~11 rk sama yajur eva ca the ~g. the establisher. of the universe. of it. • The ~g. the cleanser. sama. Sarna Veda. nom. Sarna and Yajur Vedas are the three principal Vedas. vedyam (n. pavitram (n.the~bllimer. and the third to ritual formulas. sg. or compilations of ancient Vedic lore. pitaham asya jagato the father I of it. of this. asya (gen. the object of knowledge. mother. sg. sg. gen.). and Yajur Vedas. jagatas (n. 393 . I arn the father ofthe universe. ca. I.IX 17 f~~~T pita (m." fk.Jvid). nom. ~ qf~ ~:fcl." The Rig. sg. of the universe +mIT 'Cum Fr~rr~: I mata dhata pitamahal:z the mother. pitamahas (m.n: vedyam pavitram omkara the to-be-known.). the arranger. the Sarna and the Yajur (Vedas). Sarna. nom. sg.). nom. nom.). sg. sg. nom. yajur. and.). gerundive . the grandfather. ~g Veda. the purifier. eva. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). father.). omkiiras (m. grandfather. the sacred syllable" Om.). The object of knowledge. sg. nom. the to-be-known. the establisher. aham (nom.). the purifier. the sacred syllable "Om. the first being devoted to verses of praise. dluita (m. the syllable "Om.

goal. suh~d (m. the witness. pra/ayas (m. I am the goal. 394 . eye-witness. the Great Lord. seed. bijam (n. sg. the friend. f~: m'!1J' ~ I nivasab sarat}am suhrt the abode.IX 18 '1f<:n: mIT >nr: m~r . basis. prabhavas (m. nom.).). sthiinam (n. the staying f"<1R". the great Lord. sg. siik~f (m. The treasure house and the imperishable seed. nom. sg. nidhiinam (n. the supporter. niviisas (m. the dissolution and the foundation. the seed imperishable. bringing forth. nom.). imperishable. nom. nom.) he whose heart is good. the dissolution. >!"l1cl": ~: ~~ prabhavab pralayab sthiinam the origin. observer. nom. treasure house. The abode. sg. -0 gatir bharUi prabhu!t sak~i the goal. bearer. nom. eternal. nom. path. origin. nom.). saraf}am (n.).). sg. sg. sg. supporter. birth. avyayam (n. maintenance. abode.). sg.). nom. sg. nom. home. companion. sg. dying. the friend. support."~ ~+I: II nidhanam bijam avyayam the treasure house. refuge.). shelter. nom. dissolution.). gatis (f. friend. (as BV cpd. the refuge. the supporter. great lord.). prabhus (m. sg. nom. the refuge. sg. sg. the eye witness. bhartii (m. The origin.). sustainer.).

act. ca. I. pr.). I let go. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). And I am both immortality and death. I radiate heat. rain. sg. pro participle .). I send forth. nectar. untruth. var~am (m. and.:lI being and non-being. Atjuna. aham (nom. sat (n. pr. I heat up.mprTIl1 "f I nigrhIJiimy utsrjiimi ca I withhold. . ud .Js~j). vOC. utgjiimi (1st sg. nig~hfJiimi (1st sg. act. ni . indic. am~tam (n. ca. . Arjuna. pro indic.).. sg. amrtam ciiiva mrtYuSca and immortality thus and death. act. nom. and I send forth. I. non-being. sg. being. sg. I.IX 19 ~~'l. death. nom. I the rain. sg. mwus (m. and. aham. acc.Jgrah).).f~~~ tapiimy aham aham var~am I radiate heat. and. asat (n. ~~~mll sad asac ciiham arjuna " ""I.). f~. 395 . and. ca. eva.). indic. I. I hold back.Jas). nom. Arjuna. arjuna (m. aham. I withhold. I withhold and Send forth the rain. nom. immortality.Jtap). Being and non-being. sg. I. tapiimi (1st sg. truth. I radiate heat.. ca.

Those who know the three Vedas.). sg. pl. they desire. godly pleasures. goal of heaven. papas (m. nom. pr. pU1Jyam (m.). approaching. heaven goal they seek. Indra. in heaven. svargatim (f.).) yajiiiiis (m.. m. pr.). divyan (m. sg.). knowers of the three Vedas. surendra (m. divine. going toward. mid.). asadya (gerund a . soma drinkers. evils. they. traividyas (m. Tri~!ubh metre. ~~~ro~~ te pU1. the soma drinkers. the lord of the gods. nom. TP cpd..Jsad).). sg. the Indra (chief) of the gods. ~ ~Tmf~ 5rT~ I yajiiiiir i~tvii svargatim priirthayante with sacrifices worshipping. somapas (m. m. cleansed. devabhogan (m. 396 . worshipping.thus the Indra or "chief" of the gods. "chief" .). indic. acc. mam (acc. the cleansed of evils.). encountering. pure.IX 20 '"<roT +IT ~T+P1T: qwrrqr . pilta (m. sg. divi (n. The use of the name here is in its common meaning. (piltapapas. ~~f~fcnq~Trr II aSnanti divyiin divi devabhogiin they enjoy divine.). heaven goal. offering. me.) asnanti (3rd pI. t . te (m.. and he is mentioned in X 22.. they enjoy. world of Indra. whose evils are cleansed. act. those whose evils are cleansed. pl.z putapiipii* The three-Veda knowers. pra . pl. nom. the pure. world. BV cpd. i~tva (gerund . by another name. me. they eat. acc. pl.). heavenly. nom. They. though the surviving mutation of his name in the word" indriya" meaning" sense" or "power" is common. acc. This is the only mention in the Gita of the chief of the Vedic gods.Jas). meritorious. acc. in the sky. path of heaven. sg.). (surendra-loka. attaining the god-Indraworld. they seek. holy.. indic. with sacrifices. acc.Jarth). Worship Me with sacrifices and seek to go to heaven. inst. . attaining the pure world of the Lord of the gods. triiividyii miim somapii/. lokam (m. they ask for. god pleasures. pl. attaining. sg.lyam iisiidya surendralokam they. loco sg. pl. acc. nom. divine enjoyments. prarthayante (3rd pI. by sacrifices. in the sky.). the soma drinkers.). purified. Enjoy in heaven the gods' celestial pleasures . pl.Jyaj). sins.

in virtue. "three law. . (svargaLokam.). thus. they obtain. p. Having enjoyed the vast world of heaven. svarga (m.!e (m. acc. bhuktva (gerund . in exhausted. participle . tam (m. acc. mid . acc. fcrnf~ I k~i1. sg. sg. sg.Jbhu}). pl. this.). TP cpd. sg. nom. acc. f~ te tam bhuktvii svargalokam visiilam'" they. participle anu pra .). heaven. They enter the world of mortals when their merit is exhausted. they obtain the state of going and returning. nom. anuprapannas (m. pr. martyaLokam (m. world. sg.).). nom. trayfdharmam (m.). the world of heaven. in merit. they get. p." law of the three Vedas. visanti (3rd pI.IX 21 a. world of mortals. conforming to. the world of mortals they enter.Jksi)..Jvis) .lye martyalokam visanti with exhausted merit. wide. it having enjoyed. carrying out. pl. sg. going and coming.). enjoying. desiring objects of desire.) visaLam (m. having enjoyed. pI. they. act . mortal world. . te (m. loc. extensive.). m.Jlabh). spacious. in this manner. Labhante (3rd pI. lTaTm'fCflIWflll'l1 ~~ II gatiigatam kiimakiimii labhante going and coming. acc. indic. gatagatam (m. acc. Lokam (m. the world of heaven. in goodness. pr.le pU1. they obtain (them). • Tri~!ubh metre continues. sg. acc. ~1UT ~ ~l<f.Jpad) . ~~<ft~~iSlq>J1 evam trayidharmam anuprapannii thus the law of the three Vedas conforming to. in purity. following. Thus confonning to the law of the three Vedas. Desiring enjoyments. loc. kamakamas (m. pu'!ye (m.). pass. k~f. desiring objects of desire. they enter. pass. what comes and goes. it.([ ~ ~l<f. sg. wide. indic. in destroyed. sg. evam. 397 .).

abhiyuktiiniim (m. pr. who are constantly steadfast. meditating on.). nom. cintayantas (m. miim (acc. gen.). men. indic. ananyiis (m. ye (m. to acquisition and possession. to the acquiring and protection of property. I lead. directing their thoughts to Me. pI. tqiim (gen. directing thoughts to.). 398 . which.). nitya (adv. they worship. eternally. vahami (1st sg. pr. For them. me. BV cpd. of those who are eternally steadfast. to them. sg.). act. I secure what they lack and preserve what they already possess. (nityiibhiyuktiinam. gen. they worship. pari upa viis). sg. I bring.).). constantly.1~f~T1IT ananyiis cintayanto miirh· without other (thoughts). janas (m. I carry. pl. participle . of them. sg.. pl. paryupiisate (3rd pI. pl.Jvah). pl. I.). nom. of the steadfast ones. directing thoughts to me. acc. who. pI.). m. it~:~1 ye janiil. aham (nom. not directed to another. they honor.) yogakliemam (m. nom. . Those men who worship. pl. mid. lfTlTent ~ ~l!: II yogak~emarh vahiimy aham acquisition and possession I bring.IX 22 9. • 8loka metre resumes. paryupiisate which men. 1.Jcint). nom. of those united to Yoga. pro indic. ~f~~ te~iirh nityiibhiyuktiiniirh of them of those who are constantly steadfast. Whose minds do not go elsewhere.

godheads.+ITl\ ~ 'tim te 'pi miim eva kaunteya they also to me.). anvitas (m. me.). Jyaj). they sacrifice. TP cpd. pr. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). even. in the absence of fixed rules. to me. nom. yajanti (3rd pI. mid. m. Son of KuntI. by faith. sg. mam (acc. api. they sacrifice by faith accompanied ~ sfq. 399 . te (m. they sacrifice.. (anya-devata-bhaktas. api. accompanied by. nom.). voc. indic. pI. act. Also worship Me. pl. ~mqf~11 yajanty avidhipurvakam (though) they sacrifice not according to rule. worshipping. ye (m.).). even. worshipping other gods. they worship. inst. participle Jbhaj). eva. along with. pl.!~4~6(d I +miT ye 'py anyadevatabhakta who even other gods worshipping 4"~ ~rf. pI. Though they do so in ignorance.) yajante (3rd pI.IX 23 <t ~ 1.). nom. epithet of Arjuna.). gods. other. bhaktas (m. nom. sharing with. kaunteya (m. Even those who worship other gods With faith. anya-. also.craT: I yajante sraddhayanvital. who..). not according to rule. pass. devatas (f. Arjuna. also. they. with faith. sg. pl. p. sg. avidhipurvakam (adv. Jyaj) . sraddhaya (f. pr. Son of Kuntl. they worship. nom. indic.

indeed. from this. But they do not recognize Me in truth. they vanish. not. they know. me they recognize Cf~~~a-II tattveniitas cyavanti te in truth. act. ca.IX 24 'l. but. they. and.). indic. by truth. me. they recognize. eva. enjoyer.1~ f~ *1<14#11'1 i aham hi sarvayajiiiiniim I indeed of all sacrifices aham (nom. lord. cyavanti (3rd pI. I. hence they fall. sg.Jcyu). 400 . abhijananti (3rd pI. Hence they fall. 'l1'rttir :q sr'lR t:!. truly.). gen. tu. bhokta (m. tattvena (n. te (m. and. nom. but. they deviate.).Cf :q I bhoktii ca prabhur eva ca the enjoyer and the lord. . of all sacrifices. mam (acc. sg. pl. indic. indeed. inst.). " atas. sarvayajnaniim (m. nom. in "thatness. act. pl.). ca. na. in truth.). sg. sg. pr.Jjna). For I am the enjoyer and the Lord Of all sacrifices. hi. '1" ~ lflll: m'l1~~ "" na tu miim abhljiinanti not. sg. prabhus (m. abhi . they. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). they fall. pr. hence.

bhutani yanti bhutejya to the spirits go those who sacrifice to the spirits. those who are devoted to the gods. they attain. acc. acc. they go. also. act. piu:vratas (m. the ancestor-devoted. api. those who sacrifice to me. . even. beings. to the ancestors. pl.Jya).). the spirit-sacrificing. to me. yanti (3rd pI. madyajinas (m. to the gods. pl.). they attain. act . Those who worship Me come surely toMe.). those who are devoted to me. acc. to the gods. the ancestors. nom. act.. pitfn (m. yanti (3rd pI.[iIT: I pitrn yanti pitrvratal. . they attain.Jya). bhutani (n.Jya). pl. Those who are devoted to the spirits go to the spirits. they attain. those devoted to the spirits. surely. pl. those devoted to the gods. devavratas (m. <nf~ ~rf. me. 401 . .).).). sg. the gods. spirits. the god-devoted. fqq'l: <nf~ f~<.:rT sflTlITl! II yanti ntadyajino 'pi mam they go. they go. surely to me. those who are devoted to the ancestors.IX 25 1. pro indic.Jya). pl. act. pl. pr. mam (acc. indic.). pr. the me-sacrificing. yanti (3rd pI. bhutejyas (m. nom. Those who are devoted to the gods go to the gods.r. they go. . yanti (3rd pI. they go. Those who are devoted to the ancestors go the the ancestors. nom. devan (m. to the spirits.). indie. nom. to the ancestors go those who are devoted to the ancestors. pl.TTf~~~ yanti devavratii devan they go.

He who offers to Me with devotion and a pure heart A leaf.). acc. from him whose self is pure. presented.. this.Jhr:). sg.q ~d It tad aham bhaktyupahrtam that I devotion offered ~rfl15f<r<:lWFf: II asnami prayatatmana/. act. acc. sg. pure. sg.. pro indic. fruit. love. I.IX 26 ~~q'~mlf pattram pu~pam phalam toyam a leaf. prayata (m. leaf. BY cpd. toyam (n. sg. a fruit. pra ." The ancient belief was that the gods actually" ate" part of the sacrificial offering. bhaktyii (f. (bhakti-upahr:tam. dat. prayacchati (3rd sg. n. water. inst. That offering of devotion I accept from him. acc. he offers. to me. he goes toward. offering of devotion. acc. abl. nom. I eat. a fruit. pr. participle pra . offered.). pass.Jas) . acc. of the self. bhakti (f.). sg. he presents.). that. m.). sg. participle upa . from the self. or water. abl. (prayatiitmanas. he offers. a flower. acc. aham. . sg. I partake. iitmanas (m. who.) • "I eat. phalam (n. acc. pass. sg. upahr:tam (n. 402 . with devotion. p.:r~ '+l 'R'i.). indic. sg.) asniimi (Ist sg. I accept.Jyam) .).). tad (n. pu~pam lfr l:r 'l1'RlfT ~~ I yo me bhaktya prayacchati who to me with devotion. controlled. sg. TP cpd. (n. sg. water. devotion. with love. dutiful.). act. flower.). sg. pattram (n. a flower. p. me (m.l I eat* from him whose self is pure.Jyam) . yas (m. ~(p.

indic. what. mid.Jtapasya). pr.). indic.Jk~). whatever you give. Arjuna.~"'fi~ yat tapasyasi kiiunteya what thou performest in austerities. yad (n. karo~i (2nd sg. whatever you eat. . yad (n.Jas). . sg. tad (n. act . . dadasi (2nd sg.). pr. indic. sg. Son of Kunt!.Jhu). Whatever you offer. mr~~l1:11 tat kuru~va madarpat}am that do (as) an offering to me. thou offerest (in sacrifice).). what. acc.Jkl:) . Do that as an offering to Me. what.). imperative . Whatever austerities you perform. yad (n. acc. 403 . tapasyasi (2nd sg. pr. thou makest. which. what. . yad (n. voc. lfcr. this. acc. act. thou strivest. acc. sg. epithet of Arjuna. act. yad (n. which. indic. sg. kuru~va (2nd sg. as an offering to me. juho~i (2nd sg.). pro indic.). thou performest (in the way of austerities). act. acc. thou eatest. sg. acc. acc. which. pr. .). Whatever you do. that. sg. Son of KuntI. what thou eatest. ~~l'f~~<ql yaj juho# dadiisi yat what thou offerest.IX 27 ~~Tfl'f~~~ . thou givest what. thou doest. do! make! madarpaTJilm (n. sg. kaunteya (m.Jda). sg.). act. . thou givest. which. yat karo# yad asniisi what thou doest. what. asnasi (2nd sg.

sg. atma (m.Jmuc). steadfast.IX 28 ~~~ '" '" . sg. relinquishment. thou shalt attain. BY cpd. yoked.). l1Tm~:1 mok~yase karmabandhaniiilJ thou shalt be liberated from the bonds of action. renunciation. pl. f<ll!'ffiT ~ ~ II vimukto miim upii#yate liberated. me thou shalt come to. mam (acc.) evam. (samnyasayogayuktatma. karmabandhaniiis (n. m. from the bonds of action. sanmyasa (m. from good and evil fruits. pI. inst.). participle .). by the fruits. pl. me. nom.). joined in Yoga. phalais (n. p.). freed.). You shall come to Me. from the fruits. 404 . with your mind disciplined by the yoga of renunciation. disciplined.Jyuj). participle vi .. thus. sg. thyself. thou shalt be freed. thou shalt come.).Jmuc). thou shalt go. certainly. whose self is disciplined in the Yoga of renunciation. inst. by the fetters of action. pass. liberated. good and evil. inst. auspicious and unfortunate. n. subhiisubhaphaliiir evam subhiisubha (n. (subhiisubhaphalais. mokryase (2nd sg. by good and evil fruits. Liberated. Yoga. yukta (p.Ji).) vimuktas (m. self. . yoga (m.l'll samnyiisayogayuktiitmii thou whose self is disciplined Yoga of renunciation. ~"I'i'ffil. upairyate (3rd future 2nd sg.. thou shalt be liberated. sg. nom. from good and evil fruits certainly. In the You shall certainly be liberated From the bonds of action which produce good and evil fruits. upa . nom. future pass . pass.

according to their class. also. nom. of me. nor. in them.IX 29 wit ~. nom. nom. there is.). configuration. There is none disliked or dear to Me. sarvabhUte~u (n. sg. not. aham (nom.). <t 'l1'iff~ ~ lIT ~ ye bhajanti tu miim bhaktyii who they worship.). indic. J as). sg. api.). but. 405 . indic. and in them also I. dvqyas (m. na. they. I.). sg. exist in an infinite plurality of forms. which. nom. me (m.). pl. nom. ca. lac. • "Being a refuge for all. te:fu (m. bhajanti (3rd pI. disinterested. asti (3rd sg.Ramanuja. in me.). lac. sg. me. and I am also in them. to all beings. mam (acc. men. But they who worship Me with devotion Are in Me.). and." . pl.). animals and immovables. I am the same (Self) in all beings. na. sg. with devotion. mayi (m. gen. ye (m. in all beings. thus "the same" in all beings. sg. pl. but. samas (m. not. they worship. nor dear.~ c-- '" samo 'ham sarvabhiite~ the same I am in all beings. of all beings. te (m. sg. sg. bhaktya (f. it is. sg. lac. nature and knowledge. Jbhaj). disliked. impartial. pr.). pl. inst. God is the same toward all iitmans (selves) of gods. dear. favored. Me with devotion lTf<1ir~~~11 mayi te te~u ciipy aham in me they. even. equal in quantity. pr. the same. aham (nom. The meaning is that God exists in all iitmans (selves) and is therefore a part. who.). indeed. I. not of me disliked there IS. hated. act.). priyas (m.). with love. tu. they honor. '*' if 11~) sf~ if f>n1: I na me dve~yo 'sti na priyal.

). ~ ozrqfmir f~~: II samyag vyavasito hi sa/:t rightly resolved indeed he. sg. to be considered.). truly. this. evil doer. even. also. nom. he honors. mantavyas (m. from su dur ii . nom. me. sas (m.IX 30 mtr ~ ~(I:ql <. If even the evil doer Worships Me with undivided devotion. sg. samyanc (adv. sg. sg. eva. rightly. resolved. vyavasitas (m.). determined. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. indeed.Jcar). miim (acc. bhajate (3rd sg. pass. nom.Jbhaj). sg. He is to be thought of as righteous. For he has indeed rightly resolved. to be thought.). ananyabhak (m. undertaken.Jso). nom. settled. if. sg. mid . gerundive . sg. he. indic. men:~~~: api. siidhus (m. sas (m. . evil doing. he worships. nom. nom. pr.).). nom. hi. righteous.Jman). suduriiciiras (m. ced. participle vi ava . 406 . not-another siidh~r eva sa mantavya/:t righteous he to be thought. devoted to no one else.1 " '" apicetsuduracaro even if the evil doer ~l1T11~1 bhajate 'miim ana'nyabhiik he worships me (with) devoted. he. this. p. good.

my. santim (f. eternal. gen. Son of Kunti. atma (m. imperative act. virtuous. bhavati (3rd sg. pra J nas). he acquires. sg. he enters.). rule. participle Jbhaj). quickly. pro indic. act. bhaktas (m.).). everlasting. (dharmatma. voc. sg. act. dharma (m. sg. sg. know for certain that No devotee ofMine is ever lost 407 . Quickly he becomes virtuous and Goes to everlasting peace. perpetual.). Atjuna. nom. p. pratijanlhi (2nd sg. dutiful.. kaunteya (m. pralJaSyati (3rd sg. acc. 5fUr~(f II na me bhaktal:z pra1}asyati not of me a devotee he is lost. pro indic.) sasvat.. peace. epithet of Arjuna. ~~f~(fl IS sasvacchiintim nigacchati everlasting peace he goes to 5If~Tf~ kiiunteya pratijiinihi Son of KuntI. BV cpd. sg. one whose self is virtuous. law. tranquility.. be aware! 'lim . nom. sg. he is lost. nigacchati (3rd sg. he goes to. of me. worshipping. self. m. nom. act.IX 31 f~~(f~ k~ipram (adv. k#pram bhavati dharmiitmii quickly he becomes one whose self virtuous. he is. worshipper. not. he becomes. pro indic. he is destroyed. me (m. pass. be aware! become aware! understand! na. JbhU).). iT +rn. righteous. immediately. ni Jgam). prati Jjfia) .).

even Shudras. should they be. yiinti (3rd sg. (m. vaisyas. epithet of Arjuna. siidriis (m. J as). even. nom.. who. indeed. thus. • viiisyiis .yu/:z papayonayaf:t who. nom. pl. evil. wombs. yonayas (m. highest.) striyas (f.IX 32 +IT f~ qr~ <><mf~ math hi partha vyapasritya me indeed. nom. nom. sg. act. acc. they. they go.). origins. Jyii).). t sudriis . be they.members of the servant caste. pl.). path. Viiisyas. vyapiisritya (gerund vi apa ii Jsri) . fourth in order of rank and lowest of the four original castes. hi. also. also. pariim (f. 408 . members of the third caste. me.). sinful. wicked. acc. syus (3rd pI. those oflow origin). women. nom. voc. those whose wombs are evil. Also go to the highest goal. te (m. Son of Prtha.sf'1 <nfi'Q crU m~ II te 'pi yanti pararh gatim they also go to the highest goal. having recourse to. api. optative act. viiiSyiis (m. pl. Women.). piirtha. even be they (from) evil wombs f~T~~~m:m . BV cpd. to the highest. they should be. nom. even. Siidras.). gatim (f.). even. Son ofPrthii. sg.). goal. also.). truly. indic. pl. Vaishyas. taking refuge in <r sf'1~: qrq<:ff. nom.members of the merchant or peasant caste. even siidras a. '" striyo ?Jaisyas tatha sudras women. Arjuna. sg. to the goal.). taking refuge in. third in order of rank. m. They who take refuge in Me.e. members of the fourth caste. piipa (m. pl. api.). (piipayonayas. pr. they attain. ye (m. pl. Even if they are born of those whose wombs are evil (i. sg.:r<:r: I ye 'pi . miim (acc. tathii. pI.

reaching. me. sg. pl.lap).).). acc.lbhaj). acc. sg. nom. what? how? punar. acc. also. imperative mid. holy. pl. pl. sg. royal seers. too. devote thyselft honor! worship! mam (acc. imam (m. unpleasant. more. acc. perishable. imam priipya bhajasva miim this attaining. devote thyself to me.). lokam (m.). impermanent. 409 . to me. again. sg. nom. sg. rajar~ayas (m.). tatha. asukham (m. nom. this. unhappy. the Brahmans.). How much more easily then. attaining. Devote yourself to Me. anityam (m. bhajasva (2nd sg. brahmarJtjs (m. nom. pU!Jyas (m. devoted.). world.IX 33 f~ Tf\ ~UfT: ~ kim punar briihma1Jii/J pU1Jyii how much more the brahmans pure.). the pure Brahmins And the devoted royal seers! Having attained this impennanent and unhappy world. "l1'rfiT . pl.). -. prapya (gerund pra -.). bhaktas (m. thus. pure.(1"1q4~l q~ I bhaktii riijar~ayas tathii devoted royal seers too anityam asukham lokam impermanent unhappy world ~ >rr=4" ~ lfl'l!: II mwnr ~ ~Tcfi+t kim (interrog.

imperative. make reverence! make obeisance! miim (acc. me-minded. Jbhu). sg. miim (acc. with me as supreme object. thou shalt come. disciplined. imperative act. nom. sg. me.).z thyself (with) me as supreme aim. thyself. yuktva (gerund Jyuj).). ~ l1\CfU1l1lT: II iitmiinam matpariiYa?}al. namaskuru (2nd sg. sg. e. be devoted to Me. madyajl (m. of me devoted. self. me worshipping. evam. sg.) one whose mind is fixed on me. future vi).IX 34 ~"l1cf~T manmanii bhava madbhakto by thought be to me devoted. with Me as your supreme aim. made steadfast. made steadfast thus.). atmanam (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ~T+rt~1 manmanas (m. nom.). nom. sg. thinking of me. united in Yoga. matparaya1Jlls (m. with me as supreme aim. eva.). with me in mind. bhava (2nd sg.ryasi (2nd sg. me worshipping. nom. yoked. to me. be! madbhaktas (m. (as BV cpd. sg. With mind fixed on Me. madyiiji miim namaskuru to me sacrificing to me reverence make! l1Tl\ ~~~ 'i~ miim eviii~yasi yuktviiivam to me thou shalt come. Thus steadfast. End of Book IX The Yoga of Royal Knowledge and of Royal Mystery 410 .). thus. to me. me. acc. to me sacrificing. sg.). Sacrificing to Me. thou shalt go. You yourself shall come to Me. steadfast. namas Jkl:). make reverence to Me.

). 0 Mighty Armed One.). mahabiiho (m.). the Blessed sribhagaviill uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: Lord. once more.). paramam (n. dat. acc. sg. 0 Arjuna. sg. acc. aham (nom. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. . with desire for welfare. sg. to thee. sg. which. prfy'amiiT]iiya (m. participle Jpri). sg.i Izitakamyayii I shall speak with desire for (thy) welfare. to the one who <icfff ~5flll1410Illl yat te 'ham priyamii1. ~ lr q-ni Cf'f: I G '" bhuyas. vak~iimi (I st sg. sg.("mcrq~1 srfbhagaviin (m. sg.). st:TJU (2nd sg. Cf!\:mfl1 fQdifllt:lIlIl II ~'(/h:~yiill/. yad (n. who are beloved. ST1JU me paramarh 'vacalJ hear of me the supreme word te (dat. pro mid. 411 .). acc. uviica (3rd sg. . indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). vacas (n. sg.). voc. Hear My supreme word Which I shall speak to you. sg.Jsru). . highest. to the beloved one. again. sg. I shall tell. to the delighting one. from me. hear! me (gen. word. the Blessed one.BOOK X ?. 1 'l'1~Cf~) blutya eva mahiibiiho again. nom.Jvac) . inst. he said. The Blessed Lord spoke: Again.). perfect act. imperative act .).Jvac). future act. advice. I. eva.liiya which to thee. supreme. I shall speak. is beloved. 1. hitakiimyayii (f. of me. he spoke. With a desire for your welfure. Mighty Armed One.

sarvasas (adv.). nom.). the multitudes of gods.x 2 iflff~:~: na me vidulJ suragmJiilJ 00. truly. they know. nor the great seers.). the multitudes of gods. l1WI~t'qm: II J vid with present meaning). source. sg. in every way. of me. pl. pl. deviiniim (m. vidus (3rd pI. in truth. mahar~ayas (m. the aggregate of gods.). nor. prabhavam (m. >!+f<f if ~<r: I prabhavam na mahar~ayalJ the origin. gen. sg. 412 . ca. beginning. perfect act. not of me they know. universally. of the great seers. gen. mahar~ffJiim (m.). acc. indeed. na. not. hi. not. me (gen.). pl. Neither the multitude of gods Nor the great seers know My origin. of the gods. sg.). In truth I am the SOlllU! of the gods And the great seers.). sg. pl. in all cases. coming to be. the great seers. I. of the gods. suragafJiis (m. ~mf~f~~ aham iidir hi deviiniim I the source. nom. aham (nom. nom. mahar{itJiim ca sarvasalJ and of the great seers universally. and.). iidis (m. origin.

he is liberated. he knows.). sas (m. miim (acc. sg. from all evils he is released.Jvid). beginningless. he. sg. passive pra . among mortals.x 3 llT lIT+! ~~ ~~:q yo miim ajam aniiditiz ca who me. who.Jmuc). he is freed. me. unconfused.).lha~ sa martye~u un deluded he among mortals ~:5!11:~11 sarvapiipiiilJ pramucyate yas (m. without beginning. martye~u (m. sg. loco pl.). sg. ca. sg.). from all evils. the birthIess and the beginningless. asammudhas (m. pass. He is released from all evils. ~liq. acc. indic. pr. he is released.). pr. 413 .Jmuh). sg. inst. acc. . and. p. the birthless and the beginningless ~~<'>~~I vetti lokamaheSvaram he knows. He among mortals is tUldeluded. the World's Mighty Lord. great lord of the world. unborn. nom. this.). aniidim (m. nom. sg. vetti (3rd sg. from all sins. world's mighty lord. ajam (m. nom. pramucyate (3rd sg.:~lR~ asatizm{l(. sarvapaptiis (m. undeluded. act. indic. by all evils.). in mortals. participle a sam ". birthless. pl. He who knows Me. acc. lokamahdvaram (m. The mighty Lord of the world.).

sg. ca.t patience. equanimity. bhayam (n. pain.). non-delusion.). nom. domination of the self. ca. And fear and fearlessness. misery. nom. nom. truth. kliama (f. sg. Pleasure. pleasure.). control. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). tameness.). patience. ~+rr ~ <n1: ~: I k~amii satyam damaJ. freedom from delusion. nom.~~: buddhir jiiiinam asatizmohal. sincerity. sg. discomfort.:rq) sukham duJ. passing away. fear. ~~t1.). knowledge. sg.). nom. damas (m. tranquility. birth. eva. nom.). self restraint. sg. sg.).t samaJ. passing away. arising.x 4 ~. sg.). nom. ~ ~:@' mrf s.). and.. knowledge. sg. nom. nom. satyam (n. non-confusion. tranquility. Patience.<f:q11 bhayam ciibhayam eva ca and fear and fearlessness Intellect. asammohas (m.). sg. death. knowledge. non-being. terror. nom. fearlessness. nom. becoming. veracity. sg. happiness. buddhis (f. intelligence.g:'. comfort. 414 . nom. abhavas (m. forbearance. being. and. ace. absence offear. nom. veracity. sg. sukham (n. pain. self-restraint. calmness. self restraint. tranquility. bhavas (m. sg. truth. dulJkham (n. samas (m. wisdom.).). intelligence. non-delusion. jiiiinam (n. pain. becoming.tkham bhavo 'bhavo pleasure. sg. abhayam (n.

pr. indic. samata (f. charity. here m. contentment. yasas (n. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). bhavanti (3rd pI. bhavas (m. alone. nom. nom. sg.). Cl'1T ~ <roT ~: I tapa diinam yasa 'yasal} austerity.). existing in many forms. nom. . impartiality. placed many times. +1<If. sg. ayasas (n. pl. pl. act. disrepute. celebrity. nom. contentment. conditions.). manifold. impartiality. they are.. p~thagvidhas (f. sg. gen. ahimsa (f. heat. sg. of creatures.. mattas (abl. sg.). nom. eva. good name. austerity. 415 . Non-violence. sg.).. Austerity.x 5 m~~w~ ahimsii samatii tu~tis non-violence.jbhii) . satisfaction. here m. fame. sg.). danam (n. fame. charity. from me. pl. Arise from Me alone. they come to be. disrepute.).:n +rn1 ~ bhavanti hhiivii bhutiiniim they arise conditions of beings lffi ~ 1:~rqcn: II matta eva prthagvidhiil} from me alone manifold. bhiitanam (m. nom. gift. states of being.). they arise. nom. benevolence. charity. equableness.). tucy!is (f.). sg. impartiality. tapas (m. The manifold conditions of beings. nom. bad reputation. of many varieties. nom.). harmlessness. disrepute. contentment. of beings. fame. non-violence.

mIT madbhiivii miinasii jiitii from me the origins. Manu Vaivasvata. imds (f. And also the four Manus.Kasyapa. seven.). nom. sapta purve the great seers seven in the past ~T~cr~ mahar~aya/:l catviiro manavas tathii the four Manus also. Jamadagni and Bharadvaja . jatds (m.).). and progenitor of the human race. pl. mana vas (m. four. madbhavas (m. For Kasyapa see chapter" The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita. nom. brought forth. world. nom. nom. Originated from Me. great seers.). catvaras (m. in the past. piirve (m.. mighty seers.). pl.). nom. bam of My mind. ~: ~: II ye~iirh loka imii~ prajii~ from whom the world these creatures The seven great seers of old." t Manus seem to come in various quantities. of whom. from me origins. is supposed to have been the great Hindu lawgiver. yqam (m. Manus. All are purely legendary figures. pl. ancestors of the human race. irq-t ~1<f. creatures. manasas (m. deriving from mind. pI). Atri. 416 . gen. One. originating from me. sg. beings. mentally. nom. lokas (m. Gotama. pl. thus. these. sapta. in previous times.). pl. also. loco sg. sg. born.). pl. tatha. author of the post-Vedic Miinava dharmasiistra. nom. From whom have sprung these creatures of the world. nom. nom. II Vasi~tha. pl. Visvamitra. mentally brought forth. sometimes with other heavenly bodies.). Fourteen are commonly listed.x 6 ~:~gTf mahar-rayas (m.sometimes identified with the seven stars of the Lesser Bear constellation.). Seven legendary seers (r#s) . ~ 11T"lm . prajas (f.

417 . yujyate (3rd sg. pro indie. here. sg. inst. atra. sg. by untrembling. vibhutim (f. yas (m. my. acc.). manifested power. tattvatas (n.). acc. and. Of this there is no doubt. in truth. My manifested glory and power. not.). passive Jyuj). sg. yogena (m.). sg. act. by unwavering. Yoga. nom. He who knows in truth This. etam vibhutim yogarh ca this manifested lordship and power lfl1 <rT ~~ m=<m: I mama yo vetti tattvatal. he. vetti (3rd sg. is united (with me).). Is united with Me by unwavering yoga. na. this. who. this. power. mama (gen.). acc. in this case. sg. abl. of me who knows in truth 'IT sf<fifi~ <rfiR so 'vikampena yogena he by unwavering Yoga l!~ i'fT"'1 ~~: II yujyate natra samsayal. nom. pro indic. nom.x 7 ~ fcqf~ <rm 'if etiim (f. he is yoked. Jvid). he knows. manifested might.). {lvikampena (m. not here doubt. inst. sg. sg. from a vi Jkamp). yogam (m.). by Yoga. irresolution. he is united. questioning. sg. he is joined. samsayas (m. of me. ca. from "thatness. sg." sas (m. doubt.). sg.

iti. intelligent.JVI:t). it happens.x 8 ~~~T aham sarvasya prabhavo aham (nom. contemplation. origin. sg.). pra .). accompanied by. wise men. sg. nom. acc. endowed with. learned. . matva (gerund . abl. endowed with the faculty of meditation. meditation. All proceeds from Me.Jbhaj). I of all the origin +rff:~~' mattal:z sarvam pravartate from me all proceeds ~~~~+rt iti matva bhajante mam thus thinking they worship me Of'i:lT ~CffiT: II " budha bhavasamanvital:z the intelligent. sg. thinking. m. gen. it rolls onward. they honor. pI. nom. they worship. so. mattas (m. endowed with state of being. (bhava-samanvitas.). state of being. state of mind. mam (acc. all. it proceeds. sg. pravartate (3rd sg. having thought..). indic. of all. pr. sg. indic. pl.). TP cpd. having considered. pr. budhas (m. Thinking thus. from me.) samanvitas (m. sarvam (m. pl. sg. sarvasya (m. nom.). bringing to be. bhava (m. I am the origin of all. mid .Jman). the intelligent ones. thus. me. it begins.). disposition. bhajante (3rd pI. nom.).). prabhavas (m. 418 . I. mid. Worship Me.

one another. me. and.Jkath). pI.). ramanti (3rd pI. pr. Enlightening each other. ca. . madgatapralJas (m.. nom. pr. Those who think of Me. explaining. miim (acc. sg.). participle .Jtu~). pI. causative participle . maccitto madgatapro1Jo those who think of me. nom. each other. act. speaking of. And speaking of Me con stantly. bodhayantas (m..Jbudh). those who have concentrated the vital breath on me. BV cpd. they rejoice. they are content.. who absorb their lives in Me. relating about. and. parasparam awakening each other.Jram). act. nom. causing to enlighten. . who concentrate the vital breath on me. nityam (adv. pr. constantly.rT~:~1 bodhayantal. and. indic. kathayantas (m. pr.. awakening. . 'fi~ +IT fw:i kathayantaSca mom nityam and speaking of me constantly. they are delighted. nom.). eternally.. parasparam. ca. 419 . pI. act. ~"d" 'if ~<q 'if II tu~yanti ca ramanti ca they are content and they rejoice. indic. BV cpd. those who think of me.x 9 +rf~~Pl~lld$1I011 maccittas (m. they are pleased.). tu~anti (3rd pI. act. pI. ca. enlightening. They are content and rejoice.

it. with the accompaniment of kindness. te (m. satata (adv.). buddhiyogam (m. perpetually.) bhajatam (m. Yoga of discrimination. 420 . prltipilrvakam (adv. it. pr. acc. me.). satatayuktiiniim of them. sg. of the disciplined. this.. act. indic. of the worshippers. of those who worship. inst.). dadami (rst sg.x 10 ~@dl~}fil'1i te~am (m. upa Jya) . yena (m. intelligence Yoga. of them. the Yoga of intelligence. act. nom. pr. they go. with affection.). gen.). they come. gen.). constantly. TP cpd. they. I give. mam (acc. pI.). by which. to me. acc.). of the worshipping. tam (m. iR~~Cfi=f11 yena miim upayiinti te by which me they come to. participle . I bestow. ~l1~{f11m& dadiimi buddhiyogam tam I give intelligence-Yoga. pl. of the steadfast. KD cpd. (satatayuktanam. act. sg. they. gen. Jda).jbhaj) . gen. I give the yoga of discrimination By which they come to Me. indic. te~iim +nrnt >r1f~ I bhajatiim pritipurvakam of the worshipping with affection.). To those who are constantly steadfast. of those who are constantly steadfast. pr. yuktanam (m. pl. of those who are constantly steadfast. pl. m. Those who worship Me with love. to them. upayanti (3rd pI. pI.. power of discrimination. discipline of mind. sg. affectionately.

acc. out of compassion. acc.). ~~~II In their own jiiiinadipena bhiisvatii with knowledge lamp. inst. • This phrase has been variously translated. ignorance-born. anukampii (f.).). te~iim (m. Destroy the darkness bom of ignorance With the shining lamp of knowledge. sg.x 11 ~~~ tesiim eViinukampiirtham of them (with) compassion aim.la of tamas. murk." and some others follow him. beings dwelling. nom. niisayiimi (1st causative pr. situated in own being. jfziinadfpena (m. sympathy. sg. produced by ignorance. by the lamp of knowledge. (anukampii-artha. sg. m.. .). luminous. ~m niisayiimy iitmabhiivastho I cause to be destroyed.) aham (nom. gUI. with the lantern of knowledge. sg. ~~Cflr:1 aham ajiiiinajam tamal.). I ignorance-born darkness '11~141Rl. purpose. aim. I cause to be lost.Jnas). lit. darkness.). of them. compassion. shining. I cause to be destroyed. goal. eva. "trembling alongside. acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). gen. ifc. ajfziinajam (n. bhiisvatii (m. iitmabhiivasthas (m. pl. sg. I. tamas (n. indic . from anu Jkamp) . shining. sg. Edgerton makes it "while remaining in my own true state. I. acc. inst. sg. sg. bright. I prefer the present translation." artham (m.). Out of compassion for them.). 421 . who dwell within their own beings. dwelling in own being.

unborn and all-pervading.). perfect act. .).r ~ fq41lf II . the supreme abode. sg. acc. puru~am (m. vibhum (m. brahma (n. acc. The primal God. acc.). the supreme abode. Brahman. spirit. thou. supreme.). birthless. acc. being. eternal.). acc. honorific). iididevam (m. highest. all-pervading. param brahma param dhiima the Supreme Brahman. all-pervading. divyam (m. siisvatam (m. purifier.). god existing from the beginning. sg. unborn. Atjuna spoke: You are the supreme Brahman. sg. godly. bhaviin (m. perpetual.Jvac). heavenly. supreme. acc. dwelling. '<> .x ~"~I arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. sg. iididevam ajam vibhum the Primal God. birthless. pavitram (n. acc. param (n. 422 . man. cleanser.). puru~am ~~f~ siisvatam divyam spirit eternal divine mf'm. dhiima (n. supreme. thy Lordship. acc.). sg. uviica (3rd sg. acc. The supreme purifier. sg.). sg. sg. place. qf~~~1 pavitram paramam bhaviin Purifier Supreme Thou (honorific). acc. abode. sg. highest. sg. sg. The eternal divine Spirit. paramam (n. acc. sg. he said.). divine. person. he spoke. acc. ajam (m. omnipresent. sg. acc. domain. primal god.). nom.).).. sg. 12 tR~<rr+1 param (n. highest. Arjuna.

tvam (m. Also Asita. svayam (adv. to me.). The divine seer Narada. legendary sage. nom. ~~RnQ"l:r11 svayam ciiiva bravi# me and Thyself Thou tellest me. thus. • Narada. . bravi~i (2nd sg." "compiler. nom. all.). nom. also m~CiT ~ o<:mr: asito devalo vyiisa}. also. and Vyasa. thou tellest. they tell. ahus (3rd pI. said to have been the composer of some hymns in the Bg Veda.). legendary compiler of the Vedas and the Mahabharata. sg. ca. sarve (m.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. legendary composer of some other hymns of the Bg Veda.Jah with present meaning). devar#r niiradas tathii the divine seer Narada. r:~ayas (m. . tatha. legendary compiler of the Vedas and natural grandfather of the Pandava Princes.). all the seers. And You Yourself (now) tell me so. thou sayest.z sarve they call Thee. me.z Asita Devala and Vyasa. oneself.). nom. sg. pl. sg.). perfect act . Niirada. and. Thus they call You. vyasas (m. act. they say. indic. sg." 423 . nom. me (dat. own. seers. divine seer. Devala. Asita Devala. nom. naradas (m. wise men. thyself.x 13 ~0!~~:~ iihus tviim r~aya}. sg.). the seers all MQf-'::~Ci~1 . acc. they call. thee. pl. t Vyasa.). Vyasa." or "divider. t Asita Devala. pr. a legendary seer to whom some of the verses of the Bg Veda are ascribed. eva. asitas devalas (m. devar~is (m. The name means "arranger.Jbrrl).

sg. true. acc.). vidus (3rd pI. becoming visible. not.). nom. pr. devas (m.x 14 ~~~~~ sarvam etad !tam manye all this true I believe sarvam (n. indic. manifestation. this. pr. thy. indic.). Indeed.sava (m. demons. Know Your manifestation. I believe to be true. 0 Blessed One. na.). ke. vyaktim (f.Jman). the gods nor the demons.). One.: lIT CRf~ m I (acc. evil spirits. f~ ~ ~ <i<1fffi na hi te bhagavan vyaktim not indeed of thee. Krishna. the gods. sg. not. All this which You speak to me. sg.Jvid with present meaning). I think. right. the manifestation f~~"~:11 vidur deva na danavalJ they know. acc. pl. 0 Blessed one. neither the gods nor the demons. what. to me. they know.). acc. te (gen. indeed.). . na. acc. manye (1st sg. mid . sg. thou tellest. sg. which.Jvad) . sg. Handsome Haired One (Krishna) vadasi (2nd sg.).). sg. thou sayest. I believe. nom. etad (n. hi.). ~tam (n. diinavas (m. voc. . truly . yad (n.. 0 Blessed One. sg. yan mam vadasi kdava which to me thou speak est. me. bhagavan (m. 424 . voc. sg. nor. act. acc. pl. of thee. 0 Handsome Haired .). all. nu'im <R. perfect .

thou knowest. Lord of beings. oneself. thyself.). Lord of the Universe. thyself. indic. bhiitabhiivana (m. bringing welfare to be in beings. 0 Lord of the universe.).). ~~II devadeva jagatpate God of gods. thou. 425 . sg. Highest of Spirits. Lord of Beings. act. inst.). sg. God of Gods. own. You know Yourself through Yourself alone. sg. 'rf~~ bhUtabhavana bhiitesa causing welfare in beings. God of gods. thou. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). self. svayam evatmana 'tmanam thyself alone through thyself thyself ~~~~Rfl:rl vettha tvam puruFottama thou knowest. Highest of spirits. Source of welfare of beings. sg. highest of men. tvam (m. through thyself. atmana (m.). sg. voc. alone. pr.). Supreme Spirit. Lord of Beings. voc. by thyself. devadeva (m. purulfottama (m. m. sg. 0 Lord of the universe.). causing welfare in beings.Jvid) . sg. voc. eva. Supreme Being. highest of spirits. nom. voc.).x 15 ~ ctcll~'11 ~ svayam. jagatpate (m. sg. bhiitesa (bMta [sa. atmanam (m. voc.acc. vettha (2nd sg. 0 Lord of the Universe. .

). act. inst. imiin (m. abidest in. completely.~~:1 vaktum (infinitive . these. . pro indic. divine. 426 .la to describe please do without remainder f~~. pl. vibhUtibhis (f. please do! aselfeT]a (m. nom.). arhasi (2nd sg.).Jvac). .Jsthii). and abide in them. truly. self powers. yiibhis (f. nom. manifestations. thou canst. tilf!hasi (2nd sg. permeating. Please describe without reserve The divine self-manifestations By which You pervade These worlds. appearances. lokiin (m.).). sg. vyiipya (gerund vi Jiip). pl. by which. the divine indeed self-manifestations yabhir vibhiitibhir lokiin by which manifestations the worlds ~+mr.). to speak. pl. pl. pro indic. pl. nom. without remainder. ~ ~ fa-tOf~ II imaizs tvam vyapya ti~thasi these Thou. pervading. with which. thou abidest in. iitmavibhUtayas (f. thou art able. act. powers.). acc. hi. thou. indeed. divya hy atmavibhiitayal. pl. thou are situated in. divyiis (m.Jarh).x 16 q~l!~M~ vaktum arhasy ase~e1. inst. self manifestations. acc. inst. worlds. to tell. tvam (m.). to describe. sg. pervading.

acc. in what various? ca. I. to be thought. 0 Illustrious One. maya (m. yogin (m.. loco pI. gerundive "/cint).""llT sf~ ~ lflIT 11 cintyo 'si bhagavan maya to be thought thou art. and. sg. loco pl.). voc./as). bhiivelfu (m. katham (interrog. sg. 0 Blessed One. sg. interrog. how? in what way? vidyam (1St sg. kelfu kelfu (m. inst. aham (m. "/vid).). asi (2nd sg. pro indic . katham vidyam aham yogitis how may I know. cintyas (m. optative act. pro causative participle act. sg. to be imagined. o Blessed One? 427 . pari "/cint). in aspects of being. reflecting on. nom. sg. I. by me? How may I know You. thee. in states of being. 0 Yogin. bhagavan (m.). 0 Blessed One. thinking about. sg. tvam (m. constantly. meditating on. 0 Yogin. . always.. sada.). Constantly meditating on You? And in what various aspects of being Are You to be thought of by me. voc.). nom. by me.x 17 <fi~ f~· ~ 'iTfirn . thou art. nom..).). paricintayan (m. repetition indicates distribution). 0 Yogin ffi~ qf"d'~ 1 tvam sada paricintayan on thee constantly meditating? ~%q-:q~ ca bhiive~u and in what particular aspects of being ke~uke~u "" " f:. I shall know. may I know. sg.

again. voc. power. sg. janiirdana (m. sg. 0 Agitator of Men. immortality. sg. nectar. I am never satiated with hearing Your nectar-like words. acc. na. hi.). o Explain to me further in detail Your power and manifestation. of self. vistarC1Jtitmano yogarh in detail of thyself the power f~&:q~1 '" ca. satiation.!kath).). sg. 428 . satiation indeed bhuya~ Sr1}vato niisti me 'mrtam of hearing not there nectar. truly. it is.). bhiiyas. act. kathaya (2nd sg. there is. acc.jas). iitmanas (m. further. acc. sg. in detail. ~: 'li~ qf~r\ f~ kathaya trptir hi further explain. imperative . to me. of hearing.). of thyself.JOI<fT~). gen. o Krishna.). of me. gen.). indeed. manifestation.x 18 f"lfd{OI I. sg. 1S. by detail. and. sr:TJvatas (n. yogam (m. vibhiitim (f. sg. not.). Yoga. . to me (of this) Mover of Men. pro indic . nom. tell! relate! explain! tI:ptis (f. 0 Agitator of Men. sg. amr:tam (m. me (gen. epithet of VishnuKrishna. 'lJibhutirh ca janiirdana and manifestation. sg. asti (3rd sg. participle sru). inst.).f vistarelJa (m.

pl. my. atmavibhutayas (f. sg. I shall tell. 19 ~ ~ Cfi~<ro. to thee.z kurusre~tha (those that are) prominent. -/kath) . mainly. the Blessed Lord. acc. most prominent. pr.z the divine indeed self-manifestations 5fT~:~~~ priidhiinyatal.). sg. na.perfect act. own manifestations. hanta te kathayi~yiimi listen! to thee I shall explain f~ ~ ~<flla<r: I divyii hy iitmavibhiitayal.). it is. sg. kathayi~ami (1st sg. me (gen. uvaca (3rd sg.). truly. he spoke.X lQ"~ \3G!T"f I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. pradhiinyatas (adv. gen. asti (3rd sg. divyas (f. pl. I shall explain.). -/vac). future act. nom. The Blessed Lord spoke: Listen! I shall explain to you My divine self-manifestations. epithet of Arjuna. antas (m. sg. there is. the Blessed One. end. For there is no end to My extent. listen! look! let us get on! te (dat.). Best of Kurus. of me. sg. of the extent. vistarasya (m. sg.). of the spreading. shall say. chief. hi. nom.). he said. voc. indic. ~~i'QTf~lrll nasty anto vistarasya me (for) not there is an end of the extent of me. -/as). divine. of the expansion.rrfl1 hanta (exhortative particle).). self manifestations. kurusrqfha (m. acc. 429 .). Best of Kurus. Those only that are prominent. not. indeed.

). end. creature. bhiita (m. antas (m. middle. ca. self. nom. sthitas (m.). Abiding in the heart of all beings. too. sg. iidis (m. ~.. atma (m. sg. ~va ca. gen. as well. start. commencement. of creatures. Thick Haired One. voc. heart. beginning. abiding in the heart of all beings.) I the self. I.x 20 ~~~ aham iitmii gurJiikesa aham (m. madhyam (n. and. all.).). Arjuna. nom. sg. of beings.).). ca. m. nom. bhiitaniim (m. and the end as well. And I am the beginning and the middle Ofbeings. situated in. eva.).). sg. sg. pl. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). I am the Self. nom. gu4akda (m. sarva (m. also.). 0 Thick Haired One. nom. epithet of Arjuna. sarv~bhiitiisayasthital:z all-being-heart-abiding. sg. TP cpd. I. and.) aham (nom. being. and.). 430 . sg. nom. (sarvabhiitasayasthitas. resting place. asaya (m. abiding in.). mind. sg.). ~~ mf~~ lfUt:q ~~:I aham iidiica madhyam ca and I the beginning and the middle ~i{~rn~:qll bhiitiiniim anta eva ca of beings and the end as well. sg. nom.

-Jas).). nak~atrii1}iim Of the Adityas. marutiim (m. sg. t Marlci was the chief of the Maruts or storm gods. jyoti~iim (n. that which contains the rabbit.). I am.). aham (nom. asmi (Ist sg.. radiant lI':Tf:. Among the heavenly bodies I am the moon. indic. • The Adityas. the sun.n. ravis (m. sg.). ofluminaries. nom. of the lunar zodiac. the sun. originally seven. chief of the storm gods. of stars. Marici. pl.lur of the Adityas I Vishnu :J<1Tfa-qt ~~ ~ I jyot#iim ravir amsumiin of lights. of the Adityas. the moon. Vishnu. 1. sg. nak~atriilJiim (n. oflights. radiant.). pl. 431 . sg. sg.). ~ ~ marici marutiim asmi Martci of the Maruts I am .~~mr ~ mrr II adityiiniim (m. sg.). gen. alnsumiin (n. nom. of the storm gods. in order to bring water to the world. the radiant sun. t Maruts were the storm gods who helped Indra slay the cosmic dragon.x 21 mf~~f~ iidityiiniim aham vip. of the nightly ones.. pl. pr. Of lights. gen. I am VIShnU. nom. gen. saSf (m. pl. 1.). shining.). nom. gen. nom. aham sasi of the stars I that which contains the rabbit. aham (nom. vi~lJuS (m.).). sg. of the Maruts. I am Marichi of the Maruts. were a group of supreme gods. mar/cis (m. later twelve in number.

~f.~+J:~B1 indriyiit:liim manasciismi tures.). pro indic. And of the senses. t One of the names of Indra. pl.. indic. cetanii (f. nom. bhiitiiniim (m. I am. Vasava. ca.).). the chief Vedic god. intelligence. deviiniim (m. viisavas (m. pl.). 432 . mentioned by his usual name only in IX 20. I am Vasava. pl. I am the mind. Vedic chief of the gods. sg. gen. the Sarna Veda. sg.). I am. pro indic . manas (n. of the Vedas. siimavedas (m. I am the Sama Veda. mind. names of Indra. .). asmi (rst sg. gen. ~ ~fB1 cmrcr: I deviiniim asmi viisava}. pl. gen. bhutiiniim asmi cetanii of beings I am the consciousness. nom. of the senses. sg. thought. consciousness. Jas).las). indic. of beings. asmi (rst sg. Jas). I am.x 22 ~mmTsfB1 vediiniim (m. Of the Vedas. pr. I am. Of the gods. nom. indriyiilJiim (m. • The Veda concerned with chants. of the gods. mind. and. one of the vediiniim siinlavedo 'smi of the Vedas the Sarna Veda I am. asmi (rst sg. and of the senses the mind I am. gen. of crea- of the gods I am vasava. asmi (rst sg. Jas). sg. I am the consciousness of beings.). nom.). thought. pr.

sg. a group of eight" bright" gods. Vittesa of the Y ak~as and ~ q 1':l"fl:r'illf~ vasunilrh piivakasciismi and of the Vasus Pavaka I am. Rak~as. I am. 1. •• Mt. sg. ~:f~~~11 meru~ SikharilJiim aham Meru of mountains. one of the names of Agni. lord of wealth. or K\. '/as).). i1nd. 1. pl. pavalws (m.x 23 murt~rf~ rudra'14m (m. Shiva. pl. II Pavaka. 433 . gen. samlwras (m.). gen. the Purifier. pr. asmi (1St sg. the Vedic god of fire. I am Kubera of the Yaksas and Rakshasas.). merus (m. lord of wealth. fcrmrr If&n:~ I vitleSo yak~arak~asiim ca. nom." storm gods and gods of destruction and renewal. rudriilpirh sarhkarasciismi and of the Rudras Samkara «< I am. ca. indic. vitteSas (m. of mountains. nom.). or" roarers. I am fire of the Vasus And the Meru of mountains.lntain. the flame. of mountain peaks. sg. fAbulous mO\. t Vittesa. God of Fire. I am Shankara. pr. Meru was the Olympos of Hindu mythology. § Yak~as and Rak~as.). of the Vasus (a class of gods). aham (nom. nom. asmi (1st sg. Hindu Olympos. pl. (m. sometimes hostile and sometimes benevolent. pl. of the Rudras.)." . and.). '/as). . gen. sikharifJam (m. spirits of vague character.). • Rudras. Agni. Shiva. of the Yak~as and Raksas. t Sarilkara. indic.Ibera. vasuniim (in. yak~arak~asam And of the Rudras. The word means "purifier. otherwise known as Kubera. of the gods of destruction lind renewlli. god of fertility and destruction. Vas us. sg. nom.). Vit~sil. chief god of renewal and destruction. I am. gen. sg.

the ocean. Know that I am the chief of household priests.). ca. asmi (1st sg. know! know to be! piirtha (m.[ qN "!~~ I viddhi piirtha brhaspatim know to be. Brhaspati. pl. of the commanders of armies. mukhyam (m. skandas (m. I am Skanda. miim (acc. me. -Jas). 434 . sg. sarasiim (n. sg. Me fqf. sg. I am the ocean. otherwise known as Karttikeya. sg. . the chief.pr. sg. nom.).x 24~W'q~11t purodhasiim (m.). Of the commanders of annies.). of household priests. gen. siigaras (m. of bodies of water. acc. sg. ~m~~:11 sarasiim asmi siigaral} of bodies of water I am the ocean. Arjuna. the god of war.). Brihaspati. voc. gen. Lord of Sacrifice.). seniininiim (m. pl. god of war. the head.). -Jvid). Skanda. Son of J>rtha. Of bodies of water.). epithet of Arjuna. priest of the gods. Skanda. aham (nom. acc. . imperative act. indic. nom. pl. gen. purodhasiim ca mukhyam miim and of the household priests.). Son of Prtha. I am. the chief. I am Skanda. viddhi (2nd sg. ~~~~: seniininiim aham skandal} of the commanders of armIes. and. 1.). sg. b~haspatim (m..

pl. pro indie.. sg. ~~Tsffl1 bhr:gus (m. I. sg. sthiivariiljiim himiilaya~ of immovables the Himalaya. mahar{i1Jiim bhrgur aham of the great seers Bhrgu.. I am japa (silent repetition). 435 ." the Himalaya. of immovables. the muttered prayer. indic. ancient seer. asmi (1st sg. the Himalayas. Of immovable things. pl. sg. pl.). nom. "abode of snow.. giram (f. of sacrifices. gen. Jas). japayajiias (m. an illustrious mythical seer. I am Bhrigu. nom. sg. J as).! mahar~f1Jiim (m. I.). nom. gen. of utterances. sg.. asmi (1st sg. of the great seers .). • Bhrgu. foro+{ ~ ~ ~&ro!: I giriim asmy ekam ak~aram of utterances I am the one syllable (Om).. the mystic syllable "Om." c. Of words. ~f~:11 of unshakables. pr.:ri .).). I am.). so illustrious that he mediated quarrels among the gods. aham (nom. sthiivara'Jam (m. If.). I am. nom. gen. ~ . Of sacrifices. Bhrgu. yajiiiiniim japayajiio 'smi of sacrifices the muttered prayer I am. Of the great seers. pl.). the one sylla- ble. himalayas (m. 'Q. gen. ekam ak~aram (n. I am the single syllable "Om"." yajiiiiniim (m.x 25 =q-1urt ~<::.).

of divine seers. Among all trees. .x 26 ~~:m~ asvattha~ sarvavrk~ii1Jiim . The name is a BV cpd.. sg.). ca.). gen.).). (m. founder of Samkhya. gen. wise man. 436 . Citraratha.. I am the sacred fig tree. among all trees. nom. nom. of the heavenly musicians. the asvattha. "He whose chariot is bright. devar~flJiim (m. pl.). Chitraratha. a sage. § Kapila. niiradas (m. of the successful. sage. Niirada. Kapila the sage. one of the oldest of the Hindu systems.). sarvaV1:k~iilJiim of the perfected Kapila the sage.).). sg. ancient seer to whom some verses of the ~g Veda are ascribed. And of the Gandharvas. chief of the Gandharvas. pl. Narada. gen. sg. the musicians of paradise. of the Gandharvas. nom. or the sacred fig tree among all trees. nom. gen. asvatthas (m. of the perfected. gandharviilJiim (m. And of the divine seers. a school of philosophy. of all trees. pl. kapilas (m. founder of the Saritkhya school of philosophy. ~f~~: gandharvii1Jiim citraratha~. munis (m. sg. an ancient seer. and. Narada. pl. and of the Gandharvas Citraratha siddhiiniim kapilo munilJ sacred fig tree. nom. And of the perfected.). t Citraratha. citrarathas (m. sg. m1urt"f~1 devar~i1Jiim ca niirada and of the divine seers. t Gandharvas. Kapila. Narada." siddhiiniim (m. heavenly chief of the Gandharvas.

). gen. name of Indra's horse. iiiriivatam (m. sg. great lord. Know that I am Ucrhaishravas of horses.). sg. acc. sg. . gajendriil'}iim (m.x 27 ~:~wewrt ucciiibsravasam asviiniirh Ucdii!:tsravas of horses ucciii"sravasam (m. men. The name means "produced from the Iravati River. acc..Jvid). the name of Indra's horse. me. . Uccai!:tsravas. The name means "high sounding. originating in nectar. know! learn! know to be! miim (acc. produced from nectar. sg. Airavata of princely elephants. born of nectar. f%m+t~~1 viddhi miim amrtodbhavam know me (to be) born of nectar ~~ 'I'j! ~a loli iiiravatarh gajendriif.). imperative act. am~todbhavam (m.liirh ca nariidhipam and of men the Great Lord of men. And of men. or of the horse of the Sun god. pl. king. the king. UcciiiJ:tsravas.larh Airavata of princely elephants ~ '<i. Born of nectar. ca." 437 . gen.). Indra's elephant. of princely elephants.). of horses. gen. protector of men. viddhi (2nd sg. sg." t Airavata. asviiniim (m.). and. pl. born of nectar that was churned from the ocean. Indra's elephant. nariidhipam (m.n:rf~ II nariif. nariil'}iim (m.). lord of men. pl.). acc. Airiivata. acc.

:rr+rm~~ I c-. ~PJ11+!: m~ cnWCfi: II sarpii1. of cows. sg.Jas). and I am procreating Kandarpa. asmi (1st sg. nom.. dhenuntim (f. sg..). of serpents I am Vasuki. Cow of Wishes. gen. pl. • Kamadhuk. I am the thunder bolt. !NI<i~~tffif~: prajanasciismi kandarpal. sg. dheniiniim asmi kiimadhuk endary cow of plenty.). gen. prajanas (m. sg. sg. pl. otherwise known as Kama. nom. . 1. nom.). indic . of serpents. t Kandarpa. $r.). I am the wish-fulfilling cow.). kiimadhuk (f. god of love.liim asmi viisukil.). sarpaTJam (m. nom.).Jas). I am the progenitor Kandarpa. asmi (1st sg. able to provide its master with anything desired. pr.). Of cows. pl. pr. I am. begetting. indic . and. I am. indic . ca. .. of weapons. And of serpents. thunderbolt. Vasuki.:) . a serpent king. a mythical cow. I am Vasuki. Kama. genera- of cows I am the cow of wishes. leg- of weapons I the thunderbolt. 438 . sg. vasukis (m.Jas). . aham (nom.x 28 ~~~~~ iiyudhiiniim aham vajram ayudhiinam (n. gen. king of serpents. I am. tion. pr. . asmi (1st sg. vajram (n. kandarpas (m..). god of desire. of snakes. nom. t Vasuki. Of weapons. procreating. god of love or desire. .

x
29
wfk1~::q I ffll".,rrrRi"
anantas (m. nom. sg.), Ananta, "endless," "eternal," a mythical snake. ca, and. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic. Jas), I am. niigiiniim (m. gen. pl.), of snakes. varulJas (m. nom. sg.), Varul}a, the Supporter, one of the chief Vedie gods, later "King of the waters." yiidasiim (n. gen. pl.), of water creatures, of sea monsters. aham (nom. sg.), 1. pitfniim (m. gen. pl.), of the ancestors. aryamii (m. nom. sg.), Aryaman, chief of the ancestors. ca, and. asmi (1st sg. pr. indie. Jas), I am. yamas (m. nom. sg.), Yama, god of death. sainyamatiim (m. gen. pI. pr. participle act. sam Jyam), of the subduers. aham (nom. sg.), 1.

anantasciismi lliigiiniim and Ananta I am of snakes,
~T l!'rofTl{ ~ I

varuIJo yiidasiim aham VarUl;ta of the water creatures, I,

fqqurq ~ "'Ilf~
pitfIJiim arymnii ciismi and of the ,mcestors Aryaman I am,
<!+1:~~~11

yamab samyamatiim aham Yama of the subduers I.

I am Ananta of the Nagas; Varuna of the water creatures; Of the ancestors, I am Aryaman; And Yama of the controllers.

• Ananta, a mythical snake whose coils encircle the earth and who symbolizes eternity. The word meal;1s "unending." t Varul)a, originally a Vedic god, the sustainer of the universe. Here, in the later religion, a water god, the" water king." t Aryaman, chief of the ancestors. § Yama, god of death.

439

x
30
51@i!~~"l!ffl1~ prahliidasciismi diiityiiniim
prahliidas (m. nom. sg.), PraHidha, a prince

and Prahl ada I am of the Daityas,
~:ifl~l@+!.~1

kiilal} kalayatiim aham

Time of the calculators, I,
~"f~T~
G G ".

mrgii1}iirh ca mrgendro 'ham

and of the beasts the beast king, I,
~~ crf~UfTll: II viiinateyasca pak#1}iim

of the Diiityas. ca, and. asmi (rst sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. diiityiiniim (m. gen. pI.), of the Daityas. kiilas (m. nom. sg.), time personified. kalayatiim (m. gen. pI. pro participle act. .Jkal), of the calculators, of the reckoners. aham (nom. sg.), I. m~gii1Jiim (m. gen. pl.), of beasts, of animals. ca, and. m~gendras (m. nom. sg.), King of Beasts, the lion. aham (nom. sg.), I. viiinateyas (m. nom. sg.), Garu<;la, son of Vinatii, the bird vehicle of Vishnu. pak~i1Jiim (m. gen. pl.), of birds.

and Vainateya of the birds.
I am Prahlada of the demons; Time, of the calculators; Of the beasts, I am the lion; And Garuda, of the birds .

.. Prahlada, a Daitya (enemy of the gods) prince who defected from the Daityas, became pious and worshipped Vishnu. t Daityas, demons at war with the gods. t The word" mrgendra" (mrga indra) means literally" king of beasts." § Vainateya (son of Vinata), otherwise known as Garu<;ia, a fabulous bird, and vehicle of Vishnu.

440

x
31
qq.:f:~mBr

pavanaJ:t pavatiim asmi

pavanas (m. nom. sg.), the wind. pavatiim (m. gen. pI. pr. participle act. --Ipu),
of purifiers, of cleansers.

the wind of purifiers I am,
Ul1: ~n:J:~ I

asmi (1st sg. pr. indic. --las), I am. riimas (m. nom. sg.), Rama, warrior hero of
the RamayaQa. (m. gen. pl.), of the weapon bearing, of warriors. aham (nom. sg.), I. jha:jiiniim (m. gen. pl.), of sea monsters. makaras (m. nom. sg.), Makara, a sea monster or crocodile, avatar of Varuna. ca, and. . asmi (1st sg. pr. indic. --las), I am. srotasiim (m. gen. pl.), of rivers. asmi (1st sg pr. indic. --las), I am. jiihnavf (f. nom. sg.), the Daughter of Jahnu, the Ganges.
sastrabh~tiim

riimal:z sastrabhrtiim aham

Rama of the weapon bearing, I.
~ 11"n:ffifBr
jha~iiniiriz

makaraSciismi

of the sea monsters I am Makara,
~Tam+rmBr ~r II srotasiim asmi jiihnavl

of rivers, I am the Daughter of Jahnu (the Ganges).

Of purifiers, I am the wind; Rama of the warriors; Of the sea monsters I am the alligators; And of rivers I am the Ganges.

" Rama, warrior and hero of the epic, the Ramayal)a, or possibly Parasurama, see chapter " Setting of the Bhagavad GWi." t Makara, a sea monster sometimes equated with a crocodile, shark or dolphin, the Capricorn of the Hindu zodiac, and vehicle of Varuna. ! So called because when Vishnu permitted the Ganges to flow, the sage Jahnu drank it up. Later he allowed it to flow from his ear.

441

x
32
~mf~~ sargii1:u1m iidir antasca of creations the beginning and the end
sargalJam (m. gen. pl.), of creations, of bringings forth. Mis (m. nom. sg.), beginning. antas (m. nom. sg.), end. ea, and. madhyam (n. nom. sg.), middle. ea, and. eva, also, indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). aham (nom. sg.), I. arjuna (m. voc. sg.), AIjuna. adhyatmavidya (f. nom. sg.), Supreme-Self knowledge, knowledge of the Supreme Self. vidyanam (f. gen. pl.), of knowledges. vadas (m. nom. sg.), discourse. pravadatam (m. gen. pl.), of those who speak. aham (nom. sg.), I.

l1Ui~~1
madhyam ciiiviiham arjuna and the middle I, Arjuna,
;q-~qm f<rnAt

adhyiitmavidyii vidyiiniim the Supreme Self knowledge, of knowledges,
<fR: ~;q-~ II
viida~

pravadatiim aham the discourse of them that speak, 1.

Of creations I am the beginning and the end, And also the middle, 0 Arjuna; Of all knowledge, the knowledge of the supreme Self. I am the logic of those who debate.

442

x
33
~~~sf~ akfariil}tim akiiro 'smi of letters the letter A I am,
R:mmf~"il
ak~arii1Jiim

dvandval; siimiisikasya ca and the dvandva of compound (words),
~~~:~r aham eviik~ayal; kiilo I alone infinite time,
_f~:11

dhiitiiham visvatomukhal; the establisher, I, facing in all directions.

(m. gen. pl.), of letters of the alphabet, lit. "indestructibles" or "irreducibles." akiiras (m. nom. sg.), letter A. asmi (1St sg. pr. indic. Jas), I am. dvariuivas or dvandvas (m. nom. sg.), simple copulative compound (consisting of two or more words). siimiisikasya (m. gen. sg.), of the system of compounds. ca, and. aham (nom. sg.), 1. eva, alone, indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). ak~ayas (m. nom. sg.), infinite, imperishable, indestructible. kiilas (m. nom. sg.), time. dhiitii (m. nom. sg.), establisher, arranger. aham (nom. sg.), 1. visvatomukhas (m. nom. sg.), facing in all directions, omniscient.

Ofletters I am the letter A, And the dual of compound words; I alone am in£nite time; I am the Establisher, facing in all directions (i.e. omniscient).

• dvandva is the simple copulative compound, where two or more words are joined together.

443

x
34
1WT: 1j~~(~"lI~14
o '" ,

m~tyus

(m. nom. sg.), death.

mrtyu~

sarvaharaSciiham and death all-destroying, I,
~..n~i

sarvaharas (m. nom. sg.), all-destroying, all

udbhavasca bhavi~yatiim and the origin of those things that are to be,
Gfin~: ?1~ ~ "l" i1n:Turt
kirti~

srir viik ca niiri1}iim fame, prosperity, and speech of feminine things,

smrtir medhii dhrtil:z k~amii (also) memory, wisdom, courage, patience.
I am all-destroying death, And the origin of those things that are yet to be. Among the feminine qualities, I am fame, prosperity, speech, Memory, wisdom, courage, and patience.

seizing. ca, and. aham (nom. sg.), I. udbhavas (m. nom. sg.), origin. ca, and. bhaviD'atam (m. gen. pl.), of those things that are to be, of those events that are to happen. kfrtis (f. nom. sg.), fame, good name. srfs (f. nom. sg.), prosperity, wealth. vak (f. nom. sg.), speech. ca, and. niirflJiim (f. gen. pl.), of feminine things, of womanly words. sm~tis (f. nom. sg.), memory, reflection. medhii (f. nom. sg.), wisdom, mental vigor, intelligence. dh~tis (f. nom. sg.), courage, firmness, constancy. kliamG (f. nom. sg.), patience, endurance, submissiveness.

.. All these listed nouns are of feminine gender.

444

x
35
~a~~
(n. nom. sg.), the Brhatsaman, a type of Vedic melody. tathii, also, thus. samnam (n. gen. pl.), of chants. giiyatrf (f. nom. sg.), the giiyatri metre, used in the Vedas, obsolete in later Sanskrit. chandasam (n. gen. pl.), of metres. aham (nom. sg.), I. miisanam (m. gen. pl.), of months. miirgasfr'ias (m. nom. sg.), month of miirgaslr~a, roughly November-December. aham (nom. sg.), I. ~tiinam (m. gen. pl.), of seasons. kusumakaras (m. nom. sg.), abounding with flowers, Spring.
b~hatsama

brhatsiima tathii siimniirh

the Brhatsaman also of chants,
~T~~I

giiyatri chandasiim aham

the gayatrl of metres, I,

+rnwrt llT1T~ffq"1 ~
miisiiniirh
miirgaSir~o

'ham

of months,

margaSIr~a,

I,

~wrt1ifl"'ICfi:C

II

rtiiniirh kusumiikaral;

of seasons, the abounding with flowers (Spring). Of chants I am the Brihatsaman; Of meters I am the Gayatri; Of months, the Marga-shirsha; And of seasons, the spring, abounding with flowers .

.. brhatsaman, a type of chant to Indra in the Sarna Veda. t gayatTt, a B-g Vedic metre consisting of three lines of eight syllables each, thought suitable for brahmans. It exists only in the Vedic literature. t maTgaStT~a, the month when the moon enters the constellation of mrga siras (" deer head," fifth lunar mansion), roughly November-December. It is interesting that Krishna's months and seasons are the Spring and Autumn. The hot Indian summer and the damp Indian winter are avoided.

445

x
36
dyutam (n. nom. sg.), gambling. chalayatiim (m. gen. pl.), of the dishonest, of cheats. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. tejas (n. nom. sg.), splendor, brilliance. tejasviniim (m. gen. pl.), of the splendid, of the brilliant ones. aham (nom. sg.), I. jayas (m. nom. sg.), victory. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. vyavasiiyas (m. nom. sg.), effort, resolve, exertion. asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am. sattvam (n. nom. sg.), goodness, virtue, truth, reality. sattvavatiim (m. n. gen. pl.), of the good, of the virtuous, of those who are full of truth. aham (nom. sg.), I.

dyutam chalayatiim asmi the gambling of the dishonest I am,

~M~~I tejas tejasviniim aham the splendor of the splendid, I,
~ sf~0lI4~1l(1 sf~

jayo 'smi vyavasiiyo 'smi victory I am, effort I am,
~~\44~1"l ~ II

sattvam sattvavatiim aham the goodness of the good, I.

I am the gambling of the dishonest, The splendor of the splendid; I am victory, I am effort, I am the goodness of the good.

• This line may also be translated: I am the truth of truth-tellers. (Sattva means either "good," "true" or "reaL")

446

x
37

'FIr.IT ~T sf~
Vrf1}inam vasudevo 'smi of the Vr~l).is, Vasudeva I am,
qlo:gcll"li~: I pa~4avanamdhanamjaya~

of the sons of Pal).9u, Conqueror of Wealth (Arjuna),
~f;:rr+J: ~ ~ o;mr:

muninam apy aham vyasa~ of the sages, moreover, I, Vyasa,

CfiCff;:rr+J: ~ Cfifcr: II
kavinam usana kavi~ of poets, Usanas the poet.

(m. gen. pl.), of the Vm1is, a clan from which Krishna sprang. viisudevas (m. nom. sg.), the Son of Vasudeva, Krishna himself. asmi (rst sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. piilJefaviiniim (m. gen. pl.), of the Sons of Pandu. dhan"a"mjayas (m. nom. sg.), Conqueror of Wealth, epithet of Arjuna. munfniim (m. gen. pl.), of sages. api, moreover, also. aham (nom. sg.), I. vyiisas (m. nom. sg.), Vyasa, "the divider or arranger," legendary compiler of the Vedas. kavfniim (m. gen. pl.), of poets. usanii (m. nom. sg.), Usanas or Usana, an ancient seer. kavis (m. nom. sg.), poet.

v~~lJfniim

Of the Vrishnis, I am Vasudeva; Of the sons of Pandu, Arjuna; Of the sages, moreover, I am Vyasa; Of poets, the poet Ushana.

• Vr~l).is, a clan from which Krishna himself is descended. t Vasudeva, patronymic of Krishna himself: .. Son of Vasudeva." t Vyasa, legendary sage supposed to have compiled the Vedas. His identity is chronologically confused. He is supposed to have compiled the Mahlibhlirata, of which the Bhagaved GTta is a part, and he appears in that Epic as the natural grandfather of the Pal).Qava princes. (See chapter, .. The Setting of the Bhagavad Glta.") § Usanas or UsanA, an ancient seer and poet.

447

x
38
~T~~f~
dafJqas (m. nom. sg.), power (lit. "stick,"

da1,lr;lo damayatiim asmi

exactly like the modern word "clout").
damayatiim (m. gen. pI. pro participle act. .Jdam), of rulers, of kings. asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am. nftis (f. nom. sg.), guidance, advice. asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am.
jigf~atiim

the power of rulers I am,
'l')f~ m~ f;;m~ I , ,

nUir asmi jigi~atiim

the guidance I am of the desirous of victory,
+rR~~~t miiunam ciiiviismi guhyiiniim,

and the silence also I am of secrets
m<f~~~11 jfiiinam jfiiinavatiim aham

the knowledge of the knowing, 1.

(m. gen. pI. desiderative pro participle act . .Jji), of the desirous of victory, of those desiring victory. miiunam (n. nom. sg.), silence, taciturnity. ca, and. eva, also, indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am. guhyiiniim (n. gen. pl.), of secrets. jiiiinam (n. nom. sg.), knowledge. jiiiinavatiim (m. gen. pl.), of the knowing, of the rich in knowledge. aham (nom. sg.), I.

Of punishers, I am the scepter, And I am the guidance of those desirous of victory; Of secrets, I am silence and The knowledge of the wise.

448

x
39
yac ciipi sarvabhUtiiniim and which also of all creatures
<r<f "fTf'q- ~ , '"
yad (n. nom. sg.), which. ca, and. api, also, even. sarvabhataniim (m. gen. pl.), of all beings, of all creatures. bijam (n. nom. sg.), seed. tad (n. nom. sg.), that. aham (nom. sg.), I. arjuna (m. ·/OC. sg.), AIjuna. na, not. tad (n. nom. sg.), that. asti (3rd sg. pr. indic . ..;as), there is, it is. vina, without. yad (n. nom. sg.), which. syat (3rd sg. optative act. ..;as), it should be, it could exist. maya (m. inst. sg.), by me, through me. bhUtam (n. nom. sg.), being, existing. caracaram (n. nom. sg.), moving or not moving, animate or inanimate.

"fl'i~~~~1
bijam tad aham arjuna the seed, that I, Arjuna
;:; <'R m~ fq;:rr <rc1 ro;:; , "

na tad asti vinii yat syiin not that there is without which it could exist
lPIT<rn' .... <I .... VIII '" , mayii bhiilam cariicaram by me existing, moving or not moving.

And also I am that which is the seed of all creatures, Arjuna; There is nothing that could exist without Existing through Me, whether moving or not moving.

449

x
40

<fRI1 sf~ If+1 f~
ntinto 'sti mama divyiiniim not end there is of me, of the divine
f~r.rt q"t;q I

" vibhiitiniim paramtapa manifestations, Scorcher of the Foe,
~p:5ITmT

efa tuddesatal; prokto this indeed by example declared
f~ fCf~T l1<IT II

vibhUter vistaro mayii of manifestation extent by me.

00, not. antas (m. nom. sg.), end. asti (3rd sg. pr. indic . .Jas), there is, it is. mama (gen. sg.), of me, of my. divyanam (n. gen. pl.), of divine, of heavenly. vibhfit[nam (n. gen. pl.), of manifestations. paraintapa (m. voc. sg.), Scorcher of the Foe, epithet of Arjuna. etlas (m. nom. sg.), this. tu, indeed, but. uddesatas (adv.), by way of explanation, for example. proktas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle pra .Jvac), declared, explained. vibhutes (n. gen. sg.), of manifestation. vistaras (m. nom. sg.), extent, expansion, spreading. maya (inst. sg.), by me.

There is no end to My divine Manifestations, Arjuna. This has been declared by Me As an example of the extent of My manifestations.

• I.e. the preceding declarations.

450

x
41
yad yad (n. nom. sg.), whatever. vibhutimat (n. nom. sg.), powerful, splendid, glorious. sattvam (n. nom. sg.), being, existence, truth. srimat (n. nom. sg.), glorious, pleasant, splendid, prosperous. urjitam (n. nom. sg.), vigorous, powerful. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). va, indeed. tat tad (n. acc. sg.), that that, this and that, in every case. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). avasaccha (2nd sg. imperative act. ava ...; gam), understand! comprehend! tvam (nom. sg.), thou. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my. tejas (n. acc. sg.), splendor, brilliance, power. ali/sa (m.), fraction, portion, share. sambhavam (m. acc. sg.), origin, coming to be. (tejas-amsa-sambhavam, m. acc. sg. TP cpd., origion of a fraction of splendor.)

yad yad vibhutimat sattvam whatever powerful being

srimad urjitam eva vii glorious or vigorous, indeed,
ffi{~O:qlq'I",{9 ~

tat tad eViivagaccha tvam in every case understand thou
+r+1~T~11

mama tejo'msasambhavam of me splendor fraction origin.

Whatever manifested being that is Glorious and vigorous, indeed, Understand that in every case He originates from a fraction of My splendor.

451

x
42
~~~ athava bahunaitena but with extensive this
f~~~1
athava. however, but, or rather. bahuna (m. inst. sg.), with extensive, with abundant, with much. etena (m. inst. sg.), with this. kim (interrog.), what? jfziitelUl (m. inst. sg. p. pass. participle .Jjfza), with knowledge, by knowledge, "by the known." tava (gen. sg.), of thee, to thee. arjulUl (m. voc. sg.), Arjuna. vi~tabhya (gerund vi ....; stabh) , supporting, propping up. aham (nom. sg.), I. idam (n. acc. sg.), this. kr:tslUlm (n. acc. sg.), entire, whole. eka. one, single. mnsena (m. inst. sg.), by a fraction. (ekiimselUl, m. inst. sg., by a single fraction.) sthitas (m. nom. sg. perf. .Jsthii), standing, can be rendered adverbially as constantly, continually, remaining. jagat (n. acc. sg.), universe, world.

kim jfiatena tavarjuna what with knowledge to thee, Arjuna?
f~~~ idam krtsnam supporting I this entire,
vi~tabhyaham

~fp':RfT~11

ektimsena sthito jagat by a single fraction constantly, world.

But what is this extensive Knowledge to you, Arjuna? I support this entire universe constantly With a single fraction of Myself.

End of Book X The Yoga of Manifestation

452

BOOK XI
~;r0'91
arjunas (m. nom. sg.), Arjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac). he said, he spoke.

arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke:

1
>i<:'j;"i2:I~ ~

madanugrahiiya paramarh* as a favor to me the highest
~~~~~I guhyam adhyiitmasarhjnitam

secret, the supreme self known as,
l:Ja, w:lTtt; ~ i!fif

yat tvayoktarh vacas tena which by thee spoken the words, by this,
+r~r s<i fcma-r +r+r II

moho 'yam vigato mama delusion this gone of me.

madanugrahiiya (m. dat. sg.), as a favor to me, as a kindness to me. paramam (n. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. guhyam (n. nom. sg.), secret. adhyatma (m.), Supreme Self, Supreme Soul. sainjnitam (n. nom. sg. denominative p. pass. participle from sainjna), known as, recognized as. (adhyatmasainjnitam. n. nom. sg., known as the Supreme Self.) yad (n. nom. sg.), which. tvaya (m. inst. sg.), by thee. uktam (n. nom. sg. p. pass. participle ../vac), spoken, uttered. vacas (n. nom. sg.), word, speech. tena (m. inst. sg.), by this. mohas (m. nom. sg.), delusion, confusion. ayam (m. nom. sg.), this. vigatas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle vi :.;gam), gone, departed. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my.

Arjuna spoke: As a favor to me, You have spoken About the highest secret Known as the supreme Self. With this my delusion is gone.

" The line is one syllable too long, a rarity in the Sloka stanzas of this poem.

453

XI
2
~)f~~ bhaviipyayiiu hi bhittiiniim
bhavapyayau (m. nom. dual bhava api .Ji), origin and dissolution, origin and going. hi, indeed. bhutaniim (m. gen. pl.), of beings, of creatures. srutau (m. nom. dual p. pass. participle .Jsru), heard, they two have been heard. vistarasas, in detail. maya (m. inst. sg.), by me. tvattas (m. abl. sg.), from thee. kamalapattrak~a (m. voc. sg.), Lotus Petal Eyed, description honorific of Krishna. mahtitmyam (n. nom. sg.), majesty, greatness. api, also. ca, and. avyayam (n. nom. sg.), eternal, imperishable.

the origin and dissolution indeed of beings

Srutiiu vistaraso mayii they two heard in detail by me
~: Cfl+1~q,AI~

tvatta!;. kamalapattriikfa from thee, 0 Lotus-Petal-Eyed,
+110£(,'"4+1 mtf~ II "-, , miihiitmyam api ciivyayam and majesty also eternal.

The origin and the dissolution of beings Have been heard in detail by me From You, 0 Krishna, And also Your imperishable majesty.

454

XI

3
~~<r~~~

evam etad yathiittha tvam thus this (is) as thou sayest, thou
~~I

iitmiinam parameivara thyself, 0 Supreme Lord.
~'I'Z+r ~+r ",

dra~tum

a- ~ ,

icchiimi te rupam to see I desire of thee the form

~'!~t'l(~'lll

evam, thus. etad (n. nom. sg.), this. yatha, in which way, as. iittha (2nd sg. perf. act. J ah with present meaning), thou sayest, thou tellest. tvam (nom. sg.), thou. iitmiinam (m. acc. sg.), thyself, self. parame§vara (m. voc. sg.), Supreme Lord. dra~rum (infinitive Jdrs), to see, to behold. icchiimi (rst sg. pr. indic. act. Ji~), I desire, I wish. te (gen. sg.), of thee, thy. rupam (n. acc. sg.), fonn, shape, figure. iiisvaram (n. acc. sg.), lordly, godly, princely. puruifottama (m. voc. sg.), Supreme Spirit, Highest of Men.

iiisvaram pur~ottama princely, 0 Supreme Spirit.

Thus, as You have described Yourself, 0 supreme Lord, I desire to see Your divine form, o Supreme Spirit.

455

XI
4
~<rf~~
manyase (2nd sg. pr. indie. mid. Jman), thou thinkest, thou eonsiderest. yadi, if. tad (n. ace. sg.), that. sakyam (n. acc. sg.), possible, practicable. maya (inst. sg.), by me. dra~!um (infinitive JdfS), to see, to behold. iti, thus. prabho (m. voc. sg.), 0 Lord, 0 God. yogeSvara (m. voc. sg.), Prince of Yoga. tatas, then, thence. me (dat. sg.), to me. tvam (nom. sg.), thou. darsaya (2nd sg. causative imperative act. JdfS), cause to be seen! exhibit! allow me to behold! atmanam (m. acc. sg.), thyself, self. avyayam (m. acc. sg.), imperishable, eternal.

manyase yadi tac chakyam thou thinkest, if, that possible
+Pn~~ ~a >nit I maya draftum iti prabho by me to see thus 0 Lord,
~rTmaaTtr~

yogdvara tato me tvam Prince of Yoga, then to me thou
~ljl\'"lI'1'"l, ~ II , darsayatmanam avyayam cause to be seen thyself, the imperishable.

If You think it possible

For me to see this, 0 Lord Of Yogins, then show me Your imperishable Self.

456

XI
l'.1~~1
srfbhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed

sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke:

Lord, the Blessed One.
uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac), he said, he

spoke.

5
~1tq-r~~ur
paSya (2nd sg. imperative .Jpas) , see! behold!

pasya me piirtha rupii1Ji behold of me, Son of Prtha, the forms
mrnTS~~:1

me (gen. sg.), of me, my.
partha (m. voc. sg.), Son of Prthii, epithet of

Arjuna.
rupaf]i (n. acc. pl.), forms, shapes, figures. satasas, a hundred fold. atha, rather, or. sahasrasas, a thousand fold. nanavidhani (n. acc. pl.), various, multiple. divyani (n. acc. pl.), divine, heavenly. nana, various, multiple. varf]a (m.), color, caste. akl:tfni (n. acc. pl.), shapes, appearances. (varf]a-akr:tff]i, n. acc. pI. BV cpd., colors and

sataso 'tha sahasrasa~ a hundred fold, rather, a thousand fold,
~<f'i:1Tf., f~.,

niiniividhiini divyiini various, divine,
<i 1<1!<'lUII<titflf., "f II

shapes.)
ca, and.

niiniivar1Jiikrtini ca and of various colors and shapes.

The Blessed Lord spoke: Behol~ Arjuna, My forms, A hundred fol~ a thousandfold, Various, divine, And of various colors and shapes.

457

XI
6
~~~~~
pasyiidityiin vasun rudriin behold the Adityas, the Vasus, Rudras
pa.sya (2nd sg. imperative act . .Jpas), behold!

see!

the

mv.:rr ~

(fqf

I

asviniiu marutas tathii the two Asvins, the Maruts too

adityiin (m. acc. pl.), the Adityas. vasun (m. acc. pl.), the Vasus. rudriin (m. acc. pl.), the Rudras. asviniiu (m. acc. dual), the two Asvins. marutas (m. acc. pl.), the Maruts. tatoo, thus, also, too. bahUni (n. acc. pl.), many. adr::ffa (p. pass. participle a .Jdr:s), unseen,

not seen.

G1R",{ ;q1tSC~<l1 fur
bahuny adr~tapilrvii1.li many unseen before
~~ur~11

purviilJi (n. acc. pl.), before, previously. pa.sya (2nd sg. imperative act . .Jpas), behold!

see!
iiScaryiilJi (n. acc. pl.), wonders, marvels. bOOrata (m. voc. sg.), Descendant of Bha-

rata, epithet of Arjuna.

pasyiiscaryii1.li bhiirata behold wonders, Descendant of Bharata

Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, The two Asvins, the Maruts too; Many wonders unseen before, Behold, Arjtma!

• Adityas, celestial deities led by the Vedic god VarUl;la. t Vasus, beneficent gods led by Indra, Agni or Varuna. . t Rudras, lit. "roarers," gods who drive away evil. § Asvins, celestial horsemen, always a pair, who herald the dawn and are skilled in healing. II Maruts, storm gods, friends of Indra, the thunderbolt hurler and chief god of the Vedas.

458

XI
7
~~~~ iluiikastham jagat krtsnam here standing together the universe entire
~*1"'1<I"'I<'!.1

iha, here. ekastham (n. acc. sg.), assembled, standing

together, standing as one.
jagat (n. acc. sg.), universe, world. krtsnam (n. acc. sg.), entire, whole. pa§ya (2nd sg. imperative act. .Jpas), behold!

pasyadya sacaracaram behold now with everything moving and not moving

see!
adya, now, today. sacariicaram (n. acc. sg.), with everything

+r+r~~
mama dehe gut/-akda of me in the body, Thick Haired One
zrq~~~~11 " .... '
,,~

yac canyad dra~tum icchasi and whatever else to see thou desirest.

moving and not moving, with the animate and the inanimate. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my. dehe (n. loco sg.), in the body. gu4iikeSa (m. vOC. sg.), Thick Haired One, epithet of Arjuna. yad (n. acc. sg.), what, whatever. ca, and. anyat (n. acc. sg.), other, else. dra~fum (infinitive .Jdrs), to see, to behold. icchasi (2nd sg. pro indic. act. y i~), thou desirest, thou wishest.

Behold now the entire universe, With everything moving and not moving, Standing together here in My body,
Arjuna,

And whatever else you desire to see.

459

Jd~s). cak~us (n. with this. f~~+r~'q~: divyam dadiimi te cak~ul:z divine I give to thee eye pasya me yogam iiisvaram behold of me the power majestic! But you are not able to see Me With your own eyes. pr. paSya (2nd sg. but. indic.). imperative act. sg. dra~?um (infinitive . my. sva. iiisvaram (m. te (gen. with eye. behold! see! me (gen. acc.JpaS) . divine. to behold. sg. inst. thou art able. sg. power. cak~u~ii (n.). eye. me.). own. sg. indic.). on thee. acc. . but. . divyam (n.Xl 8 . princely. of me. majestic.). act. pr.Jsak).<J. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). . I give. inst. acc. I bestow. to thee. sg. acc. aneniiiva svacak~u~ii with this. I give to you a divine eye. anena (n.). dadiimi (1st sg. Behold My majestic power! 460 . eva. tu.). sg. pass .). sg. not. with own eye. yogam (m. me thou art able to see ~*rR"'T~~1 na.+rr+{~~~ na tu miim sakyase dra#um not. by eye.). miim (acc.Jdii) . to see. Yoga. sg. sakyase (2nd sg. heavenly. thou canst. sg.:.

the great lord of Yoga. 0 King (meaning Dhrtara~!ra).XI ~~I samjaya uviica Samjaya spoke: samjayas (m. paramam riipam iiisvaram (his) supreme form majestic. sg. aisvaram (n. uktva (gerund Jvac). Jvac). uvaca (2nd sg. perfect act. sg. 9 ~. sg. 461 . to Arjuna. ~T<hn:T ~\: I mahiiyogesvaro hari/.).).). he spoke. to the Son of Prtha.). shape. sg. Sanjaya spoke: Having spoken thus.). haris (m. dadayam asa (periphrastic perfect J dr:s + Jas). acc. sg. The great Lord of yoga. Hari (Krishna). Revealed to Arjuna His majestic supreme form. riipam (n. the narrator who is describing the scene to the blind king Dhrtara~!ra. Hari. nom. then. figure. acc. supreme. the mighty prince of Yoga. paramam (n. nom. sg. he said. he revealed. he showed. majestic.ffi1 qr~ darsayam iisa piirthiiya revealed to the Son of Prtha q-nf~~~11 mahiiyogdvaras (m. acc. Samjaya. thus having spoken then. dat. having spoken. sg. sg. thus. highest.men ffifT ~ evam uktvii tato riijan evam.). his avatar. the Great Yoga Lord Hari (Vishnu) ~ 'l. 0 King. nom.). tatas. epithet of Vishl}u. 0 King. and hence also of Krishna. rajan (m.). form. voc. princely. speaking. parthiiya (m.

ornament. aspect. vaktra (n.e. BV cpd.) aneka. Of many wondrous aspects. acc. pass.). leading organ. acc. having many uplifted divine weapons. acc sg. n.). sg. many. wondrous. acc. sg. upraised. heavenly.e. (anekadivyabharalJam. sight. i. acc. (divyanekodyatayudham." nayanam (n.e. adbhuta (n. Of many mouths and eyes. divya (n. implement of war. acc.. sg.XI 10 ~~i.). many. n. participle ud Jyam). divine. i.). sg. not one. BV cpd.) divya (n. nom. anekavaktranayanam not one mouth and eye anekiiJbhutad~rsanam not one wondrous aspect ~~~ ~~~I anekadivyiibharat. BV cpd.). weapon. i. i. Of many uplifted divine weapons. decoration. divine.. not one uplifted. uplifted. n. acc.). 462 .e. sg. having many mouths and eyes. not one. BV cpd. marvelous.. ttyudham (n. heavenly. many. aneka. Of many divine ornaments. not one. aneka. mouth.. abharalJam (n. (anekavaktranayanam.am not one divine ornament f~roffi"lf<nr II . having many divine ornaments. n. many. not one.). eye.)"weapon. "talker. udyata (p. acc. sg. having many wondrous aspects. sg.) aneka.flGjif?t<i4<i'!. darSanam (n. (anekadbhutadarsanam. raised. ~ divyiinekodyatiiyudham divine.

). facing in all directions. garland.).XI 11 f~olP"l1 c-lIl ~<' divyamalyambaradharam divine garland and garment wearing. sg. wearing. perfume.. (divyagandhiinulepanam. all wonder. BY cpd. sg.). apparel. sg. n. infinite. garment. acc. suffix). god. heavenly. n. wreath. made of. BY cpd. acc. heavenly. divine. sg. Made up of all marvels. 463 .) sarviiscarya (n. endless. facing in all directions. sg. m'<f4tp:f~ sarvascaryamayam devam and all-marvels-made-of.). acc. the resplendent Lord. gandha (n. all marvel.). With divine perfumes and ointments. (divya-miilya-ambara-dharam. carrying. wearing divine garlands and garments.). sg.). divine. sg. sg. anantam (n.). scent. -mayam (n.). acc. divya (n. endless. unguent.. supporting.). visvatomukham (m. anulepanam (n. dharam (n. having divine perfumes and ointments. acc.) divya (n. malya (n. f~0I1'10q'1l"l I . clothing. .).~ divyagandhanulepanam divine perfumes and ointments. omniscient. acc. ointment. devam (m. acc. acc. Wearing divine garlands and apparel. ambara (n. facing in all directions. the god anantam visvatomukham infinite.

(surya-sahasrasya. of this. yugapad. nom. gen. in the sky.). utthita (f. of the Great Self. sahasras. sg. of it. mahiitmanas (m. . TP cpd. of brightness. of a thousand. such. this. it should be. a (m. syat (3rd sg. participle ud .). liance. gen. all at once. sg. p. Such splendor would resemble The splendor of that great Being.Jsthii).) of Him whose Self is Great. of splendor. splendor. to This was the stanza that occurred to the American nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the explosion of the first atom bomb. there should be.). risen.XI 12 fGfq~~ divi (m. all at once. gen. sadJ:s[ (f.). nom. it might be. <rf~ m: ~~r m ~ G ' bhavet (3rd sg. gen. tasya (m.). bhiis (f. surya (m. of bril- bhasas tasya mahatmanaf:z of brightness of this of the Great Self. gen. a divi suryasahasrasya in the sky of a thousand suns thousand [of] suns. . it. optative act. at once. sg. sg. yadi. sg. sa (f. if. loco sg. brightness. optative act. sg. risen. she. sun. luminescence. sg. 464 . of the Great Being. sg. rising. pass.).Jas). bhiisas (f. If a thousand suns should rise all at once In the sky. it might be. it would be.Jbhu).. yadi bhiif:z sadrSi sa syad if brightness such it would be mmr:Q'BT~: II brilliance. sg. nom.). (as BY cpd. m. nom.) ~11'Tcr:.).).~~ I bhaved yugapad utthita it should be.

gen. world.l"~~ apasyad devadevasya he beheld of the god of gods m"ft~~11 sarire pa1}¢avas tada in the body the Son of PaQ<. acc.Jpas). assembled.l'F'C:lT I tatra.). in many ways. sg. epithet of Arjuna. Divided in many groups. . tada. distributed.). kftsnam (n. i. devadevasya (m. whole. loco sg. pravibhaktam (n. imperfect act .). there. he beheld. sg. in the body.). entire. standing together. divided. acc. nom. sg. then.iu then.).e. universe. anekadhii. jagat (n. sg.l". Son of PiiQQu. sg. acc. p. sarfre (n. participle pra vi . In the body of the God of Gods.XI 13 ~~~~~ tatraikastham jagat krtsnam there standing as one the universe entire mCfl1~ 'l. apaSyat (3rd sg. There ArjIDla then beheld The entire universe established in one. he saw.). of the god of gods. ekastham (n. pafJ4avas (m. in not one way. pravibhaktam anekadha divided in not one way 'l. pass. acc. 465 . sg.Jbhaj).

dhanamjayas (m. ace. (n. to the god. Conqueror of Wealth. thereupon. J:fUTnr fmm ~ pra1}amya Sirasii devam bowing with the head to the god ~3P~'l. nom. h~ifraromii krtiiiijalir abhiifata (with) a reverent gesture he said: Then Arjuna. nom. sas (m. sg. Conqueror of Wealth. inst. reverent-gesturemaking.). sg. Whose hair was standing on end. sirasii (n. nom. epithet of Arjuna.Xl 14 <:f(f: ~ f~crscT tatal. kr:tiiiijalis (m. Who was filled with amazement.jbhiiif). ~Prr tr. nom.). vismayiivi:!!as (m. said: 466 . sg.) by whom an aiijali (reverent gesture) was made. sg.1~11 tered into. sg. abhiiifata (3rd sg..:. with the head. sa vismayiivifto then he. (as BV cpd. pra1]£lmya (gerund pra ::. whose hair was standing on end. amazement en- hHtaromii dhanamjayal. he said. sg. devam (m. the. sg.).). imperfect act.i. nom.nam).).r:r: I tatas. whose hair was standing on end. he. he spoke. BV epd. who was possessed by amazement. Bowing his head to the Lord With joined pahns. possessed by amazement. .). making obeisance. bowing. then.).

I see the gods. ~ ~ ifl¥l("5I*l'1f~ .). deva (m. Arjuna spoke: I see the gods.Jhan). he spoke. heavenly. pl.Jpas).). until stanza 51). 467 . in the body. he said. act. acc.). 0 God.). pl. and.). seat. assembled.). pl. I see. pr. serpents. . being. creature. I behold. all. kinds of beings assembled. pI. perfect act. vise~a.). pl. kinds of beings assembled. 0 God. divyan (m. 0 God. acc. acc. sg. acc. pl. (bhuta-visqa-samghan. t Brahmil (masculine). the all-pervading essence. ~~~~f~11 sarviin uragiinsca divyiin f~[nsca and the seers all and the serpents divine. devan (m. the creator god of the Hindu trinity. Lord Braluna on his lotus seat.) brahmalJllm (m. . uvaca (3rd sg. stham. bhuta (n. Not to be confused with Brahman (neuter). lotus.). pI. samghan (m.. and also.). situated). voc. indic. lotus-seat situated. and. . sitting on the lotus seat (kamala." ca. acc. sg. Brahmii. r:~[n (m. AIjuna. acc. kamalasanastham (m. "earth-goers.e. from sam .XI ~~I arjuna uviica arjunas (m. nom. of thee. And all kinds of beings assembled. sarvan (m. loco sg. indeed. asana. acc. sarvan (m. sg. the Vedic god of creation. uragan (m. all of them.). m. heaped together. lord.). KD cpd. lotus seat seated. body ill the sarviifls tathii bhiitavise~asarizghiin all. And all the seers and divine serpents.). crowded together. all. ca. tava (gen. sg. acc. sg. [sam (m. sg. Arjuna spoke: 15 ~'1 ~cmr aq ~ ~ pasyiimi deviifls tava deva dehe* pa§yami (1st sg. kind. gods. • Tr#tubh metre begins as Arjuna commences to describe the Great Manifestation. acc. pl. thy. in this way.). divine.). tatha.•. dehe (m. and continues through most of this book (i. thus.Jvac). god. in Your body. of thee. species. n~' ~ brahmii1Jl1m [sam kamaliisanastham Brahma Lord.ln. seers. acc. acc.

not. and eye~. end. I behold. of thee. bellies. sarvatas. everywhere. not. biihu (m. voc. tvtim (acc.. sg. bellies. I see. thy. . na. anekabiihiidaravaktranetram not one arm. visveSvara (m. nor yet the beginning of You do I see. act. not one. infinite in fonn. shape.). tava (gen. paSytimi (Ist sg. punar. arm.). sg. sg. acc. I see.). infinite form. voe.. 0 Lord of All (visva isvara). sg. ~lfffimT S"Fd~q+t I pasyiimi tviim sarvato 'nantariipam I see thee in every direction.).jpas). in every direction. fonn. 0 Fonn of All. not. acc.) whose fonn is the Universe. faces. again.e. nor the middle. beginning. sg.). moreover. ananta. beginning q~1llflf f<f-9Jm f~ II pasyiimi visveSvara visvariipa I see. infinite. +re<t . indic. ~ ('f"<.). sg.{q'f. . unending. ~ . na. acc.). belly. madhyam (n.). visvariipa (m.). and eyes. mouth. Not the end. vaktra (n. whose fonn is the universe. eye." netram (n. "talker. acc. (aneka-btihu-udara-vaktra-netram. belly. thee.!~?j aneka. sg.) paSytimi (Ist sg. pr. 468 .jpas). act. eye. na. i.flf~ niintam na madhyam na punas taviidim not end nor middle nor yet. face. middle. antam (m. tidim (m. riipam (n. sg. face.). 0 Lord of All. acc. having many arms. sg. indic. I see You everywhere. sg. udara (n. acc. With many anTIS. pr. nor. BV cpd. many. n. I behold.XI 16 ~ifliill~<. figure.).). Whose form is the Universe. 0 Lord of all. (as BV cpd. nor. yet. of thee. faces..

gerundive dus nis . ~lr~if~r~<l~ pasyiimi tviim durnirikfyam samantiid I see thee who art difficult to behold completely. dfptimantam (m. radiance. on all sides. sg. armed with a club and bearing a discus. thee. sg. who are difficult to behold.).). tviim (acc. shining. acc.). brilliance. blazing-fire-sun-radiance. sarvatas. acc. armed with a club and bearing a discus inrrof~~cfaTm~ I tejoriiSim sarvato diptimantam a mass of splendor.). sg. mass of splendor.XI 17 f<fi\n~ lTf~ 'ilf~ :q kirf(irwm (m. sg. immeasurable. dyutim (f. beyond measure. in every direction. hard to see. full of brilliance. Crowned. sun.). and. A mass of splendor. kiritinam gadinam cakri1}am ca crowned. dfpta (m. sg.Jfk~). sg. ray. diptiinaliirkadyutim aprameyam blazing-fire-sun-radiance immeasurable. completely.). KD cpd. everywhere. acc. (dfpta-anala-arka-dyutim.). sg.). tejortiSim (m.) aprameyam (f. pafyiimi (1st sg. on all sides shining. acc. .). shining on all sides. acc. blazing. f. I see You. flame. act. sg. acc.). samantiit (adv. 469 . acc. shining. bearing a discus. heap of splendor. durnirfk~am (m. wholly. ~HI'101"'mrr+r~Slm II "" . I see.).). cakrilJam (m. sg. arka (m. difficult to behold.JpaS). fire. gadirwm (m. acc. on every side. With the immeasurable radiance of the sun and blazing fire.. sg. ca. I behold. arwla (m. flaming. crowned. acc. anned with a club.

sg. eternal law defender. ~ ~T +rn1lr II sanatanas tvam puru~o mato me primaeval thou spirit understood of me. sg. You are the unchanging. *i'1ld'1tt. nom. nidhiinam (n. param (n. . imperishable. of it. sg.). unchanging. thought. sg. of all.). goptii (m. tvam (nom. matas (m. primaeval. sg.). eternal.:f tvam ak~aram paramam veditavyam thou unchanging supreme the to-beknown WI" ~ f~ qi f. gen. me (gen. sg. paramam (n. believed.). imperishable.). tobe-known. m. thou. gerundive JVid) .). sg. sg..).. of all. asya (gen. the ultimate resting place ~:~ tvam avyayal. sg.XI 18 fc:f+!: ~m: ~ ~f~o. You are the imperishable defender of the eternal law. object of knowledge. spirit. place for storing up.). dharma (m. protector.). virtue. participle Jman) . man. sg.) sanatanas (m. nom..). sasvatadharmagopta thou the imperishable.). visvasya (m. nom.). defender of eternal law. tvam (nom. nom. sg. nom. avyayas (m. sg. pass. nom.). sg. of this.m. TP cpd. the supreme object of knowledge. (siisvata-dharma-goptii.. resting place. by me. defender. sg. veditavyam (n. sg. tvam asya visvasya param nidhanam thou of it. perpetual.). You are the ultimate resting place of all.). nom. righteousness.). nom.r I . understood. ancient. 470 . nom. You are the primeval Spirit. sg. siisvata (m. purulfas (m. I believe. nom. aklfaram (n. thou. tvam (nom. indestructible. tvam (nom. p. sg. nom. supreme. of me. thou. eternal. the ultimate. law. sg.). thou. the supreme. the highest.

or end. siirya (m.1 anantabiihum saSisuryanetram end.. ~f~~~~11 svatejasii visvam idam tapantam by own splendor all this universe burning. thee. consuming. oblation eating. act. without beginning. with blazing.). sg. sg. and this is a very common term for" moon. sun.<rr~ WRfGrT<P:!: anadimadhyantam (m. sg. (anataviryam. by own brilliance.) sasi (m. middle or end.) ananta (m. having the moon and sun as eyes. inst. "oblation eating. "mouth. that which contains the rabbit. by own power. sg. oblation-eating mouth." The present translation.). sg. tapantam (m. infinite. I see.) pasyami (3rd sg. sg." and translate vaktram as "face. acc." 471 . sg. nom. BY cpd.). m. acc. tvam (acc. or render it as "fire. participle . With infinite power. burning.). pr.).).Jtap) . illuminating. innumerable. that which contains the rabbit. blazing-oblation-eating mouth.). • saSin. power. and vaktra means" talker" or organ of speech. vigor. face. acc. m. aniidimadhyiintam anantaviryam without beginning. m. middle or infinite power 'Wr.XI 19 ~. acc. all this universe. oblation fire. having innumerable arms. (anantahOhum. the blazing fire Your mouth. blazing. acc. acc. endless. (sasisiiryanetram. acc. the moon and sun being Your eyes.). rabbit-holder*and-sun-eyed. Burning all this universe with Your radiance. sg. vaktram (n. sg. dipta (m. eye. (dfptahutasavaktram.) svatejasa (n. acc. visvam idam (n. without beginning. strength." t Most translators avoid hutasa (huta asa).). I behold.nf~'i. acc.. acc..).fl~ m~I~~q~lJ. endless. the moon.). fiery." in stanza 23.).). pr. m. BY cpd. indic.. mouth. however. acc. (with) innumerable arms. I see You. middle. BY cpd. BY cpd. ananta (n. With innumerable anus. coincides with vaktra.). sg.. sg. sg. by own splendor. netram (n. hOhum (m. The Hindus saw a rabbit in the moon. sg. having infinite power. hutasa (m. oblation consuming. arm. ojpas)." which refers to the partaking of sacrifice. as well as "face. ~+r ffi ~')gg~ pasyiimi tviim diptahutasavaktram I see thee. viryam (n.

alL dmva (gerund '. between. the three worlds (heaven. spaces. trembling. pass. pl. seeing. form. of thee. formidable. hi. 0 Great Self. voc.XI 20 mcwn~ol:r'T~ ~ ~ f~ < " dyavaprthivyor idam antaram hi of heaven and earth this between indeed. acc. participle pra Jvyath). pervaded.) 0 Thou whose Self is Great. O<:fTa~f~~: I vyaptam tvayaikena disasca sarva/:z pervaded by thee alone and (in) directions all. idam (n. and. indeed. occupied by. this. marvelous. ugram (n.). nom. sg. nom. sarvas (f. tvaya (m. alone. tremble. by thee. figure. points. idam (n. pl. dyaVtip~thivyos (f. sg. nom. nom. nom. filled with. this. gen.). of heaven and earth.). inst. directions.). acc. shaking. ekena (m. terrible. antaram (n.). 0 great Being.). sg. pravyathitam (n.Jd~s). disas (f. having seen. .). acc. sg. rupam (n.). earth. lokatrayam (n. this. p.). atmosphere). 0 Great Self. sg. thy.). nom. inst. 472 .). acc. nom. sg. Seeing Your marvelous and terrible fonn. Is pervaded by You alone in all directions. . sg. sg. wondrous. shape. having beheld. ca. This space between heaven and earth. gen. dual). adbhutam (n. sg.). sg. sg. mahiitman (m. mighty.). ~~>fOl1f~~ II . 0 Exalted One. The three worlds tremble. (as BY cpd. tava (m. lokatrayam pravyathitam mahatman the three worlds trembling. vyaptam (n. participle vi Jap). 1~~:r ~l1l! ~ ~ dNtvadbhutam rupam ugram tavedam seeing the marvelous form terrible of thee. truly. sg.

with reverent gestures they praise ~R<l:~~q-r~: svastlty uktvii mahiir~isiddhasainghiilJ tures) are proffered. nom. stutibhis (f.rm: >IT~T <rUTf. sing praises.-Q" I . terrified. tviim (acc." the throngs of great seers and perfected ones Extol You with abundant praises.. visanti (3rd pI. uktvii (gerund . . indeed. inst. with reverent gestures praise You. sg. safnghiis (m. saying. with praises. Saying "Hail. they kecid bhitiil} priiiijalayo g!1}anti some. throngs. pl. great seer. '" 0 assemblages of gods. from sam . multitudes. act. yonder. priifljalayas (m.).JviS) . pUlikaliibhis (f. (as BV cpd. act. kecid (m. 473 . pI. TP cpd. some or others. heaps.Jvac). ~~ . thee.). tviim (acc. truly. fearful. siddha (m. pl. thus. nom.). m. throngs of gods. svasti (exclamation). hail! good health! iti. pl. pl. act. yonder. nom. as- stuvanti tviim stutibhil} p~kaliibhil} they praise thee with praises abundant. pl. indic.). crying. . abundant.). terrified.).Jg~). nom.) whose aiijalis (reverent gesgflJanti (3rd pI. thee.Jhan). reverent gestures. perfected one. nom. pl. terrified. sg. indeed. they praise. pI." thus saying the great-seer-andperfected-one-throngs. inst.XI 21 ~r f~m ~fcrof~ ami hi tviim surasamghii visanti am! (m. Some. pl. pro indic. mahiir~i "hail. some. nom. pr. hi. successful one.Jstu). they praise. the throngs of great seers and perfected ones.).) stuvanti (3rd pI. semblages.). thee the throngs of gods they enter.). bhUiis (m. .. ~Q"m~ffi+T: ~+f: II (m. surasafnghiis (m. nom.). they enter. The throngs of gods enter into You.). (mahiir~isiddhasafnghiis.

the Rudras and Adityas. Asuras. vfk. f~sfY. and. dua!). a group of celestial beings with exquisitely refined natures thought to inhabit the ether. pass. pl. see note stanza 6.). the two Asvins. they behold. vasavas (m.). the Maruts and the Steam Drinkers ~~~ g andharvayakiiisurasiddhasamghii the Gandharva-Yaksa-Asura-perfectedone-throngs cr1~ <:Crt fcrf.rante (3rd pI./. Steam Drinkers. mid. t Visve devas. thee.).). ca. marutas (m. a group of supernatural beings. ruqradityils (m.). The Rudras. Vasus. Adityas. a class of demons. overcome. vi . the Sadhyas. II Gandharvas. they see. nom. sg. and perfected ones. nom.Rr+ifid~:. gandharvayak~asurasiddhasa/hghiis(m. enemies of the gods. participle vi "/smi). Slidhyas. and.. nom. asvinau (m. Maruts. pl. sadhyiis (m. pl. . The Vtshve devas. p!. pI. sometimes benelovent. and. sometimes not .). Asuras and perfected ones.). the Maruts. nom. aIL • l\1inor gods. § Steam Drinkers. astonished. ca. who. the two Ashvins. nom. sarve (m. pl. tvam (ace.:1Ol Ii 1~4 q ri II vik~ante tviirn vismitiilciiiva sarve they behold thee amazed all. pl. amazed. ca. p. ca. the two Asvins. amazed. pl.). y ak~as. •• Asuras. vismitas (m. nom.). Vasus who and S1ldhyas. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). nom..). t 474 .rmapas (m. Vasus. TP cpd. pl. li. visve (m./ik~). the throngs of Gandharvas. and the Ushma pas. Siidhyas. ye (m. nom. nom. Visve devas. a group of twelve minor godlings. and. celestial musicians. eva.XI 22 ~~~~Tit:q~ rudriidityii vasavo ye ca siidhyii the Rudras. Adityas. pl. nom. Yakshas. The throngs of Gandharvas. Yak~as. All behold You. a class of ancestors.fllSqql~"" I visve 'sviniiu marutakoimapiii ca the Visve devas. nom.

thigh. sg. sg. pl. n. quaking.m: ~~(ffif Cf~ ~+r II Co <::I " . mahat (n.) d~~!Vii (gerund Jd~s).)...). also I. udaram (n. riipam mahat te bahuvaktranetram form great of thee. n. and so do I. which has many arms. thighs and feet. 0 Great Armed One. sg.). aham (nom. sg. many. sg. sg.). bahu. great.). dam.. shape.). bearing many tusks ~T <7. many thighed and footed ~~org~. BV cpd. figure. voc.). sg. 475 . many bellied. having seen.). participle pra Jvyath). sg. Which has many bellies. nom. thy. (as BV cpd.. epithet of warriors. pravyathitiis tathii 'ham having seen. sg. foot. acc. shank. mighty. nom. o Krishna.). acc. thus. many mouth and eye. many. many armed.) bahu. p. uru (m. acc.. many mouthed and eyed +r~T "lg"lI~P'iql<::l'\ I mahabiiho bahubiihurupiidam o Mighty Armed One. (bahubiihurupiidam. also. piidam (m. the worlds tremble. and mouths gaping with many tusks. pI. sg. Which has many arms. usually applied to Atjuna. many. acc.). (bahu-dam~!rii-kariilam. nom. pravyathitiis (m. shaking. acc. I. seeing. trembling. acc. biihu (m. fonn. having many arms. (bahUdaram.Xl 23 ~~a-"l§qiPI~~ rupam (n. bahuvaktranetram (n. maMbiiho (m. dr~tvii lokii~ Having seen Your great form.) bahu. sg.wii (f. tusk. tatM..) terrible. sg. • Here referring to Krishna. nom.). te (gen. and feet. acc.) which has many mouths and eyes. which has many mouths and eyes. pass. but here to Krishna.(10 bahiidaram bahuda~triikariilam many bellied.. having many terrible tusks. nom. worlds. lokas (m. arm. m. kariilam (n. belly. thighs.). thighs and feet. BV cpd. of thee. the worlds trembling.?I"'.

).). dfptam (m. sg. or. nabha~sPrsam dip tam anekavanJam sky-touching. sg.). nom.). pass. sg.va (gerund . n. I find. m. pass. participle pra . truly. with enonnous fiery eyes. trembling. sg. prayyathita (m. sg.). nom. trembling inner self. many) colored.Jd~s). • Vishnu. 476 . having a gaping mouth. blazing. fiery-enormous-eyed.Jda).e. acc. anekavarlJam (m. pr. having seen. not one colored. and I find neither courage nor tranquility. acc. 04 I'd 1'1"1 ~rgf*dIM~"'1IJ.:1SCT f1' 0ft 5fOlIf\!l¢1 Irct '(1.) dfpta (n.). vi~lJo (m. visala (n. gaping. ) d~~f. shaking. o Vishnu. shining.J2 vid). acc. tranquility. netram (n.+\ I < • '< dntva hi tviim pravyathitiintariitmii having seen indeed thee. indeed. thee. eye. p. blazing. inner self. indic. sg. acc. not. sg. nose. sg.XI 24 i1+T:~ ~"Trrl1 ~ < "~. sg. acc.). blazing.. quaking. sg. 0 Vishnu. I tremble indeed in my heart. sky touching. n. antaratma (m. sg.). the god of whom Krishna is the avatar. sg. acc. spacious. vindami (rst sg. na. . KD cpd. voc. not one (i.). acc. face. acc. KD cpd. mouth. Having seen You touching the sky. many colored. (pravyathita-antaratma. opened. vyatta (p. calmness. <.). ca. acc. blazing. ananam (n.). and.). I vyiittiinanam diptavisiilanetram gaping-mouthed. blazing. enormous eyed. Gaping-mouthed. OVlShnU! nabhal]sPf:sam (m.Jvyath). participle vi a .. trembling in the inner self. (vyattananam. firmness. courage.. samam (n.rr fCRTfl1 ~ :. extensive. fiery. fiery. BV cpd.:r fcrmrr II dhrtim na vindiimi samam ca ViglO courage not I find or tranquility. tvam (acc. (dfpta-visala-netram. <rfa.) dh~tim (f. seeing. sg. act. hi. touching the sky.

Lord of Gods. and. indic. samnibhiini (n.rr mT ~ ~ diso na jane na labhe ca sarma directions not I know. have mercy! be merciful! deveSa (m.Jsad). pl. ca. home.. eva. . nor. jagat (n. mid .).Jjfzii).Jdrs). bearing many tusks. acc. with terrible tusks. time-fire.) 477 .Jlabh). . pl. like the fires of destruction. acc. and not I find comfort.rA. niviisa (m. Dwelling of the Universe. having seen. and. te (gen.). not. directions. I know. gaping with tusks.). pr.). voc. pI.. bearing many tusks. sg. And having seen Your mouths. srn-R~~~II prasida devesa jagannivasa have mercy! Lord of Gods. similar.) disas (f. jiine (1st sg. acc. I obtain. acc. labhe (ISt sg. mukhiini (n. fires of time. kiiliinala (m. universe. of thee. world. faces. points of the compass. seeing. acc. TP cpd. f~r rr . and I do not ftnd comfort.). sg. from ni . not. indic. fires of destruction. acc. sense of direction. like. ca. sg. Glowing like the ftres of universal destruction. mid . sarma (n. '" damftrakaralani ca te mukhani and bearing many tusks of thee the mouths ~q 'fl'lm_f'f'lnfrr I d~~!Viiiva ~~cl'f){I~lf. thy.Jvas). mouths.). dwelling. pra . na.. pr.). na. sg. (kiiliinala-samnibhiini. Have mercy! Lord of Gods. m. pl. comfort.). I lose my sense of direction. pl. imperative act. voc. n. dmvii (gerund .). voc.:r~ fflfmfrr kiiliinalasamnibhiini having seen time-fire-similar. Dwelling of the Universe.XI 25 . (jagat-niviisa. prasfda (2nd sg. refuge. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). I find. abode of the universe! damWiikariiliini (n. sg.

). sutaputras tathiisiiu BhI~ma. saha. together with ours also.l amf (m. pI.. sarve (m. there. the son of the charioteer. Drol). all. putras (m. dh~tarawasya (m. of Dhrtara~!ra. with ours. with throngs.). and with (our) chief warriors And entering into You. saha. sutaputras (m. asau (m. along with.ff4"lj"~: II sahiismadiyiiir api yodhamukhyiiil. with head warriors. inst. m. And also with our chief warriors. and Kama. pl. thee. BhI~ma.). nom.'141'··Hl€l: I 'V~ .). all the sons of Dhritarashtra. Bhishma. inst. yodhamukhyais (m. nom.a). Drona. samghais (m. and. sg. tvam (acc. Along with the throngs of kings. pI). pl. pl. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). Son of the Charioteer (Le. to thee. pl.). nom. sg.XI 26 ~fl:ft "f ffi '<{d «i\?fll '. yonder. nom.a) thus yonder ~~'J. api.).). together with. with chief warriors. inst. sg.f-IT: ami ca tviirit dhrtarii~!rasya putrii/.) bhf~mas (m. earth protector. also. asmadfyas (m. TP cpd.a and the son of the charioteer (Karl). nom. sons. with assemblages.'1. sg. earth ruler. inst. ca.).). and yonder (into) thee. nom. 478 . gen. throngs of kings. sg. even.'1.).). eva. of Dhrtara~tra the sons uq"Q. sg. nom. tatha. drorJas (m. yonder. protector of the earth. Drol}a. thus.).~ sarve sahiiiviivanipiilasamghiii/. king. Kart).l all indeed along with the earth-ruler (king) throngs. 'lfm:ft ~Tur: ~ d"~1 bhi~mo droIJal. avanipala (m. pl. together. (avanipala-samghais.

Jcum). inst.). participle vi Ylag).Cj <141 0 11 f<ref. TP cpd.XI 27 ~ur ~ .~.) sarhd~§yante (3rd pI. clinging. pr. faces. pr. Clinging between Your teeth.). bhayanaktini (n. with pulverized. participle. fearful.. m. bite. pass. curfJitais (m. terrible.). acc. uttamaiigais (n. dam~frakaralani (n. te (gen. "with highest limbs. "'I1UKR:'3'dIOlI1j< II '" .! da~triikariiliini kecid vilagnii dasaniintare~u some clinging the teeth in between ~~"I'\1 < . mouths. attached. pI. kecid (m. act. nom. Some are seen with crushed heads. inst. tvaramaniis (adv. vilagniis (m. antare~u (m. 'vaktrafJi (n. with haste. pI. with crushed. loco pI. --=:. fearful. indic. (da§ana-antare~u.).:a- vaktriiIJi te tvaramiiIJii visanti the mouths of thee quickly they enter ~1S?ICf><10IfiT~iT I bhayiinakiini gaping with many tusks. they enter. samdrsyante cun}itiiir uttamiifigiiil} they are seen with crushed heads. of thee. p. They quickly enter Your fearful mouths. they are observed. pl. some. Which gape with many tusks.). loco pl. visanti (3rd pI.Jvis) . in between. dreadful.. in between the teeth. with heads. pass.). dasana (n. sg. speedily. tooth. pl. passive sam .). nom. acc. . they are seen. acc.). pl. lit. ~~f~G1iI'iI<'d~. pl.Jd~§). gaping with tusks. sg. ." 479 .). bearing many tusks.

acc. pr.). sg. nom. participle abhi vi vjval). pl. they run. of thee. of streams. ambuvegas (m. so. pI. dravanti (3rd pI. water currents. facing toward. man. acc. vaktrani (n. burning. abhimukhiis (m. yonder. pl. (naralokaviras. indic. acc. tava (gen.).II visanti vaktrii1}Y abhivijvalanti they enter the mouths flaming forth. in this way. heroes. samudram eviibhimukhii dravanti the ocean toward they flow a~ acTTlTT ~1ef. ocean.Jdru). loka (m. faces.rt ~T~: yathii nadiniim bahavo 'mbuvegii/. viras (m.XI 28 l:f~ ~')". pl. nom. As the many torrents of the rivers Flow toward the ocean. bahavas (m. toward. pl.). nom.).).:a. tatha. nom. nom. yathii.:a. nom. mouths. indic. pl.). nara (m. they enter. samudram (m. thus.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). eva.qrn tathii taviimi naralokavirii so of thee yonder man-world heroes fcmf. gen. pl. m. . in which way. So those heroes of the world of men Enter your flaming mouths.Jvis).) visanti (3rd pI. water torrents. act .).). pr. pr.. approaching. flaming forth. TP cpd.). world. they flow. sg.I "" . of rivers. ami (m. water floods. sea. as of rivers many water torrents ~rlnr':r lJ:m~ ro..:a. as. pI. 480 .). pl. nadinam (f. thy. abhivijvalanti (n. . many. act.~ mm~. heroes of the world of men.

having great speed. acc. nom. in which way. jvalanam (n.). flame. with great speed. even. mouths. sg. acc. blazing forth. Jvis) . act. acrrfq. to perishing. vaktrtilJi (n. from Jnas). to destruction.Jvis) . sam~ddhavegtis (m. the worlds. to perishing. indic. p. ntistiya (m. thy. pataflgtis (m. (f~ <rnTT"lr fcmfi'(f ~~ yatOO. having increased flow. to destruction. tava (gen. with great speed. (m. faces. pl. of thee. they enter. act. moths fcmfi'(f <rnTT"lr ~~: I visanti nasaya samrddhavegal. eva. pl. pr. acc. insects. moths. as. pl. visanti (3rd pI. sg. pr. sg. participle pra Jdfp). worlds. of thee also the mouths with great speed. sam~ddhavegtis As moths enter a blazing flame To their destruction with great spee~ So also. prmifptam (n. ". lokas (m. sg.). pl. visanti (3rd pI. nom. pl. so. ntistiya (m. pass.). nom. sg. tion. also.). they enter. to destruc- tathiiiva nasaya visanti lokas so thus to destruction they enter. nom. shining forth.~1Jf fit"!.). fire. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler).XI 29 <1m5fGrg~~ yathii pradiptam jvalanam patanga as the blazing flame. 44'1 t: II tavapi vaktriiTJi samrddhavegal. these creatures swiftly enter Your mouths to their destruction. having increased flow. they enter.lf. indic.). in this way. tatoo. 481 . dat.). light.). dat. api.

voc. nom. nom. ~Tcf. vi!flJo (m. world. pr. Your terrible rays blaze forth. radiiance. ~ijqM:~raf~TII bhiisas tavogriil. pl.). entire. thou lickest. all. they consume it. swallowing on all sides All the worlds.Jjval).Jtap). jvaladbhis (n. participle act.).!n. pl. 0 Vishnu. inst. sg.). from all sides. thy. acc. they consume. pratapanti vip. grasamiinas (m. pI. Filling all the universe with splendor. sg. devouring. swallowing. samantiil thou lickest. swallowing from all sides. samagriin (m. sg. whole. radiation. lokiin samagriin vadaniiir jvaladbhil. they bum. with flaming. powerful. . worlds. pra .). inst.Jlih). iipurya (gerund ii .o the rays of thee. with mouths. accl. samantiit (m. pl.r. tava (gen. 0 Vishnu! 482 . ray. tejobhis (n. pr. nom. pl. lokiin (m. all. sg. .Jp~). pl.). abl.). with fiery.). bhiisas (f. fierce.). lelihyase grasamiinal. with your flaming mouths. . . sg. acc.). terrible. participle mid. on all sides. universe. ~Tf<n. pl. pratapanti (3rd pI. the worlds all with mouths flaming. whole. samagram (n.:r~~~~:1 . with brilliance. indic.Jgras). urgiis (f. acc. with splendor. vadaniiis (n.:~~rn tejobhir iipurya jagat samagram with splendor filling the universe all. of thee. intensive . act. jagat (n.XI 30 m~~:~ lelihyase (2nd sg. inst.). entire. sg. filling. all that moves. terrible. pr. 0 Vishnu! You lick up.).

0 Best of Gods. sg.Jsad). of thee. acc. sg. thou. have mercy! f~~l1~~ vijiiiitum icchiimi bhavantam adyam to understand I wish thee. Primal One. tell! inform! explain! me (dat. gen. of mIghty form. kas (m. thy.). sg. imperative act. imperative act. indic. acc. icchami (1st sg. acc. sg. sg. primal One.~ 5ffiR I namo 'stu te devavara prasida homage may it be to thee. pra .). indic. pr.XI 31 ~Q iT 'fiT"l1cfF( ~ akhyahi (2nd sg. astu (3rd sg. Have mercy! I wish to Wlderstand You. of terrible form. na. I understand. sg.Ji~). Thou) of terrible form. nom. 0 Best of Gods.). I comprehend. pra .). nom. tava (m. nom. 0 Chosen of Gods. bhavantam (m. na hi prajiiniimi tava pravrttim not indeed I comprehend of thee the working.Jjiia). thee. sg. indeed. 483 . sg. hi. to understand.Jjiia). to thee.Jas). Indeed. One who has existed from the beginning. ugr~rapas (m. reverence. . prav~ttim (f.). voc. if f6:• ~l1 GCf 5fCff~ II 0 . adyam (m. I desire.). purpose. have mercy! be merciful! vijiiatum (infinitive vi . to me. may it be! be it! te (dat. sg. prasfda (2nd sg.Jkhya). thy lordship. Primal One. iikhyiihi me ko bhaviin ugrariipo tell to me who thou (art. pr.). I wish. act.). not. nom. of so terrible a form. namas (n. to comprehend. thy lordship. act. imperative act. Tell me who You are. working. 0 Best of Gods. a . truly. Salutations to You. devavara (m. . 'flfT ~ a.). honor. formal). formal). to know. sg. I do not comprehend what You are doing. prajanami (1st sg. homage. sg. who? bhavan (m.

the mighty cause of world destruction.). prav~ttas (m. the warnors. even. sg. indic . cause of the perishing of the world. sg. lokiin (m. pl. avasthitas (m. mighty. sg. act. thee. nom. all. all these warriors Who are arrayed in the opposing ranks.).). The Blessed Lord spoke: I am Time. nom. they shall exist. arisen. na.). . fighters.Jsthii). in facing armies. time. world destruction causing. pass. nom. they shall be. nom. not they shall exist all if sq"fP:PfT: ~~ liT1:lT: II ye 'vasthitiib pratyanike~u yodhiib who arrayed in the opposing ranks.). here. sg. warriors. pI. iha.Jv~dh). powerful. sg. future act. pr. nom. worlds. mighty. Even without any action of yours.XI 5!1~~1 sribhagaviin u'viica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. samiihartum (infinitive sam a . perf.. pass. the Blessed Lord. arrayed. excepting. tvam (acc. 32 <m?T sffl1 ~fcI. lokak~ayak1:t (m.). pl. acc.~ ~T kiilo 'smi lokak~ayakrt pravrddho Time I am. participle ava . . he spoke. loco pl.Jh~). who. here in the world. in opposing ranks. p. ye (m. . nom. api.). Who has come forth to annihilate the worlds. he said. p. uvaca (3rd sg. ~te. pratyanfke~u (m. prav~ddhas (m. to annihilate. asmi (1st sg. pl.Jvac). world destruction causing. 484 . participle pra . nom. not. nom. +rf~a ~ rte 'pi tviim na bhavi~yanti sarve without even thee. bhavi~anti (3rd pI.). yodhiis (m.JbhU) . nom. sg. pl.0li. ~T~~+{~'5I¥: I [okiin samiihartum iha pravrttab the worlds to annihilate here come forth ~ sfq. come forth. I am. sarve (m. the Blessed One. to destroy.Jas). arranged in battle formation. shall cease to exist kiilas (m. excluding.).). also. without.

instrument. ete (m.. acc. tasmiit tvam utti~tha yaso labhasva therefore thou stand up! glory attain! jitvii satrun bhuiik~va riijyam samrddham having conquered foes. thriving.). Be the mere instrument. enjoy prosperous kingship. imperative mid. enjoy! rajyam (m. nihatas (m. p. nom. 0 Arjuna. already. pl. acc. merely. 0 Ambidextrous Archer. matram (n. acc. satrun (m. sg. domain. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). destroyed. pI.).XI 33 ~~~~l:ffiT~ tasmat (m. previously. sg. attain! obtain! jitva (gerund Jji). pass. sg. conquering. uttilf!ha (2nd imperative act. maya (m. ) bhava (2nd sg.). inst.). sg. sg. struck down. sg. voc. be! savyasacin (m. imperative act. (nimitta-matram. acc. material cause. prosperous. glory.).). fame. only. total. bhuiiklfva (2nd sg. 485 . eva. f. sg. labhasva (2nd sg. enjoy rulership prosperous. imperative mid.).). by me. from this. KD cpd. thou. foes. abl. having conquered. instrument-only. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. honor.). n. Jbhuj). Jlabh). ud Jstha). Jbhu). sg.:rf~ '1cf ~"q II nimittamiitram bhava savyasiicin the instrument merely be. ~cre-f~:~~ mayiiiviiite nihatiilJ purvam eva by Me these destroyed already. Ambi- Therefore stand up and attain glory! Having conquered the enemy. These have already been struck down by Me.). mere.). tvam (nom. pl. kingship. eva. purvam (adv. these. nimitta (n. sam~ddham (m.). therefore. 0 dextrous Archer. acc. nom. stand up! arise! yasas (n. acc. participle ni Jhan). enemies.

sg. acc. kill! slay! yudhyasva jetasi ra7Je sapatnan fight! thou shalt conquer in battle the enemies.in battle. rivals. even. acc. warrior heroes ca.Jyudh). thou. killed. maya (inst. Karrya. kar7Jam tathanyan api yodhaviran Kart:la too. ace.). imperative mid . and. thou kill. mer <1T~q'"m<1l . not. do not hesitate! <1~ ~~ -. others also. pI. jahi (2nd sg. api. anyan (m. Jayadratha. . and Kama too. Bhishma. pl.).Jhan). fighter heroes. w:rr ~ ~ ~~ lIT Olff~ maya hatatis tvam jahi ma vyath#tha by me killed. 'fi1lf ~~. also. DroQa.). others. sg. thus. dro7Jam ca Drot:la bhi~mam and Bhl~ma ca jayadratham ca and J ayadratha and ca.). Bhl~ma.). ca. Jayadratha. imperative act. hesitate. Do not hesitate! Kill! Fight! You shall conquer the enemy in battle. loco sg. injunctive .:uT ~ II "" . by me. acc.Jvyath).). pl. hatan (m. in joy of battle.Jji). .). karlJQm (m. sapatnan (m. p. adversaries. warrior heroes. sg. 486 . acc. acc. periphrastic future act. and. warrior heroes. tvam (nom. fight! jetasi (2nd sg. participle . rna (prohibitive). others also. . vyathi~rhas (2nd sg. and. acc. have been killed by Me. thou shalt conquer. yudhyasva (2nd sg.). sg. rafJe (n. tremble. also. . pass.Jhan) . slain. pl. too.XI 34 ~)ut 'if ~~ 'if ~~ 'if drofJam (m. tatoo. sg. sg. battle heroes. yodhaviran (m. bhi~mam (m.). jayadratham (m.). acc. Drona. never.

with joined palms. participle "-Jvip). act. vacanam (m. thus spoke in a choked voice to Krishna: spoke. bowing low. Krishna.). the Diademed One (Arjuna) '1 '1f'l":cO ~ ~ ~ ithet of Arjuna. of Kesava of the Handsome Haired One. sg. having made a bow. bhUabhUas (m. BY cpd.). hearing. bowing down: Sanjaya spoke: Having heard this utterance of Krisima. he who made an afzjaii. pralJamya (gerund pra -Jnam).).). Sariljaya. spoke. he who made a reverent krtaiijalir vepamanal} kiriti gesture. word. And bowing down. sg. stutteringly. the Diademed One. utterance. nom. very much frightened. sg. again. kirlfl (m. sg. sg. namaskftvii (gerund namas -Jk/:). Arjuna. -Jah). uviic~ (3rct·sg. sg. nom.). quaking. acc. falteringly.). nom. acc. gen. -Jvac). Prostrating himself.). 35 ~~(CITcr~~ etac chrutvii vacanam keiavasya etad (n. the utterance of the Handsome Haired One ~~~: speech. trembling. imperfect act. bowing. sagadgadam (adv. indeed (often used as a rhythmic having made obeisance again thus spoke to Krishna tl'T ~ filler).). stammeringly. he spoke. epithet of Krishna. sg. to Krishna. kdavasya (m. sg.). ep- he who made a reverent gesture. (m. the nar- samjaya uvaca Samjaya spoke: rator who is describing the scene to King Dhrtarastra. vepamiinas (m. making a namaskrtva bhiiya evaha krrr}am bow. sg. bhuyas.Xl ~~I smnjayas (m. f<R:Tc1 I kftiifzja/is (m. acc. nom. kf~lJam 487 . eva. this. trembling. iiha (3rd sg. having heard. this having heard. pr. terrified. trembling. thus. perfect act. be- +rrn+rrn: sroTRf II sagadgadam bhitabhita/:z pra7Jamya falteringly very much frightened. he said. srutvii (gerund Jsru). nom.

flee in all directions. by fame. nom.). Jnam). the assemblages of perfected ones. demons. Jvac). terrified. inst. pr. justly.). in (all) directions they flee ~ . thy. pl. nom. sg.-a 'Tf f~ : II sarve namasyanti ca siddhasamghiil} and all they shall bow. J dru). future act. namasyanti (3rd pI. it is delighted.nom. frightened. pra Jh~~). 36 ~~ ~r~ ~ SlCf. acc. And all the throngs of the perfected ones bow before You. act. pr. h~~fkeSa sthiine hr~ikesa tava prakirtya rightly. they flee. indic. rightly. directions.XI ~"~I arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m.). pl. 0 Krishna. it is gratified. and. of thee. pl. tava (gen. voc. by renown. sg. Bristling Haired One. f~T~.'R<IT sthiine (n. pl. all. sg.). perfect act. they run. the throngs of perfected ones. sarve (nom.). uvaca (3rd sg. they shall make reverence. indic. jagat (n. rak~amsi (n. it rejoices. dravanti (3rd pI.). they shall bow. ~mf~ +r'Tmf. siddhasamghiis (m. disas (f.). bhftani (n.:r:wrf.. act. pl. The demons. pr. he said. indic. prakfrtya (f. world. it exults.). it is glad. anu Jraftj).). the throngs of the perfected ones. loe. Arjuna spoke: Rightly. and.). ca. terrified. terrified. anurajyate (3rd sg. he spoke. Bristling Haired One. sg. ca. sg. 488 . ace.). epithet of Krishna. of thee by the fame 'Jfm! ~~~ 'Tf I jagat prahuyaty anurajyate ca the universe it rejoices and it is gratified. nom. the universe Rejoices and is gratified by Your praise.:n rak~iimsi bhitiini diso dravanti the demons. universe. (m. prahm'ati (3rd sg. sg. Arjuna. points of compass. nom.

they should bow.. beginning. nom. sg.). sg. Lord of Gods.. te (dat. The imperishable. na. nivasa (m.). comparative of guru). greater even than Brahma! Infinite Lord of Gods. you are the dwelling place of the universe. and. true. brahmalJas (n. sg. greater. infinite.).). to the maker.). to the original creator. devesa (m. sg. untrue.). m. Who are the original Creator. eternal. dat. universe. original. sg. ~~ ~ 'Jf'!f.) ananta (m. nom. 0 Great Self. primal. (adi-kartre. voc. ak~aram (n.).. adi (m. horne. o great One. world. o Great One? <n:'1<:ffi ~urT SO{ mfm I gariyase brahmm}o 'py adikartre greater than Brahma even. sg. to thee. nom. nonexistent. sg. sg.~~ kasmac ca te na nameran mahatman and why to thee not they should bow. from what? wherefore? why? ca. sg. mahatman (m. Dwelling of the Universe. 0 Great One. kasmat (abl. sg. to the creator..rcrnr ananta devesa jagannivasa infinite Lord of Gods. unending. they should make reverence. dat.). which is beyond that.). that beyond which.). the non-existent. voc.) 0 Thou whose Self is Great. garfyase (m. also. voc. the existent. sg. optative mid . voc. katre (m. nameran (3rd pI. abl. KD cpd. m. existent. and that which is beyond both. sg. tatparam yad (n.). asat (n. (jagat-nivasa. heavier. dwelling place of the universe.). (as BY cpd.XI 37 ~'if~. sat (n. ~~m:~~~~11 tvam ak~aram sad asat tatparam yat thou the imperishable.) tvam (nom. TP cpd. nom. sg. 489 . the non-existent. existing. And why should they not bow to You.Jnam). imperishable. sg. . sg. not.). dat. original creator. api. jagat (n. dweJIing place. interrog.). the existent.. voc. thou.). more venerable. than Brahma. even. sg.

original puru~as thou the Primal God. all.). god. nom. 0 Thou of Infinite Form. You are the knower. god from the beginning. sg. 0 Thou of Unending Form.). nom. supreme. and the supreme state.). and.). of all the universe the supreme resting place ~~~:q~:q<n+f vettiisi vedyam ca param ca dhiima the knower thou art. anantarupa (m. person. nom. from ancient times.). supreme.). sg. the spirit of ancient times tvam asya visvasya param nidhiinam thou of it. sg. pass. sg. param (n. ancient. nom. p. and the supreme state. ca. the object of knowledge. ca.). spirit. and. thou art. dhiima (n. One of infinite fonns. o 490 . --las). the to-be-known.). asya (n. state. highest. visvasya (n. sg.XI 38 ~mfm:~:~ tvam iidideval} puru~al} puriirzas tvam (nom. adidevas (m.). sg.). of it. dwelling place. sg. gerundive --Ivid) . gen. primal god. inst. nom. man. resting place. knower. nom. nom. gen. abode. treasure house. tvam (nom. condition. sg.). asi (2nd sg. nom. nom.). participle --Itan). vetta (m. (m. prior. tvaya (m. all this universe. sg. param (n. vedyam (n. You are the primal God. the object of knowledge. sg. thou. highest. pro indic.). BY cpd. sg. stretched. nom. sg. You are the supreme resting place of all the universe. puralJ(ls (m.). All the universe is pervaded by you. fi'f<rT ern' fcPJlp'l '1 "d ~q II tvayii tatam visvam anantarupa by thee pervaded all the universe. the ancient Spirit. sg. that which is to be known. voc. sg. 0 Thou of Infinite Form. tatam (n. of this. pervaded. sg. sg. by thee.). visvam (n. nidhiinam (n nom. thou. of all this universe. sg.

XI
39
~ lfl1T sflJ': cn;ur: ~: ~" " -,.t,., ~
vayus (m. nom. sg.), Viiyu, the god of the wind. yamas(m. nom. sg.), Yama, the god of death. agnis (m. nom. sg.), Agni, the god of fire. varulJCls (m. nom. sg.), Varul).a, the "sustainer" of the Vedic pantheon, later, and here, god of the waters. sasaiikas (m. nom. sg.), the "rabbitmarked," the moon. prajapatis (m. nom. sg.), Lord of Creatures, Lord of Reproduction. tvam (nom. sg.), thou. prapitamahas (m. nom. sg.), original paternal great grandfather. ca, and. nama namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence! reverence! te (dat. sg.), to thee. astu (3rd sg. imperative act. .Jas), may it be! it shall be! sahasrakrtvas, a thousand times made. punar, again, further. ca, and. bhuyas, again. api, even, also. nama namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence! reverence! te (dat. sg.), to thee.

fJiiyur yamo 'gnir varut}al} sasiinkalJ Viiyu, Yama, Agni, VarUl).a, the rabbitmarked,
~~~5Tfq<:1I%1i"l1

prajiipatis tv am prapitiimahas ca Lord of Creatures, thou, original great grandfather,

'111T ~ ~ ~ ~~(i('ti~-q:
namo namas te 'stu sahasrakrtval; reverence! reverence! to thee may it be a thousand times made.
~ ~T sfq-""T~~ II punasca bhuyo 'pi nama namas te And further again also reverence! reverence! to thee.

You are Vayu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, the Moon, The Lord of creatures, and the great grandfather. Salutations to You a thousand times, And again salutations, salutations to You!

t Yama, literally "going," the Vedic god of
the dead, and punisher of departed spirits. t Agni, god of fire. § Varul)a, Vedic" sustainer of the universe," later, and here, god of the waters. II sasiinka, the moon, literally the "rabbit marked," sometimes simply saSin, "that which contains the rabbit," favorite Hindu designation for the moon, because the Hindu's saw a rabbit instead of a " man" in the moon.

• Vayu, the Vedic wind god.

491

XI
40
~~?:f ~ namalJ purastdd atha P':~{hatas te reverence from in front and behind to thee
.,.,:

a-

""T~a-m~~1
namo 'stu te sarvata eva sarva reverence may it be to thee on all sides also, 0 All.
~'P:ITf+:rafCf~ ~

anantaviryiimitavikramas tv am infinite valor, unmeasured might, thou
~ ~Tf~ (i(iT sf~~: II

sarvam samiipno# tato 'si sarvalJ all thou penetratest, therefore thou art all.

Salutations to You from in front and behind, Salutations to You on all sides also, o All. You are infinite valor and boundless might. You pervade all, therefore You are all.

namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence, bow. parastat (adv.), from in front, from before, from afar. atha, moreover, and. pwhatas (adv.), from behind. te (dat. sg.), to thee. namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence, bow. astu (3rd sg. imperative act. .Jas), may it be! be it! te (dat. sg.), to thee. sarvatas (adv.), on all sides. eva, indeed, also (used as a rhythmic filler). sarva (m. voc. sg.), 0 All. ananta (m.), unending, infinite. vfrya (n.), valor, heroism. amita (m.), unmeasured, boundless. vikramas (m. nom. sg.), might, force. (ananta-vfrya-amita-vikramas, m. nom. sg. KD cpd., infinite, heroic, boundless might.) tvam (nom. sg.), thou. sarvam (m. acc. sg.), all. samapno!ii (2nd sg. pr. indic. act. sam .Jap), thou fulfillest, thou pervadest, thou attainest, thou penetratest. tatas, from there, therefore. asi (2nd sg. pr. indic . .Jas), thou art. sarvas (m. nom. sg.), all.

492

XI
41
~a-l1m ~ <:r;: ~
sakha (m. nom. sg.), friend, comrade. iIi, thus (often used to close a quotation). matva (gerund .Jman) , thinking, having thought, imagining. prasabham (adv.), impetuously, importunately. yad (n. nom. sg.), which, what. uktam (acc. p. pass. participle .Jvac) , said, uttered, spoken. he, Oh!, Ho! kr:~fJll (m. voc. sg.), Krishna. he, Oh!, Ho! ytidava (m. voc. sg.), Descendant of Yiidu, epithet of Krishna. he, Oh!, Ho! sakha(m.voc.sg.,sariuihiforsakhe),friend, comrade. iti, thus (often used to close a quotation). ajanata (m. inst. sg. pr. act. participle a .Jjfia), by ignorant, by ignorance. mahimanam (m. acc. sg.), majesty, lordliness, power. tava (gen. sg.), of thee, thy. idam (n. nom. sg.), this. maya (inst. sg.), by me. pramadat (m. abl. sg.), from intoxication, from confusion, from negligence. praIJayena (m. inst. sg.), with love, with affection, with attachment. va, or. api, even, also.

sakheti matva prasabham yad uktam friend thus thinking, impetuously which said,

~~~~~~a-I he kr~IJa he yadava he sakheti "Oh Krishna, Oh Descendant of Yadu, Oh Comrade," thus,
~~l1f~~

ajiinatii mahimanam tavedam by not knowing the majesty of thee this
+r<IT 5I"lITm!:

m;:r <rrfq II

maya pramadiit praIJayena vapi by me from negligence or with affection even,

Whatever I have said impetuously as if in ordinary friendship, "Oh Krishna, Oh Son ofYadu, Oh Comrade," In ignorance of Your majesty, Through negligence or even through affection,

493

XI
42
lR" :qt<l€;OI~tq.,~T sf~ , ,

yac ciivahiisiirtham asatkrto ' si and as if with jesting purpose, disrespectfully treated thou art,
f<l€;01 (t!ll4I~'1 ~~ I
vihiirasayyiisanabhojane~u

in diversion, in bed, while seated or while dining,
~T ~ ~ (ffill1e:f

eko 'thaviipy acyuta tatsamakfam alone or even, 0 Unshaken One, before the eyes of others
~~~~~II tat kfiimaye tviim aham aprameyam (for) that I ask indulgence (of) thee, I, the immeasurable.

And if, with humorous purpose, You were disrespectfully treated, While at play, resting, while seated or while dining, When alone, 0 Krishna, or even before the eyes of others, For that I ask forgiveness of You, immeasurable One.

yae ea (yad ea), as if, and as if. avahiisa (m.), joking, jesting, in jest, laughing. artham (n. nom. sg.), purpose, aim. (avahiisa-artham, n. nom. sg. TP cpd., purpose of jest.) asatk~tas (m. nom. sg.), disrespectfully treated, badly treated. asi (2nd sg. pro indic . .Jas), thou art. vihiira (m.), diversion, play. sayya (f.), bed. asana (n.), seated, sitting. bhojane~u (n. loco pl.), in dining. (vihiirasayyasanabhojanqu, n. loco pl.), in diversion, in bed, while seated and while dining.) ekas (m. nom. sg.), alone. athava. or. api. even, also. acyuta (m. voc. sg.), 0 Unshaken One (Krishna). tatsamak~am (adv.), before the eyes, before the eyes of others. tad (m. acc. sg.), that, this. k~amaye (1st sg. causative mid . .Jk~am), I ask pardon, I ask indulgence. tvam (acc. sg.), thee, of thee. aham (nom. sg.), 1. aprameyam (m. acc. sg.), the Immeasurable One, the Boundless One.

494

XI
43
fqmf~ ~~ "'I '(1"'1 '(flI
pita (m. nom. sg.), father. asi (2nd sg. pr. indic . .Jas), thou art. lokasya (m. gen. sg.), of the world. caracarasya (n. gen. sg.), of the moving and the not moving, of the animate and the inanimate. tvarn (nom. sg.), thou. asya (m. gen. sg.), of it, of this. pujyas (m. nom. sg. gerundive, .Jpuj), to be revered, to be honored. ca, and. gurus (m. nom. sg.), guru, teacher. garfyan (m. nom. sg. compar.), more venerable, heavier. na, not. tvatsarnas (m. nom. sg.), of thee the like, like thee, comparable to thee. asti (3rd sg. pr. indie . .Jas), there is, it is. abhyadhikas (m. nom. sg.), greater, surpassing. kutas, how? anyas (m. nom. sg.), other. lokatraye (m. loco sg.), in the three worlds. api, even, also. apratirnaprabhava (m. vOC. sg. BV cpd.), 0 Incomparable Being, 0 Thou of Incomparable Glory.

pitiisi lokasya cariicarasya father thou art of the world, of the moving and the non-moving
~ 'l;fflI" ~ ~~ irft<1F( I

tvam asya pujyasca gurur gariyiin and thou of it revered guru very venerable
.,~ S@{~er'fi: ~ ~T

na tvatsamo 'sty abhyadhikab kuto 'nyo not of thee the like there is, greater how other?
~~S1:~~~11

lokatraye 'py apratimaprabhiiva in the three worlds even, 0 Incomparable Glory!

You are the father of the world, of all things moving and motionless. You are to be adored by this world. You are the most venerable Guru. There is nothing like You in the three worlds. How then could there be another greater, o Being of incomparable glory?

495

XI
44
~ >f1lT~ m1Jfenlf

m

tasmiit prm}amya pra1}idhiiya kiiyam therefore making obeisance, prostrating the body,
WRtl- ~crn-r '1;f~lJ: {~lJ: ~ I prasiidaye tviim aham iSam i<jyam I ask indulgence of thee, I, lord to be praised;

fqacr TiBf m~:
piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyul} father-like of a son friend-like of a friend
fw:r:f~~~~~11 priyal} priyiiyiirhasi deva so<jhum a lover to a beloved, thou canst, 0 God, be merciful.

Therefore, bowing down, prostrating my body, I ask forgiveness of You, 0 Lord; As is a father to a son, a friend to a friend, A lover to a beloved, please, 0 God, be merciful!

tasmat (m. abl. sg.), from this, therefore. praT]{lmya (gerundpra -Jnam), making obeisance, bowing with reverence. pralJidhaya (gerund pra ni -Jdha), prostrating, laying down. kiiyam (m. acc. sg.), body. prasadaye (1st sg. mid. causative pra -Jsad), I ask indulgence, I ask mercy. tvam (acc. sg.), thee, of thee. aham (nom. sg.), I. fsam (m. acc. sg.), lord, prince, ruler. fqyam (m. acc. sg. gerundive -Jfq) , to be praised, to be honored. pita (m. nom. sg.), father. iva, like. putrasya (m. gen. sg.), of a son, to a son. sakha (m. nom. sg.), friend. iva, like. sakhyus (m. gen. sg.), of a friend, to a friend. priyas (m. nom. sg.), dear, a lover. priyaya (m. dat. sg.), to a beloved, to a lover. arhasi (2nd sg. pr. indic. act. -Jarh) , thou art able, thou canst, please do. deva (m. voc. sg.), 0 God. soqhum (infinitive -Jsah), to endure, to tolerate, to be merciful, to have patience.

496

XI
45
~~ ~lffiT sf~ ~ adr~tapurvam hr#to ' smi dntva the unseen before delighted I am having seen
ad~~!a (p. pass. participle a .Jd~s), unseen, not seen. purvam (n. acc. sg.), before, previously. (ad~~!apurvam. n. acc. sg., previously unseen, never before seen.) h~~itas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle .Jh~~), excited, delighted. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. d~~!Va (gerund .Jd~s), seeing, having seen. bhayena (n. inst. sg.), with fear. ca, and. prayyathitam (n. nom. p. pass. participle pra .Jvyath), trembling, quaking, shaking, shaken. manas (n. nom. sg.), mind. me (gen. sg.), of me, my. tad (n. acc. sg.), that. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). me (dat. sg.), to me. darSaya (2nd sg. causative imperative), cause to see! cause to behold! show! deva (m. voc. sg.), 0 God. rupam (n. acc. sg.), form, shape. prasida (2nd sg. imperative act. pra .Jsad), have mercy! be merciful! devesa (m. voc. sg.), Lord of Gods. jagannivasa (m. voc. sg.), "universe-abode," abode of the universe, dwelling place of the universe.

m "f 5fO<!f~cf lA"T It I
bhayena ca pravyathitam mano me and with fear trembling the mind of me,
~~lt~~~ tad eva me darsaya deva rupam that to me cause to see, 0 God, the form (originally seen)

Sffi'R ~;;mf?l<mi II
prasida devesa jagannivasa have mercy Lord of Gods, universe abode.

Having seen that which has never been seen before, I am delight~ And yet my mind trembles with fear. Show me that form, 0 God, in which You originally appeared. Have mercy, Lord of Gods, dwelling of the universe.

497

XI

46

f'l>{nc.i m~;f :q ~ta ¥1,
kiritinam gadinam cakrahastam wearing a diadem, armed with a club, discus in hand,

~+rm~l{~~~1 icchami tviim dra~tum aham tathiiiva I desire thee to see, I, thus (i.e. as before),
~~

<;1'19

~

~~

teniiiva riiPe1}a caturbhujena with it with the form four armed

~~'l1<ff~'1
sahasrabiiho bhava visvamiirte o Thousand Armed One, o Embodiment of All.

become,

I desire to see you wearing a crown, Armed with a club, discus in hand, as before; Become that four-armed form, o thousand armed One, 0 You who have all forms.

kirf(inam (m. acc. sg.), wearing a diadem. gadinam (m. acc. sg.). anned with a club. cakrahastam (m. acc. sg.), having a discus in hand, holding a discus. icchami (1st sg. pr. indic. act . .Ji~), I desire, I wish. tviim (acc. sg.), thee. dra~(um (infinitive .Jd~§), to see, to behold. aham (nom. sg.), I. tatha, thus. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler.) tena (n. inst. sg.), with it, with this. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). rupelJa (n. inst. sg.), with the form, with the shape. caturbhujena (n. inst. sg.), with four anns, four-anned. sahasra, a thousand. Mho (m. voc. sg.), anned. (sahasrabiiho, m. voc. sg. BY cpd., 0 Thousand Armed One.) bhava (2nd sg. imperative .Jbhu) , be! become! vi§vamurte (m. voc. sg. BY cpd.), 0 thou Who hast all Forms.

498

XI
~~~I

Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke:

sribhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed Lord, the Blessed One. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. "/vac), he said, he spoke.

47
ll'1T

srnWr ~~ maya prasannena tavarjunedam by me by grace of thee Arjuna this
~~~~~~WPt~1 riipam param darSitam atmayogat form supreme manifested from my own power
~T+r<t f~ ~~Jl'"~ , ,

tejomayam visvam anantam adyam splendor-made, universal, infinite, primal
~it~i'f~lSG~11

yan me tvadanyena na dr#apiirvam which of me by other than thee not seen before.

maya (m. inst. sg.), by me. prasannena (m. inst. sg.), by being gracious. lava (gen. sg.), to thee, toward thee. arjuna (m. voc. sg.), Arjuna. idam (n. nom. sg.), this. riipam (n. nom. sg.), form, shape, figure. param (n. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. darsitam (n. nom. sg. p. pass. causative participle .jd~s), manifested, shown. atmayogat (m. abl. sg.), from own power, from own Yoga. tejomayam (n. nom. sg.), made of splendor, made of brilliance. visvam (n. nom. sg.), universal, aU. anantam (n. nom. sg.), unending, infinite. adyam (n. nom. sg.), primal, original, from the beginning. yad (n. nom. sg.), which. me (gen.), of me, my. tvadanyena (m. inst. sg.), by other than thee. na, not. d~:ffapiirvam (n. nom. sg.), seen previously, seen before.

The Blessed Lord spoke: By My grace toward you, Arjuna, this Supreme form has been manifested through My own power, This form of Mine, made up of splendor, universal, infinite, primal, Which has never before been seen by other than you.

499

XI
48
rr~e~rr~ na vedayajiiadhyayanair na danair not by Veda sacrifice or recitation; not by gifts,
na, not. veda (m.), Veda. yajfza (m.), sacrifice. adhyayana (n.), study, recitation. (vedayajiUidhyayanais, n. inst. pI. TP cpd., by Vedic sacrifice or Vedic recitation.) na, not. danais (n. inst. pl.), by gifts. na, not. ca, and. kriyabhis (f. inst. pl.), by ritual acts, by ceremonial acts. na, not, nor. tapobhis (n. inst. pl.), by austerities. ugrais (n. inst. pl.), by terrible, by strenuous. evam, thus, such. rupas (m. nom. sg.), form, shape, figure. sakye (rst sg. pr. mid . .Jsak) , I am able, I can. aham, I. m:loke (m. loco sg.), in the world of men, in the world of humans. dralffum (infinitive .Jdrs)' to see, to behold. (sakya aham dralffum, can I be seen.) tvadanyena (m. inst. sg.), by other than thee. kurupravlra (m. voc. sg.), Kuru Hero, Hero of the Kurus.

rr '9 f<A'i<lTf-.n.;: rr ~Tf-.n.;:~:

I

na ca kriyabhir na tapobhir ugrai/:t and not by ritual acts nor by austerities terrible
q;m:~~~¥~

evathrupa/:t sakya aham nr loke (in) such a form can I, in the world of men,
~~ \q<";~ij'i~li$l':fR: II
dra~tum

tvadanyena kurupravira be seen by other than thee, Kuru Hero.

Not by Vedic sacrifice nor (Vedic) recitation, not by gifts, And not by ritual acts nor by severe austerities, Can I be seen in such a fonn in the world of men By any other than you, Arjuna.

500

XI
49
lIT ~ Olf~T lIT 'if f~
rna (prohibitive), not, never. te (gen. sg.), of thee. vyathiis (2nd aorist subjunctive .Jvyath), thou

ma te vyatha ma ca vlmiirf,habhavo Do not tremble! and not confused state,
~~mm{<;s;l'l~<;l'll

shouldst quake, thou shouldst tremble.
rna (prohibitive), not, never.

ca, and.
virnu4habhiivas (m. nom. sg.), confused

dr;tva riipa'm ghoram' idrn mamedam having seen form terrible such of me this
~T: Q""Kl+AT: ~ 0t
vyapetabhi~ pritamana~

state, deluded state of being.
dflffVa (gerund .JdfS), having seen, seeing.

ruparn (n. acc. sg.), form, shape, appearance. ghorarn (n. acc. sg.), terrible, frightful,ven-

erable, sublime.
idrs, such. rn~rna (gen. sg.), of me, my. idarn (n. acc. sg.), this. vyapeta (m. p. pass. participle vi apa .Ji),

punas tv am freed from fear cheered in thought again thou,

gone away, disappeared, freed from.

~~ir~~~11

tad eva me riipam idam prapasya this thus of me the form this behold!

bhis (f. nom. sg.), fear, apprehension, dread. (vyapetabhis, f. nom. sg. BY cpd., being

without fear, whose fear has departed.)
pritarnanas (m. nom. sg. BY cpd.), whose

mind is cheerful, cheered in heart.

Have no fear or confusion On seeing this terrible form of

Mine,
Be again free from fear and cheered in heart. Behold, My (previous) form!

punar, again, once more. tvarn (nom. sg.), thou. tad (n. acc. sg.), this, that. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).
me

(gen. sg.), of me.

ruparn (n. acc. sg.), form, appearance. idarn (n. acc. sg.), this. prapaSya (2nd sg. imperative act. pra .Jpas),

behold! see!

501

XI
~~I

samjaya uviica Samjaya spoke;

smnjaya (m. nom. sg.), Sariljaya, the original narrator who is describing the scene to the blind King Dhrtarii~!ra. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac), he said, he spoke.

50

~~;:f~~~ ity arjunam viisudevas tathoktvii thus to Arjuna Vasudeva (Krishna) thus having spoken,
m~~;qm~:1

svakam rupam darsayiim iisa bhuyal; his own form he revealed again,
~ ;qm "f"l1ffil:!: tfrf

iisviisayiim iisa ca bhilam enam and he calmed frightened one this,
~~; <m+4<1g\ ~ II bhUtvii punal; siiumyavapur mahiitmii having assumed again (his) gentle, wonderful appearance, the Great One.

Sanjaya spoke: Having spoken thus to Arjuna, Krishna Revealed his own (previous) fonn again. Having resumed His gentle, wonderful appearance, He cahned Arjuna, who was terrified.

iti, thus. arjunam (m. acc. sg.), Arjuna, to Arjuna. vasudevas (m. nom. sg.), Son of Vasudeva, epithet of Krishna. tatha, thus. uktva (gerund .Jvac), speaking, having spoken. svakam (n. acc. sg.), own. rupam (n. acc. sg.), form, shape, aspect. darsayam asa (causative periphrastic perfect 3rd sg . .Jd~s +.Jas), he revealed, he caused to be seen. bhuyas, again, once more. asvasayam asa (causative periphrastic perfect a .Jsvas + .Jas), he consoled, he calmed, he caused to take heart, he assuaged. ca, and. bhftam (m. acc. sg.), frightened one. enam (m. acc. sg.), this. bhatva (gerund Jbhu), becoming, having become. punar, again, once more. saumya (n.), gentle, mild, pleasant. vapus (m. nom. sg.), handsome appearance, wonderful appearance. (saumya-vapus, n. acc. sg. KD cpd., gentle, wonderful appearance.) mahatma (m. nom. sg.), the Great Self, the Great One, (as BV cpd.) He Whose Self is Great.

502

XI
~~ arjuna uvaca Arjuna spoke:
arjunas (m. nom. sg.), Arjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. Jvac), he said, he spoke.

51
~~~~ '"

dNtvedam manu~am rupam* seeing this human form

..

<:i<f~~~1

lava saumyam janardana of thee gentle, 0 Agitator of Men,
~~m~~<r~:

idanim asmi samvrtta~ now I am composed,
~: 5!Wf~ mr: II
sacela~

prakrtim gata~ with mind to normal restored.

dr~rva (gerund J drs), seeing, having seen, beholding. idam (n. acc. sg.), this. manu~am (n. acc. sg.), human, manlike. rupam (n. acc. sg.), fonn, aspect. tava (gen. sg.), of thee, thy. saumyam (n. acc. sg.), gentle, mild, pleasant. janardana (m. voc. sg.), Agitator of Men, epithet of Krishna. idanim, now, at this moment. asmi (1st sg. pro indic. Jas), I am. samvr:ttas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle sam JVI:t), fulfilled, composed. sacetas (f. nom. pl.), with thoughts, with mind, with heart. prakr:tim (f. acc. sg.), to nature, to natural state, to nonnal. gatas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle J gam), gone, returned, restored.

Arjuna spoke: Seeing Your gentle Human form, 0 Krishna, Now I am composed And my mind is restored to normal.

• Here iloka metre resumes.

503

XI
lQ"~~1
srfbhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed Lord,

Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke:

the Blessed One.
uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac), he said, he

spoke.

52
~~~ sudurdarsam idam rupam difficult to see this form
~ m~ l!'f +1+11 , ,
sudurdarsam (n. acc. sg.), hard to discern,

difficult to see.
idam (n. acc. sg.), this. rupam (n. acc. sg.), form, aspect.

dr#aviin asi yan mama beholding thol.l art which of me
~~~~

.

devii apy asya rupasya the gods even of this form

f;:w;t ~s;&fur: II
nityam darsanakiink#1}a/:l constantly the sight wishing.

(m. nom. sg. perfect participle :Jd~s), seeing, having beheld, having seen. asi (2nd sg. pr. indic. J as), thou art. (d~lffavan asi, periphrastic formation, thou hast seen.) yad (n. acc. sg.), which. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my. devas (m. nom. pl.), gods. api, even, also. asya (gen. sg.), of it, of this. rupasya (n. gen. sg.) of form, of aspect. nityam (adv.), constantly, eternally. darsana (n.), sight, beholding, seeing, observing. kanklfilJlls (m. nom. pl.), desiring, wishing. (darSana-kanklfifJas, m. nom. pI. TP cpd., wishing for the sight.)

d~lftavan

The Blessed Lord spoke: This form of Mine which you have beheld Is difficult to see; Even the gods are constantly longing To behold it.

504

XI

53
~~\"~
niiham vediiir na tapasii not I by Veda study, not by austerity,
na, not. aham (nom. sg.), I. vediiis (m. inst. pl.), by the Vedas, by Veda

study.
na, not. tapasii (n. inst. sg.), by austerity, by disci-

na diinena na cejyayii not by gift, and not by sacrifice
~~<rerT~

"~"~I

pline.
na, not, nor. diinena (n. inst. sg.), by gift, by charity. na, nor, not.

sakya evamvidho dra~tum possible in such a way to be seen

dT~taviin asi miim yathii seen thou art me in which way.

Not through study of the Vedas, not through austerity, Not through gifts, and not through sacrifice Can I be seen in this fonn As you have beheld Me.

ca, and. ijyayii (f. inst. sg.), by sacrifice, by ritual. sakye (1st sg. pr. mid. -Jsak) , I am able, I can. eValnvidhas (m. nom. sg.), in such a way. dra~!um (infinitive -Jdrs), to see, to be seen. dr~!aviin (m. nom. sg. p. act. participle Jdrs), having seen, having beheld. asi (2nd sg. pr. indie. -Jas), thou art. (drcr!aviin asi, periphrastic formation, thou hast seen, thou hast beheld.) miim (acc. sg.), me. yatha, as, in which way.

505

prave~!um (infinitive pra Jvis).). voc. possible ~~CI1:1T*1 aham evamvidho 'rjuna I in such a way. pravef/um ca paramtapa and to be entered into.). sg. paramtapa (m. to know. in truth.). pro mid. Arjuna. to behold. arjuna (m. And be truly seen in this fonn. Arjuna. in truth. Scorcher of the Foe. tattvena (n. I. I can. ananyayii (f. voc.). sg. ca. dra~!um (infinitive Jdrs)." 506 . evamvidhas (m. aham. sg. sg. sg. and. bhaktyii (f. "I can be seen. to attain. By undistracted devotion alone Can I be known. jfiiitum (inifinite vjfiii). And be entered into. inst. as here sakya draftum. alone. not elsewhere directed.jsak.XI 54 ~~~~ bhaktyii tv ananyayii sakya by devotion alone undistracted. m~:q~ <> <> jiiiitum draf/um ca tattvena to be known and to be seen. inst. truly. Scorcher of the Foe. the auxiliary . indeed. by truth. To form one. by devotion. I am able. by worship. is used. to reach. sg. inst." sakya jiiiitum. by love. in such a way. sakye (1st sg. tu. but. Jsak) .). ca. Arjuna. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. nom. and. • Sanskrit has no passive infinitive. to enter. "I can be known.). into. to see.

sangavarjitas (m. eti (3rd sg. pr. epithet of Arjuna. relinquished clinging. attachment abandoned. me. sg. he goes. sg. ~:~~:I madbhakta/} safigavarjila/} to me devoted. nom. he to me goes. And is free from enmity toward any being. attachment abandoned. nom. Ji). Is devoted to Me. sg. sarvabhiite~u (n. loco pl. worshipping me. on me depending. sg. renouncing attachment. devoted to me. voc. pafJqava (m. indic.). sg. Son of Pal). ~: ~ +rT1l ~a ~ II ~ ya/} sa miim eli pii1Jr!ava who. act. he.XI 55 '1(ifl4'!l1. sg. Arjuna. who. Comes to Me. my work doing. abandons all attachment.). holding me as highest object.Qu. performing my action. matkarmakr:t (m. pass.). in all beings. madbhaktas (m. participle sanga Jvr:j) . p. nom. Son of Pal)Qu.~ matkarmakrn matparamo of me work doing.). to me. nirvairas (m. nom. miim (acc. nom. nom. sg. sg.). to me devoted. matparamas (m. nom. toward all beings. free from hostility. sas (m. free from enmity.). depending on me. fm:~~ nirviiira/} sarvabhiUe~u free from enmity toward all beings. considers Me as the Supreme. sg.). End of Book XI The Yoga of the Vision of Universal Form 507 .).). he comes. He who does all work for Me. yas (m.

he spoke.). devoted. thee they worship <t ~ ~~ wxre'i ye ciipy ak~aram avyaktam who and also the eternal unmanifest.Jyuj).BOOK XII ~. sg. pI. interrog. pass. constantly.Jvac). participle a vi :jan)). nom. pl. pl. thus.). also. sg.). ke (m. pI. gen. participle . sg. and. ~ m~!ffiffi I bhaktiis tviim paryupiisate devoted. acc.. thee. he said. ye (m. of them. pl. api. avyaktam (m. they worship. And those who worship the eternal unmanifest.Jas) .). steadfast. 1 r. pl. ak~aram (m. nom. pass. sg. imperishable. nom. nom. . which? which ones? yogavittamas (m. nom. perpetually. constant. who. tvam (acc. ~t iii lfM<R!11T: II te~iim ke yogavittamii/:l of them which most knowing of Yoga? Arjuna spoke: The constantly steadfast devotees Who worship You with devotion. eternal.Jbhaj). who. ca. unmanifest. pl. p. p. 508 . pass. tqam (m.).). participle . perfect act.). invisible. Which of these has the better knowledge of yoga? evam. pari upa . paryupasate (3rd pI. even. bhaktas (m. Arjuna.). nom. they honor. yuktas (m. p.f"~1 arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. nom. ye (m. disciplined.ct~mT<t " evam satatayuktii ye thus the constantly steadfast who. most knowing of Yoga. mid. satata (adv. uvaca (3rd sg. having the best knowledge of Yoga. acc.).

ye (m. uvaca (3rd sg. miim (acc. 509 ./yuj). pass. per- petually. upetas (m. nom.).. most devoted. nom. fallen to the share of. ~~ffim:{ lrUlyi (loc. superlative). steadfast. nom./as).. avefya (causative gerund a . pass.). pI. on me. Fixing their minds on Me. upasate (3rd pI. p. pI. participle . pI. to me. regarded as. pI. me. pl. p. inst. sraddhaya (f. The Blessed Lord spoke: Those who are eternally steadfast. most yoked. upa. acc. p. who worshlpMe. he spoke. initiated. sg.). Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: the Blessed One.). nom. sg. in me. sg. with su- sraddhaya parayapetas with faith supreme endowed. thought. nom. they.).). inst. sg. nom. mind. participle upa . 2 II un <l ~4 lFfT <tllT mayyavesya mana ye math on me fixing the mind who me f~ffiT~1 nityayukta upiisate those who are eternally steadfast they worship. sg. endowed. sg. with faith./vis). yuktas (m. eternal. preme. IrUlnas (n. fixing./i). nitya (adj. pl. who.). I consider them to be the most devoted toMe. delivering.). sg.). mid. IrUltas (m.. the Blessed Lord. me (dat..). paraya (f. perfect act . causing to enter..XII ~~~I sribhagavan (m. they honor. with highest. . yoked. pass. or adv. Endowed with supreme faith.. a-lt ~ +reT: II te me yuktatama matal} they to me the most devoted thought to be. most disciplined. eternally./man) ./vac). he said. they worship. nom. thought to be. te (m. participle . yuktatamas (m. disciplined.

all pervading. acintyam (m. sg. sg. But those who honor the imperishable.. "everywhere going. sg. acalam (m. the imperishable. pass. acc. ca. inconceivable. ku!astham acalam dhruvam the unchanging.. The unchanging. mid. unchanging.). The indefinable." omnipresent. pl. acc. immovable. avyaktam (m. undefinable.. kurastham (m. steady. sg. the eternal. constant. they worship.:>'" ~. the immovable. indeed. fixed. but. incomparable. sarvatragam (m. who tu. acc. they honor. ~~I avyaktam paryupasate ye (m. acc. sg. nom. gerund a nir . acc.). inexplicable. sg. dhruvam (m. unseen. acc. p.Jcint).f~~~ ye tv ak~aram anirdesyam who.).). ak~aram (m.Jdis). undefinable. standing on a mountain peak. 510 . participle a vi :janj). unmanifest they honor ~~'i1"q'i'f sarvatragam acintyam ca the all pervading and unthinkable "'~~wn111 -. anirdeSyam (m. constant. imperishable. but. unmoving. The all-pervading and unthinkable. not to be thought of.Jas). paryupasate (3rd pI. the unmanifest. unchanging. sg. sg. acc.. unmanifest. gerundive a . and. unthinkable. surpassing thought. pari upa .XII 3 ~~J.). acc.). immovable.

also. te (m. or Brahman. nom. p. indifferent. they. • The substance of stanzas I. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler. exulting. pra . loco sg. pr. in the welfare of all creatures. eva. rejoicing. act. sUbduing. controlling.).XII 4 m~~ samniyamyendriyagramam controlling the multitude of the senses. 2.). sarvatra. 3 and 4 concerns two aspects of the Lord. ratas (m. the ag8regate of the senses. Controlling all the senses. made content. on all sides. samabuddhayas (f. me.Jyam). sg. mam (acc. But those who worship Him as the atman.Jap). the multitude of senses. participle .t in all creatures welfare rejoicing. and this point has been discussed by several native commentators. ) sarvabhutahite (n. Those who worship Him as an imaginary form. acc. indriyagramam (m. they reach. prapnuvanti (3rd pI. samniyamya (gerund sam ni . pl. pI. to me. indic. pass. 511 . they attain.). pl.Jram). also attain to Him. devoid of all attributes and formless (stanzas 3 and 4). sg.).t on all sides even minded a. impartial. They also attain Me. Rejoicing in the welfare of all creatures.). disinterested. dispassionate. fixing their minds on Him are considered the most devoted (stanza 2). TP cpd.5rr~cn~ l111\ ~ te prapnuvanti mam eva they attain to me also ~~~:II sarvabhutahite ratal. even minded. nom. nom. in the welfare of all beings. TP cpd. everywhere. m~:1 sarvatra samabuddhayal. Even-minded on all sides.

sg. (avyaktasaktacetasam.anifest. of thoughts. sg. path. goal. unseen. sg. difficulty goal (with) ~~ wno:ffi II dehavadbhir aviipyate by embodied (beings) it is attained. passive ava Jap). pl. unseen. pain. of them. indeed. truly.). 512 .). clinging. it is reached. comparative). unmanifest.). pl. anguish. ~ f~ trfCf\ ~:@ avyaktii hi gatir dul}kham the unrr.). sg. gen. gen. gatis (f. of those whose thoughts are fixed on the Unmanifest. nom.) avyakta (f. hard. dehavadbhis (m. For the goal of the unmanifest is attained With difficulty by embodied beings. pI. m. exertion. The trouble of those whose minds Are fixed on the unmanifest is greater. nom. surpassing. unmanifest. hi. asakta (m. by embodied beings. indeed. ins!. minded.). pl. gen.XII 5 ~Tsfq~~ kleso ' dhikataras te~iim exertion greater of them ~olrffil*l'ffi""d~lI~ I kle§as (m. pr.).). tqam (m. cetasam (n.). du17kham (adv. avapyate (3rd sg. toil. adhikataras (m. with difficulty. indic. avyakta (m.). nom. nom. difficult. avyaktiisaktacetasiim whose minds are attached to the Unmanifest. greater. it is attained.. attached. of minds. by the embodied. BV cpd.

sg. acc. indeed. ye tu sarva1.li who. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).J2 as). they honor. undistracted. sa/nnyasya (gerund sam ni . and the two corresponding methods of worship are discussed. on me. sg.Jas).li karma1. pro act. yogena (m. but. sg. pl. upa . Brahman (in stanza 5).). in me. me. mid. in me renouncing. dhyayantas (m. participle :. inst. pl.XII 6 ~ ~ ucmur 'filITfur ye (m.!i (n.!i (n. or. nom. renoWlcing all actions In Me. • Again. sarva. Worship Me. matparas (m. karmii. '1>I"1~44"llf~ ananyenaiva yogena with undistracted Yoga +rt~~11 mam dhyayanta upasate me meditating on. meditating on Me With Wldistracted yoga. miim (acc. renouncing.). upiisate (3rd pI. pI. mayi (loc. by Yoga. 513 . pl.).). holding me as highest object. Those who worship the Lord as the iitman. meditating on. and regarding Me as the Supreme. they worship: But those who. intent on me as highest.). all actions mlf~~:1 mayi samnyasya matpara/. who. abandoning. deeds. actions. all. tu. nom. in a larger sense. eva.Jdhyii). but.). nom. with Yoga.). The former method is described as the more difficult. the two aspects of the Lord. laying down. they worship. sg. intent on me as highest. inst. ananyena (m. thinking of. pl. with not going elsewhere.). acc. or self. and those who worship the imaginary image on which the mind is "fixed" or " intent" (in stanzas 6 and 7).

) bhavtimi (1st sg.). pl. extricator. sg. transmigration. entered.f~ qr~ 1l. nacirtit (adv.). bhaviimi naciriit piirtha I am.). lifter up. mrtyusamsiirasiigariit from the death-transmigration-ocean. indic. reincarnation . samstira (m. Arjuna. gen. before long.). ptirtha (m. soon.). gen.Jbhu).). sg. I am.Jvis). pl. of thoughts. epithet of Arjuna. voc. Son of Prtha. BY cpd. in me.. m..'Hi(11 «(tI"l (Ia I .~~ . before long. pr. from the ocean of death and reincarnation. I am soon the deliverer From the ocean Of death and transmigration.) Of those whose thoughts have entered into Me. of them. of those whose thoughts have entered. abl. TP cpd. in thoughts. samuddhartti (m. . mayi (loc. ~la'<ld(11111 mayyiiveSitacetasiim. 7 aham samuddhartii of them I the deliverer te~iim '" . sg. m~tyu (m. act. sg ).). Son of Prtha.. tqtim (m. cetastim (n. I. death.). "<1crrfl1 .). (tivesitacetastim. n. abl. nom. gen. presently. 514 . of those whose consciousness has entered. sg. from the ocean. (m~tyusamstirastigartit. sg. pI. stigartit (m. tiveSita (causative participle ti . aham (nom. deliverer.. abiding in.XII ~ . whose thoughts have entered into me.

manas (n. Keep your mind on Me alone. na.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). adhatsva (2nd sg.proach! nivasiryasi (2nd sg. imperative mid. sg. buddhim (f.Jvis).). ni Jvas). thought. in me. Thus you shall dwell in Me hereafter. nom. eva. on me.). acc. sg. in me.). on me. sg. causative act. f~~~~ +nli qf~ f~ I nivas#yasi mayyeva thou shalt dwell in me ~~<f"~:11 ata urdhvam na samsayal. There is no doubt of this. future act.). not. ata urdhvam (adv. 515 . thou shalt abide. intelligence. ii . Your intellect on Me. question.. understanding. thou shalt dwell. mayi (loc. imperative ni .Jdhii). doubt. keep! place! mayi (loc. samsayas (m. cause to enter! cause to ap.XII 8 lW{~ll'{~ mayy eva mana iidhatsva on me alone the mind keep. sg. alone. henceforth. in me. sg. thenceforward. mayi'" buddhim niveSaya into me the intelligence cause to enter. eva. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). acc.). mayi (loc. thence-forward. not doubt (of this).). sg. mind. niveSaya (2nd sg.

thou canst. indic. to attain. concentration. to keep. mayi (loc. then. practice. atha cittam samiidhiitum or if thought to keep . fixedly.) tatas. thought. not. act. ffif) abhyiisayogena tato by Yoga practice.). . yogena (m. steadily. continued effort. llTll:~~11 miim icchiiptum dhanamjaya me seek to attain. by Yoga. sg.Ji~). mam (acc.). pr. inst. abhyasa (m. act . sg.~1!fl1flff~ I na sakno# mayi sthiram not thou art able on me. iccha (2nd sg.. sg. sakno~i (2nd sg. TP. then. imperative. steadily. in me. sg.). Arjuna. Then seek to attain Me By the constant practice of yoga. . sg. seek! wish! aptum (infinitive .Jsak). me. Conqueror of Wealth.ffi ~<m! atha. voc. epithet of Arjuna. or if.). 516 . samiidhatum (infinitive sam a . by Yoga practice. by the practice of Yoga. ~~'til".Jap). cittam (n. m. sg.).XII 9 ~~ f:. on me.. Or if you are not able To keep your mind steadily on Me. inst. dhanamjaya (m. (abhyasayogena. to place.).Jdha) . na. acc.). thou art able. to reach. from there. sthiram (adv. Conqueror of Wealth.

matkarma (n.Jk~). sg. sg. sg. acc. (matkarma-paramas. thou shalt attain. Even perfonning actions for My sake. work of me. in practice. Be intent on My work. .). sg. paramas (m. actions. abhyase (m.Jap) . avapsyasi (2nd sg.). acc. actions ~fm~~~11 kurvan siddhim aViipsyasi performing. incapable. asamarthas (n. . ~~~I matkarmaparamo bhava my work intent-on be. thou art.). making. If you are incapable even of practice. loco sg. for my sake.) bhava (2nd sg. 517 . api. doing.). intent on my work. You shall attain perfection. "Jas). acc. sg. even. in continued effort. unable.). holding as highest object.. nom. sg. lR~ mq. siddhim (f.).XII 10 ~ SQ( ~'~pp-T1 sf~ abhyiise 'pyasamartho 'si (if) in practice even incapable thou art. nom. m. nom. also. perfection. indic. pr. thou shalt reach. kurvan (m. success. karmafJi (n. imperative act .). my work. also.Jbhu). be! madartham (m. for the sake of me. even. future act. api. pr. pl. performing. nom.'filhfur madartham api karmii1Ji for my sake even. participle act. intent on. asi (2nd sg. ava . TP cpd. perfection thou shalt attain.

then. acc. to do. Act with self-restraint.jsri). kartum (infinitive .jkr:) .) with controlled self. self-restrained. from . imperative act. p. resting on. participle a . with self restraint. thereupon.jas). m. pass. abandoning. But if you are unable even to do this. sg. acc. acc. Then. . incapable. sg. act! do! perform! yatiitmaviin (m. of-me-Yoga. adhering to. sg. also. tyiigam (m. to make. etad (n.jtyaj). sg. mf~: I kartum madyogam iiSrital} to do. indic . all action fruit. And abandoning all the fruits of action. kuru (2nd sg. this. participle ii . madyogam (m. my power resorting to. abandonment. my power.). sarvakarmaphala (n. asi (2nd sg.jkl:). atha. or if. TP cpd. 518 . lrorn:r ~cjCfi4'fl<i5'lll·i sarvakarmaphalatyagam all action fruit abandoning. pass. all fruit of action.. resorting to.).) tatas.jsak). nom. thou art. self-restrained. nom. sg.XII 11 ~~~~Tsf~ athaitad apy asakto 'si or if this even unable thou art ~ '" . to perform. relinquishing. abandoning all fruits of action. from there. my Yoga. iisritas (nom. . resorting to devotion to Me. asaktas (m. sg. p. api. pr. depending on. even.). (sarva-karma-phala-tyiigam. ffif: ~ II (11\"1 ell "t II tatal} kuru yatiitmaviin then act. unable. sg. acc.

meditation. . immediately.1~ . jiiiiniit (n. hi. tyiigiic chiintir anantaram from abandonment. sg.). sg. abi. Meditation is superior to knowledge. II . truly. action-fruit abandonment.). Renunciation of the fruit of action is better than meditation. indeed. from knowledge. abi. tranquility.Jsill). . jiiiinam (n. Peace immediately follows renunciation. abi. ~wf. more valuable. it is pre- ferred. karmaphalatyiigas (m. than dhyiiniit karmaphalatYiigas than meditation. tyiigiit (m. meditation is superior. better. nom. sg. abhyiisiit (m. sg.). nom. anantaram (adv. knowledge. nom. dhyiiniit (n. than jiiiiniid dhyiinam viSi~yate than knowledge.). passive vi . elfA'Rf CflIi'fi0\1I1. Knowledge is indeed better than practice. siintis (f. it is superior. sg. nom. abandon- ment of the fruit of action.). soon.). from abandonment.). more fortunate. from practice.).). sg. meditation. sg. nom. 519 . ~~fqf~1 practice.m:1)!'1kWl.). than better indeed knowledge than practice. from meditation.XII 12 ~Tf~~~ sreyo hijiiiinam abhyiisiij sreyas (n. visillyate (3rd sg. knowledge. sg. dhyiinam (n. sg. peace. peace immediately. abi.

and.). free from egotism. sg. sg. non-hater. samadulJkhasukhas (m.). k~ami indifferent to pain and pleasure. indifferent to pain and pleasure. nom." free from" I" making. samadul. enduring. a friend. nom. 520 . nom. nom. sg. maitras (m. pl. the same in pain and pleasure. free from "I" making. of all creatures. karulJas (m.khasukhal. Friendly and compassionate. karu1}a eva ca friendly and compassionate. Free from attachment to possessions. ~:~:~rll (m. patient. nom. sg. patient. eva. ~:~ur~:ql miiitral. sg. f~Tf~~: nirmamo nirahamkiirah free from" mine. nirahamkiiras (m. free from "mine. free from egotism. sarvabhiitaniim (n.).).). patient. nirmamas (m. ca. Indifferent to pain and pleasure. of all beings. nom.). nom. k~amf (m.). gen. compassionate.XII 13 ~~ adve~tii adve~!a sarvabhUtiiniim a non-hater of all beings. sg. sg. He who hates no being.)." free from attachment to possessions. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). friendly.

sas (m. nom.).). being of firm resolve. on me. mind. participle sam '. thought. 521 . he to me dear.). of controlled yattitmti drrfhaniicayal. who. sg. me (gen.). satatam yogi contented always. who of me devoted. beloved. sg. The yogin who is always contented and balanced in mind.). satisfied. mayi (loc.Jr:). and whose conviction is firm. is dear to Me.). sg. sg. <t)~:~lrfW1: II self. yogi (m.) yo madbhaktal. sg. sg. sg. <rn"KlIT ¢~: I saintu~(as (m.). to me. nom. whose mind and intelligence are fixed. pass. f. of controlled self and firm resolve. sa me priyal. of me devoted. dear. yogin. (arpitamanobuddhis. fixed on Me. devoted to me. KD cpd. constantly. contented. perpet- ually. intelligence. nom. sg. being of fixed resolve. sg. arpita (causative participle .). BY cpd. delighted. sg. in me. nom.). dr:4haniscayas (m. nom.Jtufi). en- trusted. And who is devoted to Me. always.XII 14 ~: mffi <tNT samtUftal. with mind and intelligence fixed. priyas (m.). nom. yatiitmii (m.). buddhis (f. Who is self-controlled. of me. he. of subdued self. manas (n. nom. under- standing. satatam (adv. Whose mind and intellect are yas (m. sg. nom. nom. l1V{m~f~ mayy arpitamanobuddhir on me. sg. the yogin. p. fixed. nom.). madbhaktas (m.

sas (m. sg. pass. beloved. sg. udvijate (3rd sg. lokat (m... bhaya (n.. who is not vexed by the world because he is not interested in it and who therefore is not joyous.) muktas (m. impatience. it shrinks.). nom. world. not. and distress. yasmiin nodvzJate [oko from whom not it shrinks. distress. he trembles. fear. har~a (m. na. and. and from the world not he shrinks. abl. nom. released who. m. fear. udvijate (3rd sg. of me.). he. If'ffiT 11: ~ :q it fw:r: II :nukto yal. Is dear to Me. ~'1<r~ lzar~iimar~ablzayodvegiiir from joy. released. sa ca me priyal. p. pleasure. priyas (m. participle "/muc). it shudders.XII 15 ~ . and. pl. he shudders. karmayoga (the Yoga of action). (har~iimar~abhayodvegiiis.). who. through . pI./vij). indic. from whom. 522 . abl.. he also to me dear. nom. who. ud . He from whom the world does not shrink. freed. nom. joy. mid.). sg.).).. distress. nom. ca. intolerant. liberated. na. anxiety.:ftf~:q 11: I [okiin nodvtJate ca yal. fear and distress. me (gen. instr. indignation.)./vij). envy. ca.Tfu~ ~T<r. sg. ~~. fearful and irascible. nom.).). sg. sg. yas (m. pro indic. sg. sg. udvegais (m. impatience.). by pleasure.. fear.). inst. yas (m. it trembles. also. he shrinks. Who is freed from joy.Ramanuja. So is the karmayogin (practitioner of the Yoga of action) who does nothing to vex the world. ud . practices bhaktiyoga (the Yoga of devotion or love) is beloved of God. from the world. pr. impatience. I< "A devotee who. iimar~a (m. sg. mid. to me. lokas (m. the world. And who does not shrink from the world. dear. not.). happiness. trembling." . who.T yasmiit (m.

rr~:1 udasino gatavyathal.). nom. sg. sg. Who has abandoned all undertakings And is devoted to Me. free from anxiety. nom. nom. disinterested. pure. to me. sg. impartial. commencement. he to me dear. sucis (m.). sucir dakfa (m. disinterested.) yas (m. sas (m. parityiigl (m. TP cpd. all. me (gen.). sg. from . of me. who. nom. sg. 523 . pure. sg." unprejudiced. who. capable. free from anxiety. priyas (m. sg. bright. m. nom. He who is free from wants. sg. sarva. l:f)~:~i'tf'Sl"ll": II yo madbhaktal. madbhaktas (m. nom. nom. who has abandoned all undertakings. sa me priyal.). pure. free from anxiety. to me devoted.). capable. udiislnas (m..). anapek~as indifferent. devoted to me. sg. indifferent. nom. sg. is dear to Me. beloved. Disinterested. sg. ~wnlTr sarvarambhaparityagi all undertakings abandoning. nom.). able. abandoning. anapekfal. sg.Jtyaj). beginning.). ~r. capable. dak~as (m. nom. relinquishing. (sarviirambhaparityiigl. he.). (as BY cpd.XII 16 rn-~:m~~~ '" . "sitting apart. free from trembling. iirambha (m. nom. dear. indifferent.) whose anxiety is gone.).). gatavyathas (m. undertaking. dextrous. holy.

indic. agreeable and disagreeable.:r ~(f . renouncing. he rejoices. m~li:~lffW1: II bhaktiman yaJ. He who neither rejoices nor hates. full of devotion. And is full of devotion.C yo na hr~yati na dve~ti who not he rejoices. not. act . who. pr. pr. nom. TP cpd. he is happy. he mourns. me (gen.). abandoning. 524 .. nom. is dear to Me. not he hates. nom. ~w:rT'fr '" . he hates.). who. he loathes. sg. m.Jhr~). not.J§uc). parityiigl (m. nom. sg. to me. (§ubha-a§ubha-parityiigl. devoted.<> subhasubhaparityagi agreeable and disagreeable abandoning. beloved. sg.). na. dvq(i (3rd sg. nom. sas (m. §ocati (3rd sg. nom. indic . . abandoning the agreeable and the disagreeable.:r~M(f. he. full of devotion.:r [fl.) bhaktimiin (m. na. filled with devotion. he to me dear. sg. pr.Jkiiiik~). he sorrows.). relinquishing. . hr~ati (3rd sg. sg. not he desires. indic. kiiiik~ati (3rd sg. na. . who. na. Has renounced good and evil. sg. . Nor grieves nor desires.).:r ~~(f I yas (m. yas (m. of me. not.). not. he desires.). dear. sg. nom. . priyas (m. he lusts after. pr.Jdvi~). pleasant and unpleasant. sa me priyaJ. indic . na socati na kafik~ati not he mourns. act.XII 17 liT. §ubha§ubha (n.). sg.

nom.XII 18 ~:~T~f+0f~ samas (m.). unchanged. freed from attachment. in good name and bad. (Sfto!!fJasukhadufJkhe!!u.) samas (m. pleasure.). n. happiness. alike. loco pI. pleasure and pain. sg. dufJkhqu (n. attachment. p. in cold. in friend. tatha. toward enemy.). pleasure and pain. clinging. attachment freed from. sg.. freed from. misery.). sg. vivarjitas (m. Alike in cold and heat. nom. in honor and disgrace. toward friend. heat. indifferent. heat. cold. sukha (n. thus.:rqr+iI'1IQ+iI'111T: I tathii miiniipamanayol:z the same in honor and disgrace. satrau (m. loco pl. 525 . pain. mitre (m. TP cpd.) Alike toward enemy and friend. n. loco sg. (sanga-vivarjitas.). Freed from attachment. in this way..rn: II samal:z saiigavivarjital:z alike. samal:z satriiu ca mitre ca alike toward enemy and toward friend.). participle vi . nom. and.). nom. ~: ~crqf. ca. the same. twisted. sfta (n.). the same. loco dual). sanga (m. the same. m.). ~fRr~~:~ sito~1}asukhadul:zkhe~u in cold and heat. in enemy. sg. mtinapamanayos (m. loco sg. ca. . The same in honor and disgrace. alike. pass. and. U!!fJa (m. pleasure and pain.Jv~j)..

). of me. sthira (adj. nom. mind. sg. man.). nom. devoted. sg. Content with anything whatever. silent.). this man is dear to tulya. sg. nom.).) mtiunl (m. m~:f~~~ aniketa/:t sthiramatir homeless. with anything. alike in blame or praise.XII 19 ~~~lfAT tulyant"ndiistutt"r miiuni similar in blame or praise.). Me. nindii (f. participle sam ~tUI!).). naras (m.). dear. f.).). finn. nom. sg. praise.. sg. steady. with anything whatever). KD cpd. sg. content. nom. priyas (m. 526 . steady-minded. with what. sg. ~)~W:qq:1 samtu~to yena kenacit content with anything whatever. beloved. censure. inst. without a house. f. matis (f. taciturn. similar. nom. sg. (sthira-matis. taciturn. me (gen. sg. nom. sg.. silent. Indifferent to blame or praise. (tulya-ninda-stutis. nom. sense. kenacid. sg. p.) bhaktiman (m.' steady minded. satisfied. blame. comparable. Full of devotion. (yena kenacid. nom. stutis (f.). full of devotion. steady minded. KDcpd. pass. aniketas (m. to me. Homeless. nom. sg.). homeless. yena (m. sa/htu~ras (m. m~~ltf~)~:11 bhaktimiin me priyo nara/:t full of devotion to me dear (this) man. judgement.

me (gen. me as Supreme intent on.Jvac).:rtlf41'ld'l ~ ~ who indeed wisdom nectar this lNT~ ll'fmri't I yathoktam paryupasate above declared. intent on me as supreme object. they honor. tu. priyiis (m.). wisdom. acc.Jiis). paryupiisate (3rd pI. pl. at/va (adv. righteousness. pl. pl. yathii. holding me as highest object. Devoted and intent on Me as the Supreme. sg. nom.). te (m. propounded. above. declared. acc. in which way. (dharmyiimt:tam. pr. Endowed with faith. p.. as. participle .). n. nom. The confusion arises because" amrta " means both "nectar" and" immortality. exceedingly. indic. bhaktiis (m. duty. acc. immortality.' ye tu dharmyamrtam idam ~. ~ ii't m"r<! it fw:rr: II bhaktiis te 'tiva me priya/:t devoted.XII 20 . pl." Either translation may be correct. surpassingly. sg. ~RT~ sraddadhana matparama faith holding. dear. sg. nectar. indeed. uktam (n. they honor. this. nom.). they exceedingly to me dear. virtue.).)." . pass. they. giving faith. sg. previously. sg.") idam (n. acc. nom.). of me. They are exceedingly dear to Me.. who. pl. devoted.). beloved. matparamiis (m. amt:tam (n.).). said. ye (m. to me. pl. Those who honor this immortal law described above. nom. End of Book XII The Yoga of Devotion • Some translators have rendered dharmyamrtam idam as "this means of attaining immortality. sraddadhiiniis (m. nom. mid. but.). pari upa . faith holding. they worship. dharmya (n. has been translated both "nectar of duty" and "immortal law. 527 .

kfjetram (n. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. 528 .Jvid).). . this.). It may have been deleted in order to make the total number of verses an even seven hundred. material nature. etad (n. acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). Aljuna. acc. Knowledge and the knower of knowledge. ca. sg. sg. the to- ~~~~rf11 etad vtditum icchiimi this to know I wish ~rr. epithet of Krishna. acc. he arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: spoke. ca.BOOK XIII ~. and. sg. person. One. ~~+J:~'91 k~etram k~etrajiiam prakl:tim (f.Jvac). field. sg. icchami (rst sg.). I wish to know about these. I wish. I desire.). sg. • This first unnumbered stanza does not occur in all versions. veditum (infinitive . jiianam (n.. Krishna. eva. spirit. sg. sg.). acc. eva ca the field and the field knower. gerundive :/jiia). ~a'T'-q'~ prakrtim puru~am ciiiva material nature and spirit. man. eva. acc. to know. acc. The field and the knower of the field. he said. kfjetrajiiam (m. ca. Arjuna said: Prakriti and Purusha. acc.). knowledge wisdom. 0 Handsome Haired One. knower of the field. act. field knower. purufjam (m. uvaca (3rd sg. nom. the object of knowledge. jiieyam (n. perfect act. kdava (m. sg. and.~I arjunas (m. voc. . and.).). 0 Handsome Haired jiiiinam jiieyam ca kesava knowledge and the to-he-known.:hl<l' '9 ~ II be-known.Jifj).

). nom. 529 . perf. he said. acc. sg. 0 Son of Kunt!.). thus the knowers of that.Ramanuja. epithet of Arjuna. sg. it. ~ <Tr ~fD a. Jvac). nom. pro indie. voc. thus. sg. because of this very knowledge. sg. k!fetram (n." . The Blessed Lord spoke: This body. this. priihus (3rd pI. the Blessed One. passive abhi J dhii). Arjuna.>rIg: etad yo vetti tam priihul.). the field knower. body.). act. pr. knower of the field. pl. sg. Is said to be the field. kiiunteya (m. etad (n. knowing the field. he knows. He who knows this is called the knower of the field By those who are wise in such things. iti. him they declare ~~f(T(T[~: II kfetrajiia iti tadvidal. tam (m. yas (m. ~~ ~ m'1erl<ffi I kfetram ity abhidhiyate the field. uviica (3rd sg.XIII ~~~I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. pra J ah with present meaning). field knower. thus it is explained. iti.). vetti (3rd sg. tadvidas (m. sg. it is called. must be different from his body which is the object of his knowledge. perfect act. frame. they declare. nom. they call. sg. nom. nom. he spoke. is called a k~etrajiia (knower of the field) by these sages. sg. Jvid). the Blessed Lord. the knowers of this. the knowers of that. they say. k!fetrajiias (m. this. Son of Kunt!. field. indic. who. acc. bodily. 1 ~m:P''fim idam sariram kiiunteya this body.).). thus. it is explained. act. • "Sages who possess exact knowledge of the body call it the experiencing-atman's field of experience. nom.). A person who knows this body and. this. this who knows. nom. sg. him. sarfram (n. idam (n.). abhidhfyate (3rd sg.).

api. loc. sg. dual).). sg. bhdrata (m. thought. Know also that I am the knower of the field In all fields. Arjuna. know! ~~~q-~I bhiirata in all fields. acc. pass. deemed. epithet of Arjuna. pl.Jman). sg. Knowledge of the field and of the knower of the field. sg.ffiq-m fqf4: lqetrajiiam ciipi miim viddhi and the field knower also me.XIII 2 m :. tad (n. voc. sg. imperative act.).). yad (n. knower of the field.). Descendant of Bharata. sg. know! learn! sarvaktietretiu (n. which. miim (acc. acc.). 530 .r~R. and. ktietraktietrajnayor (m. gen. sg. Descendant of Bharata w. me. even. field knower. ca. jndnam (n. in all fields. of me. of the field and the knower of the field. the knowledge ~~ m +ffi +P:[ II yat taj jiiiinam matam mama which that (true) knowledge considered byrne. this. knowledge. jndnam (n. also. acc. participle . nom.). nom. That is considered by Me to be true knowledge. that.). ktietrajnam (m.).m lqetrak~etrajiiayor sarvak~etreFU '" jiiiinam of the field and the field knower.Jvid). knowledge. matam (m. acc. p.). mama (gen. viddhi (2nd sg. . by me. sg. considered. sg.

in brief. transformations. vikiiri (n. the modifications).e.XIII 3 mr~lR"f~"f tat ~etram yac ca yiidrk ca this field what (it is) and what kind lffe. sg. nom. yas (m.). and. k~etram (n. nom. of me hear! This field. yad (n. what. what.). ea. sas (m.). of what nature. briefly. this. he. which. yad (n. yad (n. "- yadvikiiri yatasca yat what (its) modifications. and of what kind. sg.). imperative act. whence which (i.). nom. ea.). liability to change. and what are his powers. from me. in brief. sg. field.). yiid~s. nom. sg. sg.). of me. whence.). what. samiisena (adv. tad (n. which. yad (n. hear from Me: tad (n. who. and.). this. sg. briefly. that. ea. nom.CfiTf~ ~ ~ I " " c. from where. nom. prabhiivas (m. hear! learn! 531 . nom. with briefness. having modifications. sg. might. power.). which. What its modifications are and whence they come. what. sg. and. what kind. which. sg. ace. sg.Jsru) . and. sg. nom. and. That. S~1JU (2nd sg. that. ea.). sg. yatas. me (gen. nom. and what (his) powers tat samiisena me sr~u that. nom. ea. And who he (the knower of the field) is. . ~ "f~) <mr+I~ sa ca yo yatprabhiivasca and he who. what it is. what like.).

viniscitais (m. TP cpd. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). participle -Jgai). ins!. And with quotations concerning Brahman. ca. provided with reasons.ln. pl. sg. with undeniable. pass. <I< Edgerton has pointed out that Badarayal). in many ways.D. G' chandobhir vividhai& prthak with sacred (Vedic) hymns vanous.ln.). ins!. gUam (m. with definite. many times. by the seers.). pl. with Vedic hymns. and that the meaning of "brahma siitra padais" here is probably therefore more general.) probably did not exist at the time the Gita was. and definite. distinctly. p. ~~~?fq~m br ahmasutr apadaiscaiva and with Brahman aphroisms. chandobhis (n. with lines sacred to the Brahmans. ins!. brahmasutrapadais (n. ins!.). 532 . In various sacred (Vedic) hymns." ~l1f~ fcrf'ff~a-: II hetumadbhir viniscitai& f~bhis (m. Full of reasoning. sung. vividhiiis (n.). separately. provided with reasons. bahudhii. distinctly.. acc. and.). with sacred hymns. pfthak (adv.). hetumadbhis (m. chanted. orgen lfm r#bhir bahudha gitam by the seers many times chanted ~Tfm fcrfCfo1: q~ I . of many kinds.). eva. pI. written. singly. pl. pl. ins!. with full reasons. various. ins!.XIII 4 ~fqf+n. distinctly. pl. with Brahman aphorisms.a's Brahma Sutra (zoo A. Sages have sung of it in many ways. with unquestionable.

These are all Samkhya concepts. ten. nom. nom. viz. taste and smell. gross elements. and.). buddhis (f. ekam (n.). 'i:f indriyiiIJi dasiiikam ca the senses ten and one. sg. touch. Intellect and the unmanifest. nom.B. paiica.XIII 5 ~$U mahiibhiltiiny ahamkiiro the great elements. and. ether. ca.). and. nom. nose and the five organs of action. ca. great elements. t The mind. foot. consciousness of "I. one. 533 . ace.). panca cendriyagocariil} and the five fields of action of the senses." consciousness of self. tongue. fields perceptible to the senses.). (dasiiikam. senses. sg. unmanifest. hand. TP cpd. genital organ. pl. air. pl. i. indriyiifJi (n. t Eye. The senses. indriyogocariis (m. sensations. dasa. fire. nom. avyaktam (n. ten and one. ~~Uf ~~jof. fields of action of the senses.). eva. five. " I.e.. ten and one. ear. sg.) ca. the consciourness of " I. N. buddhir avyaktam eva ca the intelligence and the unmanifest. intelligence. § Sound.e. ahainkiiras (m. egoism. nom. mouth. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler) . ~~~fq-u:11 mahiibhiitiini (n. eleven. pI. water and earth. color. The great elements.n~<:~~'i:fl '" . as are the gw:zas." . sg. And the five objects of the senses. anus.). skin.

sg. the body. consciousness. steadfastness. nom. participle ud it . nom. intelli- gence. samghiitas (m. hatred. with capacity for change.q~'11 icchit (f. savikiiram (n. comfort. nom.). sg. sg. firmness. dve~as (m. • The physical body. inst. nom. sg. briefly. udiihr:tam (n. field. pain. multitude. in brief.). sg. pleasure. nom. explained. with transformations.). aversion. with modifications.).). sg. sg.). p. illustrated. whole. sukham (n. pass. mind. consciousness. wish. 534 . aversion. misfor- m<r: I samghiitaScetanii dhrtilJ the organic whole. sg. sg. briefly m~'3~I~~'l II .). steadfastness. dis- like. nom. misery. . pleasure. sg.). etad (n. described. pain.).). 4€j1~4. pain. acc. aggre- gation. hatred. intelligence. Desire. steadfastness this briefly is described as the field with its modifications. savikiiram udiihrtam with modifications. cetanii (f. described. organism. pleasure. duilkham (n.Jhr:). nom. this. (n. desire.XIII 6 ~ [q-: wet ~:~ icchii dvefalJ sukham dulJkham desire. inclination.). announced. courage. k~etram etat kfetram samiisena this the field. dhr:tis (f. samasena (m. nom. organic whole. ~et-.t~ tune. sg. nom. sg. nom.

absence of arrogance. rectitude. nom. rectitude. freedom from hypocnsy.t stability. sg. atmavinigrahas (m. fortitude. nom. integrity. firmness.XIII 7 wnf~~~ amiinitvam adambhitvam absence of pride. virtue. nom. sg. Absence of pride. Non-violence.). patience. stability. Constancy.). acaryopasanam (n. purity. adambhitvam (n. sg. absence of pride. patience. f~~~~:11 sthiiiryam iitmavinigraha/. rectitude. sg.). sg. nom.). klfantis (f. iiciiryopiisanam siiucam teacher attendance upon. sg.:f~W amanitvam (n. nom. self restraint. freedom from hypocrisy. saucam (n.).). freedom from hypocrisy. purity. harmlessness. nom. purity. arjavam (n. nom. ~1CfT'U. honesty. nom. nom. ahimsa (f. absence of deceit. non-violence. sg. ~f~mf~~1 ahithsii k~iintir iirjavam non-violence. sg.). constancy. attendance on a teacher. sthairyam (n. sitting beside a teacher. patience. self control. self-restraint.). sg. 535 . Service of the teacher.). self restraint.

. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). anahmnkiiras (m. death. loco pl. aversion. "not I making. absense of the sense of "I. keeping in view. wrong. keeping in mind. ailment.). sg. becoming old. janmamrtyujariivyiidhibirth-death-old age-diseaseG:~"M"R~ II . TP cpd.XIII 8 ~~q~~ indriyiirtheFu viiiriigyam toward the objects of the senses. do~a (m." eva. and pain. And absence of egotism. sickness. vyiidhi (m.). nom. unhappiness.). jarii (f. plain.).~'fiT"{ ~ "'f I anahamkiira eva ca and absence of egotism. absence of egotism. death.).3 '" . mr:tyu (m. Old age. n. nam. ~. decrepitude. disease. 536 . viiiriigyam (n." lit. keeping in view the evils of birth. dul]kha (n. birth.. misery. anudarSanam (n. disease.). sg. aversion. (m. ca.) Indifference to the objects of sense. nom. (janmamr:tyujariivyiidhidul]khado~iinudarsa­ indriyiirthe~u du&khadoFiinudarsanam pain-evil keeping in view.). Keeping in view the evils of birth. disease and pain. nom. hatred. evil.). old age. sg. nom.).). and. toward the objects of sense. sg. in the objects of sense. janma (n. death. old age.

and so on. and.XIII 9 mffi\wrf~ asaktir anabhi~vaiiga non-attachment. evenness of mind. steadiness of thought. g~ha (m.).). ca. m. f"R<i:q~~ iidi (m. 537 . home. sg. absence of clinging. to son.. sg.). nom. sg. non-attachment. participle . (i!!(iini!!topapatti!!u.) nityam (adv. toward desired and undesired events. f. in events. diira (m. anabhi!!vangas (m.:psc)q-qf~ II #t<ini~topapatti~ toward desired and undesired events. to son.Ji!!). i!!(a (p. TP cpd. wife. Non-attachment. in happenings.).). undesired. absence of clinging ~¢'~~I putrad<iragrh<idi~u asaktis (f. son. wife. nityam ca samacittatvam and constantly even mindedness ~. nom. loco pl.). samacittatvam (n. ab- sence of clinging. home. ani!!(a.). home. non-attachment. wife. constant.). And constant even-mindedness Toward desired and undesired events. loco pI. perpetually.). beginning with. as adv. loco pl. home beginning with.) (putradiirag~hiidi!!u. absence of clinging To son. house. nom.. desired. upapatti!!u (f. loco pI. et cetera. et cetera. KD cpd. putra (m. wife. perpetual. pass.

sg. sg. not wandering away. in me. tnayicananyayogena and in me with not other Yoga ~ffi\~~~1Jft I bhaktir avyabhicari1Jl devotion not going astray fCff~f~ viviktadesasevitvatn a secluded place frequenting ~~~~II aratir janasamsadi having dislike of men-crowd. p.).Jvic) . having dislike.. (vivikta-dda-sevitvam. inhabiting. dda (m. secluded. nom. participle vi . not going astray.) aratis (f.). And unswerving devotion to Me With single-minded yoga. ca. nom. resorting to. nom. Frequenting secluded places. with Yoga exclusively. 538 . in the society of men. place. n. TP cpd. with not other discipline. sg. frequenting. nom.).). nom. separated. pass.).XIII 10 +If~~Tit. lonely. from a vi abhi :'. solitary. bhaktis (f. having dissatisfaction. sg. sg. a/Umyayogena (m. TP cpd. mayi (m. in meeting crowds of men. love. sg. devotion. inst.). sevitvam (n. in mancrowd. Distaste for the society of men. avyabhicarilJi (f. and.car). loco sg. loco sg. having discontent. vivikta (m.. janasamsadi (f.). frequenting a secluded place.

object. nom. participle pra J vac). sg. (tattvajfiiiniirthadarsanam.I'1f~ adhyiitmajiiiinanityatvam Supreme-Spirit-knowledge-constancy. iti. TP cpd.!n. called. ignorance.S1*. "thatness. what." truth. sg. so. observing. sg. nom. said to be.).). sg. nom. to this. wisdom. participle Jdrs). ~qm. nom. 539 . contrary. absence of knowledge. Observing the goal of knowledge of the truth.). (adhyiitmajfiiinanityatvam. adhyiitmajfiiina (n. jiiiina (n. keeping in sight. jiiiinam (n. pr. This is declared to be true knowledge. sg. otherwise.:lf~ II ajiiiinam yad ato 'nyathii ignorance which to this contrary.) etad (n. observing the goal of knowledge of the truth.). declared to be. proktam (n.XIII 11 ~UlI. alas..). seeing. knowledge. sg. constancy. from this. goal. pass. sg.). ~~~<:r~ etaj jiiiinam iti proktam this knowledge thus. ajfiiinam (n. declared to be.) tattva (n.). p. sg. n. purpose. knowledge. knowledge of the Supreme Spirit.). thus.. perpetualness. nom. nom. constancy in knowledge of the Supreme Spirit. yad (n. artha (m. continualness. ~m ~ ~(fT s. knowledge of the Supreme Self. nityatvam (n. nom.). darsanam (n. Constancy in knowledge of the supreme Spirit. which. not in which way. Ignorance is what is contrary to this. this. sg. nom. n. TP cpd. anyathii. nom.:rr~~1 tattvajiiiiniirthadarSanam truth-knowledge-goa I-observing.

jneyam (n.XIII 12 ~ lffi" ffil Wf~+r . Knowing which. pravak. knowing. nom. not.). na. yad (n. na sat tan nasad ucyate not being. sg. what. vas). yad (n. it is said. ucyate (3rd sg. I shall explain. nom. nom.. lR" ~ s. anadimat (n.. brahma (n. having known. sg. which.fjna). . jfieyam yat tat pravak~yami the to-be-known.). acc. this. shall declare. indic.). wnf~~'ifW anadimat param brahma the beginningless supreme Brahman . being. it is said. asat (n. sat (n. gerundive .. immortality one attains. acc. sg. nom. sg. nom..). amrtam (n. not being. indic. which. beginningless. pra . tad (n. acc. param (n.). acc. not existing. tad (n.rn+r ~~ I "' Co" ~ yaj jfiatva 'mrtam asnute which knowing. that. sg. ~r~n. I shall declare that which has to be known. sg.). mid. acc.). not not being. Brahman. pr. sg. without beginning. sg. jnatva (gerund . passive .ryami (1st future act.).=r ~ ~ II " ..fvac).). he reaches.). sg. he attains. one attains immortality. highest. sg. which. to tobe-known. this. asnute (3rd sg. not. one attains. immortality. Which is said to be neither existent nor non-existent.. sg. 540 .fjna). existing . supreme.fvac). that. It is the beginningless supreme Brahman. that I shall declare. na. pr. nom. the object of knowledge.

skull. it stands. having ears. sg. ak~i (n. on earth.Jstha). ~sf~~l(\I'I(<l1'I1 '" . n. acc. sarvato 'kfiSiromukham everywhere eye. BV cpd. nom. mouth. Eyes. in the world. acc. acc.). m:~~~ '" .!iptidam. nom.). ~~f~~11 sarvam iivrtya t#thati all enveloping it stands. everywhere. heads and faces everywhere. covering. hand.). Having ears everywhere. sg. sg. everywhere. siras (n. (pa. padam (n.). all.. sarvatalJsrutimal loke everywhere having hearing in the world. head and face. 541 . sarvam (n.). sarvatas (adv. sg. nom.!i (m. enveloping. BV cp.). enveloping everything in the world. that. everywhere. mukham (n. sarvatalJpii1Jipiidam tat everywhere hand and foot. this. .). lake (m. tinhati (3rd sg. spreading. having an eye. That stands.).XIII 13 m:qrf1l'J'l~~ sarvatas (adv. it remains. pa. act. (ak~isiromukham. sg.) tad (n. foot.). loco sg..). nom.v~). indic. Having hands and feet everywhere.) sarvatas (adv. nom. pr. pervading. srutimat (n. this..).). av~tya (gerund a -. having hearing. nom. having a hand and foot. head. n. sg. eye. it is present. sg. head and face. face.

sg. f~~~'"fll <> <> • nirgu1}am gU1JObhoktr ca free from the gUI)as and experiencing the gUI)as. all.). sg. appearance. nom. vivarjitam (n. sarvendriyagu1}iibhasam all sense guI)a appearance. indriya (m. nom. sg. nom. ca.). and.Jsanj). pass. twisted away from.). color.). sense. enjoyer of the gUl}as. abhasam (n. nom. p.. nom.). freed from all the senses. rif~crorf. participle vi .. power. BV cpd. ca. all-maintaining. (sarvendriyagu¢bhiisam. sarva (m. TP cpd. and.. Shining by the function of the senses. pass.). Unattached yet maintaining all. eva. all . semblance. nirgu1Jam (n. (sarvendriyavivarjitam. sg. sg. 542 . sg. having the appearance of all the gUl}as of the senses. gU1Ja (m. participle a .. nom. gUl}a. Yet freed from all the senses. maintaining all. experiencer of the gUl}as. asaktam sarvabhrc ciiiva unattached and all maintaining thus. nom. nom. sarvabhr:t (n.).). experiencing the gUl}as. gU1Jabhoktr: (n.JVI:j).) sarva (m. sense. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). freed from. sg.XIII 14 rifi-S:4<IOII ~ . not clinging.TOl\ I sarvendriyavivarjitam all sense freed from.. p. n.). Free from the qualities yet experiencing the qualities. free from the gUl}as. unattached. sg. indriya (m. power. n.) asaktam (n.

a« Outside and inside beings. moving. gen. outside. antas (adv. acaram (n. suk~matvat (n.). of beings. sg. and. animate. gerundive a vi .). that. proximate. pl. caram (n.Jjfia).:n~:q II durastham ciintike ca tat remote situated and near. near. nom. and.). acaram caram eva ca the unmoving and the moving ~~~~m~ sukrmatviit tad aVljiieyam because of subtlety this not to be comprehended ~~ :·rrf. eva. loco sg. avijfieyam (n. Because of its subtlety This is not comprehended. Those that are moving and not moving.). sg. ca. that.). nom. bhiitaniim (m. unmoving. nom. situated far off. and. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). abl. nom. sg. this. not to be understood. inanimate. sg.). antike (n. not to be known. durastham (n. ca. because of subtlety. from subtlety. not to be comprehended. this.). sg. nom. inside. tad (n. and. This is far away and also near. nom. this. in the vicinity.). remotely situated. sg. sg. of creatures.XIII 15 orf~~~ bahir antas ca bhutiiniim outside and inside of beings rn~~:ql bahis (adv. because of fineness.).). ca. ca. 543 . tad (n.

and.Jjfiii).XIII 16 avibhaktam ca bhute~u undivided in beings f~~'<ff~~1 vibhaktam iva ca sthitam (yet) divided-as-if remaining. remaining.Jsthii) . Undivided yet remaining as if divided In all beings. bhiite~u (m. nom. vibhaktam (n. sg. nom. the tobe-known. participle vi . that. sg. ca. This is to be known as the sustainer of beings.). and. sg. sg. nom. grasi~TJu (n. accustomed to devour. standing. Their devourer and creator. pass participle . of course. participle a vi .Jbhaj). and. pass. existing. divided. shared. accustomed to absorb. this. the object of knowledge.. this. sg. nom. sg.r ~ " G . as if. sg. undistributed. • This and stanzas 13. in beings. ca. ca. tad (n. bhutabhartr ca taj jiieyam and being-maintainer. creator.).). bhiitabharfl: (n. p. nom.).u prabhavi~1}u ca devourer and creator. 544 . unshared. distributed. m~ >Nf~ '<f II <> <> grasip. p. ca. jfieyam (n. like. iva. among beings. pass. mr+nt '<f a. 14 and 15 are. devourer. nom. nom. sthitam (n. the to-beknown. loco pl. prabhavi~TJu (n. being-supporter. and.Jbhaj). p. lord of creation. a description of Brahman and the dtman. undivided. supporter of beings. gerundive . avibhaktam (n. sg. nomen agentis). nom.

). sg. tad (n.). sg. sg. pass. nom. ~G: ~ f<rl'~ II edge. that. gen. beyond. seated.Jvac). pro indic. the object of knowledge.XIII 17 ~Tf~m'1~~Tf~ jyoti~iim jyoti. nom. tamasas (n. sg. param (n. sg.such as the sun.). situated. hr:di (n. even. loco sg. a lamp. nom.). participle vi 'Jsthii). pl.Jjfiii). . It is knowledge. in the heart.). sg. sarvasya (m. jfiiinagamyam (n.). the goal of knowledge. nom. jfiiinam (n. sg.which dispel only that darkness which hinders the contacts of the senses with objects. wisdom. sg.). the attainable through knowledge. p. It is seated in the hearts of all. Also This is said to be the light of lights That is beyond darkness. nom.). jfieyam (n. it is said. gen. api taj jyotis of lights also this the light a+rn:q-q~1 tamasab param ucyate of darkness beyond. of darkness. I< "Knowledge. jyotis (n. goal of knowl- jiiiinam jfieyam jiiiinagamyam knowledge. m<f~~~ api.Ramanuja. hrdi sarvasya vi#hitam in the heart of all seated. gerundive -:. of stars. of lights. gen. nom. It is beyond prakrti (material nature). sg. illuminates even luminaries . light. passive ." . 545 .~iim (n. the light of the titman. this. ucyate (3rd sg. the to-be-known. knowledge. it is said. etc. vi~!hitam (n. of all. the object of knowledge and that which is to be attained through knowledge. also.). nom. the to- be-known.

he arrives madbhiiviiyopapadyate to my state of being approaches.). madbhaviiya (m. etad (n. understanding this. comprehending. field. Thus the field. described briefly. described. participle . madbhaktas (m. jiieyam (n. dat. the object of knowledge. nom. explained.Jjiiii). samiisatas. acc.). And the object of knowledge have been briefly described.XIII 18 ~a. knowledge. sg. briefly. sg. he enters.Jvac).).'rffi~: I (n.. My devotee.pad). nom. pr. nom. indic. this understanding. nom. sg. nom. vijiiiiya (gerund vi . at. mid. 1'j4:1<!11I~ II said. gerundive -:. sg. sg. in brief. thus. my devotee. ca. k~etram iti k~etram tathii jfiiinam thus the field. uktam (n. to my state of be- ing. knowledge. my worshipper. ~~f<rnT<f madbhakta etad vijiiiiya my devotee. tatha. pass. p. jiiiinam (n. upapadyate (3rd sg. thus knowledge ~ :.~ a-~ ID'f iti. 546 . and. this. Enters into My state of being.). sg. sg. the to- be-known.Jjiiii). wisdom. with briefness. understanding. devotee of me.). jiieyam coktam samiisatal} and the to-be-known. he approaches. thus. upa ".

pl. (m. acc. origins. eva.S ca gU1. (prakr:tisainbhavtin. puru~am material nature and spirit f~~T~qmql " ' viddhy aniidi ubhiiv api know to be beginningless both also.).). also. acc. even.[~mt~ II viddhi prakrtisambhaviin know to be those which spring from material nature Know that material nature and Spirit Are both beginningless. ca. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). too. sainbhavtin (m. and. f~:q tflJrrn ~ . sg. ca. acc. changes. imperative . both. pl. and. capacities for modifcation.). pI. know! learn! prakr:ti (f. And know also that the modifications of the field.XIII 19 5f~a'~q~ prakrtim purUfam ciiiva prakr:tim (f.as fcn. material nature.Jvid). viddhi (2nd sg. know! learn! antidl (n. ubhtiu (n. not having a beginning. ca. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). eva.liiiz{ciiiva and the modifications and the gUl). transformations. viddhi (2nd sg. viktirtin (m. dual). pl. api. BV cpd.). material nature. and. And the qualities. acc. which spring from material nature. acc. gUlJtin (m. sg. dual). acc. spirit.) 547 . gUI.). '" . arise from material nature. beginningless. acc.Jvid).las. modifications. m.. acc. vikiiriit.). act. imperative .

passive .). loco sg. kartJ:tve (n. where the object of action.Jvac). it is said.). be-perfonned. gen. • "The activity of body and organs . the cause it is said.) hetus (m.which are activities in experiencing . hetus (m.Rlimlinuja.). pr. pro indic. ~:~:~Rt puru~af:z sukhaduf:zkhiiniim the spirit. in ~:~~~I hetul. sg. the matter of the to-be-done. n.depend on the prakrti (material nature) developed into k~etra (field or body). cause. however. sg. unhappiness. it has experiences of happiness. etc. reason. in the enjoying. of pleasures and pains.~ karya (gerundive .akartrtve as to the to-he-done.Jvac). loc. This agency of the puru~a means that the puru~a is the cause and initiator of all activities to which the subservient prakrti is instrumental. instrument. the instrument and the agent are concerned. prakrtir ucyate the cause: material nature. cause.Jk1:). in the state of being an enjoyer.). the to- kiiryakiira1. which are conditioned by its conjunction with prakrti and effectuated by gU1:zas. So all experience of happiness and unhappiness depends on the puru~a conjoined with prakrti. nom. the puru~a is conjoined with prakrti.XIII 20 < < iflillifli '(Oliflq.). nom. (karykaraIJakarn:tve.. the instrument and the doer. karalJa (n. in the matter of the agent. puru~as (m. of happinesses and unhappinesses.).. the instrument and the doer. The pur~a itself finds no happiness except in self-experience. loco sg. The Spirit is said to be the cause In the experiencing of pleasure and pain. material nature. 548 .). it is said." . prak1:tis (f. sg. passive . in the experiencing. ucyate (3rd sg. indic. reason. to to-he-done. sattva. nom. spirit. etc. sg. sg. DV cpd.). This prakrti is subservient to the person or puru~a who is the agent. as stated in the Sutras. pl. ucyate (3rd sg. When. Material nature is said to he the cause In the producing of cause and effect. of pleasure and pain ~~~II bhoktrtve hetur ucyate in the experiencing. it is said. bhoktJ:tve (n. nom. sukhadulJkhiiniim (n.

a-attachment. . existing in a particular shape and nature .la attachment.t prakrtistho hi spirit (in) material nature abiding indeed.which is a result of previous developments of prakrti. ~Tf~11 sadasadyonijanmasu in good-and-evil-wombs birth. originating.las.). acc.)..). etc.). sg.XIII 21 ~: Wlif~qT f~ puru~a1. truly. (sadasadyonijanmasu. m. sg. pl. spirit.). of it. is attached to happiness. instrument. gen. birth. sg. situated in material nature. gUl. until he cultivates the qualities of humility.divine. In order to experience the results of his acts he is born in a certain nature. this new existence induces him again to be active and consequently to be born again in samsara (reincarnation). reason. of it. by which he may attain the atman. source. 549 .. etc. and is active in performing the good and evil acts leading to that happiness. nom. nom. born of material nature.Jbhuj) . sg. indic.). enjoys.Rarnanuja. womb. origin. yoni (L). clinging to the gUl. pl. sg. • "The puru~a (spirit of the individual).as..).. cause. .. mid . abiding in material nature. loc. gUfJiin (m. it experiences.. it m:$ Wlif~ <f1JWf I . hi.las. asat (n. not good. abiding in mate- rial nature. human etc." . nom.) prak~tijiin For the Spirit. Attachment to the qualities Is the cause of its birth in good and evil wombs. . bhufikte (3rd sg. births in good and evil wombs. nom. bhuiikte prakrtijiin gU1}iin it experiences the born-of-material-nature gUl). indeed.). gUl. .. etc. asya (m. of this. Experiences the qualities born of material nature. janman (n. which consist of the gutJas and are proper to that particular nature. (m. good. gUl). pr. sat (n. kiirafJam (n. CfiR17f ~T st<1 kiira1}am gU1}asaiigo 'sya the source. acc. prakl:tisthas (m. gUfJasafigas (m. TP cpd. evil.).. in material nature. pI. ~ ~ pUTU!!aS (m.). good or evil.

the experiencer. observer. therefore it is the lord of the body..).and a most sublime purUfa. uktas (m. loco sg.). the consenter. ca. supports and exceeds the body. Supreme Self. • "The purufa (spirit of the individual). iIi. paramiitmii (m. nom. nom. this. consenter.e. The supporter. nom. nom. witness. sg.. highest. it is a sovereign lord as compared to its body. 550 .). senses and mind. the Great Lord ~~~~T paramatmeti capy ukto and the Supreme Self thus also is called ~sf~~~:~:11 dehe 'smin puru~alJ paralJ in the body. dehe (m. sg. i. bearer. looks on and consents.). sg. So because it rules. in this. asmin (m. so long as it is attached to gu':tas.). spirit.). supporter.).. nom. said to be. nom.). nom. The highest Spirit in this body Is called the witness. sg. also. p. when existing in such a body and conniving at its activities. approver. even.Rlimlinuja. bharta bhokta maheSvaralJ the supporter.sovereign as compared to the body . sg. and. And also the supreme Spirit. participle .XIII 22 upadra~tanumanta ca the witness and the consenter mITmmr~:1 '3 q ~ <>e I <i l1<'ffi' :q upadra~tii (m. sg. puru~as (m. nom. nom. sg. anumantii (m. ca. Likewise it is called the body's sovereign iitman . thus. paras (m.). and. the spirit highest. pass. enjoyer.). permitter.Jvac). bhoklii (m. api. Nevertheless. the purUfa is sovereign only as compared with the servile body. the great Lord. great lord. experiencer. maheSvaras (m. loco sg. In the same way it experiences the happiness and unhappiness resulting from the body's activities. sg. a puru~a whose knowledge and power are not to be circumscribed by the body . called." . bhartii (m. sg. the experiencer. in the body.

moving. sg."Ramanuja.as. he is born . sg. existing. in whatever way. evam. not. na. vartamanas (m. pl. ~ "+!<iT sf~ II "na sa bhuyo ' bhijiiyate not be again is born.). ~~ <ffi+rRT sfll sarvathii vartamiino 'pi in whatever (stage of transmigration) existing even. bhiiyas. in whatever stage of transmigration.).). nom. sarvatha. even. puru~am (m. pro indic. saha and material nature with the gUf). sg. acc.Uiil. also. he.he knows discriminatingly. In whatever stage of transmigration he may exist. however.as together. ya evam vetti pur~am who thus he knows the spirit ~a. • "He who knows that the pUTU~a and the prakrti have the aforesaid natures and who knows the nature of the gUlJas . with the gUl). . he knows. nom. inst. living. pr. which. material nature. Is not born again. passive abhi Jjan). spirit. this. abhijayate (3rd sg. again.). prakl:tim (f. along with the qualities. He who in this way knows the Spirit And material nature. sg. ca. vetti (3rd sg..)."I 'luT: ~ I prakrtim ca gUl. sas (m. pr. acc. mid. nom.which is still left to explain . gUlJais (m. He will not be reborn conjointly with prakrti but attain the purified iitman characterized by non-circumscribable knowledge. together. act. and. as soon as he dies. sg. thus. saha. Jvid). who. participle Jv~t). api. indic. 551 .XIII 23 <r~~~~ yas (m.

). inst. ~~. they perceive. sg. through meditation. . atmand (m. by the discipline. pl. by the power. non-theistic. ~~ dhyanena (n. sg. rational. inst. and. indic. by the Yoga of action. some.). by the Yoga.). samkhyena (n.Jpas). whoever. II 39.. anye (m. others. sg. they discern. dhyiineniitmani pasyanti by meditation in the self they perceive. in the self.:{I\tll'1~ ~ I kecid iitminam iitmanii some. yogena (m. ca. self. loco sg.). . sg. all things being manifestations of what already exists. sg. atmani (m. inst.). kecid. and believing that nothing new is ever created. they see. regarding prakrti and puru~a as the ultimate realities of existence. ~mm~ anye siimkhyena yogena others by Siirilkhya discipline rnrR~11 karmayogena ciipare and by action-Yoga still others. by the Siirilkhya doctrine.).). act. Siimkhya. paiyanti (3rd pI.). atmanam (m. pr. by the self. nom. Some perceive the Self in the Self By the Self through meditation.. nom. 552 . sg. by meditation. one of the earliest systems of Hindu philosophy. with the self. inst. others. dualistic.XIII 24 e41~'1I\tl f. inst. pl. the self by the self.). apare (m. Others by the discipline of Sankhya And still others by the yoga of action . by the discipline of action. karmayogena (m. acc. some. See note.

holding as highest object. not knowing this. thus not knowing. And they also cross beyond death. pl.). death (what they) hear devoted to. they honor. sruti (f. pr. ignorant. srutva (gerund . ca. and. Devoted to what they have heard.). pl.). Worship. . nom. devoted to what they hear.e. they. pl. TP cpd. pl. others.Jas). pr. atitaranti (3rd pI. also. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). they cross beyond. pI. pI. from others. the kind of death that eventuates in rebirth. upasate (3rd pI. te (m.Jsru). hearing. act. death. thus. '" anye (m. indic...). evam. n. they transcend. (sruti-parayalJas.Jjiiii). devoted to. 553 . nom. parayalJas (n. however. upa . Death. participle a . nom. indie. .nf~ ~ te 'pi ciititaranty eva they also cross beyond +Rli'mdq(I~OIl: II ~ mrtyum srutipariiyat. tu. ff sfq:. mid. they worship. pr. nom. having heard it from others. abl.XIII 25 ~.). even. however. acc. hearing. they worship. nom. act.).Jt~).) Yet others. m~tyum (m. sg. not knowing. some.~~~: anye tv evam ajiinanta~ some.ii!. but. api. ajanantas (m. anyebhyas (m. ~"<r~1 srutviinyebhya upiisate hearing from others. i. ati . eva.

~~lTT<mr k~etrak~etrajiiasarhyogiit yiivat. as. voc. I. that. acc. not moving. sattvam (n. Bull of the Bharatas. animate. m. know! learn! bharatarlfabha (m. the union of body (field) and spirit (purufa). nom. standing still or moving.e. (stluivarjangamam.XIII 26 <rr<R[ ~ f'fff'~ yiivat sam/iiyate kirhcit inasmuch as it is born. n. salnjiiyate (3rd sg..). Arjuna. cpd. any whatever rn ~4101 <"'1 '{P1¥t I sattvarh sthiivarajangamam being. sg. from the union of the field and the field-knower. 554 . sg. standing or moving.. imperative act. existence. sg. sg. jangama"'\(n.). nom. passive sam -Ijan). from the union. stluivara (n. being. sg.). Know. . this. that Any being whatever that is born. standing and moving. sg. samyogiit (m.). as much. any whatever. TP from the field and the field-knower union. sg. ~fqf. so much. klfetrajfia (m.. Arises from the union of the field and the knower of the field. it is born. viddhi (2nd sg. in- animate.). indic. Moving or unmoving. moving. abl. inasmuch. Jvid). pr. any. field knower. DV cpd.a~11 tad viddhi bharatar~abha that know! Bull of the Bharatas. standing still. tad (n. epithet of Arjunas..). field. kimcid.).). nom. living.) klfetra (n. (klfetraklfetrajfiasamyogiit. abl.

If:~a-~~a-II he perceives. nom. Truly sees. parameSvaram (m. in all. pro act. Existing alike in all beings. loco pI. not dying. acc.). not lost. pro indic. 555 . the Supreme paramesvaram existing the Supreme Lord f<l'1~"I(f't ~f~ ti~thantam Lord. he (truly) sees. .Jpas). who.sthii). paSyati (3rd sg. vinasyatsv avinasyantam in (their) perishings not perishing. avinaSyantam (m. sg.). Not perishing when they perish. vinaSyatsu (m. sg.Jpas). in deaths. what. loco pl. acc.XIII 27 " '" " samam sarve~u bhute~ alike in all beings f~~1 ~m41~ samam (m. not perishing. .). sg. sg. pro indic. ceives. (m. this. yas (m. nom. paSyati (3rd sg. sg. alike.). standing. gerund vi . similar. he sees. ti~{hantam :'.Jnas). pasyati sa pasyati who sees. pro act. sg. act . he per- ya!. in beings. acc. in perishings.). act. existing.). the Highest Lord. in losings. participle bhUtqu (m. the same.Jnas). He who sees the Supreme Lord. he. acc. situated. participle a vi . in creatures. sas (m. he sees. sarve~u (m. loco pl.

na hinasty iitmanii 'tmiinam not he injures. Thereupon he goes to the supreme goal.). truly. path.). supreme. the line means that in injuring the self of others. the self. not.XIII 28 ~~f~~<f'. by the self. sg. participle sam ava ~ sthii). acc. hi. ace. everywhere. gatim (f. by the self. sg. sg. ruler. same. samavasthitam (m. ~hins). goal. Seeing indeed the same Lord Established everywhere. • Since the self (atman) of others is identical with one's own self. pr. ~pas). prince.). equal. discerning. ~ya). from there. beholding. the self. sg. existing. inst. sg. one injures one's own self. sg. tatas. he goes. He does not injure the Self by the self. he hurts .). yati (3rd sg. hinasti (3rd sg. pr. nom. then. acc. sarvatra. acc. acc. isvaram (m. na. sg. indeed. act. ~T lIlf~ tRt 'lf~ II tato yiiti pariim gatim then he goes to the supreme goal. established. atmana (m. similar. lord.). on all sides. iitmanam (m. participle act. paSyan (m. he injures. p. param (f. 556 .). acc. sg.. highest.f~~~ samam (m. seeing. pass.. samam pasyan hi sarvatra the same seeing indeed everywhere ~~~l!~~1 samavasthitam isvaram established the Lord . indic.

pl. yas (m. by material nature. and then he has an exact perception of the atman. completely. self.). who. made. kriyamiifJiini (n. pasyati (3rd sg. ca. done. exclusively. thus himself mR~~crll (f. indic. pI. wholly. tatha. act. sg. sas (m. he perceives. karmafJi (n. sg. pr. performed. nom. he (truly) sees.Jpas). he perceives. . akartiiram sa pasyati not the doer. he sees. indic. acc. sg. nonmaker.effected by karman (action) -.:r'filhfur prak~tyii prakrtyiiiva ca karmiilJi and by material nature actions f"'llt1101If. pr. sarvasas. Truly sees. non-doer. nom. performed exclusively lj":~crcr~ yal. acc. paSyati (3rd sg. then he perceives that the atman's conjunction with prakrti (material nature).Riimiinuja. acc.). sg. act. acc. and.). pr. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). and that the atman has the form of knowledge. participle :'Ik~). He who sees that all actions Are perfunned exclusively by material nature. thus. actions.nT<f~: 1 kriyamiilJiini sarvasal. sg. inst.XIII 29 ~:. deeds. he.). he sees. 557 . pass. And thus the Self is not the doer. its (the atman's) directing capacity and its experience of happiness or unhappiness all result from ignorance .). this. iitmiinam (m.). that therefore the atman (self) is non-agent. akartiiram (m." . • "When a person perceives that all acts are performed by the prakrti (material nature). pasyati tathiitmiinam who he sees.Jpas). himself. eva. .

• "When a person perceives that all different modes of existence of all beings depend on one principle.XIII 30 lro'1~~ yadii. anu Jpas). yadii bhUtaprthagbhiivam when being-various-states ~~~(fl ekastham anupasyati resting in one he perceives. bhiitaNthagbhiivam (m. alone. acc. he sees. acc. When he perceives the various states of being As resting in the One. pr. and that the varieties of new beings issuing from these beings again arise from prakrti. and. act. he goes to. mid. eva. then he will attain the otman in its purest form"Rllmllnuja. various states of being.). sam vpad). prakrti (material nature). acc sg. vistiiram (m. from that. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). when. spreading out. he arrives at. abiding in one. pr. tadii. Then he attains Brahman. sg. ca. sg. indic. Brahman.). acc. anupaSyati (3rd sg. extent. he discerns.). And from That alone spreading out. brahma (n. multiple states of being. sg.). ekastham (m. 558 . indic. ffif~::qf~ tata eva ca vistiiram and from that alone spreading out i~~~11 brahma sampadyate tadii Brahman he attains then. and not on the titman. resting in one. tatas. sampadyate (3rd sg. he attains. from there. then. he perceives.

Supreme Self. even.). na. Son of Kunti.). imperishable. sg.).). kiiunteya (m. not it is befouled. passive . api. 559 .. voc.Jk~).:ffiwlT''1J. .). This imperishable supreme Self Is beginningless and without qualities.:r sarirastho 'pi kiiunteya in the body situated even.'l<I0 1. nom.as. from beginninglessness. situated in the body. nirgulJatvat (n.). . sg. Cfi'Ufd"" f~ II na karoti na lipyate not it acts. pr.4 Id~ aniiditviin nirgu1}atviit from having no beginning and from absence of gur. it is polluted. Arjuna. nom. paramatma (m. abl. Son of Kunt!. sg. this. Even though situated in the body. he acts. epithet of AIjuna.Jlip). ayam (m.aslessness.XIII 31 'l. also. sarfrasthas (m. nom. eternal. nom. sg. aniiditvat (n. It does not act. and is not tainted. abiding in the body. not.). sg. sg. na not.as q<>1I'>11~4OI. it is stained. act. avyayas (m. mm21T sfq. imperishable. from gUl). indic. it is befouled. abl. it is smeared. from absence of gUl). it acts. from having no beginning.~: I paramiitmiiyam avyayal} Supreme Self this. lipyate (3rd sg. sg.'fi'Rr.1. pro indic. karoti (3rd sg..

self. in this way.). Is not tainted in any case. loc. sg. it is smeared.Jsthii). indic. sg. sg. from subtlety. iikiisam (n. in all cases. space. sarvatra. seated. yathii sarvagatam siiu~myiid as the all pervading. mcmT. in which way.). sg. dehe (m. abiding. all pervading. p. in the body. not. not. it is polluted. from subtlety. everywhere. ~~. nom. pass. thus..XIII 32 l[~~~r~~ yatha. situated.). abl.M~1 iikiisam nopalipyate the ether not it is befouled. upalipyate (3rd sg. upalipyate (3rd sg. So the Self. As the all-pervading ether.Jlip).M~II tathiitmii nopalipyate so the self not it is befouled. sg. as. it is smeared. siiuk!fmyiit (n. so..Jlip). nom. nom.ln. 560 . passive upa . indic. it is stained. iitmii (m. ether. avasthitas (m.). Is not tainted. it is befouled. sg. nom. sarvagatam (n. it is befouled. passive upa . pr. omnipresent. ~~~T~ sarvatriivasthito dehe in all cases seated in the body. because of subtlety.). seated in the body. 00. tatha. participle ava . na. pr. because of its subtlety.

Descendant of Bharata. As the sun alone illwnines This entire world. sg. it illumines. in this way. field.). acc. nom. owner of the field. lord of the field. entire world this. Descendant of Bharata. universe. kt:tsnam (n. acc.). ~~T~~~ k~etram k~etri tathii krtsnam the field. the sun. kr:tsnam (n. sg. prakasayati (3rd sg. sg.).). acc. k~etrf (m. alone.). so. causative act. voc. acc. sg. k~etram (n. nom. acc. so the entire ~~mmll yatha. ravis (m. sg. he causes to appear. pra . bharata (m. world. one. sg. singly. ~: yathii prakiisayaty ekal. sg. 561 . prakiisayati bhiirata he illumines. the lord of the field. nom. sg. pro indic.). whole.XIII 33 11~ SI'fllfilll("<t. tatha.Jkas). imam (m. this. ekas (m. causative pra . in which way. entire. sg. thus. as it illumines alone ~~~~-nCf:l krtsnam lokam imam ravil. entire. Arjuna. pro indic.). So the Lord of the field illumines The entire field. it causes to appear.). prakasayati (3rd sg.Jkas). whole. lokam (m. sun. as.). he illumines.

sg. bhiita (m. nom. distinction. the highest. pl. they go. and. sg.). by the eye of knowledge. liberation of being from material nature. k~etrak~etrajflayos They who know. prakfti (f. of the field and the knower of the field. the Supreme. acc.).). nom. who.Jya). evam. acc. vidus (3rd pI.). liberation. ye (m. thus. mok~am (m. sg. relation. inst.). End of Book XIII The Yoga of Distinction between the Field-Knower and the Field 562 .). (bhiitaprakftimok~am. TP cpd. jflanacak~u~a (n. sg.). they. param (m. they know. to the Supreme.) ca.. The distinction between the field and the knower of the field. difference. gen. acc. to the Supreme. Go to the Supreme. sg. pl.).Jvid with present meaning). material nature.). dual DV cpd. being. they. . release.XIII 34 ~'. (m. through the eye of knowledge. m. antaram (n. by the knowledge-eye. perfect . acc. As well as the liberation of beings from material nature.f~~~ k~etrak~etrajiiayor evam of the field and the field-knower thus ~(~~TI antararh jiitinacak~tqii the distinction by the knowledge-eye ~~~:q bhutaprakrtimok~arh ca and being-from -material-nature-liberation <t f~ lIlf~ ~ q-q II ye vidur yiinti te param who they know. by the eye of wisdom. yanti (3rd pI. they go. te (m.

wise men. of knowledges.). "fvac). acc. Having known which all the sages Have gone from here to supreme perfection.). supreme. knowledge. he the Blessed Lord spoke: spoke. acc.). munayas (m. jiiiitvii (gerund "fjiiii) . pl. sg.). the highest Knowledge. 1 ~ +rtf: >r<f~11 '" param (m. supreme.).). acc. yad (n. the Blesse Lord. pariim siddhim ito gatii!. of param bhuya!. pravak~yiimi the highest further I shall declare mrrr.. gone. sarve which. itas (adv. Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed One. again. pl. pravakryiimi (Ist sg. I shall explain. sg. all. siddhim (f.) highest. bhiiyas. pariim (f. uttamam (n.t m. sarve (m. highest. future act. acc. further. sg. nom. gatiis (m. success. 563 . the knowledge best ~ ~T l!'flT: ri yaj jiiiitvii munaya!. of know ledges. sg.). acc. uviica (3rd sg. nom. to supreme perfection from here gone.). nom.). which.). gen. pra "fvac). the sages all rrti H:rf~~ ~ mrr: II having known. knowing. sages. The Blessed Lord spoke: I shall declare.BOOK XIV ">I"~~I srfbhagaviin (m. he said.). nom. sg. pl.~ ~ I jiiiiniiniim jiiiinam uttamam wisdoms. jiiiinam (n. sg. the best of all knowledge. having known. from here. I shall declare. further. pl. best.. acc. jiiiiniiniim (n. perfect act. perfection. highest. sg.

mama (gen. loco sg. act. at dissolution. or divine nonexistence. Resorting to this knowledge. Jvyath).). knowledge. jfianam (n. at creation. in the Hindu view. sadharmyam (n.). Even at the creation of the world they are not born. ca.). not they are born. nom. The ideal is to escape birth. and. acc. pr. indic. even. not. sg. come to. pl. they tremble. na.XIV 2 ~~~~ idam (n. lfl1 m"lPhl: m<rm: I m'lma siidharmyam iigatiib of me state of identity arrived at. api. of me. passive upa . vyathanti (3rd pI.). And arriving at a state of identity with Me. one must remember that. acc. "beings" are assumed to be born at the creation of the universe and to be constantly reborn thereafter until the dissolution of this particular universe. upasritya (gerund upa a J sri). acc. loco sg. ~ . state of identity of nature. sg. • In reading stanzas like this.).). in this instance. 564 . Nor do they tremble at its dissolution. sg. pra/aye (m. at letting go.). to be born is a misfortune. my. wisdom. at the dissolution. na.Jjan). indic. Olf"~~ "i II pralaye na vyathanti ca and at the dissolution (of the world). depending on. idam jfiiinam upiisritya this knowledge resorting to. pr. agatas (m. and go on to nirva~a.. not they tremble. Also. this. they quake. resorting to. they are born. sarge (m. not. sg. also. ri sfq-"lq'Jf14~ sarge 'pi nopajiiyante at creation (of the world) even. arrived at. upajayante (3rd pI. or rebirth.

in this. sg.). In it I place the seed. loc. sg. act. Arjuna. brahma (n.XIV 3 . in it. foetus. sg. egg. sarvabhutiiniim (m. Bharata. acc.).pr lfTf'f\ ~'\ ?rW mama yonir mahad brahma for me the womb (is) great Brahman. I. coming to be. Jbhu). place. of me.). pl. of all creatures. I put.). voc. nom. from there. of all beings. ~~:~~ sambhaval. Descendant of Great Brahma is My womb.). 565 . Descendant of Bharata. nom. sg. tatas. nom. mama (gen. act.). tasmin (n. sg. indic. it exists. bharata (m. from that. nom.). sg. The origin of all beings Exists from that. epithet of Arjuna. for me. yonis (f. ffi~ ~ ~<l"TR{ ~ I tasmin garbham dadhamy aham in this the seed I place. sarvabhutanam the origin of all beings ffifT +rcrf(f ~ II tato bhavati bharata from that it exists. I.). sg. great. grabham (m.). it comes to be. my. mahat (n. sainbhavas (m. pr. sg. womb. pr.). gen. bhavati (3rd sg. sg. Jdha) . seed. dadhiimi (rst. sg. Brahman. aham (nom. origin. indic.

aham (nom. sg. mahat (n. pr. lffi~: ~~~: I .. sg.XIV 4~~Cfim . epithet of Arjuna. pita I the seed-sowing father. sg. father. bfjapradas (m.). act.). Son of Kunti. nom. voc. Son of Kunti. sambhavanti (3rd pI. nom. 566 .). images. sg. pl. seed sowing. womb. in all wombs. sambhavanti yal. pl. pl. they come to be. indic..). ~Of~: fqm-II sarvayani~u (f.). nom.).). kiiunteya (m. fOnTIs. sg.. gen. which.). great. The great Brahma is their womb.). tasam (f. of them. forms come to be which rnrt~~~)f~ tiisam brahma mahad yonir of them Brahman the great womb.. Arjuna. miirtayas (f. seed giving. yanis (f. pita (m. sg. And I am the seed-sowing father. nom. loco pl.). nom. yas (f. sarvayoniiU kaunteya in all wombs. I. Brahman. nom. aham bijapradal.. nom. sam --IbM). Whatever forms are produced In any womb. brahma (n. they arise. miirtayal.. sg.).

nom. m. prakrti (f. thus ~: >I'lf~):jGfT: I gm. in the body.. gUfJas (m. originating in.). pI.). they fetter. pl. prakrtisambhaviil. sg. the atman. material nature. sg. gUI~as. iti. dehinam (m. truth. passion. born of. acc. tamas.XIV 5 rn~~~fa sattvam rajas tama iti sattva. act. sg. loco sg. sloth. ~~~~II dehe dehinam avyayam in the body the embodied one.Jbadh).). nom. tamas. whose origins are in material nature. tamas. they bind down. smhbhavas (m.). f. pl. nom. nom. rajas. thus.) nibadhnanti (3rd pI. rajas. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors.). the embodied one. sattvam (n.). avyayam (m. thus.:rf<a. acc. pr.)..).). tamas (n. 0 Great Armed One. darkness. eternal. sg. nom. virtue. nom. dehe (m. Imperishable.ore:. the self. 567 .~T nibadhnanti mahiibiiho they bind down. rajas (n.ln. sattva. 0 Mighty Armed One. 0 Arjuna. (prakrtisambhavas. mahiibiiho (m. Sattva. indic. imperishable. sg. Bind fast in the body. sg. the embodied. springing from. voc. ni .). rajas. BY cpd.iil. emotion. The imperishable embodied One (the atman). the gUl. they bind. The qualities born of material nature. nature.as material-nature-born-of.

in regard to these.). anagha (m. indic. nirmalatvtit (n. and. 5f~:q<i1l"l4li I prakasakam anamayam illuminating. 568 . Binds by attachment to happiness And by attachment to knowledge. by attachment to wisdom. free from disease. anamayam (n. sattva. sg. act.). and by knowledge attachment. sg. nom.XIV 6 ~ m<i f<iii0. abl.).). free from impurity. pr. Of these. illuminating and free from disease. inst.m~ sukhasafigena badhnati by virtue attachment it binds ~1<iW~<i ~ II jfuinasaiigena ciinagha tatra. by attachment to knowledge. free from disease. sukhasaiigena (m. free from dirtiness. Sinless One. free from impurity. in connects. .). virtue. TP cpd. sg. shining. by attachment to the good. jiitinasaiigena (m. ~~Of"--. sattvam (n. sg.). sg. nom. illuminating.<iI~t tatra sattvam nirmalatvat there sattva free from impurity.). there. nom. prakasakam (n. voc. salubrious. healthy. Sinless One. epithet of Arjuna. inst. sg. Arjuna. ca. truth. by attachment to virtue. hadhntiti (3rd sg.Jbadh). sg. sattva. it binds.

safiga (m. born of. sg. sg. acc. desire. ifc.. samudbhavam (m. karmasafigena (m. viddhi (2nd sg.). passion. acc. inst. m. thirst. This binds fast the embodied one. dehinam (m.. know! learn! t~~rJii (f.). act. Son of Kunt!. epithet of Arjuna. Son of Kuntl. voc.. the embodied.XIV 7 ~r (l'II. acc. raja riigiitmakam viddhi rajas passion characterized by. that. the self. sg. nibadhnati (3rd sg. By attachment to action. sg. sg. TP cpd. by attachment to action. <1'\ f<rOr'e'lTfa <fi~ tan nibadhniiti kiiunteya this it binds down. 569 .) tad (n. ragiitmakam (n. know. ni ./vid). acc.). sg. this. of the nature of passion."t'fi fr. . pr. characterized by passion.rf. (t~~lJa-safiga-samudbhavam. rajas./badh).). arising from thirst and attachment. q'lOII*l1i'*lii~ I tN1Jiisangasamudbhavam thirst-attachment-arising-from. <fi~~~l{11 karmasangena dehinam by action-attachment the embodied one.). nom.). kiiunteya (m.a rajas (n.). TP cpd. the atman. it fetters. Know that rajas is characterized by passion Arising from thirst and attachment. the embodied one. sg. attachment. sg.). acc. Arj1ll1a. originating in.). imperative act . arising from. indic. it binds down. emotion.

sloth. acc. Ajuna.Tl1~rrrnm{ pramiidiilasyanidriibhis by distraction. nibadhniiti (3rd sg.). indie. but. it ties down. born of ignorance. Which confuses all embodied beings. drowsiness. 570 .) tad (n. know. sg. acc. delusion. tamas.XIV 8 ~~~fqf. negligence. sleep.a tamas (n. it binds down.rur II tan nibadhniiti bhiirata this it binds down Bharata. viddhi (2nd sg. imperative . sg. indolence. pI.). epithet of Arjuna. distraction. ajnanajam (n.Jbadh). Descendant of Bharata. darkness. f. This binds fast. acc. inst. indolence. ni .). act. pr. instr. pl. iilasya (n. sg. know! learn! mohanam (n. pl. and sleepiness. this.Jvid) . indolence and sleepiness ~ f~t:'fTf~ -. indeed.). (pramiidiilasyanidriibhis. nidriibhis (f.). voc. indeed. J.). tu. sarvadehiniim (m. of all iitmans. by distraction.. sg. laziness and sleepiness.). deluding. bhiirata (m. of all embodied ones. that. sg.. nom. Descendant of Know indeed that tamas is born of ignorance. tamas tv ajnanajam viddhi tamas. laziness. pramiida (m. gen.). 11~<f~~1 mohanam sarvadehiniim the confusion of all embodied ones.). DV cpd. arising from ignorance. it fetters down. confusing. With negligence.. ignorance-born.. confusion.

vsafij). ~: 'filtfur 'rr<:Cf I sattvam (n. sg. pramiide (m. bhiirata(m.). tamas. obscuring. causative act. emotion. nom. ~*I:>-"'4<::"t~1I pramiide saiijayaty uta to negligence it causes attachment even. Descendant of Bharata. sg. Descendant of Bharata. loco sg. in action. causative act. uta. to negligence. sloth. enveloping. but. indeed. knowledge. sg. vsanj). it causes attachment. tu. in delusion. aVl:tya (gerund a y VI:). acc.). sattva. sanjayati (3rd sg. pro indic. rajal} karmalJi bhiirata rajas to action. truth. Causes attachment to negligence. sg. to action. indeed. nom. nom. good- ness. jnanam (n.XIV 9 ~w<f~Cf sattvam sukhe saiijayati sattva to happiness it causes attachment. ArjW1a.). to confusion. loco sg. darkness. in happiness. it causes attachment. sanjayati (3rd sg.). Tamas.). rajas (n. obscuring knowledge. 571 . sg. ~~~~lT: jiiiinam iivrtya tu tamal} knowledge-obscuring indeed tamas. pro indic.). tamas (n. Sattva causes attachment to happiness. reality. voc. rajas.). sukhe (m. to hap- piness.). passion. karmalJi (n. Rajas to action. even. n. veiling. to delusion. wisdom. loco sg.

). epithet of Arjuna. . passion. acc. acc. sloth. sattvam (n. emotion. or proportions of. The distinction is in the relative proportion of one gur. bhavati (3rd sg. sg. sattva. truth. When prevailing over rajas and tamas. The idea is continued in the next three stanzas. it comes to be.Jbhu) . voc.za to the others in a given personality. rajas (n. met ~(I" -. rajas (n. goodness. nom.XIV 10 ~~'l11<1 rajas tamascabhibhuya. truth. purity. sattva. sg. tamas. nom.). tamas (n.). purity. passion. sg. " Three different relationships between. rajas (n. truth.). tathii. sg. Descendant of Bharata.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). darkness. rajas. sg.). Descendant of Bharata.rIm I sattvam bhavati bharata sattva it m'ises. emotion. pr. ca.). sloth. abhibhuya (gerund abhi . predominating. indic. (1"11: met~(I"~ II tamal. thus. eva. rajas. acc. reality. over-powering. acc. sattva. and. tamas (n. sg. acc. darkness. are intended here. sg. Rajas prevailing over sattva and tamas also comes to be.). raj as-an d -tamas-prevailing over.).). emotion. likewise. prevailing. Arjuna. sattvam rajas tatha tamas (prevailing over) sattva and rajas likewise. it arises. 572 . darkness. representing three types of personality. the three gUlJas. Sattva arises. passion. ~:met~ raja/:t sattvam tamascaiva rajas (prevailing over) sattve and tamas (similarly). sattvam (n. nom. acc. bhiirata (m. sattvam (n. sg. tamas. or three phases of behavior. act. tamas (n. and. sloth. sg. Likewise tamas prevailing over sattva and rajas.Jbhu). sg. tamas. ca. rajas.

in all the doors. then. yadii. splendor. loco pl.). it should be known. when. indeed. nom. then it should be known fqq. dehe (m. mighty. loco sg. uta. >f'Ii'ro '34'51I11d I sarvadviirqu (n. jiianarh yada tada vidyad knowledge. in this. optative act.Jjan). nom. participle vi . thus. light.). indic. may it be known. upajiiyate (3rd sg.). of the body. upa .). . it is born. Then it should be known that Sattva is dominant. in the body. mid. sattva. nom. vidyiit (3rd sg. in all the gates. asmin (m.Jvr:dh). sattvam (n. wisdom. sg. sg. prakiisa upajayate a light is born m<RT~f~ shine.). loco sg. dominant. sg.[~~~11 o " grown powerful. vivrddharh sattvam ity uta dominant sattva thus indeed. tadii. vivr:ddham (n. knowledge. prakiisas (m. good- ness. jfiiinam (n. nom. so.XIV 11 ~~sf~ sarvadvarefu dehe 'smin in all the gates of the body in this. truth. When the light of knowledge shines 1brough all the gates of this body. iti. sg. even.ln. when.). 573 .Jvid). pr.

vivr:ddhe (n. greed. sg. . sg. 574 .. These are born when rajas Is dominant. pravrttir lirambha!.). restlessness. Greed. desire. sprhii of actions. nom. fqq~ +roI1h111 vivrddhe bharatar~abha when dominant. sg.XIV 12 lobha!.). these. mid . sg.r: '5I<!fm~: . they arise.). rajasi (n. in the gUl). undertaking. spr:hii (f. ' ~<:?. nom. progress. sg. nom. loc. desire. voc. in rajas. . Bull of the Bharatas. Bull of the Bharatas.).a of passion.. disquietude. of actions. activity and the undertaking Of actions. ~~<f~ rajasy etiini jiiyante in rajas these are born. commencing.). gen. pl. asamas (m. avarice.. pI). loc. etiini (n. lust. sg. sg. nom. m. epithet of Arjuna. activity.). pro indic. bharatar~abha (m. karmalJiim asama!.Jjan). in the dominance. disquietude.). desire. karmarJiim (n. restlessness. when dominant. iirambhas (m. nom. they are born. lobhas (m. avarice.).. pravr:ttis (f.). sg. exertion. nom. setting out. jiiyante (3rd pI. of deeds. Arjuna. activity the undertaking ~~~:=I . lack of calmness.

absence of illumination. pl. ca. ~r. Darkness and inertness. these. heedlessness. aprakiiso 'pravrttisca unenlightenment and inertness. nom. kurunandana (m. in- 5I"ll"RT l1~ t:t<f 'if I pramiido moha eva ca heedlessness and confusion. confusion. apraw:ttis (f. when dominant. jayante (3rd pI. unenlightenment. nom. in the guna of .). in tamas. Arjuna. These are born when tamas Is dominant. sg. tamasi (n. thus. nom. ca.). Heedlessness and confusion. they are produced.). and. they are born. sg. loco sg. epithet of Arjuna. nom. sg. mid .).madas (m. . Joy of Kuru. sg.).mf'f~ tamasy etiini jiiyante in tamas these are born fCf<{~~11 vivrddhe kurunandana when dominant. etani (n. eva. and. neglIgence. mohas (m. indic.Jjan). voc.).fwmrT~f~ aprakiisas (m. delusion. in darkness.XIV 13 9. sg.). pra. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). tamas. viw:ddhe (n. pr.). loco sg. Descendant of Kuru. in the dominance. Descendant of Kuru. nom. lack of exertion. ertness. 575 .

~~>rfCl~11 amaliin pratipadyate stainless. in virtue. >l~<rrfQ~1 yada. the body-borne. tada. the embodied one. but. indic. sg. then. pl. act. pure. prav~ddhe (n.). in the dominance. uttamavidam (m.). loco sg. sg. acc. dissolution. he arrives at. shining. prati . sattve (n. when. yati (3rd sg. in truth. . acc. tu. When an embodied being goes to dissolution (death) Under the dominance of sattva.). when dominant.). mid. pr. he goes.). death. the atman. of those who know the highest. pralayam yiiti dehabhrt to dissolution he goes.Jpad). stainless.XIV 14 ~~>l~ry. yadii sattve pravrddhe tu when in sattva in the dominance. he enters. 576 . loco sg. indeed. pratipadyate (3rd sg. worlds. in sattva. nom. pl. the embodied one. he arrives at. pralayam (m. dehabh~t (m. he attains. pro indic. Then he attains the stainless worlds Of those who know the highest. amalan (m. gen. indeed.Jya). to dissolution.). ~ffi+nCRt ~~ tadottamavidiim lokiin then to the highest-knowing worlds.). acc. pl. lokiin (m.

to death. he is born. in wombs of the deluded. tamasi (n. dissolving.). indic. pr. frompra ~ll). likewise. mid.). in rajas. in darkness. in the action attached. acc. pralfnas (m. 577 . pr. .oni~u jay ate in deluded wombs he is born. in emotion. rajasi pralayam gatva in rajas to dissolution having gone mrm~1 karmasafigi~u jayate among the action-attached he is born. a~~~a+1f~ tatha pralinas tamasi likewise dissolving in tamas lWrTf<p'f ~ II ~u¢ha. loco sg. dissolution. karmasaiigi~u (m. in tamas.). dissolved (dying) when tamas is dominant. having gone.XIV 15 ~~~w-rr rajasi (n. Is reborn among those attached to action. dying.). jayate (3rd sg. mid . tatoo. sg. loco pl. gatva (gerund ~gam). Likewise. nom. indic. sg. in deluded wombs. pralayam (m.Jjan) . jayate (3rd sg. in passion. in sloth. ~jan). He who goes to dissolution (death) when rajas is dominant. thus. He is reborn from the wombs of the deluded.). among those attached to action. loco sg. loco pl. he is born. mu4hayoni~u (f. going. to dissolution.

lack of knowledge. phalam (n. they say.).-qif. nirmalam (n. sg. phalam (n.f~~1 karma1]£ls (n. of tamas. of well performed. the fruit. sg.Jah with present meaning). gen.XIV 16 'filtur: +g!ldf41 §: karmm. . of action well done they say mf.). misery. gen. sg. but. But the fruit of rajasic action is pain. tu. without stain.a!. They say the fruit of good action Is sattvic and without impurity. sukt:tasya (n. without impurity.). nom. fruit. nom.). sg. without impurity. dulJkham (n.). fruit. sg. ignorance. sg. phalam (n. sg. of rajas.). ~~~~:~ rajas~s tu phalam du!. sg. sg. nom. rajasas (n. And the fruit of tamasic action is ignorance. sg.). ajiiiinam (n.kham of rajas but the fruit pain.). pain. nom. sattvic.). sg.. gen. 578 . well done. pertaining to the gUl)a of sattva. of action. sukrtasyiihu!. of siittvikam nirmalam phalam sattvic. tamasas (n. ahus (3rd pI. of the gUl)a of rajas. nom. perfect act . nom. nom.). phalam ignorance of tamas the fruit. ~~:~II ajiiiinam tamasa!.). sattvikam (n. gen. of the gUl)a of tamas. fruit.

indic. And from rajas desire. abl.). from passion.Jjan).). samjayate (3rd sg. distraction and delusion. pr. ignorance.).Cf "f I rajaso lobha eva ca and from rajas desire. Negligence and delusion arise From tamas. greed. abl. from rajas. sg. ajiianam (n. ca. abl. sg. 579 . nom. lobhas (m. 51~r~ pramadamohau tamaso negligence and delusion from tamas ~Cf(fT ~ 1J.XIV 17 ~q:~m sattvat (n. nom. mid. dual). avarice.Cf "f II bhavato 'jiianam eva ca arise and ignorance also. from tamas. nom. pramadamohau (n. from desire. desire. they two arise.JbhU). heedlessness and confusion. knowledge. from darkness. . sg. and ignorance too. sam .). rajasas (n. sattvat saTnjayate jiianam from sattva is born knowledge ~T ~N 1J. act. from purity. from truth. tamasas (n. indic. wisdom. sg. bhavatas (3rd dual pr. and. and also. it is born.). eva. sg. nom. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). jiianam (n. From sattva knowledge is bom. eva ca. they two come to be. lack of knowledge. from sattva.).

rising.) adhas. the rajasic. lowest. TP cpd. loco sg.). they remain. The rajasic stay in the middle.XIV 18 3i'Ccf ~f"ff ~ iirdhvam gacchanti sattvasthii upward they go. those attached to rajas. below. they go. last. pro indic. m. hindmost. downward. those established in sattva. gacchanti (3rd pI. upward. they stand. act. (jaghanya-gulJa-v~tti-sthiis. madhye (m. the tamasic. established in the lowest quality. pro indic. The tamasic. in the middle. the sattva-established. they stay. pro indic. gUlJav~ttisthiis (m. act. urdhvam (adv.Jgam). Go downward.).). riijasiis (m. act. the sattva-established +rcir f~f"ff~: I madhye ti~thanti riijasii!} in the middle they stay. established in the lowest gUl)a condition.).). nom. the tamasic. nom. pl. the rajasic ~1J!C!fmm jaghanyaguTJavrttisthii lowest gUI). . those who are ruled by tamas. tiimasiis (m.Jgam). pl. .a condition established 'W=TT ~~ aTlrnT: II adho gacchanti tiimasii!} below they go. established in gUl)a condition. jaghanya (m. nom. remaining in gUl)a condition.). pI. pl. gacchanti (3rd pI. sattvasthiis (m. nom. 580 . Those established in sattva go upward. pl. they go.Jsthii). nom.. .). tiHhanti (3rd pI.

doer.Jgam). sas (m.). dra!!!a (m. ~~~~ gU1}ebhyasca param vetti and than the gUI). pl. ace. he sees. param (n. he. yada. nom.Jpas).). higher.).). madbhiivam so 'dhigacchati my being he attains. ace.XIV 19 ~TT"l-1l:~ niinyam gUlJebhyal. act. sg. than the gUQas. He attains My being.as higher he knows ~~Tsf~~11 na. kartiiram not other than the gUI). he perceives. anupaiyati (3rd sg. 581 . sg. pl. the doer lRT~~~1 yadii dra~tiinupasyati when the beholder perceives. vetti (3rd sg. When the seer perceives No doer other than the qualities. ace. pr. nom.as. he knows. abl. adhi . act. pro indie. highest. than the gUQas. ace. And knows that which is higher than the qualities.Jvid). my being. from the gUQas. maker. me.).). anyam (n. pro indic. madbhiivam (m. adhigacchati (3rd sg.). gUl!ebhyas (m. other. he goes to. sg. observer. gUl!ebhyas (m. sg. not. and.). from the gUQas. else. kartaram (m. . beholder. abl. ca. sg. my state of being. act. when. anu . indic. he atains. sg.

pI.)..) vimuktas (m.. going beyond. Ramanuja suggests that amrtam.. atitya (gerund ati .. :. death. misfortune. the embodied one. dulJkha (n. ~~:~ .. pl.). misery. pain.las these transcending.. sg. jara (f.Jmuc). pass. The stanza makes sense if one considers that Brahman is "immortal. old age..).). pl. When an embodied being transcends These three qualities. acc. freed. nom. ~r ~~<ITi'!: I dehi dehasamudbhavan the embodied one.. pl. liberated. he attains. immortality. old age and pain. TP cpd. death.as)." "unchanging" and "permanent. Released from birth.." 582 . released.. DV cpd. m~tyu (m. that is. sg. originating in the body. which are the source of the body. asnute (3rd sg. p. participle vi .zkhair from birth. gUQas..Ji). these. Since the iitman of every being is already considered to be "immortal" the attainment of immortality through transcendence of the gUlJas would seem to be redundant. immortality . nom. sg. . He attains immortality. inst.).. by birth..fA"'. mid. G'~-I"t. acc. dehasamudbhavan (m. acc. G. means the opposite of what it means to us. acc. age and pain f~T Sl10l1 ~ II . WI"R<r '.XIV 20 lf1lTR ~. ~ vimukto 'mrtam asnute released.. death. three. (janmam~tyujaradulJkhiiis. transcending. janma (n. n..6 janmamrtyujariidu/. etan (m. • This would appear on the surface to be one of the GWi's slight contradictions. indic. the body originating In. dehf (m.. or divine non-existence. absorption in Brahman. nirvii1. death. pr.).w. old age. am~tam (n.).:. birth. three..). and pain. the atman. pI. acc. immortality he attains .. coming to be in the body.. gUTJan (m.). ~ gU7Jan etan atitya trin gut. trin (m.). the embodied.

>IbM). 583 . three.).f<r '3<fT~ 1 arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. sg.). ati >lvft). three. these. uvaca (3rd sg. three gUI).11: ~urq ~f~ 11 trin gw}iin ativartate three gUl). nom. act.). m. gUl}as. transcending. pl. pl. AIjuna. acc.). he spoke. by what? liiigais (n. sg. mr'RfT "lfGIf<i "SP1T 1 atito bhavati prabho transcending. (kimacaras. sg. perfect act.as these kiiis (n. pl. inst.). bhavati (3rd sg.. he is. trin (m. acc. behaviour. o Majestic One? f~:'li~~ going beyond. by character- istics. pl. gUl}as. he transcends. nom. pro indic. be said. >lvac).). pl. these. acc. of what behavior? of what conduct?) <.).). etan (m. what? acaras (m. pr. he is (recognized). and. acc. BY cpd. p. indic. sg. sg. ativartate (3rd sg.as he goes beyond? Arjuna spoke: By what marks is he recognized Who has transcended these three qualities. pass. atftas (m. conduct. 21 ~f~"t~TTq~ hair lifigiiis trin gw}iin etiin by what marks. etan (m. 0 Lord? What is his conduct? And how Does he go beyond these three qualities? katham. mid. participle ati >Ii). inst. he comes to be. kim. ep- ithet of Krishna. nom. nom. voc. he moves beyond.). gUfJan (m. prabho (m. trin (m. acc.XIV ~. pl.. kimiiciiral} katha'm ciiitiins what conduct? and how these practice.). acc. by marks. pl. how? ca. gUfJan (m.). 0 Majestic One. pl.

rajas and tamas.Jvac). not. nivr:ttiini (n. presences. pro indic. eva. comings forth. moham (m. na. kiiiik~ati (3rd sg. pl. he wishes for. nom. 22 wmt 'if 5P!fffi :q prakiisam ca pravrttim ca illumination or activity l1~u'cr'if~ I prakiisam (m.).XIV l!1'hl<m<J: '3CIT"f I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. Arjuna . na. uviica (3rd sg. not. or. occurrings. sg. splendor. occurrences.Jkiiiik~).).). he desires. moham eva ca pii1. Son of Pal). sg. non-occurrings.II na nivrttiini kiifik~ati nor the absences he desires.). . and.). nor. or. he hates. pro- gress. advance. bright- ness. he said. ithet of Arjuna. acc. dve~fi (3rd sg. ca. sG/hpravr:ttiini (n. not. acc. he loathes.. sg.). acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). the Blessed One. .ujava or delusion. voc. delusion. perfect act. Son of Pii~<ju. ca. acc. illumination.ma. ep- <r [f1SC ~mf<r na dve~ti sampravrttiini not he hates the presences <r f~mf<r 'fiTS. . na. or. .Jdvi~). indic. The Blessed Lord spoke: He neither hates nor desires The presence or the absence Of light or activity Or delusion. act. ca. and.~u. confusion. act. he spoke. 584 . piiTJqava (m. sg. The characteristic attributes of sattva. acc. and. activity. the Blessed Lord. pl. sg. pravr:ttim (f. nonoccurrences. pr.).

they move. 3rd pI. indifferently. thus <11" sqf~~ ~ II yo 'vati~thati nengate who he stands firm.)." And who stands firm and does not waver. not he wavers. sg.Jas). iti. asfnas (m. they exist. na.Jsthii). he is disturbed. nom. avastil!{hati (3rd sg. he is shaken. . iiigate (3rd sg. nom. nom. as if seated apart. not. gUfJais (m. pro indic. they operate. pl. sg. he remains standing. pro indic. yas (m. He who is seated as if indifferent. thus (often used to close a quotation).XIV 23 ~~~R1" udiisinavad iisino udasfnavat (adv. 585 . who. he stirs. pro indic. sg. they roll. . vartanta (sarhdhi for vartante. tially. viealyate (3rd sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). sitting. he wavers.Jiiig).cal). he stands firm. he takes his stand. pro indic. seated. disinterestedly. causative passive vi:'.). who. Who is not disturbed by the qualities. Thinking "the qualities are operating. nom. not.). na. mid . pl. by the gUQas. they work. gUfJas (m. mid . gU1}ii vartanta ity eva "the gunas working" (only). yas (m. gUQas.Jv~t).). act. inst. impar- as if seated apart seated gUl}iiir yo na viciilyate by the gUIJ-as who not he is disturbed. ava . eva. pro participle . dispassionately.

nom. tulya (m. who is steadfast. atma = self. (tulyanindatmasamstutis. priyapriyas (m. ~~~a-:II tulyanindatmasamstutil} (to whom are) equal blame of himself and praIse. sg. To whom blame and praise of himself are alike. the pleasant and the unpleasant. m. gold. To whom a clod.ln.. nom. firm. to whom the pleasant and the unpleasant are equal. kiiiicana (n. same.). nom. the dear and the undear.). (samalo~(asmakiiiicanas. blame of himself or praise (ninda = blame. ~11IC1~'l'fiI::>-"''1: I samalo~!asmakaiicanal} (to whom are) the same a clod. self contained.). nom. nom. depending on the self. constant. samadulJklwsukhas (m. (as BV cpd. sg. clod. steadfast. nom. sama (m. nindatmasamstutis (f. for whom a clod.).ln. nom. being the same in pain and pleasure. lo~(a (m.) 586 ..). sg. (tulyapriyapriyas. BV cpd. a stone and gold are the same. sg. samstuti = praise). To whom the loved and the unloved are alike. to whom blame and praise of himself are alike. who dwells in the Self. a stone and gold ~wrrfW1T <r'ro{ tulyapriyapriyo dhiras (to whom are) equal the loved and the unloved. asma (m. being equal in pain and pleasure.).ln.).). stone. a stone. equal.) he who is indifferent to pain and pleasure.XIV 24 ~:~:RN: samadu~khasukha~ svastha~ (to whom are) the same pain and pleasure. BV cpd. the loved and the unloved. sg. steadfast. BV cpd. svasthas (m. To whom pain and pleasure are equal.) dhfras (m.). m. m. sg. self contained.) tulya (m. equal. sg. nom.. lump of earth. a stone. sg. and gold are the same.). equal.).

lI1Iml. this. sarva (m.t sa ucyate transcending the gUl). equal.). sg. in esteem and disesteem. impartial. sg. 587 . Dispassionate toward the side of friend or foe.t impartial toward friend or enemy sides ~qf~r sarviirambhaparityiigi all undertakings renouncing.).Jvac). sg. nom. '" gu1}(ititaJ. m. he. nom.).XIV 25 'i1'1{q'iI<141~t ~ miiniipamiinayos tulyas in honor and dishonor equal. nom.). side. ari=enemy. renouncing all undertakings. parityiigf (m. nom. tulyas (m.).). indifferent. sas (m. pass. loco dual TP cpd. renouncing. loco dual DV cpd. equal. it is said. nom. toward the party or faction of friend or enemy (mitra = friend. faction). RenOlUlcing all undertakings He is said to transcend the qualities. sg. wiT flP-frf~&1<fT: I tulyo mitriiripalqayoJ.'tr: ~ ~ II miiniipamiinayos (m. he. TP cpd.as.!as. (sarva-iirambha-parityiigf. gUlJa + p. sg.) gUlJiitftas (m. pro indic. To whom honor and dishonor are equal. pak~a=wing.). all. abandoning. toward friend or enemy sides. disinterested. undertaking.).as. commencement. participle ati vi). tulyas (m.. it is said. nom. in honor and dishonor. he is said to be. mitriiripa/qayos (m. iirambha (m. TP cpd. going beyond the gUl). passive . ucyate (3rd sg. transcending the gUI. sg.

pr.). he serves. inst. passed beyond. sg. pl. mid . with unswerv- mffiti'l<t. acc. brahmabhuyiiya kalpate for absorption in Brahman he is ready. for absorption in Brahman. he. sg. he is suited.). inst. Transcending these qualities. these. Is ready for absorption in Brahman. yas (m.).). And he who serves Me With the yoga of unswerving devotion.). nom. nom. 588 .XIV 26 +IT ~ llT SOlIf~ miim ca yo 'vyabhiciire1Ja and me who with unswerving mam (acc. dat.).Jklp).Jsev). he honors. sa gU1Jiin samatftyiiitiin ~<m1~11 he the gUIfas transcending. with the power of devotion. brahmabhUyaya (m. to absorption in Brahman. kalpate (3rd sg. he waits upon. sg.). sg. he is adapted. I bhaktiyogena (m. he is ready. with unwavering. sevate (3rd sg. samatftya (gerund sam ati . with the Yoga of devotion. m ing. he obeys. who. . with constant. this.). pl. mid . the gUQas. acc. with devotion- bhaktiyogena sevate devotion Yoga he serves ~rr1lTRwm~ "" . indic. me. Yoga.. etan (m. sg. . transcending. these. sas (m. sg. gUfJan (m. ca.Ji). passed through. and. avyabhicarelJ<l (m.

gen. ca. End of Book XIV The Yoga of Distinction between the Three GUl.). of the one and only. of happiness. basis.). of Brahman.). of the eternal. of the law. 1. sg. Of everlasting virtue. dharmasya (m.ln.).XIV 27 ~Tf~5lf~ brahmat.). and. of righteousness. aham (nom. sg. sukhasya (m. For I am the abode of Brahman. sg.o hi prati~thiiham oi Brahman indeed the foundation I. amrtasyiivyayasya ca of the immortal and imperishable ~'i'f~ avyayasya (n. of the imperishable. sg. of unique.). And of absolute bliss. ca.dfllIOllllfll 'i'f I brahmalJas (n. truly. prati:f{hti (f. siisvatasya ca dharmasya and of everlasting virtue ~~~'i'fll sukhasyiiikiintikasya ca and of bliss absolute. of the perpetual. of absolute. gen. sg. sg.las 589 . gen.). of the immortal.). foundation. sg. gen. indeed. am~tasya (n. and. of bliss. nom. gen. sg. sg. hi. of singular. support. and. siisvatasya (n. ekiintikasya (n. ca. Of the immortal and the imperishable. of the everlasting. gen. gen.). "q+!.

Whose leaves are the (Vedic) hymns. branch. high. (adhal]siikham. I). the Blessed One. nom. Veda-knowing. it. acc. eternal. eternal wqtf~ ~ qujrf. . sg. they say. of which.Jvac). 1 3i<-~~'i:l":~ c-. limb. (n. priihus (3rd pI. above. with present meaning). him. but not in this fanciful upside down form. It is a sacred tree whose wood. sg. knower of the Veda. acc. he said.:r chandiimsi yasya par1. . vedavit (m. sg. perf.). this. The Blessed Lord spoke: They speak of the eternal ashvattha tree..).). below the bough. BV cpd. veda (3rd sg. who. acc. he spoke. • The asvattha (derived by some from asva stha meaning "where the horse remains" or "where the horse is tied ").). sas (m.).liini the (Vedic) hymns. mulam (n. along with that of the par~a tree. sg. urdhvamulam adha~siikham high the root. pl. m. He who knows this is a knower of the Vedas. acc. yas (m. '* they say.: II yas tam veda 5a vedavit who it knows. 590 . which appears. the asvattha tree. acc.BOOK XV ""~~I Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. parl!tmi (n. The symbol refers to the Supreme Spirit branching downward into the urdhva. however.). pl. in the later Katha Upanishad (6. acc. yasya (gen. this. per. siikham.) asvattham (m. act. sg. ~sng~~1 asvattham priihur avyayam the asvattha tree. imperishable. low. leaves. . Having its roots above and branches below. is mentioned in the Vedas. sg.Jvid. . below. wise in the Veda. act. chandMlsi (n.). sg. sg. It belongs to the fig family. adhas. the Blessed Lord. bough.). nom. of which the leaves ~(f~~~<rn. acc. root. he knows. perf.. pra . uviica (3rd sg.). Vedic hymns. sacred hymns. tam (m. avyayam (m. nom. sg. act. sg.). was used to kindle sacrifices. whose branches stretch forth below.).). nom. he. sg.Jah with present meaning). acc. he Veda knowing.

gUI). manu~aloke (m.).jv~dh). sg. pl. pass. pravalas (m. like the banyan to which it is related. loco sg. particle pra . pass. fostered by the gUl. sakhas (f.). adhas. ca. adhasca miilany anusamtatani and below roots stretched forth. Nourished by the qualities. strikes roots from its branches. stretched out. The following stanza seems to blur the symbolism somewhat by speaking of the "roots stretched forth below. boughs. and. TP cpd. participle pra . promoting action. karmilnubhandfni (n. high. of it. p. widely flowing. • Tr#tubh metre begins again. low. pI. TP cpd. . sprouts composed of sense objects. pI. adhaicordhvam prasrtas tasya sakha* below and above wide spreading of it the branches l10ISl"l41 f"l1'flfSl"ClTm: I '" gU1. in the world of men. nom. sense-object sprouts.).~)ef.apravrddha vi~ayapravalal. pI. branches. young shoots. sense object. And below its roots stretch forth Engendering action in the world of men. gUlJaprav~ddhas (m. object of the senses. ~ '" karmanubandhini manu~yaloke action-engendering in the world of men. and. nom. Both trees are considered sacred in India. of this.js~). malani (n. (vi~aya-pravalas. nom. in the human world.) adhas. II Below and above its branches spread. pras~tas (nom.xv ~~Tecf~· ~lT WlfT . ardhvam. stretched forth. earthly realm.la nourished. pass. pl. . action engendering. participle anu sam . with objects of the senses as sprouts." but the asvattha tree. below. above. tasya (m. pI. gUl.). limbs. nom. 591 .jtan). below. nom. TP cpd. pl. realm of the senses.). p. gen. pI.a nourished. low. sprouts. 'filWf0f71:1')f.. m.las. followed by action..). karma anubandhfni). nom. ca. vi~aya (m. roots. wide spreading. nom. anusarhtatani (n.

'" Line I of stanza 3 (trif!ubh metre) has an extra syllable. and. maintenance. one seeks the place (nirva~a) from which there is no return to rebirth. (asaiiga-sastrelJa. sg. sg." The metaphor is rather confused by the lower" roots" of stanza z. staying.). gen. not. ca. non-attachment. acc. Not its end.) asaiiga (m. beginning. form.:r:. na. here in the world. here. thus. upalabhyate (3rd sg. existence. nor its existence. participle su vi --iruh) .hena chittva non-attachment axe strong cutting. is cut. whose roots are fully grown. nom. that is to say Brahman.. sg. saJnprati~~ha (f. nor its beginning. nom. .). enam (m. 592 . or of rebirth. asya (m. riipam (n. by the knife..". not. pass. m. n. acc. by the strong. it is perceptible. and stanza 4 indicates that after the tree of life. by the axe. Its fonn is not perceptible here in the world. nom. not. sg. ca. sastrelJa (m. chopping. miilam (n. passive upa --ilabh).df"l 01 ~~ f£9ffi II asangasastre1}a drrj. inst. TP cpd. of it. shape. basis.). by the weapon. not. it is attainable. end. here on earth. line 3. BV cpd.hamulam asvattha tree this well grown root tl~ 1j'. t Cutting the supernatural asvattha tree is a symbol for destroying the process of rebirth. acc. nor. sg. iha. na rupam asyeha tathopalabhyate* not the form of it here in the world thus it is perceptible 'lRfT.:r "f M~ I minto na cadir na ca samprati~tha not the end and not the beginning and not the staying.). sg. and. sg. suvirii4ha (p. fully ascended. and seeks refuge in the primal spirit whence activity streamed forth (see following stanza). acc. of this. termination.) d~4hena (m. sg. this.or roots of stanza z). and leaving only the spiritual part which exists "above. fully developed. fully grown.~(fq~ na. The cutting of the tree involves doing away with earthly desires (the branches .). Mis (m. continuance. chittva (gerund --ichid). by the axe of non-attachment.). severing. nom. inst. By the strong axe of non-attachment. pr. (suviru4hamiilam. root.xv 3 "1~. cutting. tatha.). na. antas (m. sg.).). Cutting this ashvattha tree. sg. sg. sg. figure.). asvattham (m.ffi~. in this way. instr. ~fCf~l1: asvattham enam suvirurj.q~q~ '1:. asvattha tree. with its well grown root.). na.

not.). purafJ! (f. indie. yatas. gone. eva. streamed forth. tidyam (m. having gone. sg. nom. pass. tam (m.). ni . again. that. sg. nom. primal. sg. gerundive pari . tatas. whence. bhiiyas. yasmin (n. participle . sg. pass. place. sg. In that primal Spirit I take refuge. padam (n. and. pr. nom. beginning. participle pra .). pr. sg.:r f~~ ~: I .Jpad). sg. anciently. him. acc. flowed. in the primal. acc. loco sg. pI. to that.). activity. p. that. mid. to the primal. Cfl( ~:. nom. acc. from there. ancient. from where. this. pra . once more. spirit. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler. then. they return.).Jgam).Jv~t).). act. ca. I resort to. prapadye (1st sg. sg. sg." Then that goal is to be sought From which. no one returns. nivartanti (3rd pI. progress.). acc.). they tum back.xv 4 ffif: cR mr qf~~ ~ tatal:z padarh tat parimargitavyarh then place that to be sought m~tffiT. Whence the primeval energy streamed forth. indic. in former times. footing. gone. to be sought. 593 . gatas (m. site. p. pras~ta (f. to be run after.Jmarg). not they return again. na. abode. puru~am (m. but here intensifying tam). to which. I take refuge. yasmin gala na nivartanti bhuyal:z to which.Js~). primaeval. prav~ttis (f. in which. nom.:mj ~ m tam eva cadyarh puru~arh prapadye and "in that very primal spirit I take refuge «<1": 5!'Gff~: >rnm {1TI1Jfr II e e -b'" yalal:z pravrttil:z prasrta pura1fi whence activity streamed forth anciently. being. nom. parimargitavyam (n. to the original. tad (n.

) viniv~tta (p. nirmanamoha jitasafigado~a* without arrogance or delusion. with the evils of attachment conquered.khasamjfiair by the dualities released.). sukhaduiJkha. Without arrogance or delusion. eternally in the supreme self. indic.. pl. pI. pleasure and pain. participle vi ni . m. BV cpd. acc.) jita (p. recognized as. lusts. dvandvair vimuktal} sukhadul. tad (n.). pI. turned away desires.e. (adhyatma-nityas. as BV cpd.).. without pride or delusions.). The undeluded go to that imperishable goal. conquered attachment-evils. released.xv 5 f. sg. nom. confusions. p. Dwelling constantly in the supreme Self. n. DV cpd. nom. that.) gacchanti (3rd pI.) dvandvais (n. eternally. pI. with desires turned away. t I. turned away. m. participle . acc. acc. pl. pl. happiness.Jgam) . padam (n. nom. . nom. and misery. pr. to place. by known as. mohiis (m. saJnjiiais (m. abode. desires. clinging. instr. pass. whose attachment-evils are conquered. (viniv~ttakamas. freed. (jitasaflgado~as.). BV cpd. whose desires have been turned away. this. known as pleasure and pain...). by the dualities. act. gacchanty amu¢hal} padam avyayam tat they go undeluded to place imperishable that. pl. amu4hiis (m.). m. inst. participle vi . without arrogance. they go.) adhyatma (m. vimuktas (m. pI. nom. sg.. sg. attachment. nom. conquered. (nirmana-mohas. avyayam (n. m.. do~as (m. nom. delusions.). perpetually.:l1il'1l'll~1 f'jjd~l'~·(fM nirmana (m. Supreme Self. TP cpd. Brahman. place. pI. m. imperishable.). pleasure-painknown-as.. twisted away. .Jmuc). 594 • Triltubh metre continues.). nom. to abode. pl. conquered attachment-evils. without pride. (sukha-duiJkha-samjfliiis. unconfused. nom. pI.). inst. Released from the dualities known as pleasure and pain. nom. pl. site. pl. nityas (m. undeluded. with the evils of attadunent conquered. evils. pass. kamas (m.).). constantly./ji). by the pairs of opposites. wrongs. ~e<m+1f"Rln f<ff'1"!'i'1CfiIJiI: I adhyatmanitya vinivrttakamal} (in the) Supreme Self constantly (dwelling). eternal. pass.Jv~t). saflga (m.

indic. not. that place To which. having gone. the sun . my. q-rGfCfi: I na sasafiko na pavakalJ nor the rabbit-marked. not they return. that. nom. . nom. sg. sg.).). sg. Nor the moon.. sg. acc.. nom. nor. nor ftre. dhama (n.xv 6 . gatva (gerund gam). • 8loka metre resumes. this. they turn back. mama (gen. nivartante (3rd pI. sgJ' The sun does not illwnine. suryas (m. highest. pr. home. of me. not. That is My supreme abode.). going.~~~1 na tad bhasayate suryo* not that (place) it illumines. they return.. sasaiikas (m. the "rabbit-marked. ~~~ltl111 tad dhama paramam mama that abode supreme of me. pavakas (m. yad (n. not. acc. na. flame." the moon. ~.). no one returns.f~ yad gatva na nivartante to which.). having gone. paramam (n. causative Jbhiis).). not. na. sg. which. ni JVI:t). abode. having gone. nor fire.. sg. nom. supreme. sg.). to which. sg. sun.). 595 . nom. na. bhiisayate (3rd sg. ~~. nor. fire. the sun. mid. tad (n. tad (n. this. that. it illumines. na. nom. it causes to shine.

becoming a self. prak~tisthiini mana!. it draws to Merely a fragment of Myself. nom. and the (other) senses.). primaeval. saniitana!. part. eternal. .xv 7 ~T. sg. abiding in material nature. being. . saniitanas (m.).. in Gita psychology.). my. eva. the sixth. of me.).). filler). sixth. sg. pro indic. loc. indeed. sg.. Draws to itself the senses. nom.). prakrtisthiini kar~ati material-nature-existing. pl. jivabhiitas (m. itself. of which the sixth is the mind. sg. sg. kar:jati (3rd sg. manas (n. act.~1lT alive.. in the world of the living. That exist in material nature. it draws (as in plowing).:~1f. becoming jivabhiita!. is regarded as the sixth sense.jk~s). acc. acc. '" Mind. Becoming an eternal (individual) soul in the world of the living. eternal. existing in material nature.. indriyiilJi (n. amsas (m. pl. mama (gen. ancient. as the sixth . !fa!f{hiini (n. ~a~thiinindriyii1Ji mind. a soul becoming.).). acc. nom.. share. pl. jivaloke (m. sg.). it draws to itself. 5[~~~" cmf(111 (n. 596 . fragment. acc. senses.f~R. merely (often used as a rhythmic mamiiiviimso fivaloke of me merely a fragment in the world of the living. mind.

he acquires. He goes. sg. taking along. also. he departs from. which. the wind. t "Whatever body the iitman enters and from whatever body it departs.). he attains. yad (n. when.Jyii). viiyus (m. from resting place. and.). etiini (n.: ~ 'WffirTfi1 sariram yad aViipnoti a body when he acquires lfi\~~'hR: I yac ciip).). . yad (n. acc.ml: II viiyur gandhiin iviisayiit the wind-perfumes-like from (their) source. iisayiit (m. it will always retain those senses with the subtle elements and roam with them as the breeze roams with odors which it has carried from their original abodes. indic. gandhiin (m. sg. The mind and other senses. grasping. to be used in connection with another acquired body. utkriimatisvaralJ and when also he departs from. these. acc. he goes. taking them aiong. sg. aviipnoti (3rd sg. he goes. act. indic. nom. pl.Jiip).. act. pr.). from source. wind. as if. When the Lord acquires a body. api. iva.). sg. even. sar'iram (n. the Lord. bodily frame. like. the iitman is not totally devoid of characteristics between one incarnation and another. act. apparently. when. ca. pr. acc. indic.). 597 . perfumes. the Lord. ud . pr.Jkram) . sg. which.j grah) . 'T~~'1 Wnfi1 grhitviiitiini samyiiti taking these along. from seat. 'isvaras (m.xv 8 m:r. he steps out of.). utkriimati (3rd sg.. g~h[tvii (gerund ."Ramanuja. them. pl. body. taking. Like the wind blowing perfumes from their source. sg. scents. he obtains. G ~~ <f"~ ~ffiI'. abl. nom. sam . Thus.). acc. And also when He departs from it. ava . sQlnyiiti (3rd sg. acc.

as well as the mind. this. sg. ca. ayam (m. acc. sg. this one f~~11 vi~ayiin upasevate the objects of sense he enjoys. flavor. and. acc.). 598 .). sight. manas (n. this one.Jsthii). hearing. and. sparsanam (n. eva. acc. upa . nom. upasevate (3rd sg. indic. ghriilJam (n. mid. commanding. rasanam (n. he abides in.). presiding over. and. touch. sight and touch ~ muTl!: t:1. sense of hearing. sg. he enjoys. acc. eye. acc. ruling. and the mind. sg.xv 9 ~:q~:~:q srotram (n.). sense of smell. territory of the senses.).e. ca. vi~ayiin (m.). acc. ca. srotram cakiulz sparsanam ca hearing.Cf:q I rasanam ghrii1Jam eva ca taste and smell ~~~ adh#thiiya manasciiyam presiding over. pr. cak~us (n. objects of the senses. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). smell. sense of sight.Jsev). pl.). sense of touch. taste.). acc. the fragment of the Lord incarnated as the individual soul) Enjoys the objects of the senses. adhi~fhiiya (gerund adhi . Taste and smell. sg. Presiding over hearing. sight and touch. he is addicted to. sg. He (i. mind. sense of taste.

is different from whatever mass it is conjoined with.. acc. Those who are perplexed by ignorance do not perceive that the atman-with-gu~as is conjoined. whether. They are unable to perceive this. those with the eye of knowledge. va. pass. fGf"~T 'fA~~ " '" enjoying. they see. sg. for they have the misconception that the iitman is akin to that mass to which it is conjoined.) those who have the eye of knowledge. acc.od f~ cnfq utkriimantam (m.Riimiinuja. The deluded do not perceive Him. na. (as BY cpd.). p. anu . sg. they see. sg. not they perceive (him). remaining. 599 . act. participle -Jbhuj). which are particular developments of prakrti consisting of gu~as. gUfJiinvitam (m. forms a whole.'Jf. and that (this) iitman might at some time be different from such a masshuman nature etc. Or enjoys (sense objects) while accompanied by the qualities. pass. whether. pr. act. Those with the eye of knowledge see Him. not. '!arR err Tffi. departing. pa§yanti (3rd pI. pro participle ud -Jkram). sthitam (m. pl. pl..a-accompanied.Jpas). viipi (vii api). they perceive." . perceive. nom. however. (m.and have only one form. . stepping away. nor do they perceive that this iitman is either departing from a certain mass of prakrti. or existing in it and experiencing the objects (of the senses). they jfliinacak~u~as they see (him). gUl}a-accompanied. participle -Jsthii) . or. participle gUfJa anu :. staying. the knowledge-eyed. Those. When He departs. gUl. ~~m<R~:11 pasyantijiianacak~u~a~ who are confused. pr.). p. bhufljiinam (m.. • . indic. the deluded. utkramantam sthitam vapi departing. knowledge. the knowledgeeyed. pro indic. remains. -Jpas). nom. anupa§yanti (3rd pI.-<ra+!: I bhuiijanam va gUl}anvitam enjoying or. acc. acc. those vimurfhii nanupasyanti the deluded. accom- panied by the gUlps. with human nature etc.xv 10 '3. vimii4hiis (m. have a clear vision of the truth. remaining.I&l. they behold.}i). who know the difference between mass and iitman and so perceive that the iitman. albeit present in all conditions. sg.

pI. api. nom. the fools. Jpas). pI. particple Jyat) . the yogins this one ~~~crf~~1 pasyanty iitmany avasthitam they see in the self situated <rcRfT S'=l{ ~. those of unperfected selves. striving. enam (m. ak~tiitmiinas (m. J pas). yatantas (m. enam (m. pass. and. Strive but do not see Him. unperfected selves 4<i'~~:11 niiinam pasyanty acetasal. nom. act. abiding. iitmani (m. The yogins.) those whose selves are unperfected. nom. acc. indic. participle Jyat). nom. sg. participle ava Jsthii). the unthinking. not this one they see.). sg. But the unthinking. striving. situated. him.). 600 . from ak~ta iitmanas) . the unthinking. na.). of unprepared selves. yogins. also. unperfected selves. avasthitam (m. (as BV cpd. pl. indic.). they see. yoginas (m. see Him (the embodied fraction of the Lord) Situated in the Self. stretching. ca. loco sg. in the self.). pI. the thoughtless ones. acetasas (m. not. paiyanti (3rd pI. striving. p. this one. they perceive. they see. act. this. act. pl. this one. acc. paiyanti (3rd pI. pro act. even. nom. pr. pr. yatanto yoginasciiinam striving.!lC1I\~ I"1T yatanto 'py akrtiitmiino (but) striving even. acc. sg. they perceive. pr.xv 11 lRRfT<1Tf~ yatantas (m. this. existing. stretching.

). splendor. it causes to shine. sg. ca. belonging to me. Know that brilliance to be Mine. loco sg. acc. brilliance. in fire. this. which. nom. bluisayate (3rd sg. sg.). nom. it illumines.).). sg. sg. all that jagad bhiisayate 'khilam the universe it illumines. loco sg. agniiu (m. tejas (n. sg.:mf~~T yad (n. splendor.). yad (n. tejas (n. sun-proceeding. brightness. without a gap. . jagat (n. . iidityagatam (n.xv 12 <n.). causative mid .Jvid). brightness. brilliance. nom. which. sg. acc. akhilam (adv. imperative act. 601 . world. that. tad (n. sg. . That brilliance which resides in the sun. proceeding from yad iidityagatam tejo which sun-proceeding splendor ~mmsf~l .). without a gap. acc. yad (n.Jbluis). candramasi (m. the sun.). which. Which illumines the entire universe. what. yac candramasi yac ciignau which in the moon and which in fire tat tejo viddhi miimakam that splendor know to be mine. nom. universe. Which is in the moon and which is in fire. acc.). know! be aware! miimakam (m.). sg. completely. in the moon. nom. and. what. mine.). what. viddhi (2nd sg.). moves. sg.

by energy. with strength. lit. the earth.). plants. approaching. and. pl. and.mostly plants of the milkweed family whose juice is not inebriating. becoming. in fact.) 602 . all. substitutes for it were used .Jdhr). pu~1Jiimi (Ist sg. even from late Vedic times. (See" Soma the Divine Mushroom. indic. au~adhfs (f.Jvis).Jpu~).that the Soma plant was. wornl1 :q'tq-<TT: ~ch: p~1Jami caufadhi~ sarva~ and I cause to thrive the plants all " soma bhutva rasatmakal} the Soma having become.the juice of a plant with inebriating properties that was drunk by the priests. pl. inst.). creatures. I cause all the plants to thrive.). I preserve. This circumstance. ca. juicy-selved. Vedic drink of the gods.). herbs. soma. somas (m. act. having the nature of flavor or juice. I support All beings with energy. settling on. sarvas (f. nom. bhUtani (n. acc. acc. juicy-selved." published by the Stamperia Valdonega. sg. • There has been much speculation among scholars as to the identity of Soma. As the Vedic Aryans moved into India. causative act. acc.xv 13 gam avisya ca bhutani and the earth entering. bhUtva (gerund . pro indie. I maintain.. sg. Gordon Wasson. entering. pl. that on which one goes (. sg.). aham (nom.rm I gam (f. the knowledge of the Soma plant seems to have disappeared. Wasson thinks. dhiirayami (Ist sg. and. Verona. I cause to prosper. It would also explain the rapturous descriptions of the effects of Soma drinking recorded in the B. I cause to thrive.). I. with power. ojasa (n. .g Veda. And. and in Southern Asia only in the highest mountains. Recently R. sg. ca.Jbhii). acc. has advanced a persuasive but still controversial hypothesis .). I support. dharayamy aham ojasa I support. all beings ~~:q"). ~Tl1T +rm~: II Entering the earth.Jga). flavor-selved. . beings. 1. liquid-selved. nom. pr. having become. a mycologist acquainted with the Vedas in translation. having become the watery moon. a hallucinogenic mushroom (the amanita muscaria) which grew in the Aryans' original homeland in western Asia. rasatmakas (m. sg. the laity and the gods during sacrifices described in the Vedas. would explain the loss of the Soma as the Aryans migrated southward. aviiya (gerund a .). the drink of the gods . I cause to flower. by energy.

prii1}iipiinas~miiyuktal} the vital breath and the abdominal breath joined with. participle sam ii . nom. pl. prii. having become.).Jyuj). p. samayuktas (m.!n. prii. sg. joining. of the breathing.!iniim (m. pass. sg. sg.!iipiina (m. . joined with the vital and abdominal breaths. act. sg. pr. acc. iiSritas (m. of breathing beings.Jbhii). bhiitvii (gerund . indic. sg.Jsri). fourfold. participle ii . joined with.Jpac).). grain).) paciimi (1st sg. viiisviinaras (m. sg.). caturvidham (n. united with. aham viiisviinaro bhUtvii I. p. nom. the digestive fire of all men becoming. m. I (digest) the four kinds of food.).). deham (m.. 603 . ~~>i ~cf~~ II 511 0 11 q 1<1 iip·lIIHfi: paciimy annam caturvidham I cook (digest) four kinds of food. acc. Having become the digestive fire of all men. inhabiting. becoming. entering.). sg. I. nom. sg. food (esp. annam (n. I abide in the body of all living beings. " 5ITfurrrt ~ mf~: I prii1}iniim deham iisrital} of breathing beings the body entering. body. (prii'!iipiina-samiiyuktas. bodily frame. acc.xv 14 ~~)m<n aham (nom. . of four kinds. I digest. inhalation and exhalation. TP cpd. the digestive fire of all men. And joining with the prana and apana. vital and abdominal breaths. pass.). nom. belonging to all men. gen. I cook.

From Me come memory and knowledge. sm~tis (f.). sainnivi~!as (m. t 604 . pl.). Vedanta maker. sg. in the heart. pass. 1. as well as in the present poem. pl. eva. h~di (n. vedyas (m. sg.). nom. sg. sarvasya ciiham hrdi samnivi~to· and of all I in the heart entered. aham (nom. of all. denial. and.C. as well as their loss. to be known. I alone am that which is to be known in all the Vedas. apohanam (n. c!~I<difi~iRf~~~11 vediintakrd vedavid eva ciiham Vedanta making and Veda knowing. eva. mattal} smrtir jiiiinam apohanam ca from me memory. vediiis (m. Its formulation dates from approximately 500 B. vediintak~t (m. from me. nom. Vedanta making. aham (nom. 'l. gen. a system of philosophy based on it. vedavit (m. entered. knowledge. reasoning. sg.). sg.). by the Vedas. inst.). ca. aham (nom. seated." the predominant system of religious thought in India. sg. nom. Vedanta means primarily the thought expressed in the Upanishads. 1. and it has many points of difference from the Vedas of the original Aryans who invaded India circa 1600 B. mattas (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). lac. 1. and secondarily.). indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). ca.).C. nom. abl. sg. and.xv 15 ~ ~ ~~ ~FrfCP. Vedanta. and. knowledge. memory. sg. by all. • TriNubh metre. and. I have entered into the hearts of all beings. sg. I am the author of the Vedanta and the knower of the Vedas. wisdom. nom.). Veda knowing. sarviiis (m. sg.). nom. 1. nom. sg.). inst. lffi: ~f~ ~T""f+1. jiiiinam (n. knowledge and reasomng ~q-q~~~~~T vediiisca sarviiir aham eva vedyo and by the Vedas all I alone to be known. literally" the end (in the sense of conclusion) of the Veda. p. with all.1!:flwf "f I ca. ca. participle sam ni Jvis). to be recognized.). gerundive Jvid). sg. alone.CT sarvasya (m. expressed in the Brahma sfitra of BadarayaQa and the Upanishads. sg. objection.).

dual). sg. ca. these two. dual).. sg. ca.). two.). destructible. immovable. k~aras (m. two spirits. nom. An beings are the perishable. nom. eternal. two entities. sarvalJi (n. • Sloka metre resumes. these spirits in the world. nom. ~m-~:ql eva ca the perishable and the imperishable.xv 16 ~~r~r~~ dviiv imiiu puru~iiu loke'" two. sg. perishable. and. 605 . imperishable it is called. eva. eT<:: ~Uf~. unchanging. k~arab k~arasciik~ara sarvii1}i bhutiini perishable all beings ~~TSm-~11 kiitastho 'k~ara ucyate the unchanging. it is said to be. dual). it is said. nom. ucyate (3rd sg. imau (m. nom. all. eternal. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). bhUtalJi (n. loke (m. sg. ak~aras (m.). nom. beings.nom. ak~aras (m. in the world. loco sg.Jvac). creatures. imperishable. nom. imperishable. nom. dvau (m.).). kU[asthas (m. pl. nom. There are these two spirits in the world The perishable and the imperishable. and.). pr.). passive . sg. sg. puru~au (m. perishable. The lUlchanging is called the imperishable. it is called. destructible. k~aras (m. indic.).

participle ud ii . act .). which. Supreme Self. indic. puru~as tv anyal. nom. nom.Jhr).). Lord. sg.Jvis). God.). lokatrayam (m. nom.xv 17 ~W~~Wlf: uttamal. iti. sg. being. sg. nom. taking possession of. higher. But the highest Spirit is another. nom. man.). entering the three worlds as the eternal Lord. tu. sg. thus. p. spirit. nom.Jbhr) . highest. entering.). Who.1{ ~: I puru~as paramiitmety udiihrtal. paramiitmii (m. the three worlds entering. Supreme Being. fsvaras (m. anyas (m. the Supreme Self thus called ~T~~mf~ yo lokatrayam iivisya who. eternal. named. but. other q <"I 1. sg.).f!. who. imperishable. Supports them. sg. yas (m. but. the highest spirit. he supports. sg. pass. the three worlds. avyayas (m. approaching. other. bibharty avyaya isvaral:z he supports.). pr. iiviSya (gerund ii . udiihrtas (m. 606 . (m. the Eternal Lord. he bears. . sg.). sg. called. Called the supreme Self. f~~~:11 uttamas (m. bibharti (3rd sg. acc. nom. nom.

puru!ja (m. nom. therefore. 5If~: '!~t() *114: II yasmiit (m. pass. abl.Jprath). sg. in the world.) 607 . vede (m.). prathital. than the imperishable. atftas (m. as. uttamas (m. sg. supreme. m.Jas). participle . and in the Vedas. nom. pass. even. highest. ca. gone beyond. loco sg. . p. nom.). sg. k!jaram (m. and. api. p. celebrated as the Supreme Spirit.xv 18 lWffit ~ 'WfTaT ~ yasmiit kFaram atito 'ham since the perishable transcending I. acc. celebrated as. (puru!jottamas. ca. abl.). uttamas (m. transcending. transcended. inasmuch.)..). than the eternal. destructible.). from which. loco sg. Supreme Spirit. I am. from this. perishable. puruFottamal. in the Veda. 'WfT sf~ (7i~«:q ato ' smi loke vede ca therefore I am. and. in the world. nom. in the world and in the Veda. highest. I. Since I transcend the perishable And am higher than the imperishable. sg. ak!jariit (m.). spirit. and than the imperishable also higher. atas.Ji). higher. nom. asmi (1st sg. sg. sg. aham (nom. prathitas (m. pr. ~~mcr:q~:1 akFariid api cottamal. participle ati . known as. also. sg. sg. sg.).). loke (m. since. Celebrated as the supreme Spirit. Therefore I am. going beyond.

sarw:vit (m~ nom . thus. which. sg. Supreme Spirit. nom. sg. with entire being. voc.xv 19 '1)lW{~~) yo miim evam asammur.). who me thus undeluded . who.jho yas (m.).).sg. act. he loves. he knows. sg. sg. thus undeluded.rottamam (m.rr. indic.). aSalnmucfhas (m. sg. 0 Descendant of Bharata..Jbhaj) . sg. all-knowing. Arjuna. worships Me With his whole being. pr. participle a sam '. sg.Jjiw.. . all-knowing. p. bhajati (3r with whole being. omni- he knows (as) the Supreme Spirit. He. acc. me. sas (m. 608 . unconfused. nom. miim (acc. indic. he worships. sg. undeluded. 0 sCIent. pass. knows Me As the supreme Spirit. inst. this. Descendant of Bharata. puru. with all being.). ~~f~~(fm sa sarvavid bhajati miim he. bhiirata (m. me. . he. epithet of Arjuna. sarvabhiivena (m. all knowing.) . act. miim (acc. nom. jiiniiti (3rd sg. with whole being. worships me ~~mmll sarvabhiivena bhiirata n cogmzant.).nf(f Ti1"frnl1ll: I jiiniiti puru~ottamam evam. He who.). sg. pr.jmuh).).

sg.. ca.. most secret. sg. 'lld 'll. having etad buddhva buddhiman syat (to) this having awakened. thus. with all duties krtakrtyasca bharata and fulfilled all duties. 0 Arjlma.. idam (n. nom. wise. enlightened one should be.. proclaimed. Descendant of Bharata. .. nom. sg. awakened.). declared.Jbudh).. nom. voc. sg.. a man becomes wise And fulfills all his duties. fulfilled. having awakened. epithet of Arjuna. buddhva (gerund . ~ ~CfT.). guhyatamam (n. uktam (n. 0 Blameless One. maya (inst. 0 Blameless One.).xv 20 U\i~~ iti guhyatamam sastram thus most secret doctrine ~ . this. Thus this most secret doctrine Has been taught by Me..). participle . .). doctrine. epithet of Arjuna. voc.). Having awakened to this. by me. bhdrata (m. enlightened.Jas).Jvac).). sg. pass. sg.4 ~iI "llrof II known. he should be. nom.:rer I idam uktam maya 'nagha this declared by me. this. Descendant of Bharata. nom. optative act .jffi +PIT iti. p. knowing. sg. syat (3rd sg. buddhiman (m.). teaching. anagha (m. . sg. Arjuna. explained. s. so. End of Book XV The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit 609 . nom.<ff~l1R flmf " ". sg. etad (n. kr:takT:tyas (m. . sastram (n. sg. and. one should be. super!.). acc. treatise.

). righteousness. nom. ~~crcr~ll svadhyayas tapa arjavam reciting sacred texts to oneself. austerity. abiding in. TP cpd.l~q~~f~ fearlessness.). and. rectitude. sg. the Blessed Lord. nom. purity of being. GR~~ danam damasca yajiiasca giving and self restraint and sacrifice. sg. sg. svadhyiiyas (m. charity. rectitude. repeating to oneself. domination. nom. nom. f. iirjavam (n. ca. self-control. sacrifice. nom. heat. Giving.j"~~:ql Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: sribhagavan (m.).BOOK XVI s>.). he spoke. sg. tapas (n. The Blessed Lord spoke: Fearlessness. nom. knowledge-Yoga. purity of being. yajnas (m. reciting sacred texts to oneself.. fearlessness. sg. absence of fear. jnanayoga (m. self-restraint and sacrifice. perfect act. nom. abhayam sattvasamsuddhir '1. he said.). austerity. purity of being. nom. 610 . staying with. the Blessed One.). self-denial.). sg. nom. austerity. ca.:r:r~~~fCf: I jiianayogavyavasthitilJ. -Ivac). nom. sg. vyavasthitis (f. taming. purity of heart. nom. the Yoga of knowledge. Study of sacred texts. restraint. and uprightness. sg. Perseverance in yoga and knowledge. abhayam (n. (jnana-yoga-vyavasthitis. uvaca (3rd sg. damas (m. 1 '" . from vi ava -IstM).). sattvasamsuddhis (f. knowledge-Yoga persevering in. sg. worship. sg.. m. abiding in jiiiina-yoga.). Vedic recitation. giving. and. persevering in.) diinam (n.). sg. directed towards.

peace. daya bhute~v aloluptvam compassion for beings.). bhUtqu (n. kindness. freedom from desire. mardavam (n.). sg."""tl":\lq0l'l. serenity. nom. nom. sg. sg. absence of anger. nom. harmlessness. veracity. modesty. abandonment. satyam (n. "" tyagal. absence of fickleness. gentleness. tyagas (m. absence of calumny. sg. Gentleness. veracity. akrodhas (m.). truth.sa satyam akrodhas non-violence. non-violence. nom. freedom from lust. sg. shyness. sg. for beings.). absence of anger. nom. II (S' '. steadiness Non-violence. truth telling. ~ '. freedom from desire.). absence of fickleness. sg. santis (f. sg. nom. ahirhsa (f. Compassion for all beings. sg.). freedom from desire. sg. acapalam (n.. Renunciation.). non-slanderousness. sg. ~:mf~~1 . santir apaisunam renunciation. discretion. in beings. nom. modesty.). renunciation.). tranquility. (f. daya. 611 .XVI 2 m~~'W'fi~ ahi1h. absence of calumny. mardavam hrir acapalam gentleness. nom. nom. aloluptvam (n.). loco pl. pity. serenity. absence of anger. nom. compassion. timidity. nom. absence of wrath. apaisunam (n. modesty. non-calumny.). for creatures. serenity.). absence of fickleness. hrfs(f.

sg.). nom. fortitude. Vigor. nom. splendor.). patience. ¢~ ~qi ~ql+J: bhavanti sampadam diiivim they are the endowment to the divine destiny m~m"@11 abhijiitasya bhiirata of the born. Descendant of Bharata.). sg. (f. acc. epithet of Atjuna. atimanita (f. sg. sg. acc. destiny. (f. of the born. sg. fortitude.). These are the endowment of those Born to a divine destiny.z kFamii dhrtil. not. fortitude. voc. purity. sainpadam (f. pr.XVI 3 tejas (n. daivrm (f. gen. nom. nom. nom. requisite. courage. abhijatasya (n. they are.). act. nom. >IbM).). sg.z siiucam vigor. Freedom from malice. forgiveness. na. strength.). acquisition.). excessive pride. to the divine. freedom from pride. condition. k~amii dh~tis tejal. bhavanti (3rd pI. Descendant of Bharata. endowment. patience. purity. cleanliness of mind and body. sg. vigor. freedom from malice.). adrohas (m. indic. saucam (n. high honor.). not excessive pride. sg. sg. power. bharata (m. absence of hatred. divine. purity. 612 . ~~1Q"T m~PTIf<mT I adroho niitimiinitii freedom from malice. forbearance. Arjuna. sg.

haughtiness. wrath.). nom. dambho darpo 'bhimiinasca hypocrisy. fraud. krodhas (m. nom. Son of J11ha. Arjuna. nom. And ignorance. lack of knowledge.XVI 4 ~~1sf~ dambhas (m. qr~ m+J: ~"t+\ II piirtha sampadam iisurim Son of Prtha. acc. partha (m. acc. sg.). insolence.). and. abhimanas (m. eva. hostility. of the well-born. pride. anger. and. and conceit. asurfm (f. abhijatasya (n.). ~:qrf~ ajiiiinam ciibhzjiitasya and ignorance of the born. voc. are the endowment of those born To a demoniacal destiny. ignorance. of the born. gen.). ajnanam (n. and. arrogance. endowment. sg. harshness. nom. sg. sg. nom. darpas (m.). sg.). quality. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). insolence. hypocrisy. epithet of Arjuna. ~T<l:~~'i'fl krodhal:z piiru~yam eva ca anger and harshness (of language) too. conceit. roughness (esp. arrogance. nom. ca. sg. arrogance. destiny. condition.). to the Hypocrisy. sg. ca. of language). the demonic. smnpadam (f.). paru~am (n. sg. to the demonic. demonic destiny. Anger. sg. endowment. ca. sg. 613 .).

it is thought. (m. The divine destiny leads to liberation. sg. endowment. acc.Jjan). aorist subjunctive . Arjuna. nom.) safnpadarn (f. endowment.). do not grieve. p. aorist subjunctive . sG/npad (f. daivfrn (f. to release. sg.). to bondage. acc. sg. characteristic.). Son of pal). sg. palJ4ava (m. abhijatas (n. heavenly. charac- the divine destiny (leads) to liberation. ma meal.Jsuc) . demonic. voc.Jrnan). dat. nom. thou grievest. thought. thought to be. dat. mala (f. participle abhi . lIT~:~~1+r '" . quality. f~Tl{'ffi1 nibandhayasuri mala to bondage the demonic thought to be. divine. grieve. The demoniacal to bondage. heavenly. quality. virnok~aya 614 .Jsuc. pass. sg. (rna sucas. sg. sg. do not sorrow. born well-born. p. teristic. participle . do not. epithet of Aljuna. asurf (f. nom. nibandhiiya (m. sg. ma.).9u. sg. pass. sg. Son ofPiiQgu. destiny. divine. to liberation.).). nom.). thou sorrowest. Do not grieve! You are born to a divine destiny. sampadam daivim do not grieve! to the endowment divine 'qf~T sf~ qmq II abhijalo ' si pa1:u!ava born thou art. thou art.). sucas (2nd sg. pertaining to demons.XVI 5 ~T~f<fl1T~ daivi sampad vimok~aya daM (f. it is thought. asi (2nd sg. never. ::las). nom. 2nd sg.

dual). ca. The divine has been explained at length. two. sg.). dviiu bhiitasargiiu loke 'smin two being-creations in world this ~~~"fl diiiva iisura eva ca the divine and the demonic. me (gen. nom. at length. nom.).). Son of Prtha. loco sg. two being-creations. asuras (m. sg. divine. of me. demonic. acc. vistarasas (adv. p. to demons. nom. sg. participle pra Jvac). 615 . nom. partha (m. sg. heavenly.). pertaining to demons. divine. about the demoniacal. Son of Prthii. nom. nom. daivas (m. asuram (m. ~qT fcmrw: [1~~sf~ >rlni diiivo vistarasalJ prokta the divine at length (has already been) explained. sg. Jsru). in detail. sg. in this.XVI 6 " . demonic.).). epithet of Arjuna. loco sg. from me hear.). hear! There are two classes of created beings in this world The divine and the demoniacal. sr:IJU (2nd imperative act. from me. heavenly. lake (m. in the world. praktas (m. Arjuna. eva. explained.). pertaining. sg. asmin (m. Now hear from Me. pass. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ~tTT~lr~" iisuram piirtha me S!1:lU the demonic. daivas (m.). dvau (m. and. two classes of created being. declared. bhutasargau (m.). dual. voc.

saucam (n. jami na vidur iisurii/:t men not they know the demonic. progress.). sg. passive . cessation. satyam (n. na. ca.~~fmll Demoniacal men do not understand When to act and when to refrain from action. sg. loco pl. nor . f~~: I leaving off. the demonic. and. " na satyam te~u vidyate not truth in them it is found. nom. na. acc. nom. sg. good behavior. not. pl. in them. . pr. men. truth. te~u (m. sg. it is found..Jvid with present meaning). not.). they know.XVI 7 pravr:ttim (f. ca. asuras (nom. purity.). ~W rrrftr "IT'm:r na siiucam niipi ciiciiro nor purity nor even good conduct. ca.r<IT. vidyate (3rd sg. nom. not. pravrttim ca nivrttim ca activity and inactivity . Neither purity. acaras (m. sg. na. perfect act. acc. good conduct. they understand. Nor truth is found in them.. nor good conduct..).).).). janas (m. na. . nom. vidus (3rd pI. activity. and. cleanliness of mind and body.J2 vid). not. 616 .). . pl. even. nivr:ttim (f.. inactivity. and . api.

~q. acc." they say. .). acc. untruth. or atheist and anti-orthodox school of philosophy which may be the object of this denunciation. sg. (kamahiiitukam. nom. having no solid ground. caused.)." asatyam (n. non-truth. world. by sex. they declare.XVI 8 ~ '1. they say. The idea that sexual passion was the cause of all beings was held by the lokayatikas. kim anyat. sg. 617 .{'iPJ-q I jagad iihur anisvaram "the universe. acc. universe. ~i1Cf\ Ii. ahus (3rd pI. anfsvaram (m. Without basis. created.(fq<*i~ aparasparasambhutam not one by the other (cause) brought into being. pl. "is without truth. they.. te (m. m. sg. hiiitukam (m. without truth.f>ff(fGi ~ asatyam aprati~tham te without truth.\ ~rg~ 'l.) "The universe. what else? how other? kama (m. aprati~!ham (n.). without a god.).). not one by the other. the last line becomes redundant. motivated. nom. they \il1T. sg.Jah with present meaning)." they say (is) "without a God. sg.ln. II " kim anyat kiimahiiitukam what else? desire-caused.Jsthii). caused by desire. all that moves. they maintain.). from a prati . unstable. not by a succession. brought into being. jagat (n.). acc. sg. an interpretation favored by some native translators which does explain the fourth line better than the common translation. lust. aparaspara.e. without a God. originated. nom. How else? It is caused by lust alone. Brought about by a mutual union. sg. godless. unstable. followers of a nastika. However. TP cpd. f1. if one accepts this version of the line. acc.fi11 ~i'lN Cf\ \1." i. perfect act. desire." • aparasparasambhiUam is somethines translated as "brought about by mutual union of man and woman. sambhUtam (m.

pl.stabh). 618 . small intelligence. pra . '1 ISC 1('1 I'll ~: I >0 na~tatmano etiim (f. pI. of the world. These men of lost souls.). ~ \. sg.(i"AIOI: prabhavanty ugrakarma1}al} they come forth.). come forth as enemies Of the world for its destruction. those whose intelligence is small. ahitiis (m. holding. alpabuddhayas (m. act. of small intelligence. this. they come into being. foes. ~'3. BV cpd. pI. they arise. they who have lost their selves. they come forth. ava!f!abhya (gerund ava :'. to destruction. prabhavanti (3rd pI.). of evil actions. dat. nom. of all that moves. those whose actions are evil. k!fayiiya (m.). point of view. ugrakarmiilJas (m. of the universe. gen.. nom. view.). for destruction. enemies. pro indic.). Holding this view. supporting.). acc.). dr:!ffim (f. sg. cruel actions. nom. jagatas (n. na!f!iitmanas (m.JbhU).XVI 9 ~ifl'iGl1: ~ etam dr~tim ava#abhya this view holding. of 'lpabuddhayal} (men of) lost selves and (of) small intelligence. pl. nom.flffiT sf~: II k~ayaya jagato 'hital} to destruction of the world. sg.). of cruel actions (as BV cpd. sg. And of cruel actions. enemies. BV cpd. they of lost selves. acc.

pl. arrogance. dambha (m. '" pravartante ' sucivratii/. ideas.Jas). fraud.. pI.. accepting. pride. participle a . nom. acc. from confusion.. and pride. g~hftva (gerund . attached to.). pra . pI. asuci (m. sg." insatiable. they proceed. Attached to insatiable desire. mana (m.XVI 10 CfiTlTl{mf~~ kt'imam iisritya dUfpuram kiimam (m. grasping.("·J. mohiid grhitvii 'sadgriihiin from delusion having accepted false notions. grahan (m. 619 . . (asat-grahan. wre~ sm-~: II they proceed (with) unclean purposes. . m. Full of hypocrisy. KD cpd. sg.). attended by. notions.r. customs. arrogance. nom.) pravartante (3rd pI. lust attended by. depending on. vows. acc. they act. (dambhamanamadanvitas.lm.). asritya (gerund a . nom. intoxication. false. pI. insatiable.~ . hypocrisy.Ji).Jv~t). attended by hypocrisy. desire.. pl.. TP cpd. unclean. impure. du~piiram (m. sg. "difficult to fill. having accepted. from delusion.). p. lust. attaching to.).) mohat (m.. pI. m.). m. unclean vows. having grasped. Having accepted false notions through delusion. asat (pr. drunkenness. participle anu . acc. untrue. KD cpd. voracious. adhering to.Jgrah) . hypocrisy. abi.rt::. lust. vratas (n. nom.Jsri).. unreal.) desire attached to. conceptions. '!. mada (m. ~"II<i"l~I~CRIT: I dambhamiinamadiinvitii/. pass. rules. anvitas (m. acc. pro indic. They work with unclean resolves.).. (asuci-vratas. arrogance. hilarity.. purposes. mid. accompanying .). "1t2.:r~~SM'Alal<i. arrogance and lust. false notions.).

pralayantam (f. Convinced that this is all. thus. and.). ~?. pl.) etavat. thus convinced. kama (m. clinging. so much.). dissolution and end. convinced. m. gratification. 620 .. With gratification of desire as their highest aim.Jsri). aparimeyam (f. highest aim. sg. pl. holding gratification of desire as highest aim [pI. anxiety. refers to "those of lost selves. participle upa a . care. pass. ca. pI. dissolution and death. cintiim aparimeyiiriz ca and of anxiety immeasurable $I04h11't. nom. lust. ending in death.). sg. p. immeasurable.). paramas (m. nom. having no doubt. noun from pra . enjoyment. CfiTl1)q-"l1~ kiimopabhogaparamii desire gratification highest aim.f. acc. thought. acc." stanza 9].). sg. upasritas (m. beyond measure. iti. pI. ~ rl'a. (kiimopabhogaparamas. nom. acc. nom. upabhoga (m. Clinging to immeasurable Anxiety.rt 'if cintam (f. niscitas (m. ending only in death.).XVI 11 f~ ~qf<:W.:rf~: II etiivad iti niscitiil} so much. holding as highest object.Jli +antam). adhering to.RIT: I pralayantiim upiisritiil} in death ending clinging. BV cpd. desire.

). inst. hoards of wealth. bound. ~CfiPn1Tm~ ihante kiimabhogiirtlzam they seek. pI.lIT: asapasa (m.(llIOII: I kama krodhapariiym. (asapasa-satais. by other than proper. hope-snare. Hoards of wealth for the gratification of their desires.) iisiipiisasatiiir baddhiilT by hope-snare a hundred bound ~Ttlq. pl. participle Jbandh). Jrh). indic. pI.ziil. acc. acc. anyayena (m. by unjust means. a hundred (of) hope-snares. artha (m. method.).) rhante (3rd pI. pI. by unjust. parayalJas (m. fettered. trap of hope.). ~~~II Bound by a hundred snares of hope. kama (m.XVI 12 tll~llq 1~1~ld ':. pI. wrath. desire and anger devoted to.). ktimabhogartham (m. (artha-salncayan. anger. satais (m. Devoted to desire and anger.). pr.). holding as highest aim.) baddhtis (m. nom. desire-gratification goal. by a hundred. mid. 621 . TP cpd. BV cpd. means. instr. TPcpd. wealth. m. p. they seek. devoted to. desire.. krodha (m. hoards (of wealth). they wish for. aim.).). m. devoted to desire and anger. or.). accumulations. (ktimakrodhaparayalJds. ifc. pI. m. by erroneous. object.. aim of the gratification of desire. quantities. sg. lust. salncayan (m. inst. desire-gratifIcation-aim. anyiiyeniirthas~rhcayiin by unjust means. nom. sg. pl.. pass. They seek to obtain. hoards. nom. acc.

sg. sg. sg. This has been obtained by me today. this also mine <1fOf&if(f ~ ~ II bhavifyati punar dhanam it shall be. acc. also. "chariot of the mind. 622 . punar. I shall attain.XVI 13 ~~l1lIT~ idam adya maya labdham "this today by me obtained. pr.). fut. today. prapsye (1st sg. manomtham (m. I shall get. This is mine. wealth.). again. also.).). api. act. obtained. nom. sg. sg. it is. nom. ~>rm~~~1 idam prapsye manoratham this I shall attain wish. nom. labdham (n.Jap). wealth. idam (n. This desire I shall attain.). pm . indic . lit. sg. idam (n. me (gen. desire.). ~ 'J. imam (m. I shall obtain. fut. sg.Jas).JbhU). dhanam (n. my. acquired." wish. pass. this. it shall become. asti (3rd sg.). and this wealth also Shall be mine.Jlabh). this. by me. acc. nom. p. even. again.ffif~ m'1lf idam asttdam api me this it is. participle . maya (inst. idam (n. this. booty. nom. property. mid. of me.). it shall be. sg. bhavi~ati (3rd sg. this. mine. sg. adya. . .

"That enemy has been slain by me.).). ~~~'1T<rT isvaro 'ham aham bhogi hani~ye ca. nom. happy. siddhas (m.). powerful. nom. acc. I am the enjoyer. sg.). happy. hatas (m. I. I am a lord. enjoyer. sg. nom. api. maya (m. pl. 623 . And I shall slay others too. sg. aham (nom. balavan (m. accom- the Lord I. nom. foe.Jhan). eater. f~T~~~TII siddho 'ham balavan sukhi plished. nom. God.). blissful. and happy. I. powerful. sg. caparan api and I shall slay others also.). lord. fulfilled. sg. I am successful. aham (nom. sg. nom. inst. satrus (m. I.XVI 14 mrr t:p:IT~: ~ asau maya hatalJ satrur "that by me slain enemy if~~mirl asiiu (m. slain. aham (nom. nom. aparan (m. by me.). I shall kill. killed. sg. sg. mid. participle . yonder. hani~e (Ist sg.). sg. I shall slay. I the enjoyer. also.). bhogf (m. sg. vhan). nom. even.).Y. sg. sg. p. eneIIl. powerful. pass. fsvaras (m. mighty. others. successful I. that. fut. suhkf (m.).). successful. and.

Jyaj). he is. --las). asmi (1st sg. modi~a (saindhi for modi~e. thus (often used to close a quotation). such as." ~~CflfTf~: II ity ajnanavimohita/:z thus those who are deluded by ignorance. indic. pI. I shall glve. nom. atjhyo ' bhljanavan asmi "wealthy. abhijanavan (m.. (m.). there is. sg. ignorance. sg. r shall be merry.). sg. indic. iti. other. pI.). --Imud). 'fiT s. I shall sacrifice. (ajfitinavimohitas.XVI 15 ~~l:fT sf~R" ~f~ . asti (3rd sg. yak~e (1St. act. high-born I am.). high born. nom. sg. fut. pr. Who else is equal to me? I shall sacrifice. --Ida). what? who? anyas (m. kas (m. nom." Thus. nom.). inst. r shall worship. --Ias). p. I shall rejoice. wealthy. ajfiana (n. pr. the deluded. I shall give. r shall be charitable. by me. nom. fut. those who are deluded by ignorance. iUfhyas (m. mid. vimohitas (m. 624 .:1:fT sf«f ~T +r1IT I ko 'nyo 'sti sadrso maya what other there is such as me? l:f~if ~lf lfTf~ yak~ye it is. nom. resembling. sg. r shall rejoice. opulent. 1st sg. sg. "I am wealthy and high born. they are deluded by ignorance. dasyami (1st sg. TPcpd. participle vi --Imuh). .). those who are deluded. like. pass. ". I shall reJOlce.). m. me.) sad~sas dasyami modi~ya I shall sacrifice. aris- tocratic. sg. nom. fut. maya (m. ram. mid. r shall give.

) mohajiila (n.). They fall into a foul hell. . imagining. nom.tiis (m. impure. indic..). wandering away. loc.XVI 16 ~M"fflfqm. pI. pI.JvJ. m. sg. carried away. p. nom. asuciiu (m. %'9111 cations. vibhriintiis (m.Jsaflj). they fall.m anekacittavibhranta not one imagining led astray ill~"1IM~liI1dl: I aneka. clinging. pass.Jpat). kiimabhoge!iu (m.). TP cpd. nom. p. '" patanti narake 'sucau they fall into hell. p. m. (mohajiilasamiivJ. mohajalasamavrta/:t delusion net enveloped.Jbhram). pI. TP cpd. pass. unclean. to the gratification of desire.). Led astray by many imaginings.e. participle sam ii .). pI. many. led astray by many imaginings.) prasaktiis (m. not one. nom. Enveloped in a net of delusion. in desire-gratifi- attached to desire gratifications. participle pra . covered. (anekacittavibhriintiis. pl. patanti (3rd sg. samiivJ. Attached to the gratification of desires.). act.:rfef. enveloped. into hell. participle vi . citta (n. pI. sg. pr. nom.tiis. i. unclean. attached. cmf"d" . 625 . thought. led astray. loc.. trap of delu- sion. loc. net of delusion. srmnr: 'fil11~ prasakta~l kamabhoge~ enveloped in a net of delusion. pass. narake (m.

pass. pride. and not according to Vedic injunction. participle . mada (m. participle anu .XVI 17 ~qm:~ atmasmitbhavita' stabdM self conceited. they worship. avidhipiirvakam (adv. accompanied by the pride and arrogance of wealth. inst. ~qf~11 atmasambhavitas (m. with sacrifices only in name. arrogance. they. mana (m.). not according to rule.Ji). anvitas (m..Jbhii) . not according to (Vedic) injunction. obstinate. te (m. pI. mid . attended by. nom. nom. dambhenavidhipurvakam with hypocrisy.Jstambh).Jyaj). indic.). nom. pass. self conceited. inst. pI. '6I"'JiI"'Ji'=I~ernT: I dhanamanamadanvita/:t wealth-pride-arrogance accompanied by.). immovable. wealth. with hypocrisy. They perform sacrifices only in name. with nominal sacrifices. ~<1T~ff yajante namayajiiais te they sacrifice with only-in-name sacrifice. intoxication. pr. sg. n. lust. p. stubborn. " . st Ibborn. with fraud. stabdhiis (m. . they.).).). niimayajfu'iis (m. stubborn. dhana (n. participle atma sam . p. dambhena (m.) yajante (3rd pI.). pl. pI. nom. booty. m. (dhanamanamadanvitas. nom. pass. Filled with the pride and arrogance of wealth. Self-conceited. pl. TP cpd. they sacrifice. self-centered. accompanied by. not according to Vedic injunction. pI. p. conceit. With hypocrisy. 626 .

acc.)./n. ahamkiiram (m. the envious ones. pradvi~antas (m.XVI 18 ~~~ ahamkaram balam dfl-rpam egotism. participle sam Jsri) clinging to. acc.). in own and others' bodies. loathing. force. acc. nom. Clinging to egotism. acc. pl. darpam (m.). arrogance.). Those malicious people hate Me In their own and others' bodies. participle act. nom. acc. and. sg. haughtiness. p. might. the indignant. lust. insolence. sg. and anger. those who are envious. attached to. kiimam (m. abhyasuyakiis (m. miim (acc. nom. me. CfiTli" ~ 'if ml!«fT: I ktimam krodham ca samsrita/:t desire and anger clinging to . pr. the envious. atmaparadehe~u (m. '" mam atmaparadehe~u me in (their) own and others' bodies >rf~~:11 pradv~anto +rTlf '>I1~'lq (~~tI 'bhyasuyaka/:t hating. force. pass. sg." balam (n. hating. wrath. insolence. Desire. pra ~dvi~). force. ca.).). sg. 627 . pI. krodham (m. egotism "I making. those who grumble. anger. sg. samsritas (m. insolence. pI. sg.). loco pl.). desire.

loco pI. samsare~u (m. vile men. wretches. perpetually. . ajasram (adv. in wombs. pI.) 628 .).).). loco pl. pl. asubhan (m. in the cycles of rebirth. f.. kruriin them I the hating. always. the vicious. the unpurified. pl. acc. ~~. (asuri~u yoni~u. acc.~l:fTf~11 iisuri~v eva yoni~ into demonic wombs. 1. into the cycles of reincarnation. the unclean. aham (nom. acc.).).). them. men vile.Jk~ip). dvi~atas (m. asurf~u (f. the ferocious. pl. sg. pl. acc. smnsiiresu nariidhamiin in the ~ycles of rebirth. those who hate. loco pl. into the wombs of demons. . act. I hurl.XVI 19 ffi'1: ~ f~: ~ tiin aham dvifatal. the vicious. pr. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). into demonic. eva. k~ipami (rst.). those who are cruel. I constantly hurl Into the wombs of demons In the cycles of rebirth. tan (m. ace. pl. the cruel. f~~~~ k#piimy ajasram asubhiin I hurl constantly. sg. into wombs.Jdvi~). the hating. indic. The worst of men. yoni~u (f. nartidhaman(m. into demonic wombs. Those cruel haters.). pro participle act. loc. kruran (m. I throw.).

yonim (f.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). participle . Arjuna. from there.Jap). p.). sg. Son of Kunfi. sg. apanntis (m.XVI 20 ~r<ilf~~ asuririt yonim apanna demonic womb entering asurfm (f. participle a . Son of Kuntl. nom.). goal. acc. . me. adhamam (f.Jpad). aprapya (gerund a pra . mu¢ha janmani janmani the deluded in birth in birth lff+!:. lowest.Jya). eva.). gatim (f. Having entered the wombs of demons. approaching. not attaining Me In birth after birth. pass. janmani janmani (n. those who are deluded. entering. womb. tatas. loco sg. pI. p.). the deluded. acc. not attaining. i:l\iT ll""R<{ ~or+rt mer+( II tato yiinty adhamarit gatim from there they go to the lowest goal. Those who are deluded. sg. demonic pertaining to demons. super!. pr. act. they go. pI. worst. voc. ~~ 'fl'Rt<r miim aprapyaiva kaunteya me not attaining. 629 . acc. epithet of Arjuna. mudhas (m. kaunteya (m. yanti (3rd pI. acc. not reaching to. pass.Jmuh). From there go to a condition still lower than that. sg. mam (acc. nom.). sg. sg. in birth after birth. indic. path. then.).

idam (n. sg.. destructive of the self. nom. sg. the gate. sg. nom. desire. covetousness.). dvaram (n. krodhas tatha lobhas desire. wrath.XVI 21 f. nom. CfiT+r: ~Tern Q~r . nom. narakasya (m.). sg. Therefore one should abandon these three. anger. sg. nom. he should renounce. gate. Destructive of the self: Desire. niisanam (n. destructive. this. one should abandon.). cupidity. atmanas (m. triad. opt.). sg. sg. love. destroying. m. thus. greed. tathii. and greed. acc. gen. acc. greed. anger and also greed.rfcret '1 <".rn.). etad (n. kama/. sg. threefold. of the self. nom. sg.). from this. act. door.). 630 . trayam (n. sg. anger. This is the threefold gate of hell. sg. group of three.). abl. krodhas (m. of three kinds. tyajet (3rd sg.). of hell.til ~ trividham narakasyedam threefold of hell this rn~~:1 dvaram nasanam atmana/. kamas (m. ~~~~II tasmad etat trayam tyajet therefore this triad one should abandon. sg. Jtyaj) . this. lobhas (m. gen.). tasmat (m. trividham (n.). therefore. nom.). also.

sg. iicarati (3rd sg. gen. pro indie. by doors of tamas. 631 . sreyas does for the self best ffifT lITf~ q-ti 'lfC'll\ II tato yiiti pariim gatim then he goes to the highest goal. act. tamodviiriiis (n. tamodviiriiis tribhir naral. of the self. inst. epithet of Atjuna. by tamas gates three. man. nom. a man ~'{~:~ iicaraty iitmanal. voc.Jyii) .). A man does what is best for himself. tribhis (n. acc. acc. kiiunteya (m. he goes.). by three. goal. p. superl. pr. Son of KuntI. Arjuna. by tamas gates. he behaves. ~Tii~ f~<f\ <f'<:: I etiiis (m. pl. nom. gatim (f. released. nom. highest. vimuktas (m.). then. sreyas (m. pass.Jcar). naras (m. he does.). pariim (f. inst. sg.). sg. iitmanas (m. path. best. kiiunteya by these released. act. thereup. yiiti (3rd sg.). indic.Jmuc). he moves. from there. sg. Then he goes to the highest goal.). sg. sg. he proceeds. ii . . tatas. inst. sg. pl. SOIl of KuntI. Released from these three gates to darkness. liberated. by these. pl.). a man. supreme.on. participle vi . for the self.).XVI 22 ~ f~: 'fiRl<1 etiiir vimuktal.

acc.). 00. Casting aside the injIDlctions of the scriptures. Does not attain perfection. nom. to happiness.). who. sg.XVI 23 <1: ~crfl:l+!: ~ yalJ siistravidhim utsrjya who.). abl. not. nor. ignoring. casting aside.. act..). sg. pr. gatim (f. to perfection. acc.fcrr~cr na sa siddhim aviipnoti not he to perfection attains . utsJ:jya (gerund ud Js~j). vartate (3rd sg. scripture injunction casting aside.). indic. II na sukharh na pariirh gatim nor to happiness nor to the highest goal. according to inclination.). highest. sastravidhim (m. he follows.wm~. not. scripture knowledge.~. he turns. nom. avapnoti (3rd sg. happiness. this one. siddhim (f. 00.. path. He who acts IDlder the impulse of desire. ~ fm~ 'l. pr. 632 . yas (m. goal. sg. sg. supreme. acc. sg. "from desire-making. he. acc. indic. perfection. to success. Jv~t). ava Jap). nor the highest goal. 00. sukham (n. he reaches . Nor happiness. scripture injunction. bliss. mid. sg. not. crffififll14ifll<d: I vartate kiimakiiratalJ he follows (his own) inclinations . sas (m. nor. letting go.). param (f. he attains. sg. acc. kamakaratas (m." according to own desire.). sg.

Jvac). of thee.) jnatva (gerund . vyavasthitau (m. sg.. pr. You should perform action here in this world.Jjna).Jk~)r to be done. establishing. sg. <t>cflJ: ~f~ II karma kartum ihiirhasi action to perform here in this world thou shouldst. here. knowing. prescribed.). therefore. TP cpd. work. n. measure. nom. said. dual. having known. ~ ~qen<l)n:i jiiiitvii siistravidhiinoktam knowing the scripture injunction prescribed. to make. thou art able. established.k~). here in the world. uktam (n. sg. m. acc. duty.k~). detennining your standard by the scriptures. declared. p. therefore scripture standard of thee <fl141<fl14~~~T I kiiryiikiiryavyavasthitiiu the to-be-done and the not-to-be-done determining. nom.Jarh). action. (kiirya-akiirya-vyavasthitau. the 2 determinations of what is to be done and what is not to be done. Therefore. sg. thou shouldst. declared by scriptural injunction. acc. pramaIJam (n.) karma (n. scripture knowledge.. kartum (infinitive :'. akiirya (gerundive a . ~. (sastra-vidhiina-uktam. sastravidhana (n. acc. from this. iha. acc. adhering to. As to what is and what is not to be done. to perform. determining. participle .). scripture. . TP cpd. dual p. thou art obliged..XVI 24~~>rmuf~ tasmiic chiistram pramiir.. Knowing the scriptural injunction prescribed. acc.). participle vi ava . standard.). scripture injunction. thou deservest. to do. not to be done. sg.zam te tasmat (m. sacred writing. abl. settled. te (gen.). act. sg. sastram (n. End of Book XVI The Yoga of the Distinction between the Divine and the Demonic Destinies 633 . arhasi (2nd sg. pass.).. kiirya (gerundive . indic. sg.Jsthii). pass.

kG (f. casting aside.fyaj) . sattvam (n.). is it so? rajas (n. but. sraddhayanvitas (m. tu. truth. sg. sg. What is their condition. throwing away. faith filled with. yajante (3rd pI. nom. interrog. gen.). Krishna? Is it sattva. pl. :'. of these. who. ~~CRIT:I yajante sraddhayiinvitiil. what? k~~lJil (m.). te~am (m.t they sacrifice. . rajas. position. passion. sg. sloth. uvaca (3rd sg. sg.). rajas. indeed.). act. accompanied by faith. but filled with faith. nom.). sastravidhim (m.). sattva. he spoke. tamas (n. pl.. ni~!ha (f. what Krishna? ~~T~~:II te~iim ni~!hii ye (m. indic. scripture injunction. tamas? Arjuna spoke: Those who sacrifice Casting the injunctions aside. utsljya (gerund ud . sattvam iiha rajas tamal.vac) . sg. sg. perf. they sacrifice.).BOOK XVII ~i'f~1 arjunas (m. virtue. aho (interrog. pr. of them. sg. voc. AIjuna. nom. they worship. particle). indeed. rule of Vedic scripture. or tamas? 634 . scripture injunction casting aside.). he said. nom. full of faith. nom..). standing. which? rajas. Krishna. nom. acc. nom sg.fSlj) . mid . tamas.). darkness.t sattva. pl. ~f~~CfiT~ tu kii krp}a of them the standing. emotion. arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: ye siistravidhim utsrjya who. they who. nom.

Now hear of this. sg. nom. of embodied beings. the Blessed One. act. thus.la of sattva. -Ivac). nom. tamasic. born of innate nature. sg. is. nom. sr:IJU (2nd sg. sg.).lU and tamasic thus. dehinam (m. so. of embodied ones. 635 . faith. rajasic. sg. it is. nom. he said. sattvikf (f.at ~ur II The Blessed Lord spoke: The faith of embodied beings is of three kinds. gen. Born of their innate nature. bhavati (3rd sg. 2 f~<NT <l<Ifa. she. svabhiivaja (f. sattvic. and. mf~<tiflT~~T~ sattviki rajasi eaiva sattvic and rajasic ~ '" tamasi eeti tam Srf.a of rajas. he spoke. pl. acc. of three kinds.). and. nom. sg. perf.a of tamas.). uvaca (3rd sg. The Blessed Lord. rajasf (f. sg. pro indic. sg. of the embodied. triple. It is sattvic. sraddhii (f. iti. of this. imperative -ISTU). born of own nature. indeed (used as a rhythmic fiBer). innate-nature-born.~ trividha (f. pertaining to the gUl).).).).XVII ~~~I sribhagavan uvaea the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. pertaining to the gUl. sg. this. this. rajasic. ca. pertaining to the gUl). tamasf (f. tam (f. (of) this hear! ffilmT :i:tfa.). it. ca. hear! trividha bhavati iraddhii three kinds is faith ~~m~1 dehinam sa svabhavaja of the embodied. nom. nom. And tamasic.). nom. eva.).). sa (f. sg. it. -Ibhii).

f. sg. in accordance with. bOOrata (m. nom. epithet of Arjuna.).). it is. thus. spirit. ayam (m. nom. gen. sg.).). sg. this one. Faith is in accordance With the truth (nature) of each. puru'!as (m. ~~a-~I sattva (n. this.).. Arjuna. (sattva-anurupti. anurupti (f. filler). yad (n.XVII 3 ~~~ sattviinurupii sarvasya the truth in accordance with of each. fol- lowing truth. yas (m. nom. nom. sg. of each. eva. nom. sas (m. sg. sg. of all. TP cpd.). nom. Man is made of faith. . indeed (often used as a rhythmic yo yacchraddha~ sa eva sa~ who which faith he. ~Ts<:t~T sarvasya (m. corresponding. "faith-made. Descendant of Bharata.).). sraddOOmayas (m. sas (m. man. faith. sg. sraddhti (f. Whatever faith he has. sraddhas (m. nom." sraddhiimayo 'yam puru~o made of faith this man <rT~: UlJ!fU: II made of faith.). thus he.). pr. nom. Descendant of Bharata. faith. he. this.) sraddhii bhavati bhiirata faith it is. nom. thus he is.Jbhu). bhavati (3rd sg. 636 . nom. which.). sg. he. sg. following the form. like. sg. voc. indic .). sg. who.). sg. essential nature. truth. nom. sg.

indic. pl. the tamasic men. nom. to the departed. mid. men. to the dead. worship The ghosts and the hordes of nature spirits. pl. the sattvic. those characterized by the gUQa of tamas. anye (m. the others. 637 . nom. they worship. rajasas (m. The sattvic worship the gods. to the gods.). sattvikiis (m. those who are characterized by the gUlJa of rajas. the tamasic. participle pra .). others. pr. they sacrifice. acc. "/yaj). acc. pass. nom. yak~arak~amsi (n./yaj).. tamasas (m. to the gods <r~mf~ 'U"Im: I yak~arak~iirhsi riijasii/:l to the spirits and demons the rajasic ~'ict'loli~"'I~~ pretiin bhiitagm}iiflSciinye to the departed and the hordes of ghosts. they sacrifice. devan (m. yajante (3rd pI. the rajasic. to the multitudes of spirits. pl.). pl.. to the spirits and demons. the sattvic. .).XVII 4 ~mf~~ yajante siittvikii deviin they sacrifice. pretan (m. to the hordes of ghosts. spirits and demons. indic. pl. acc. p. mid . pI. and. ca. bhataga'!an (m. and rak~as. to the yak~as. acc. nom. the tamasic men. those who are characterized by sattva. pl. yajante (3rd pI./i). nom. pr.). janiis (m. the gods.). The rajasic worship the Yakshas and demons. ~ ctT+1m~: II yajante tiimasii janiib they sacrifice.).). The others. they worship. pl. pl.

salhyuktas (m. lust. not prescribed by scripture. anger. not ordained by scripture. men. terrible. ~ <l ~.). they undergo. nom. accompanied by. Jtap).). anger and force. dambha (m. raga (m. "I making. who.). Along with desire and passion. force. they who.jdha). asastravihitam (n..) 638 . pl. bala (n.). sg. austerities men Gl="+! I~ <fil «(j'1m I: dambhiihamkiirasamyuktii/:z hypocrisy and egotism joined with..) kama (m.). pass. sg. heat. along with. fraud. (kamaragabalanvitas.). strength. pass. nom. might. pass. m. terrible. ghoram (n. (dambhahalhkarasalhyuktas. participle a sastra vi . pl. tapas (n. acc. participle anu Ji). participle sam Jyuj). Accompanied by hypocrisy and egotism. they suffer. joined with. p. passion. accompanied by desire. desire. m. joined with hypocrisy and egotism. pI. ahalhkara (m. sg.rr: I tapyante ye tapo janii/:z they undergo. anvitas (m. awful. pr..). hypocrisy. pI.). nom. passion and force along with.). tapyante (3rd pI. yoked to hypocrisy and egotism.:r. mid. janiis (m. united with. ye (m."'GRfT: II kiimariigabaliinvitii/:z desire. Men who undergo terrible austerities Not enjoined by the scriptures.. TP cpd. p. TP cpd. pI. nom. nom." egotism.XVII 5 ~qf~'m asiistravihitam ghoram not scripture enjoined. pI. love. <fill'l (l l l<l{'5If. acc. acc. nom. austerity. rage. deceit. p. who.

. imperative act . sg. causing to plow up.) sarirastham torturing in the body ~~:I c-. them. existing within the body. demonic. within the body. nom. acc. fixed in intention.~l(~~ II tan viddhy asuraniscayan them know. mindless. existing in the body. torturing. torturing within the body The aggregate of elements. The unthinking. pl. pl. ca. causing to injure. unthinking. acc. m~:mm~ miim ciiivantal} sarirastham and me thus within the body crrf. sarfrastham (m. acc.. kar~ayantal. viddhi (2nd sg. pI.Jkr/i) .). acc. These injunctions are interesting because they show that such abuses were common enough to arouse denunciation.. and. And also torturing Me thus within the body.). nom.). thus. multitude of elements. causative pro participle act. bhiitagriimam acetasal. niscayan (m. within the body. within. determined. 639 . unthinking. tan (m.. (asuraniscayan. resolved. know! learn! asura. sg.XVII 6 ~:mm~ kar/iayantas (m.). bhiitagramam (m. • This and the preceding stanzas constitute one of several injunctions in the Bhagavad Gitil against exaggerated austerities. sg.. aggregate of elements. Know them to be of demoniacal resolves.Jvid). acc. the aggregate of elements. sarfrastham (m.). eva. .). acc. pI. pl. those who are demonic-resolved. demonic resolved. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). antar. inside. sg. acetasas (m. mtim (acc.). BV cpd. or mortifications of the flesh. me. m. .

pr. tatha. sg. acc. of them the distinction. ~sru). this. te~iim iiharas (m.). priyas (m. austerities. distinction. austerity. and gifts. bhavati (3rd sg. sg.). even. gen. diinam (n. sg. preferred. of all. nom. it comes to be. pl. 640 . worship. tu. gen. sg.).). te~iim (m. thus.). of them. S~IJU (2nd sg. "splitting. nom.).). it is. sarvasya (m.z three kinds it is preferred ~~~am~ yajiias tapas tathii diinmit sacrifice austerity also gift ~tm~~11 . bhedam (m. ~bha). " imam (m. tapas (n. indic. trividhas (m. but. 0 '" bhedam imam S!1}u.XVII 7 ~~m'1~ iihiiras tv api sarvasya food but also of all f~q>l) ~a f5l'r I trividho bhavati priyal. also.). charity. sg. sg. gift. hear! But also the food preferred by all Is of three kinds. As are their sacrifices. yajiias (m. acc. sg. api.). triple. nom. imperative act. heat.). sg. this hear. dear. Hear now the distinction between them. difference. of three kinds. nom. nom. food. nom. sg. sacrifice. also.

living. (ayulJsattvabalarogyasukhaprftivivardhanas.). joy. pl." pleasant. strength. truth. dainty.). smooth.). preferred by those characterized by the gUl.). sukha (n. "hearty.). glutinous. health. happiness and satisfaction. nom. smooth. satisfaction promoting. moving life. augmenting. sattvikapriyas (m. solid. pl. m. firm. dear to the sattvic. foods. pl. u:<n: fwm: fpru ~ rasyiil} snigdhiil} sthirii hrdyii savory. firm. duration of life. savory. nom pI. 641 . firm. virtue. Which are savory. pleasant tasting. pl. bala (m. pI. sticky. pleasant to the stomach.). strength. promoting life. snigdhas (m. vivardhaniis (m."1 "l0 ! <lTIrayus (n. strength. h~dyas (m. virtue. flavorful. nom. nom. iiyul:zsattvabaliirogya- life. nom. aharas (m. health. Such foods are dear to the sattvic. health.) rasyas (m. happiness. Happiness. and pleasant to the stomach. pleasant to the stomach. pl. Promoting life.). prfti (f. pleasure.). might. >. pr.JV1:dh). nom. strength. sthiras (m.). pl. sattva (n.). arogya (n. TP cpd. pr.).). promoting.la of sattva. nom. virtue. increasing. freedom from disease. ~lffficr<f'el'1T: I sukhapritivivardhaniil} happiness.11WU: ~nf~w:rr: II iihiiriil} siittvikapriyiil} foods the sattvic dear to. force. nom. satisfaction. smooth. health.XVII 8 ~: *1. virtue.. good fortune. and satisfaction. participle vi .

dvandva cpd.XVII 9 '" katvamlalava1Jatyuf7Japungent. dulJkha (n. sharp. fiery. sour. pI.). nom. astringent and scorching. grief. pI. p. atyu~lJa. and sickness. harsh. Pungent. pl. riijasasya (m.Jilf). pungent. excessively hot. Bitter. and burning. (dulJkhasokiimayapradiis. vidiihinas (m. burning. causing pain. sorrow and sickness.). salty.). Causing pain. pain. salty. ruk~a. iimaya (m. (ka!VamlalavalJiityu~lJatfk~lJaruk~avidiihinas • ahara rajasasye~ta foods by the rajasic desired. sickness causing. gen. acid. ~:~~5r<n: II du/:zkhasokamayaprada/:z pain. misery. pl. nom. sour. sorrow. pass. yielding.). harsh. tfklflJa. m. excessively hot..).). nom. nom. vinegary. pl. wished for. TP cpd. sickness. rough. pungent. lavalJa. dry. misery. acrid. sour. <:fT~~enomf~: I tikf7Jaruk~avidahina/:z <R:"I¥O<?5<?5"1 utt. ilf!iis (m..ljMt- ka!U. salty. scorching ~ (1\l1*1fiitSCl (the plural serves for all the preceding adjectives). foods. of him who is characterized by the gUl)a of rajas. sg. excessively hot. pradiis (m. causing. briny. sour. pI. nom. desired. soka (m. .) 642 . scorching harsh. salty. Such foods are desired by the rajasic. astringent. of the rajasic. participle "'. misery.) iihiiriis (m. disease. nom. acid.). m. amla. astringent. excessively hot. dry. saline.

used. preferred by those characterized by the gUl~a of tamas. api. It has been pointed out by historians that. nom. tasteless 'ffa ~~ 'if ~ I puti pary~itam ca yat putrid and left-over which \3f~J. even. puti (n. participle ud Jsi~). sg. sg. • I t is not difficult to detect in this and the preceding two stanzas the hand of the brahman caste.). nom. pass. bhojanam (n. though the Mahabharata is primarily an epic of the /qatriya. gatarasam (n. sg. p. putrid. sg. Is the food which Is dear to the tamasic. left remaining. tasteless. paryu~itam (n. fetid. the Bhagavad Glta.). participle pari Jvas). feeding. spoiled.). yiitayiimam gatarasam stale. nom. ca. which. ucchi~{am (n. And refuse as well as the impure. food. left over. yad (n. Stale.). sg. foul. stale. tiimasapriyam (n. and. not fit for sacrifice. caste. insisting on its superiority to an extent that is almost comic. or warrior.). putrid. nom. sg.~ ucch#tam api ciimedhyam rejected and also foul ~m crr+rnf~ II bhojanam tiimasapriyam food the tamasic dear to. pass. stale. nom.XVII 10 ~~ yiitayiimam (n. rotten.). impure.ifq. p. stinking. 643 . nom. nom. nom. nom. flavorless. was probably inserted into the poem later by the priestly caste of brahmans. amedhyam (n. and.). ca. tasteless. along with some other interpolations of a moral or religious character. sg. dear to the tamasic. also. sg. sg. rejected.

pass. Concentrating the mind only on the thought "this is to be sacrificed". which. pertaining to him who is characterized by the gUl~a of sattva. nom. passive . fixing.). inst. iti. participle vidhi :jd~s). fqf~1SCr If ~ I ya ijyate scripture observing. (m.).. it is offered. which it is offered. by the nonfruit-desiring (as TP cpd.p. p.). acc.~fG +1'1: ya~tavyam vidhid!~to eveti manalJ "to be sacrificed" only thus the mind ~t1Tlf ~ mf~: II samiidhiiya sa siittvikalJ concentrating. sg. sacrifice. sg.) by those who do not desire fruit. thus. observing the scriptures.Jyaj). sg. pr. ~ D. ijyate (3rd sg. mind. nom. 644 . this. he.XVII 11 'J. sg. pl. yas (m.Jyaj). sg. samiidhiiya (gerund sam ii . indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). composing.). eva. aphaliikiiiik~ibhis Sacrifice which is offered. ya~!avyam (n. concentrating. <rn"r aphaliikiifik#bhir yajiio by the non-fruit-desiring. it is sacrificed. By those who do not desire the fruit. to be offered. yajfias (m. manas (n. sg.). sg. to be sacrificed. sas (m. nom.!"'CfmT'filf~~. nom. nom.Jdhii). siittvikas (m. who. gerundive . vidhid~~!as (m.). only. sacrifice. worship. scripture observing. that sattvic. sattvic. That sacrifice is sattvic. nom.

. ~~'{ mIT ~ mJ.).). having in view. it is sacrificed. fruit. sg. Know that to be rajasic. bharatasre~{ha (m. epithet of Arjuna. phalam (n. Best of the Bharatas. rajasic. Arjuna. But sacrifice which is offered With a view to the fruit. know! learn! riijasam (m.) for the purpose of hypocrisy.). 645 . sg.a of rajas. offering. And also for the purpose of ostentation.). sg.). eva. sacrifice. passive .). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). nom.[~ II tam yajiiam viddhi riijasam this sacrifice know to be rajasic. sg. sg. acc. ca. fraudulent aim. the fruit. pr. sg.XVII 12 m~~<!~ abhisa1iu1hiiya (gerund abhi sam . Best of the Bharatas. indic. ~<rnfqf. abhisamdhiiya tu phalam having in view.Jvid). and. (as TP cpd. having in mind.). seeking. sg. even. it is offered.Jyaj). pertaining to him who is characterized by the gUl). viddhi (2nd imperative act. yajfzam (m.:1 dambhiirtham api ciiiva yat and hypocritical purpose also which ~"lfm~ ijyate bharatasre~tha it is offered. api also. tu. but. voc. tam (m. yad (n. but.Jdhii). acc. acc. dambhiirtham (m. which. acc. him. this. ijyate (3rd sg. acc. with hypocritical aim.

acc. not offered. '1"<i~'1'L ~~ I mantrahinam adak#1J. not offered food.).). they see as. ~lfCfU~ lllI' sraddhavirahitam yajfiam faith-devoid sacrifice ~qf~11 tamasam paricak~ate tamasic they regard as.). acc. yajfiam (m. fee not being paid. tiimasam (m. 646 . faith deserted. acc.. food. aSf~!a (p. sraddhiivirahitam (n. acc. sg./cak~). tamasic. annam (n. adak~ifJam (n.\'l!: ~ vidhihfnam (n.).). KD cpd.a oftamas. sg. devoid of faith. pass. without fee. unoffered food./rah). sacrifice. participle sraddhii vi . grain. paricak~ate (3rd pI. sacred formula discarded. without fee. pertaining to him who is characterized by the gUl). sg. acc. sg. (asf~!a-iinnam.) mantrahfnam (n. Sacrifice devoid of faith. scripture lacking. sg.XVII 13 fqf~f. scripture discarded.). sg. sg. they regard as. acc. pari . nom./Sfj). Contrary to scriptural ordinances. vidhihinam asr#annam scripture discarded.. not let go. with no food offered. worship. mid.. pass.. p. acc. participle a . They regard as tamasic. n. acc. sacred formula lacking. sg.am sacred text discarded. Without mantras and without gifts (to the presiding priest).

~ II siiriram tapa ucyate bodily austerity. heat. purity. man of wisdom. purity. the twice born. 'if~~m~:q brahmacaryam ahimsii ca continence non-violence m-:1i aq.$II#1- devadvijagurupriijiiagods. it is called. cleanliness of mind and body. revering the gods.. guru (m.). continence. nom.). virtue. These are called austerities of the body. sg. nom. reverencing. elder. twice-born.Jpuj). sg. teacher. Celibacy.).). bodily. the teacher and the man of wisdom. sg. tapas (n. ucyate (3rd sg. purity. (devadvijagurupriijfiapujanam. chastity. 647 . ca.). dvija (m. and. the twice-born. ahimsii (f. it is called.). wise man. nom. of the body. TP cpd.). sg. master. rectitude. harmlessness.Jvac). keeping the vow of the brahmacarin.) siiucam (n. teachers and WIse men ~~~~rt<ql pujanm1z siiucam iirjavam reverencing. And wise men. sarfram (adv. rectitude. from . nom. priijna (m.XVII MN<l'-.). sg. brahmacaryam (n. the twice-born. austerity.). teachers. passive . iirjavam (n. deva (m. rectitude. Worship of the gods. non-violence. pro indic. nom. nom. nom. and non-violence. it is said to be. member of one of the three highest castes. revering.). pujanam (n. n. sg. sg. god.

not causing distress. hitam (n.). wholesome. pleasant. pass. n. nom. 648 . and. speechformed. svadhyaya (m.).. which.. heat. (priya-hitam. nom. participle . agreeable and salutary. nom.). nom. Words that do not cause distress.~<rn"f ~q svadhyayabhyasanam caiva and recitation-of-sacred-texts practice ~a-'1~11 vafimayam tapa ucyate speech formed austerity it is called. salutary. speech. ucyate (3rd sg. nom. sg. sg. truthful. p. agreeable. nom.).) ca.).. eva. it is called. DV cpd. passive . and beneficial. DV cpd. sg. n. nom. nom.). pr. not causing apprehension. exercise. sg. vaiimayam (vac mayam. which ~T'e. agreeable and salutary. beneficial. n. And practice in the recitation of sacred texts. sg. sg. sg. nom. yad (n. tapas (n.). not overawing. reciting sacred texts. abhyasanam (n.)./vac). agreeable..XVII 15 ~~~<rrCflt anudvegakaram (n.) ca. These are called austerities of speech. recitation and practice. satyam (n. indic. true. Truthful. speech-made./dhii). anudvegakaram vakyam not-causing-distress speech ~ fw:rf~ :q «<'! I satyam priyahitam ca yat truthful.). vakyam (n. nom. and. word. sg. it is said to be. priya (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). (svadhyaya-abhyasanam. sg. practice. austerity. speaking sacred texts to oneself. sg.

pr... mind. this iti.. cleanliness of being.). Purity of being. it is Cfqr +rr<ffi'1: . indic.). self restraint.Jvac). self-restraint. nom.). saumyatvam (n. .. nom. kindness. bhtivasamsuddhis (f. ~~Tf~ ~~ traer '0 . austerity. nom. of the mind. thus.j~ II tapa miinasam ucyate called. nom. manaf:zprasiidaf:z siiumyatvam mind-peace. sg. '" self-control. tapas (n.. sg. this. etad (n. mi'inasam (n. sg. sg. sg. it is said to be..XVII 16 11<f:5ffiT~: ~1~ manas (n.). these Are called austerities of the mind.. 649 . nom. Peace of mind. clarity. sg. heat.). peace.)..). silence. gentleness. sg. Silence. be- nevolence. nom. purity of being. 11~ ~w:rfqf~: I calmness. bhiivasamsuddhir ity etat being-purity thus. sg. gentleness. miiunam iitmavinigrahaf:z mi'iunam (n. ucyate (3rd sg. self-restraint. gentleness. taciturnity. austerity mental it is called. nom. mental. nom. nom. atmavinigrahas (m. sg. mildness. prasadas (m.).). passive . silence.

). by the nondesirous of fruit. acc. paricak~ate (3rd pI. by the highest. by men. by faith. nariiis (m. that. mid. indic. sattvic. sg. sg.). acc. with the highest. nom. by those who are disciplined in Yoga. taptam (n.). pr. threefold. by the disciplined. nom. inst. pl.). 650 . inst. sg. tapas (n. siittvikam (m. aphaliikiiiik~ibhis (m.).). practiced. pl. trividham (n. austerity. sg.).z by the non-fruit-desiring. by the steadfast. nom.XVII 17 ~~(fg sraddhayii parayii taptam with faith the highest undergone ~ m( f?ffCfe[ "Ii: I tapas tat trividham nariiil. ~rf~ qf'0feffl II aphaliikiiiik~ibhir . parayii (f. inst. they see as. sg. tad (n. with faith. sg. pl. this. inst. they regard as. triple. inst. by the steadfast. pass. sraddhayii (f. by those who do not desire fruit. This threefold austerity Practiced with the highest faith by men Who are not desirous of fruits and are steadfast. of three kinds. sg. yuktiiis (m.). nom. They regard as sattvic. participle -ftap). heat. '" siittvikam paricak~ate sattvic they regard as. pari -fcak~).).z austerity this threefold by men. pertaining to him who is characterized by the gu~a of satLa. p. wh<i5 I Cfll f~m~ lfffi: yuktiiil. undergone.

respect. pass. acc.. here. honor. unfixed. adhruvam (m. heat.). for the sake of. this. it is made. TP cpd. it is performed. calam (m. inst.. sg.). sg. and impennanent.). acc. unsteady.) tapas (n. respect.). pro passive . acc. p. infirm. acc. sg. impermanent. which. reverence. proktam (m. That. here in the world. "good-doing. rajasam calam adhruvam rajasic. and reverence.). rajasic.). sg. eva. satkaramanapujartham honor.). austerity. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). nom. wavering. riijasam (m. respect. unsteady. with hypocrisy.XVII 18 ~("Cf\i (>1 i"l1. artha (n. unsteady. pertaining to one who is characterized by the gUl}a of rajas. that. here on earth. and. dambhena (m. reverence for the sake of rn~~~1 tapa dambhena caiva yat and austerity with hypocrisy which fm~~~ kriyate tad iha proktam it is performed.rN satkiira (n. reverence.).Jvac)." mana (m. nom.). it is done. lit. for the sake of honor. aim. tad (n. (satkiiramanapujiirtham. (n. acc.Jk1:).). iha. sg. sg.). hospitality. 651 . Austerity which is practiced with hypocrisy For the sake of honor. with fraud. favor. honor. yad (n. nom. sg. sg. kriyate (3rd sg. ca. is declared to be Rajasic. respect and reverence. participle pra . said to be. '" . sg. declared. that here m the world declared to be ~:qmr~~11 . pujii (f. by fraud. impermanent.

austerity. Or with the aim of destroying another.. declared to be. II tat tiimasam udiihrtam that tamasic declared to be. kriyate (3rd sg. tapas (n.. destroying. (muqhagrahelJa. sg.Jk1:).iitmano yat with deluded notion of the self. it is performed. selfdenial. it is made. (parasyotsadanartham. by notion. artham (n.'} . with deluded notion. which.). p. or. gen.a of tamas. '3 ~ I ~<'1 +t. nom.). . deluded. q-'Js<:rr fm ~q-: I pifjayii kriyate tapalJ with torture. austerity. tad. TP cpd. tamasam (n. . with the purpose of destroying another. err parasyotsiidaniirtham vii of another destroying aim or aq: ~fPl~+!. pass. this.XVII 19 +! ii'A .011 . inst. of another. utstidana (pr. sg.).).). pr.) atmanas (m. acc. 652 . nom.it lffi .Jsad).). participle . inst.. heat. udahrtam (n. parasya (m. nom. aim.+I . paqaya (f. q'('t<tlffil~'1I~ . gen. with notion. sg. by grasp. yad (n. confused. purpose. sg. Is declared to be tamasic. sg. participle ud Ii . sg. sg.).. participle ut . (n. acc.) va. m. sg. it is done.). pass. muqha (p. I~ . with torture. nom. sg. pertaining to the gUl). that. it is performed. pass .Jhf). indic. Austerity which is performed With deluded notions and with self-torture. grahelJa (m. mufjhagriiher.Jmuh). tamasic. overturning. said to be. of the self. inst. sg. which. with torment. sg..

).). sm~tam (n. it is bestowed. sg.Jdii) .XVII 20 ~~<:Tl1<\m diitavyam (n. sdttvikam (n. to datavyam iti yad danam "to be given" thus which gift ~"l<:fcr s1'1'fi1f~ I be given. diinam (n. and. pertaining to the gUI}a of sattva. tad (n. sg. The gift which is given only with the thought "it is to be given. gift. sg. recorded as. it is diyate 'nupakari1. yad (n. loco sg. to a competent person. sattvic. diyate (3rd sg. sg.e is given to one who has done no prior favor.).sm~). At the proper place and time. not done a friendly service.).Jdd). nom. indic.). sg. kale (m. dat. that. held to be. in a proper place.).). p. ~~ 'fiB '<f rn:l 'q given. known as. ddnam (n. to a worthy person. That gift is held to be sattvic. sg. anupakdri1]e (m. participle . nom. sg.. thus (often used to close a quotation). in time. nom. piitre (n. iti. 653 . gift." To a worthy person who has done no prior favor. to him who has dese kale ca patre ca in (proper) place and time and to a worthy person tad danam sattvikam smrtam that gift sattvic remembered as. nom. ca. pr. gerundive .). nom. pass. dde (m. passive . sg. which.). ca. at a proper time. loco sg. in a place. nom. loco sg. this. to him who has performed no prior favor. remembered as. and. nom.

yad (n. participle . but. But that gift which is given grudgingly. uddiSya (gerund ud . fruit. or. with regard to fruit.). that. ~<wi~'~11 . ~"'t<rn "f qf"<f~ diyate ca parikli#am and is given grudgingly. it is bestowed. this. dfyate (3rd sg. sg. nom. diinam (n. 654 . pertaining to the gu~a of rajas. result.Jdis). with regard to. with the aim of recompense. passive . pass. again. p. sg. smr:tam (n. :b '" yat tu pratyupakiiriirtham which but with recompense aim ~73f~ <IT Tf: I phalam uddisya vii puna!} fruit with regard to. nom. nom. grudgingly. pr.Jklis). punar. indic. recorded as. with the purpose of gaining reward. rajasam (n. unwillingly.). tu.). pointing to.Jsmr:). sg.J00). acc.). Is considered rajasic. With the aim of recompense Or gain. phalam (n. p. va. sg. ca. remembered as. nom. thought to be. nom. sg. and. pass. ~ tad diinam riijasam smrtam that gift rajasic recorded as. nom. tad (n.). which. sg. gift. sg.XVII 21 «<f M lOI<:llQCflI <I~ . sg. acc. . participle pari '. parikli~(am (n. or again. charity. rajasic. pratyupakariirtham (m. it is given.).

). charity.). to unworthy persons.XVII 22 ~{~ICflI0lf<\~ adesakiile yad danam at wrong place and time which gift. sg. dlinam (n. without paying respect. ~~~ asatkrtam avajiiatam without paying respect. nom. sg. loco sg. aplitrebhyas (n. sg. sg. sg. That gift which is given at the wrong place and time To the unworthy. tad (n.Jda). pass. with contempt. acc. it is given. p. participle ava . is given.). ~~~rml apatrebhyasca diyate and to the unworthy. pass. dat. gift. nom. said to be.). sg. diyate (3rd sg. ~q: ffilrnlf 'd ~ I t[d 'lll tat tamasam udahrtam that tamasic declared to be. tlimasam (n. adesakiile (m. pertaining to the gUJ:la of tamas. avajiiiitam (n.). this. pro indic. nom. udahrtam (n. 655 . nom. declared. acc. with contempt. and. participle ud Ii . with disrespect. to the unworthy.). in wrong place and time. Without paying respect. that. p.Jjiiii). ca.Jhf). without wisdom. yad (n. which.). asatkftam (adv. tamasic. passive . pl. or with contempt. Is declared to be tamasic.

z smrtal. or sacred utterance. nom. sg. for which "om" is a designation.). t1f1: I brahma1Jas trividhal. ca. nom. order.Jdhii). inst. pl. atmosphere. sg. the Brahmans. And the sacrifices were created in ancient times. apportioned. nom.). and. trividhas (m. nom.). so. By this the brahmins. real. sg.). thus. nom.z purii and the sacrifices ordained anciently. that.XVII 23 ~T~~~af~) om tat sad iti nirdeso "om tat sat" . ordained. instruction. but see commentary on "tat sat" in stanzas 2S and 26. sat (n. brahmalJds (m. the sacred syllable or one-syllable mantra. designation. "Sat" in Sanskrit has the meanings of "real" or "true" and that of "good. determined. pI. the three principal deities (Brahma. 'lI1~UlHl~~ briihmatJiis tena vediisca the Brahmans by this and the Vedas ~fcrf~:~TII yajiiiisca vihitiil. pl.a. earth). arranged. It begins with the sacred syllable "oriz" which is made up of three sounds . religious ceremonies. sg. anciently. nirddas (m. ca. pass. of three kinds. sg. pl.). remembered. sg. prior. iti. among Hindus. pass. tad (n. "Om tat sat" this has been taught as The threefold designation of Brahman. The rest of the mantra is an affirmation of the existence of Brahman. sm~tas (m. known. p. ancient. participle . with this.representing the three Vedas. in olden times.).). the Vedas. g.Jsm~). tena (m. command.).). " om tat sat (" om that [is] real ") is a common mantra. the "three worlds" (heaven. nom. this. called to mind. threefold. Vishnu and Siva) and the beginning. sacrifices.z of Brahman threefold remembered. the Vedas. good. vihitas (nom. yajiu'is (m." 656 . middle and ending of all things. nom. of Brahman. sg. u. by this. participle vi . p. m . pura (adv. vedas (m. nom. brahma1Jlls (n.thus the designation ~ f?Jfcrer: om. and. true.).

the sacred syllable or one-syllable mantra. abl. therefore. gen. sacrifice. proclaimed in the precepts. gen. nom. p. m. always. yajna (m. (yajnadanatapal]kriyas. vidhiina (from vi . bringing forward.). gifts and austerities. nom. viidinam (m.Jv~t). uttering. indic. said. (vidhiina-uktas. udah~tya (gerund ud a . illustrating. from this. pI. (brahma-viidiniim. so. charity. austerity. heat. pI. mid. and austerity Are always begun uttering the syllable "Om" By the students of Brahman.. worship.. they commence. Brahman. om. kriyas (m. gift. they are commenced. pI. nom..) therefore" om" thus uttering. iti. TP cpd. of the expounders. TP cpd. pr. tapas (n. pl. pass. m.).) satatam (adv.Jh~).XVII 24 ~~~ tasmiid om ity udiihrtya tasmat (m. acts of sacrifice.). of the speakers.). perpetually. proclaimed. pra . Therefore. dana (n. As prescribed in the Vedic injunctions.). uktas (m. nom. pl. self-denial. they begin. in this way.r: pravartante vidhiinoktiil:z they are begun prescribed in the (Vedic) scriptures. religious acts. acts. m. brahma (n. of the explainers. pI. precept. 657 . giving. gift and austerity acts ~ fcrtTRTn.Jvac). thus.p<IT: I yajiiadiinatapal:zkriyiil:z sacrifice. participle . 1l#l~I'1dq:f.).) pravartante (3rd pI.).. they are begun. prescription. of the expounders of Brahman. acts of sacrifice.Jdhii).). mm~~11 satatam brahmaviidiniim always by the expounders of Brahman. sg.

indic. pr.). tapas (n. nom.) 658 . nom. they are done. they are performed. by those who are desirous. Uttering "tat" and without aiming at Fruits. sg.XVII 25 ~~wrfmT<f tad ity anabhisatndhiiya "tat" thus without aiming at ~ lI'WrT:f~: I tad (n.). fruit. m. nom. not aiming at.' yajiiatapal." phalam. acts of sacrifice and austerity And acts of giving of various sorts Are performed by those who desire liberation.). of many sorts. they are made. release.).. pl. and giving acts of various sorts f~+rT~s. by those who desire release.). kriyiis (m. religious actions. fruit.) diinakriyiis (m. thus. nom. m. acts of giving. (yajnatapal]kriyiis. this. (mok~akiifik~ibhis. phalam (n. result. worship. acc.).). they are performed by the desirous of release. of various kinds. passive . iti. without interest in. sg. austerity.). pl.Jdhii) ..).JkI:). that. liberation. kriyante (3rd pI. inst. by those who desire liberation from the cycles of rebirth. ca. so. nom. acts of sacrifice and austerity. yajna (m. by the desirous. pI. pI. anabhisarhdhiiya (gerund an abhi sam . TP cpd.m+r: II kriyante molqakiifik#bhil. acts. sacrifice. here simply Htat. kiifik~ibhis (inst.kriyiil. TP cpd. pl. vividhiis (m. mok~a (m. and. pl. actions. sacrifice austerity acts ~~ferfqm: diinakriyiisca vividhiil. self-denial. acts of charity. varied.

TP cpd. word. loco sg. in laudable. thus. participle pra "/sams). thus. it is used. goodness (here simply "sat").). pr. sabdas (m. TP cpd. nom. pr.. right. this is used. meaning of "goodness. "Sat" is used In its meaning of "reality" and in its meaning of "goodness. m.yuj). m. sat (n.). in praiseworthy. loco sg. sg. loco sg. tatoo. good. indic. p. bOOve (m. it is employed. sg. in intention. yujyate (3rd sg. epithet of Atjuna. piirtha yujyate the" sat" sound. 659 .. even. truth. so. truth. loco sg. in act. passive "/yuj). straight. in action. (sat-sabdas.)." Also the word "sat" is used For an auspicious act. Son of Prthii. it is used.li tathii for a praiseworthy act also ~:qN~11 sacchabdaJ. m. in this way. reality. nom. goodness. truth. it is pronounced. Arjuna. reality. passive pra ". it is employed. sound.). ~Cfi4fura~ prasaste karma1. in meaning. iti. in the "sat" thus. etad (n. also. sg.). reality.).") ca.. prasaste (n. sg. pass.XVII 26 ~~:q sadbhiive siidhubhiive ca in "reality" meaning and in "goodness" meaning. is used. in the mean- ing of "reality. sat (n. loco sg. TP cpd. goodness (here simply "sat"). (sat-bOOve. vOC. sat (n. sound of "sat"). prayujyate (3rd sg. loco sg.") siidhu (n. sg. bOOve (m. ~W{~~I sad ity etat prayujyate in meaning. in being. indic. karmalJi (n. nom.). this.). and. that. goodness. in intention. Son of Prtha. piirtha (m. nom. (siidhu bhiive.).).

it is said to be. pr. likewise (often used as a rhythmic filler). iti. in this way (often used to close a quotation). indic.XVII 27 ~crn~~"f yajiie tapasi dane ca in sacrifice. thus. karma (n. reality. Steadfastness in sacrifice. goodness (here simply "sat"). steadfastness. 'lilt ~ CR~1<i karma caiva tadarthiyam and action relating to this purpose. ucyate (3rd sg. and. indeed. in sacrifice. truth. pr. reality. in selfdenial. it is designated. truth. thus. nom.).rn. 660 .). ca. adhidhlyate (3rd sg.). austerity. it is proclaimed. serving the purpose of that. sg. and Giving is also called "sat. indeed. ~ ~ r. passive abhi -/dhii).). likewise (often used as a rhythmic filler). goodness (here simply "sat"). dependability. sat (n. tadarthfyam (n. loco sg. nom. sg.II sad ity evabhidhiyate "sat" thus likewise it is designated. ca. iti.). action. and. nom. nom. sg. and. in charity. in giving.). eva. relating to that. in worship. in this way (often used to close a quotation).crrf"ll'=1P. in austerity and in giving f~~<1: ~ ~<1 "f~ I sthiti~ sad iti cocyate steadfastness "sat" thus also it is called. sat (n. ca. sthitis (f. it is called. passive -/vac). dane (n. sg. eva." yajfie (m.). indic. sg. tapasi (n. in austerity.)." And action relating to these Is likewise designated as "sat. nom. loco sg. loco sg.

inst. austerity.Jda).). by lack of faith.). and.). pass. pouring into the sacrificial fire. having died. not good. after death.). tad (n. here. pass. untruth. ca. participle . practiced.Jk~). yad (n. na. nom. that.. pretya (gerund pra . partha (m. sg. performed. Son of Prthii. nom.). nom. iha. nom. p. having gone. thus. sg. made. it is said. which . End of Book XVII The Yoga of the Distinction of the Three Kinds of Faith 661 . nor here in the world. it is said to be. pro passive . done. nas (dat. sg. i). asat (n. And is nothing in the hereafter or here in the world.q-~~~qr~ . ~dg~"f~1 tapas tap tam krtam ca yat austerity performance done. participle . voc. ca. asad ity ucyate piirtha "asat" thus it is called. sg. offered. this. sg. sg.Jtap). in this way (often used to close a quotation.q. sg. ) ucyate (3rd sg. of us.XVII 28 . nom. with absence of faith. pass. nom. Son of Prtha. heat. taptam (n. a + pr. tapas (n. it is called. iti. sg. hutam (n. kI:tam (n. undergone. and. sg. which. participle .. sg. p. . here in the world. oblation. unreality. sg.Jas). p.). epithet of Arjuna. presented.Jvac).~~~ asraddhayii hutam dattam with lack of faith oblation offered.). nom. asraddhaya (f. lacking in virtue (here simply "asat")." Arjuna. hereafter. dattam (n. participle . not. given. rr"fmr~~rrT~ II na ca tat pretya no iha and not that (is anything) to us hereafter. nom. An oblation offered or an austerity practiced Without faith Is called "asat. to us.

). sg. Bristling Haired '" p~thak kesini~iidana separately. acc. And of renunciation. of renunciation. voc.).). sg. of renunciation. t The iisura Kdin was slain by Vishnu (Krishna) in another part of the Mahiibhiirata. "0 Mighty Armed One. of relinquishment.) 662 . tattvam (n. nom. keSini~udana (m. sg. ca. perf. epithet of Krishna.Jvid). :Jvac). act. One. And the difference between them. here applied to Krishna. gen. Arjuna. lit. "of throwing aside." mahabaho (m.BOOK XVIII ~~I arjuna uvaca arjunas (m. pr." icchami (rst sg. It is a general epithet of distinguished warriors. uvaca (3rd sg. and. is here applied to Krishna. singly." usually an epithet of Arjuna. sg. sg.).).). indic. epithet of Krishna. I wish. he spoke.). sg. Bristling Haired One. p~thak (adv. ~~11~~1 tattvam icchiimi veditum the truth I wish to know ~"f~~ tyiigasya ca h~~lkesa and of abandonment. of abandonment. of leaving behind. q-~ ififm<. sg. Slayer of Kesin. truth. veditum (infinitive . h~sfkeSa (m.). to know. "thatness. 0 mighty Armed One.q~ II ~. Krishna. to learn. epithet of various warriors. . he said. I desire. Slayer of Kesin. one by one. • mahiibiiho. gen. tyagasya (m. voc. Arjuna spoke: 1 *"lI*lBl~~ satimyiisasya mahiibiiho salnnyasasya (m. separately. Arjuna spoke: I wish to know the truth Of sannyasa. voe. act . 0 Mighty Armed One.Ji~). (See chapter on "The Setting of the Bhagaviid Gltii".

vicaklfalJiis (m. lit. The words are clear enough.). sg. acc. nom. tyagam (m. abandonment (tyiiga) is the relinquishment of the results of action. the clear-eyed. sg." kavayas (m. giving up.Jvid with present meaning).). abandonment.Jah with present meaning). sg.). of springing from desire. smnnyasam (m. leaving behind. the seers. vidus (3rd pI.Jvac). (sarvakarmaphalatyagam. TP cpd. sarva. sg. renunciation. sg. phala (n. m. ~~ sarvakarmaphalatyiigam all action-fruit abandonment ~~f'f9~:11 priihus tyiigam vicak~a1}iil} they declare (to be) abandonment. relinquishment. the poets. The relinquislunent of the fruit of all action The wise declare to be renunciation. the Blessed Lord the Blessed one. pl. tyagam (m. action. of desiderative. gen. The Blessed Lord spoke: The relinquislunent of actions prompted by desire The sages understand as sannyasa. acc. from sam ni. they declare. karmalJam (n. kiimyiiniim karma1}iim nyiisam of rites undertaken to achieve desires.).).J2 as). to avoid any misunderstanding. result. they understand. act. the sagacious. but. relinquishment.). acc. 2 ~~~ kamyanam (n.).). the clear-sighted.). act.XVIII l!1'hl~~1 sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. perf. . perf. and thus does not imply nonaction as renunciation does. gen. from ni . the chroniclers. . nom. the relinquishment. he said. sg. desertion. they know.. perf. pl. abandonment of all fruit of action. nyasam (m. pra . what is said is that renunciation (samnyiisa) is the relinquishment of all action which is aimed at a desired result. nom. uvaca (3rd sg. the clear sighted. of actions. acc. 663 . acc.J2 as). throwing down. act. . karma (n. abandonment desertion.. renunciation. pl. he spoke. ~~Tf~:1 samnyiisam kavayo vidul} renunciation the poets understand. they say. "throwing down.) prahus (3rd pI. all. of acts. fruit. pl.

the wise ones. in this way.. action by sacrifice. action. yajiia (m.). sg. evil. tapas (n. ~~q:'filt yajiiadiinatapal.). giving. manf~ilJGs (m. TPcpd.). so. thus.). action. (yajiiadanatapaIJkarma. to be relinquished. they say. austerity. n. nom. heat. act.Jtyaj). pl. pI.). sg. full of evil thus some tyajyam (n. pra . action. charity. acc.Jah with present meaning). men of wisdom. Some men of wisdom declare That action is to be abandoned and is full of evil. And others say that acts of sacrifice. eke (m. <filf ~ lA"lf~: I karma priihur mani§i1Jal. gerundive .) na. do~avat (n. sg. to be deserted. the thoughtful. worship. gerundive . karma (n. acc. 664 . giving. iti. the men of wisdom. nom. sg. others.). pl. nom. they declare. acc. sacrifice. to be given up. sg. of eka. to be abandoned. some. perf.). wrong. thus. not. gifts and austerity. to be abandoned. tyajyam (n. work. apare (m. prahus (3rd pI. karma (n. and. acc. and austerity Are not to be abandoned. sg. dana (n.). ca. in this way.karma and sacrifice-giving-austerity action "~l1:~f<:i~11 na tyiijyam iti ciipare not to be abandoned thus others. iti. they declare.Jtyaj) . work. nom. "one").XVIII 3 ~~~W{~ tyiijyam do~avad ity eke to be abandoned. full of evil. acc.

Man-Tiger.). desertion. nom. sg. truly. my. there. puru~avyiighra (m. voc. epithet of Arjuna. Best of the Bharatas. tyiige (m. hear! learn! me (gen. sg. designated.). Tiger among Men. of three kinds. of me. Renunciation is declared To be of three kinds: 665 . samprakirtital. conviction. epithet of Arjuna. ~Tf~~~ tyiigo hi purtqavyiighra abandonment indeed. nom.).). hi. Arjuna. voc. niscayam (m. sr:lJu (2nd sg. Man-Tiger.p. "/sru). nom. sg. tyiigas (m. in this case. threefold. f"ffGfCf: ~nd"d": II trividhal. sg. acc.). abandonment. sg.). pass. imperative act.XVIII f~~lt~ G . 0 Best of the Bharatas. samprak[rtitas (m. indeed. participle sam pra "/klrt). loco sg. tatra. Hear My conclusion in this matter Concerning renunciation. concerning abandonment. sg. trividhas (m. ascertainment. bharatasattama (m.~ niscayam Sr1}U me tatra the conclusion hear of me there 0fTit"+t {d*1'dlO( I tyiige bharatasattama concerning abandonment. sg. conclusion. giving up. enumerated. in abandonment.). threefold designated.

to be performed. giving. TP cpd. austerity. sg. and. nom. II piivaniini mani#1Jiim purifiers of those who are wise.XVIII 5 lhl ~ I"H'1 q :Cfi1t yajiiadiinatapa/. giving. yajfia (m. sg.).). sg. gen. giving. this.. eva. pavantini (n. n. to be left behind. charity.Jtyaj). but rather to be perfonned. to be made.lkarma sacrifice-giving-austerity action "'~~~~I na tyiijyam kiiryam eva tat not to be abandoned.. Acts of sacrifice. sacrifice-giving-austerity-action). manf~irJiim (m. ktiryam (n. ll""flfl'f1Jl1lt. pl. to be performed rather that.). gerundive . nom. and austerity Are not to be abandoned. giving and austerity. giving and austerity qjCA1f. charity. action.).). sacrifice. of those who are wise. actions of sacrifice. sg. nom.). nom.). 666 . tapas (n. heat. giving. pl.). nom.. indeed.). dana (n. (yajfiadanatapalJkarma. tad (n. na. rather (often used as a rhythmic filler).). tyajyam (n. worship. ~TGR~ yajiio diinam tapasciiiva sacrifice. austerity. not. yajfias (m. sg. ca. to be done. of the thoughtful. nom. nom. gerundive . eva. to be abandoned. nom. cleansers. and austerity Are purifiers of those who are wise. karma (n. worship. sacrifice. tapas (n. sg.Jkr). sg. of the wise. danam (n. heat. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). purifiers. acc. Sacrifice. that. sg. nom.

having left behind. highest. nom. indeed. in this way. thus. are to be perfonned Abandoning attachment to the fruits.). Arjuna.). sg. tyaktvii (gerund together. however. fruits. definite.). uttamam (n.). without doubt. f. matam (n. having abandoned. acc. sg. actions. nom. of me. however. surely. voc. pI.). nom. Son of Prthii. pl. phaZiini (n. to be done. saiigam (m. This is My definite And highest belief. belief.). actions ~~tfm1f. acc. abandoning.XVIII 6 ~ mq..fm lRrl{ ~~ II niscitam matam uttamam without doubt belief highest. to be made. 667 . niicitam (adv. coming sangam tyaktva phalani ca attachment and abandoning fruits. . nom. supreme. me (gen. piirtha (m. results. nom..). epithet of Arjuna. however.). / kartavyiini (n. Son of Prthli. and. thus of me. thought. api. gerundive v kt:). sg. iti. indeed. deeds. sg. attachment. tu. These actions. ~1fa-lTqr~ kartavyaniti me piirtha to be performed.~ Cfilhf"T etiiny api tu karmii1]i these. pl. to be performed. pl. ca.). these. sg.Jtyaj) . but. my. karmiifJi (n.~ I etiini (n.

of action. But renunciation of obligatory action Is not proper. abandonment. sg. it is fitting. proclaimed. nom.). throwing aside. gen. pr. tu. declared.Jtyaj). +r~~qf~ mohat tasya parityagas from delusion. it happens. from confusion. na. from delusion. of prescribed. sg. but. from pari .Jkfrt). parikfrtitas (m. of this. sg.). 668 . s