th Anniversary Edition

The Bhagavad Gītā
WINTHROP SARGEANT Foreword by Huston Smith
Editor’s Preface by Christopher Key Chapple

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th e bhagava d g¯ t a i ¯

SUNY series in Cultural Perspectives Antonio T. de Nicolás, editor

Twenty-fifth-Anniversary Edition

Edited and with a Preface by CHRISTOPHER KEY CHAPPLE Foreword by HUSTON SMITH

e xcelsior editions state uni versit y of new yor k pr e s s a lban y, new yor k

Published by State University of New York Press, Albany ©2009 State University of New York All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher. Excelsior Editions is an imprint of State University of New York Press For information, contact State University of New York Press, Albany, NY www.sunypress.edu Production by Dana Foote Marketing by Fran Keneston Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bhagavadg¯ a. English & Sanskrit. ıt¯ The Bhagavad G¯ a / translated by Winthrop Sargeant ; edited and with a preface by ıt¯ Christopher Key Chapple ; foreword by Huston Smith.—25th anniversary ed. p. cm. — (Suny series in cultural perspectives) Translated from Sanskrit. Previously published: ©1984. ISBN 978-1-4384-2841-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-1-4384-2842-0 (pbk. : alk. paper) I. Sargeant, Winthrop, 1903–1986. II. Chapple, Christopher Key, 1954– III. Title. BL1138.62.E5 2009b 294.5’92404521—dc22 2009000540 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

To my dear wife, Jane

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by Huston Smith


Editor’s Preface
with a User’s Guide for the Word-by-Word Analysis of the Bhagavad Gı ta ¯¯

xix 1 3 9 35 37

Translator’s Preface The Language of the Bhagavad Gıt¯ ¯ a The Setting of the Bhagavad Gıt¯ ¯ a List of Abbreviations Used in the Vocabularies Epithets Used in the Bhagavad Gıt¯ ¯ a

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Huston Smith

I have written over thirty-five forewords to books, but none with the urgency with which I write this one. Why is that the case? Because this edition of the G¯ a looks so daunting that genıt¯ eral readers are likely to conclude that it is not the one for them. But that would be a serious mistake, for the truth is that this is a multivalent book—there is something in it that will reward every serious reader. Christopher Chapple’s admirable preface summarizes the Bhagavad Gı a’s plot and ¯t¯ positions it in the vast literature of the Vedas. For Sanskrit scholars no stone is left unturned: abbreviations for grammatical usages—active, ablative, accusative, adjective, and adverb—are entered, and both English and Sanskrit grammar is remarked. It would be tedious to argue further the comprehensiveness of the book’s grammatical workout, but scholars can be assured that the coverage is exhaustive. A list of abbreviations that are used in the volume is included, as well as epithets (nicknames) that appear in the G¯ a. ıt¯ When we turn to the text proper, for every line the Sanskrit is printed, followed by the transliteration of that line, and finally, the line’s English translation. For those who only want to read the G¯ a’s story, therefore, the book is literally a page-turner, for all they ıt¯ need do is to read the verses on the bottom left-hand side of each page. However, should readers want elaboration, they will find it in the right-hand column of the page where, for example, dharma is translated as duty, law, righteousness, virtue, and honor. So it goes. I am unspeakably grateful to Christopher Chapple for attending to the foregoing material for it frees me to attend to the substance of this classic. What does the G¯ a use the foregoing machinery and underpinnings to say? Eager as I am to get ıt¯ to that substance, there is one transitional point that I want to make. There are some books that will never have definitive editions, and I am not confining myself to translations; I am thinking of the vernacular in which the substance of the texts are cast—idioms, metaphors, analogies, innuendos and their likes. The reason for this is that in a way, these classics are living creatures in at least the sense that they seek out apertures through which to move. It is as if they were intelligent, looking for ingenious ways to get their point across to their readers. There are only a very few books that I know of that can do this, with the Tao Te Ching preeminent among them. Poetry works in this way, as do stories and tales, but not expository prose. The G¯ a , ıt¯ however, manages this rare accomplishment, and I will leave it to the reader to figure out how it manages to do so.

The Bhagavad G¯ a is the summation of the Ved¯ nta, and among explicit docıt¯ a trines the Ved¯ nta stands out as one of the most direct formulations possible of what a constitutes the very essence of our spirituality. Truth being one, the G¯ a’s teachings ıt¯ find their parallels in the other revealed scriptures, but nowhere else are its teachings so succinctly stated. As Christopher Chapple has told us, the teachings of the G¯ a are presented in ıt¯ the form of a dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. The background of the battlefield imparts a dramatic charm. Sri Krishna, the teacher, is regarded by the Hindus as the Lord Himself in human form, and readers, absorbed in the book, often forget its historical character and feel as though many of its inspiring passages are directly addressed to themselves by the Lord who is the inner guide of us all. The suggestiveness of the book is almost without limit if it is read with the right attitude of mind. The G¯ a can be read as history, but it lends itself readily to being an allegory. In ıt¯ this mode, Arjuna represents the individual soul, and Sri Krishna the Supreme Soul that dwells in every heart. Arjuna’s chariot is the body. The blind king Dhr tar¯st ra is . a .. the mind under the spell of maya, ignorance, and his hundred sons are man’s numerous evil tendencies. The battle is an eternal one that is always going on between the powers of good and the powers of evil. The warrior who listens to the advice of the Lord speaking from within will triumph in this battle and attain the Highest Good. Hindu philosophers have never been satisfied with the mere intellectual understanding of religious treatises. Scripture is merely a key to the infinite storehouse of knowledge that lies within every human soul. And as for philosophy, its object is to enable the student to see the Truth—to realize it in direct experience. Hence certain moral and spiritual disciplines are necessary in order to create the right mood for study of both philosophy and the scriptures. Hinduism lays down such disciplines: discrimination between the Real and the unreal and renunciation of the unreal; and acquisition of the six virtues (control of the mind, control of the senses, restraining the mind from being distracted by worldly objects, faith in the scriptures and the words of the teacher, mental concentration, and lastly, the longing for liberation). Inwardness of spirit, cultivated through self-control and contemplation, enables the student of the scriptures to grasp their subtle meaning, which otherwise remains hidden from the merely intelligent reader. It is an immemorial custom among Hindus to read the G¯ a as a part of their daily ıt¯ devotions. Without it, prayer and meditation do not seem to be complete. In the remaining pages of this foreword, I unpack the G¯ a , so to speak. I divide ıt¯ its contents into segments that, pieced together, deliver the G¯ a’s message. These ıt¯ segments do not appear in the G¯ a ; they spin off from and expand the verse(s) of the ıt¯ G¯ a that are noted at the end of each segment. ıt¯ The Purpose of Life Happiness derived from the fulfillment of worldly desires does not last. As one grows old, one realizes that everything is transient—wealth, possessions, health, and even life itself.

When money and the luxuries it can buy fail to bring lasting happiness, one begins to wonder what the cause of this discontent is. This inquiry leads to the discovery that besides the body and mind, there is another component of the human being that is less apparent and more important because it is more enduring and is always watching our activities. In spiritual texts the body-mind complex is called the Apparent Self and the more enduring component is called the Real Self. Eventually one realizes that the cause of the aforementioned discontent derives from attending to one’s Apparent rather than one’s Real Self, and that the purpose of life is to recognize this distinction and to identify oneself with one’s Real Self (cf. Bhagavad G¯ a , chapter 2, verse 66, ıt¯ hereafter BG II:66). Crisis of Self-Identity We have arms and legs; our five sense organs (hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell) are superior to those limbs because they control a wider range of activities. Our minds (which receive and store information) are superior to our sense organs because they generate and retrieve thoughts. Our intellects are superior to our minds because they process information, make decisions. However, superior to all of the foregoing is the soul which is the source of consciousness and life. It is the Real Self that was mentioned in the preceding paragraph (BG IV:242). Who Am I? The human soul contains a spark of the Divine, the key attributes of which are indestructibility, indivisibility, and infinity. There is but One Being, and in every human soul this one and the same being permeates fully, not partially, just as the entire sun is reflected in miniature in every dewdrop. If every human soul has the same Divine spark, then all human beings are endowed with the same potential for goodness. The knowledge, understanding, and abiding awareness of the Divine spark in every human being—the aforementioned Real Self—is the foundation of all of the human virtues (BG XV:7). The Human Soul Human beings move tranquilly through childhood, youth, and maturity, but old age is not welcomed, and approaching death is feared. In truth, however, all of these stages should be welcomed equally, for the human soul reincarnates and repeats the same stages until it reaches its release from the physical body. When the soul reincarnates, it carries with it the impressions and inclinations that it has accumulated in its past lives (BG II:2 and II:13). The Spiritual Quest The physical world is constantly changing; it is a scene of perpetual perishing. Sages, however, through deep introspection, came to the conclusion that whatever

ceases to exist cannot be the ultimate reality. An all-pervading consciousness, which by its nature is eternal and indestructible, can alone be the ultimate reality. We catch glimpses of this all-pervading consciousness when we encounter people who show tremendous courage, extraordinary creativity, and boundless compassion (BG II:16–17). Different Ways for Different Temperaments There are several paths to spiritual realization. People are born with different temperaments and tendencies: some like to be active, others reflective, others affective and engaged with their feelings, and others (the show-me types) favor experiments (let’s see what works). Spiritual paths exist for each of these four types. For the active there is the Way of Work, karma yoga; for the reflective there is the Way of Knowledge, jñ¯na yoga; for the affective type in whom sentiments prevail, there is the Way of Devoa tion, bhakti yoga; and for the experimental, let’s-see-what-works type, there is the Way of Meditation, raja yoga (BG XIII:24–25). Work without Attachment One doesn’t have to renounce the world to advance spiritually—one can remain fully engaged with family, social, and professional responsibilities. All one need do is to shift one’s attention and motivation for what one does. Say one is a business person, attend to the duties of the day with disregard for what they will net one—that’s all that need be done. Both the ignorant and the wise may do the same work, but the ignorant act with a selfish motive, and the wise act without expectation of any material gain (BG II:47 and III:25). Unselfish Work—a Mind Purifier Imagine a boy playing with his dog that has a curly tail. He tries to straighten the tail, but as soon as he lets go of it, it curls up again. The parts of our lives seem to behave like that—we straighten out one component, but then a curly tail takes it place. But take heart. Mahatma Gandhi used nonviolent means to win India’s independence from British rule. At his cottage in Sevagram a prayer meeting was held at which a verse of the Bhagavad G¯ a was read. After the meetings, Gandhi would sit quietly ıt¯ for a few minutes with closed eyes, contemplating the verse. Many who attended those meetings were astonished to see the transformation in Gandhi’s expression. His face often wore a look of pain that reflected the sufferings of his countrymen because of the cruelty of the rulers’ deeds. After meditating on the G¯ a , however, ıt¯ his face glowed with love and compassion for all. The secret of Gandhi’s courage, calmness, and wisdom was his ability to reconnect his consciousness with the Divine—the source of infinite strength, infinite compassion, and infinite wisdom (BG II:48 and XII:13).

When Work Becomes Worship Constant awareness of the presence of the Universal Spirit in everything can transform all work into worship. The mind becomes agitated and restless only when one works with a selfish motive. Work performed in the attitude of worship of the Universal Spirit purifies and calms the mind. It is a simple way to obtain peace of mind and enduring happiness (BG XVIII:46). The Way of Knowledge There are many kinds of knowledge. Secular knowledge does not take us beyond the material world—the world where everything is subject to change. It is impossible to find lasting happiness in things that are impermanent. Deep introspection reveals that there is correspondence between the human being (the microcosm) and the universe (the macrocosm). One discovers that the spiritual component in human beings is identical with the Universal Spirit that pervades the phenomenal world. As bliss is a primary attribute of the Universal Spirit, there must be a corresponding reservoir of happiness within all human beings. Those who seek enduring happiness must therefore guide their actions in the light of constant awareness of the divine presence in everything. The journey toward spiritual realization is beset with hindrances as well as helps, and an uncontrolled mind is one of the major hindrances. It is not easy to discipline an unsteady mind, but constant awareness of one’s identity with the Supreme Spirit is a tremendous source of strength, wisdom, and perseverance (BG XVIII:20 and XVIII:37). Imprisoned in a Cage Some desires must be met to keep us alive—the desires for food, water, and clothing. But our desires do not stop there, and striving for these additional desires does not bring us closer to lasting contentment. Superfluous desires are better called cravings. We become angry when our cravings are not fulfilled. Greed is the food that sustains cravings and feeds the ego. The ego is the cheerleader of cravings—it enshrines selfconceit, possessiveness, and jealousy (BG XVI:12–16). The Anatomy of Human Descent An uncontrolled mind, always craving gratification of sense pleasures, leads to disastrous consequences. Imagine a sense object that comes to one’s attention. A desire arises to possess and enjoy that object. These thoughts create attachments and eventually craving. If the craving is not fulfilled, one becomes frustrated and angry, and angry people lose the capacity to discriminate between right and wrong, which in turn leads to a ruined life.

From Knowledge to Wisdom Theoretical knowledge of the nature of the mind and how to control the mind is not enough. The task of protecting those jewels which are within each one of us begins with control of the mind (BG II:62–63). Having brought the mind under control. and these messages create an uninterrupted flow of thought waves. Even the taste for worldly desires drops away when one directly experiences the Divine (BG II:58–59). even mighty one likes the Amazon. A wise person is like an ocean that remains unmoved when rivers. even though withdrawing the senses from sense desires frees one from those desires.Spirituality begins with controlling one’s desires and anger. They are unswervingly aware of the fact that indestructibility. these propensities are obstructions for the ripening of wisdom. aversion. which requires rigorous vigilance. the intellect exercises its veto power and recommends returning injury with pardon. The spiritual path is slippery. When the mind advises returning hatred with hatred. This is the reason why an uncontrolled mind is never free from the propensities of desire. the wise person remains absorbed in the realm of spiritual consciousness where worldly desires knock but cannot enter. When that is accomplished. The five sense organs continuously bombard the mind with messages from the outer world. When the mind counsels returning injury with injury. and it does no good simply to carry the staff of knowledge-that-leads-to-wisdom—one must use that staff to steady oneself. Intellect over Mind The mind is inherently extroverted. where it flies smoothly and seemingly effortlessly (BG II:56). spiritual realization is very near. This is how spiritual aspirants develop the art of noncooperation with the mind. Imagine that two notorious burglars. and bliss are the attributes of the Supreme Spirit (BG II:64 and II:70). the intellect can decide to return wrongdoings with love and compassion. succeed in sneaking into a house—the burglars are adept at stealing the jewels of peace and happiness. the journey from knowledge to wisdom can be compared to the flight of a jet plane that struggles through thunderstorms at lower altitudes before reaching clear blue skies. xiv . so it is essential to learn to interrupt this flow of thoughts by withdrawing the sense organs at will from their sense objects. However. From Wisdom to Peace The attainment of wisdom is the hardest part of the spiritual journey. Withdrawing the senses from sense objects enables the intellect to withhold identification with the mind’s activities. the intellect must learn to exercise its supremacy over the mind. and anger. the taste for them lingers. However. enter it. To achieve the capacity to do this. Desire and Anger. To change the analogy. undivided consciousness.

but the mind obscures that fact with agitated waves of worldly desires. Something similar to that happens to a beginner who is seeking knowledge of the existence of the Supreme Spirit. To change the analogy. It is the habit of the mind to wander around in the outside world all the time. and stones that are dropped into it raise waves. and meditation is the gate that opens that bliss to us.Which Is the Better Way? Looking at a necklace of pearls. The waters must be calmed. honesty. succinctly known as meditation. Meditation quiets those waves (BG V:28). Those waves do not let us see who we are. Likewise. the whole universe is pervaded and held together by the indwelling presence of one and the same Spirit. A full moon may be reflected in the water of the lake. Each of the ways enables the aspirant to realize the Spiritual Unity behind the apparent diversity in the universe. The Way of Meditation and the Way of Devotion are the other two. The spiritual search leads to the discovery that actually there is no place in the universe where the Supreme Spirit is absent. The prerequisite for attaining steady wisdom is a pure mind. The indwelling Spirit can be experienced by cutting the chains that bind us to the world of matter. by using the mind as a powerful instrument mystics have been able to discover profound spiritual truths. God is constantly within us. Preparation for Meditation The powers of the human mind tend to be dissipated like rays of light. and it is meditation that does the cutting. They are four paths to the same summit (BG V:1 and V:4). but purification of the mind is a slow and arduous task. In fact. As we have seen. meditation is the xv . Spiritual bliss is far superior to the transient pleasures of everyday life. If one remains quiet. It is possible but extremely difficult to comprehend the Divine Reality through knowledge alone. and compassion. and then one knows who one is. requiring virtues like truthfulness. like pearls of a necklace. but if the lake’s surface is troubled we do not see the moon clearly. the mind is like a lake. Scientists have shown us that it is possible to unlock the secrets of nature by the powers of concentrated minds. but they do not see the string that holds the pearls together. The Way of Unselfish Work and the Way of Knowledge are two of the four ways for purifying the mind. the eyes of the ignorant see pearls of different sizes and shapes. The Way of Meditation Those who are following either the Way of Knowledge or the Way of Unselfish Work soon discover that cravings of the mind for worldly pleasures are the greatest obstacle to spiritual realization. That habit can be broken by shifting the mind to the indwelling consciousness whose bliss can be attained by deep contemplation. eventually the winds that ruffle the water will give up.

The second step involves relaxing the mind by breathing rhythmically. The prerequisite for meditation is a firm resolve to adhere to moral values that help to purify the mind—truthfulness. such as a snow-covered mountain. it enters into sam¯dhi. When the mind loses all sense of being a separate identity. inaudible (lips move but no sound is uttered). Unconditional love is a potent purifier of the heart’s emotions because it washes away the desire for trivial and transient objects. which in full glory is reflected in the mind only when it is totally free of all disturbances. But if one is impatient to complete the journey. or meditation.a a that monitor the external world and turn it toward the object of one’s concentration (BG VI:12). This way is for those who have emotional temperaments suitable for developing intense love and deep yearning (BG VIII:22. Meditation—the Method Meditation needs something to focus on. The Way of Devotion Whether one follows the path of knowledge.method by which human beings can learn how to control and empower their minds for the spiritual journey. or unselfish work. a superconscious a state where one savors bliss that endures. there is another way. a serene lake in moonlight. or a colorful horizon at sunrise or sunset. In the state of deep meditation the mind is completely detached from the outgoing senses and is fully submerged in the indwelling Divine Spirit. Success in reaching this state and making it endure can be achieved with practice (BG VI:18–19 and VI:21–22). Spiritual seekers of emotional temperament adore Divinity and seek heart unity with their chosen Divine ideal. is the seat of Divine emotions. This resolve prepares one to mount the steps that ascend toward meditation. The first of these is purity. Before one enters this tunnel the wayfarer must have faith that there will be light at its end. and noncovetousness. Only a devotee with a pure heart can achieve it. It can be the manifestation of Divinity in religious symbol. In the spiritual journey this shortcut is called the Way of Devotion. The final step is to withdraw the mind from the senses a . pr¯n¯y¯ma. also known as the pure heart. xvi . the spiritual journey is difficult—it is like crossing mountain ranges by driving a car over a zigzagging road with numerous curves and many ups and downs. IX:31 and IX:34). internal and external. or in nature. or mental (contemplation on the meaning of the mantra). In this analogy there is a shortcut. The focus can also be holy words or syllables that are intoned as mantras and rhythmically repeated—the repetitions can be audible. Love and Devotion The spiritualized mind. in a human form. a tunnel that cuts through the base of the mountain. noninjury.

Who would dare to leap across deep chasms. This love eventually turns into deep devotion and an intense yearning for direct knowledge of the Supreme Reality. Having experienced that Truth oneself. and without completely purified minds. He repeats his act again and again with the same result. Even these imagined desires however. and falls in love with its amazing glory. Delusions of the mind cannot be completely overcome by selfeffort. but the imagined desires will still arise in the mind and disturb its tranquility.Emotional devotees water the plant of devotion with tears of love. As soon as he glimpses the water. one cannot truly know anything that one does not truly love (BG X:10–11). The spiritual aspirant who wants to climb to the top of the mountain of self-realization without help will have a similar experience. True devotion merges with true knowledge. the reservoir of Divine nectar is inaccessible. minds do not become completely pure. The truth of the matter is that one’s own efforts are not sufficient to keep the mind in a steady state. marvels. This is how the flower of devotion evolves into the fruit of knowledge. He pushes the algae aside to see the water beneath it. they intermingle and strengthen each other. Overcoming Hurdles Self-effort is not enough to overcome all the hurdles that arise in the spiritual journey. one’s chosen ideal will at last grant one a direct experience of the Supreme Reality. hoping that at some point success will be attained (BG VII:14). and climb across razor-sharp cliffs without help from others? Like fast-moving clouds covering the sun. one contemplates. In true love. which is likewise the Supreme Truth. all doubts are dispelled. subside when the mind tastes the Divine bliss. agitations of the mind are always ready to disturb the intellect. Moved by the intensity of one’s devotion. One waits. Actually. The Power of Maya Imagine a child playing by the side of a pond that is covered by algae. When the paths of knowledge and devotion come together. wade through rushing torrents. The Merging of the Ways When one sees the entire universe as pervaded by the single Universal Spirit. every act of the devotee becomes an act of worship (BG IX:26). a puff of wind covers the water with algae again. One seems to be caught in a vicious circle—without the Divine nectar. Work without attachment to results can protect the mind from sensory distractions. It is important not to let one’s pride and egotism bar one from the total surrender to the Supreme (BG XVIII:58 and XVIII: 66). xvii . Finally he tires of the game and turns away. The only way to overcome those delusions is to seek refuge in the Supreme Spirit with unyielding faith.

they are unable to free themselves from the shackles of the world. and no matter how hard they try. This does not keep him away from those brambles because the camel cannot control its nature. Consciousa ness. Consciousness. As a familiar Hindu adage has it.Self-Surrender and Divine Grace A camel eats thorny brambles and its mouth bleeds. ıt¯ xviii . Arriving at the Destination Spiritual life is about the spiritualizing of knowledge. human beings likewise suffer innumerable sorrows. The only way out is to seek Divine help and surrender oneself to its ministrations (BG XVIII:62). In “East Coker. and Bliss.” and sages in India coined a composite word to describe the end that is also the beginning. It proceeds through human effort supported by Divine grace. the winds of God’s love are constantly blowing. Physicists think that the universe began with the Big Bang. the question remains: to reach what destination? Destinations are the termini of journeys that have starting points. the heart that beats in the body of the universe. Eliot notes that “our end is in our beginning. And thus the conclusion of this journey through the Bhagavad G¯ a is Truth. It is important to keep in mind that these are not three things. sat-chit-¯nanda: Truth. and Bliss (BG XVIII:65). but what caused that Bang? Mystics say that it was God. but one must raise one’s sail. Still. S. Bound by their nature. love. they are three attributes of the single Reality.” T. and work.

a P¯ ndava warrior hesitating before battle. Arjuna is thrust into crisis. . some of them seemingly contradictory. . these two sets of cousins were raised together and shared the same teachers. a. back rulership to the five P¯ndava brothers. most of which can be argued to be more or less authentic and legitimate. the latter group was due to give . . The Gı a is included in the sixth book (Bhı. he must ¯t¯ face the anguish of killing his relatives and friends or allow himself to be killed. both at home in India and ¯ta abroad. However. followed by an assessment of how the many possible construals of the text in fact reflect the uniquely Hindu worldview that tolerates and in some cases requires holding together multiple positions simultaneously. Samjaya proceeds . his charioteer and teacher. others are interested in sorting out the many philosophical and religious implications of the text. maparvan) of ¯t¯ ¯s the Mah¯bh¯ rata and documents one tiny event in a gargantuan epic tale. Some are fascinated by its linguistic contribution. The a.EDITOR’S PREFACE with a User’s Guide to the Word-by-Word Analysis of the Bhagavad Gı a ¯t¯ The Bhagavad Gı a is one of the most studied and most translated texts in the history ¯t¯ of world literature. during a dice game and ceded to their cousins. P¯ ndavas are forced to wage war in order to regain their rightful territory. As Gerald Larson has noted. . the battlefield. it has made its mark as a standard. the moment just before the battle begins. The text begins with the blind king Dhrtar¯stra asking his minister Samjaya to tell . By prearranged agreement. him what is happening on the field of the Kurus. . and Krishna. The main a a plot of the larger work involves a dispute between cousins over rulership of the Kuruksetra kingdom in north central India. The kingdom had been lost by five brothers. Emerging from post-Vedic India. The Bhagavad Gı a tells a story of great crisis. to list the principal warriors on the field and then directs his focus to Arjuna and his xix . It also has intrigued and eluded interpreters outside India for over two centuries. a crisis that is solved through the ¯t¯ interaction between Arjuna. Thus. but refused to abide by the contract. . Part of the appeal of the Gı ¯. a. almost universal work of the Hindu tradition. and has been used in support of various others that have arisen since its composition. a sketch of the story line is given. we arrive at the opening of the Bhagavad Gı a. a. .” In this brief introduction. “The Gı a has been ¯t¯ construed in all sorts of interpretive modalities. a. . blind king Dhrtar¯st ra. lies in its multivalent quality: it explicitly advances numerous teachings. The prospect of war between the two camps is especially repugnant because so many good friends and close relatives must be killed. the P¯ ndavas. the hundred sons of the a.

The sight overwhelms him. attained perfection and tells Arjuna that he should act. answers that explain how to live with an understanding in which action becomes purposeful and liberating. grandsons. are not enough to prompt Arjuna into action. So Krishna persists. however. Arjuna is advised to perform the action that has to be done. This experience prompts Arjuna to seek new answers from Krishna. . the sacrifice of knowledge ( jñ¯na-yajña) is said to bring the completion of all action a (IV:33). Arjuna is unable to act. even though engaged in action (IV:20). water does not wet it. He reminds him that although contact with the objects of sense produces pleasure and pain. Krishna points out that it was by action alone that Janaka. gain and loss. only then can one be free of compulsive desire. he gains heaven (II:37). By knowing that all this is only the gunas. recounting to Arjuna the insights to be gained from S¯ mkhya a. Krishna provides yet another teaching. In the third chapter. In the fifth chapter. refusing to fight. How does Krishna exact the transformation of Arjuna from a man filled with doubt to a man of great knowledge and resolve? He begins in chapter 2 by explaining the Yoga of Knowledge. Krishna urges Arjuna to ready himself for battle. am the doer” (III:27). As will happen again and again over several more chapters. Krishna responds that desire and anger. Arjuna asks Krishna to place the chariot in the center of the field and then sees arrayed before him his teachers. that his mind is still confused. his mind overcome with grief. leading to constant satisfaction and independence. If he wins. Only by subduing the senses and controlling the mind can desire be overcome. Bringing to mind the S¯ mkhya system. one becomes free . from attachment. if he loses. attending to the holding together of the world (loka-sam graha) (III:20). the Yoga of Action. He speaks of that which is beyond all change: weapons do not cut it. The dialogue builds until Arjuna receives from Krishna a vision of totality that liberates him from his prior self-preoccupied identity. Although the reasons provided by Krishna are certainly sufficient for Arjuna to move into battle. Sacrifice is cited as the model for proper action. bringing into question Arjuna’s attachment to both himself and others. to regard pleasure and pain. it is only the deluded one who thinks “I . and friends. . This is accomplished by renouncing the fruit of action (karma-phala-asan ga). uncles.charioteer Krishna. that he needs to hear a better path. Krishna takes Arjuna on a philosophical journey. conceal true knowledge and fuel the senses. fire does not burn it. the Yoga of Renunciation. In a discourse on the Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge in the fourth chapter. sons. he throws down his bow. He tells Arjuna that as a warrior his duty is to fight. both are not lasting (II:14). tions are done by the gunas of prakrti alone. he reiterates that aca. winds do not dry it (II:23). Thinking that if all is destroyed then kingdom and pleasure would be of no use. brothers. they remain empty theories. philosophy. When asked by Arjuna why a man is impelled to do evil. He explains that one must see action in inaction and inaction in action. Such a one is said to do nothing. Only when Arjuna has renounced interest in the fruits of his action can he find true peace. it is clear that all will be slain. Krishna further articulates xx . the philosopher-king. Arjuna asserts to Krishna that this teaching is not enough. staying always free from attachment (III:19). In the chapters that follow. victory and failure as the same. These sage words. he gains the earth. . born of passion (rajas).

and anger. the enjoyer of all sacrifices. an outcaste. Those who see the higher prakrti through . victories. attainable through Krishna himself.” are cast all the players on the battlefield: the sons of Dhr tar¯stra. O Lord. Krishna tells Arjuna to stand up. weapons. an elephant. and the higher prakrti. “I support this entire universe constantly with a single fraction of Myself” (X:42). little by little he should come to rest. then to me cause to be seen Thyself. Krishna tells Arjuna of the highest self. and more. the origin. sacrifice and devotion make their offerings to Krishna: he is witness. existence and nonexistence. all fruits of action are transcended and peace is attained. Finally. immortality. the Yoga of Meditation. Having revealed what time ¯s . who has overcome desire. sages. such a one is forever liberated (V:28). and even a learned and wise Brahmin as the same (V:18). he should not think of anything” (VI:24–25). he declares. and completely restraining the multitude of senses with the mind. mantras.” He declares that even those who sacrifice to lesser gods in fact sacrifice to Krishna. mind. singing praise. all worlds are pervaded by it. Arjuna asks Krishna in chapter 11 to reveal the form that is described as Lord and Highest Self. Krishna distinguishes between the lower prakrti. trees. with the intelligence firmly grasped. horses. Krishna. none of these teachings resolves Arjuna’s crisis. “To the gods the god-worshipping go. he has proven to be the manifestation of all that is worthy of worship. all of them without exception. from which all life emerges. The vision is without beginning or end. demons. The means to achieve this are described in yet another teaching. Krishna explains the nature of his compassion: by appearing as so many gods. a. a dog. Vedic hymns. My worshippers go surely to me” (VII:23).the need for the relinquishment of attachment. will bring. the sage Bhı . In the Yoga of Knowledge and Discrimination. To gain yoga. “By Me these have already been struck down. and all the others. ma. a showing (darsana): “If Thou thinkest it possible for me to ´ see this. Prince of Yoga. Into Krishna’s many mouths. saying that the wise ones see a cow. He asks for a direct experience. by which all this universe is pervaded” (VIII:22). Krishna speaks of the prakrti that he issues forth. and intelligence are controlled. studded with terrible tusks “glowing like the fires of universal destruction. who is the “seed of all beings. . the Yoga of Manifestation. such splendor would be of the splendor of that Great Being” (XI:12). . warriors. “If there should be in the sky a thousand suns risen all at once. . Krishna explains purusa as the support of things. Krishna reveals to Arjuna the vision that he has requested. In response. He describes the sage intent on release as one whose senses. In the Yoga of Royal Knowledge and of Royal Mystery. In the Yoga of Imperishable Brahman. “within which all beings stand. be the mere instrument” (XI:33). dissolution. Krishna continues. which is the world of the senses and the mind. the final shelter. His mind having been fixed in the self. . the Imperishable” (XI:4). Hence. fear. Both are said to have their origin in . and foundation. The gods stand in amazement. the vision . Krishna advises “Abandoning those desires whose origins lie in one’s intention. the teacher Drona. to conquer his enemies. As before. after so much preparation and so many discourses. Krishna assures Arjuna that even a small amount of practice will be beneficial. to be attained. In the next four chapters. Overwhelmed xxi . At the end. all that inspires ascension to the true self. the ninth chapter. rivers. but their fruit is of little consequence. In chapter 10. In knowing this.

is free to act. I stand with doubt dispelled. for the next nine chapters. Until this point. Arjuna has now had direct experience of what has been so lavishly praised and described by Krishna. change. In the final chapters. The unfolding of the Gı a may be summarized in four movements: the crisis of ¯t¯ Arjuna in chapter 1. thus putting an end to any need for further teaching. the cultivation of . and then continued instruction in chapters 12 through 18. Arjuna praises him as the first of gods. is this: “Delusion is lost and wisdom gained. received plausible advice from Krishna. From chapters 12 through 18. the distinctions of the gunas. the . ¯t¯ In our brief overview of the Bhagavad Gı a . He asks more about the three gunas and how they function within prakrti. notable for its first resolve in contrast to his lack of nerve in the first chapter. all these yogas as well as everything else are ultimately negated by the vision of the True Self provided in chapter 11. He asks Krishna to talk more about the difference between purusa. indicating that Krishna’s task as teacher has been completed. Rather than focusing on his own selfish concerns. at the conclusion of the Gı a . . Krishna’s command “Do as thou desirest!” signals that Arjuna’s knowledge has now been fully embodied. . knower and what is to be known. The pivotal verse of the last chapter. Arjuna stated his anguish in chapter 1 and. Having reflected on this fully. are resurrected in service of an enlightened way of detached action. The true self is no longer a theoretical abstraction but has been revealed in embodied form. and in fact the world itself. it might even seem that any one of the nine yogas prescribed in those chapters by Krishna would be sufficient for Arjuna to solve his dilemma. he finds out how the yogins see the highest self through the eye of wisdom. that he has reached the point where he can in full conscience act without hesitation. that his vision of Krishna as Lord would utterly transform his relationship with the world. Krishna elucidates the distinction between liberating and binding conditions and then. Arjuna. we have encountered a multiplicity of ¯t¯ teaching. Arjuna has regarded Krishna as his teacher and relied utterly on him for guidance and instruction. and prakrti. . The contents of the chapter reflect concerns that Krishna has addressed consistently since the second chapter: sacrifice of the fruits of action. the field of . Considered separately. do as thou desirest” (XVIII:63). But this is simply not the case: the vision is followed by further affirmation of what xxii . Arjuna asks for further explanations on the nature of the devotion by which he has been given his vision. even after receiving the vision of totality. It might be supposed that the enlightenment experience of chapter 11 would be for Arjuna an eschatological event. explains the Yoga of Freedom by Renunciation. I shall do as Thy command” (XVIII:73). but with a difference. these teachings. the importance of nondoership. the revelation of chapter 11. in the concluding chapter. the primal purusa. His decisions become his own. However. is as follows: “Thus to thee by Me has been expounded the knowledge that is more secret than secret. Arjuna’s final statement. through Thy grace. After expressing homage and obeisance. he asks Krishna to return to his human form. and the dialogue once more resumes. equanimity. the knower of the field. his instruction by Krishna in chapters 2 through 10. by me. Unchanging One. Arjuna no longer implores Krishna for definite answers about what he should or should not do.by Krishna’s powers.

and all impure castes. . bhakti” (xvi). trance-like obliteration of all things and thoughts. even the autonomy that Arjuna achieves in chapter 18 does not help him when he attempts to enter heaven. as does Jñ¯ nes vara. in which Samjaya poetically proclaims: “Wherever there is Krishna. but was generalized so as to fit all other categories of Hindu society. Once the ksatriya gained access to salvation through his . Nothing was outside the realm of ultimate values. as ¯t¯ new circumstances. to that lordship is devotion. Lord of Yoga. The instruction Arjuna received before his enlightening vision remains essential following this experience. the approach presented in the Gı a differs from generally accepted ¯t¯ notions about moksa as requiring the renunciation of the world and of sam¯dhi as a . the generalization became easy. the path leading from studentship to householding to renunciation to blessedness that enables one to lead a full religious life. Robert N. the message is the “end of the world and its accompanying ´ . For ´ . a ´a view that Madeleine Biardeau attributes to a more open conception of liberation characteristic of the later sections of the Mah¯bh¯ rata. activities. if we look at the larger story of Arjuna as it unfolds in the great epic. so have many scholars. though at the same time the status of the Brahmans remains unimpaired. notes several different usages of the text. a sequence of chapters “which show the ‘rehabilitation’ process of a man who has seen the emptiness beyond his own old structures of meaning and does not know yet how to proceed in the interpretation of the new” (de Nicolás. and it is clear that the answers are provided not only for Arjuna but are paradigmatic for people of virtually any walk of life. The Gı a becomes a text ¯t¯ appropriate to all persons of all castes or no caste. it is no longer one path.. a surely be splendor. place a more emphasis on devotion. the Marathi commentator. victory. Furthermore. Bhaskara a ´ xxiii . 273). Herein lies one of the special contributions of the Bhagavad Gı a: the religious vi¯t¯ sion. She writes that this new approach a a gave every svadharma (one’s own duty) religious content and an access to ultimate salvation. whose own position is that “the Gı a proclaims as ¯t¯ ¯t¯ its highest message the lordship of Krsna and the highest response of the human being . . both traditional and modern. Sam kara (AD 788–820). the lessons of the Gı a must be repeated again and again. every aspect of life is in fact a way ¯t¯ of salvation. Theologically. the archer (Arjuna). . is a forever repeating experience.Krishna has taught. its message transcends the limits of classical Hinduism. like the Hindu conception of life itself. This is illustrated in the final verse of the text. to resolve his dilemma. while not rejecting Sam kara’s view. In the model presented by the Bhagavad Gı a . . there will . women.” Madhusudana and Venkatan¯tha. The Gı a presents a view of reli¯t¯ gious practice at variance with the classical tradition as found in the Dharmas¯ stra. The Brahmanic model was not lost sight of. including Sudras. . . held many perspectives on the Bhagavad Gı a. wherever there is the Son of Prth¯. and is also deemed helpful for all who heed it. there. It is interesting to note that just as Krishna presented many perspectives to Arjuna. . this is my thought” (XVIII:78). Minor. arise and fall. . Krishna tells Arjuna of innumerable ways to achieve peace of mind. wealth. new worlds.(77) As Biardeau points out. activity. and righteousness.

Agni. a twelfth-century thinker. and Swami Vivekananda. because it is open to so many interpretations and has been used to confirm opposing positions ranging from ´ . Gandhi. Agni is best. could such a text survive? How can one account for or even describe a text that includes and is used to support a virtual cacophony of traditions and positions? Setting aside even the interpretations of the aforementioned later commentators. “radically reinterprets the text so that it asserts an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme.” Minor also cites modern interpretations by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mohandas K. Varuna is best. That one is then swept from its elevated position as new situations. new questions emerge: and yet. de Nicolás has explained this phenomenon philosophically as a systematic and methodic effort to save rationality in its plural manifestations through an activity of embodiment that emancipates man from any form of xxiv . bhakti approach also taught by Krishna? Max Mueller addressed a similar issue when trying to cope with the multiplicity of gods in the Rg Veda and invented a term to describe it: . whether that of a god being sacrificed to or a yogic discipline being practiced. To identify Indra. But how. how can the explicitly nontheistic S¯m khya appear alongside with the thoroughly theistic a. Few of the scholars cited here seem to agree on the meaning of the text. the famous dualist. It may be argued that this utter contextualization of the text causes it to fall into a fatal relativism. is trivial and perhaps meaningless. to address either Indra or Agni or Varuna. so fully developed in the hymns of the Veda which I wished to mark definitely by a name of its own. and Varuna is one thing.” Nimb¯rka.´ . asserting that the world is a real aspect of Brahman. he. the many souls. in which each time Arjuna asks Krishna for ¯t¯ one truth. another chapter. Karma Yoga is best. Bhakti Yoga is best. another yoga. and Sri Aurobindo. is quite another. Sam kara’s monism to Madhva’s dualism. a Hindu will always admit. who took a syncretistic approach to the text (xvi–xix). Multiplicity is the rule. or she proves efficacious. with one god. is given life as long as it proves effective.” Madhva (1238–1317). it was this phase. of course. of course. takes issue with Sam kara’s interpretation. then. (40) The Vedic method which extols different gods within the same text is similar to that employed in the Bhagavad Gı a . of course. Each view. if pressed. a prompted interpretations that see Krishna as teaching “innate nonidentity in identity. again and again Krishna offers Arjuna yet another perspective. who used the text to help inspire the independence movement. Indra is best. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. it is syncretism. Paul Hacker has referred to the accommodation of multiple teachings within one tradition as “inclusivism.” Antonio T. and matter and its divisions. R¯m¯nuja used the Gı a in support of his position that “the true self is a a ¯t¯ not divine and not one with the other selves. one perspective gaining and holding ascendancy as long as it. calling it henotheism. of course. that the text. as for the time being the only god in existence with an entire forgetfulness of all other gods. yet none of them can be said to be incorrect. of course.

A panoply of per¯t¯ spectives is offered to the reader in a nonjudgmental way. the entire problematic is obliterated when Krishna reveals his true form to Arjuna. allowing him the freedom to act efficiently in any one identifiable field in the social fabric. whether the Bible or the Confucian Analects or the Bhagavad Gı a . In a manner true to the construction of the text itself. but also inviting the reader to experiment with creating his or her own delicacy. However. USER’S GUIDE FOR THE WORD-BY-WORD ¯ ¯ ANALYSIS OF THE BHAGAVAD GI TA Reaching into another culture. all postulation is rendered senseless by the ultimate postulate that no words are ever totally adequate to experience (avaktavya eva). has given rise to ¯t¯ nearly countless interpretations. allowing a various practices and positions to be pursued. The net result is that all possibilities are present for Arjuna when he gains the knowledge that all are impermanent. requires a spirit of adventure and inquiry. Krishna painstakingly guides Arjuna through many yogas. yet. often serve ¯t¯ as the portal or entry point for engaging and comprehending a worldview. as noted in the translator’s preface to this book. setting out in menu form variant English-language samplings for each of the Sanskrit terms. In a sense. inviting the reader to sample the translation he serves up. Similarly. The Bhagavad Gı a. ı a Mutual paths are allowed to exist in complementarity. the many positions proposed by Krishna do not necessarily compete with one another but rather complete one another. Texts. all the individual personalities and collective armies are swallowed up by the gaping mouth of Krishna. All the words. C. For religious texts even one simple turn of phrase can generate multiple redactions. To know the meanings of the words of any book does not guarantee understanding of authorial intent or how others following the author have interpreted the text. from A. so the many yogas are prescribed in the G¯t¯ without compromising or subordinating one to another.identification. (164) Just as the many gods of the Vedas are effective in different situations. If one needs to act. the Gı a is composed in the spirit of the Jaina approach to truth. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada’s assertion of the primacy of Lord Krishna rooted in the Dvaita theology of Madhva to Antonio T. if one needs to meditate. The Bhagavad Gı a sets forth a multiplicity of possible paths. This “henocretic” text is written with a gentle tolerance. the present rendition by Winthrop Sargeant does the least violence to the original of all the translations of the Gı a with which I am familiar. His work makes a unique contribution. the origin and dissolution of all things. xxv . one uses Karma Yoga. The ¯t¯ Jainas assert that every statement is an utterance of partial truth. He shows the reader the possibilities offered by ¯t¯ the text. one uses Dhy¯na Yoga. As we reach back in history the context can easily shift. any attempt to understand a text carries the risk of missing the mark. whether the ancient phase of one’s own people or the heritage of ancestors other than one’s own.

This approach gives ¯ the reader the toolbox of approaches available to the translator and provides an opportunity for the reader to develop his or her own rendering of the text within a range of reasonable possibilities. Sargeant renders this verse: Action is inferior by far To the Yoga of intuitive determination. In the editions of 1984 and 1994. and the complex systems of noun endings (declensions) and . I provided a deeper analysis of each term. and take heart that this book can serve many people in many ways. related to the word Buddha or Awakened One. For Mahatma Gandhi. a lilting. replete with such neologisms as “car-warriors” for what Thompson ¯t¯ renders “great chariot warriors” (35) and “self-controlled practicant” for what Patton renders as “that person whose thought is placid” (65). symmetrical play of four sets of s eight syllables in each verse. George Thompson surmises that the text was primarily recited or sung and chooses a simplified word flow that sounds melodious and clear in the English language. In S¯mkhya. Franklin Edgerton ¯t¯ not only translates every single term.” In S¯mkhya philosophy. finite conjugated verbs. rules of euphonic or sound combination (samdhi). the buddhi also carries the residues of all past a. buddhi-yoga. Sargeant provided a simple word equivalent for each Sanskrit term with some identification of the grammatical part of speech. chapter of the Gı a. which is the . but he also retained Sanskrit word order. buddhi. Buddhi. stretching the English language into amazing contortions that rival the most advanced yoga poses. including the now widely accepted and understood terms karma and dharma. karma in the form of enduring inclinations or the state of being known as the bh¯vas. My own training in classical yoga included the memorization of the 1943 Gita Press translation of the second chapter of the Gı a. In an attempt to capture a hint of the cadence of the original ´loka construction. I also expanded the range of possible meanings for each word. perhaps take sides. locating its verbal root origin where possible. 143–215). In the very first edition of this book.de Nicolás’s perspectival reading of the text based on the existential insights of Spanish philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset. ¯t¯ indicating its use of participles. the text designed to gird the warrior Arjuna for battle became an inspiration for India’s nonviolent revolution. One of my favorite translations of the Bhagavad Gı a is perhaps also the most inscrutable. following a convention also observed in translating Patañjali’s Yoga Su tra (see my Yoga and the Luminous. utterly at variance with the original cadence and word order. indicating the importance of the first emanation of prakrti (the creative matrix). This verse includes a key technical term employed in the original. Sargeant situates the place of the Gı a within the context of Sanskrit literary history. As one example of choices made by three translators. It a determines the state or mood into which one awakens. Christopher Isherwood and Swami Prabhavananda alternate between prose and verse renderings. Reader. is often translated as the “intellect. xxvi . take your place. Laurie Patton stretches each verse into eight lines. as in the second a. compounds (pages 3–8). we will consider verse II:49. Each translator brings a distinct methodology to the task. the modality of knowledge ( jñ¯na) within the buddhi guarantees ¯t¯ a freedom.

we get the sense that thinking or reflection is better than acting on one’s first impulse for the sake of greed or desire or selfishness. . Sargeant attempts to retain vestiges of the ´loka form by dividing the verse into four s lines. Without using insight or intuitive determination. eliminates all of Arjuna’s variant names and makes a very different word choice for the term buddhi. As previously noted. . for the sake of clarity. for those who are motivated by fruits are to be pitied. From all three translations.Conqueror of Wealth (Arjuna). one might plunge headlong into the performance of action motivated solely by yearning for its fruits (phalahetu) rather than taking into account the larger picture. buddhau saranam anviccha krpan¯h phalahetavah . action is far inferior to the yoga of insight. Thompson. the buddhi holds the history of one’s past actions. Patton agrees with the usage of the term insight for buddhi and retains the epithet for Arjuna. the original grouping of the terms can be clearly discerned: durena hyavaram karma ¯ . Look for refuge in insight. action is far inferior to the yoga of insight. scrutiny of the Sanskrit can help deepen the understanding xxvii . Those whose goal is the fruits of their actions wind up miserable. Seek refuge in intuitive determination! Despicable are those whose motives are based on the fruit of action.a. buddhiyog¯ d dhanamjaya a . He also retains the epithet for Arjuna while also making clear to the reader that Krishna is addressing Arjuna. who has many nicknames. Thompson does not attempt to retain the versification in a literal sense. She stretches out the versification: Winner of Wealth. Seek refuge in insight. By seeing the prominence of the term buddhi at the start of the second and third lines. and by feeling the impact of the imperative verbs “seek! wish for! desire!” at the end of the second line. but divides his translation into three discrete sentences: Arjuna. Her choice of the term pitied stays closer to the original than either despicable or miserable. If we turn to the Sanskrit analysis.

and jñ¯na will be easily discerned. Compare Sargeant’s translation with one or two others. committed to memory and recited daily the last nineteen verses of the second chapter. while van Buitenen uses driving force. impetus. the word vega in VI:23 can be translated as “agitation. the reader might want to apply the following steps: 1. . and knower ( jña). To fully utilize the tools set forth in this edition. duhkha. variants of key terms such as yoga. dharma. Use the word analysis section in Sargeant’s translation to understand the word choices made by the other translator(s). Patton chooses shock. The Gita Press version selects the word urges. onset. October 9. 2. The paraphrase follows the Sanskrit word order. Consult the detailed assessment in the right-hand column for words of interest. one can gain a friendly familiarity with this classic of world religious literature. Through a careful and creative scanning of the Sanskrit terms provided by Sargeant. karma. Find a verse or set of verses that hold your interest or attention. Develop a collection of verses from the Bhagavad Gı a that you find particu¯t¯ larly important. Mahatma Gandhi. Make note of words that seem familiar. Pay attention to his final word choice in light of various options.of the reader. Sound out the words from the transliterated Sanskrit. Scan the English paraphrase directly beneath the Sanskrit text. such as prakrti. The opening and closing lines refer to the problem to be overcome: attachment to the fruits of action. Decide upon your own preference. shock. one might develop a favorite section of the text for deeper study and reflection. Use the ample white space on each page to copy alternate translations and to develop your own translation and commentary. xxviii . 4. Which do you prefer? 6 Go a step further. Scan the words as suggested here. and so forth. some of the words will repeat and become familiar. The a . 2008). yoga. appeal. Similarly. Additionally. momentum. taking notice of words that seem important or intriguing. De Nicolás translates vega as force. a 3. and genius of the Gı a’s composer lie in the gentle word play of the text. Can you find the word vega in your own experience? Which emotion do you find lying behind or associated with desire and anger? Use this technique with other passages. jñ¯na. following the pronunciation guide on pages 5–8. . origin or cause of action (k¯ranam). the reader can see the framing of ideas contained within the verse. Read with greater understanding the Sargeant translation.” Sargeant chooses the word agitation for his translation. using them as a companion in his quest for social justice (lecture presented at Loyola Marymount University. 5. 8. 7. ¯t¯ By examining the text repeatedly at a leisurely pace. Over the course of several verses. lilt. . according to his secretary Narayan Desai. The middle two lines exhort the reader to recognize the solution: applying and taking refuge in a disciplined (yoga) intellect (buddhi). a These include yoked ( yukta). karma. orgasm. purusa. For instance.

Two volumes. Gerald James. Minor. Tens of thousands of people throughout the world have benefited from his careful rendering and analysis of the text. with tools to facilitate greater understanding. 1975. any errors or omissions that occur are my own. 1943–1971. Gorakhpur. His personal fascination with Indian philosophy. My sole contribution has been editing the grammatical analysis for consistency and completeness. B. University of Vienna. Christopher Key. Edgerton. ed. Chapple. The Bhagavad Gı a in the Mah¯bh¯rata: A Bilingual Edition. Consider enrolling in a ¯t¯ Sanskrit language class at a nearby college. Householder. university. Larson. 1981. van Buitenen. translation and elaborate purports. 1972. Massachusetts: ¯t¯ Harvard University Press. “The Salvation of the King in the Mah¯bh¯ rata. First twenty editions.9. Roman transliteration. not related in any way to his livelihood. ed. Through his efforts. J. T. Winthrop Sargeant (1903–1986) served for many decades as the premier music writer for The New Yorker. xxix . N. Cambridge. Hacker. 1982. 1944. New York: Collier Books. Renouncer: Essays in Honour of Louis Dumont. The Bhagavad Gı a . Search out a study group on the Bhagavad Gı a. Franklin. Madan. A.” In Way of Life: a a King. Twenty-first edition. A classic work of world literature has found new expression. By reaching deeply into this text.” Philosophy East and West 31 (1981): 513–41. resulted in this labor of love. “The Song Celestial: Two Centuries of the Bhagavad Gı a in ¯t¯ English. 1983. Complete Edition with ¯t¯ original Sanskrit text. India: Gita Press. Biardeau. or yoga center. Chi¯t¯ a a cago: University of Chicago Press. Sargeant’s Gı a was created by a ¯t¯ nonspecialist for all persons interested in this classic book. Inklusivismus: Eine Indische Denkform. New Delhi: Heritage Pub¯t¯ lisher. 1982. New Delhi: Vikas. ¯t¯ Introduction by Jayadayal Goyandka. Bhagavad Gı a : An Exegetical Commentary. It has been an honor working with this edition of the book. Robert N. A. the elite and arcane world of complex Sanskrit grammar has been made accessible to a wide audience. Madeleine. C. 2008. Bhagavad Gı a As It Is. Christopher Key Chapple Doshi Professor of Indic and Comparative Theology Loyola Marymount University WORKS CITED The Bhagavad Gı a or The Song Divine (With Sanskrit Text and English translation). we extend ourselves back through history into an appreciation of the path trod by our civilizational ancestors in India and perhaps into a deeper sense of self-understanding. Paul. Vienna: Institute for Indology. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Gerhard Oberhammer. Albany: State University of New York Press. English equivalents. Yoga and the Luminous: Patañjali’s Spiritual Path to Freedom.

The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. 2008. London: Penguin Books. The Bhagavad Gı a. ¯t¯ Prabhavananda. 1954. Laurie L. Patton. Swami. London: Longmans. Green. Max. ¯t¯ Introduction by Aldous Huxley. Antonio T. The Song of God: Bhagavad Gı a . The Bhagavad Gı a : A New Translation. New York: Nicolas Hayes. Thompson. 1928. xxx . New York: North Point ¯t¯ Press. ¯t¯ 1976. and Company.Mueller. 2008. de Nicolás. and Christopher Isherwood. George. New York: The New American Library. Avatara: The Humanization of Philosophy through the Bhagavad Gı a Using the Humanistic Philosophy of Jose Ortega y Gasset.

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" and in connection with other matters I have consulted the admirable prefaces to Swami Nikhilananda's "The Upanishads" as well as his translations of these works. though many fine translations exist. as I suppose is inevitable. Chakravarti Narasimhan's" The Mahabharata. In making the readable translation that appears at the bottom of each page. Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood. It should also enable the studious reader to savor something of the original language." Ralph T. which is elegant and extremely concise.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE Why add one more to the numerous English translations of the Bhagavad GIta? It is said to have already been translated at least two hundred times. as well as the recently published first volume of his translation of the Mahabharata (University of Chicago Press) and countless works on Hindu religion and philosophy that I have read in the past. I have consulted numerous previous translations. B. Lal. J. H. Dr. The arrangement also makes it possible for the reader to see the metrical formation of the poem's stanzas. a running vocabulary is provided. he can appreciate the sound of the original language.l forms. referring to the Sanskrit words on each page. so that. As an added aid. A. and all are worth considering. S. Juan Mascaro and P. van Buitenen's translation of Ramanuja's commentary on the Bhagavad GIta. along with such .g Veda. the account given under various headings in Benjamin Walker's" The Hindu World. Such grand poetic concepts as appear in the translation are inherent in the poem. My excuse is that. if he desires." C. my object has been to stick as closely as possible to literal meaning rather than to attempt a masterpiece of English prose. none that I know of presents the original Sanskrit with an interlinear word-for-word arrangement that permits the reader to learn the sound as well as the meaning of each word. many approaches are possible. Rajagopalachari's condensed version. Surendranath Dasgupta's "History of Indian Philosophy." Sukumari Bhattacharji's "The Indian Theogony. Griffith's translation of the B. along with their grammatica. I have tried in the vocabularies to indicate a considerable variety of possible meaning. each. Eliot Deutsch. and the setting of the poem as the principal didactic jewel of the great Hindu epic. I have had recourse to numerous sources-Pratap Chandra Roy's translation of the Epic. In writing the introductory chapters on language. and Swami Chidbhavananda. and what I have striven for is simple clarity along with a reproduction of something of the force and economy of the original. Below each stanza will be found a readable English translation which I hope will give greater coherence to what is often awkwardly expressed in the literal word-for-word interlinear translation. I have added nothing. Radhakrishnan. showing a slightly different approach. I have found them all worth reading. the Mahabharata. among them those of Franklin Edgerton. cosmology and psychology. The line of transliteration is designed to show the reader how the words are pronounced. in both poetic and prose forms. and their grammatical structure. To a poem such as this.

I am greatly indebted to Dr. van Buitenen. In the case of stanzas which are not entirely clear in translation. or interests him in the language in which it was originally written. many of them quoted from the commentary of Ramanuja. Varanasi. who kindly offered to read the manuscript before publication. Motilal Banarsidas. a few errors are apt to occur.thus making it possible for the reader to make his own translation if he disagrees with mine. As a Sanskrit scholar I am largely self taught. B. but am certainly competent for the task in hand. my aim will have been realized. If it in any way clarifies the poem to the reader. though I am known primarily as a magazine writer and music critic. In a project as complex as this one. I am also grateful to Alice Morris for much patient copying and to myoid friend Louis Biancolli for encouragement. the great eleventh-century south Indian religious philosopher. My aim has been to fill the gap by relating each word to the original. from whom I learned my first Sanskrit many years ago.useful staples of Sanskrit study as Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar. Patna. and for these I ask the reader's indulgence. ]. Petersburg Lexicon. my interest in the Sanskrit language has been of long duration. the present translation has been read and approved by the highest authority. and have found many translations somewhat unsatisfactory because of deviations in meaning. and the abridged version of Bohtlingk and Roth's St. either metrical or grammatic. giving a grammatical commentary and a vocabulary from which various alternative meanings for each word may be picked . B. van Buitenen. Winthrop Sargeant 2 . 1968. I have translated the poem afresh. as translated by].. Delhi. who made innumerable small corrections and many suggestions. resident in New York. Moreover. nearly all of which I have followed. A. I would also like to express belated gratitude to the late Sarat Lahiri. a Bihari Brahman. and who read the proofs. I have appended explanatory footnotes. and I know many parts of it by heart in the original language. the Oxford Sanskrit Dictionary edited by Monier-Williams. of the University of Chicago. and I have spent a considerable amount of time in India as a journalist. A. and because few of them give any idea of the poem's structure. As to my own qualification:. The work has been a labor of love. I have been acquainted for many years with the Bhagavad Glta in translation.

Classical Sanskrit differs from Epic-PuraI)ic mainly in the increased use of long compound words.C. and it was probably first written down in the early centuries of the Christian era though like many other works which are embodied in written form. Also. with many cognates in ancient Greek and Latin as well as in practically every modern major European language except Finnish and Hungarian. It is one of the ancient Indo-European languages. Epic-Purat:lic Sanskrit succeeded the earlier Vedic language somewhere around 500 B. An occasional aorist remains (there are eight or ten of them in the Bhagavad Glta) and there is an occasional use of the prohibitive" ma" in place of the" na" 3 . for a longer time than any other known tongue. in proper names. The Bhagavad Gita is conceived in Epic-Purat:lic Sanskrit. and was itself succeeded by so-called Classical Sanskrit during the Gupta Empire and the later Princely States (circa 400-1500 A. and much other material has been handed down by word of mouth. and even then very little was written down. and there exists in India a tremendously complicated method of mnemonics by which lengthy items of literature can be memorized. Indians have always prided themselves on their memories. are derived from it. which have indeed been phenomenal when one considers that the whole literature of the Vedas. by the Aryans.C. an important feature of the Vedic language was the use of aorist forms which tend to disappear in the later language. and so on.C. There is. The bulk of Sanskrit literature was not written down until well into the Christian era. whereas in Vedic they are usually separated. the Upanishads. but this difference is not as great as is sometimes supposed.). Purat:las and Upanishads.C. as opposed to the spoken language dates only from about 300 B. the Purat:las.. the Epics.) and the Sanskrit of later times. Even today there are some brahmans who look down upon the printed word as a method of preserving the literature. and the Vedic Aryans before them. There is also. including Hindi and Bengali. names of institutions and regions.D. and several modern Indian languages.. The written. It is safe to say that it was spoken before 1. it undoubtedly dates from an earlier word-of-mouth version.researches that were not only linguistic but also concerned lingual and laryngeal anatomy Sanskrit is the only ancient language the exact pronunciation of which is known today. It is interesting to note that. The later language tends to join prefixes to the words they modify. the language of the Epics. It also appears continually in modern India.C. Epic-Purat:lic Sanskrit is in many ways the simplest form of the language.THE LANGUAGE OF THE BHAGAVAD GITA Sanskrit is a euphonious and very elegant language which has been spoken by upper-caste Indians. considerable difference between Vedic Sanskrit (circa 1400-300 B. as might be expected. It has also influenced several languages of southeast Asia including that of Indonesia.?) and other great Hindu grammarians . to be sure. owing to the detailed researches of Pat:lini (350-250 B.600 B. and it is still spoken by a minority of brahmans today. considerable difference in vocabulary.

the former having our normal active meaning and the latter sometimes. is generally thought to date from the second or third century A. used as in Latin in direct address (" 0 Vishnu.. tas (tus).. most of which describes an India of an earlier period. used for the subject of a sentence. mas (mus). you two. inst." Instrumental. and its verbs have two distinct conjugation systems. used for the direct object and also in the dative sense of "to. used in the sense of "for. s. possibly 800 B.D. its general formation resembles that of Ancient Greek and Latin.masculine. The cases in Sanskrit are as follows: Nominative. with elements of the same m (0).. or parasmiiipada.. feminine and neuter. The past passive participle ending" ta" survives in modern Italian. they two)." and means" to exist. etc. and pI." and" is. being slightly more complex than that of the former and much more complex than that of the latter.(" not") of Classical Sanskrit. and voc. and 1st sg. used in the senses of "of" and "from." or "among. however." or "to become" among other things. Sanskrit. There is also a marked similarity of the Sanskrit verbs ~bhii and ~ as. t. as well as prominent cognates to German such as the verb ~V!t which is close to "werden. used for the most part in the same sense of "of" as the ablative (in many words the ablative and genitive are identical). The 4 . or iitmanepada." etc.. abl. Participial forms are indicated. the active. and there are fascinating resemblances among the personal pronouns to the "we" (vayam).. the Mahabharata." "toward." Genitive. but not always.. are used for singular and plural. both of which mean" be. used in the senses of " in" or " on. except that Sanskrit has one more case. in its written form at any rate. 2nd sg. The Bhagavad Gita."-or" by means of. second person and third person (singular and plural) similar in construction to Latin." "to.." Ablative. having a more passive or reflexive character. gen. nt endings that go with these persons in Latin. being considered a later interpolation in the long Epic. Nouns in Sanskrit are declined as they are in Latin. In the matter of verbs. such as the present participle in "ant" can still be found in French (German "end. Sanskrit being one of the Indo-European group of languages. Its verbal forms are derived from roots which also give birth to nouns and adjectives. Accusative. used where English would use" by. and sg." Dative." Sanskrit verbs have a first person.. and the middle. But the long compounds of Classical Sanskrit have not yet appeared. Locative.." English "ing "). acc. In the vocabularies of the following translation.C. Certain Sanskrit participial forms." or occasionally" to. are used to designate the above described cases. There are three genders of nouns and adjectives . loc. "you" (yiiyam) and" us" (asmiin) of modern English. the root is given with the preceding sign~." "with. mean first person singular. the abbreviations nom." or "toward. has a dual form for both verbs and nouns (we two." Vocative.). second person singular and so on. In the simpler areas of conjugation the parasmiiipada forms end in i and the iitmanepada forms 10 e.

the optative (usually conveying the meaning" should "). and the perfect active participle in "tavant" or "navant" is common. u. " ii. pronounced as in but." 5 . "to be done. I have used Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar (Harvard University Press. the same pronunciation. full. Q: 'q"r 'q"r e. i. " push. and it is recommended by Monier-Williams on grounds of euphony. " " " " father. a pioneer work which is still standard. " " au. the imperative.indicative.gerund form ending in "ya" or "tva" is very common. . but probably originally a pure 1 vowel as in the" Ie" of "simple" (see Whitney 24). There is a gerundive form in "ya" indicating future action. also a periphrastic future in which the nominative singular of a noun or of a nomen agentis type noun ending in tr combined with the verb. a slightly trilled vowel r. I recommend any standard Sanskrit grammar.. intensive." or of" having done. " " in bet or tempo. " r. m ~ a. and it survives in the ri of Sanskrit (Samskrta). There are some special verbal forms . But the ri pronunciation has been abandoned by most present-day Sanskrit scholars in favor of a simple vowel r such as appears in many Slavonic languages. theoretically. lily or it." N. " { '3" :Ji ?f[ " police." and a periphrastic perfect in which the perfect forms of the verbs~as and~kr (sometimes~bhii) are used as suffixes of an accusative derivative noun stem in am. There are also the standard tenses for verbs . " German "Haus. imperfect. pronounced by many Indians and the English as "lry" (as in revelry). The infinitive ending in "tum" is standard in the Epic-PuraQ. also Oxford University Press). subjunctive (which does not appear in the Bhagavad Gita except in its aorist form). aorist (rare) and future. There is a long tradition involving the pronunciation ri for this vowel. The Sanskrit alphabet is as follows: 'q" a." "to be known.jiis. " aisle. "stone or pole. more prolonged. " prude or crude.the passive." etc.ic language. desiderative and causative-whose applications are obvious and which are noted in the vocabularies. " " 0. B." "having seen. having the approximate meaning of the English present participle in "ing. I. pronounced as ai. For further information." etc. perfect. having the sound of ir in " " birth" or ur in "purpose. "be. There is. It is used by many Indians. " " " as " " 1?. also a long 1vowel but it is practically never used.

" " hedgehog (hejhog). v. th. ur q ~ ~ I). " " French bon. " " " " nuthatch. ~h. ii. get or dog. m. " inkhorn or bunkhouse. d. " as In sure. or as in hinge (hinge)." '{ .~ ~ 'J: <J: k. " " " adhere. r. _. gh. " " " beer or rub. below the line indicates ii (as in +f bhii). " " man or ham. ~. " " tone or tub. " " hero or hit. 1. The short i at the middle or end 6 . " kill or meek. '). s. < above the line indicates a consonant r (as in l{~ marta).!q bhrt). " " pronounced ch as in church. y. '" below the line indicates u (as in C! tu). " " " pot or hip. " " dot (slightly toward the th sound). " " "abhor. ch. " " " none. " " " " anthill. " " " true. g. "t ~ ~ ~ OJ: c. " " " red or shear. kh. " " " redhead. T indicates au at the middle or end of a word (as in aT tau). pronounced as in judge or jump. dh. J. pronounced chh as in birch hill. " "go. " " sing or kink. " " " drum. th. " " law or lead. " " " nut or thin. " " " " uphill or shepherd. ~ ~ ~ c:l. " " loghouse. s-. " " " shut or bush. n. jh. b. 9: ~ '\ ~ ~. Below the line it indicates a vowel r (as in . vowel marks are as follows:' above the line = e (as in ~ te). " " " sin or hiss.indicates 0 at the middle or end of a word (as in 'fiT ko). t. ii. " " " " " " " When attached to consonants. h. ~ above the line = ai (as in t rai). p. ~ t. ph. " " like w in twine or wind. " " " "young or royal. S. bh. <t: ~ 'l ~ 9: +{ 11: ~ .

or the laws of euphonious combination. Final t is interchangeable with d. a or a combines with vowel r to form ar. a or a combine with e to form ai. in the case of a word ending in three short syllables. Vowels. The anusviira (ril or n) is a nasal sound like n in French "bon. I. and transliterated as 1. depending on the beginning of the following word. in the case of final as into 0. There are laws relating to internal (i. 0 and au. j. within a given word) euphonic combination. It occurs at the end of a word. which I shall pass over. All others are short. (Theoretically at least. ai.) is pronounced like the English aspirate h. or : (visarga). External samdhi is a much more noticeable and puzzling phenomenon. a or a combine with i or i to form e. in the case of a word ending with two short syllables. The vowel L in practice.ii. "-J sca.f.e. or. and is not followed by an "a" as it otherwise 'w~uld be.f) forms. the practice for many centuries has been to use a stress accent somewhat milder than that used in English. on the antepenultimate. or. The reader will probably notice it first in the peculiar behavior of s when it occurs at the end of a word. Most combined consonants are self explanatory. and is determined by the beginning of the following word. ~ etc. all forms of u combine to make ii. This accent falls on the penultimate syllable.) indicates that it is a final. There remains the complicated subject of samdhi. i and yare interchangeable. nbecomes~undercertaincircumstances(e. a long syllable is twice as long as a short syllable). A long syllable is one containing a long vowel. and all forms of i combine to make i. a diphthong. ~ jiia. meanwhile observing the difference between long and short syllables. ffi kta and "i tra (the diagonal stroke within the letter always indicates a consonant r). or. since their effects are to be found in the vocabularies. Diphthongs are e.of a word is indicated by a tie to the left (as inerfcr dhrti). but in Hindu usage it is followed by a short echo of the preceding vowel. In euphonic combination all types of a (long or short) combine to made a. what is perhaps still more common. The visarga (" :" written at the end of a word in place of s or r. a or a combine with u or ii to form 0.. The aim of these laws is to enhance the elegance of sound of the language. Although accent in Sanskrit is supposed to be quantitative as it was in Ancient Greek. Otherwise every consonant is assumed to be followed by a short a.g. The same thing is true of u and v. as the above alphabet shows. It may be converted into sor ~ or r. Long a is indicated by an extra downstroke T (as in ~ atman). or." A diagonal stroke to the right beneath a letter (11 . and sometimes also even with n. and a or a combine with 0 to form 7 . Other letters behave somewhat similarly. The long I is indicated by a similar tie to the right (as in 11T bhI). c and several other letters. when preceded in the same word by s or r. the latter being used before a vowel and losing its independence as a syllable. it may disappear altogether. or followed by more than one consonant. come in short and in long (a. Final r may also become: (visarga). except for ~ k~a. These rules apply only to Classical and Epic-PuraQic Sanskrit. which are to be found at work in virtually every phrase of Sanskrit. or when followed by more than one consonant) and ii under others. has only a short form. Vedic Sanskrit has a more complicated system of accentuation. on the fourth from the end. Final n after a short vowel and before a succeeding vowel is doubled to nn.

a number of stanzas. the dot. of introducing definite and indefinite articles (the former rarely used and the latter non-existent in Sanskrit) in order to make the meaning clearer. constitute. In the Sanskrit text it is indicated merely by a dot above the line. effect. take hold of.e. remove. Its commonest occurrence is as a substitute for final m before a word beginning with a consonant or semivowel such as y. perform. show. resolve upon. Its pronunciation. in transliteration is often placed below the '!l instead of above it. accept. or group. Regarding the page by page vocabularies in this edition. present. "by the shores of Gitchee Gumee" etc. impart. exhibit. in which the tri~tubh metre. place. h or v. A concluding word about the transliteration and the literal English translation: as far as is possible I have placed th-e transliterated word. possess. i. consisting of four lines of eight syllables each. mainly for the sake of uniformity. bring. as has been said. support. There are. And so on. execute. bestow on. produce. It is very common. get." "Jarasamdha. seize. Thus the common verb ~dha. destine for. wear. especially where internal samdhi is concerned. put on. In the vocabulary attached to each stanza I have included only the meanings that are close to the ones intended in the poem. create. sometimes contradictory ones. Proper pronunciation makes the transition to the following consonant as smooth as can be imagined. and its accurate rendering is vital to the proper pronunciation of Sanskrit.g. is approximately like the n in French" bon". particularly at more dramatic moments. establish. the anusviira (m or occasionally Ii) is not always as easy to detect. directly beneath its Sanskrit equivalent. incur. etc.iiu. The Sloka is the all-purpose metre of the Epics as well as much popular poetry. there is no recourse but a careful study of the subject as presented in Whitney's or some other grammar. Before a vowel iiu becomes iiv. as is the practice I have followed. assume. have. there are no rhymes. While most if not all the above changes will be found written out in the text. however. I have also placed the word" and" (Sanskrit" ca") before the last of the words it connects. undergo. bear. The verse is blank. An initial a after a final e or a is dropped and an apostrophe or avagraha is put in its place. In transliteration it is written m. and is supposed to convey a warlike or powerful impression. fix upon. according to Monier-Williams' dictionary. direct. 8 . can mean put. obtain. consisting of four lines of eleven syllables each. of connected words as is the Sanskrit usage (similar to the use of "que" in Latin)." "Samjaya. or sometimes Ii. is used. In other texts. The metre of most of the stanzas of the Bhagavad GIta is what is known as Sloka metre. instead of after a couple. and can be conveniently remembered by the English reader as the metre of Longfellow'S " Hiawatha" (e. appoint. as weB as the translated one. conceive. It occurs also in such words and names as "samdhi. make.). cause. The tri~tubh metre originated as the commonest metre of the Vedas. For all the circumstances under which these changes and others occur. e becomes a and iii becomes ii. take." etc. generate. thus a fairly indeterminate nasal sound with no closure either of the mouth or of the palate. I have taken the liberty. it might be remarked that Sanskrit is a very ambiguous language in which a single word may have scores of meanings. however.

though names as personifications are common throughout the epic. The one exception. an earlier being. one becoming the heavens. or warrior. into the endless future. in cycles of creation and destruction. and the following condensation attempts to describe them. Unlike the Hebrew and Christian conceptions of creation. The heroes of the battle.1ya-garbha. the creator god. containing many interpolated stories and moral treatises." In/ any case. became identified with the creator god Brahma. and regards the universe as one of many that stretch." which floated on the cosmic waters. The villains are the hundred Sons of Dhrtal'ii~tra." Kasyapa married the twelve daughters of Dak~a (who is also sometimes referred to as Prajapati). It has been estimated to be seven times as long as the Iliad and the Odyssey put together. one of the two great Hindu epics (the other is the Riimiiym. Dak~a was the son of Pracetas. swinging backward and forward and not always sticking to a consistent chronology. race is destroyed. when all was water. Brahma. King Yudhi~thira. and the one in which the Bhagavad Gitii appears at a climactic moment. otherwise known as the Kiiurava (Sons of Kuru) Princes. sometimes referred to as Prajapati. with the help of secondary sources. Kasyapa impregnated the daughters of Dak~a. and that will stretch. in later myth. had a spiritual son (a product of Brahma's thumb. Brahma is thought to derive from the root . are Arjuna (whose colloquy with the god Krishna forms the substance of the Bhagavad Gila) and his half-brothers YudhiNhira. It is perhaps significant that these early names are personifications. and MarIci's son in turn became the tremendously prolific sage-king Kasyapa. The egg divided itself into two parts. The mythological ancestry and relationships between all these characters are complex. The battle itself is a tragic episode in which nearly all the k~atriya.1¢ava Princes. Now. when not slain. in similar cycles. or nearly three times as long as the Judaeo-Christian Bible. It is also a somewhat rambling work. What I have abstracted from it here. eventually attaining heaven. their cousins. and it is very Indian in its treatment of time. the other the earth. One of 9 . BMma. dying on a long pilgrimage. or "the Lord of Creatures. is a creation oj tremendous length. is merely a thin genealogical thread which leads up to the famous Battle oj Kuruk~etra. according to some sources) named MarIci. until the eternal First Cause formed the Hira1. the villains being killed and the heroes. and." (It is cognate with the English" dextrous" and its etymological ancestors.1a).) And Pracetas means" clever" or "wise.. reaches heaven by a more roundabout route. known as the Pii1. and they gave birth to the gods. along with a very much condensed narrative of that battle and its aftermath. demons." Dak~a means "intelligence" or "mastery. animals and many other types of being.jbrh which means "grow" or "evolve. Nakula and Sahadeva. into the endless past. the" golden foetus" or "golden egg. the Indian allows for the infinity of time. The mythology pertaining to this particular universe concerns a primaeval darkness.THE SETTING OF THE BHAGAVAD GITA The Mahiibhiirata.

las). the ancestor of Bharata. who lived in the eleventh century A.li clans from which Krishna was descended.) Among the early descendants of Bharata was King Hastin who founded the city of Hastinapura where the Pal. or Savarl.l<. At this point the Kauravas (Sons of Kuru) and the Pal.l<. DevayanI and Sarmi~tha. with whom we need not be concerned here. III. progenitor of both the Pal..lI. doing for India what his ancestor Manu Vaivasvata had done for the known world. among whom was Ik~vaku (likewise mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta. a daughter of the Sun god by Chaya (which means" shade "). grandfather of Rama. Among Hastin's descendants was one SarilVaral. and here w. Yayati had two wives. from which most of the heroes of the Battle of Kuruk~etra were descended. Vivasvat. as well as some territory north of the Himalaya. Vivasvat (which means "shining forth "). Other early members of the Solar Race were King Sagara of Ayodhya. who is mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta (IV. and they begot Kuru. IV. who became the progenitor of the Lunar Race with which we are concerned here. 20) belonged. He became. Among the descendants of Sudyumna was one Purilravas who married an apsarii. I).Ayu.la. By the latter he begot Pilru. and this is a bit confusing because the Pal. and later became his friend. and begot three sons .iava and Kaurava princes were brought up. progenitor of the Solar Race to which the sage-king Janaka (mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta. placed the date of Vivasvat's birth at twenty-eight mahayugas (about 120 billion years) before his own time. Amavasu. I). are closer to the immediate ancestry of our 10 .iava and Kaurava lines. and Nahu~a. So ancient are the theoretical origins of this mythology that Manu Vaivasvata was merely the seventh in a long list of Manus belonging to previous universes. was defeated in a memorable battle by Alexander.l<. This he accomplished by holding a sacrifice during which a woman named Ila was created. By the former he begot Yadu. the progenitor of the human race. I). who survived a great flood with the assistance of Vishnu (Vishnu had assumed the form of a fish for the purpose according to the Pural.iavas were as much "sons of Kuru" as the Kauravas were. Some way further down the genealogical line we meet Prince PratIpa. The extraordinary scope of the Hindu imagination is illustrated by the fact that the great Indian commentator Ramanuja. Raghu Rama.l<. became the father of Manu Vaivasvata (also mentioned in IV. named Dak~ayal. (It is interesting to note that apparently the Pilru. or Paurava family continued under its own name down to the time of Alexander's invasion of India. a figure that is perhaps closer to modern scientific theories of the birth of the sun than the chronologically vague account in Genesis would place it. when a great king named" Poros" by the Greeks.la who married TapatI. the hero of the Ramayal. With Ila's help he begot nine sons. Yayati practically peopled the whole subcontinent of India. after the flood. named UrvasI. gave birth to the sun god. or water nymph. another son of Manu Vaivasvata. and Sudyumna.la.l<.these daughters. whose descendants founded the Kasi line of kings to which some of the warriors at the Battle of Kuruk~etra belonged.iu) are not yet differentiated. who was a descendant of Bharata and Kuru.iavas (Sons of Pal.. the Noah of Hindu mythology.D. who became the progenitor of the Yadava and V r~l. father of the great King Yayati Nahu~a.

BhI~ma was a man of great nobility. as well as the greatest teacher of the art of arms. By another wife. But after marrying Arhbika and Arhbalika. Nakula and Sahadeva. Vyasa (mentioned in the Bhagavad Glta. as wives for his half-brother Vicitravlrya.iava Princes. thus permitting the sons of SatyavatI the royal succession.iu. Prince PratIpa was the father of King Sarhtanu. and asked SatyavatI's father for her hand in marriage to his father. Bhlma. was the father of the great warrior BhI~ma. defeating all opponents and winning the daughters of that king. King Sarhtanu. of the PaI). who later became formally though not actually the father of the PaI. He appears in the Mahabharata as a respected sage. the other sister. Vicitravlrya.iu. reigned at Hastinapura. Now. who was still a minor. in which he appears as an important character. whose daughter Satyavatl. according to the Hindu theory of reincarnation. Yudhi~thira. the aging king had met and admired. and teacher in the art of arms. It is one of the universal rules of mythology that great heroes always have mysterious or divine births.that SatyavatI's sons should inherit Sarhtanu's throne. He was a son of the hermit Parasara. according to the custom of levirate. and that if anything happened to him the line would become extinct." actually an uncle of PaI. as well as the villainous Duryodhana and the remaining ninety-nine sons of Dhrtara:'?tra. must await its place). Arhbika then became the mother of Dh!"tara~tra. the greatest warrior in the world. and Arhbalika became the mother of PaI). Vyasa is supposed to have compiled the Vedas. a Vyasa was born whenever compiling was to be done. as well as the Mahabharata. met this condition by renouncing the throne and vowing to remain childless throughout his life.<. Arhbika and Arhbalika.principal characters. a circumstance which is one of the causes of Arjuna's agony of indecision at the beginning of the Bhagavad Glta. mentioned above. BhI~ma." "arranger" or" compiler. he went to the court of the King of the Kasi and took part in a trial of arms. during his lifetime. The birth of Vyasa as a son of SatyavatI is one of those odd features of Hindu literature that defy chronological sense.iava (or 11 . and is. X. the blind and vacillating king of the Kauravas. BhI~ma was the son of King Sarhtanu by Ganga. but his birth was premarital. Such was the extraordinary generosity of BhI~ma.l<. Not only did BhI~ma make this sacrifice (continence was. In the great battle the PaI. otherwise known as the River Ganges. lay with his wives. The fisherman agreed on one condition . BhI~ma went to the house of a fisherman. with BhI~ma as regent. to beget sons for him. known in the Mahabharata as "the Grandsire. Arjuna. and the great uncle. the sage.<.l<. King Vicitravlrya proved to be childless (the story of what happened to Arhba. Arhba. who refused marriage. Sarhtanu begot Citrangada and Vicitravlrya. the earliest of which date from about a thousand years previously. an admired trait in India). in turn. son of SatyavatL On the death of Sarhtanu. or perhaps. and he became. 13) was also a son of SatyavatI. Sarhtanu's first-born and proper heir." Perhaps there were more than one of these.iava Princes are arrayed against their beloved teacher BhI~ma. The word vyasa means" divider. SatyavatI. who.l<. When his father. approached him noting that he was an only son (this was long before the birth of Citrangada and Vicitravlrya). and his half-brother Vyasa.

c.iin.iavas and the Kauravas (Descendants of Kuru) were. who felt humiliated by his defeat at the hands of Bhi!?ma. Impatient for her next birth. but he refused her a second time. Then Amba undertook austerities in order to gain the favor of the god Vishnu. offering him the garland. or "own choice. and. He sent her back to BhI!?ma. father Pal). he had defeated Salva. Parasurama also became an avatiir of the god Vishnu in honor of whom she had previously performed austerities. or he." at which the princess made her choice among the assembled warriors. as was the case with BhI!?ma.<. But none of them would volunteer. Among others. But before we get to the reasons why Yudhi!?thira.Sons of Pal). she. Sometimes the event was what was called a svayamvara.<. Shiva appeared before her. Amba became overwhelmed with hatred for Bhi!?ma. son of King Drupada. saying that whoever wore it would become an enemy of BhI!?ma. cousins.iu) Princes. who was a mighty warrior. They not only respected the old warrior.) When Bhi!?ma brought Amba to Hastinapura along with her sisters.iavas were also descended from Kuru through their official. Bhima. Amba then approached King Drupada of the Pancalas. But when she got there. She was subsequently reborn as Sikhal). but this was out of the question because of BhI!?ma's vow of chastity.iu.<. When she returned to Hastinapura.iu. Amba asked BhI!?ma to marry her. on the advice of some ascetics. But even Drupada. refused to have anything to do with her. whom he felt had won her in honorable combat. things got even worse: Vicitravirya refused to marry anyone whose heart was pledged to another. became one of the warriors at the Battle of Kuruk!?etra. Salva. she built a great fire and plunged into it to be burned to death. Finally.<. who had been the author of all her misfortunes. and told those present that she had chosen Salva as her future husband according to the rule of svayamvara. as Arjuna's charioteer. He agreed to be hcr champion. She went to the Himalaya where she practiced extreme austerities to gain the favor of the god Shiva. they were afraid of him. become a man.<. if not actual. Thus it will be seen that the pal). Amba. as might be expected. Amba refused to marry Vicitravirya. in her next incarnation. At the time Bhi!?ma won her as a bride for his half-brother Vicitravlrya. (Such trials of arms were held traditionally whenever a princess reached marriagable age. Arjuna. BhI!?ma obligingly sent her back to Salva. she went to see Parasurama (" Rama of the Axe "). She approached Salva again. This was the last straw for Amba. a famous brahman who had taken up the un-brahmanical profession of arms. or warrior. Amba was in love with a certain Salva. barring a few supernatural interventions and a remarkable amount of substitute fatherhood. Then she sought champions among the princes at Hastinapura who might fight and kill BhI!?ma. and had vowed to exterminate the k!?atriya. King of Saubha and one of the royal personages who had participated in the trial of arms in which BhI!?ma had defeated all adversaries. But when the battle took place Parasurama was defeated by BhI!?ma. and that while the Kauravas were very distant descendants of Kuru. we must relate what happened to Amba. declined to fight with Bhi!?ma. caste. was rather upset. and Vishnu gave her a garland. the Pal). In due time. and promised that she would. and then spared his life. Sometimes the victor carried her off. Nakula and Sahadeva were not the real sons of Pal). partici12 .

the sage levelled a curse at paI).~u. while out hunting. were of divine birth. or otherwise peculiar births that are mandatory for great heroes.~u had the misfortune to kill a deer which w~s copulating with its mate and which was really a sage in disguise. the PaI).~u had gods for fathers.~u. the god of the winds. she begot Arjuna. Meanwhile. Krishna's father. whose habit was to uproot trees to use as weapons. and promptly went about becoming the mother of great heroes by various gods. and who had the appetite of a wolf. Dhrtara~tra had a hundred sons. Now we come to the story of paI). paI). As a matter of fact. that she had set the child afloat in a river.~u. the god of righteousness. Madrl. where he was picked up by a charioteer named Adhiratha. the chief of the Vedic gods. PaI). By Indra. There had already been intimations of his divine role as the avatar of 13 . officially the son of King Vicitravlrya but actually the son of Vicitravlrya's half brother Vyasa by Arilbalika. KarI). a Yadava king (who was also the father of Vasudeva. she begot the powerful Bhlma. and was preparing to fight against his half brothers. all the PaI). All of the so-called Sons of PaI). burning herself upon her husband's funeral pyre.~in because he knew of his reincarnation and considered him to be a woman. As to paI). Thus PaI). daughter of Sura. Just before the battle. who was the son of Vyasa by Arilbika. She became the mother of the twins. of the Yadava line. the heavenly horsemen who pull the chariot of the dawn. Once. In the meantime. thus making KuntI Krishna's aunt). the stainless knight who is the hero of the Bhagavad Glta. He would die the instant he had intercourse with a woman. and had taken her name from him (it had originally been Prtha) had once received a mantra. paI). she had used it once before her marriage to PaI). and by him had had a child named KarI). who had been adopted in childhood by her father's childless cousin Kuntibhoja. was busy along similar lines. at the court of King Sura. and thought of himself as the son of a humble charioteer.~u reigned at Hastinapura with Bhl~ma as advisor.~u's other wife. But this happened after KarI).~ava Princes. and the stage was set for the sort of divine.~u. paI).~u was also a half brother of the blind King Dhrtara~tra. as befits heroes.Kunt!. Nakula and Sahadeva by the twin Asvins. his grandson Krishna was born.~u had two wives . Kunt!.~u was incapable of having children.~ava Princes. By Dharma. from the sage Durvasas with which she could summon any god to be the father of her children. birth (it was also a virgin birth). he died suddenly in a moment of forgetfulness while having intercourse with Madr1. She had summoned the Sun god.a had cast his lot with the Kauravas. though divine. PaI). and Madrl. or magical invocation.a was unaware of his miraculous birth until the Battle of Kuruk~etra. Kunt! informed him of his divine lineage. By Vayu. Madrl dutifully committed suttee (or sat! as the Sanskrit has it). another princess. and brought up by him as his son. While dying. legend. Thus. In this combat Bhl~ma refused to defend himself against SikhaI).~u about the mantra. however.a who was born with earrings and a complete suit of armor. Kunt! told her legal husband PaI). she became the mother of the just and honorable Yudhi~thira. Kunt! had been so embarrassed by this illegitimate. or properly speaking.pated in the slaying of her old enemy Bhl~ma.

During this period. Krishna's older brother. Vasudeva. as many as 16. DevakI's cousin. J arasamdha. seeking their death. Vasudeva duly married DevakI. was born there had been a rolling of heavenly drums because he was to become the parent of Vishnu's avattir. King of Magadha. and defeats of. But he also performed several heroic feats as a child. When his father. whose death at Krishna's hands earned Krishna the epithet of Kesinisudana (Slayer of Kesin) by which. the gods Indra. Finally.the god Vishnu." was the Indian term for Greeks. VaruDa and Shiva. but was slain by Balarama. He moved his capital to a town in the Gujarat called Dvaraka (" the city of gates or doors") which then became one of India's sacred cities. Along with his brother Balarama. arranged that all DevakI's children should die at birth (a sage had predicted that Kamsa would be slain by a son of DevakI). and sent a great army against Mathura. Paficajana. a famous warriorsage. The result was that the imprisoned King Ugrasena was freed and reigned again in his kingdom at Mathura. Krishna himself was placed by Vasudeva into the hands of a cowherd named Nanda. attacking the city eighteen times without decisive result. The six then ascended to heaven with Krishna's help. by Krishna. from Samdlpani. butter and fruit. The demons and beasts being easily overcome by Krishna and Balarama. Krishna went to the rescue and slew Paficajana. Kamsa's brother Sunaman then tried to avenge Kamsa's death. according to some sources. He was a sly child. And he pursued the opposite sex. another of his wives. he received spiritual instruction. kidnapped Samdlpani's son. and the child who was born was Balarama. and finally Krishna was forced to abandon the city. many of whom had settled in India at this time). in fulfillment of the sage's prophecy. among other nicknames.108 wives including his chief wife RukminL The evil Kamsa continued to try to waylay Krishna and his brother Balarama. There were difficulties. the conquest of a large number of tribes and kings. heard of Kamsa's death at the hands of Krishna. accumulating. an evil tyrant named Kamsa who had imprisoned King Ugrasena and usurped the throne. underwent purification ceremonies and acknowledged Vasudeva and DevakI as his true parents. Krishna's later exploits included battles with. Among these was Kdin. Kamsa himself entered the arena and was killed. IS) as a trumpet. Shortly afterward. joined his armies to Jarasamdha's. and instruction in the art of war. and delighted in stealing milk. Six children thus perished. he is addressed in the Bhagavad GIta. whose daughters had married Kamsa. Then Krishna changed his habits. but was always foiled by one stratagem or another. left the milkmaids behind. and thereafter used the conch shell Paficajanya (mentioned in the Bhagavad GIta I. "Ionian. "Black Greek" (Yavana. a niece of King Ugrasena of Mathura. A "barbarian" (Greek) king named Kalayavana. Krishna was brought up by Nanda and his wife among cowherds and milkmaids. Krishna descended into hell to bring back his six brothers whom Kamsa had caused to be slain at birth. Kamsa invited Krishna and Balarama to take part in an athletic contest in which he sent savage demons and wild beasts to fight them. But Vasudeva magically inserted the seventh into the womb of RohinI. a marine demon who lived at the bottom of the sea in the form of a conch. king of the savage horse-demons. the abduction of a Gandhara 14 .

U and his half brother Dhrtara~tra seem to have divided the throne at Hastinapura. who. and the fight was called off. bound him. who burst his bonds and swam to shore. died because of the sage's curse (he had by the time of his death taken up residence in the forest with his wives and children). the unacknowledged half-brother of the paI)9.u. his chief wife. was of sufficient rank to fight with Arjuna. It is said that the father of both heroes.of the King of Ni~ada who had attacked Dvaraka. Kuntl:.arIy enemy of the Palf9. Dhrtara~tra. for Duryodhana carried KarQa off in his chariot. entrusting them to the old warrior Bhl~ma. DroI)a and" the grandsire" Bhl~ma. as has been related. Knowing that such an encounter was inevitable at some point. granted KarI)a in return the use of the Sakti. as has been said. KarI)a. But Bhlma was something of a bully. The 15 . became the most powerful one. and he became an t:. Meanwhile the sons of Palf9.u'S eldest son. Much more powerfully built than the others. acting as regent until the death of Palf9. KarQa. Arjuna. During this time. The sages of the forest took Kunt! and the children back to Hastinapura. and when they climbed trees he would shake the trunks until they fell out like ripe fruit. palf9.ava Princes. disqualified because of his blindness. a kingdom some authorities identify with modern Bengal. Chief among them was Duryodhana '(" Dirty Fighter "). Yudhi~thira. he delighted in grasping the Sons of Dhrtara~tra with his arms and holding them under water until their breaths gave out. But there was some question as to whether KarI)a. He poisoned Bhlma's food. while Bmma. remained to take care of the children while Madrl. might succeed to the throne instead of himself.u and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra were taught the arts of war by the older warriors Krpa. and Indra. But the poison only strengthened Bhlma. appeared in the sky to encourage their offspring. He appeared to KarQa in the guise df a brahman and begged from him his earrings and armor. He became India's ideal of manhood and a god who is worshipped to this day. sought to weaken KarQa.aVa Princes Yudhi~thira.aVa Princes. Nakula and Sahadeva) grew up together with the hundred sons of Dhrtara~tra (the Kaurava princes) in typical boyish rivalry and general high spirits. Duryodhana thereupon crowned KarI)a King of Aiiga. the god Indra and the Sun god. But the encounter did not follow immediately.u. The Sons of Dhrtara~tra hated Bhlma from infancy. The children (the Palf9. But Indra made a proviso. because of his superhuman strength. appeared at Hastinapura.princess from her svayamvara and the defeat . and threw him into a river to drown. a magical weapon which was Indra's own and which had the power to kill even at a great distance. gave them up. much to the delight of Duryodhana. astonished by this act. committed suttee. who was famous for his generosity. He challenged Arjuna to combat. the god Indra. Duryodhana hatched a plot to wipe out the Sons of Palf9. father of Arjuna. and seize the throne himself. allegedly the son of a charioteer. who had been born to Kunt! by the Sun god but had been brought up as the son of a humble charioteer. partly because of Bhlma's bullying but also because he was afraid that Palf9. It was Arjuna who grew up to be the most skillful warrior. Bhlma. and he planned to cast Arjuna and Yudhi~thira into prison.

" was born from a bucket into which his father's seed had fallen. Drol. But one day while Kan)a slept. to use with the Sakti. inflicting a painful and bloody wound. But we are getting ahead of our story. Drol. But he did not succeed.l9u. later the collective wife of the five Pal. With the connivance of Kan)a and Sakuni. for neither had a mother. might succeed to the throne of Hastinapura. or magical invocation. the brother-in-law of Dhrtaraf?tra.l9u as well as the hundred sons of Dhrtaraf?tra in the arts of war. after which it would return to its godly owner. son of the king of the Pancalas. Something similar had happened to Prf?ata. whose name means" bucket. a stinging insect burrowed into his thigh. in which. the Sons of pal. He was observing a beautiful nymph. and Parasurama taught him the proper mantra. Many years later. Drupada was angry. however. and Parasurama.weapon could be used by Kan)a only once. or warrior. After their apprenticeship was over. Drupada's wife was unprepared to receive his seed. the king of pancala.l9u. ten million cattle were killed. would hear 16 . Dhrf?tadyumna did indeed slay Drol.la was not the brahman he represented himself to be. instead of he. He performed a great sacrifice to this end.la.la was a brahman. half the Pancala kingdom. Ashamed.la then forgave Drupada. Drol. In the forest hermitage of the sage Bharadvaja.la had to confess that he was a kf?atriya. pronounced a curse on Karl.la was trained in archery along with Drupada. and the possibility that Yudhif?thira.la. At first. Karl. outraged by the deception. he plotted to destroy the Sons of Pal. calling him a poor beggar.la. He represented himself to Parasurama as a brahman. During their childhood Drupada often spoke of giving half his kingdom to Dr0l.la. who was inclined to kindliness toward his nephews. the evil elder son of the blind King Dhrtaraf?tra. Only a kf?atriya.he would be doomed to forget the mantra at the moment he needed it most. and hoped for a son who would slay Dr0l. They defeated the Pancalas and took Drupada prisoner. Dhrtara~tra. When the moment arrived. his own son.l9ava Princes. thus gaining by force what he had been promised and then denied. named Menaka when his seed fell to the ground. As has been said. and the births of Drol. Duryodhana. and Drupada was born from it. These were the twins Dhrf?tadyumna (" He whose splendor is bold") and DraupadI (" Daughter of Drupada").la sent the Sons of Pal. Drupada was a kf?atriya. But when King Prf?ata died and Drupada ascended the throne of Pancala.la. mythology demands that all heroes be born in a peculiar manner.la . could stand such pain without crying out. but despite his birth became a renowned warrior. Drol.la bore the pain without flinching. Karl. became enraged at the popularity and success at arms of the Pal. but retained. Parasurama then knew immediately that Karl. was selected by "the grandsire" BhIf?ma to train the five Sons of Pal.la and Drupada were peculiar indeed. he spurned his former friend.l9u on an expedition to defeat and capture Drupada. the great hero Drol. Kan)a went to the warlike brahman Parasurama (" Rama of the Axe") who hated all m~mbers of the kf?atriya. it is said. he took a rapid (dru) step (pada) to stamp out the seed. caste. And so it turned out. Drol. or member of the warrior caste.l9ava Princes. as a pledge of future friendship. But a son and a daughter sprang forth miraculously from the sacrificial fire.

who was well aware of this tactic. The Sons of PaI!<. and thus destroy them.nothing of the plot.lu to stay in during their visit. A terrific battle ensued in which the demon pulled up trees by the roots to belabor BhJ:ma with. Later. He who shot an arrow through the ring with this bow could claim DraupadJ: as his wife. Only Vidura was not overcome by apparent grief.lava Princes. dragging the demon's body to the city gates. Some 17 . During this journey they met their grandfather the sage Vyasa. One by one. Dhrtaraf?tra and his sons exchanged their garments for funereal ones and performed impressive obsequies near a river for the supposedly dead Pal!<. or with the hands. BhJ:ma set out to destroy him. whose king had fled. A brahman family gave them shelter. they heard about the svayamvara of Princess DraupadJ:. and when they learned about the demon and his insistence on tribute in the form of human flesh and other foods.lavas had escaped. While the Sons of Pal!<. warned Yudhif?thira that something was afoot in Varal!avata. and the Sons of Pal!<. He returned to the city. and that the Pal!<. because the people of VaraI)avata were anxious to see them.lu journeyed into the forest. Pretending that they knew nothing of the plot. daughter of King Drupada (" Rapid Step") of Pancala who has already been mentioned in connection with his boyhood friend Drol!a. DraupadJ: was a great beauty. he knew that the Pal!<. The idea was to set fire to the palace while the Sons of Pal!<. It would be a difficult feat. and princes came from many distant kingdoms to compete for her hand. Duryodhana. who favored the Pal!<. took a bath and then told the brahman family of his deed. At midnight the palace was set aflame.lu escaped through the subterranean tunnel. finally threw him to the ground and broke his bones. even Krishna and his brother Balarama had come to Pancala to compete in the ceremony. Finally they arrived at a city called Ekacakra (" One Wheel.lu took up residence in the palace. and sent a miner to dig a subterranean exit from the wax palace. owing to the wiles and insistent arguments of Duryodhana.lu that a great festival in honor of Shiva was to take place in the nearby city of Varal!avata. When the great day of the svayamvara arrived. But Vidura. a younger brother of Pal!<. and had had a very large bow constructed which was difficult to bend. Before the festival took place. But BhJ:ma. and which was being held in thrall by a terrible cannibalistic demon named Bakasura (" Crane Demon "). The Sons of Pal!<. but kept a sharp lookout. King Drupada had caused a revolving ring to be placed on a pole at a great height.lava Princes.lu were sojourning at Ekacakra. who gave them good counsel and advised them to dress as brahmans.lu were asleep. By prearrangement this palace was built of wax and other inflammable materials. he agreed to it. and mentioned to the Sons of Pal!<." actually "the City of the One Wheel of Dominion "). often carried with their mother Kunti on the broad shoulders and hips. Karl!a and Sakuni sent a minister named Purocana to Varal!avata to construct a palace for the Sons of Pal!<.lu and Dhrtaraf?tra. of the powerful BhJ:ma. the Sons of Pal!<. and the gods assembled in midair to witness the spectacle.lavas owed it to themselves to attend. the princes stepped up to try their skill.lu were still disguised as humble brahmans. and after a long march they arrived at Pancala where they took up residence at the home of a potter.

Srutaklrti by Arjuna. they agreed that Yudhi~thira. took up the bow and shot five arrows straight through the ring. and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra were understandably fearful. they cried out" We have won a great prize today.a point that seems to be borne out by the narrative. Vidura was happy at this news. When the Pal).iava Princes returned home." Kunt!'s word being law. 18 .<.iavas. Drol).iu and giving them half the kingdom.<. eldest of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. the vacillating. but later connived with his sons against the Pal). They also considered fomenting jealousy among the Pal). Then Arjuna stepped forward.could not even bend the bow.iavas had been joined by Dhmadyumna. Satanlka by Nakula and Srutakarman by Sahadeva. Krishna's tribe.<. The Cambridge History of India holds that the polyandry of the Pat:t9avas is an indication of their comparative primitiveness. they had been joined by Krishna and the Yadavas. son of Drupada. and that none of the others would see her during this time. but he finally yielded.<.<. should marry DraupadL But as they saw their mother. plotting the downfall of the Pal). and fomenting the jealousy of Draupadl by catching the Pal). daughter of the King of the Kasis. was infuriated. and also by Sikhal). that they were a northern tribe who went to war with the more civilized Kauravas.sasana. and none succeeded in hitting the target. By this time the pal). Duryodhana. Both King Drupada and Princess Draupadl were overjoyed.iavas in flagrante delicto with other women.<. "" Back in Hastinapura. She subsequently bore five sons. They considered bribing Drupada to join them against the Pal). DraupadI was overcome with jealousy.<. aged and generous BhI~ma counselled making peace with the Sons of pal). His brother. They consulted with their uncle Sakuni.<.iavas.a agreed. King of Madra . and when he afterward married a second wife. a sister of Krishna whom he had carried off by force with Krishna's permission.iu to DraupadL King Drupada objected to the marriage (polyandry was not a common practice among Hindus. blind King Dhrtara!?tra. This was a formidable group to contend with. The hotter-headed Duryodhana and Karl). The wise.<. the eldest of them. though polygamy was). though there were murmurs of objection from some who were present . and so was his brother Dul.including Kan.iavas all over again.that a brahman should win a prize reserved for warriors (Arjuna was still disguised as a brahman). • There has been some speculation among historians as to the relative customs of the Pat:t9avas and the Kauravas. Kunt!. one by each of the brothers. the capital of Dhrtara~tra's kingdom. the Sons of Kuru heard of the doings at Pancala and realized for the first time that the Sons of pal). They considered setting the sons of Kunt! (Yudhi~thira.iu had not perished in the burning of the wax palace. the male incarnation of Arhba.<.a did not. now a son of Drupada." and Kunt! said" Then share the prize between you. Arjuna was her favorite husband.a and Salya. Bhlma and Arjuna) and the sons of Madri (Nakula and Sahadeva) against each other. and that the latter were an old settled people who preferred to gain their ends by guile and conspiracy rather than war .<. Sutasoma by Bhlma. It was arranged that Draupadl should stay two days at the house of each brother in turn. there was nothing to do but marry all five Sons of Pal). was at first relieved to hear the news. Subhadra.iavas through experts in the art of erotics. Prativindhya by Yudhi~thira. In addition.iin.

and Jarasamdha welcomed them with courtesy. So they set out.9ava Princes arrived at Jarasamdha's court. Krishna proposed that he. "put together by J ara "). and proclaimed himself emperor. He. they were disguised as holy men. Jarasamdha's son was made king of Magadha and Krishna and the Sons of paI).9avas. The result was that each wife gave birth to half a child. Bhlma killed J arasamdha. and that only on the intervention of a rak~asI. King of Magadha.But Vidura. and this inflamed. and sent for Krishna to advise him whether or not he might undertake the Rajasuya Sacrifice and name himself emperor. the captive princes were released. was skilled in the tricks of dice playing. This being accomplished. He grew into a man of immense strength. On the thirteenth. noted the prosperity that the PaI). their virtuous uncle. who had been in attendance. and they battled each other for thirteen days.9U.his anger even further. But the wily and evil Sakuni proposed that. the kingdom was divided in half. was Jarasamdha made into a complete human being (hence his name. Krishna's old enemy King Jarasamdha. Yudhi~thira was inclined to give up his idea. Sakuni. and take back the half of the kingdom they had been given. his natural grandfather. had had a strange birth. like all the other warrior heroes in this epic. held some eighty-six princes in prison.9avaS had brought to Indrapra~tha. and prophesied evil days to come for the k~atriya race. cautioned Yudhi~thira. Arjuna was enthusiastic. and the Sons of paI). and sought battle with him in single combat.9avaS and bring them back to Hastinapura along with their mother and common wife. who tied the two halves together. But Krishna pointed out that as long as his. Meanwhile. which was indispensable for one who sought imperial dominion. Yudhi~thira began to have dreams of empire. Yudhi~thira was crowned king of the other half. but Bhima did not like this spirit of complacence. Bhlma and Arjuna set out to kill Jarasamdha and free his prisoners who would then become allies of the paI). and there they reigned justly for thirty-six years. When Krishna and the PaI). The Sons of PaI). Yudhi~thira performed the Rajasuya Sacrifice. After the ceremony.9u returned to Indrapra~tha. or female demon named Jara (" the Old One "). and a very wicked one. who gave each half to one of his two wives. and planned to attack and imprison a full hundred. At that moment a mango fell into the lap of the sage. on the contrary. they should invite Yudhi~thira to a game of dice.9U took up residence in a new city (identified by some with modern Delhi). Now. He went to his urcle Sakuni with a proposal that the Sons of Dhrtara~tra should declare war against the Sons of PaI). was sent to Drupada's court to make peace with the PaI). who had also attended the ceremony. had been childless. Sakuni could accomplish by peaceful means what Duryodhana wanted to gain by war. the sage Vyasa. Yudhi~thira was not. but as usual he vacillated and finally 19 . Jarasamdha. which he thought unworthy of a king. His father. King Dhrtara~tra was reluctant to approve this idea. They named the city Indraprastha. however. and had consulted a sage about his problem. reigned. Duryodhana.9U had too long refrained from heroic deeds. J arasamdha chose Bhlma as his opponent. one Brhadratha. But soon they revealed themselves as warriors. The sage cut the mango into two halves and presented them to Brhadratha. nobody else could proclaim himself emperor.

the foolish Yudhi~thira began to wager his brothers Nakula. any longer had the right to wager DraupadI who. gave in to Duryodhana's arguments and agreed once more to a game of dice. Drol!a. spending the last of the thirteen incognito. from fatigue.) The elders. Sakuni won again. This time the stake was that the defeated party go with his brothers into exile for thirteen years. then chariots and horses. As her robes were stripped away. Then. Duryodhana sent his brother Dul:tsasana to fetch DraupadI. partly because he had a weakness for gambling. and the crafty Sakuni again took up the dice. Sakuni won them all. but he plunged ahead. contrary to the rules. it was Sakuni who had suggested the wager of DraupadI. in desperation. Krpa. villages. In DraupadI's case. but the evil Duryodhana. sheep. Sahadeva and finally Arjuna. and his brother Dul:tsasana even went to the extreme of stripping the clothes from the pal!9. and DraupadI was sent for. Yudhi~thira accepted. BhIma and himself. who was a doting father. called DraupadI and Yudhi~thira to his side. where the Sons of Pal!9. (This was technically against the rules. BhI~ma and Vidura. and even King Dhrtara~tra himself were outraged by this suggestion. the game began. having piled up a great heap of elegant garments. one of Dhrtara~tra's sons.) But when the Pal!9. new ones appeared in their place. It was bad form for one side to suggest to the other what he should wager. citizens and all their possessions.ava Princes had left. and he warned Yudhi~thira that probably no good would come of the invitation. Yudhi~thira was quite aware of Sakuni's reputation as an expert at the game. Yudhi~thira went on to wager cattle. at that point. and complained that by his generous action he had strengthened their enemies again. At this point Bhlma swore a mighty oath.u free was the dubious legality of this wager. One of the reasons Dhrtara~tra set the Sons of Pal!9. seeing his plans frustrated. He wagered jewels and gold. Even Vikarl!a.consented. but also as to whether Yudhi~thira. Next morning. If they 20 . causing a large hall of games to be built and sending his brother Vidura with an invitation to Yudhi~thira. foreseeing the destruction of his race. a miracle occurred. that one day he would rend the breast of Dul:tsasana and drink his blood. Vidura was filled with forebodings. and went with his retinue to Hastinapura.avas. partly out of courtesy.u were put up in regal fashion by the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. to become the household servant of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. Duryodhana. Sakuni won every throw. was no longer his property. Dhrtara~tra. (There had been a legal dilemma not only over Sakuni's right to suggest the wager of DraupadI. Nevertheless. Vidura was not happy with his assignment. and Dul:tsasana. Karl!a and the remaining Sons of Dhrtara~tra shouted in exultation. was finally forced to cease. King Dhrtara~tra. a cloth having been spread in the hall of games. Intoxicated by the game. Sakuni won them all. asked them for forgiveness and restored their kingdom to them. But Duryodhana was adamant. including DraupadI. He caught her by the hair and dragged her before the assembly. Yudhi~thira was again summoned. and then asked Yudhi~thira to wager their common wife DraupadI. protested that the game had been rigged and that. King Dhrtara~tra. however. who had wagered and lost himself. The howling of animals was suddenly heard from the forest. upbraided his father. The elders hung their heads in shame.

But Duryodhana slapped his thighs in derision. Arjuna accepted. against the advice of Dhrtara!}!ra. Vidura and Sakuni) was doomed. When he heard of the dice game at Hastinapura he set out at once to find the PaI. But Arjuna soon noticed that his opponent was unscathed while he himself was being wounded. asked forgiveness. This was Shiva himself. he went on a pilgrimage to the Himalaya. in retribution. and the Sons of PaIf9u took to the forest. He shot it with an arrow. King of Cedi.19avas in the forest. Indra advised him to do penance to Shiva (a god who was rapidly displacing the old Vedic god Indra at this time). though Arjuna was unaware of the fact. and members of a warrior tribe known as the Kekayas who had been friends of the PaI. Duryodhana and the Kauravas went to the forest to gloat over the misery of the PiiI. which had been besieged in his absence by a certain King Salva. Many things happened in the forest. There. they attacked a group of gandharvas (heavenly musicians) and were de21 . on the battlefield at the hands of Bhlma if he proceeded with his evil plans. and several sages told them stories to take their minds off their misfortunes. Krishna had slain. Arjuna did as he was told. where he practiced austerities. Vidura left the court and cast his lot with the Sons of paIf9u. Meanwhile. during which Bhlma stumbled upon his half brother Hanuman (also a son of the wind god Vayu). After that. Krishna and Balarama again visited the PaI. and eventually she got it. But Draupadi never gave up lamenting her humiliation at the hands of the Sons of Dhrtara$tra. Needless to say. and their child Abhimanyu. whose friend. and he brought along with him many men of the Bhoja and Vr$I. the other great Hindu epic. The encounter brought joy to both brothers. and the two battled. While Arjuna was away. who was disguised as a brahman. and the others to the court of Drupada. rested for a while in the kingdom of the gods and obtained divine weapons.19avas. and another huntsman shot it at the same moment. and Hanuman recounted the adventures he had had while assisting Rama to bring back his beloved Sita from captivity at the hands of the King of Lanka (Ceylon). with both legs broken.1c. He was met by his father. Yudhi$thira lost again. Krishna found the PaIf9avas. and Shiva healed his wounds. DroQa and Vidura were both apprehensive. Then he recognized Shiva. and was becoming a burden to support.19aVas. He was then taken in a chariot to Indra's realm. They felt that. telling those who were so inclined to go to the court of Dhrtara$tra. the race of the Kauravas (the Sons of Dhrtara$tra. who had taken a heroic role in the RamayaIfa. Sisupala. At this point. A great army was collecting around the PaIf9avas.were recognized during the thirteenth year. the second wife of Arjuna. As to Arjuna himself. The PaQ9avas then went on a pilgrimage. Then Vidura pronounced a curse on Duryodhana to the effect that he would die. But during his austerities he was charged by a wild boar. Shiva suggested that they fight over the matter of who had killed the boar. along with Dhrtara$tra himself. the god Indra. They sent it away. they would agree to go into exile again for another twelve years. Krishna was busy lifting the siege of Dvaraka. but stayed with them only long enough to express his sympathy. strengthening him a hundredfold.1i tribes as well as Dhmaketu. and then returned to Dvaraka with Subhadra.!avas. Draupadi wanted revenge.

She requested one more month's stay (it was the last month of the thirteenth year of the exile of the Sons of Paf. and was enthusiastically supported by King Susarman of Trigarta (which lay in the neighborhood of modern Lahore). Duryodhana had attacked Virata's realm from the opposite side and was stealing the cattle that were part of Virata's wealth. Virata regretted the loss of his general.iu. and. But soon DraupadI's beauty caught the eye of Klcaka.l<. Arjuna disguised himself as a eunuch to serve the ladies of the court. Klcaka pursued her and tried to rape her. Finally. and the two of them went out alone to tackle the whole Kaurava army. Nakula and Sahadeva. in triumph. they would protect him. this time without Arjuna. Klcaka's death made DraupadI an object of fear at the court of King Virata. taking a bath and sleeping with satisfaction. and when he sawthe Kauravas arrayed.l<. released Virata and brought him back to his capital city. Sahadeva became the king's cowherd. the thirteenth year of their exile arrived. 22 . but this was such a well-known habit of his that Yudhi~thira cautioned him against it. These. It was Uttara'sfirst battle. Miracles occurred. was anxious to respond to this attack.iava Princes be discovered. Duryodhana proposed invading Virata's realm. but Yudhi~thira reassured him. as everybody knew Klcaka to be a man of great physical prowess. the commander in chief of Virata's armies. They were rescued by the just and noble Yudhi~thira. and he sought to seduce her.l<. and persuaded Bhlma to go in her place. she arranged for an assignation with Klcaka. with whom the gandharvas refused to fight. and they were obliged to preserve their incognito until it ended). and the Paf. Though he was a mere holy man.iavas threw back the armies of Susarman. and she was asked to leave. and now that the latter's chief of armies had been killed. Bhlma pounded him to a pulp. Careless of revealing the identities of the Sons of Paf.l<. Matsya. When Klcaka appeared. Kan. But rumors of the slaying of Klcaka began to reach Hastinapura. where they took up domestic service. he was also an expert in the art of war. he thought it a good time to strike. Arjuna returned from his pilgrimage. and. though a eunuch (still disguised).l<.l<. Nakula became a stable boy. were Bhlma. later going back to his kitchen.iu. and the rescue humiliated Duryodhana.feated after a great battle. Yudhi~thira said. Karf. and Virata was taken captive for a time. to protect Virata and defeat Susarman and the Kauravas.iu. of course. Bhlma served as a cook. Prince Uttara. Susarman attacked the dominions of Virata.a and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. If Virata would permit him to arm the cook. the stable boy and the cowherd. Virata's son. in various disguises. and DraupadI became the attendant of the queen and the princesses of Virata's court. they came to the court of Virata. Susarman had long had an account to settle with Virata. He asked Arjuna to serve him in this capacity.la agreed. a suspicion began to grow that the Paf. laying waste the land. There was a big battle. Bhlma took his place in a chariot. Meanwhile. Bhlma at one point wanted to uproot a tree to use as a weapon. had at one time been a charioteer. Her entreaties that she was merely a lowcaste serving woman were of no avail. and they set out. King of the Matsyas. Yudhi~thira became a courtier to the king. and adventures without number came the way of the Sons of paf. and he had heard that Arjuna. slayable only by the mighty Bhlma. lest the identity of the Paf.iavas were at Virata's court.

brought a considerable army. prepared for battle. A brahman was nevertheless sent to Hastinapura with proposals to Duryodhana for a peaceful settlement. marched toward the PaI.ma was in favor of the settlement. DroI.. Salya was an uncle of Nakula and 23 .1Qin (the former Amba) and his twin brother Dhr:. unarmed. On being questioned. No longer was it necessary for them to maintain their incognito. and assumed his former effeminate garb as a eunuch. and at the same time managed to put the cattle stealers to flight. Satyaki (otherwise known as Yuyudhiina. They left Virata's capital and settled in the city of Upaplavya. sending him to retrieve some weapons he had hidden in a tree. The aged BhI:.ma. Balrama was in favor of this move. and his army.1a was for war. But the period of thirteen years had expired. Drupada. Salya. Uttara. Arjuna sent word back to the court of Virata. DroI. and the PaI.1a advised the Kauravas to let Duryodhana return to Hastinapura with part of the army. along with many Yadava warriors. Krishna and Balarama arrived with Arjuna's second wife Subhadra and their son Abhimanyu. Led by Krishna. BhI:. and they were forced to return to Hastinapura in disgrace. Asvatthiiman.1a. but Duryodhana extended exaggerated hospitality toward him and his troops. Duryodhana asked him to join the side of the Kauravas. He then stripped their clothes off. Finally. Duryodhana approached Krishna asking for his help in the coming battle. son of DroI. and Drupada agreed. King of Madra Desa. On the way back. he noticed that his son. another place in Virata's realm.1a tribesmen. Those who had briefly joined the PaI. and to leave another part to seize Virata's cattle. he gave all the credit for the victory to Arjuna.tadyumna. and Duryodhana the army. Krishna agreed to serve as Arjuna's charioteer.. the settlement being that the Sons of Dhrtara:. but KarI. but Uttara soon turned up.tra agree to return the lands they had taken from the Sons of PaI.1Qava Princes immediately disclosed their true identity. he made Uttara his charioteer. King of the Sibis.. sounding his conch horn Devadatta.1Qu. and a kinsman of Krishna) was present also. he hid his arms in the tree again. and KarI. DrOl)a and BhI:. Then he returned to fight with the Kaurava forces. and when Salya asked how he could repay it. this mighty gathering of warriors thought of sending a last peace envoy to the Kauravas.. Meanwhile a tremendous mobilization took place on both sides. along with SikhaI. the NarayaI. Here they summoned their friends and relatives. Balarama decided to abstain from the battle. Krpa. Krishna and Balarama regarded themselves as neutrals. saying that the young Uttara had won a glorious victory.1a would remain to give battle to Arjuna. Arjuna chose Krishna. which he did. defeating them all and finally using a magic weapon that made them fall down unconscious.1Qavas with a huge army.ma had already recognized him.1a. was missing. intending to join them. But Satyaki deplored the idea as unworthy of warriors. But Arjuna pursued Duryodhana.Arjuna was at some pains to keep him from fleeing the field. and. When Virata returned to his court after the victory over Susarman. King of the Pancalas.. The King of the Kasis and Saibya. Meanwhile. arrived with their retinues.1Qavas in the forest returned. friendly to both sides. Krishna offered Duryodhana and Arjuna each a choice between himself.

and he promised Yudhi~thira that if he were to become KarIfa's charioteer when KarIfa attacked Arjuna. and far exceeding in number those of the contemporary Greeks.090 elephants. he would hamper KarIfa's efforts. By count. and. Even allowing for the exaggerations common in epics. During the final stages Yudhi~thira 24 .270 horsemen and 765. mother of the Pal). He is a great slayer of demons. 153. and was very much for war. but it was too late to withdraw from battle against his half brothers.Sahadeva. king of Indraprastha. son of Prtha or Kunt! by the wind god Vayu. Yudhi~thira.090 chariots. mobilized a much larger force of eleven divisions. these were armies of colossal dimensions. while the Kauravas.a. His sympathies. 240. the PaIfcjavas had an army of 153.cjava Princes. This gratified KarIfa. and thus he cast his lot against them just to keep a promise. but he is by far the most powerful of the PaIfcjava Princes.870 chariots. three times as many horsemen and five times as many foot soldiers. under the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. The Kauravas. rightful inheritor of the throne at Hastinapura. however. Each division consisted of 2 I . Kunt!. and." or Kaunteya.570 elephants. but her own son by the Sun god. and informed him that he was not the humble charioteer's son he thought he was. DraupadI. a man accustomed to uprooting trees to assail his enemies with. "Son of Kunt!". after the slaying of Jarasarhdha. it might be wise to review our cast of main characters.570 chariots. the collective wife of the PaIfcjavas.450 foot soldiers. son of Prtha or Kunt! by the god Dharma (" Righteousness" or "Law"). Bhlma. the blind and weak-minded king of the Kauravas. One more thing happened just before hostilities broke out. as he expected.cjava Princes. the monkey god who assisted the great hero Rama. was spurned by Duryodhana. had an army of 240. was prepared to sacrifice anything for revenge. met Karl). an equal number of elephants. tremendously large armies were prepared to fight. at Hastinapura. Two last minute efforts were made to avoid war. First the Sons of PaIfcju. remained with the PaIfcjavas. and sometimes referred to as Vrkodara ("the Wolf-bellied") because of his insatiable appetite. known for his uprightness of character. He is not the most intelligent. the eldest of the Pal).710 horsemen and over a million foot soldiers. in Virata's kingdom. Bhlma and Arjuna. perhaps similar to the massive armies of contemporary Persia. sent his minister Sarhjaya to plead for peace with the PaIfcjavas. emperor. Krishna made a trip to see the Kauravas without much hope. but Sarhjaya was merely the personal envoy of a monarch who confessed he could not control his own sons. the PaIfcjavas mobilized a force of seven divisions. There was no recourse but war. of the epic The Ramayal). 721. Ultimately. Thus. at their headquarters in Upaplavya. Dhrtara~tra.a while he was at prayers near a river. (Because of his mother's two names. 459. Arjuna.) He is a blameless knight (his name means" Silver White") and a powerful warrior noted particularly for his skill as an archer. he is often referred to as Partha. "Son of Prtha. Now that we are on the eve of the great Battle of Kuruk~etra. He is also a half brother of Hanuman. otherwise known as the PaIfcjavas (the Good Guys): (" He who is steady in battle "). and hero of the Bhagavad Gita. son of Prtha or Kunt! by the god Indra.

the Karu~a. ruled by Virata. at whose court the Pal). and commander in chief of the Pandava armies. the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. son of Arjuna by a Naga (Serpent-demon) princess. He is also related to the Pal). and the Yadavas (members of Krishna's tribe). became grandmothers of the Pal). a reincarnation of Arilba. an out caste tribe related to the Cedis. King of Magadha. The Asvins were Vedic gods of very early origin. Iravat (" Comtortable "). son of the dead J arasarildha. a people from south-east of Madhya Desa.9in (" He who w~a~s a Tuft of Hair "). and twin brother of Nakula. King of the Sib is.9ava Prince of that name. by Vyasa. King of Matsya. Dhr~taketu (" He whose Brightness is Bold "). Uttara (" Superior "). Ghatotkaca (" Shining like a Jug" . Sikhal). The King of the Kasis. N ext. Cekitana (" Intelligent "). not to be confused with the pal). theoretically a neutral. and thus half rak~asa. the Vatsas. son of MadrI by the other of the Asvins. Virata (" Ruling Widely"). being the brother of Kunt!. father of Arilba. Saibya (" Relating to the Sibis "). the Dasarnas. a prince.9ava army contained members of the Abhisara tribe of \Vest Kashmir. Dhr~tadyumna (" He whose Splendor is Bold ").9ava Princes had taken refuge in disguise during the thirteenth year of their exile. Krishna (" Black" or "Dark "). son of MadrI by one of the Asvins. mother of the Sons of pal).a name derived from the fact that he was bald). "Bhlma" means" terrible" or "awful. otherwise known as the Kauravas or the Sons of Kuru (the Bad Guys): 25 . inhabitants of a country of that name. Abhimanyu (" Into Anger "). ally of the Pal).9aVa Princes. their allies: Drupada (" Rapid Step "). the last two of whom married Vicitravlrya and. the divine horsemen who draw the chariot of the dawn. Nakula led the Vatsa tribesmen in the great battle.9avas. Arilbika and Arilbalika. otherwise known as Yuyudhana (" Anxious to Fight ").i tribe. or demon.9aVa Princes.now a powerful warrior.-:otables. the collective wife of the pal). a kinsman of Krishna and King of the V r~l). and brother-in-law of Abhimanyu. the Pal). son of Arjuna by his second wife Subhadra. son of BhIma by a rak~asi." N akula (" Color of the Mongoose ").of the Battle of Kuruk~etra. He is the avatar of Vishnu. thus their father-inlaw. son of Drupada.9aVas by marriage. or the Supreme Spirit. son of Drupada. King of the Cedis. who had refused to marry VicitravIrya .9u. Now. Besides thpse . King of Paficala. Satyaki (" He whose Nature is Truth "). and he speaks most of the lines of the Bhagavad Glta. he tears apart the evil Kaurava. Du\:lsasana. Sahadeva (" Accompanied by the gods "). and drinks his blood. though still regarded by BhI~ma as female. father of Dhr~tadyumna and of his twin DraupadI. but acting as Arjuna's charioteer. This army was mobilized at Upaplavya in the land of Matsya. Sahadeva (" Accompanied by the Gods "). son of Virata. and hence their uncle.

and at one point. f. and the father of Asvatthaman. a son of Kunt! by the Sun god before her marriage to PaI). a son of Dhrtara~tra. brother of Pal)\lu's second wife. a great warrior and teacher of warriors. He was left afloat in a river as an infant and brought up by a charioteer. A brahman by birth. a mleccha.Qa.a (" Ear" . MUI). warrior and teacher of warriors.Qu. Bahlika 26 . a son of Dhrtara~tra and the warrior who dragged DraupadI by the hair before the assembled Kauravas after the first dice game." DroI). Vinda. he was made generalissimo of the Kaurava forces until he was slain by Arjuna and his charioteer SikhaI).a (" Having a good Right Hand "). Sindhu.Qin. King of Sindhu-Sauvlra. Arhba~tha. Until just before the battle. a country near the Indus River.sasana (" Of Bad Commands "). tribe in the battle. general of the Kaurava forces. and hence an unacknowledged half brother of the paI). KarJ). or barbarian. A counsellor to Duryodhana. King of Madra. King of the Salva people. Sibi (which had members on both sides).a name perhaps derived from the fact that he was born wearing a pair of earrings). The Kambojas of the Mahabharata are located north of Kuruksetra. King of the Kambojas.a (" Bucket "). Madri" and thus a maternal uncle of the Pandava Princes Nakula and Sahadeva. A powerful warrior and great general. the Kaurava army contained members of the Andhaka. adopted son of King Sarhtanu.Duryodhana (" Dirty Fighter "). Jayadratha (" He whose Chariot is Victorious "). and to rule in his place. eldest son of Dhrtara~tra and instigator of the events that led up to the Battle of Kuruk~etra. one of the elder warriors at Kuruk~etra. Siirasena (" He whose Army is Valiant "). Bhiirisravas (" He whose Praise Abounds "). brother-in-law of King Dhrtara~tra and maternal uncle of the Kaurava Princes. and he was reluctant participant in the battle." a god who bestows wealth). BhI~ma. Dul. He was the great uncle of both the Sons of PaI).Qu and the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. King of Pragjyoti~a (modern Assam). Salva (" Son of the Salvas "). Kalinga. Salya ("Spear"). Kekaya. Sudak~iI). aged warrior. an allied warrior. Krpa (a name related to krpa. Malava. His name.a by Krpa's sister KrpI. Sakuni (" Large Bird" or "Cock ").Qava Princes. son of King Somadatta of the Bahlikas (Bactrians). His primary aim was to deny Yudhi~thira the throne of Hastinapura. Asvatthaman (" Hewho has the Strength of a Horse"). Darada. he was unaware of his true identity. K~udraka. Citrasena (" He whose Army is Excellent "). "pity"). son of DroI). a son of Dhrtara~tra. And along with these notables. However. like Bhlma's means "terrible" or "awful. because of his sagacity in matters of war. who led the Kirata. Salva. Krtavarman (" He whose Armor is Ready"). Ni~ada. Bhagadatta (" He who is Given by Bhaga. teacher of the princes on both sides of the Battle of Kuruk~etra. King of Mathura.

Arjuna. Greeks and many primitive tribes that may have originated in the preDravidian races . which were. however. and also probably historic.yakas. Warriors in chariots could fight only with other chariot-borne warriors. is vague as to dates. It was also a country comprising a wide variety of races: Dravidians (the inhabitants at the time of the Aryan invasion). (N. In fact. his charioteer. The great battle was supposed to be fought according to certain rules of knightly etiquette. adhered to in the very beginning. and adding to. plus some territory to the East and West. I consider this frozen moment a dramatic triumph. battle. teachers and friends. Just as the first day of battle started. it was a time of enormous intellectual ferment among the brahmans. Vanga (Bengal). After sunset. the Upanishads and the AraQ.(Bactrian). to 300 A. Mounted warriors could fight only with other mounted warriors. Animals were not to be killed unnecessarily or deliberately. and was probably in process of compilation from 400 B. Horsemen were prohibited from attacking foot soldiers. 27 . Anyone momentarily disengaged was prohibited from attacking one already engaged.D. asked Krishna. And it also included what is now practically the whole of North India. At the time of this legendary. everybody mixed in friendship. along with some Yiidavas. and the Bhagavad GWi . though the warriors at Kurukl?etra (with the exception of Krishna) were not' particularly involved in intellectual pursuits. Fighting was to take place only in daylight. When God speaks. including charioteers. northern India was divided into small. Though the date of the Battle of Kurukl?etra has been tentatively placed by authorities at some point between 800 and 600 B. these rules rapidly broke down as passions rose. It was the time of the later" Vedic" works. who were engaged in interpreting. and during the last days of the battle they were not observed at all.800 lines of it . Videha and Vidarbha tribes. The blind King Dhrtariil?tra stood behind the Kaurava lines and listened while his minister Samjaya described the battle to him.the Australoids and paleolithic Negritos. in fact. Scyths. and.as. conch blowers or attendants. the Vedas. Single combats were supposed to be only among equals. Persians. overcome with grief at the prospect of killing relatives. and no attacks could be made on drummers.was spoken between Krishna and Arjuna. The great Yale Sanskritist Franklin Edgerton has called this a dramatic absurdity.B. Anyone who surrendered was to be spared. the BriihmaQ.C.).C. the Mahiibharata. I do not agree.. and it is set at a point of climax in the epic where what follows is a foregone tragic conclusion. it is not illogical for time to stand still while armies stand frozen in their places.all 2. Mongols. With all due respect. Anyone leaving the field or sitting in Yoga posture was supposed to be immune from attack. warlike kingdoms. of which it forms a part. The India portrayed in the Mahabharata still retained some of the warlike traditions of the Aryans who had invaded the subcontinent less than a thousand years previously. As in all wars. to draw up the chariot between the two armies. Anyone disarmed could not be attacked.

accidentally killing Salya's horse.la was attacking Dhr~tadyumna. By nightfall the Pat. Bhlma's son Ghatotkaca came to his defense. Dhr~tadyumna and Bhlma came to his assistance (this had been a fight between the oldest and the youngest warriors present).¢ava army. BhI~ma fought with Abhimanyu. the Kauravas attacked Arjuna. whose chariot had been destroyed. Arjuna said to Krishna. Duryodhana swooned in his chariot. but his father. Abhimanyu rescued Satyaki. The Kauravas tried to protect BhI~ma but Arjuna fought them off. Duryodhana smote Bhlma so heavily that he was forced to sit upon the ground.!avas had won a victory. but he did not succeed in killing BhI~ma. arrayed his army very carefully. the Pat. The Pal). Bhlma slew Kauravas by the score.<. Abhimanyu became a great hero.!avas scattered.Then the battle started. Eight of Duryodhana's brothers were killed by Bhlma. On the fourth day the Kauravas advanced under BhI~ma.!avas fared badly. and 28 . hit by Bhlma's arrows. and the Pal). The Kauravas were routed." Arjuna attacked. a Pat. On the third day. On the first day the Pat. Salya and Citrasena surrounded Abhimanyu and attacked him. The latter was hard pressed. At another point in the battlefield Drot. When he was hard pressed by BhI~ma. but Bhlma came to his aid and carried him off in his chariot. Duryodhana criticized BhI~ma for lack of zeal. Drot. Virata. But BhI~ma attacked it with fearful results. Arjuna's son and his own great grand nephew.!ava generalissimo. but Arjuna's heart was not in it. Duryodhana then sent the Kaliiiga army against Bhlma who slew great numbers. Drol).l<. But Uttara's elephant continued to fight until it was killed. Uttara (his son).l<. and for a time held off the whole Kaurava army single-handed. Sakuni attacked Satyaki and Abhimanyu. He scattered them all and caused panic among the Kauravas. with great gallantry. attacked Salya. Bhiirisravas. including BhI~ma.a regrouped the Kauravas and Duryodhana returned to the field. Uttara attacked Salya. BhI~ma. The Kauravas were turned back at the end of the day. Sveta. Then BhI~ma and Drol). the Pat. This angered Arjuna. Satyaki killed BhI~ma's charioteer (foul play) and BhI~ma was forced to flee.l<. He picked up a new one and cut Duryodhana's bow in two. Bhlma's bow was shattered.<.l<. Asvatthaman.!ava warrior. "The grandsire (BhI~ma) must be slain. BhI~ma hit Krishna (Arjuna's charioteer) with an arrow. Then Bhlma appeared. BhI~ma then made a tremendous attack on the Pat. BhI~ma supported the Kaliiigas: Satyaki and others supported Bhlma and Abhimanyu. Bhlma then attacked Duryodhana and nearly killed him. and the Kauravas sent a large force of elephants against him.a and Duryodhana. Arjuna. and was forced to retreat. On the second day Dhr~tadyumna. and Dhr~tadyumna arrived with reinforcements.l¢ava commander in chief. but BhI~ma finally killed him (second casualty) and went on to harass the pal).!avas.la and BhI~ma attacked Yudhi~thira. gallantly complimenting him on his technique. and Salya promptly killed Uttara (first casualty). came to his rescue. continually praised his opponents. Krishna egged on Arjuna to attack BhI~ma.!avas were downcast as the sun set. The gods came down to witness the battle.l<. Bhlma and his son Ghatotkaca attacked Duryodhana with heroism.

On the seventh day there were many single combats. being surrounded along with Bhlma.9avas wavered.a. but Bhiirisravas killed them all. The other four Pal). and he would not fight with women. DroI)a attacked Sikhal). "that which bewilders the mind") which he had received from Drol). nursing their wounds. There was great slaughter. Duryodhana advanced and was almost killed by Ghatotkaca.a. but Sikhal). Drol). Krpa retaliated by engaging Cekitana in single combat on the ground. Abhimanyu defeated 29 . kiliing his horses and charioteer (foul play). Dhr~tadyumna took refuge in Abhimanyu's chariot. scattered them and pursued them on foot wielding his mace. BhI~ma advised suing for peace. was killed by the rak~asa warrior Alambu~a. or nerve gas) and stupefied the Piil). fighting until both fell. Sixteen sons of Dhrtara~tra were killed that day.9in to be a woman. Bhlma fought eleven of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra all by himself. Later. Duryodhana rescued Bhiirisravas. Duryodhana complained to DroI)a about the weakness of the Kaurava attacks. Duryodhana and the other Kauravas attacked Bhlma and Dhr~tadyumna who were in their midst. BhI~ma attacked Abhimanyu.9aVa victory.the Kauravas were downcast. DroI)a then attacked Satyaki and Bhlma came to his defense. But the Kauravas were getting the worst of it.a. He got behind the Kaurava lines and Dhr~tadyumna went to rescue him. There ensued a big. On the fifth day BhI~ma attacked the PaI)9aVaS and caused considerable havoc. Satyaki had attacked Bhiirisravas in an effort to protect them.9avas. The Piil). Drol). Ghatotkaca attacked the Kauravas with great slaughter. Arjuna slew thousands.9avas. He considered Sikhal). At this point BhI~ma turned away. and with it stupefied the Kauravas. confused battle in which the sons of Satyaki were slain. the warriors of both sides retired to their tents.9aVa Princes joined in. being rescued at the last minute by Drol). Virata's son Samga was killed (this was the third of Virata's sons to be slain). On the sixth day Drol). used a secret weapon (the Pramohana. Arjuna's son by his Naga princess wife. killing his charioteer and horses (more foul play). On the eighth day Bhlma killed eight of Dhrtara~tra's sons. who promptly revived and joined in. Iravat. BhI~ma and Salya together attacked Bhlma.9in and compelled him to withdraw. but Duryodhana wouldn't listen to him.a as a student. but Abhimanyu was rescued by his father Arjuna. Bhlma took Cekitana away in his chariot. But Yudhi~thira came on with a large force to support Bhlma. Bhj~ma scattered the Piil). Arjuna then attacked BhI~ma. wounded and exhausted.a killed Dhr~tadyumna's horses (foul play) and shattered his chariot. Sakuni performed a similar service for Krpa.9in came to the rescue. Virata was defeated by Drol). Then Duryodhana arrived with a similar secret weapon (it must have resembled tear. but BhI~ma held his own against all five. Yudhi~thira defeated Srutayu. Bhlma rescued Satyaki.9aVas by the thousand. Duryodhana was wounded by Bhlma and rescued by Krpa. Cekitana attacked Krpa. Duryodhana's army was demoralized. It was a big Pal). and the day was declared a victory for the Kiiuravas.a's charioteer was killed (foul play). Arjuna was downcast. At this point Dhr~tadyumna. On the ninth day BhI~ma slew pal). At sunset.

who forced Drol).<. The day was a defeat for the Kauravas. Dhrstaketu was defeated by Krpa. but Arjuna pulled him back. He claimed that he had been killed by Arjuna (an honor). BhI~ma still counselled peace. piercing BhI~ma's armor at points that Sikhal). DroI)a again attempted to capture Yudhi~thira." they said. On the tenth day BhI~ma was killed. Drol). Satyaki duelled with Asvatthaman. or she.iin felt that he. however. or to be more p!. Karl). BhI~ma survived for fifty-eight days (he kept himself alive deliberately so that he could die during the" upper going. The gods folded their hands in reverent salutation as BhI~ma was defeated. remembered that Yudhi~thira was the rightful heir to the throne of Hastinapura. book VIII of the GIta).a approached him asking for his blessing. Krishna suggested that Arjuna kill BhI~ma.a insisted that since he had cast his lot with Duryodhana. But Karl). but. Duryodhana's fundamental purpose was to get Yudhi~thira into another game of dice. Abhimanyu engaged four prominent Kauravas at once. and BhI~ma again attacked the Pal). heard of the plan and made their preparations to counter it. made a plan to draw Arjuna off and kill him. and that Duryodhana was seeking to deprive him of the right). but Yudhi~thira fled on a swift horse. The Kauravas then made a plan to capture Yudhi~thira alive..<. though SikhaI)<. chief of the army of the King of Trigarta. in fact. On the eleventh day Drol). along with his four brothers. It was Duryodhana's idea..iavas.iin shot arrows at BhI~ma.a attempted to capture Yudhi~thira. He delivered several didactic discourses: he was still living. He slew them all. There was single combat between Sahadeva and Sakuni. whom he considered to be a woman).a. The day was generally victorious for the Kauravas. 30 . Virata engaged Karl). again.a (see footnote to stanza 23. BhI~ma advised him not to fight. Susarman. but Drol)."ecise. Bhlma defeated Salya.the rak~asa warrior Alambu~a. Water sprang forth. BhI~ma died very slowly. Salya was defeated by Nakula. Dhr~tadyumna attacked Drol).a with Arjuna.a took it up gladly because he did not want to see Yudhi~thira killed (it will be. Exasperated. but was foiled by Arjuna. and Arjuna shot an arrow into the ground. The PaI)<. On the twelfth day the Kauravas. Arjuna sent a hail of arrows.a avoided him to get at Arjuna. BhI~ma asked for water. Krishna got down from the chariot and proposed to attack BhI~ma on foot. DroI)a again tried to capture Yudhi~thira. he had no choice but to continue. had fulfilled Amba's vow by bringing the great son of King Samtanu to his end. supported by a cushion of arrows. Satyaki engaged Krtavarman.a. but Dhr~tadyumna and the other Pancala Princes stood by to protect him. Arjuna had not the heart to kill his old teacher. seeing that they could not capture Yudhi~t­ hira while Arjuna was present in the field. mortally wounded. and thus attain nirval).iin as his charioteer (BhI~ma had already prophesied that he would be invincible except in the presence of Sikhal). attacked Arjuna. The Kauravas began to lose courage.iavas.<.<. The battle stopped while both sides paid homage to the old warrior. "Ganga (the Ganges) has come up to quench her son's thirst. after the battle had ended. Arjuna attacked him with Sikhal). and Drol).iin had missed.<. Sikhal).a to retreat.iin." or northern phase of the sun. holding that it was no disgrace for a warrior to flee before a brahman.

Paficalya.a rushed toward him. Lak~maI). tried to rally the Kaurava forces. and then made for Yudhi~thira. inflicting wounds and driving the animal mad. Bhagadatta. and found himself surrounded. Meanwhile.a with some success. but were prevented. Then. another Paficala prince. fled. Arjuna was told about his son's death. but Bhagadatta's maddened elephant caused great havoc among them.a's army with the object of getting at Jayadratha. was indignant over the rout of the Kauravas. who was indirectly responsible (he had helped to trap Abhimanyu) The battle continued. killing him. and Dul. BhYma attacked a Kaurava warrior named J alasamdha. Arjuna slew horses. Arjuna who was fighting the army of J ayadratha. V r~a and Acala. struck him to the ground.a's protection.la. All these were unfair tactics. including an elephant force brought against him by the Aiigas and Kaliiigas. Abhimanyu. and many Kauravas fled. advanced against 31 . and rushed against Arjuna with a force of elephants. Arjuna smote the Kaurava army.a. were killed.a failed in all his attempts to capture Yudhi~thira.l9avas tried to get to Abhimanyu to rescue him. He continued to fight with a chariot wheel as his only weapon. was so disgusted by this performance that he left the field. and caused him to retreat. BhYma attacked DroI). was killed by Drot. ganged up on Abhimanyu and disarmed him. Yudhi~thira. In a tremendous display of valor. King of the Sindhus. KarI). Dul. On the fourteenth day Bhiirisravas. with Krishna as his charioteer. and suspecting that Arjuna was in trouble. but was forced to flee. Seeing the Kaurava forces slaughtered by Satyaki. DroI). blew his conch horn. On the thirteenth day Arjuna. seeking Arjuna. Two Paficala princes. but the rules of war were rapidly breaking down. and Virata's son SatanYka was killed by Drot. Sakuni attacked Arjuna. He attacked BhYma and destroyed his chariot and horses. and proceeded through the Kaurava lines. killing both him and his elephant.tsasana's force. Finally. Bhagadatta was attacked on all sides by the PaI). but were killed by Arjuna. Yudhi~thira blamed himself for the death of Abhimanyu. sent Satyaki to the rescue. raining showers of arrows. Arjuna's son. Prince of the Bahllkas. Dhrtara~tra's son Yuyutsu.tsasana himself. Drot. Yudhamanyu and Uttamaujas followed him to protect him. Arjuna. he fended off the entire Kaurava army. hearing it.la attacked him. The Pat. The Kaurava forces were stampeded. Sakuni's brothers. DroI). along with Dul. while Yudhi~thira engaged Krtavarman and Dhr~tadyumna engaged DroI).tsasana became infuriated. But Arjuna pierced the elephant host. King of Pragjyoti~a. who was fighting on the PaI). attacked the underside of Bhagadatta's elephant.9ava side.a. At that point. Then occurred one of the most heroic feats of the entire battle. broke through the line of the Kaurava forces. Arjuna proceeded against DroI). elephants and warriors. seeking DroI). on foot.Drupada stood in his way. then made a tremendous attack on Bhagadatta.tsasana. BhYma.a rushed at BhYma. throwing good form to the winds. but he dispatched them all. The Kauravas. Five of Dhrtara~tra's sons attacked BhYma. and vowed vengeance on Jayadratha. penetrated the Kaurava ranks.9avas. Son of Dhrtara~tra. Vrka and Satyajit.la while SatanYka was attempting to attack him. including Duryodhana. son of Dul.

who had dragged DraupadI before the assembled Kauravas. This enraged Arjuna. laid down his arms and was promptly decapitated by Dhr~tadyumna. Bhlirisravas sat upon the ground in Yoga position. and he would have turned on his brother to kill him. and Arjuna unethically slew Karl). Duryodhana was now practically alone.a slew his old enemy Drupada as well as Vira~a. He fled and concealed himself in a nearby lake (he possessed the power of remaining under water). after Drol). he let his son's head fall to the ground and his head burst into a hundred pieces. Krishna informed Arjuna of this vow. Drol). A little later.a's death. He suggested naming one of the Pal). On the sixteenth day Karl). He invoked the laws of chivalry. After the death of Karl). attacked Dul). Even Krishna had lost all sense of honor .a's son and then killing the animal.a.a's attack. Krishna egged Arjuna on. But. He also thought of the mantra that he had learned from the brahman warrior Parasurama to use with the Sakti. There had been a vow made by Jayadratha's father Vrddhak~atra that the head of whoever caused his son's head to fall to the ground would burst into a hundred pieces. The warriors on both sides were horrified by Bhlma's act.Satyaki and brought him to the ground. After Salya's death.a challenged Yudhi~thira to fight. Seeing Satyaki's plight. Arjuna pressed J ayadratha.a. On the eighteenth and last day the tide turned definitely in favor of the Pal).<. When his father roused himself from meditation. tore him apart and drank his blood as he had promised to do. and asked Arjuna not to attack him while he was engaged in this task. and he was forced to leap to the ground to try to raise it. but for the intervention of Krishna (even the pal). as predicted. At one point a wheel of Karl).a.iavas. cutting off his right arm. grieving. Salya assumed command of the Kaurava forces.a's chariot became stuck in the mud. reproached Arjuna for not supporting him at the time. from a distance where he was engaged with Jayadratha. Drol). and thought that he had lost his son.iavas were now quarreling among themselves).a took charge of the Kaurava army. and the Pal).<.iavas attacked Drol). A little later Bhlma. Asvat32 . The idea was carried out. During a lull in the fighting. A little later Sahadeva slew Sakuni and Yudhi~thira slew Salya.<. but Drol). and Arjuna.iava elephants Asvatthiiman.a.a. He appealed to Yudhi~thira for confirmation knowing that Yudhi~thira never lied. On the seventeenth day there was a long and terrible duel between Arjuna and Karl). sent a stream of arrows at Bhlirisravas. Karl). who had previously fled before Karl). caused a stream of arrows to convey the head into the lap of his father.<.a was told that Asvatthiiman was dead. Arjuna. After Drol). as he beheaded Jayadratha. who was meditating nearby. dragging him by the hair and striking him on the chest with his feet.sasana. confirming the death of Asvatthaman. Yudhi~thira. On the evening of the fifteenth day all knightly ethics were totally discarded.a rather surprising state considering that he was the avatar of Vishnu or the Supreme Spirit. he could not remember it. Satyaki then beheaded Bhlirisravas as he sat. recalling Draupadfs humiliation after the dice game. but during the ensuing combat Yudhi~thira ignominously fled for the second time. The battle continued into the night by torchlight. But honor was at such a low ebb that Yudhi~thira did lie.

who later presented it to Yudhi~!hira as an ornament for his crown. He embraced Yudhi~thira as a token of peace. The PaQ9ava Princes. This unfair and brutal act aroused the anger of Yudhi~!hira. and he reproached Asvatthaman for slaying innocent children. and forced him to emerge. The bodies of the slain warriors were gathered up. laid upon a great funeral pyre and burned. wife of Dhrtara~!ra and mother of his hundred sons. wrapped in perfumed linen. they were keeping watch at the gates of the camp. and egged on by the dying Duryodhana. and left angrily for their capital city Dvaraka. calling him the son of a slave (an allusion to his cowherd foster father). Using a magic weapon (the brahmastra). Asvatthaman brought the five heads of the sons of DraupadI back to Duryodhana. returning to their camp. Asvatthaman then killed the five young sons of DraupadI by her five husbands. did not forgive. Finally. during which he treated the 33 . rebuked Krishna. He taunted Duryodhana. Dhrtara~tra mourned the loss of his hundred sons. Duryodhana. Parik~it came alive again. Dhr~tadyumna by stamping on him as he slept. But when Bhlma was announced to the blind king. Asvatthaman and Krtavarman .survived. Bhlma next killed all the remaining Sons of Dhrtara~tra except the absent Duryodhana. and trampled upon his body. Krishna returned to Dvaraka. Krpa and Krtavarman took no part in this cowardly slaughter. he. Prativindhya. Krpa and Krtavarman. and pursued him furiously.he slew the unborn Parik~it. but he went along. Then he searched for Duryodhana and discovered his hiding place in the lake. and was so disgusted that he attacked Bhlma with a plow (Balarama's customary weapon). Bhlma. A tremendous battle with clubs ensued betwefn Bhlma and Duryodhana. the last remaining Kaurava nobles decided on a night raid. had finally appeared on the field. son of Abhimanyu. saw what Asvatthaman had done. Yudhi~!hira reigned at Hastinapura. who was still in his mother's womb. but nevertheless blessed the paQ9avas. Only three of the warriors on the Kaurava side . But Duryodhana knew better. He was stopped by Krishna. Yudhi~!hira was proclaimed King of Hastinapura. Balarama. who struck Bhlma across the face and asked Arjuna to take him away. Then Asvatthaman took an oath to exterminate the PaQ9avas. Satanlka and Srutaklrti. hitting below the belt. Yudhi~thira's reign lasted for fifteen years. approaching the PaQ9avas in their camp. However. Then he died. still alive. as well as the warriors Uttamaujas. saying that they were the heads of the five PaQ9ava Princes. Next he killed SikhaQ9in who was also asleep. had witnessed Bhlma's foul blow. The battle was over. owing to Krishna's magic intervention.Krpa. The PaQ9ava Princes were away at the time. Sutasoma. Asvatthaman took a jewel from his forehead and presented it to Bhlma in token of defeat. Asvatthaman first killed his father's slayer. and Dhrtara~tra crushed it to powder. but he was not happy. Krpa was against this idea. The children of the PaQ9avas had all been killed except Arjuna's grandchild Parik~it. Krishna put a metal statue in his place. Bhlma gave the jewel to DraupadI.thaman took charge of the Kaurava forces. Bhlma fought with Asvatthaman and overcame him. Krishna's brother. GandharI. broke both Duryodhana's legs with his club.

gave themselves up to drunken revelry.lava Princes and KarI). Gandhari and his minister Samjaya. Then Arjuna and Bhima died. assumed a Yoga position and died. Krishna ruled in Dvaraka for thirty-six years. much to his disgust. In one of their drunken orgies Krishna's son. accompanied by Kuntl. and grandson of Arjuna. and Yudhi~thira and the others became godlike.c. As for Dhrtara~tra himself. but his tribe. On the way. Yudhi~tl:tira had become fond of the dog and refused to go without it. 34 . found Duryodhana there. son of Abhimanyu and Uttara. however. The PaI). Krishna realized that the time had come to end his role as the avatar of Vishnu. Pradyumna. A messenger took Yudhi~thira through a sort of hades. king. Yudhi~thira alone was left. A dog had joined him. Samjaya. and. It had been the god Dharma (Yudhi~t­ hira's father) in disguise. The god Indra sent a chariot to take Yudhi~thira to heaven but would not take the dog. and he continued to climb. Draupadi.a. he practiced austerities and went to live in the forest. Then they departed for the Himalaya along with DraupadI. He chose to remain with them. They returned after three years only to be burned to death as their house caught fire.c. Sahadeva and Nakula died. the Yadavas. He was shot by a hunter as the avatar escaped. escaped the fire and went to the Himalaya as a samnyasin. or renouncer of all the things of life. where he found the other PaI). Balarama was so disgusted at this that he retired to the forest. and also Satyaki were killed.lavas crowned Parik~it. Then the dog vanished. Yudhi~thira finally found himself on Mount Meru.blind Dhrtara~tra with respect. the Olympos of India. Then heaven opened.

adjective. he whose beard is blue. Examples 1fi English: 35 .. Examplesin English:" pale-red.. pI.. n. fut. " "devajana.." (b) both members are nouns. he whose hat is hard. In Sanskrit: maharatha. Tatpuru!?a compound. i. Examples in Sanskrit: " rajar~i. a thief who is a gentleman. p. a compound the members of which have the same case. anantariipa. dat. mid." " north-east. Bahuvrihi compound.. Karmadharaya compound." (c) both members are adjectives.. loco absol. feminine. gen. ""TP cpd. A compound of two words which would ordinarily have different case endings. plural. adverb.. "boy-actress" (in Shakespeare's time). pr.. indicative. irregular. adj. especially. "in fine compositi. literally loc.. future. irreg. nominative. esp. "bluebeard. "hardhat.. either expressed or implicit.. middle. adv." i. active. such that their beginnings are unmanifest.. locative absolute.. he whose neck is red." i. interrog. sg." "great wealth. Example in English: " highway. ifc. passive. singular. Dvandva (copulative) compound." " king-sage. The last member is a noun and the first usually an adjective. interrogative.. DV cpd. genitive.. he by whom the kingdom is held. locative. masculine..not an abbreviation... Its structure can be most simply explained by examples: "He whose B (last member) is A (first member) " or "This of which the B (last member) is A (first member). an actress who is really a boy. nom. instrumental." i.. f.e. present." Examples can readily be found in English: "redneck.e.. ·KD cpd." "god people. mababaho (vocative).. pass.." i.e." lit. accusative.. indic. but a term indicating an alteration in accord with the laws of euphonious combination of words.. sarhdhi . ablative. the second a noun. m. act.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE VOCABULARIES abl. acc." "greyish red." "at the end of a compound.." in Sanskrit: "mahadhana.e. neuter." " uttarapiirva. There are three types: (a) the first member is an adjective." Examples in Sanskrit: "dhiimarohita. 0 Thou whose arms are mighty.. Example in English: "gentleman-thief. ·BV cpd..." indicating the last member of a compound. dative...e."" snow-white.. that of which the form is unending: avyaktadini. past. Dhrtara~tra (proper name). A compound which is always adjectival to a noun or pronoun. inst. he whose chariot is mighty.

vocative. king. chief of kings. van Buitenen of the University of Chicago for these remarkably clear definitions of Sanskrit compounds. loka. etc. rajendra (raja. B. world). They are far preferable to the ones listed in Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar. A. In Sanskrit: jlvaloka (jlva. chief).e. etc. the peak of a mountain. 36 ." i. living.. Indra. The members of these compounds are nouns. the world of the living. voc. • I am indebted to the Sanskrit scholar J."mountain peak.

Lord to be Praised.Highest of the BhaVisQ. Madhusiidana . Kaunteya . or One who has not Fallen.Thick-haired One. or Mankind-tormenting (an epithet of Vishnu). Infinite Form.Splendid One (voc. Bharatasattama .Supreme Spirit..whose self is great.Best of the Bharatas. Gu<.Blameless One. also applied to King Dhrtara!?!ra). Bharatasre!?!ha . Bharatar!?abha .Conqueror of Wealth.God. is).Imperishable One.u .Mighty Armed One (a general epithet of warriors). Mahiibaho . * Savyasacin .9avas and the KauDeva. Devda (Deva Isa) .* Anagha . Kdinisiidana . Acyuta .iyam .Tiger among Men. Puru!?ar!?abha .Son of Vasudeva.<.Son of Kuru.Lord of Creatures.Descend:mt of Madhu (a Yadava or Madhava patriarch). Dehabhrtam Vara . Arisiidana . Yadava .Son of PaQ.Descendant of Yadu.Best of Kurus. testifies to the fact that he was the common Isam I<.The Monkey-bannered (a descriptive term rather than an epithet). Mahiitman .eya . Madhava . ancestor of both the PaQ. Govinda .Destroyer of the Enemy. Kesava . And in the Great Manifestation of Kurusre!?tha .Son of Prthii. Kapidhvaja .).Immeasurable One.Descendant of Bharata (a general epithet. Kurupravlra . ravas (Sons of Kuru). Paramtapa .Ambidextrous Archer.whose form is endless. Puru!?avyaghra .Slayer of the Demon Kdin.EPITHETS (NICKNAMES) USED IN THE BHAGAVAD GITA For Arjuna: Dhanamjaya . Bharata .<. Var!?Q.Clansman of the Vrsnis.The Handsome-haired One. of Men. Janardana .iava . Book XI: Puru!?ottama .Son of Kunt1. Prabho .Blessed One.iu.Destroyer of the Demon Madhu (properly an epithet of Vishnu).iakda .Best of the Embodied. Prajapati .Scorcher of the Foe. 37 For Krishna: Hr!?Ikda . Mahiibaho . Vasudeva . Anantariipa .Mighty Armed One (a general epithet of warriors). Bhagavan . Kurunandana .Agitator of Men.Thousand-armed One (voc. Reference to the ancient patriarch Kuru Glory.Chief Kuru * Hero.Diademed One.). Partha .Chief of Herdsmen.Lord of Gods. Aprameya . PaQ. Apratimaprabhiiva .Vishnu (whose avatar Krishna ratas. . or Best KirI!in .Bull among Men. Sahasrabaho .The Bristling-haired One.Incomparable . or Joy of Kuru.Bull of the Bharatas.

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pass. desiring to fight ~: '1fUS?ITm miimakiib pii1}¢aviis ciiiva mine and the Sons of Pal). a BY cpd. participle sam ava . duty. what? akurvata (3rd imperf. kuru (m. pl.Ji). Kuru. k~etre (n. nom. pI. righteousness. in the field. Sanjaya? • Kuruk~etra is an actual place." Dhritarashtra spoke: When they were in the field of virtue. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). loc.BOOK I ~·~I < . in the field of Kuru mm1:f1:f~:1 samaveta yuyutsavab assembled together. pafJ4avas (m. the blind Kuru king to whom the Bhagavad Gita is to be related by SariIjaya. samjaya (voc. pI.Jk~). come together.. minister to King Dhrtara~va. and. desiring to fight. a small plain in the Panjab north of Delhi near Panipat. dh~tara~!ras dhrtarii~tra uviica Dhrtara~tra spoke: (m.). desiderative adj. D~ara~~ra. 1 OT+f~~~~~ dharmak~etre kuruk~etre* when in the field of virtue. perfect act. .Jvac). on the field. his minister. they did. nom. my. What did my army and that of the Sons ofPandu do. kim (interrog. middle . virtue. law. means "He by whom the kingdom is held. k~etre (n.). yuyutsavas (m. sg. SariIjaya. from .<ju f'fi+{~~11 kim akurvata samjaya what they did? Samjaya? dharma (m. nom.). The name. Assembled together. 39 . the royal dynasty to which Dhrtara~~ra belongs. assembled. honor. mamakas (m. nom. desiring to do battle.Jyudh). The name means "completely victorious. nom. sg. samavetas (m.). who relates to him the bulk of the Bhagavad Glta.). battlehungry. in the field of the Kurus. he said. mine. desiring to fight. p. loco sg. he spoke.). pl. the Sons of Pa~4u.).). eva.). on the field. ca." uvaca (3rd sg. in the field.

seeing. army. act. the narrator.). sg. son of Dhrtariistra and chief inciter of the battle. acc. anf~~ (m. Duryodhana then "'l1"lI~liqfi'lnr acaryalnupasarhgalnya the Master (DroI). vacanam (n. <:ri!l ~<. he Samjaya spoke: 2 ~'1~'"'rf. 40 . approaching. uviica (3rd sg. n. dr#va tu palJrjavanikarh seeing indeed the PaI). iiciiryam (m.) vyu4ham (m. nom. King Duryodhana. he said. Dhrtarii~~ra. nom. fighting force. he spoke. . acc. upasmngamya (gerund upa sam . riijii (m. sg.Jdrs). sg. tu. sg. sg.). acc.). nom. arrayed. acc. Spoke these words: dJ:~fVii (gerund .Jgam). here referring to Duryodhana. the King." tadii.). pertaining to the Sons of Piindu. having seen. duryodhanas (m.). n. speech. The na~e means "Dirty fighter. Duryodhana. sg.lQu. sg.m~ I samjdyas (m. m. to the master (DroI. at that time. drawn up in battle formation.I B'.). word. then. n.fm II raja vacanaln 'abravit the King (Duryodhana) word he spoke: Sanjaya spoke: Seeing indeed the army Of the sons of Pandu arrayed. to the teacher. army of the Sons of PiiI.a) approaching.. royal personage. piifJ4ava (adj. face. chief of the Kiiurava (Kuru) army. master. appearance. acc. teacher. minis- sarhjaya uvaca ter to King spoke.). TP cpd. edge. sg.~ava army ~~<r1~CRTI vyurjharh duryodhanas tada arrayed..la). going up to. indeed. imperf. truly. approaching his Master (Drona). abravft (3rd sg. perfect act. he said. (piifJ4ava-anfkam. ybru).Jvac).).

inst. drupada. sg. O<fGT ~'1~Tfur vyiiq.).e. Pandu. pl.lava army.). as befits great heroes in mythology. great. dhfmata (m. Pr~ata. si~eTJG (m. Drupada." tava (gen. this." putreTJa (m. had odd births. Hence his name "rapid step.c. wife of a Gandharvll (flereal being). acc. paTJefuputra1]iim (m. gen.). sg. Wise by your instruction. of thee. Bharadvaja. 0 Master. sg. by wise. Drupada was born from this seed. arranged in battle formation. 41 . participle vi . mahatfm (f. inst. vyudham (f.. sg.Qu ~ll@"T~1 iiciirya mahatim camum Master. lost his seed at the sight of Menaka.J'vah) . aca.. who is chief of the pal).y~ (voc. Drol)a means " bucket" . sg. The name means "rapid step. as a student. Behold 0 Master." by student. * who has instructed many warriors on both sides of the battle).see chapter on the setting of the Bhagavad Gita. division of warriors. by intelligent. sg.). acc. the great army.).a. whose name means "bold splendor" or "audacious majesty. Drol)a's father. behold! perceive! see! etam (f.). by Dhr~!adyumna. pass." Nevertheless. sg. camum (f. mighty. army. acc. of the Sons of behold this of the sons of Piil). acc. * father of Dhr~!adyumna.). He tried to trample out the seed. "by the to be taught.hiilh drupadaputrelJa arrayed by the Son of Drupada ~ f~ e:irtrnr II tava si~ye1}a dhimatii of thee as student wise. inst.). Drupada's father. this great army Of the sons of Pandu Arrayed by the son of Drupada.Jpas) . . It fell into a bucket he was carrying. p. by the son. lost his seed under similar circumstances. i. • Both Drol)a and Drupada.I 3 pasyiiitiiJz Pii1}¢~putrii1}iim ~qIO:Sif>tIOIl+t paSya (2nd imperative act. arrayed.). an apsara (nymph). 0 Teacher (here applied to the aged warrior Drol). sg.

A PiiI. atra.lava warrior (see footnote on p. nom.lavas once took refuge.) yudhi (m. Drupada ("Rapid Step").." or "awful. a powerful warrior. bhfma." samas (m. whose chariot is great. nom. drupadas (m.lava ally. in fighting. sg. Equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna.).I 4 ~~~p'l~\S<mll atra siira mahe~asa here (are) heroes. nom. nom. the great warrior. 53 above)." arjuna. pl.l<. nom. ca. son of Satyaka. pl. a warrior king with whom the PiiI. and Drupada. mighty warrior (as BV cpd.).l<. loco sg. AIjuna. in this case.). yuyudhano viratas ca Yuyudhana and Virata ~~:II drupadas ca maharathal. sg. pl. sg. Yuyudhiina. And Drupada. equal to Bhlma and AIjuna. nom. The name . The name means "tremendous. nom. a PiiI. The name means "anxious to fight.). Virii\a.l<. ca.). the same. 42 . pI. epithet for Drupada. brother of Arjuna. the warrior hero of the Bhagavad Gltii. and. in battle. Here are heroes.). nom. suras (m. A PiiQ<. mighty archers -r~<rn+rr '{fer I bhimarjunasamii yudhi Bhima and Arjuna equal to in battle.). equivalent. sg. means "silver white. son of Kuntl or Prthii. (bhfma-arjuna-samas m. mighty archers.). equal. mahiirathas (m. yuyudhiinas (m.. mahii i~u asas "mighty arrow hurlers. heroes." mighty archers. son of Kuntl by the wind god Viiyu.Iava ally. he whose chariot is great.). Bhlma. mahe~vasas (m. Yuyudhana and Virata. TP cpd. and. The name refers to a district in India." virafas (m. here.

formerly Prthli. bull among men. and.). sg.lQavas. Vasudeva. Kunti.). (narapufigavas m.lQavas.1 kiiSiriijas ca viryaviin and the King of Kasi. an ally of the paI.). ally of the PaI.1Qava princes (Yudhi~thira. valorous. a prince of the Kunti people. a PiiI.)." A PaI. by adoption. nom. sg. Throughout the Bhagavad Gita Arjuna is referred to as Partha (Son of Prtha).).). sg. . ca. man. and.lQava ally. thought to be a tribe inhabiting the vicinity of modem Benares. bull among men. And the valorous King of Kashi. Dhr~(aketu. Prthli took her foster father's name and became known as Kunt!. nom. daughter of his cousin Sura. sg. viryavan (m. The name means "he who conquers widely.1Qava princes. and. Bhlma and Arjuna). The name means "bold leader. a PaI.) • Kuntibhoja. Ultimately she became the mother of the first three PaI. Chekitana. sg. The name means "highly intelligent. a prince. nom.jfii"'lCf~.jf"q: 'fjf~~ purujit kuntibhojas ca Purujit and Kuntibhoja ~~~:II siiibyas ca narapungaval. He is. whose father. King of Cedi. or Kaunteya (Son of Kunti). man-bull: Dhrishtaketu. ca. saipyas (m. ~." 43 ." cekitanas (m.). King of the Sibis. nom. nom. sg. Purojit and Kuntibhoja And Shaibya.).. who was also a Yadava prince.1a. bull.). purujit (m. a PaI. nom. kuntibhojas (m. Kuntibhoja. sg. was her brother (and a son of Sura). and was an aunt of Krishna. nom.I 5 ~~'RlR: Dhr~tsaketu. man-bull. nom. as well as KarI. Siiibya. their father-in-law. thus belonged to the Yadava clan. full of heroism.See chapter on "The Setting of the Bhagavad Glta. valorous.lQava ally. nara (m. the King of the Kasis. ca." klisirajas (m. and Saibya. dhr#~ketus cekitiinalJ Cekitana ml<l. a Yadava prince.lQava ally. dhmaketus (m. having adopted Prtha. nom.lQava ally. pufigavas (m. Cekitiina. brother of Kuntibhoja. sg. sg. Upon adoption. has an interesting relationship with the PliI.

all.). yudhiimanyus ca vikriinta and Yudhamanyu. Abhimanyu. 44 . and. who was the collective wife of the five PiiI. the son of Subhadrii. mighty. nom. i. nom.Jkram). vikriintas (m.e. full of heroism. ~~~q~1 uttamiiujas ca viryaviin and Uttamaujas. the Sons of DriiupadI. p. The son of Subhadra and the sons of Draupadi. ca. pl. All indeed great warriors." ca.iavas. sg.). mahiirathiis (m. and. pass.z of all of whom the chariots are great.I 6 lf~~f~ '<> '<> yudhiimanyus (m. SrutakIrti (by Arjuna). nom.lava princes and the daughter of Drupada. who abducted her with Krishna's consent. siiubhadras (m. sg.Gf ~~: II sarva eva mahiirathii/. And mighty Yudhamanyu And valorous Uttamaujas. pl. driiupadeyiis (m. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). nom. There were five sons of DriiupadI: Prativindhya ~by Yudhi~!hira). pl. bold. sarva (samdhi for sarve. The name means "of highest power" or "of supreme valor. The name means "fighting with spirit. eva. Uttamiiujas. nom. valorous. Yudhiimanyu.). courageou~. nom. nom. Sutaspma (by BhIma). a warrior ally of the Piil)<.l<. valorous. those whose chariots are great. sg. great warriors. uttamiiujas (m.). (as BY cpd. and.iavas. participle vi ." ca. sg. vfryaviin (m.). SatiinIlca (by Nakula) and Srutakarman (by Sahadeva). sg. nom.).). ~i<niT~~~ siiubhadro driiupadeyiis ca the Son of Subhadra and the Sons of Draupadi ~ t:. striding forth.). a warrior ally of the Piil)<. the son of Subhadrii (Krishna's sister) by Arjuna.

). sg.). know! understand! dvija (m. who. by proper names. I tell. nom.). to thee.) nayakas (m. pl. refers to Drol). uttama (m. 0 Highest of the Twice-born. nibodha (2nd sg. truly. nom.. n. The leaders of my army I name for you by proper names: 45 . indeed. bravfmi (I st sg. indic.Jbudh). tan (m.). (dvijottama. ye (m. voc. chiefs. pl.. ni . vi§istas (m.). . of army. imperative act. for the purpose of knowing. distinguished. I name. our. tan (acc. particular. act. n. of mine.. sg.). sg. I speak. asmakam tu visl4a ye ours indeed distinguished who ~ f. pr. TP cpd. pl. te (dat. of my. most excellent. m.r"ht f~ffi+r I tan nibodha dvijottama them know! OHighest of the Twice-born ~lll1~ nayaka mama sainyasya leaders of my army B'm~ <:rq ~crTfl1 ~ II saf!ljiiartham tan bravimi te for information I name to thee: Those of ours who are indeed distinguished. pI. pl. mama (gen. for information. samjiiartham (sam jiia artham. sg. commanders. acc.Jbrii). Know them! 0 highest of the Twiceborn. of me. pass. leaders.). them.).). p.). them. sg.). of troops. highest chief.I 7 ~~fqf~r~ asmakam (gen. tu. preeminent.a. twice-born. ours. gen. participle vi J§i![). acc. sainyasya (m. nom. pl. member of one of the three highest castes.

victorious in battle ~qrm fCfCfi1lT~ asvatthiimii vihar1}as ca Asvatthaman and VikarI. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). nom." a reference to the fact that Kwa was found in a clump of grass as an infant. nom. The name. sometimes known as Kwacarya. and. sg. nom. before her marriage to pal. of Asvatthaman). Bhi~ma. in its feminine form kl:pii. and. bhi~~S (m. unacknowledged half-brother of Arjuna and the other Pal. The name means "having the strength of a horse. nom.la ~Tlr~f~~:q II siiumadattis tathiiiva ca and the Son of Somadatta also. of Prtha or Kunti. sg.). (The name means either "without ears" or "having wide ears. and. thus. sg. who is fighting on the other side.). sg.). a Kaurava warrior. saumadattis (m. Ashvatthama and Vikarna and the son of Somadatta also. brother-in-law of Drona. asvatthama (m. also. sg. always victorious in battIe. ca. sg. tatha. and "compassionately" adopted by King Sariltanu (see chapter "The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita). victorious in battle. and. Thy Lordship." ca." great uncle of the Pal. sg. Kfpas (m. thou. Your Lordship. nom. ca. nom." vikarlJas (m. m. nom. eva.).lQava princes. Your Lordship and Bhishma and Karna and Kripa. He is a reluctant participant in the battle. bhaviin bhi§mas ca kar1}as ca Thy Lordship and Bhl~ma and Kan:ta ~m+rfm:1 krpas ca samitithjayaIJ and Krpa.). He is the son. by the Sun God Siirya. means "pity" or "compassion.la. He has an old family grudge against AIjuna. Refers to Drona. Kwa. a son of King Dh{tara~!ra and a Kaurava warrior. the Son of Somadatta.lQava princes. sg. karfJlls (m. son of Drol. known as "the grand-sire. samitiinjayas (m. KafI. and. Kaurava warrior. nom. and a warrior prince on the Kaurava side. a Kaurava warrior and teacher of warriors.)." "terrible" or "awful. 46 .la and Kwi (sister of Kwa)." ca. ' Cfiuro :q .).lQu. aged Kaurava warrior. ca. The name means "awe-inspiring. bhavan (honorific.I 8 ~ ~')mrn :q .

p l. throw ing weapons. ca. all. profi. yutidlm (n.).JtyaJ). they whote lives Ire riaked.l Jurd and other many heroes ~~)f<mT : '"""~.. ~Iinquished. different.r for my sake whose lives are risked . (!aslra. nom. nom. skilled. from pro J ilt:) . nom. SlE(OI I: niiniiJastraprahaTa~4i. pau.. {or my sake. m. fighl..) • The compound /ollrapraharm. wtra (n.UdrtU!4s (m. e. (Juddha ·. attacking with various weapons. m. .. p . 'f'T madarthe ." 47 . TP cpd. pI. and. nom. . nom. pI. allY" (m. adj.).) sorvt (m. various. pl. cient.. pl . nom.Iyaktajivitti!. BY epd.b mea ns literally "weapons 10 strike and weapons to hurl. nom. dinincl. TP cpd.)." Iyalc/a (m.. nom. m..).) 114114. skilled in baule. nom.'as (m. lives. baule. weapon. pl. nom..). prahorQ"!lIJ (n.). i'". lar41 (m. pI. sulking .). all skilled in battle. pl. discharging. '11'. oohawu (m. madD"I" (m. lit. of me in purpose.I 9 anye co bahofJa/. others. pl . other.prahara~u. Ioc::. throwing. p/. nom.I· various weapon assailing ri ¢crnrro: 11 sarve yuddhaviJtiradti/:l all battle-skilled. participle .'Js. heroes. And many other heroes whose lives art risked for my sake.).).iMrad4r. .lperienced. 1'1 Pilt". abandoned . (lyalltajrvit4l. many. assailing.

nom. Bhima. p. In that version. p. force.. n. of us. participle pari --lap). strength. etqam (m. guarded by BhY~ma. abhirak!iitam (n. nom. to them. nom. guarded by BhYma. strength. guarded. van Buitenen has investigated the matter and published his conclusions in the Journal of the American Oriental Society (Vol. incomplete.) paryaptam (n.rak~). The Vulgate version. balam (n. Insufficient though is The force guarded by Bhima . this.).). . in the ninth century or thereabouts. protected. force. nom. of these. unequal. nom.. but though.). brother of Arjuna.) ~ '+i't~rf'lRf~ I balam bhi~mabhirak~itam (the) force (by) Bhi~ma guarded. nom. No. great uncle of the Piil). abhirak~itam (m.-March 1965). Bhi~ma. abundant. asmakam (gen. the names Bhi~ma and Bhima are transposed and the stanza reads: aparyaptam tad asmakam balam bhimabhirak~itam paryaptam tv idam ete~am balam bhismabhirak~itam 48 . p. nom. pass. guarded. A. sg. according to van Buitenen. that. tu. ours.Qava warrior. protected. which still survives. to us. was. tad (m. (3) Bhi~ma is generally regarded as a much greater leader of troops than Bhima. Piil). sg. nom. nom. pass. pl. the old Kiiurava warrior. (Bhima-abhivak!iitam. The eminent Sanskrit scholar J. this. unbounded.Qava princes and a chief of the Kiiurave army.. participle a pari . Jan. I.Jap). TP cpd. p. sg. pass. sg.). sufficient. balam (n. preceded by another version used by Bhaskara the Vedantin.Jrak!i). sg. 85. q<jTqfk~~ paryaptam tv idam ete~am sufficient though that of these ~ <1T+nf'lRf~ II balam bhimabhirak#tam (the) force (by) Bhima guarded.. B. (Bhi!ima-abhirak!iitam. Sufficient is that force of ours Guarded by Bhishma.I 10 ~<1rl:(f a-.9aVaS (therefore hardly" insufficient"). participle abhi . nom. from which practically all translations have been made. gen. n. sg.\ ~ aparyaptam tad asmakam insufficient this of ours aparyaptam (m. sg. sg. This stanza has puzzled many translators because (I) Duryodhana's (the speaker's) forces are actually greater than those of the Pal). idam (n. participle abhi ':. equal. (4) the words sound unnatural corning from Duryodhana who is supposed to be encouraging his forces with a pep talk. pass.). (2) tad" that" seems to refer to something nearby while idam "this" seems to refer to something far off. unlimited. pi). insufficient.

in goings. acc. guarded by Bhi~ma is equal to them. Edgerton thinks the name Bhima is chosen in order to make a word play on the two names. protect ye! protect! bhavantas (honorific nom. <1~'l1T'Pt .rqfp·mr: I yathiibhagam avasthital}. ye. sg.I 11 .) hi. placed. abhirak~antu (3rd pI. stationed. in progress. Bhf~mam (m. All of you.). pass. nom. m. participle ava Jstha). indeed. in positions. indeed.Cff~11 bhavantal}. pl. avasthitas (m. pl.. and. ca." Actually. pl. following (as of a command). thus indeed.). indeed (used here for emphasis. Stationed each in his respective place.). sarva (samdhi for sarve. nom. imperative abhi Jrak~). Bhima is not the leader of the Pal)<. p. each in his respective place.). of course. though Bhi~ma is the leader of the Kauravas. eva. this army. truly. sarva eva hi your lordships all.:r~ rzcrrfmw<1 bhi~mam evabhirak~antu Bhi~ma indeed protect ~:~1J. the old Kiiurava warrior chief. eva. Bhl~ma. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). 49 .P:R~ 'q ri~ ayanefU ca sarvefU and in all movements.). On the other hand. according to shares. (n. in movements.Iavas. in all.. yathiibhagam (adv. ayane~u And in all movements. loco pl. pI. sarvqu (n. in respective places stationed . Protect Bhishma! which in van Buitenen's translation reads: " That army guarded by Bhima is not equal to us. your lordships. all. loc.).

). sg. har!fam (m. dadhmiiu (3rd sg. v~ddhas producing joy. nom. pr. roar. Kuru. nom. bringing forth.I 12 ~~<J:~ tasya samjanayan har~am tasya (m." descriptive of BhI~ma. lion. to Duryodhana. sg. f~<fRfq'1~i)~: . of him (Duryodhana) ~<J:. Roaring like a lion.. sg. full of energy. sounding forth. sam . lit. full of power. acc. participle caus.e. vinadya (gerund vi . searingly.) ucciiis (inst. of him.[:f~:1 kuruvrddhal.). nom. acc. simha (m. n.).Jdhamii). adverb). his grandsire. roaring a lion's roar. full of dignity. aged. on high. nom.). Blew his conch horn powerfully.. loud sound. (m. from pra .Jjan).). pass. pratiipaviin (m. p. smnjanayan (m. elevated. producing.Jnad). the Grandfather. by loud. saiikham (m. acc. (simhaniidam vinadya. he blew. full of sankham dadhmiiu pratiipaviin conch horn he blew powerfully Making him (Duryodhana) happy. delight. pitiimahal. to him. sg. conch horn. loudly. member of the Kuru tribe. by high.).. 50 . "great father. niidam (m.Jtap). perfect . participle the Aged Kuru. gen. pitiimahas (m. roaring a lion's roar on high q~e+rhC'lIqql't II crying. i. sg. joy. sg. simhaniidam vinadyocciiil. strength. grown larger. pI. sg. adj.JVI:dh). sg. grandfather. act. kuru (m.). bellowing. The aged Kuru.

it became. drums and trumpets.z the cymbals.). thereupon.). abhavat (3rd sg. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). pl. nom. uproar. then. sas (m. trumpets. bull-mouths (trumpets) ~ sahasiiiviibhyahanyanta all at once they were sounded ~~~~II sa sabdas tumulo ' bhavat the uproar tumultuous it was. drum.).). inst. nom. anaka (m. . pass. cymbal.JbhU). The uproar was tremendous. and. tumulas (m. noisy. The cymbals. they sounded.). the cymbals. kettledrums. pl. saiikhiis (m. and thereupon the conch horns and the kettledrums q1lf<rT'i'filT~: I pa~aviinakagomukhiil.I 13 mr:~. sg. tumultuous. bheryas (f. act . syllable. drums. sabdas (m. froZV thence.. sg. sound. abhyahanyanta (3rd. they were struck. pl. pI. all at once.). lit. And thereupon the conch horns and the kettledrums. ca. 51 . m.nt~ tatal. pI. this. eva. conch horns. nom.). abhi . pafJava (m. nom. DV cpd.. the. (pafJavanakagomukhiis. "bullmouths" or "bull faces" (the plural refers to the whole compound). imperf. sg.). ca. suddenly. nom. and. quickly.Jhan). gomukhas (m. imperf. it was.z saiikhiis ca bheryas ca tatas. drums and trumpets All at once were sounded. sg.).) sahasa (n. nom. drum.

acc.I 14 (iff: ~ m. inst. the two heavenly. dual). the two conch horns.. saiikhiiu (m. n. the two divine. <rffi .).). acc. joined. in the mighty. tatas.. Krishna (the Yadavas.j~. standing.).javascaiva the Descendant of Madhu (Krishna) and the Son of pal). sthitau (m. dual). Arjuna.). with horses. participle . pl. n. p. Pal)qu was a brother of Dhrtara~!ra and officially the father of the five Pal)qava brothers.. pradadhmatus (3rd dual perfect act. Krishna's tribe. then. in the great.. loco sg. syandane (m. thereupon. in yoke. from thence . pl. Madhavas (m. Q.:J tatalJ svetair hayair yukte then with white horses yoked ~a ~ f~?Rfr I mahati syandane sthitau in the great chariot standing lfNCf: qlo:s<'. sg.Jdhma). nom. Krishna and Arjuna Sounded forth their divine conch horns.j madhavalJ paIJr. yoked. they two blew forth.9U (Arjuna) thus f~r qr>r~t. pra .. including Arjuna.~: II divyau saiikhiiu pradadhmatulJ divine conch horns they blew forth. was descended from Madhu. nom. loco sg.Jyuj). nom. situated. by horses.-' ~ . in the "fast-running. dual). ca. hayais (m. 52 . loco sg. and.). yukte (m. nom. not to be confused with the asura Madhu who was killed by Vishnu). sg. standing in the great chariot Yoked with white horses. • Arjuna's chariot is drawn by four horses.).. inst. by white. mahati (m. pa1]4avas (m. with white. Son of Pal)qu. nom. descendant of Madhu. eva. pass. divyau (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).q<'. Then." in the chariot. svetais (m.

(Bhlma) the Wolf-bellied Krishna blew his Panchajanya.). h~~[keSas (m. udaras (m.). he blew. v~ka (m." a very frequent epithet of Krishna.) (v~ka-udara. acc.).) piiiicajanyam hr~ikeso Paficajanya. n. thought to be a brother of Krishna. sg. (The epithet v~kodara was applied to Bhlma because of his enormous appetite. sg. 53 . dhanamjayas (m. sg. perfect act. ~~:I devadattam dhanamjayal." "Erect Hair. the Bristling Haired One (Krishna). Possibly named for a king of a people in Eastern India. sg. name of Bhlma's conch horn. BY cpd. sg. "Bristling Haired. Devadatta.qra he blew. BY cpd. nom. wolfbellied one. sg. Blew the great conch horn Paundra. devadattam (m. belly. terrible in action. mighty.I 15 ql~"l"1~lj ~~T pancajanyam (m.). sg. bhfmakarma (m. sg." name of AIjuna's conch horn.). acc. nom. pawyJram (m.). nom. m. wolf. acc. sankham (m. dadhmau (3rd sg. acc. nom. Arjuna blew Devadatta. +r~ffi~:11 bhimakarmii vrkodaral.).Jdhma). . name of Krishna's conch horn which was taken from the demon Paficajana after Krishna slew him. nom. whose actions are terrible. "God Given.). Conqueror of Wealth (Arjuna) q-r~ ~e"l[r ~ piiu1Jt!ram dadhmiiu mahiisaiikham paul). great." very common epithet of AIjuna. stomach. conch horn. sg. terrible in action. terrible In action. the great conch horn. "Conqueror of Wealth.). mahti. While Bhima..

son of Kunfi by Dharma." ca. nom.).).)." raja (m. Yudhi~!hira. DV cpd. eldest of the Piil}Qava princes. sg. anantavijayam raja Anantavijaya the king ~rrn7iferf~: I . blew Anantavijaya. The name means "color of the mongoose.). son of KuntL yudhi~rhiras (m. sg. sg. m. IUlkulas (m. king.kuntiputro yudhifthiral. acc. nom. malJipu~paktiu (m. acc.). sugho~a and mal}ipu~paka. born to Piindu's second wife.z sahadevaS ca Nakula and Sahadeva ~~111 sughofama1Jipufpakau Sughol?a and Mal. son of Miidri by the other Asvin. (sugho~amalJipu~paktiu. Miidri by one of the Asv·ins. Mal}ipu~paka. A PiiI}Qava prince. the name of Sahadeva's conch horn (meaning "jewel bracelet").) 54 .). Nakula. sg. acc. The name means "unending victory. god of justice and law.I 16 ~m~ alUlntavijayam (m. The name means "accompanied by the gods. nom. sg. dual.z son of KuntI Yudhil?thira ~:~Q:~*~"" nakulal." sahadevas (m.lipul?paka King Yudhishthira. Sahadeva. nom. . kuntfputras (m. and. one of the twins. A Piil}Qava prince. sg. Anantivijaya. Son ofKunti.!he other twin. the name of Nakula's conch horn (meaning "making a great noise"). Nakula and Sahadeva Blew Sughosa and Manipushpaka. sugho~a. dual). nom. Yudhisthira's conch horn.

KD cpd. and eventual killer of Bhlsma who would not fight with a woman. sg. i~viisas (m. best archer. dhmadyumnas (m. kiiSyas (m. sg. f~r:q~:1 and Sikhal)<.).I 17 ~q(ij&ll*l: kiiSyas ca parame~iisa!.iin. a tribe in a district identified with modern Benares. son of Drupada.c. sg. m.). ca. of Sikhal}<.). supreme archer. arrow.lava princes took refuge during the thirteenth year of their exile.) sikhafJ4hr (m. a Piil}<. ca. nom. nom. son of Satyaka and an ally of the Piil). parama (m. that great warrior. And Shikhandi. nom.z and the King of the Kiisis.).) he whose chariot is great. Dhrishtadyumna and Virata And Satyaki. ca.lava warrior. nom. sg. 55 . ~~+:<fTf~ dhr~tadyumno G '''' Sikhandi ca mahiirathah viriitas ca Dhr~tadyumna and Virlita ~ifl:. sg. . and.z and Satyaki. bowman. sg. great ~arrior. Viriita. iisa.). archer. the invincible. apariijitas (m. (as a BV cpd. and. unconquered. supreme archer. warrior king of a particular district in India. the King of the Kiisis. and. and. i~u. the invincible: And the King of Kashi. hurler). Piil}<. born as a girl and miraculously changed to a male. highest.. maht'irathas (m. nom. sg. siityakis (m." ca. Yuyudhiina. son of Drupada and brother of DriiupadI. with whom the Piil}<. sg. sg. supreme. nom. nom.). nom.lava warrior. The name means "one whose nature is truth. great warrior.\avas. virii!as (m."'lq(lf~: II siityakiSciipariijita!. (parama-i~viisas. invincible. nom.lin).).

). drupado driiupadeyiis ca Drupada and the Sons of Dr1iupadi ~~: 1:f~q'"'rm I sarvasal:z prthivipate all together.) safikhiin (m. (mahiibiihus. driiupadeyiis (m. one by one. 0 Lord of the Earth. 0 Lord of the Earth.. son of Arjuna and Subhadra. "Rapid Step. voc.lQin and DraupadI. pl.). nom. sg. wholly. arm. siiubhadras (m. mahii. having mighty arms. altogether.). ca. perfect act. conch horns.). sg.lQu princes. nom. nom. pl. 0 Lord of the Earth (Dhrtara~tra) ~T~~~: siiubhadras ca mahiibiihul:z and the Son of Subadra. strong. Jdhmii).. p~thak P':thak. respectively. BY cpd. the son of Subhadra. each his own. mighty..). biihus (m. strong armed ~~ ~1!: 1:~ 1:~~ II saiikhiin dadhmul:z Prthak Prthak conch horns they blew respectively Drupada and the sons of Draup. to whom the scene is being described by Samjaya. the 'latter the common wife of the five PaJ. refers here to D~ara~\fa. entirely. And the strong anned son of Subhadra Blew their conch horns. sarvasas (adv. they blew. p~thivfpate (m. nom. SikhaJ.I 18 ~1:f~'-Ts::1q~41~~ drupadas (m. dadhmus (3rd pI. each in tum. acc.). Abhimanyu.). sg. 56 . viz. and. sg.ldi All together. his second wife. the sons of DraupadI." king of the Paiicalas and father of Dhrstadyumna. sg. nom.

from . sg.n:r~ crf~r ~ nabhal ca Prthivim ciiiva and the sky and the earth ~) ~<j<jl~ll<j II tu-:nulo vyanun'adayan the tumult causing to resound sas (m. nabhas (n. and.Jghu~). it rent. sg.:r~~1<1l<'1. it lacerated. sg ). sg. of the sons of Dhrtarastra. gen.). dhiirtara~!ra1Jiim (m. tumult. cry. hr:dayani (n. finnament.Jnad). noise.I 19 ~ 'Effq) <lla ~JtS?IOI i sa gho~o dhiirtarii~trii1'}ii:m the noise of the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. nom. vyadarayat (3rd sg. causing to make resonant. this. causative act. sound. ptthivim (f. nom. nom. gho~as (m.). participle vi anu . earth. tumultuous.1 hrdayiinivyadiirayat the hearts it burst asunder . and. hearts. causative imperf. ca. And the tumult caused The sky and the earth to resound. vyanunadayan (m.). vi . sky. causing to thunder. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). the. ~. it tore. 57 . act. acc. acc. tumult. sg.). tumulas (m. it burst. it caused to burst. eva. pl.Jdr:). nom. acc. sg. causing to howl. ca. The noise burst asunder The hearts of the sons ofDhritarashtra.). pl. pr.

having seen the sons of Dhritarashtra Drawn up in battle array.9U Then. ape. then. page 70 atha. sg. sGinpiite (m. sg.) (pravr:tte sastrasGlnpiite. dhanur udyamya palpJaval. • Arjuna's standard was a flag with the symbol of a monkey. piilJqavas (m. sg. who assisted Rama in bringing back the kidnapped SUa. ~~~:II . BV cpd.) pravr:tte (m. banner.I 20 'l. flag. collision. (m. in the Ramayana. (kapi-dhvajas. when the clash of weapons began. encounter.). . 58 . in the occurring. in the resulting. loco sg. bow. kapi (~. Arjuna. banner of the monkey. pass. dhiirtarii~rriin dmvii (gerund . pI. in the coming together.Jyam). loco sg. p. monkey.Jsthii). the monkey was Hanuman. m. m.).). the sons of Dhrtarastra. brandishing. clash of the weapons. standard..1~~~~ atha vyavasthitan drftva then. nom. the Son of pal). udyamya (gerund ud . Incidentally. sg. loco sg. the bow raising.). the monkey god.. ar- dhiirtar aWan kapidhvajal. rayed. in the coming forth. nom. sastra (m. acc.Jpat). pl. participle vi ava . dhvajas (m.).). drawn up in battle array having seen. flourishing. TP cpd. Raised his bow as the clash of weapons began. acc. his wife.). weapon . m.. the Sons of Dhrtara~tra.) dhanus (m. <mhIGCI'1 'iifi:re~: I . having seen. confluence (sam .Jd~s). Son of Pa~Qu (Arjuna).). the Monkey Bannered (Arjuna) >JCf~ ~lf?f<8q 18 pravrtte sastrasampate in the coming forth of the clash of weapons. nom. (sastra-sGinpiite. loco absol. vyavasthitiin (m. drawn up in battle array. seeing. raising up. acc.

. in the midst of. of the two armies. sg.I 21 ~~~~'!: hr:~r (f. ubhayos (f. acc. ratham (m.. sg. acc. nom. cause to be situated. dual). Imperishable One Arjuna then spoke these words to Krishna: o Lord of the earth. keSam (m.). perf. acc.).). this. sg. then. m~~-m. acc. hrsikeSam tada vakyam to the Bristling Haired One (Krishna) then word ~~~T~I idam aha mahipate this he said: 0 Lord of the Earth.).). hair. erect. 0 Ruler. an epithet of Vishnu-Krishna. of both. in the middle. chariot. unchanging. (mahfpate. he said. speech. 0 Lord of the Earth. sthtipaya (2nd sg. gen.jah).). sg. imperishable. Bristling Haired a common nickname for Krishna. 0 Master.). TP cpd. acyuta (m.). sg. not fallen. of me. the earth. aha (3rd sg. dual). firm. act. mahf (f. sg. Cause my chariot to stand in the middle Between the two armies.).) senayos (f. 59 . gen. word.).jsthti). loco sg. idam (n. voc. sg. . m. vakyam (n. causative imperative act. voc. madhye (n. Imperishable One.) tada. bristling.r~~ senayor ubhayor madhye of the two armies both in the middle ~~lr~<:fll ratham sthiip"'aya me 'cyuta the chariot cause to stand of me. (hr:~fkeSa. pate (m. pie (gen. 0 Lord. voc. unshaken. cause to stand. sg. sg.

). kais (m. hungry for battle. sg. Until I behold these warriors. arranged in battle formation. (rafJa-samudyame. I see. yoddhavyam (n.). m. loco sg.). to be fought. nir[k~e (1st sg. in this. mid. gerundive . together.). ~. conflict.) 60 .. aham (nom.. along with. TP cpd. I. and in its use here means battle as an object of delight.). +r<rr ~ lI'T:irolI'~ kair maya saha yoddhavyam with whom? by me together to be fought ~f~\Urnmll .). '" asmin rat}asamudyame in this battle in undertaking. inst. arrayed. anxious to fight. sg. etan (m.Jyudh used impersonally). I. pl. I behold. in undertaking. loco pI. in raising. With whom must I fight In undertaking this battle? yavad. as many. saha. as much. in lifting. samudyame (m.Jyam). sg. nir . until. delight. by me. with me. acc. rafJa (m.). <F<. by whom? with whom? maya (m. battle. avasthitan (m. interrog. rafJa also means joy. derivative noun from sam ud . wishing to fight.). pI.I 22 ~~f<rU~~ yavad etan nirw. yoddhukiiman (m.J[k~). in readiness for. acc. acc. pl. pleasure. inst. yoddhukaman avasthitan battle-hungry arrayed. lI'). in readiness for battle. asmin (m. loco sg. pl. these.e 'ham until these I behold. in setting about. Battle-hungry and arrayed. nom.[~~~1 .

acc. who these here come together ~~~4:a\ dhiirtariiftrasya durbuddher of the Son of Dhrtara!}tra of evil mind '!. samiigatiis (m. of the Son of Dhrtarii~!ra. of evil intuition. in battle wishing to do service. pI). wishing to do a service. sg. of cik[r~u. these. ya.). Wishing to do service in warfare For the evil-minded son ofDhritarashtra (Duryodhana). lj'~y. assembled. nom. avekfe (rst sg. nom. dear. Duryodhana.[ fwn~~: II yuddhe priyacikir~ava!.. in warfare. who. cik[r~avas (m. pl. participle . indic. mid. whose mind is evil.Jk1:). mid. I behold.r~:1 ya ete 'tra samiigatii!. sg. m. desiderative adjective from .). I.. loco sg. priya (n.). fut. nom. ete (m. those who are about to give battle. pl. wishing to do.J[k~). nom. here.). come together. BV cpd.e. dhiirtarii~frasya (m. TP cpd.I 23 <{'\ttl! +! 1'11 i wr~ ~ yotsyamiiniin (m. act. atra. wishing to do a kindness. pI. service. 1.). in this place. aham (nom. in this respect. i.).) yotsyamiiniin avek~e 'ham those who are about to gIve battle I behold. in battle. pI. ava . I see. (priyacikfr~avas. gen. pI. Having come together here.). of evil mind." I behold those who are about to give battle. pr. kindness. 61 . durbuddhes (m. sg. wishing to perform.Jyudh). samdhi for ye (m. nom. gen. yuddhe (n.

h~~f (f.) bOOrata (m.I 24 ~~T~~ evam uk to hr~keso thus addressed. kesas (m. thick. standing on end. uktas (m.). Having caused the chief chariot To stand in the middle between the two armies. 0 Descendant of Bharata (here referring to Dhrtarii~(ra whom Sariljaya is addressing). causing to stand. sg. the highest chariot. of both. molasses. ubhayos (f. gutjiikesena bhiirata by the Thick Haired One (Arjuna). in this manner.JstOO) .Jvac). bristling. loco sg. erect.: ~l"\ ~ senayor ubhayor madhye of the two armies of both in the middle ~~~ ('If'l'd+i+( II said. sg. gen. a ball.). ke§a (m.). pass. gen. sg. sthiipayitvii rathottamam having caused to stand the chief chariot Thus Krishna was addressed by Arjuna. shock of hair. sg. m. of the two armies. addressed. hair. participle . o Dhritarashtra. p.. • Dhrtara~tra the blind king to whom the scene is being described. the Bristling Haired One (Krishna) '1:S1if. madhye (n. rathottamam (ratha uttamam. 62 . gu4ii (f. (gudiike§ena. having caused to stand. voc. acc. in the middle. the chief chariot.). dual). o Descendant of Bharata ~<in.). nom. inst. by the Thick Haired One.). thickened juice of the sugar cane. hair. sg. bespoken. by Arjuna. stOOpayitvii (causative gerund . m. nom.~Ii1 "ll'mf I evam. thus. dual).). senayos (f.

of world- rulers.). acc.e.). voc. pass. pI.). mahf (f./vac). Kaurava warrior. i. lit.. imperative act. great bhipnadrottapramukhatal. a Brahman by birth and. pl. pl. gen. iti. piirthas (m.). before the eyes of. a teacher of warfare. gen. samavetiin (m. and. (mahfklfitiim. in front of BhI~ma and DroQa. acc. gen. the Son of Prtha. drof!G.. imperf. at the close of a quotation). "before the face. thus. pI./pa§). p.) uviica (3rd sg../i).). these. be- hold! look at! see! etiin (m. m. in front of. come together. participle sam ava . he said.).. assembled. kun'in (m. . of earth-rulers." ca mahi~itiim and of all these rulers of the earth ~crr:q '1T~ ~ uviica piirtha pasyiiitiin said the Son of Prtha: Behold these M4dl1.. of all these. the elderly Kaurava warrior. ca. Arjuna. sg. TP cpd./klfi ). 63 . the ancient tribe Before the eyes ofBhishma and Doona And all these rulers of the earth. and frequently. Arjuna said: Behold these Kurus assembled. Bhi~ma and Drol).) sarvelliim (m.. world...~~~11 opposite.). rulers (bhflfma-drof!G-pramukhatas. . TP cpd.a in front of rnt:q~1f~1 sarve~iim uncle of AIjuna. pl. of governors.I 25 "4'l<Sii~lOISl~: bhflfma. acc. pramukhatas (adv. earth. paSya (2nd sg. indeed (used here. klfitiim (m. (. united. like BhI~ma. Kurus. thus. act. pl. from which both the PaQQavas and the Kauravas are descended. samavetiin kurtin iti come together the Kurus.

then grandfathers. brothers. pitfn (m. pass.).). acc.). apa.'>uq4114. pl. iiciiryiin (m. thither. maternal uncles. grandsons. TIT"!: q-h"f. tatoo. acc. epithet frequently applied to Arjuna. acc. acc. brothers.). standing situated.:j: ffiCT~ i9"~n II putran pautran sakhilis tatha sons. and. piiutriin (m. there. sons. acc.). atha. the Son of Prthii. teachers. 64 . pitiimahiin (m.). p. brothers. acc. pl.). maternal uncles. bhriitfn (m. imperfect act. participle .Jpasj. Sons.I 26 t1'. pl. the Son of Prtha (Arjuna) fqq1: ~~ fqt1I'l~W\ I pitfn atha pitamahan fathers. then grandfathers. friends. maternal uncles. pl. companions.).ryat (3rd sg. grandsons. then. tatra. sakhfn (m. nom. putriin (m. sthitiin (m. pl. pl. friends as well. fathers. matuliin (m. likewise. grandsons.Jsthii). pI. pl. acc. grandfathers. as well. pl. f~qN: tatrapasyat sthitan parthalJ there he saw standing. acc. friends as well Arjuna saw standing there Fathers. Teachers. acc.). masters. piirthas (m. . m:qr~~ 'lfRft acaryan matulan bhratfn teachers. he saw. sg.

senayos (f. in the two armies. all. loco dual).). avasthitan (m.). in both. he. arrayed. (m. ca. pI.: ~~<.). And contemplated All his kinsmen. looking at. loco dual). pl. p. acc. bandhUn (m. companions. api.) tan (m. 65 .'rq OJ svasuran suhrdascaiva fathers in law and companions m~~1"\mq-1 svasuran (m. this. pl. relatives. kaunteyas (m.). sarvan bandhun avasthitan all relatlves arrayed Arjuna saw fathers-in-law. suh~das senayor ubhayor api in the two armies. acc. (ubhayor api. eva. nom. sg. sg.). ubhayos (f. and. also.). participle). epithet often applied to AIjuna. pl. in all two <:fl'"i\~T~~Cfim: tan samik~ya sa kaunteya/:l them contemplating. sas (m.). acc. pl. acc. arrayed. contemplating. he. sarvan (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). companions. fathers-in-law. pl. acc. regarding. them. samfkifya (gerund sam Jfkif)..I 27 ~u. nom. pass. In the two armies. acc. the Son of KuntI. arranged in battIe order. even. the son of Kunti. kinsmen. in all two.

my own people Krishna. participle sam upa ':. Desiring to fight. Krishna (the name means black. sg. having seen. sg. approaching. ~l:ffit ~~ II Filled with infinite pity. filled with. 66 . nom. the avatar of Vishnu and the principal spokesman in the Bhagavad Gitii.Jbru). svajanam (m. he said.I 28 w:rn ~Gfl5GT krpayii parayiivi#o filled with infinite pity fqQ"~ ~ vifidann idam abravit desponding.Jsad) . abravft (3rd sg.ta "having seen this.. approaching. acc./visj. dwvii (gerund . imam (m. participle vi . approaching. inst. AIjuna's charioteer. own people. sg. entered. dark. k~~1JO (m. p. sg. coming near.sthii). with pity. acc. . imperf. this he said: ~~~ G • " mrcfre. pr. anxious to fight. samupasthitam (m. or dark blue).).Jdrsj..).y:tsu~ samupasthitam desiring to fight. acc. standing near. this. I drftvemam svajanam krP. by profound. by deep. sg. act. sg. own family. . Krishna. k~payii (f. p. vi~fdan (m. iivis{as (m. subject to. sg.. idam (n.). yuyutsum (m. despairing. seeing. he spoke.).). desiderative adjective from . sg.). desiring to fight. sg.Jyudh). sg. parayii (f. by pity. possessed by. n. by infinite. despondent. Despondent. voc. participle ii . acc. acc. this. he said this: Having seen my own people. inst. pass. pass.

me (gen. My mouth dries up. And my hair stands on end. nom. nom. standing erect. in the body. it is brought forth. (roma-har~as. and. instruments of motion (from .Jh~~). giitriilJi (n.).). indic. my. face. legs. sg. pari . loco sg. sarire (m. of me. it dries up. vepathus (m. ca. a trembling.. limbs. a quivering. a qUaking. pr. standing on end. pr. har~as (m.sg.) ca. mukham (n. passive . act. sg.). sg. pr. sg. sfdanti (3rd pI. indic.Jjan). it is born. hair. My limbs sink down.). roma (n.). my limbs '" '" mukham ca par£s~yati ~ 'i'f qf"W&lf('fl and (my) mouth dries up ~~m'R~ vepathus ca sarire me and trembling in the body of me romahar~as ~~~II ca jayate and bristling of the hair is brought forth.I 29 ~fl<n~ l1+1lJT'i!'Tfur sidantt' mama gatra1}£ "they sink down. they sit. . My body trembles. ca. derivative noun . they sink down. mama (gen. nom. from . bristling of the hair. parisu~ati (3rd sg. m. nom. go).Jsad). pl.). produced.Jgii. sg. bristling. and. TP cpd. jiiyate (3rd sg. mouth. it makes dry. nom. my. and. act.Jsu~). 67 . of me. body hair.Jvip). indic.

GiiI}<. not.). passive pari . act. sg. sg.).Jdah). avasthiitum (infinitive ava . and. and.Jsthii). it wanders. and (my) skin it burns "'q~~~ na ca saknomy avasthiitum and not I am able to remain as I am. it burns. sg. And my mind seems to ramble. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). indic.lIva.Jsrams). the name of Arjuna's bow. manas (n. na. I am able. it rambles. bhramati (3rd sg.lrjivam sramsate hastiit GaQ. understanding. . it drops. . nom. it is burned. me (gen. tvac (f. mind. indic.I 30 ~'T<tm~ gii1. nom. skin. 68 . iva.). I have the power to.Jsak). ~')-q 'q it +R: II bhramativa ca me mana!. sg. sramsate (3rd sg. saknomi (1St. from the hand.Jbhram). ca. act. indic. I am unable to remain as I am. eva. nom. pr. as it were. pr. Gandiva (Arjuna's bow) falls from (my) hand. mid . to stand. abl. . like. of me. I can. hastiit (m. sg. indic.91va falls from (my) hand ~:tcrqf~1 tvak ciiiva paridahyate giilJqivam (n. pr. pr.). it falls. paridahyate (3rd sg. to remain as I am. sg. and it rambles-like of me the mind. ca.). intellect. My skin burns.

perverse. killing. Krishna. pl. sg. I foresee. na. own people. :q ~+r nimittiini ca pasyiimi and omens I perceive fcrn:RlTf. destroying. I perceive inauspicious omens. voc. having destroyed. ke§ava (m.). from a . And I foresee misfortune In destroying my own people in battle. indic. I anticipate. anu .. pro indic. pr. act. act. 0 Handsome-haired One. viparftani (n. acc. good fortune. . 0 Handsome-haired One. in battIe. hatva (gerund . sreyas (n. loco sg. in warfare. '" na ca sreyo 'nupasyiimi and not welfare I foresee ~~~II hatvii svajanam iihave having destroyed own people in battle. inauspicious. I see.:r~+r nimittani (n.. I perceive. anupa§yami (1st sg.).Jhan). marks. omens. sg. acc. pl. not.:q ~ s. tokens. having killed.. o 69 . m I viparitiini kesava inauspicious. slaying. svajanam (m. own kinsmen. welfare. in challenge. pa§yami (1st sg. ahave (m.Jpas).Jpas). ca. sg. acc. .Jhve). ca.). prosperity. and . and.I 31 f"lflfflTf.).). signs. acc.

See footnote. acc. fef. with kingship. I hanker after. na. pr. Nor kingship nor pleasures. sg. what? bhogais (m. with life. I wish for. victory.). with pleasures. Krishna? What are enjoyments. to us. sukhani (n. kingdom.). "cow finder ").. rajyena (n.). . by life. sg. inst. What is kingship to us. ca. va. sg.). pleasures. indic.). "l1~ \1f1f~ err II kim bhogiiir jivitena vii what with enjoyments or with life? I do not desire victory.). sg. vijayam (m." because of a presumed Prakrit derivation. joys.. often translated "Chief of Cowherds.ft ~ . but this is the translation usually accepted. kingly power. sg.Jkiiflk~). conquest. voc. not. and. voc. acc. kim (interrog. acc. by kingship. with enjoyments. . even life? na. or. kingship.). happinesses. "f I na ca riijyam sukhiini ca and not kingship and pleasures. mid .). jivitena (n. kiiflk~e (1st sg. the interpretation of which is moot among scholars.. Govinda (lit. or.. ca. Chief of Cowherds (Krishna)? fef.). govinda (m.rTfCR kim no riijyena govinda what' to us with kingship.I 32 . Krishna . Krishna. what? nas (dat. inst. "Cow Finder. Krishna . or. rajyam (n. kI:~l'Ja (m. and. pl. .). "Chief of Cowherds" presumes an adoption into Sanskrit of the Prakrit "gopendra" (gopa Indra). kim (interrog. pl." epithet of Krishna. pl. with kingdom. CfiTS\~m ~ na kiink~e vijayam knrJa not I desire victory. sg. inst.). I desire. 70 . not. "f ~ ~~.

They are arrayed here in battle. enjoyments. for the sake of. pass. abandoning. loco sg. enjoyments (of eating in particular). m. pl. kaiik~itam (n. pl. in warfare. nom. yuddhe (n.). of us. lives. bhogas (m. of whom. having abandoned. sukhani ca kingship. standing. they.). and. loco sg. riches.). sacrificing. arthe (m. ime (m. nom.. p. acc. nom. arranged in battle formation. acc. avasthitas (m. comforts. dhanani (n. sg. nom.). pralJan (m. tyaktva (gerund .. pl. desired.I 33 ~ ~~ 'li1fs. pI. and pleasures. these arrayed in battle.). these. participle . nas (gen. relinquishing. wished for. in battle. ~~CFl1f"~11 pra1}ans tyaktva dhanani ca vital breaths abandoning and riches. ~ I rajyam bhogal. enjoyments and pleasures. Abandoning their lives and riches.). by us. pI.). p. participle ava .TlJr: ~f. ca.) vital breaths.Jstha).Jkaiik~). gen. pl. in sake. pleasures. sg. 71 .&l~.). ca. sukhani (n. pl. pleasures.:fT ye~am arthe kafik#tam no of whom for the sake desired of us <F<t . rajyam (n. nom. arrayed.Jtyaj).). hankered after. and. pl. kingship. ta (samdhi for te. pass. pl. sovereignty. nom. yqam (m. Q~lfsqf~~ ta ime 'vasthita yuddhe they. Those for whose sake we desire Kingship. booty.). nom.

Brothers-in-law. thus. tatha. ~~:qf~:1 tathiiiva ca pitiimahiilJ and also grandfathers. also. pitamahas (m. fathers. pl. iiciiryiilJ pitaralJ putriis teachers. teachers. fathers. nom.). nom.). kinsmen. svasuras (m. And also grandfathers. ca.I 34 ~: f~: Tffi!: acaryas (m. and. pl. sons. smhbandhinas tathii brothers in law. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). kinsmen thus Teachers. grandsons.). grandsons. grandsons. pitaras (m. nom. pl. ~:~~~~II syiiliil. nom. nom. fathers-in-law. ~:~~T:q-m: miituliilJ svasuriilJ piiutriilJ maternal uncles.). miituias (m. Syalas (m. tatha. sons. pl. Maternal uncles.). thus. fathers. nom. relatives. also. fathers in law. safnbandhinas (m. putras (m. pl. nom. sons. grandfathers. and other kinsmen. pl. eva.). pl. fathers-in-law. brothers-in-law.). 72 . pl. maternal uncles. pautras (m. masters. pl. nom.).). nom.

n. those who are killing. Even for the sovereignty of the three worlds.). pr. acc. api. indeed. act. now.~Mlif<Ol (1. also. Slayer of Madhu. Slayer of the Demon Madhu. epithet of Vishnu-Krishna.. sg. for the sovereignty. I wish. to slay.. api. them.). those who are about to kill. on account of. abl. ghnatas (m. sg. then.'lj api trailokyarajyasya even for the sovereignty of the three worlds t<rl f. 73 . madhusudana (m. of the sovereignty.1I'. This Madhu is not to be confused with the Yiidava patriarch who was Krishna's ancestor. participle -lhan). for the sake of the created world. icchdmi (rst sg. not. sg. pr. to kill. loco sg. how then for the earth? I do not desire to kill Them who are bent on killing. kim nu mahikrte on account.* '1 ~~ II hetol. pI. cause. mahfkt:te (m. How much less then for the earth? etan (m. TP cpd. na. even. the realm of atmospheric beings and the earth. for the sovereignty of the three worlds. pl. I desire. for the earth. rajyasya (n. what? how? nu. hantum (infinitive -lhan). the paradise of the gods. mq. acc.). these. ghnato 'pi madhusudana who are also killing.) hetos (m. also. viz. P1~)sfq-~.). sg.). trailokya (n. kim (interrog. (trailokyarajyasya. -li~). gen. because.I 35 ~"~~11 elan na hantum icchami them not to slay I desire. voc. even.). the three worlds. indic. Krishna.). gen.

Agitator of Men. sg. piipam eviisrayed asmiin evil thus should cling to us ~ mffifTf<r.). it should cling to. optative act. killing.).). acc. striking down. joy. felons. of whom Krishna is the earthly avatar. "having bows drawn" (from a Jtan). murderers. hatva (gerund Jhan). having killed.). janardana (m. man. evil. torment.. papam (n. agitate. the Sons of Dhrtariistra. Having killed these aggressors . nihatya (gerund ni Jhan) . . asman (acc. . harm. frequent epithet of Krishna (from jana. Jas).). pl. Jard. pl. " Agitator of Men" is an epithet of the god Vishnu. asrayet (3rd sg. thus. sg. sg. these. killing. What joy would it be for us To strike down the sons of Dhritarashtra.). lit. etan (m.).). 0 Krishna? Evil thus would cling to us. what? prftis (f.). pl. us. it should be. a J sri). eva. optative act. to us. syat (3rd sg. acc. iT: nihatya dhiirtarii~triin nalJ striking down the Sons of to us <fiT >rTf(\": ~ ~ I Dhrtara~tra kii priti~ syiij janiirdana what joy should it be.r: II hatviiitiin iitatiiyina~ having killed these aggressors. acc. Janardana. even so. pl. nom. pl.I 36 f~ emro~. dhiirtara!i!ran (m. atatayinas (m. nas (d~t. voc. or gen. pleasure. trouble. attackers. take hold of. it should lean on. 74 . nom. sg. move). aggressors. might it be. ka (f. 0 Agitator of Men? ~u:c:rr~~ . nom. interrog. .

sg.). to kill. hantum (infinitive Jhan). sg.). having killed our own people. Krishna's race. optative act. arhiis (m. Krishna? 75 .). Could we be happy. therefore. we might be. indeed. . pl. killing. svaba~dhaviin (m. we should be. acc. syiima (1st pI. we. How. progenitor of the Yiidavas.). the Sons of Dhrtariistra. our own kinsmen. possessing happiness. katham (interrog. nom.). Descendant of Madhu. surely. having killed. deserving. pl. having killed. entitled to. acc.J han). how? hatvii (gerund . voc. own relatives. pl.). justified. pl. acc. dhiirtariiwan (m.). Therefore we are not justified in killing The sons of Dhritarashtra. vayam (nom.). W<l{if: ~ lfNCf II sukhinalJ syiima miidhava happy we should be. sukhinas (m. not. from Jarh) .I 37 ~'f$~~ tasmiin niirhii vayam hantum therefore not justified we to kill 'C1I8<:I"'cOl"I~1 . sg. dhiirtar ii#riin svabiindhaviin the Sons of Dhrtara~tra. Jas). . svajanam (m. miidhava (m. Descendant of Madhu? tasmiit (abl. own kinsmen. from this. na. own kinsmen. hi. pI. ~f~~~ svajanam hi katham hatvii own people surely how. happy. nom. thus an epithet of Krishna. own people. to smite.

evil. caused. sg. cetasas (n. nom. acc.) da~am (m. if.JkJ:). acc. k~aya (m.). act.~i). piitakam (n. sg. friend. these. m... BV cpd. pl.Jpas).). even.).Jk. nom. yadyapyete na pasyanti if even these not they see (:?T+rlq~d=<id(l: I lobhopahatacetasal.). .Jpat). Even if those Whose thoughts are overpowered by greed do not perceive The wrong caused by the destruction of the family. family.).. participle upa . (upahatacetasas. in treachery. in mischief. pass. pl. indic. evil. (kula-k~aya-k~tam. and. in injury. (mitradrohe. acc.). loco sg. nom. p. na. ) kula (n. And the crime of treachery to friends.). caused destruction of family. drahe (m. loco sg. not. done. they see. destroying. acc. lit. whose thoughts are overpowered. "that which causes to fall" (. pass. ~~~ kulak~ayakrtam do~am the destruction-of-family-caused wrong f~:q~11 mitradrohe ca piitakam and in the friend-treachery crime. noun from .I 38 lf~i'f~~ yadi. paSyanti (3rd pI. sg.. treachery to a friend. crime. p. overpowered.). thoughts. destruction. labha (m. api. made. with thoughts overpowered. n. greed overpowered in thought. wrong. TP cpd.Jhan). greed. pr. they perceive. 76 . ete (m. upahata (p. kJ:tam (m. participle . sg. desire. m. mUra (m.) ca.

sg. by discernment. abl.from this. kula (n. Through discernment of the wrong caused By the destruction of the family. pr. from evil from this to turn back ~~G:T~ kulakFayakrtam dOFam doing. acc. Agitator of Men? Mover of Men. inst. made. from wrong. acc. Why should we not know enough To turn back from this evil. evil. not. sg. m. pass. nivartitum (infinitive ni -JV1:t).). wrong. by discernment. k!faya (m. pI. caused. asmabhis (m. sg. (kula-k!faya-kr:tam. with us. family. asmat (n. acc. p. sg. the destruction-of-family-caused evil. by discerning.).) dO!fam (m. participle pra vpa§). sg. prapa§yadbhis (m. by us. inst. janardana (m. how? na. ~f~~11 prapasyadbhir janiirdana caused destruction of family. making. o Krishna? 77 . to be how not to be known by us ~ mm. noun from -Jksi)..I 39 'fi~" ~~ m+rrf+r: katham na jfieyam asmiibhilJ katham (interrog. from evil.).). kr:tam (m. epithet of Vishnu-Krishna. pl.:y: f<=r<n~ I PiiPiid asmiin nivartitum understood. participle -Jkr:).). sg. abl. TP cpd.).). voc. Agitator of Men. done. papat (n. jfieyam (gerundive -Jjfia). destruction. to tum back. to be known.

nom. even.). dharmiis (m. lawlessness.). TP cpd. in destruction. rights. <ni<f1'i~~ dharme na~te kulam krtsnam when law perishes. duties. abhi . the family entire ~1:l111 sf~ II adharmo 'bhibhavatyuta lawlessness it overpowers also In the destruction of the family. family. eternal.jbhu).jna§). sg..). 78 . m.I 40 ~~~~ kulak~aye prat.zasyanti in destruction of family. overpowers. entire. act.). kftsnam (n. indic. saniitaniil.. dutilessness. customs. abhibhavati (3rd sg. loco sg. a noun from . na~!e (loc.) saniitaniis (m. dhrame (m. pass. ancient.). k~aye (m. when law perishes. kula (n. in the loss. also. laws of family. sg. in duty. predominates. in the perishing. (kula-dharmiis.jk~i). loco absol. they vanish.. family. pr. primaeval. nom. When the law has perished. TP cpd. pra . p. they perish. the family laws.jna§). ancient. indic. Lawlessness overpowers the entire family also.). (dharme-na~!e. adharmas (m. pr. kula (n. and. it overcomes.. loco sg. they are lost. destruction of family. uta. loco sg. acc. acc. sg.). conquers. The ancient family laws vanish. in law. sg. they vanish ~~1h:~:1 kuladharmiil. pl. m. nom.) kulam (n. nom. pl. laws. surpasses. family.). pI.) pralJa§yanti (3rd pI. act. (kula-k~aye. participle .

women of the family. 0 Clansman of Vr~l). they are corrupted. pI. abhibhavat. sg. m. Krishna. loco absol. (varfJa-smhkaras. pr. pl. loco pl. when women are corrupted. The family women are corrupted. sg. o Krishna.li.) 79 . jayate (3rd sg. (m. adharmabhibhavat (m. Krishna. to which Krishna belongs. intermixture. it is produced. salhkaras (m. Clansman of Vf~l. kulastriyal.Jk~). (stri~u du~!asu. pradu~anti (3rd pI.. from over-powering). they are corrupted." "manly") is a name of the Yiidava or Miidhava tribe. The intermixture of caste is born. vOC. ~P!~~ stri~ du~tiisu viir~1}eya m women corrupted. sg. sg.). kl:~IJa. TP cpd.. from sam . frequent epithet of Krishna.). kula (n.) strf~u (f. du~!asu (f.) var~fJeya (m. When women are corrupted. in women. spoiled. is born the intermixture of caste Because of the ascendancy of lawlessness.li ("potent.Jjan). they become spoiled. pr. passive . nom. ~~¢~:I pradu~yanti lawlessness. varfJa (m. family.). (kula-striyas. act.). corrupted. nom. nom. striyas (f. participle . or another closely related tribe. the family women. intermixture of caste. pra .Jdu~). nom. because of the ascendancy of lawlessness (adharma. women.I 41 ~"l1hf+nl'ffi!: ~ adharmiibhibhaviit krrtJa from overpowenng' by Krishna. from overpowering by lawlessness. sg. voc. abl. Vf~l. loco pI.).. lawlessness.). p. pouring together.Jdu~). indic. it is born. becoming confused.). color. caste. indic. ~ <f1lfrn: II jiiyate var1}asamkaral. pass.i. f.

pl.Jlup). they fall.) family. gen. lump. TP cpd.. the fathers. the ancestors. ghniiniim (m. ) kulasya (n.Jk().f~T ~ .a (m. robbed.:a.). p. The ancestors of these indeed fall. indeed. nom. sg.). sg.). qiim (m. of family destroyers. m. plundered. . nom. cake. offerings. intermixture. mouthful of rice (offered to ancestors). deprived of offerings of balls of rice. water. hi. patanti (3rd pI. ca. the ancestors indeed of these ~gf~"fi<IT: II luptapi1}tjodakakriyii/. 80 . of the family. patanti pitaro hye~iim they fall.I 42 ~T~ samkaras (m. g. pouring together. to hell. act.Jhan). sg.. and water.odakakriyiis. pitaras (m. m. from sam . eva.). ball. kriyiis (f. g.). too. lupta (m. pl.) sarizkaro narakiiyiiiva intermixture to hell ?m<rt~"fl kulaghniiniiriz kulasya ca of the family destroyers and of the family q-ffi.. nom. DV cpd. narakiiya (m. and. pr. kula (n. pI. the manes. pl. pass. Deprived of offerings of rice and water. truly.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). rites. udaka (n. gen. participle . deprived of offerings of rice and water Intermixture brings to hell The family destroyers and the family. pl. of these.). (kuliighiiniim. nom. dat. pI.Jpat). destroyers (ghna from . pilJq. (luptapilJq. indic. deprived.

. by intermixture of caste producing.). of the family de- by wrongs these of the family destroyers ~Cfi(Cfii(4): I stroyers. by creating. samkara (m.. they utsiidyante jiitidharmii/. pl. sasvatas (m. And eternal family laws also. jati (f. race. kulaghnaniim (m.). laws. by making. nom. gen. ~~:II kuladharmiis ca siisvatii/.) utsadyante (3rd pI. pr. pI. by etiii/. pl.l they are abolished. from . family duties. dharmas (m. rights. leave off.). inst. (jati-dharmas. from sam . by creating intermixture of caste. they are obliterated. family laws. intermixture.l varlJa (m. pl. they disappear. by wrongs. caste. inst.).l and family laws eternal By these wrongs of the family destroyers. birth. lineage.rrf~I~T pouring together. etais (m.). pl. varIJasamkarakiirakiii/.Jk1:).I 4-3 ~~:~m<rt do~iilr dOiiiiis (m. nom. m. inst. karakais (m. ca.). caste duties. continuing. color.l kulaghniiniim evils. caste. Caste duties are abolished. nom. by pro- ducing. pI.). Producing intermixture of caste. by these. duties. pl.) kuladharmas (m. eternal. (varlJasamkarakarakiiis. perpetual. TP cpd. TP cpd. pl. pI. nom. indic. by sins.Jkf). m.). '3@~~ . laws of caste. they are abolished.. they are withdrawn. 81 . and. inst. passive causative ud -I sad).

Thus we have heard repeatedly. m.. whose family laws are obliterated. kula (n.JbM). bhavati (3rd sg. janardana (m. pr. unrestrictedly. in hell.). aniyatam (adv. we have heard. of mankind. dwelling. uncertainly. indic. thus we have heard repeatedly.r~ I ~ manUFyii1Jiim janiirdana of men. abolished. of men. derivative noun .r. act. obliterated.J3 vas). voc. perf. vasas (m. there is. thus. we have heard repeatedly.). Agitator of Men.). narake (m. nom. gen. pl.Jsru). dharmalJiim (m.. BY cpd. 0 Agitator of Men ~sf~cmit narake 'niyatam viiso in hell indefinitely dwelling 'l1<ffi~~~ II '. loco sg. Men whose family laws have been obliterated. irregularly. pl.). of duties. gen. Dwell indefmitely in hell. indefinitely. frequent epithet of Krishna. iti.Jsad).) manu~alJiim (m.I 44 utsannakuladharmii1Jiim of obliterated family laws lfi!~. pI. it is. eternally. o Krishna. sg. participle ud .)"':' bhavatityanuiusruma it is. sg. anususruma (rst pI. . of laws.). gen. disappeared. family. utsanna (p.. pass.:I 1. (utsannakuladharmalJiim.). act. anu . 82 .

'b . rdjya (n. sg. Ah! Alas! We are resolved To do a great evil. lobhena (m..). nom. wickedness.). m.). pass. by greed. participle ud -". pass. participle vi ava . p. resolved. to perpetrate. sukha (m. inst. sg. commenced. undertaken. evil. nom.).).) hantum (infinitive Jhan).I 45 ~TGRf~m aho bata mahat piipam ah! alas! great evil ~ oqqfmrr Cfl1ll1 " . determined. finished. inst. prepared for. with greed. with greed for royal pleasures. n. we. royal. eager for. pI. acc. Which is to be intent on killing Our own people.. vayam (nom. through greed for royal pleasures. kingship. sg./so). 83 . great.).). sg. vyavasitds (m. p. kartum (infinitive . ended. which. sg. ah! bata. kartum vyavasitii vayam to do resolved upon we ~ (1\T4~(Gj~1 ~ yad riijyasukhalobhena which with greed for royal pleasures ~~~:II <!. pdpam (m. TP cpd. udyatds (m. to kill. to slay. to do. sg.yam). acc. aha. alas! mahat (n. own people. (rdjyasukhalobhena. yad (n. pleasure. intent on. sg. hantum svajanam udyatiil} to kill own people prepared for.). acc.jk~). svajanam (m. pI. acc.

optative act. yadi.. greater tranquility. sg. nom.). greater happiness. tad (n. this. optative act. hanyus (3rd pI. without remedy.z unarmed. adv. 10 the Sons of should kill battle they <r. me (gen. if. that. asastram (n. If the armed sons of Dhritarashtra Should kill me in battle While I was unresisting and unarmed.) whose hands are with weapons. m. unanned. (as BY cpd. those whose hands are with weapons ~1~hltSC:I~~ .) weapon pafJayalJ (m.).. pI. sg. without weapon. they should kill. sastra (m. apratfkaram or apratikaram (m. bhavet (3rd sg. in battle. nom. those anned with weapons. pl. of me. greater ease. ~:Hf"1qloI4: I asastram sastrapii1}ayal. .JbhU). klfemataram (comparative). dhiirtarii~trii ra1}e hanyus Dhrtara~tra. sg.. sg.).) dhdrtarawas (m. it would be. unopposing. BY cpd.) hand (Sastrapa'!Gyas.Jhan) . sg. weapon anned. nom. from a prati Jk~).flr~~11 tan me k~emataram bhavet this to me greater happiness would be. . mam (acc. unresisting. 84 . acc. rafJe (~. to me. they may kill. without return.I 46 <rf~~mffi~ yadi miim apratikiiram if me.. unresisting. they might kill. in the joy of battle.). pI.). me. ~-~"!. This would be a greater happiness for me. nom. acc. the Sons of DlJrtarastra.). loco sg.

). participle sam . capam (m. seat. Arjuna sat down upon the seat of the chariot. arjunas (m.Jvac) . recoiling. Arjuna. throwing down. acc. acc. car. in the battle <:~~~I rathopastha upavisat upon the chariot seat sat down. he sat down. mind. ratha (m. sg. samvigna (p. samkhye (n. sasaram (n.). (rathopastha. soka (m. loc. f~~m~ visrjya sasaram capam throwing down both arrow and bow. heart. nom. in the conflict. as BY cpd. bow. nom. whose heart was overcome by sorrow.Hi: II sokasamvignamanasalJ with a heart overcome by sorrow.ln. together with arrow. sg.. nom. in the challenge. upastha (m. (sokasamvignamanasas. sorrow.Jvij).Js~j). m. With a heart overcome by sorrow. manasas (m.. sg.) End of Book I The Despondency of Arjuna 85 . having spoken.. Thus having spoken on the battlefield. casting aside. evam. imperf. grief. act. Arjuna.I 47 ~~s. sg. thus.. pass. he settled upon. loc. sg.Jvis) .). so.).f<1m evam uktva 'rjuna samkhye thus having spoken. in the battle.). Throwing down both arrow and bow. uktva (gerund . sg. visl:jya (gerund vi . speaking. samdhi for rathopasthe. stool. starting back. sg. on the chariot seat. ~q<d ¥j (.).) upavisat (3rd sg. overcome.). spirit. m.).. chariot. upa a . with a heart overcome by sorrow.

vakyam (n. to him. act. this. this word \RRf ~G'f: II uviica madhusiidanal. acc. by avistam (m. sg. 86 .). he said. acc. vi#dantam idam viikyam despairing.). who is narrating the story. Krishna spoke these words: n. tatha. 1 a~~q<nf~ tam tathii krpayiivi~tam tam (m. fk~alJam (n. sg.). sg. by pity. idam (n. participle a fallen into. overcome by.).Jvac). taken possession of. pass. downcast. whose eyes were filled with tears and downcast. uvaca (3rd sg. whose eyes were filled with tears and downcast.). inst. acc. word. pr.Jflq). act.BOOK II ~\RRf1 sainjayas (m. nom. despairing.). pilrlJa (p.. sg. Sainjaya.z said the Slayer of Madhu Sanjaya spoke: To him thus overcome by pity. disturbed. despairing. perf. fqq:~~G'~ full of. sg. he spoke. sorrow. from . participle .Jsad). also. dejected. asru (n. BV cpd. to him thus overcome by pity. p. nom. he said. acc. acc. acc. (asrupilrlJakulek~alJam. ~So1:~oi I~~~ I asrupiiT1pikulek~a1Jam well. Slayer of Madhu. eye. acc.). desponding. speech. him. -!vis) . Whose eyes were filled with tears and downcast. in this way. as kI:paya (f. participle vi . tear. thus. the minis- samjaya uviica Samjaya spoke: ter of the blind King Dhrtarii~lra.) vi~fdantam (n. perf. epithet of Krishna referring to Vishnu-Krishna's slaying of the demon Madhu. sg. . Madhusildanas (m. filled with.Jp~). sg. sg. he spoke. . pass. sg. uvaca (3rd sg.). sg. akula (adj.Jvac).

does not lead to heaven. idam (n. acc.). the Blessed Lord. the Blessed One. participle sam upa . sg.). impurity. sg. nom. karam (n. loco sg. vi~ame (m. not leading to heaven (svarga. he spoke. akirtikaram arjuna disgrace causing.). n. come near to. akfrti (f. Arjuna.ro-:ql sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. sg.Jstha). (anaryaju:f!am. And causes disgrace. aniiryaju~tam asvargyam not befitting an Aryan.Jvac). f~~~1 vi~ame samupasthitam in danger come. this. perf. sg. kasmalam (n. causing. welcome. he said. The Blessed Lord spoke: Whence has this timidity of yours Come to you in time of danger? It is not acceptable in you. timidity.). acc. acceptable. n. acc. Arjuna? kutas (interrog. to thee. sg. acc. Arjuna. unaryan.) arjuna (m. sg. 87 . n.). whence? from where? from whom? wherefore? how? tva (acc.II ~~.) asvargyam (n. approaching. sg. acc. in difficulty.). making.). faintheartedness. thee. not honorable. causing disgrace. (aklrti-karam. agreeable. not leading to heaven. heaven).. jU:f!am (n.. sg. not acceptable in an Aryan.). infamy. acc. voc. in danger. anarya (adj. sg.). in misfortune. uvaca (3rd sg. acc. . 2 ~~~ kutastvii kasmalam idam whence of thee timidity this.).). acc. not suitable to an Aryan. in distress.). disgrace. act . :q11~.j\tCli ~ "" . samupasthitam (n. sg. TP cpd. sg.

acc.Jpad).) partha (m. na. nom.Jgam).). This is not suitable to you. Abandoning base faintheartedness. daurbalyam (n. heart. despicable. thou shouldst partake of. in truth. not. low. Do not become a coward. voc. referring to his mother Prthii or KuntI. Son of Prthii. n. never. (h~dayadaurbalyam. acc.) tyaktva '(gerund . ud . lack of strength. pr. sg.). in thee. weakness. it is according to rule.). h~daya (n. sg. frequent epithet of Arjuna. base. impotence. Stand up. sg.).II 3 ~ lIT ~ lfl1: qpt klaibyam (n. not. it is possible. Arjuna! 88 . abandoning. it is suitable. upa . stand up! Scorcher of the Foe.). having abandoned.). k~udram (n. imperative act.z partha cowardice never indeed thou shouldst entertain. Son of Prthii ~~~qq%ld I naitat tvayyupapadyate not this in thee it is suitable. upapadyate (3rd sg. sg.Jstha). thou shouldst undergo. gamas (2nd sg. thou shouldst entertain. faintheartedness. acc. cowardice. indeed. (klaibyam ma gamas. mid. klaibyam ma sma gamal. this. aorist sUbjunctive . utti~(ha (2nd sg. sg. indic. stand up! arise! paramtapa (m. sg. sg. do not become a coward.). tvayi (loc. Scorcher of the Foe.. sma.). acc. ~~~ kfUdram hrdayadaurbalyam base faintheartedness ~1f~~11 tyaktvotti~tha par am tapa abandoning. voc. Arjuna. etad (n. sg.Jtyaj). ma (prohibitive).

(piijarhau. great uncle of Arjuna. veneration. 'fi~>r~~~ katham bhi~mam aham samkhye how BhI~ma I in battle m"f~1 dro1}am ca madhusudana and Drol!a. sg. epithet of Krishna. BhI~ma. sg. (arisiidana. two venerable.).. voc. slaying. sg. madhusiidana. DrOI~a. arhau (m. Arjuna. fut. acc. slayer. dual). sg.).) bhi~mam Arjuna spoke: How can I kill in battle Bhishma and Drona. in conflict.. sg. nom. voc. the old Kaurava warrior. worthy.). acc. sg. pratiyotsyami (1st sg. loc. he said. (m. two reverence-worthy.~ arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. m.). deserving. by arrows. reverence. sg. TP cpd. perfect act. foe. and. acc. samkhye (n. siidana (m. uvaca (3rd sg. he spoke. how? in what way? (m. fighting on the Kaurava side. aham (nom. I shall fight against. with arrows. m. a brahman and Arjuna's teacher. drolJam (m. pl. Slayer of the Enemy.) ari (m. acc. honor. acc. 0 Slayer of Madhu ~f>r: mdlll<:fllI fll i~bhil:t pratiyotsyiimi with arrows I shall fight against ~~II piijiirhiivarisiidana the two reverence-worthy. piija (f.).). 0 Slayer of the Foe (Krishna)? katham (interrog. Slayer of Madhu. sg. I shall attack. prati Jyudh) . i~ubhis (m.).).). I. dual. epithet of Krishna.II ~. Jvac). enemy. ca.). 0 Krishna? 89 . inst. nom.). 0 Krishna? How can I fight with arrows against These two venerable men. in battle.

m. elders. covered. Having slain the gurus.). in truth. iha. enjoyments.Jdih. ~T<r+f~~~~ II bhuiijiya bhogan rudhirapradigdhan I should enjoy enjoyments smeared with blood Indeed. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). eva. acc. pl. artha (m. but. pI. here. acc.). han).) tu. here in the world. with desire for gain indeed. with desire for worldly gain. This differs from the sloka metre (eight syllables per line) used in most of the poem. opt. pI. hi. pradigdhiin (m. mahiinubhiiviin (m. I should enjoy. acc. pl. gains. living on alms. m.). (arthakiimiin. pI. acc.Jbhu}). gurus. here on earth. loco sg. mid . teachers. sreyas (comparative) better.). mighty. pl. not slaying. from pra .) bhiiik~am • This and the next three stanzas are in metre. (rudhirapradigdhiin. red. indeed. acc. I would enjoy here on earth delights smeared with blood.). pl. to eat. rudhira (adj. on earth. even. also. BY cpd.. desirous of gain. of great might. here in the world. generous. TPcpd. from pra . I should eat. mendicancy. api. acc. bloody.). indeed. the noble. pl. booty. eleven syllables to the line.II 5· ~~f~~ gurun ahatva hi mahanubhavan the gurus instead of slaying. smeared.Jdih) .. acc. . having slain. ~~~'1~$ hatvarthakamans tu gurun ihaiva having slain. greed. desires. lake (m. tTi~!ubh 90 . indeed. bhoktum (infinitive Jbhuj). instead of slaying. iha. bhogiin (m. begging. instead of slaying these noble gurus It would be preferable to live on alms here on earth. the gurus here on earth. ahatvii (gerund a . ~~'4~~~1 Sreyo bhoktum bhiiik~yamaPiha loke preferable to eat the food of mendicancy here on earth gurun (m.). gurus. elders. otherwise known as the k~atriya metre. acc. slaying. acc. preferable. high-minded. (n. pleasures. here below. hatvii (gerund Jhan). kiimiin (m. object. smeared with blood. teachers. sg. property. noble. bhuiijlya (1st sg. to enjoy.)..). gurun (m.

vidmas (rst pI. they. Are standing before us.). opt. . they standing before us.:fT tR:m ~ ~ na ciiitad vidmal.).Jvid). act. jayema (1st pI. acc. if either. yadi. if. . we desire to live.). preferable. na. they should be victorious over. loco sg. they should conquer. killing. act. not.). pass. we know.Jji) .Jji).Jjfv). pr. eva. . .).Jhan). we should conquer. acc. ca. pramukhe (n. nas (acc. sg. the Sons of Dh!1ara~!ra. us. nom.). having killed. va. we should prevail. pl. face to face. jayeyus (3rd pI. avasthitas (m. having killed whom we would not wish to live. nom. jijfvi~amas (rst pI. or. te (m. acc. Dhartarastras (m. opt. <i sqf~~: m 'CwhltSCO I: '<> ~ te 'vasthitiil. pI.Jstha) . hatva (gerund . whether. standing.). yan (m. The sons of Dhritarashtra. arrayed in battle order. Whether we should conquer them or they should conquer us. yad va. which for us (is) preferable lR <IT ~ m ~f~ <IT.:fT m: I '<> yad vii jayema yadi vii no jayeyul. for us. indic. pl. whom.not uncommon in tri1!ubh metre. which of two? nas (dat. not we desire to live. 91 . pramukhe dhiirtarii~triil. pl. not. and. whether we should conquer. kataran no gariyo· not and this we know. heavier. act. garfyas (comparative). or if us they should conquer ~~~'lf~1f~ yiin eva hatvii na jijivi~iimas whom having killed. if. pl. the Sons of Dhrtaral?tra And this we do not know: which for us is preferable. dual). arrayed. etad (n. before us. participle ava .II 6 'l ~ fcrq: ~. pl. • The first two lines of this stanza contain an extra syllable apiece . desiderative act. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). katarat (n. to us. p. nom. this. na. of us. more precious. more important.

sg.) yad (n. sg.Jhan). overcome. sg. prapannam (acc.).). svabhavas (nom.). (dharmasammI14hacetiis. without doubt. I. pupil.).).). syan niscitam briihi tan me which preferably should it be for certain? Tell that to me. dam- aged. salnml14ha (p. BY cpd. te (gen.) pJ:cchtimi (1st sg. surely. §i!(yas (m. sg. heart. cetiis (n. suppliant. I ask. mf<-r +rt «. I ask thee. nom.). sg. mind. your pupil. pity-weakness-overcome own being ~lf«. dharma (m.). thee. 92 . My mind is confused as to my duty.J§adh).ff >rrnlf II . discour-aged. sg. thoughts. pass. imperative act. own being. tviim (acc. sin. My own being is overcome by pity and weakness. sg. sg. . ~: ~ f'lfffi rl'~ ~ iT " . say! tell! tad (n. law. better. to me. sg. for certain? Tell that to me. afflicted. participle upa . pass.). wrong. crazed. duty. this. syiit (3rd sg. . BY cpd.).ft~4+i~(f)"'dl: I Prcchiimi tviim dharmasammiifjhacetii/.. L §adhi (2nd sg. thee.lyado~opahatasvabhiiva/.. I beg you. correct me. of thee. . to thee. sg. me (dat. of thee. right. . for certain. participle pra . nom. si~yas te 'ham siidhi mam tviim prapannam pupil of thee. nom. pass. pr. that. Correct me. §reyas (comparative).). sg. weakness.). yacchreyal.. upahata (p.Jbrl1). student. acc.Jprach) .Jmuh) . whose own being was overcome by the weakness of pity. do~a (m. sg. it should be. I pray. optative . confused. fallen before the feet.II 7 ifllqo4~lq~: karpa'.). uncertain. what. bewildered.)... sg. n. (kiirparJyado~opahatasvabhtivas. brl1hi (2nd sg. participle sam . which. I ask you Which is preferable. kiirparJya (n. nom. aham (nom.). me. " . p. ni§citam (adv.Jas). correct! order! miim (acc. whose mind is confused as to duty. thy suppliant. f~ ~ ~. poorness of spirit. indic. preferable.Jpad). duty uncertain in thought. nom. tviim (acc.. act. sg. imperative act. pity.

gen. sg. it should remove.). attaining. sg. unrivaled. apanudyiit (3rd sg.Jpaf). sg. riijyam (n. which. obtaining.lam indriyii1. yacchokam uccho~aT. of me. . having obtained. acc. sovereignty. or even.liim what. on earth. of the gods. of the senses. I perceive. yad (n. I do not see what will dispel This sorrow of mine which dries up my senses. I see.liim api ciidhipatyam royal power. na.). and even.)." Indeed.). or of the gods even. bhllmiiu (f. kingship. prapa§yiimi (1st sg. Even if I should obtain on earth unrivaled and Prosperous royal power.).). sg. from ud . or even the sovereignty of the gods. suriifJiim (m. acc. mama (gen. it should take away. fddham (n. what. iidhipatyam (m. in the world. prosperous.Jiip). acc. sokam (m. pl. apa . optative act.). it should dispel. uccho:jafJam (m.II 8 rrf~~. indriyiifJiim (m. sg. drying up. acc. ~~~ '" G aviipya bhumiivasapatnam rddham (even) having obtained on earth unrivaled prosperous ~~mq-'i:fTf~ II riijyam surii1. royal power.Jsu:j). sg. hi. api ca. pra .Jnud). pro indic. acc. loco sg. sg. indeed. the sorrow. act.Pi"llq1~1'{ na hi prapasyiimi mamiipanudyiid not indeed I perceive of me it should dispel ~~~~l1~~llIOII"l1 .).). rulership. gen. acc. . sorrow. truly. not with a rival. sg. pl. aviipya (gerund ava . having attained. 93 . not. dominion. of the powers. the sovereignty. drying up of the senses. asapatnam (n. acc.).

acc. and not the other way around. pr.). Sanjaya spoke: Thus having addressed Krishna. "I shall not fight. t gwjakesa has been translated by some native translators as gu4aka lsa. Foe.~~a-. having spoken. he was. thus. silent he became in truth. voc. paramtapa (m. . the Bristling Haired One. gU{!akeSas (m. 0 Scorcher of the gufjiikesal. ha (asseverative particle). frequent epithet of Krishna. to the Chief of Cowherds. saying. not. to whom the battle of Kuruk~etra is being described. 94 . often used to close a quotation. the Thick Haired One. 0 Scorcher of the Foe. thus.t paramtapa The Thick Haired One. in truth. perfect act." epithet of Krishna. epithet of AIjuna. sg. . invented to explain gu4akesa. "Conqueror of Sleep.II ~~I samjayas (nom. govindam (m. speaking.Jvac). sg. acc. uvaca (3rd sg. the Chief Cowherd.Jyudh).) iti. sg.). epithet of warriors (here applied to King Dhrtarii~fra).). smhjaya uviica Sarhjaya spoke: minister to the blind king Dhrtarii~fra. I will fight. having said. na. indeed." thus to the Chief of Cowherds ~~~~II uktva tU~lJfm babhuva ha having spoken.). tU!if!fm (adv. • 8/oka metre resumes." is an artificial word. babhuva (3rd sg.Jvac).. he became. . hf!ifkeSam (m. "Cow Finder.).). future mid .rrr~ na yotsya iti govindam "not I shall fight. perf. Sariljaya. uktva (gerund ." It is generally believed that gu4aka.. yotsye (rst sg. sg. nom. uktva (gerund . act. sg. having addressed. silently. the narrator. he became silent. Arjuna said.Jvac). lit. evam. 9 ~~~~ evam uktvii hr~ikesam'" thus having addressed the Bristling Haired One. he spoke." And having spoken.JbhU). (Sarildhi changes final vowel from e to a before a vowel. I shall fight. . "sleep. he said.

acc. f~~~fl:11 vipdantam idam vacal. nom. so to speak.). laughing. viifldantam (m. sg. word.). of the two armies. m~~<if\~ senayor ubhayor madhye of armies of both in the middle. he said. this word: To him. perf. acc. he spoke. speech. Krishna. him. loco sg. prahasant (m. sunk down. sg. sg. acc .II 10 ~~~~: tam uviica hr~ikesal. 0 Descendant of Bharata. gen. acc. (m. this. sg.). ubhayos (f. in the middle. like. sg. nom. to him. vacas (n.). uvaca (3rd sg. participle pra . pr. sg.). smiling. madhye (m. . the Bristling Haired One. senayos (f. idam (n. 0 Descendant of Bharata. dejected. Krishna.). sg. epithet here of Dhrtarii~~ra. h~iflkeSas prahasann iva bhiirata beginning to laugh. so to speak. dual). voc. to him spoke the Bristling Haired One ~~~I tam (m. iva. bharata (m. gen. acc. of both.Jvac). the dejected Arjuna. In the middle between the two armies.Jha$). Beginning to laugh. 0 Dhritarashtra. the king to whom the scene is being described. dual). pr. Spoke these words: 95 . despondent. participle vi '. dejected. beginning to laugh.Jsad).

the not to be mourned. gerundive a . ca. acc. acc.lits The Blessed Lord spoke: You have mourned those that should not be mourned. vadan (m.).iits. pl. thou hast lamented.. thou hast mourned. 2nd sg. act. sg.. BY cpd. perf.). acc. nom. the pal).uJitiil.). words that appear to be wisdom though they are not. uvaca (3rd sg. the dead (from gala. thou. imperfect act. pa'!q. na.<. not to be mourned. acc.. And you speak words as if with wisdom.). and. asocyiin anvasocas tvam asacyan (m. the gone. they mourn. agatasiin (m. thou sayest. S!:nIClI'~i'i"'l ~ I prajfiiiviidiiils ca bh~ase and (yet) wisdom words thou speakest . prajna (f. they lament. 11 '*if'l~I'1. thou speakest.suc) .c.). ca. not. the not dead. anu :'. mid . anvasacas (anu a sacas. indic. pl. not to be lamented. not they mourn. anusacanti (3rd pI. bha~ase (2nd sg. pl. thou hast mourned. . BY cpd./vac).:q qf~T: II niinusocanti par. and. act. words.f~:a<rRI kibhagaviin uviica The Blessed Lord spoke: sribhagavan (m. . pl. pr.) TP cpd./suc). the wise men. wisdom words. 96 . breath). gatasiin (m. the Blessed Lord. thou. gone. ~~4"f gatiisiin agatiisiiils ca the dead and the not dead ''IT'!'iTRf'. pI. wisdom. (prajnavadan. sg. asu. anu "/suc). m. The wise do not mourn for the dead or for the living.II s>.). nom. he spoke. i. pI.itas (m. acc. he said. tvam (nom. ""~Cl4n"'l*l C<t .e. the Blessed One. the paI).). the not gone./bha~)..

aham (nom. nor these lords of men.fq . f<i. henceforth. not.. pl. sg. na. acc. not. we. fut. nor.). eva. from this time onward. we shall exist. I existed. or. .). Truly there was never a time when I was not. not. all. pl. ji'itu. nom. na. ime (m. pl. na.~~. and. sarve (m. these. na. tu. further on. act. lords of men. act . truly.). beyond. bhaviD'i'imas (3rd pI. atas. I was. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler).:mi na. i'isam (rst sg. not. nor thou nor these lords of men . 97 .). mCf&TTl1: na caiva na bhavi~yamal. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). na. imperf. sg.) na tvevahath jatu nasath not truly I ever not I was .flt ~<m: I na tvath neme janadhipal. TP cpd. nor. ca. after.. jani'idhipi'is (m. nom. :.).. we shall be. thou. (atal] param. eva. and not either not we shall be ri~~:~11 sarve vayam ata~l param all we from this time onward. tvam (nom. from here. rulers of men.Jas) . ever. And neither will there be a time when we shall cease to be From this time onward.Jbhu). Nor you. param (adj.II 12 . not. indeed. 1. not.). .).. nor. vayam (nom. nom. sg. either. pl.

old age. priiptis (f.II 13 ~~ sf~ If?1T ~ dehino 'smin yatha dehe of the embodied. Cfi~ If)q. reaching.). as. the iitman or soul. kiiumiiram (n. wise man.e. from pra . i.. in this matter. there. kaumaram yauvanam jara childhood. indic. and old age Happen to an embodied being. of the embodied. viz. pr. in this way. arrival at.). not.). * i. sg. in this.ln. sg.Jmuh). The wise one is not deluded about this. sg. obtaining. sg.() he (the embodied being) acquires another body. childhood. loco sg. antara. tatoo. yathii. body. jarii (f. na. loco sg. adulthood. as in this body. 98 . advent. deha (m. nom.ln.)" wise one. . youth and age. another. nom. in the body. he is confused. in which way. sg. act.:f ~ I dehinas (m. dehe (m. yiiuvanam (m. tr"'Tw <:f?f if ~~ II . sg. acquisition. the lltman.). age. that which is in. ~?1T {€fIR! (!OIl f[\ tatha dehantarapraptir so also acquisition of another body. youth. so. the body. he is deluded.). muhyati (3rd sg. (deha-antara-priiptis. So a1<. attainment. in this. other. in that. tatra. but not of.Jiip). TP cpd.). nom. • The embodied. or self. Just as in the body childhood. asmin (m. nom.) dhfras (m.). nom. so also. obtaining another body. -0 dhfras tatra na muhyati the wise one in this not he is deluded. gen.e.

Descendant of Bharata. thou must endeavor to endure. heat. anityas (m. matra (f. measure. sg. truly. material. acc. pleasure. bringing about. iifI til MI ~<-q (~?~RT: I sito~1}asukhadubkhadiib cold heat pleasure pain causing. tan (m. kaunteya (voc. nom. touchings.). cold.). heat. from apa . suffix).). Causing cold. Arjuna. epithet of Arjuna. not eternal. derivative noun from . pI.!a (n.. 0 Son of Kunn. Come and go and are impermanent.Ji). pain.II 14 l'jl"llfqiill~:t <j.). impermanent. agama (from a . or pain. (matra-sparsas. pl.). nom. titik~asva (2nd sg. happiness. truly. transient. KD cpd. dulJkha (n. Descendant of Bharata. going. das (m. sensations.Jtij). them. nom. ~fm~~~11 tiins titik~asva bhiirata them thou must endeavor to endure. '~ltlll'j I q I flI'1T sfw:m:J: iigamiipiiyino 'nityiis coming and going. pI. causing. m. indeed. truly. Physical sensations.Jsp~s). u~. impermanent. 99 . referring to his mother PI1ha or Kunt!. sukha (n. material sensations. sparSas (m. quantity. epithet of AIjuna.). pleasure. pI. apayinas (m.Jgam). desiderative . sg. do manage to endure! bhiirata (m. pI. but. misfortune. 0 Son of Kunt!.). nom. nom. voc.). imperative mid.) tu. So manage to endure them.). sUa (n. Arjuna. coming.'iim miitriisparsiis tu kiiunteya material sensations.

spirit.). acc. sarna.). indic. sg. BY cpd. pl. na. indeed. 0 Man-Bull. m.). sas (m.. sg. sg. 0 Leader among Men.). nom. these. truly. pr. acc. acc. sg. hi. to immortality. (samadulJkhasukham. sg. yam (m.e. sg. he is adapted.) dhiram (m. am~tatviiya (n. OMan-Bull. voc. The wise one.) (pur!ia ~!iabha). BY cpd. 100 . ~TSl!~~11 so '1!lrtatviiya kalpate he for immortality is ready. acc. he. sg. misfortune. this.). wise one. sukham (n. pleasure. whom. he is prepared.). happiness. Indeed. the man whom these (i. he is fit. the WIse one. dulJkha (n.II 15 li f~ "f O<P'1<f ~\~ d" yam hi na vyathayantyete whom indeed not they afHict these ~~ml pur~am puru~ar~abha the man.). kalpate (3rd sg.Jvyath).khasukham dhiram constant in pain and pleasure. pain. . vyathayanti (3rd pI. they afflict. Is ready for inunortality. ~:~ofrt samadul. 0 Bull among Men. sg.). nom. o Arjuna. ete (m. . he is ready. causative act. puru!iam (m. mid . to whom pain and pleasure are alike. wise man. to whom happiness and unhappiness are the same. man. they cause to tremble. constant. nom. for immortality. puru!iar!iabha (m.Jklp). acc. equal. the sensations) do not afflict. the same. dat. wise. not.

it is found. ~mmq-~T~ .j2 vid). of these two by the truth perceivers. participle a . pr. by the discerners. vidyate (3rd sg. sg. participle . nom. not. sg.jd~s TP cpd. . IS found rrrm<fT f<I'£T~ mr: I nabhavo vidyate satal. of the real. dual). The certainty of both these propositions is indeed surely seen By the perceivers of truth. by the knowers. sg.II 16 <mffiT f<r?ri\" mciT niisato vidyate bhavo not of the non-existent. of both. truth. abhavas (m. nom. pass. of the existent.). but. na.j2 vid). tu. indic. ubhayos (m. inst. also.q'1lilfa. of the nonexistent. by the perceivers. gen. gen. indeed. there is found the real.jd~s). seen. from . ubhayor api duto 'ntas of both surely perceived the certainty .). nom.). surely. reality. . end. not becoming. pr. sg. tattva (n. not existing. It is found that there is no non-being of the real.q~fm<1: II tvanayor tattvadarSibhil. antas (m. not being. api. there coming to be. indeed. 101 . .). gen. na. asatas (n. pr. indic. coming to be. of the not real. nom. pass . satas (n. p. not. discerned. pr. conclusion. of these two. vidyate (3rd sg. certainty. pass . it is found. by the seers. dual). gen. in the not non-existent. anayos (m. "thatness. being. . even. sg.). It is found that the unreal has no being. of the true. bhavas (m. dmas (n. participle . becoming.jas)." ri<ldibhis (m. pI. perceived.jas). sg.

Jnas). not to be lost. all this.<tif~$~~11 na kaScit kartum arhati not anyone to accomplish is capable. avyayasya (n. to do. to accomplish. .). na. pervaded. anyone whoever.Jtan). sg. gen. acc. Know that that by which all this universe Is pervaded is indeed indestructible. used in the meaning of "all this visible universe. sg. destruction. vintisam (m. from a vi . from vi . acc. pass. loss. sarvam idam (n. he is able. anyone.). avinasi tu tad viddhi indestructible indeed that. tad (n. gen. to make. of it. • I. sg. of this. this. participle . of this. imperative act. acc. kartum (infinitive . by which. arhati (3rd sg. acc. know! ~~~~I yena sarvam idam tatam by which all this universe pervaded f~ ~ &Ill ("£j I("£j vinasam avyayasyasya destruction of the imperishable. not.)." tatam (n. 102 . acc .e. extended. diffused. No one is able to accomplish The destruction of the imperishable. indeed.. sg.Jnas). kascid.JkI:). sg. . p. he is worthy. acc.Jarh). inst. the iitman (self) or Brahman. indic. tu. indestructible. . of the imperishable.Jvid). sg.). sg. sg. pr. he is capable. viddhi (2nd sg.II 17 ~<Alf~ ~ ~ fqf~ avinasi (n. of the eternal. asya (n. know! learn! yena (n. but. that.).

pI. from that.4flil'i"flI:m:lf~: I nityasyoktaJ. of the eternal.). of the embodied. sg. voc. sarfril']as (m. of the undying. p. imperative mid . of the eternal. derivative noun a . gen. of the not to be measured. gen. . tasmiit (m. ~m~~ anaSino 'prameyasya of the indestructible. of the embodied. yudhyasva (2nd sg. Descendant of Bharata ! These bodies inhabited by the eternal. Descendant of Bharata.Jyudh).).). pl. having an end. pass. gen. derivative noun from a pra . dehiis (m. pl. gen. ime (m.). therefore. sg. Therefore fight. bodies.Jvac). said. Are said to come to an end. uktiis (m. nom. nom. sg. the litman or Brahman. pl. epithet of AIjuna. of the immeasurable.II 18 ~~~~~ antavanta ime deha antavantas (m.Jmii). 103 . abl. sg. having an end these bodies f. fight! join in battle! bhiirata (m. of the soul. Arjuna! • I.Jnas). these. sariri1}aJ.). sg.:t. sg. nom. nom. The indestructible. of the iitman. the immeasurable embodied Self. ~ 'i~"l1rui II tasmad yudhyasva bharata therefore fight.). of the not lost.). participle .e. aprameyasya (m. said. impermanent. of the immeasurable. of the indestructible. aniisinas (m. nityasya (m. declared.

this. hantaram (m. nom. killed. He who imagines this (the embodied Self) the slayer And he who imagines this (the embodied Self) the slain. vijanftas (3rd dual pro indic. he kills.Jhan).). eoom (m.).II 19 ~~. they two. vi .). not. they two understand.. eoom (m.Jman). act. mid. he is killed. . pro indic. which. vetti (3rd sg. hatam (m. mid . pass. acc. pass . tau (m. ~ II nayam hanti na hanyate not this it slays. lO4 . he knows. Neither of them understands This (the embodied Self) does not slay.). he imagines. this. who. sg. pro indie.). 00. nom. pro indie.r:f ~~.Jhan). hanti (3rd sg. acc. 00. he imagines. both. this. .Jhan). not. who. slayer. sg.:f~~~ ya enam vetti hantaram who this he thinks the slayer ~~~I yascainam manyate hatam and who this he thinks slain ~TGT. . manyate (3rd sg. derivative noun from . acc.Jjfta). and. not it is slain. pro indic. he thinks. sg. sg.f~rm ubhau tau na vijanito both they two not they understand . 00. dual). he is slain. nom...Jhan). p. nom. ayam (m. sg. sg. sg. acc. he slays. he thinks. killer. yas (m. yas (m. not. . nom. ca. ubhiiu (m. nor is it slain. act. participle .Jvid). slain. hanyate (3rd sg. they two know. dual).

continuing.Jmf). han). nom. loco sg. jayate (3rd sg. he is slain. kadacit. it nor this. pr. unborn. mriyate (3rd sg. it is killed. having been.). it is slain.). indestructible.). periphrastic fut . perpetual. nom. he is na jiiyate mriyate vii kadiicin not it is born.Jhan). -. pass .Jjan).l siisvato 'yam purii1. sg. . not. va-va.:r ~ f-wre. primaeval. puralJas (m. Nor. pass.II 20 . na.amane (m.. sasvatas (m. sg. bhUtva (gerund .. pass . loco sg. at any time. 105 . having been. . • Trii/ubh metre. it will become. participle . mid. he dies.err crof'q na.ft f"Rlf: ~ sri ~T ajo nitya/. eternal.Jhan). from former time. nom. ayam (m. he is born. this. will come to be or not again. perpetual. pr. sg. na. eternal. nom. will it again come not to be. eternal. not. sg. at any time whatever. he. again.). sg. in being slain. he.). primordial. dies neither at any time " " niiyam bhiitvii bhavitii vii na bhiiya/. . Birthless. bhavita (3rd sg. nityas (m. sg. bhUyas (m.). will be. It is not slain when the body is slain.:r~~m:"rtll na hanyate hanyamiine sarire* not it is slain in being slain in the body Neither is this (the embodied Self) born nor does it die at any time. na. sarfre (m. ~.Jbhil). either-or. birthless. pr. . not. nom. hanyate (3rd sg. nom. this. being. sg. perpetual this.Jbhil). Jjan). ajas (m.:r 'll<f: I dead. primaeval. ayam (m. having been. in being killed.l ~ +WIT '+Tf<reT err .lo unborn. primaeval. pro indic.). in the body. not. nom.

partha (m. ~~~~~I ya enam ajam avyayam who this.). with present meaning). sg. ajam (n. the eternal. birthless. man. act . puru~as (m. this. sg. acc.nf~ f. kam (m.Jhan). he.). the indestructible.). acc. not subject to loss. the unborn the imperishable. this. avilU'isinam (n. ~ '<m!<lfcr ~~ ~ II kam ghiitayati hanti kam'" whom he causes to slay? he slays whom? veda (3rd sg. epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother Prthii. he causes to slay. voc. from a vi . sg. he slays.). Son of Prtha. . Arjuna? Whom does he slay? • Sloka metre resumes. the.Jvid. avyayam (n. the imperishable. the eternal. acc. The birthless.). hanti (3rd sg. imperishable. interrog. sg. 0 Son of Prthii. who. acc. interrog. sg. .). perf. whom? which? ghiitayati (3rd sg.). acc. nom. sg.).wi vediiviniisinam nityam he knows. eternal.II 21 ~q. act. sg. unborn. kam (m. sg. nom. In what way does this man cause to be slain. 106 . the indestructible. nom. indie.Jhan). . indestructible. causative act.Jnas).). whom? He who knows this. sg. how? in what way? sas (m. nom. he knows. yas (m.).). pr. katham (interrog. "'~~~: qNkatham sa puru~af:z piirtha in what way this man. enam (m. acc. acc. sg. nityam (n. sg.

acc. gannents. man. old. pl.).). sarfriifJi (n. viOOya (gerund vi "'/00).). anyiini (n. a man. pl. acc. so. casting away. worn out. abandoning. pl. sg. after casting away worn out garments. worn out.. he seizes. pl. he encounters. apariifJi (n. nom. nom. So. indic.crrf<f ~r II anyiini samyiiti naviini dehi"" others it encounters. others.). new. as. after casting away worn out bodies. clothes. worn out.). acc. the iitman. pr. in which way.. act. pl. jfrlJiini (n. yatOO. the soul. ~rf~ .). new. he meets with. old. sg. casting away. As. acc.). act. in this way. the embodied one. indic.crrf.00). tatoo. the embodied.II 22 mrtf~ :Jf"fuhf<f lp. naviini (n. • TriNubh metre.).. sarizyiiti (3rd sg.). 107 . pl. pl. the self. pl. naviini (n. pr. vihaya (gerund vi .lT f~ viisiimsi jirt}tini yathii vihiiya garments worn out as casting away. sam -/yii). -Igrabh) . acc. dehf (m.-u S'rofur I viisiimsi (n. acc. abandoning. he takes. naras (m. A man later takes new ones. ~<f ~~. new ones... g~hlJiiti (3rd sg. naviini grh1Jiit£ naro 'parii1}i new he takes. jfrlJiini (n. new. acc. bodies. he grasps. others ~m mt-ufur f~:Jf~ tathii saririi1}i vihiiya jir1}iiny so bodies casting away. . The embodied Self encounters other. acc.). others.

acc. pl. they wet. pr. na. fire. indie. flame. enam (m. 108 . weapons. wind. ca. enam (m.Jklid). and. "~~<::4"4Iqr na ciiinam kledayantyiipo and not this they cause to wet.). nom.). nom. chindanti (3rd pI. Water does not wet this.z* nor it causes to wither. iipas (f. Weapons do not pierce this (the embodied Self). pavakas (m.). they cause to become wet. sastralJi (n. Fire does not burn this. nor. it burns. 00. not. causative act.).Jchid). 00. they chop.z not this it burns. the wind. pr. :Jsu~).. indic. pl. nom. Nor does the wind cause it to wither. dahati (3rd sg. ~ ~a qrq<fi: I niiinam dahati piivakaJ. sg.a: II na so~ayati miirutaJ. sg. fire. m<na. waters. marutas (m. sg. they moisten. so~ayati (3rd sg. this. weapons. they cut.). causative act. kledayanti (3rd pI. eoom (m. . the wind. sg.). • 8loka metre resumes. acc.II 23 ~f~~~~ur not. the waters . act. they pierce. . niiinam chindanti sastrii1Ji not this they pierce. na.Jdah). this.). this. pr. acc. sg. not. not. . pr. indie. indic. nom. it causes to wither. act. the waters .m. it causes to dry.

nom.). this. not to be pierced. nityas (m. sg.II 24~T~~nift~ acchedyo 'yam adiihyo 'yam acchedyas (m. sg. nom. ~s<f~:11 acalo 'yam saniitanal.t unmoving. nom. sg. nom. nom. and. standing firmly. eternal. gerundive a . nom. sg. this.). this. Wetted or withered. imperishable. This is unmoving and primeval. primordial.t sthii1Jur eternal. This is eternal.Jklid) . this. primaeval This cannot be pierced. sg.). sg. ~~T~~:ql 'so~ya akledyo eva ca not to be wetted and not to be withered.). gerundive a . gerundive a . saniitanas (m.Jdah). sg. ca. ayam (m. adiihyas (m. gerundive . sg. fixed. sarvagatas (m.t sarvagatal. akledyas (m. nom. nom. nom. fIxed.). unmoving. acalas (m. eva." all pervading. all pervading. sg. not to be dried.).Jchid). burned. immovable. sg. nom. not to be wetted. sg. all pervading. sg. eternal. primaeval. nom. f"Rlr:~: ~~ nityal. "all going. not to be burned. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). fixed.). ancient. this. ayam (m. immovable.). this. aso:ryas (m.JSUIf). nom. not to be pierced. ayam (m. sthiilJus (m. not to be burned. 109 .

unthinkable. Therefore. thou shouldst. abl. avyakto 'yam acintyo 'yam unmanifest this. sg. pass . ayam (m.ff"'-. participle a vi ~aftj). this. having understood in this way. knowing.).e. pr. from this.Jeint).Jkl:). thou art able. evam. having known. pass. it is spoken. act . ayam (m. unimaginable. indic. this. . sg.:1I1 Slfl1 . nom. invariable. nom. • I. sg. avikiiryas (m. nom. sg. ~~f<rfm tasmiid evam viditviiinam therefore thus having known this.). thou art obliged. unchanging. sg. unmanifest. gerund a .). 'J. arhasi (2nd sg. therefore. unthinkable this. It is said that this is unmanifest. . it is said. enam (m. to lament. sg. ucyate (3rd sg. 110 . viditvii (gerund . it is said. nom.Jarh). nom.). na. acintyas (m. Unthinkable. nom.Jsuc). this.).II 25 ~T Slfl1 'J. not. pro indic. ayam (m.ff~1~~1 avikiiryo 'yam ucyate unchanging this. this. undisplayed. to mourn. thus. anusoeitum (infinitive anu . ~Tf~~~11 niinuSocitum arhasi not to mourn thou shouldst. thou art worthy. You should not mourn./n. .Jvid).Jvac). avyaktas (m. the foregoing propositions. sg. p. tasmiit (m. gerund a vi . and unchanging. sg. acc.

act. eternally. to lament. acc. not. thou art able. Mighty Armed One. And moreover even if you think this To be eternally born or eternally dead.Jm~). dead. m~tam (m.Jarh). and if. nityam vii manyase mrtam or eternally. enam. and further. or. thou thinkest.Jsuc). sg. sg.Jman). vii. sg. thou imaginest. Arjuna. thou art obliged. nitya (adj. tvam (nom. sg.). . this.).).fmr~~11 niiinam socitumarhasi not this to mourn thou shouldst. arhasi (2nd sg. mahiibiiho (m. thou shouldst. dead.) nityam (adv. mid . also applied to other warriors.). and moreover.. participle . being eternally born. pro indic. eternal.f~~f~ atha ciiinam nityajiitam and moreover (if) this. Even then You should not mourn for this. born. . jiitam (m. . thou. thou art worthy. this.). acc. (nityajiitam. frequent eipthet of Arjuna. imperishable. atha ca.II 26 'l. p. na.). socitum (infinitive . then even. thou believest. indic. enam (m. manyase (2nd sg. 0 Mighty Armed One. eternally. 111 . to be sorrowful. tatOOpi (tatoo api). thou thinkest.t. voc. pass. eternally born. to mourn. dying. acc. pr. KD cpd. a~fqf<f~ tathiipi tvam mahiibiiho then even thou.

in consequence. janma (n. thou shouldst. certain. from this. m~tyus (m. loc.). not. sg. sg. truly. and. sg. thou.~mr~~11 'Ita tvam socitumarhasi not thou. Therefore. inevitable in purpose.). sg. for this. gerundive a pari . sg. sg. gen.). in unavoidable. tasmiit (abJ.). na. indeed. thou art able. nom. hi.II 27 ~ f~ qqT ~~Ii \ jiitasya hi dhruvo mrlyur of the born indeed certain death jiitsaya (m. dhruvam janma mrtasya ca and certain birth of the dead ~~s~ tasmiidaparihiirye 'rthe therefore. nom.). in inevitable. sg. gen. You should not mourn..Jsuc). safe. tvam (nom.). nom. arthe (m. to mourn thou shouldst. arhasi (2nd sg. to lament. 112 . pr. dhruvas (n. undoubted. death is certain. sg.). For the dead there is certainly birth. ca. fixed. therefore. death. indic. in purpose. for this. socitum (infinitive . . of the dead.Jh~). aparihiirye (m. to mourn. act . inevitable in consequence.). dhruvam (n. nom. loc. sg.). in aim. m~tasya (m. of the born. thou art obliged. sg. . birth.Jarh). For the born. certain.

such that their ends are unmanifest.II 28 ~Tf<T~<T avyaktiidini bhiitiini unmanifest beginnings.). manifest.) eva. avyakta (p. pass. Descendant of Bharata. nom. nom. vyakta (p.Jaft}). What complaint can there be over this? 113 .). I BV cpd. deaths. nom. madhyiini (n.). BV cpd. nom. (avyaktanidhiiniini. again.) bhiitiini (n... ends. creatures. (vyaktamadhyiini. middles. pl. And their ends are unmanifest again. unmanifest. sg. Descendant of Bharata.). interrog. n. iidini (n. sg. over this. such that their beginnings are unmanifest. sg. pl. voc. beginnings.). indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). commencements. such that their middles are manifest. nom. kii (f. <:r"1<fiTqf~11 tatra kii paridevanii over this. epithet of Arjuna. participle a vi . participle vi . nom. nom. what? paridevanii (f. participle a vi . ~fil1Cmf<T m<::a I vyaktamadhyiini bhiirata manifest middles. unmanifest. tatra. lamentation. nidhiiniini (n.). pI. Their middles are manifest.). 3.Jaftj) . pass. complaint. avyakta (p. beings.. about this. what complaint? Beings are such that their beginnings are unmanifest. (avyaktiidfni. pI.Jaftj) . n.f0<fflif<T~ avyaktanidhiiniinyeva unmanifest ends again. acc. pI. n. beings.) bhiirata (m. pl. nom. nom. BV cpd. there. pl. pass.

sg. iiscaryavat (adv. sg. Jpas).). enam (m. even also.II 29 iiscaryavat pasyati kascidenam wondrously he perceives someone. he declares. act. marvellously. Jvad). indic. act. sg. indic. veda (3rd sg. iiScaryavad vadati tathiiiva ciinyal. nom. thls. eva. Still another hears of this as a wonder. anyone. not. anyas (m. wondrously.). and wondrously he declares indeed another. he perceives.). enam (m. no one knows it.~Cfif~ II '" . pr. and. act. having heard. other. srutviipyenam veda na ciiiva kascit* mmCfM and having heard this. he sees. hearing. anyone. indeed. pr. acc.:zoti and wondrously this another he hears. he hears. wondrously. he says. another. nom. acc. this. eva. iiScaryavat (adv. Another declares this as a wonder.). with present meaning). anyas (m. this knows not thus anyone. thus. this. ca. and. m~~ CfGfaa~'ifI'i'lI": I iiscaryavat (adv. sg. enam (m. anything. • Triltubh metre with second line one syllable too long. s!. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). Jvid.. kascid. ca. srutvii (gerund Jsru).). vadati (3rd sg. perf. wondrously. s~1Joti (3rd sg. other. someone. na. this.). kascid. w<r: ~1fa iiScaryavacciiinam anyal. sg. api.).). ca. 1I4 . he tells. full of marvels. paiyati (3rd sg. marvellously. But even having heard of this. ~~. t This stanza explains the mystical nature of Brahman and the atman. another. indic. pr. and. Someone perceives this as a wonder. act. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). he knows. tathii. acc. Jsru).

). not to be harmed. thou art obliged. the embodied Self. rata. This. dehi nityam avadhyo 'yam'" embodied (one) eternally inviolable. bOOrata (m.!n. act. nom. sg. ~m-ur~<r tasmiit sarviit}i bhiitiini ayam (m. indic. nom. acc. arhasi (2nd sg. is eternally indestructible In the body of all. from this.Jsuc). Therefore you should not mourn For any being. pl. in the body. therefore. all.). sg. avadhyas (m. the embodied. to lament. sg.). loco sg. epithet of Arjuna.). • Sloka metre resumes. gerundive a . acc.). na. sg. this. of everyone. nom. this. pr. tasmat (abl. vOC. pl.Jarh).Jvadh). beings.. sarvafJi (n.). bhiUani (n.II 30 ~Tf~~)s. Descendant of Bha- therefore all beings rr~~)f~~11 na tvam socitumarhasi not thou to mourn shouldst. the soul. of all. gen. dehe sarvasya bhiirata in the body of all. 115 . sg. sg. creatures. eternally. the atman. sometimes applied to other worthies of the tribe. socitum (infinitive . dehe (m.). thou art able. Descendant of Bharata.). not.f dehl (m.). thou shouldst. sg. to mourn. nom. Arjuna.). tvam (m. sarvasya (m. thou. ~~~"l1rof1 inviolable. of anyone. . nityam (adv.

although. looking at. even though. sg. thou art able. And. sg. thou art obliged. other. thou shouldst. svadharmam (m. vikampitum (infinitive vi Jkamp). not. it is found. to tremble. beholding. s. dharmyiit (n. acc. yuddhiit (n. here "own caste duty" as a k!!atriya. than righteous. . preferable. better. dhi = hi. indic. avek!!Ja (gerund ava Jrk!!). Jarh) . not.). or warrior. pass. arhasi (2nd sg. anything superior to righteous battle Does not exist for the kshatriya (man of warrior caste). than lawful. truly. pr. k!!atriyasya (m. perceiving your own caste duty. indeed. na.). 116 .1if~ I na vikampitum arhasi not to tremble thou shouldst dhar~yiid dhi)/Uddhacchreyo 'nyat than righteous indeed battle.). na. pr. of the k!!atriya. act. from fighting.).:rfmll k~atriyasya ~f<t~41"'~~T~ for the k~atriya na vidyate not it is found. J 2 vid). anyat (n. perceiving. sg. of the member of the warrior caste. of the warrior.II 31 ~~+I:mq-~~ svadharmam api ciivek~ya and own (caste) duty just perceiving.). greater other ~~. abl. sg. indie. api ca. than battle. own duty. just. You should not tremble. sreyas (comparative). Indeed. n. gen.:r fffi~+I: l. vidyate (3rd sg. abl. to waver.

. sg. participle upa . such.. p. fighting.Jpad) . heaven. k!!atriyiis (m. apiiVl:tam (acc.Jlabh). idrsam (n.[lf~11 ~ . they encounter. ~~: ~lIT: qr~ sukhinalJ k~atriyiilJ piirtha happy k~atriyas. sg. acc. the warriors. nom. acc.II 32 ~~:q~ yadrcchayii copapannam and by good fortune gained ~n::+1~qICld+/ I . by good fortune. indic. ~<r. pass. gate. they find. pl. open. . pr. yuddham (n. Happy are the kshatriyas. happened.). members of the warrior caste. And if by good fortune they gain The open gate of heaven. acc.).). Arjuna. battle. ca. mid .). Son of Prtha. lucky. sg. happy. pl.).). G. 117 . fallen to one's lot. door. sg. acc. sg. sg. by a lucky chance. inst. by accident. participle apa ii .Jvr). When they encounter such a fight. pass. " labhante yuddham idrsam when they encounter battle such yadrcchayii (f. upapannam (n. ~. svargadviiram apiivrtam the gate of heaven open. of such a kind. the k!!atriyas.). dviiram (n. piirtha (m. unconcealed. voc.). epithet of Arjuna. p.. svarga (m. gained. TP cpd. nom. sg. Son of Prtha. and. they attain. sukhinas (m. labhante (3rd pI.

sg.II 33 :q~~~~~~ atha eet tvam imam dharmyam now if thou this proper atha. having avoided your own duty and glory.). dharmyam (m. engagement. then. etc. if. fut. assembly. aviipsyasi (2nd sg. thou shalt undertake. evil thou shalt incur. if you will not undertake This righteous war. hitvii (gerund . 00. fight. sg. proper.). ava . act . own duty. thou. ca. evil.). then. tatas. m+f. sg. thou shalt attain. 118 . imam (m. sin.Jhii). tvam (nom. having left. acc. fame. thou shalt incur. dutiful. . make. <fif~f~ I satizgramam na kari~yasi engagement not thou shalt undertake <:re: ~ 1fi1f~ :q tatal:z svadharmam kirtimca thereupon. glory. now. sg. fut. thereupon. You shall incur evil. sg. acc. kirtim (f.Jkr:). and.. svadharmam (m. acc. army.). thou shalt do. having avoided. sg. kari~asi (2nd sg. combat. sg.). Thereupon.). ced. piipam (n.). acc. samgriimam (m. Now. lawful. acc. not. this. acc.Jiip). own duty and glory f~ '1r1ll: ~~ II hitva papam avapsyasi having avoided. act.

And. sg. sg. from dying. acc. atiricyate (3rd sg. ca. . forever. for one who has been honored. api.gen. Disgrace is worse than dying. they will relate. they will tell how it was. sg. sg. mid. kathayi~anti (3rd pI. disgrace. pr. causative participle sam . akfrtis (f. people. maralJat (n. nom.).ffi'1 mrrf. of the honored. ca. it exceeds. disgrace. act.II 3+ Wlilfci' :.fbhu) . saJhbhavitasya (m. and. of the famous.). abI. disgrace ~mffi~11 marat. nom. it surpasses. infamy. 119 .). And also people will relate Your undying infamy. infamy.). and. sg. te (gen. pass. avyayam (f. also. beings. fut.r '" akirtim ciipi bhutiini and disgrace also people ~lflSlff'i1 ~ ~ I kathayi~yanti te ' vyayiim they will relate of thee.).). acc. bhUtani (n. sg. ati Jric). indic. ~~ :q("CfiTf~ sambhiivitasya ciikirtir and for the honored. sg. absence of glory.iid atiricyate than dying it is worse. of the esteemed. p. akfrtim (f. eternal. of thee. than dying.. undying. Jkath) .

.). mid . stopped. sg. ca. acc. thou shalt come. through fear. . laghavam (m. the great warriors. believed. they will believe. fut. sg.Jram). ral?at (m. thou shalt go. from fear. sg. of whom.Jya). thee. mahiirathiis (m. (as BY cpd. sg." ye~am (m. among whom. abl. participle upa .). insignificance. tvam (nom. having been. And among those by whom you have been held in high esteem You shall come to be held lightly. much thought of "iffi <iWIf~ ~ II bhiitvii yiisyasi liighavam having been. act. from battle. sg. uparatam (m.). The great warriors will think That you have abstained from the battle through fear. much.). pass.II 35 'l1'l!'R ~ ~~ .). 120 . fut. and. thou.). bahu (m. ~:q~~ ye~iim ca tvam bahumato and among whom thou. mahsyante (3rd pI. withdrawn from. nom. yasyasi (2nd sg.) "those whose chariots are great. matas (m. . thought. esteemed. abl. p. acc. from delight abstaining.). many.Jman). bhayiid ra1}iid uparatam through fear. lightness. participle . bhayat (n.Jman). the great warriors. bhutva (gerund . sg. ceased. nom. pl. pl. they will think. ll'~m~: 10 battle mansyante tviim mahiirathiil} they will think thee. pass. abstaining. from delight in battle. gen. sg. thou shalt come to lightness.).Jbhu). tvam (acc.

l they will speak of thee. of thee. speeches. ahitiis (m. greater hardship. they will speak.). indeed. much. acc. viidiin (m. greater pain. vadi~anti (3rd pI. lu. enemies. thy.). participle . comparative). acc. what? And your enemies will speak many words of you that should not be spoken.). lalas.). adequacy. act. pr. acc. tava (gen. kim (interrog. words. sg. pl. acc. bahun (m. siimarthyam (n. pl. What greater hardship is there than that? aviicya (gerundive a . many qf~~ . deriding your capacity..crrf~: I vadi~yanti taviihitii/. what? 121 .Jnind). but. act. tava (gen. hostile. fut. greater misery.Jvac). fitness. power.). many. f~ GCfm+r~<f nindantas tava siimarthyam deriding of thee the capacity. of thee. . they will say. dulJkhataram (n. indeed.). deriding.II 36 'I)I"I(""'I"I(Gi~:q ~ aviicyaviidiiflSca bahiin and not to be spoken words. capacity.Jvad).lkhataram tu kim than that greater hardship. sg. ca. nindantas (m. ffifT ~:~ C! f<fi~ II tato du/. from that.). strength. sg. and. noxious. pl. pI. not to be spoken. the hostile ones. ridiculing. nom. sg. nom. from thence.

p.Jhan). therefore. '!.Jbhuj). sg. n. thou shalt enJoy the earth.Jstha). sg. acc.). mahfm (f. sg.. thou shalt enjoy. jitva (gerund . slain. either-or.va. niscaya. Resolved to fight. pra . sg. . Or. Either.n~ ~r+{ I hatas (m. participle . made. prapsyasi (2nd sg.Jji). ~~~Cfi~ tasmiid utti~tha kiiunteya therefore stand up. svargam (m. tasmat (ab!. killed. acc. you shall attain heaven. jitvii vii bhok~yase mahim having conquered. resolved (kI:ta.z to battle resolved. having conquered. 122 . sg. stand up! arise! kaunteya (m. having been slain.). to battle. f~ err. sg. Son of Kuntl. bhok~ase (2nd sg.).). Son of KuntI. conviction). va . fut. thou shalt attain heaven. thou shalt reach. s. epithet of AIjuna. act. fut.II 37 ~err~~m hato vii priipsyasi svargam slain either. voc. from this. thou shalt eat. or.aT11 'lld f"1ti~4: II yuddhiiya krtaniscayal. Arjuna. you shall enjoy the earth. the earth.Jap). ud . pass. to fighting.). yuddhaya (m.. dat. uttiHha (2nd sg. heaven.). imperative act. nom. Therefore stand up. mid . kI:taniscayas (m. thou shalt attain. having conquered.

acc. the same. dual). labhiilabhiiu (m. evil.) same (n. having made. Then engage in battle! Thus you shall not incur evil. pain. having done. dual DV cpd.Jyuj) . sin. fut. not.. Holding pleasure and pain to be alike. to fighting. victory and defeat. gain and loss (/abha alabha).Jk~). happiness. 123 . ava . pleasure. dual). thou shalt attain. (suklwdulJkhe. acc. evam. imperative mid . nom. ~1~11 liibhiiliibhiiu jayiijayiiu gain and loss. DV cpd. DV cpd. sg. from there.II 38 ~:~wr~m sukhadul}khe same krtvii suklw (n. acc. dual). mlT~~ tato yuddhiiya yujyasva then to battle yoke thyself! . sg. in similar state. acc. act. n. dulJkhe (n. then. Likewise gain and loss. victory and defeat (jaya ajaya). thou shalt incur. acc. thus. dual). misery. yuddhiiya (n. dat. jayajayau (m.). papam (n.Jap). yujyasva (2nd sg. avapsyasi (2nd sg. join! engage! yoke thyself! 00. tatas.). k~tva (gerund .).:fcf~~~11 niiivam piipam aViipsyasi not thus evil thou shalt incur. victory and defeat. to battle. . pleasure and pain alike having made. thou shalt obtain. pleasure and pain. alike. acc.

participle -Iyuj).). sg. pass.). yuktas (m. sg. indeed. yoge (m. sg. inst. spoken.). Everything is a manifestation or mutation of what has always existed. The Siimkhya system is attributed to the sage Kapila (circa SOO B. and Nyiiya. buddhis (f. nom. this hear! buddhya yukto yaya partha by insight yoked by which. epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother Prtha or KuntL karma (n. voc.II 39 e~a ~~sfm~~ te ' bhihita samkhye this to thee declared in the Sarnkhya. joined. act. sg. intelligence. te (dat. sg. qii (f. one of the six traditional systems of Hindu philosophy. thou shalt avoid. I t postulates a cosmology in which results are implied in causes.). while Yoga. Siimkhya is the older of the two. imperative act. -Isru). Viiise#ka. however. nom. by insight. as declared in the theory of Sankhya.) prahdsyasi (2nd sg. loc. with insight. the sum of one's gast actions by which one is bound in a future life. sg.). TP cpd. bandham (m. (karma-bandham. It is said to have influenced Buddhism. Thus death is merely a transitory state leading to other states. pra -Ihd). p.) and is known as the" reason method" of salvation.). however. In this. Son of Prthii. sg. Vediinta.). among the followers of the Sii~­ khya. and are not always distinct. 8g.C. to thee.. named. acc. participle abhi -Idhd). and one of the oldest. 124 . buddhir yoge tvimam srreu insight in yoga. The others are Mfmiimsii. Son of Prtha. this. enlightenment. ~~~II karmabandham prahasyasi karma-bondage thou shalt avoid. or at least karma. thou shalt leave. bondage. Siirhkhye (m. insight. nothing new ever being added to or subtracted from it. this. called. Siimkhya has a parallel in the modern scientific theory of the conservation of matter and energy. sg. Now hear it as applied in arduous practice. hear! learn! buddhyii (f. in the Siirhkhya philosophy. disciplined. sg. Piirtha (m. sg.. nom.). m. Siimkhya does not recognize gods or sacrifices. yayii (f. fut. You shall rid yourself of the bondage of karma. From it comes the concept of the gU!las. Yoked with this determination.). and in which the universe remains constant. thou shalt abandon. bondage of karma. acc. Nothing is ever created. Yoga. sg. abhihitii (f. imiim (f. nom. This (insight) is wisdom. by which. in arduous practice." The two often overlap in the Bhagavad Gita. but. S~IJU (2nd sg. p. sg. inst. in Yoga. tu. yoked. • Sdmkhya. mental determination. pass. here untranslated). Arjuna. acc.Yoga (the Yoga of action) is the "action method.). declared. loco sg.

sg. Still other means of salvation mentioned in the Glta are meditation and love of God. pratyaviiyas (m. contrary course. it is. disappearance." and it proposes knowledge as the principal means of salvation. pr. nehiibhikramaniiso 'sti not in this an effort lost it is. of law. of discipline. pass. m. struction of effort. '!fT1fcr +r@l ~ II triiyate mahato bhayiit protects from great danger. nom. loss. abl. TP cpd. here in the world.). sg. of this discipline. from fear. asya (gen. it rescues. here. mahatas (n. Even a little of this discipline Protects one from great danger.. bhayiit (n. abl. nom.) (abhikrama-niisa. gen. from danger. niisas (m. triiyate (3rd sg. pr. destruction. not. it is found. sg. also. there is. opposite action. from great. abhikrama (m. sg. sg. pr. >Ias). dharmasya (m. mid.). of it.II 40 . reverse not it is found. of virtue. indic. sg. undertaking. sg. not. vidyate (3rd sg. 125 . na. nom. of this.f~~~sf~ 00. sg.). decrease. reverse. derivative noun from >loos). It is known as "the way of knowledge. acc. deasti (3rd sg. it protects. svalpam (m.). ~~m<:T~ svalpam apy asya dharmasya a little even of it. even. very small. Here (in the yoga doctrine of practice) no effort is lost. >ltriii). diminution. indic. ~T" fCI£T~ I pratyaviiyo na vidyate iha. Nor is any loss of progress found. effort.). api. fromprati ava >Ii). >12 vid).). indic. little.

Iu and Dhrtarii~tra. bahu. many. progenitor of both Pii~<.Jso). of the irresolute. truly. indeed.. kurunandana (m.). pl. intention. enlightenments. nom. ~~~'1"3I1i'i\ bahusiikhii hyanantiis ca having many branches. Descendant of Kuru (Arjuna). sg. sg. ifc. voc. from a vi ava ".II 41 0ll<t*l14Ik~aff~ vyavasaya (m. iha. . Descendant of Kuru. noun from vi ava . nom. "selved. in this matter. having no end. of the wavering./so). indeed endless. referring to the ancestor of the Kuru people. one.). The thoughts of the irresolute Have many branches and are.). intelligences.). Arjuna. in this world. indeed. thus the ancestor of most of the warriors on both sides in the Battle of Kuruksetra. sg. nom. siikhiis (f. intelligence. anantiis (f. buddhayas (f. 126 . determination. pI. purpose. much. and. hi. vyavasiiyiitmikii buddhir resolute-natured insight ~~~I ekeha kurunandana one in this matter. nom. Here there is a single resolute understanding. epithet of AIjuna. nom. endless. infinite. in this place. branches. iitmikii (f.[41 ~~'f II '" . endless. Gf. enlightenment.). ekii (f. insights. avyavasiiyiniim (m. ca." buddhis (f. insight.). nom. of the nature of. sg. pl.). buddhayo'vyavasiiyiniim the insights of the irresolute. gen. resolve. here. pl.

na. . pravadanti (3rd pI.). indic. they proclaim. speech. Arjuna. epithet of Arjuna. they declare. delighting.Jram). which.).). acc. indic. delighted. discourse. sg. nom. nom. doctrine. sg. voc. imam (f. avipascitas (m. declaring. pass. pr. thus (used to close a quotation). viidinas (m. pl. pu~pitam (f. word.). sg. pra . saying. quotation. acc.) partha (m. pl. the ignorant ones. not. it is. p. flowery. veda (m.). which.). m.. ratas (m. sg. the Veda. else. acc. nom. participle . asti (3rd sg. nom. this flowery word ~crrf~:1 pravadantyavipascitalJ they proclaim. pr.as).). "There is nothing else. 4~G(1~ «(11: '1N vedaviidaratalJ partha delighting in the word of the Veda. TP cpd. anything..Jvad). nom.II 42 lfTll:~~~~ yam imam pu~pitam vacam yam (f. acc.). the ignorant ones. sg. viida (m. anyat (n. delighting in the letter of the Veda. sg. act.). there is." 127 . this. language. (veda-vada-ratas. pI.). vacam (f. Son of Prthii. Delighting in the letter of the Veda And saying. holding doctrinally. The ignorant ones proclaim This flowery discourse. Son of Prtha (Arjuna). word. pI. 'lT~ mq1f~ cnf~: II nanyad astiti vadinalJ " not anything else there is" thus saying. other. iti.

(f. in regard to. (janmakarmaphalapradam. addicted to many various rites. in the vicinity of. offering rebirth as the fruit of action. intent on. sg. sg. BY cpd. abounding in various species of rites. various.).e. men of desirous natures. f~<rrfq~lq<ig{JIi kriyiivise~abahuliim abounding in many specific rites. action. rite. performing. doing. (adv.II 43 CfiTlfWWf: mtro kiimiitmiinal} svargaparii Being of desirious natures.!: I janmakarmaphalapradiim offering rebirth as the fruit of action.). path. pleasure. pradam (f.). the goal of enjoyment and power.). opposite. offering. f. acc. acc. power. especially in eating. giving. those whose selves are desirous. varieties of. nom.). TP cpd. "lrT~~a. sg. vise~a (vi si~). aim. phala (n. (bhogaisvaryagatim. intent on heaven ~14q){JISjGI. karma (n. intent on heaven. having as highest object. heaven.) kriya (f. paras (m.) prati. svarga (m. differentiation. TP cpd. fruit.). the "ignorant ones" of the preceding stanza. They offer rebirth as the fruit of action. (kriyavisqabahulam. lordliness.. aisvarya (n. goal. specification.. kiimiitmanas (m. sg. acc.) bhoga (m. bahulam (f. a religious or ritual act. sg. acc. • I. 128 .>!fa II bhogiiisvaryagatim prati enjoyment and power goal with regard to Full of desires. nom. And are addicted to many specific rites Aimed at the goal of enjoyment and power. f. making. enjoyment. pI. TP cpd..). much.).).). ifc.).).). pI. janma (n. gatim (f. many. birth. acc. sg. acc. esp.

gen. in meditation. from . "selved. not. by this.. o4cH1141~~f~: vyavasiiyiitmikii buddhil. ifc. of thoughts. of those whose thoughts are stolen away by this. of minds. prasaktanam (m. passive vi . having the nature of. pl.).. plea- bhogiiisvaryaprasaktiiniirh sure. gen.). pass. BV cpd.) taya (f.). iitmikii (f.JhT:). nom. resolute-natured insight ~T .Jso). insight. (bhogiiisvaryaprasaktiiniim.Jdhii). indic. it is granted. samiidhiiu (m. of the attached. sg. sg.) vyavasiiya (from vi ava ." "natured." buddhis (f. gen.Jbhuj). gen.). iiisvarya (n. na.). pl. loco sg. p.). it is given. fCf<T"'l<:rn II samiidhiiu na vidhiyate in meditation not it is granted. resolution.II 44 ~4!HI'ffiI<1i bhoga (m. (tayapahr:tacetasiim. nom. p. stolen away. apahr:ta (n. BV of the (pI. this discourse)stolen-a way-thoughts. pI. To those (the ignorant ones) attached to enjoyment and power. power. sg.. 129 . m.). inst. Resolute insight In meditation is not granted. lordship. enlightenment. cpd.. participle apa . enjoyment. cetasiim (n. intelligence. of those attached to pleasure and power.) enjoyment-and-power-attached tayiipahrtacetasiim of the by-this (i. pI.e. vidhiyate (3rd sg. Whose thought is stolen away by this kind of talk.

Arjuna. II niryogak~ema iitmaviin free from (thoughts of) acqUlsitlOn and comfort. territories.). nom. be! exist! become! arjuna (m. bhava (2nd sg. traigulJya (n. m.Jj<lI1.).).as. -sthas (suffix. spheres of action. niryogak~emas (m. reality. belonging to. imperative act. without thoughts of acquisition and conservation. pl. without the pairs of opposites (heat./bhU). nom. nom. eternally fixed in truth.4 *1 . nom. category. cold. indifferent to the polarities. . nistraigu'lyas (m.) vedas (m. sg. sattva (n. sg. pl. The Vedas are such that their scope is confined to the three qualities. indifferent to the pairs of opposites. without the three gUl). etc. 130 . eternally. voc. Arjuna. pain. nom. truth.as.). staying.II 45 of~mn~~ vedii three gUl)as territories in the Vedas triiigu1Jyavi~ayii f~tn1T~1 nistriiigu1JYo bhaviirjuna without the three gUQas be! Arjuna f~T f'1.as. (traigu'la-vi~agas.). pI. sg. standing.). m.. the Vedas. fixed. full of the self. sg.. Free from thoughts of acquisition and comfort. possessed of the self.). TP cpd. vi~ayas (m. sg.).). and possessed of the Self. eternal.). without the triad of gUl). fi1<rm~">II. Be free from those three qualities. possessed of the self. Indifferent toward the pairs of opposites.). pleasure. nitya. three gUl). belonging to the three gUl). nirdvandvas (m.as. the triad of gUl). (adv . eternally fixed in truth. goodness. nom. sg. nom. nom.as.<I t<il' nirdvandvo nityasattvastho indifferent toward the pairs of opposites. atmavan (m.). abiding.

loco sg. overflowing with water. in a well. brahmalJOsya (m. arthas (m. ~~ I sarvataJ. As much value as there is in a well When water is flooding on every side. knowing. on all sides.). sg.). sg. n. value. participle vi . knowing. . sg. loco pl. use.Jjiia). as much value in a well ~::ec~a1G . pr. vedqu (m. vijanatas (m. of the brahman.lasya vijiinatalJ for the brahman.). loco pl. sg. wise. aim. so much. sarve~u (m. in all. for the brahman.II 46 ~~ yiiviin artha udapiine yavan (m. loco sg. in water. sg.plu).). So much is the value in all the Vedas For a brahman who knows. udapane (m. participle sam '.) tavan (m.). overflowing. water overflowing. samplutodake when on every side.. (sampluta-udake. 131 . loco sg. (adv. object. nom. as much. in the Vedas. everywhere. so much. nom.).).). ~IGlIr:ecTq '" tiiviin sarve~u vede~u '" fu so much in all the Vedas ~1@Olfll f~: II briihma1. nom. pass. gen. sarvatas.). udake (n. KD cpd. with water. gen. salnpluta (p.

those of action prompted by desire. at any time whatsoever.Ia of tamas. Your right is to action alone. never. and the elimination of desire for the fruits of action is basic to the GUll's teaching. in results. thy. astu (3rd sg. phale~u (n.e. not. 25). let there be! akarmalJi (n. Thus.). It refers to "disinterested action. nom.Jbhii)." which is not to be confused with irresponsible or careless action.). never of thee attachment let there be m inaction. rna (prohibitive). in action. '" ma phale~u kadacana never in fruits at any time. in inaction. te (gen. never. action which is a duty.one of the evils associated with the gU1. Never should the fruits of action be your motive.la. saiigas (m. and those that arise from delusion (see XVIII 23. adhikiiras (m. and they are of three kinds: those of obligatory action. (adv. imperative act. motive in fruit-of-action. The last line. it should be..) bhiis (3rd sg. at any time. desire for power.). loco sg. hetus (m. in deeds. eva. sg.). in fruits. result of action. never. sg. motive. sg.Jas). .yevadhikaraste in action alone the jurisdiction of thee. aorist subjunctive . The second and third are related to desire. The first of these is really action without desire for the fruits.). TP cpd. alone. loco pl. desire for wealth. i. rna (prohibitive). loco sg. 24. claim. though the singular phalam is used in the Sanskrit) mean the results of action. (karma-phala-hetus. te (gen. or desire for fame is not advised. authority. lIT Cfi4 'hM®. nom. sg. Never let there be attachment to inaction in you. or darkness. office.).).i. lIT~~1 lIT~~T~~11f II ma te safigo 'stv akarmat. of thee. Never to its fruits at any time. sg. m. nom.). in nonaction. not. According to the law of karma an individual is responsible for his actions throughout eternity. karmat.II 47 Cfi~<rrf~ karmalJi (n. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). it should arise.). sg. ma (prohibitive). The" fruits" (usually translated in the plural.). of thee. nom. attachment. thy. • Acting without regard or desire for the fruits of action is one of the most constant teachings of the Bhagavad Gitii. or until he achieves nirvii1. 132 . about "inaction" is an injunction against sloth . prerogative. privilege. not. kadacana.\ ~ ma karmaphalahetur bhilr never action-fruit motive should arise. Action prompted by delusion (see above) is also associated with tamas. action prompted by greed. fruit of action. jurisdiction. cause. karmaphala (n.

acc. discipline. in success and failure.) samas (m.II 48 '" yogasthal. sangam (m. the same. equableness. sg. abiding in.). it is said. And having become indifferent to success or failure. adherence. Con- siddhyasiddhyol. having abandoned. 133 . pl. fixed. fulfillment. abandoning. actions. equanimity. sg. sg. voc. -sthas (m. It is said that evenness of mind is yoga.). nom. sg.li in Yoga fixed.). steadfastness.z kuru karma1. siddhi (f. pr. ~~~I lfFrN: ~ <filhfur sangam tyaktva dhanamjaya attachment having abandoned. equal.). suffix). non-success. indifference. nom. failure. acc. bhutva (gerund JbhU) . having become.). kuru (2nd sg. frequent epithet of AIjuna.). perform actions.). loco dual. being. samatvam (n. Fixed in yoga. it is said. tyaktva (gerund J tyaj) . Having abandoned attachment. Yoga. becoming. (siddhyasiddhyos. ucyate (3rd sg. yogas (m. imperative act. nom. Arjuna. sg. yoga (m. passive Jvac). attachment. indifferent (as between two alternatives). queror of Wealth. Yoga. JkI:). clinging. success. f.z samo bhUtva to success or failure indifferent having become ~lf1<r~11 samatvam yoga ucyate indifference (is) Yoga. sg. indic. it is declared. deeds. perform actions. asiddhi (f. attainment. dhanainjaya (m. do! make! perform! karmafJi (n. in success or failure.). Conqueror of Wealth.). nom.

acc.II 49 ~~CfiIt diire1}a hyavaram karma diirelJa (n. sg. by distance. in enlightenment. those whose motives are based on fruit. phalahetavas (m. inst. Seek refuge in wisdom! Despicable are those whose motives are based on the fruit of action. Arjuna. below. sg. intelligence. action unimportant. (m. sg. nom. Action is inferior by far To the yoga of wisdom. by a long way. making.). buddhiyogiit (m. loc.). buddhiyogiid dhanamjaya. hi.). indeed. doing. from the Yoga of to intelligence-discipline. frequent epithet of Arjuna. sg. indeed. to the Yoga of intelligence. Conqueror of Wealth. pl.Ji~). inferior. BV cpd.).). 134 . pitiable. abl. pI. in mental determination. despicable (are) those who are motivated by fruit. sg. karma (n. in insight. action. dhanalnjaya. by far. buddhiiu sara1}am anviccha in insight refuge seek. refuge. to mental determination. anviccha (2nd imperative act. anu . sg. buddhtiu (f. nom. seek! wish for! desire! kr:pafJiis (m. avaram (n.). inferior. TP cpd. low.). those who are motivated by the fruit. nom. phalahetaval.). Conqueror of Wealth. voc. ~:~:II krpa1}iil. intuitive determination. in intelligence. despicable. nom.). saralJam (n. by far. sg.

duskrte (n. nom.). '" tasmiid yogiiya yujyasva therefore to Yoga yoke thyself! ~'M: Cfi~ Cfi~ II yoga~ karmasu kiiusalam Yoga in actions (is) skill. he leaves. pass. yoke! yoke thyself! join thyself! yogas (m. 135 . Yoga.II 50 buddhiyukto jahiitiha He who is disciplined in intuitive determination casts off here in the world .Jyuj). sg. sukr!a (m. here in the world. ease.) tasmat (abl. Therefore devote yourself to yoga! Yoga is skill in action. ~~~I ubhe sukrtadu~krte both good and evil deeds.). in deeds. pro indic.) he who is disciplined in intuitive determination.n~fiT~~ '" '" buddhiyuktas (m. health. sg. (s~k~tadul!kT:te. both. dat. good and evil deeds. loco pl. dual.). the disciplined in mental determination. to Yoga. jahiiti (3rd sg. discipline. here in the world. sg.). n. yogaya (m. kausalam (n. nom. therefore. . evil deeds.). in actions. acc. the yoked intelligence. p. (as BV cpd.Jyuj) . nom. dual). skill. yujyasva (2nd sg. he casts off. participle . ubhe (n. here. both good and evil actions. sg.). imperative mid . dual). . He whose wisdom is established Casts off. the disciplined in intelligence. karmasu (n. acc. iha. good deed. acc. ~~~~~ . sg.Jhii). from this. act. acc.

janma (n. intuitive detennination. bandha (m. participle vi nir Jmuc). buddhi (f. disciplined. wise ones. place. intelligence. (janmabandhavinirmuktas. released. pI./tyaj). enlightenment. p. joined. yuktas (m.). born of action. way. acc. Jgam).II 51 '" '" karmajam buddhiyuktii hi ~ <rf. pha/am (n. healthy. pass. m. The wise ones.. birth. abandoning.). freed from the bondage of rebirth. sg. manf~ifJ<ls (m. janmabandhavinirmuktiil} rebirth bondage freed from. acc. yoked. ~ ~ t:R')fQ1JT: I phalam tyaktvii mani#1. ~ ~~"'I'1lijlj+f II ~ ~ padam gacchanty aniimayam (to the) place they go. vinirmuktas (m.1wT f~ karmajam (karma Jja. nom. abode. hi. act.).). pI. freed from. wise. born of action. having abandoned. result. gacchanti (3rd pI. who have abandoned the fruit born of action.). pl. sg. fruit. free from disease. And are freed from the bondage of rebirth.). pI. n. bondage. 136 . nom. nom. free from pain. salubrious.lal} fruit having abandoned. Go to the place that is free from pain. free from pain. nom. acc. participle Jyuj). aniimayam (n. they go. tyaktva (gerund . the intelligence-disciplined (pI. produced by action. pro indic. Those who are established in wisdom. indeed.a1..). sg. having cast aside. rebirth. sg.).) padam (n.) indeed. acc. the wise.

sg. sg. then you shall become disgusted With that which is yet to be heard And with that which has been heard (in the Veda). of thee. thy. nirvedam (m. te (gen. gen. . gen. and. When your intellect crosses beyond The thicket of delusion. delusion. act .f~ Olffmlf~a. sg. acc. fut. of the to-be-heard. thou shalt go.). enlightenment.u:).. disgusted. kalilam (m. with that which is to be heard.). srotavyasya (m. participle ". pass. 137 . gantiisi (2nd sg. it shall cross over. ca.sru). acc. gerundive 'Jsru). sg. sg.).II 52 <RTa-~~~ yada te mohakalilam when of thee the delusion-thicket ".). heap.I '" . of the heard. disgust. srutasya (m. periphrastic fut. nom. it shall pass beyond. intelligence. then.. confusion.). act. sg. vyatitari:fYati (3rd sg. yadii. tadii. buddhis (f. when. mental determination. thicket. moha (m. of that which has been heard. vi ati ".gam). buddhir vyatitari~yati the intelligence shall cross beyond ~<RITf~f~ tada gantasi nirvedam then thou shalt become disgusted ~~~:qll srotavyasya srutasya ca with the to-be-heard and with the heard. p.

nom. nom. (srutivipratipanna. sg. te (gen.). false.).Jap). then. when.Jpad). fut. ritual-centered revelation. loco sg. unmoving. 138 . Yoga. tada. sthiisyati (3rd sg.). nom. contrary to yada sthiisyati niscala when it shall stand unmoving ~~ samadhavacalabuddhis in deep meditation. sg. of thee l!(IT~(I'f~1 sruti (f. sg. heard. what is heard.). act.) TP cpd. (thine) intelligence..). then you shall attain Self-realization. When your intellect stands flXed in deep meditation.). immovable. p. nom. buddhis (f. thine. thou shalt obtain. ava . of thee. thou shalt attain. acalii (f. motionless. sg. sg. acc. sg. samadhiiu (m. niscaia (f. in meditation. unmoving. act. by thee. intelligence. of the Veda). nom.II 53 ~mq>rf~it srutivipratipanna te disregarding ritual-centered revelation (i. contrary.e. disregarding Vedic doctrine.). sg. it shall stand. perplexed. yogam (m. unmoving. participle vi prati . mistaken. fixed. avapsyasi (2nd sg. thou shalt reach. f.Jstha). immovable. mental determination. vipratipanna (f. disregarding Vedic doctrine. pass. yada. in deep meditation. fut. ~lT~~~11 tada yogam avapsyasi then Yoga thou shalt attain. .

). sg. vrajeta (3rd sg.). what description? ~~ml samiidhisthasya keiava of him who is steadfast in deep meditation.).Jvraj).II ~if\3<fR I arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. opt. he should move. kim (interrog. what? how? sthitaprajfiasya kii bhii~ii of him who is steady of insight.). he said. description. he should sit.). act. 54 f~CfiT'llm sthitaprajnasya (m. sg. sg.). mid . voc. sg. AIjuna. he who is steady in thought. what? how? asfta (3rd sg.). pra . he should move how? Arjuna spoke: How does one describe him who is of steady wisdom. opt. he should proceed. identification. kdava (m. . speech. :Jvac) . definition. Who is steadfast in deep meditation. BY cpd. frequent epithet of Krishna. nom. of him who is steadfast in deep meditation. gen. he might sit. act.). BY cpd. kim (interrog.Jbhali). kim (interrog. kim Prabhii~eta he who is steady in thought. sanuidhisthasya (m. gen. . Handsome Haired One. per. language. sg. Krishna? How does he who is steady in wisdom speak? How does he sit? How does he move? 139 . of him who is steady of insight. BY cpd. nom. interrog. sthitadhfs (f. he might go. kii (f. nom. he should travel. uvaca (3rd sg.). what? how? prabhalieta (3rd sg. sg. how he should speak? fCfii{ ~ffi mfCfii{ II kim iisita vrajeta kim how should he sit. what? bhalia (f. sg. he might speak. mid . nom. opt. he spoke.Jas). he should speak.). Handsome Haired One (Krishna)? f~r:f~~ sth£tadhi!. man of stable thoughts.

nom. p. indic. the Blessed Lord. voc. then.). by the self. pl. Son of Prtha..). tada. satisfied. frequent epithet of Arjuna. contented. pr. acc.ftu~). acc. 55 ~8'lRT~ prajahiiti yadii kiimiin prajahiiti (3rd sg. "mind gone. when. uvaca (3rd sg. emerging from the mind. Then he is said to be one whose wisdom is steady. pl. the blessed one. pl. partha (m. he said.:ij(*¥1'11 ~: iitmanyeviitmanii t~talJ in the self by the self contented.f 1'I"ll 1Idl'1 I ~ ~ sarviin piirtha manogatiin all.fvac). yada. TP cpd. participle . ucyate (3rd sg.fhii).). loco sg. The Blessed Lord spoke: When he leaves behind all desires Emerging from the mind. eva. cravings.). And is contented in the Self by the Self. indic. originating in the mind. sg. it is said. sarvan (m. act. when.¥1." emerging from the mind. . nom. sg. sg. in the self. atmana (m. pass. desires. he abandons. inst. passive . tu~tas (m. steady of insight..). manogatan (m. wise.. he renounces. pra . acc. sg. kaman (m. atmani (m. he relinquishes..). act. prudent. ~1. all. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). Son of Prtha. he spoke. addictions. he leaves behind. perf. desires ~qp. pr. Arjuna.).fvac).II ssr~~1 Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. he is said to be.). he leaves behind. 140 . nom. sthitaprajnas (m. sg. (as BV cpd.) one whose insight is steady. f~~aSl~w(:f~ II 1S sthitaprajfiastadocyate one whose insight is steady then he said to be.

And whose meditation is steady. raga (m. sg. free from anxiety. nom. dulJkhe~u 141 . whose mind is not agitated. indic. anudvigna (p. is said to beasage.).) whose meditation is steady. he is called.). (as BY cpd. gone.) sthitadhfs (f. pass. sg." (as BY cpd. Whose passion. pass. sg. sg. participle vi .. sage. Whose desire for pleasures has disappeared.). sthitadhir munir ucyate steady in thought. mind. in unhappinesses. pr. BY cpd. (vitaragabhayakrodhas. fear.II 56 ~:~~: dul. vigataspt:has (m. and anger have departed. in pleasures freed from desire Cf~lI"fiTer: vitariigabhayakrodhal. pass . departed passion.) whose desire has disappeared. fear.khe~vanudvignamaniil. fear.). m. . whose passion. freed from desire.). fear and anger have departed. loco pl. steady in meditation. ucyate (3rd sg. manas (m. anger. in pleasures.Jvac). nom. He whose mind is not agitated in misfortune. (n. nom. it is said. f~~+rf~~11 '''' . loco pl.Jvij). passion. ifc.).Ji). steady of thought. sg. "gone away desire. bhaya (n. munis (m. vita (p. krodhas (m. nom.. wise man.). freed from greed.). nom. free from perplexity. he is said to be.). not agitated. in misfortunes not agitated the mind mrnf~:1 ~" ~ < sukhe~u vigatasprhal. danger. a sage he is said to be. anger. in happinesses. nom.) sukhe~u (n. nom. sg. participle an ud . m. (anudvignamanas. in misfortunes. departed. in miseries. in joys. sg. BY cpd. minded.

sg. . act. . nom. tasya (gen.Jnand). he approves. pleasant or unpleasant. he hates. anabhisnehas (m. nondesirous. of him. nom.Jap).. understanding. 142 . subhliSubham (n. sg. participle). he dislikes. everywhere.). yas (m. pleasant or unpleasant. pass. abhi . he rejoices. attaining.). p. wisdom. acc. His wisdom stands firm. subha asubha). standing firm. prapya (gerund pra '. unimpassioned. on all sides. incurring.). abhinandati (3rd sg. Encountering this or that. sg. am. not he dislikes ~ srnT srl'ml>OaT II tasya prajiiti prati~thitti of him the wisdom standing firm. who. obtaining. sg. without affection. pratiHhita (f. nom. sg. pleasant or unpleasant. encountering. [fISC ntibhinandati na dve~ti not he rejoices. sg.). sg. nom.n~. sarvatra. judgement.z sarvatranabhisnehas who on all sides non-desirous.Jsnih).. na. established. pr. indic. knowledge. from an abhi . He who is without attachment on all sides. discrimination. not. ya/. dve~fi (3rd sg. nom.'Sl"J'ClI"~1 tattat prtipya Subhtisubham this or that encountering. Neither rejoicing nor disliking. In all things. DV cpd. he salutes. tat tad (n. na. of it. prajfid (f. pro indic.II 57 <1:mr. not.Jdvi~). of this. pleasant and unpleasant. act.:nf~a-. this or that.

turtle. participle prati . this. CfBr >mr >ifffil>Om II tasya prajiiii prat#thitii of him the wisdom standing firm. iva.). pl. His wisdom stands fIrm. indic. 143 . established. discrimination. completely. of it. pl. prajfla (f.Jstha). sg.Jhl:). wisdom. altogether. acc. indriyarthebhyas (m. TP cpd. aflgani (n. p.). from the objects of sense.II 58 lRT~~~ yada.).). yadii smhharate ciiyarit and when he withdraws. karmas (m. ~+r1 SWRT<r I kurmo 'figiiniva sarvasa/:t m: the tortoise-limbs-like completely. And when he withdraws completely The senses from the objects of the senses. ayam (m. judgement. sg. As a tortoise withdraws its limbs into its shell.rrhita (f. pl. similarly. gen. ~-~-~l~lftf~~ indriyiit.). acc. like.). of this. standing firm. ca. this one. indriyaIJi (n. sg. sg. nom. from the objects of the senses. this one. he draws together.). wholly. sg. sg. nom. nom. mid. safnharate (3rd. legs and arms. nom. pass. tortoise. understanding. and. tasya (m.zindriyiirthebhyas the senses from the objects of the sense. sarvasas. powers. pr. limbs. sam . when. prati. he withdraws. abl. senses. of him.

sg. 144 . indie. But the taste for them remains. of the embodied one.t from the fasting of the embodied one. from the fasting. pl. Sense objects turn away from the abstinent man. of the litman. gen. seemg. indic. vi~ayas vinivartante the objects turn away ['1 <ltOl <fll ~t:'1": I nirahiirasya dehina/. api. taste. of the self.). nom. sg. pr. taste. even. vi ni . from nir ahara. dmva (gerund . most basic of desires. nom. gen.): the hi~hest. • Flavor being the object of hunger. mid. dehinas (m. mid. also. ni . it turns away. rasa (m.). nivartate (3rd sg. niraharasya (m. flavor also from him. sg. TP cpd. sg. havmg seen. of him. param (m. vinivartante (3rd pI. spheres of influence. asya (m. excluding.). ~~f~ll • « param dr~tva nivartate the supreme having seen.Jvr:t).Jvr:t). sg.Jdr:s). flavor. t~e supreme. it turns away. flavor.).). food). objects. But the taste also turns away From him who has seen the Supreme. they tum away. with the exception of. pr. gen.II 59 f«tMfcrf~ (m. rasas (m. t The atman. from the withoutfood.). dominions. ~~T~ vi~aya rasavarjam raso 'pyasya flavor excepted. varjam (adv.. acc.

145 . pr.). Even of the striving man of wisdom. nom. of wisdom. of the man. ~~1lT SIlt'Nlf-r indriyiit. tormenting. rending. gen. they seize. act. they take. pro indie. sg. frequent epithet of Arjuna. indeed even. api. gen. ~fqqf~:1 purUfasya vipaScitalJ. thoughts. The turbulent senses Carry away forcibly The mind. yatato hyapi kiiunteya of the striving. puru~asya (m. of the man of wisdom. tearing. ~ h. acc. also. act. kiiunteya (m. they carry away forcibly the mind. voc. of the one who strives. pl.zi pramiithini the senses tormenting ¢~~+rrr:11 of the striving. hi. nom. truly. pramiithfni (n. pl.). sg. Son of Kunti.). Arjuna. they carry away. sg. even. harassing.~ yatatas (m. haranti prasabham manalJ. Son of KuntI. indriyiifJi (n. manas (n. participle Jyat). the senses. of learning. sg. destroying.). violently.:). sg. indeed. mind. the powers. vipascitas (m. forcibly.II 60 ~~q-<f.). gen. prasabham (adv. of the eager. haranti (3rd pI. from Jvip).).

acc. loc.). nom. p. the senses) all restraining ~~ffi~:1 tani (n. ~11f ~ ttini sarvtilJi samyamya these (i. matparas (m.).e. steadfast. intent on Me. pl. of whom. me intent on. all.Jyam). pass.z disciplined. these. joined (usually refers to being steadfast in Yoga). p.). in dominion. gen. sg. me intent on.). participle prati . of this. stabilized. sg.Jas). '. safnyamya (gerund sam . Disciplined. pass. surely. acc.). nom. opt. yuktas (m. wisdom. restraining. indeed. nom. He whose senses are controlled. tasya (m. sarvalJi (n. sg. the powers.). yasya (m. nom.Jsthti). hi. in control. established. he should sit. participle .). truly. '" yukta iisita matparal..). sg. pl. pl. in wish. asfta (3rd sg. crof~~~11f vase hi yasyendriyiilJi in control surely of whom the senses. His wisdom stands firm.II 61 an. of him. he should sit. prajiiii (f. Restraining all these senses. ~ >I'm >rfaf~ II tasya prajiiii prat#thitii of him the wisdom standing firm. sg. with me as highest object. vase (m. mid.Jyuj). sg. standing firm. discrimination. holding back. in desire. understanding. gen. 146 . indriyalJi (n. disciplined. the senses. nom. sg. he should sit. yoked. prati~!hita (f.

krodhas (m. indic. pl. it is born.). indic. 147 . abl. pr. pr. gen.). of contemplating. of a man. fury. from ~~~I sangas te~iiPajayate attachment to them it is born ~~CfiTlf: sangat samjayate kamal.: dhyayatas (m.). craving. in them. from desire. kamat (m. loco pl. upa. tqu (m. and do not necessarily convey any difference in meaning. An attachment to them is born. to them. provinces. sg. passive sam vjan). sg. sg. sangat (m. sam. attachment. it is born. clinging. From attachment. kamat krodho 'bhijayate from desire anger is born For a man dwelling on the objects of the senses. wrath. pr. sg. it is born. departments. contemplating objects. from crav- from attachment is born desire ~~T~sf~11 ing. such prefixes are sometimes used merely for elegance (in this case avoidance of repetition). nom. pr. • The use of three different prefixes to jiiyate (it is born). pUinsas (m. indic. viz. clinging. for a man. desire. abhijayate* (3rd sg.).. nom. desire is born.). objects. upajayate* (3rd sg. of dwelling on. act participle 'Jdhya). it is produced. acc. anger is born.II 62 ~Tf~.). for a man spheres of action. it is produced.). from attachment. aMi. anger. sangas (m. sg. gen. kamas (m. passive abhi . From desire. testifies to the fact that in Sanskrit. abl. vi!!ayan (m. sainjayate* (3rd pI. fields./jan). sg. dhyayato v#ayan pumsal. passive upa vjan). greed.). sg. nom. it is produced.

nasas (m. buddhi (f. memory. from loss of the intelligence. from wandering. sg. sg. nom. it arises. from delusion. sammohas (m.) pralJaSyati (3rd sg. wandering away. bhramsat (m. krodhiid bhavati sammohalJ.) TP cpd. from anger arises delusion. (buddhinasat.rcrf'(f~: krodhiit(m. bhavati (3rd sg . pra . nom. ~r(f~<rf~ . From destruction of discrimination one is lost. from wrath. it is. memory wandering. from vi . from memory wandering away.II 63 ~~ -. m.). sg. from anger. from destruction of the intelligence.). sg. sm~ti (f. sg. 148 . nasdt (m. from delusion. abi. From delusion. wisdom remembered. From loss of the memory.. TP cpd. abl. buddhi (f.).). from sam . (sm~tibhramsat. sg. memory.). pr.). one is lost. destruction. abl. wisdom remembered. intelligence. intelligence destruction.). TP cpd. abl. one is destroyed. sg.Jnas). sg. '" ~ smrtibhrathSiid buddhinaso from memory wandering. abl. delusion. From anger arises delusion.). he is destroyed. TP cpd. ~~rfficn-1+1: I sammohiit smrtivibhramalJ.). sg. sm~ti (f. loss. nom. abi.. .Jbhram). he is lost. vibhramas (m. sammohat (m.Jmuh) .. indie. intelligence. <rf~~(fll buddhiniisiit pra1}asyati from intelligence-destruction one is lost. from destruction. from confusion. confusion. act.. bhil). loss of the memory. destruction of discrimination. '" . it comes to be.

by self-controls. he reaches.t!rr. p. desire. He who is controlled by the Self. m. BY cpd. however. controlled by selfrestraints. indriyafs (n. inst. passion. pass. engaging.). unjoined.) prasadam (m. sg. (m. hatred. he whose self is controllable. earan (m. indic.Jdha).Jear). participle act. with self-restraints. Even though moving among the objects of the senses.).). atmavasyais (m. by the senses. self. atma (m. vi~ayan (m. ".. adhigaeehati (3rd sg. moving. spheres of action. with the senses. By self-restraint. tranquility. sg. sg. fields. adhi . . nom.a-:r\ f~ iitmavaSyiiir vidheyiitmii by self-restraint. acc. pl.). attains tranquility. to be enjoined. peace.~. vidheya (gerundive vi . to be controlled. objects. raga (m. to be subdued.::T¥ir::q".). nom. nom. participle vi . pr. eliminated. acc. 5fmqm~("f11 prasiidam adhigacchati tranquility he attains..Jgam). sg. nom. loathing.II 64 ~~~ riigadve~aviyuktas tu desire and hate eliminated. pl.I.).1 vi~ayiin indriyiiiicaran (even though) objects by the senses engagmg. provinces. but. to be governed. act.Jyuj). however. (vidheyatma. the self-controlled. inst. f~ m~a~~"'1 '<1. pr. he attains. sg. viyuktas (m.. pl. dve~a 149 . tu.). With the elimination of desire and hatred. he goes to.

minded. for the tranquil-minded The intellect at once becomes steady. asya (m. hiinis (f.). dulJkhiiniim (n. for him. indeed. In tranquility the cessation of all sorrows Is born for him. participle pra . indeed. it is produced.Jhii. at once buddhil. quickly.Jsthii). sg. enlightenment. all. bright.Jsad).) hi. prasiide (m. from . of thought. immediately. gen. gen. cessation.II 65 ~~:~ prasadesarvad~khanam in tranquility. paryavati~fhate (3rd sg. pl. placid. BV cpd. prasanna (p. (prasannacetasas.). gen. upajiiyate (3rd sg. pr. of him whose mind is tranquil. S/~I'$I~Ml ~ prasannacetaso hyiiJu of the tranquil minded. indic. in peace. pr. it is born.). at once. intelligence. of it. in tranquility. of sorrows. mid. nom.loc. discrimination. iisu (adv. clear. withdrawal. tranquil. sg.). nom. of mind. sg. m. it becomes steady. it stands. of misfortunes.). truly. sarva. passive upa ~jan). of all sorrows ¢''f\ 'I fli'l q"" III (\ I hanir asyopajayate cessation for him it is born.). cetasas (m.z paryava#fthate the intelligence it becomes steady. gen.. Indeed. leave). pari ava . indic. 150 . sg. it steadies. sg. buddhis (f. of him. pass. sg.

gen. 'fTf~orf~~ na. "f~:mf~ na ciibhiivayatal} siintir and not of the non-concentrating. good fortune. peace.).). sg. nom. buddhis (f.). concentration. sg. How can there be happiness for him who is not peaceful? 151 . ayuktasya (m. sg. pr. gen.). sg.). it is. of the uncontrolled. asantasya (m. of the nonconcentrating. of him who is undisciplined. not. sg. And there is likewise no concentration in him who is uncontrolled. na. not. of the unpeaceful one. not. ayuktasya (m. bhiivana (f. nom. na. gen. happiness. gen. asti (3rd sg.II 66 '" .) of the uncontrolled. intuitive determination. And in him who does not concentrate. of the unpeaceful. sg. santis (f.).). concentration. of the non-meditating. of the undisciplined. there is. ca. kutas (interrog. discrimination. acc. indic. whence? from where? sukham (n. and. sg. meditation. na ciiyuktasya bhiivanii and not of the uncontrolled. peace. joy. tranquility. and. 'wm~f4~:~11 aSiintasya kutal} sukham of the unpeaceful. abhiivayatas (m. of the unsteadfast in Yoga. '" niisti buddhir ayuktasya not there is intelligence of the uncontrolled. of the non-perceiving.Jas). there is no peace. intelligence. ca. of the undisciplined one. sg. nom. perception.). whence happiness? There is no wisdom in him who is uncontrolled.

/dhti). caratam (m.).). wind-a-ship-like on the water. it tadasya harati prajiiiim then of him it carries away the understanding <:fT<R: i'fTCI+T ~~ II ". of the senses. ambhasi (n. gen. of it.).). anuvidhfyate (3rd sg. of of the senses. nom. As the wind carries away a ship on the waters.). hi. boat. vayur niivam iviimbhasi steals. wind. it carries away. of roving. this. of him. sg.). indeed. what. nom. sg. ship. it is regulated. thought. navam (f. pI. prajfiiim (f. which. Then it carries away one's understanding. pr. sg. viiyus (m. sg. nom. participle . nom.II 67 ~~f~~ indriyalJiim (n.). tad (n. act. . acc. understand- ing. pl. asya (gen.). discrimination. of the indriya1Jam hi carat am powers. like. sg. manas (n. it is ordered. iva. sg. 1:J"!: lRT ~fGf<ft<ffll yan mano 'nuvidhiyate when the mind is guided by. it is guided. that. wisdom. loco sg. wandering.). acc. gen. passive anu vi . mind. 152 . Jhr). When the mind runs After the wandering senses. pr. wandering. ~¢~srnt yad (n. truly. harati (3rd sg. sg. on the water.. when. indeed../car). it is led. then.

wisdom. pass. participle prati. p. nom. mahiibiiho (m. sg.Jsthii). sg. sg. established. nom.). indriyiilJi (n. pI. That wisdom stands ftrm. abl. standing firm. suppressed. of it. sarvasas (adv. withdrawn. therefore. 0 Arjuna. also applied to other warriers. sg. understanding. p. from the objects of the senses. Therefore. 153 .). pass. sg. nom.).). nom. f~ffiTf. participle ni J grah). pl. Mighty Armed One. powers. abl.). of which. gen. prati~rhitii (f.II 68 ~~~) ~ tasmiid yasya mahiibiiho therefore of whom. nig~hftiini (n.). tasya (m..m: I nigrhitiini sarvasal} withdrawn on all sides ~~lf. of him. yasya (m. of this.sr:rr~ indriyii1}indriyiirthebhyas the senses from the objects of the senses ~ >1m >rfaf~ II tasmiit (m. held back. tasya prajiiii prati~thitii of him the wisdom standing firm.. of whom. sg. voc.). indriyiirthebhyas (m. pl. gen. frequent epithet of Atjuna. The wisdom of him whose senses Are withdrawn from the objects of the senses. on all sides. 0 Mighty Armed One. prajfiii (f. from this.). senses. in all respects.

of the sage. this. of all beings. they are watchful. act. 154 . act. sa (f. pr. which. loco sg. . bhiitani (n. . pl. of the perceiving.. nom. nom. they are wakeful. indic. beings.). sarvabhiitanam (n.Jpas). sg. nom.). in that which. smhyami (m. The man of restraint is awake In that which is night for all beings. tasyam (f. gen. indic. Meaning that the" sage who sees" perceives the light of the atman.). nisa (f.). The time in which all beings are awake Is night for the sage who sees.). sa nisa pasyato munelJ that (is) the night of the seeing sage. nom. sg. in this. in what. .). what. sg. sg. of the seeing. pro participle . in it.).II 69 <rrf<rnr~ ya nisa sarvabhiitanam ya (f. nom. munes (m.Jjag~). existences. yasyam jagrati bhiitani in what they are wakeful. beings. the man of restraint. pr. while the others see the light of the senses which is dark as night to the sage.). sg. that. he is wakeful. paSyatas (m. pl. gen. jagarti (3rd sg.). what (is) the night of all beings ~ ~aB7:fI1T I tasyam jagarti samyami in this he is wakeful. nisa (f. night. of the wise man. gen. sg. jagrati (3rd pI. the restrained one. loco sg.Jjag~). which is dark as night to others. yasyam (f. he is watchful. nom. the man of restraint.). sg. night.

act. the waters. ~ CfiTlIT li >lfcrofi'(!' ri tadvat kiimii yam pravisanti sarve in this way desires whom they enter all ~ mf~ 'J. nom. they sit upon. pra Jvis). pl. pl. water. in which way. kamakamf (m. unmoving. (acalaprati~fham.:) becoming filled. stable. as. sg. ~ mq-: >lfcrofi'(!' ~ I . pl. n. participle from a Jp .). not the desirer of desires. unmoved. TP cpd. all. pr.!TIfTf~Pf CfiIW·wfr II sa Siintim iipnoti na kiimakiimi he peace attains. ocean. Like the ocean. acc.~ samudram iipalJ pravisanti yadvat the ocean. aec. nom. iipiiryamii'IJam acalaprat#tham"" becoming filled (yet) unmoved. desires. apnoti (3rd sg. tranquility. which is unmoved and standing still.). acc. they dissolve in. nom. from prati Jsthii) . appetites.. pr. sg. acala (m. standing still. pravisanti (3rd pI. he obtains. '" .). 155 .) samudram (n. nom. act. acc. • Trinubh metre. act. in this way. not. pro indie. sas (m. sarve (m. desirer of the objects of desire. he attains. prati~fham (n. the waters they enter in which way. whom. sg.). peace.II 70 :q1')\4¥lIOI~:q-~~ apiiryamalJllm (m. sg.). na. apas (f. they enter. sg. indic. sea. which becomes filled yet remains unmoved and stands still As the waters enter it. not so the man who is full of desire. they enter. he. 'Jap) . they encounter. desirer of desires. acc. nom. he reaches. sg. they dissolve in. tadvat. standing still. yam (m. yadvat. pra Jvis).). !dimas (m.). sg. He whom all desires enter and who remains unmoved Attains peace. sg. mid.). BY epd. becoming full. so. pravisanti (3rd pI. acc.). santim (f.

nom.). all. nom. yas (m. acc. this. indifferent to "mine. pr." free from egotism. he goes to.). sg. abandoning. sg. free from lust. free from egotism.sPrhal. peace. • Sloka metre resumes. act. siintim (f.Jcar). The man who abandons all desires Acts free from longing. acc. He attains peace. indic. cravings. act.. carati (3rd sg. pl. sg. Ti i~"«fa. free from "I making." indifferent to possessions. sas (m. a man. man.acc.Jgam). he acts. sg. he attains. he lives.).:~~: I pumiiitScarati nil. the man. indic. nom. he. Indifferent to possessions. sa Siintim adhigacchati he peace attains. sg. nirahamlWras (m. nilJsp~has (m. 156 .II vihiiya kiimiin yalz.Jhd). sg. sg. who. nom. desires. pumiin (m.). sarvan (m. sarviin* abandoning desires who all. nirmamas (m. casting away.). free from desire. .). adhigacchati (3rd sg. pl. the man acts free from lust.). he moves. IWmiin (m. pr.f. adhi .). free from egoticism. ~~~~f~a-II vihiiya (gerund vi . nom. frn:im f~: nirmamo nirahamkiiral. nom. indifferent to possessions.).

he is deluded. frequent epithet of Arjuna. even. he is confused. Fixed in it. pr. nom.). brahmf sthitis (f. r:cchati (3rd sg.va.). he is not deluded. sg. this. partha.a (ceasing to exist) in Brahman (the word nirviil).f. he is deluded.a he reaches. Son of Prthii. qa (f. per- . at time of death.). Having attained this. ft~ ~ ~. taining to Brahman. also. loco sg. he attains. He reaches the bliss of God. na. vf Jmuh) . sg. loco sg. he reaches.II 72 ~~Tf~a:qr~ e~ti brtihmi sthitil. blow-means "blown out" in the sense that a candle is blown out). state concerning Brahman. f. act. prapya (gerund pra Jap) .a-from nir :'. holy. sg. Son of Prt ha . fixed. enam (f.:q"'I~ sfq- sthitvti ' sytim antaktile 'pi fixed in it.).). acc. antakale (m. ptirtha this the brahmanic position.a.). nom. not. pr. attaining. End of Book II The Yoga of Knowledge 157 . Jr:). Brahmanirviil).:rt >rro:r f~a I ntiintim prtipya vimuhyati not. this having attained. divine.). acc. sthitva (gerund Jstha). indic. brahmanirvafJam (n. Brahmanic state. in it.. act. even at the hour of death. the nirviil). at time of death even ~~~~all brahmanirvtiIJam rcchati brahmanirvaI). sg. in this. nom. This is the divine state. this. api. asyam (f. standing firm. brahmf(adj. the state of Brahman. vimuhyati (3rd sg. Brahmanic position. indie. Arjuna. having attained. sg. in time of end.

causative act. nom. to me. interrog. kdava (m. Arjuna. Mover of Men.). kim (n. sg. Handsome Haired One? ArjlU1a spoke: If it is Your conviction that knowledge Is better than action. nom. te (gen. sg. jyayasi (f. awful. of thee. niyqjayasi (2nd sg.). sublime. than action.). loco sg. . thou urgest. sg. perf.). sg. act. 0 Krishna. thought. voc. he spoke. jyayasi eel karma1. sg. pro indic. superior. :.). voc. mental determination. uvaca (3rd sg. to action. mata (f. ni -. stronger. then. ced. buddhis (f. intelligence.). thy. nom. Agitator of Men./yuj). loco sg. arjuna uvaea Arjuna spoke: 1 ~ln~~ir 'irn Cfill~ ~ . what? why? karmalJi (n.).). sg. 0 Handsome Haired One.g:'Ji'lla'l I latkim karma1. in action.Zi ghore mam then why to action terrible me f~~~11 niyojayasi kesava thou urgest. conviction. frightful.n. abl. janiirdana. terrible. miim (acc. (m. Then why do You urge me to engage in this terrible action? 158 .). sg. comparative).Zas te better if than action of thee mata'"buddhirjanardana thought.). me. larger. epithet of Krishna. sg. tad (n. intelligence. nom. epithet of Krishna.Jvac). karmalJas (n. idea. he said. sg. ghore (n. than deeds. sg. thou causest to yoke.). cn~ Cfilffur ~'rt +IT 11m . nom. sg.BOOK III ~"~I arjunas (m. venerable. enlightenment.). Agitator of Men. nom. if. better.

). like. with words.). one. iva. sg. by distracted. act. intelligence. that.). of me. With speech that seems equivocal. I should reach. by '" buddhim mohayasiva me the intelligence thou confusest-like. Jap). tad (n.). causative act. sg. mohayasi (2nd sg. vakyena (n. I should attain. apnuyam (rst sg. by words. ekam (n. You confuse my intelligence. by manifold. acc. sg. inst. Jvad) . yena (inst. as it were. vada (2nd sg. of me. so to speak. with speech. sg.).). by equivocal. acc. sreyas (n. surely. thou deludest. the higher good. thou confusest. mixed. discrimination. sg. buddhim (f. from vi a Jmis).III 2 &ITflf~Of~ vyiimisre1Jeva viikyena by equivocal-like speech vyamisrelJ<l (n. sg. aham (nom. opt. 1. Jmuh). my. by troubled. by which. imperative act. without doubt. ~~~f<rf~ tad ekam vada niscitya this one tell! surely ~~ ~:q1'141+J. tell! say! niscitya (gerund nis J ci). this. Tell me surely this one thing: How should I attain the highest good? 159 . sg. inst. acc. the supreme good. nom. with which.n~ lf~')q lr I yena sreyo 'ham iipnuyiim by which the highest good I should attain. compar. iva like.). sg. me (gen. sg.). II .

.). sg. basis. TP cpd. nom.. 13 6 . karmayogena (m. declared./sthii) . anagha (m. loco sg. o Arjuna: That of knowledge . from ni . loco sg. sg. attachment. p. TP cpd. by the Yoga of knowledge. perfect act. he spoke.). two-fold basis (of devotion) qu 5fl<Rrr ll<IT s. In this world there is a two-fold basis (of devotion) Taught since ancient times by Me. The Blessed Lord spoke. steadfastness. Blameless One./vac). in the world. of two kinds. pl. voc. prokta (f. taught. nom. by action Yoga of the Yogins. sg. gen. • See footnote on p. of the Yogins. participle pra .). sg. 3 ~ sf~ fID'<r<IT f~ loke 'smin dvividhii ni~tha in world in this. twofold.). pass. the Blessed Lord. asmin (m.:rq' I pura prokta maya 'nagha anciently taught by me. previously..1~~1 sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m.the yoga of the followers of Sankhya And that of action . nom. he said. sg. in this.). sg. yoginam (m. by action Yoga. 160 . of the Siirilkyas. Blameless One (Arjuna). proclaimed.). sarhkhyanam* (m. by the Yoga of action. uvaca (3rd sg. maya (inst. nom. by knowledgeYoga. pl. jiianayogena (m. inst. in older times. . nisfhii (f. gen. CfilhrTiR lfTf'A1+{ II karmayogena yoginam loke (m. sg.). of the followers of Yoga.)./vac).III l'. sg. inst.). the Blessed One. dvividhii (f. of the followers of the Siirilkhya doctrine. by me. pura (adv. anciently.).). epithet of Arjuna. ~TiR~ jiianayogena samkhyanam by knowledge Yoga of the Sarhkhyas.the yoga of the yogins.

abl.Jrambh).). freedom from action. and. from actions. inactivity. indic. he attains. success. karmalJiim (n. gen. sam adhi 'Jgam). nom. pl.III 4 . state beyond karma. abl. sg. 161 . Not by abstention from actions Does a man attain the state beyond karma.:r :. sg. siddhim (f. alone (often used as a rhythmic filler).a. asnute (3rd sg. not. indic. sg. sg. from nonundertaking. sg. 'snute the state beyond karma a man he attains .).:r~~ na karmmpim aniirambhiin not of actions from non-commencement ~~q-T~~I niii~karmyam puru~o na. from non-commencement. act. samadhigacchati (3rd sg. puru!!as (m. nai!!karmyam (n. perfection. . r. acc. he surpasses. spirit. eva. from relinquishment. fulfillment.). mid .myasanat (n. sa.. indeed. not. he comes near. from an a .:p:ii'll'6<\ I~Cl na ca samnyasaniideva and not from renunciation alone fm~ '6+rl'~~ II siddhim samadhigacchati perfection he approaches. ca. pr.).). And not by renunciation alone Does he approach perfection. anarambhiit (m. pr. of actions. man. from abstention. acc. he approaches. of deeds.Jas). from renunciation.

indeed. sg. na. sg.Jstha). no one. causative . he remains. ~~:Cf>"ll kiiryate hyavasal. by the gUl:laS. sg. sarvas (m. hi. he stands.). nom.. 162 . akarmakl:t (m. prakrtijiiir gm.III 5 'f f~ 'fif~q: ~q- na hi kascit k~attamapi not indeed anyone in the twinkling of an eye even ~ fd GOl:lI Cf>4Cf>d I - .JkI:). pass. an instant. avasas (m. action. not action doing. indic. inst.).as Indeed. jiitu ti~thatyakarmakrt ever he exists not doing action. hi. By the qualities which originate in material nature. by material nature born. pl. prakl:tijais (m. Everyone is forced to perform action.. pr. api. all. karma (n. jatu. even in the twinkling of an eye. ~ ~. he exists. inst. everyone. even. nom.). sg. the twinkling of an eye. kascid. sarval. against will. he is forced to perform.). indeed. by original sources born. sg. ti!!rhati (3rd sg. at any time. anyone. action. a moment. pl. not. everyone by the nature-born gUl). Ever exists without perfonning action. without will. ever. anyone whatsoever.). also. truly. karma he is forced to perform. indeed without will. nom. he is caused to perform.). pro indic. truly. k!!alJam (n. nom. not performing action. act. gUlJiiis (m.iiil. acc. even action which is against his will. karyate (3rd sg. .).

acc. deluded self. TP cpd. atma (m. objects of the senses. pass. he sits. by the mind. nom. sg. karmendriyiilJi samyamya action powers restraining. pI. participle vi Jmuh). samyamya (gerund sam Jyam). sg.). powers of action. who. passive Jvac). TP cpd. remembering. f+r~:~~11 mithyiiciiral:z sa ucyate a hypocrite. sas (m.~ I . pI. sg. pr. m. sense-objects. indic. nom. participle Jsml:). smaran (m.). controlling. it is said. a hypocrite. . indriyarthan (indriya arthan. indriyiirthiin vimur/hiitmii the objects of the senses. mid. acc. sg. he. aste (3rd sg. inst. karma indriyafJi). he is called. confused. subduing. pro indic. sg. this. he is said to be. it is said. with a deluded mind.. deluded.). ucyate (3rd sg. offalse behavior. sg. thinking of. pr. yas (m. While in his mind brooding over The objects of the senses. objects of the powers. 163 .III 6 'fi1i~~ur~ karmendriyafJi (n. nom.). If mm 11"Im ~ I ya iiste manasii smaran who he sits by the mind remembering ~~lfT~ fC! ~ GI. nom. he. Jas).. restraining. which.). Is said to be a hypocrite. nom. vimiictha (p.). mithyacaras (m. action-powers. self. with the mind. restraining his organs of action. hypocrisy. manasa (n. He who sits.

. indriyalJi (n. visi~yate (3rd sg. not hanging onto.).Jsaflj). ~: ij"fqf~ II asaktal. inst. who. engages the organs of action in the yoga of action. AIjuna. sg. and. karmendriyais (karma indriyais. sg. TP cpd.). But he who undertakes the control of the senses by the mind.). by the mind. the Yoga of action. TP cpd. powers. he undertakes. senses.III 7 ~~ k~~ur IT''I'm yas tvindriyti1}i manasti who but the senses by the mind f'14~1<~ S\if. action yoga. indic. yas (m. pl. by the powers of action. sa viSi~yate unattached. voc. sas (m..::. he engages. a . pl. acc. pr.). arabhate (3rd sg.Jyam). nom. is superior. niyamya (gerund ni ..). karmendriytiil. but. karmayogam (m. nom. acc. vi . pass.' . this. he is distinguished.). he commences. he begins. asaktas (m.. with the mind. arjuna (m. nom. mid. I niyamytirabhate'rjuna controlling he undertakes. karmayogam by the action-organs.. sg. manasa (n. Arjuna. Cfil:rl~: ~I'I+. actionYoga. pass. participle a . p. sg.. by the organs of action. without attachment. controlling. he is distinguished... pr. inst. 164 .. sg.Jsi~). he. V(:. unattached.Jrambh). Arjuna. subduing. m. tu. sg.). he is superior.

hi. Perfonn your duty. thy. yii trii (f. action. sg. pass. nom. pra -!sidh). than non-action. sg. better. na. -!k1:).). also.tal. not. sg. enjoined. sg. prasiddhyet (3rd sg. sg. niyatam (m. action. sg. 'fi+T \TlfTlrT~: I karma jyayo hyakarmat. subdued. it should be accomplished.). truly. and. superior. from inaction.).).). acc. tvam (nom. abl. from inaction. sg. opt. deeds.). conduct. sarira (n. And even the mere maintenance of your body Could not be accomplished without action. from non-action. kuru (2nd sg.III 8 f. not it could be accomplished without action. maintenance. body.). imperative act.). without action. p. thou karma (n. te (gen. action better indeed than non-action m:~q-'ifi'f sarirayatrapi ca te and body conduct even of thee . abl.:r5lf~~:11 na prasiddhyed akarmat. sg. of thee. jyiiyas (comparative). indeed. participle ni -!yam). peform! do! karma (n. ca. act. api. 165 . it might be accomplished. it should succeed. it should be attained. nom. acc. akarmafJas (n.:nm ~ 'fi+T ~ niyatam kuru karma tvam enjoined perform action thou.tal. For action is indeed better than nonaction. even. akarmafJas (n.

TP cpd. ~TS<t~:1 loko 'yam karmabandhanal. saiigas (m. perform! accomplish! yajfiiirthiit karma1}o 'nyatra from sacrifice-purpose from action aside. mukta (p. action. karmabandhanas (m. This world is bound by action.) such that it is bound by action. sg. otherwise.). adv. aside from. sam a .. Perform action for the purpose of sacrifice. aim. world. sg. epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother.luiuna. acc. arthat (m. purpose. from object. released.).In 9 l1m~mT~ yajiia (m. sg . nom. sg. abl. ayam (m.). (yajfliirthiit. from purpose. from aim. abl. sg. acc. action. sg. acc. abl. deeds.Jsaftj). samiicara free from attachment. anyatra.). artham (m. ~:~II muktasangal.Jmuc). for the purpose of sacrifice. tad (n. (muktasaiigas. sg. participle . sacrifice. Son of KuntI. sg.. from action. Son of Kunt!.Jcar).).) karmalJas (n. imperative act.). BV cpd.. . sg. takas (m. sg.). being free from attachment. this. sg. m. kiiunteya (m. pass. Free from attachment.). 166 .) samiicara (2nd sg. nom. BV cpd.). sg. perform! Aside from action for the purpose of sacrifice. nom. m. attachment. nom. object. that. this. karma (n. world this action-bound ~~~'fiRi<1 tadartham karma kiiunteya (for) that purpose. elsewhere. clinging. freed. nom. voc.

astu (3rd sg. prasavi~adhvam anena prasavi~yadhvam "by this may ye bring forth..Jas). (the Lord of Creatures) anciently said. Lord of Creatures. also applied to other figures.). progeny.e.z mtvii together with sacrifices mankind having created. nom. he said. sg. uviica (3rd sg. sahayajiiiis (f. having sent forth. Prajapati.:m. mankind. by this. previously. pl. nom. Having created mankind along with sacrifice. pra . inst. act. May this be your wishfulfilling cow. pl. may you bring forth. your. he puroviica prajiipati/. sacrifice). Granting Desires. name of the Cow of Plenty. sg.). TT1'T e~a vo ' stvi~takiimadhuk this of you may it be the milch cow of desires. G . may it be! i!f(akiimadhuk (f. (2nd pI." 167 .. anciently.).)..III 10 rr.).). may you bring forth! bring ye forth! elias (m.z anciently said Prajapati (the Lord of Creatures) mm<.). prajiis (f.rr: ~: ~ ""-'~" sahayajfiii/. perf. sg. along with sacrifices.Jvac).IsO). acc. vas (gen. having created. imperative future act. of you. nom. ". . together with sacri- fices.f&f'C~ spoke. pl. anena (m. imperative act. having let go. acc. qT sf«<l'SCCflI ti~ '" . .. purii (adv. "By this (i. sWvii (gerund ". sg. prajiipatis (m.z prajii/. in olden ~~~~:I times.. this.Jsu). Brahma.).

sg. and in return the gods cause man to be. .e. you shall achieve.III 11 ~ +l1<tllC1I~'1 deviin (m.e. lit.). each other. the gods." "exist.f~~11 sreyal. pl. sg. may they produce. causative opt." vas (acc. causative imperative act. future mid.jbhu). by nourishing each other. you shall attain. This is by no means the only place in religiQus literature where a mutual creation is hinted at ." is actually a causative form of the root. "may you cause to be. acc. lit." may you produce. . deviin bhiivayatiinena "the gods may you cherish by this a-~~q:1 te devii bhiivayantu val. "causing to be. param (n. sg. they.param aViipsyatha welfare the highest will you attain "By this (i. bhiivayantas (m. sacrifice). welfare. may they foster.).jiip) ." sreyas (n. may you cherish. fostering. . you shall attain the highest welfare. pr. highest. bliss." sometimes translated "may you foster. pl. God himself." "prosper ye" or "may you nourish. Man causes the gods to be. "be. te (m.). "may they cause to be.). may they cherish. anena (m. pl. supreme. you. "may you cherish.)." • bhiivayate." Thus its literal meaning is "may you cause (the gods) to be. bhiivayantu (3rd pI. yeo parasparam. nom." 168 . happiness. cherishing. may you foster. nom. particple . the gods.jbhu.). ava . lit.jbhU). nom. you shall reach. may draw vital strength and increase of very being from our fidelity. may you increase the well-being of. sacrifice) may you nourish the gods and may the gods nourish yoU.!. by this (i. acc. pl. in short. deviis (m. one another." The metaphysical inference is interesting. pI. ~~: parasparam bhiivayantal. aviipsyatha (2nd pI. bhiivayata (2nd pI.!they the gods may they cherish you. act. acc.). may they increase the well-being of. inst.jbhU) .!(by) each other cherishing ~:'Rl\'J. The idea also reminds one of William James' statement in "Essays on Faith and Morals": " I confess that I do not see why the very existence of an invisible world may not depend in part on the personal response which anyone of us may make to the religious appeal.man creating god and god creating man.

sacrifice-produced. Is a thief. stenas (m. nourished by the sacrifice. sacrifice-produced. pr. nom. yas (m. only (often used as a rhythmic filler). pl. asked for. sg. he enjoys. desired. dattdn (m. the gods. he eats. wished for. acc. inst." "The gods. this. participle . mid . pl. nom.). 169 . bhogan (m. He who enjoys these gifts while not offering to them in return. p. who. tdis (m.Jbhu) .cr~: II yo bhufikte stena eva sal. nom. nom.Ji~). pass. ~~~~. . ebhyas (m.). pl.). sg.). they will give. thief. pI. nom. hi. truly. apradiiya (gerund a pra . sought for. .) brought into being by sacrifice.). devas (m. yajiiabhiivitas (yajiia + m. sas (m. indeed. not giving. p.). a thief. pI. by these. to them. he.). pl. (as TP cpd. tiiir dattiin apradiiyiiibhyo by these gifts not offering to them lfT~mr. pleasures.Jdd). sg. pl.J00). who he enjoys. enjoyments. bhuiikte (3rd sg. he. vas (dat. they will give. pl. pass.). dat. not offering. eva. indeed. dasyante (3rd pI.-<iT . to you. participle .). acc. gifts.In 12 ~"+JT<rq f~ <rT ~ i~tiin bhogiin hi vo devii "desired enjoyments indeed to you the gods ~ lr~plTf<ffiT : I diisyante yajiiabhiivitiil.. Will indeed give you desired enjoyments. future mid . he possesses." iluan (m. acc. indic.Jbhuj). .

from wrongs. nom. papas (m.). who cook only for their own sake. agham (n. pl. evils the wicked ~q~'\lll. sg. (yajiiasi~lasinas. from reason. true. indic. they cook. the "sacrifice remainder" which is eaten by the faithful after the gods and priests have consumed their share. KD cpd. enjoying. from cause. te (m. good. ye (m. the evil ones. pl. pl. the good.). from all evils. pI. passive . abl.+l<flI(OII~t II ye pacantyatmakarmJat who they cook for own sake.) yajiiasi~la 170 . act. TP cpd. TP cpd. nom.). sarvakilbi~ais (n. (atmakiiraf]at. they eat. who. indeed.) santas (m.. kara1Jiit (n. . . they are liberated.). inst. they. pro indic. pl.). eating.Jpac). sg. But the wicked. they enjoy. '<!~ ~ ~ qrtIT bhufijate te tvagham papa they eat they indeed. indic. they digest.Jmuc). abl.). bhuiijate (3rd pI. mid .). atma (n. self. acc. pain.Jas). from . sg. Eat their own impurity. existing. those who eat the remainder of the sacrifice. own. pr. nom. ~~Cfik~:1 '" mucyante sarvakilbi~ai!z they are released from all evils. pr. they are released.III 13 <rnf~~:~T yajfiaSi~taSina!z santo the sacrifice remainder eating. who eat the remainder of the sacrifice. the wicked. from evils. n. for the sake of. Minas (m. nom. pI. The good. nom. pacanti (3rd pI. pl. impurity.). nom. (n..). Are released from all evils. suffering. m. but.Jbhuj). mucyante (3rd pI. tu. for their own sake. by sins.

BV cpd. Jbhu). Elsewhere it refers to the warlike action proper to the warrior caste to which Arjuna belongs. parjanyat (m. abl. nom. sg. from the rain cloud. worship. Sometimes. it refers to religious action. sg.. food the origin. they exist. parjanyas (m. (karmasamudbhavas. they come to be. nom.z from the rain god. source.). from food.). bhavati (3rd sg.).). bhutani (n. pro indic. nom. annat (n. existences. from sam ud Jbhu). sg.III 14 anniid bhavanti bhiitiini from food they exist. the rain cloud. karma* (n. sg. nom. the ritual action of the priest performing the sacrifice. from sacrifice. act. BV cpd. Food is brought into being by rain. (annasGlhbhavas. At still other places it has the meaning of the sum of past actions that is carried into a future life. ~~~+!Cf:1 parjanYiid annasambhaval. nom. sg. nom. sGlhbhavas (m.z sacrifice action origin Beings exist from food. nom. it.) yajfu'it (m. action. abl. sacrifice. samudbhavas (m.). sg. And sacrifice is brought into being by action. brought into being by action. the rain god. it. deeds. from the rain god. doing.). beings. whose origin is in action. comes to be. sg. 171 .) • Throughout the Bhagavad Gitii. source. he.). trn': ifl4*1~%"I: II yajfial.). origin. as here. yajfias (m. sg.z karmasamudbhaval. of which food is the source. beings. the word karma (action) is used in several senses. Rain from sacrifice. living beings. m. act. m. sg. ~+r<rf(f~) yajfiiid bhavati parjanyo from sacrifice exists the rain god. sg. food. exists.). pro indic. he. Jbhu).. cause of being. anna (n. bhavanti (3rd pI. abl. they are. origin.

m. loco sg. Know that ritual action originates in Brahman (the Vedas) And Brahman arises from the Imperishable. Therefore the all-pervading Brahman Is eternally established in sacrifice. coming to be. know! learn! brahma (n. acc. of which imperishable Brahman is the source). viddhi (2nd sg. sarvagatam (n.). the all-pervading spirit of the universe.). standing. acc.). all-pervading.). but an intermediate term. sg. tasmiit (n. brahma (n. origin. established.). udbhavam (m.). indestructible. acc. sg.Jvid). arising from.Jsthii) . sg.). coming to be. nom. eternally. nom. prati~fhitam (n.). omnipresent. p. ak~ara (adj. 172 . originating.a karma brahmodbhavam viddhi action Brahman origin.. imperishable. "Sacrifice" is not the starting point of the series. action. know! ~&1(lj14"1'i. samudbhavam (m. nityam (adv. (brahmiik~arasamudbhavam. sg. yajiie (m. originating. brahma (n. pass. Brahman. participle prati . from ud . remaining. acc. sg. . sg. the Vedas. sg.III 15 Cfilf 'iI"W~ fcn. deeds. sg. Here meaning the Vedas. karma (n. originating in Brahman.).). in sacrifice. brahmodbhavam (m.1 brahmiik~arasamudbhavam Brahman the imperishable arising from ~~'Rf~W tasmiit sarvagatam brahma therefore all-pervading Brahman fi'Wi lIlf 5!fm~ II nityam yajiie prat#thitam eternally in sacrifice established.Jbhu). the Vedas. BV cpd. nom. origin. imperative act. Brahman. eternal. Brahman. from this. abi.). therefore. TP cpd. • Edgerton has pointed out that this stanza does not constitute the logical syllogism that it seems on first reading to be. acc. sg.

?. . pr. uselessly. here on earth. he lives. and in vain. pravartitam (n.frod II mogham piirtha sa jivati vain. wheel.. na. nom. ~f<:f. indic. this one. The circular sequence: sacrifice.). etc. who. full of sense delights. participle pra . delight). sacrifice. thus. useless. cakram (n.Jvrt). (as BV cpd. senses. sense-delighted. sg. sg. the rain god.). +1M" qr~' ~ \. vainly. partha (m. he lives. Son of Prtha. acc. evam pravartitam cakram thus set in motion the wheel 'i I'1(Hlljd~ <r: I nii~uvartayatiha yal} not he causes to turn (the wheel) here in the world.).Jjfv). fruitlessly. indriyaramas (m. Prthii or KuntL sas (m. causative act. act. 173 . not. beings. here in the world.). aghayus (m. causative p. set in motion. so. nom. intending to injure malicious.ljro+rT aghiiyurindriyiiriimo malicious. Maliciously. Arjuna. nom. epithet of Arjuna referring to his mother. • I.).). etc. turning. mogham (adv.Jvrt). He who does. one whose senses are delighted (indriya. sg. sg. sg. Lives. iha. Tum the wheel thus set in motion.). yas (m. sg. pass. sg. arama. sense-delighted.III 16 ~<t 5fCffa-a' ~ evam.e. nom. he causes to turn. anu . food. voc. here on earth. acc. Son of Prthii. jrvati (3rd sg. vain. the rain god.). anuvartayati (3rd sg. he. who.

f. gerundive . 174 .). opt. atma (m. karyam (n. indeed. satisfied. indic. Whose satisfaction is in the Self. he should be. only (often used as a rhythmic filler). a man. and. who is content in the self. tasya (m. content. pleased. atma (m. sg. and.). pleased. p. loco sg. nom. sg. what.). pleased.z and satisfied in the self. indeed. nom.). only (often used as a rhythmic filler). pr. nom. sg. nom. He whose delight is only in the Self. sg. to be accomplished.Jk/:). of him. indeed. yastviitmaratireva syiid who only gratified in the self he should he ~~ lfT'iCf: I iitmatrptasca manava/. which. pass.III 17 1I «'''I I. self. sg. eva. content.. he may be. ca. man. who. nom. t~ptas (m. task. syat (3rd sg. And who is content only in the Self. For him the need to act does not exist. gratified. whose delight is in the self. self.Jas). passive . vidyate (3rd sg.). BY cpd. not it is found. nom.) ca. n. to-bedone. participle .. tu.sn:frn ~ yas (m. atmani (m. nom.Jt~p). ratis (f. sg. na. pleasure. it is found. duty. sg. not.).). sg.). sg. in the self. (atmaratis. . a descendant of Manu. act . the primal ancestor. the man ~<f"f~ iitmanyeva ca samtu~tas and in the self content ~miffmll tasya kiiryam na vidyate of him the to-he-done. satisfied. samtu~fas (m. miinavas (m. gen.) eva. (atmat~ptas. BY cpd.J2 vid). nom.

of him. eva. aim. and. tasya (m. of this. depending on. sarvabhutqu (m. not. sg. participle -ikr) . naiva tasya krtenartho not indeed of him with action a purpose <fT'fI~ ~<f I nakrteneha kaicana nor with non-action whatever. 10 this case any <f"'fWi~ na casya sarvabhutefU and not of him in all beings Cfif~~~~: II kascid arthavyapasrayal. sg. vyapiiSrayas (m. p. nom. And he has no need of any being For any purpose whatsoever.). anyone whoever. pass. not. acquisition. na. here. by in-action. sg. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). gen. loco pl. aim. na. with non-action. clinging to. in this case.III 18 ~~"i~~1 na. of it. with inaction. sg.) need of purpose. not. arthas (m.). inst. krtena (n. participle a -ikl:). p. any whatever. sg. artha-vyapasrayas (m. sg.). acquisition. artha (m. sg. purpose. asya (m. needing.). of him. in all existences. any whatever purpose need He has no purpose at all in action. nom. pass. in all beings. with deeds. TP cpd. Or in non-action.). iha. need. kascid. purpose. 175 . nom. with action. akrtena (inst. kascana. anything whatever. gen. ca. from vi apa a -Isri).

acting. therefore.). indeed. he obtains. practicing. sg. kiiryam (n. Man attains the Supreme. act. nom. karma (n. a . sg. Perfonn that action which is your duty. deeds. p. to be accomplished. performing. pass. participle a . the highest.). sam a . perpetually. to be done. constantly unattached. gerundive . constantly.(~<fl4 asakto hyiicarankarma unattached indeed performing action. by performing action while unattached. Indeed. acc. sg. in order to attain the state described in III 17 and 18. truly. sg. from this. sg. nom.Jsafzj). karma (n. nom. 176 . p. task. unattached. tasmiid asaktal} satatam therefore unattached constantly 'fiT<f~~1 kiiryam karma samiicara to be done action perform! mreir ~1:q. param (m. aearan (m. perform! practice! conduct! act! asaktas (m. action. pass.Jkl:). imperative act. acc. acc. samiicara (2nd sg. sg. the supreme. deeds. satatam (adv. which describe the person who has attained complete concentration on the atman.Jsafzj). man.III 19 ~mrei:mRt tasmat (m. pro participle act. participle a . apnoti (3rd sg. asaktas (m. sg. duty. Therefore.Jap) . hi. always. unattached. q-q ~rfCf~: II param iipnoti puru~al} the Supreme he attains. abl. puru~as (m. he reaches. sg.).). • The" therefore" is not a consequence of the preceding stanzas. pr. actions.).Jear). This stanza is the advice to Arjuna to perform action while unattached. not clinging. not clinging. spirit. acc. indic.). nom. he attains.Jear). man. sg. .

III 20 'lilluiCf f~ karmatpiiva hi samsiddhim by action only indeed perfection mf~~"1'1if)I~ll: I mm. opposed the brahman priesthood. maintenance of the world. iisthitii (m. a famous philosopher king who. those (kings) whose first was Janaka. thou shouldst. only (often used as a rhythmic filler). pr. .a-r iisthitii janakiidayalJ attained lanaka* commencing with. You should act. ~~f~11 . acc. truly. success. For the mere maintenance of the world.pas). nom. ~~'~q­ lokasamgrahamevapi the world holding together even." (janakiidayas. laka-samgraham (m. '"'." the Sanskrit equivalent of "and so forth." "etcetera./arh)." "and others. nom. sg. as a k~atriya (warrior or doer) attaining perfection through deeds rather than austerities. pass. or royal seer. commencing with. attained. thou art able. pI. world. arhasi (2nd sg. also. maintenance.« sampasyan kartum arhasi beholding.. by deeds. sg. pl. by action..) laka (m. claiming that he himself. acc. * name of an ancient philosopherking. Yajfiavalkya. BV cpd. p. participle act. thou art obliged./kl:). participle ii . eva. sampaSyan (m. to act.). indie.) "they whose first was. perfection. though a member of the warrior caste. holding together.. observing. sg. to act thou shouldst. nom. beholding.. seeing. inst. sg. m. could perform sacrifices without brahman help. pI. indeed. Perfection was attained by kings like Tanaka With action alone. The reference is to J anaka. sg. with his priest and adviser. the heroine of the Ramayat)a. nom. kartum (infinitive . eva. TPcpd. He was the father of Sita. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). • Janaka. api. karmalJii (n. act. samgraham (m.). janaka. sam :'. He is thought to have influenced the Buddha.). even. beginning with... 177 .)./sthii). pI. who was also a member of the k~atriya caste. hi. acc.). Eventually he became a brahman and a riijar$i. (as BV cpd. fulfillment.!. to do. indeed. iidayas (m. obtained.). samsiddhim (f.

world. this and that. which. it follows. he behaves. nom. measure. super!. kurute (3rd sg. sg. yad yad. another.). pr. he does.). sg. anu . the rest.). act. what.Jcar). man. mid. mid .~T~:I tattad evetaro janal. sg.Jma). tad (n. pro indic.III 21 ~~a-~ yadyad iicarati ire~thas whatever he does the best ~Q. scale. acarati (3rd sg. the other. ~ <rq: 'Sfll11Jt ~~ sa yat pramii~am kurute he what standard sets lokastadanuvartate the world that it follows. sg. frompra . acc. that.). Whatever standard he sets. he sets. 178 . aggregate of people. he practices. he makes. sas (m. itaras (m. nom. this and that.JV1:t). indic.JkI:). sg. anuvartate (3rd sg. acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). thus the rest. nom. janas (m. this. Thus do the rest. Whatever the greatest man does. a . nom. prama]Jam (n. srqrhas (m. he. most excellent. the. man.). sg. eva.). sg. . nom. yad (n. this. acc. standard. tattad (tad tad). whatever.). most splendid. best. sg. The world follows that. pro indic. takas (m.

varta (san. sg. loco sg. na. participle an ava Jap) .).:rqrg+r<rrgo<f niinaviiptamaviiptavyam nor not attained to be attained. I engage. sg. J as). there is. na. anything whatever. lokqu (m. Nevertheless I engage in action. asti (3rd sg. there is to-bedone f~~~f~1 tri~ loke~ kimcana in the three worlds anything whatever . of me. to be accomplished. anyone whoever. For Me.). kimcana. nom. 0 Arjuna. sg.n. indic. pl. partha (m. sg. acc. nevertheless. anavaptam (m. not.). not. not reached. epithet of Arjuna. it is. kartavyam (n. gerundive JkI:). eva ca. in action. in the worlds. I work.q:q~ur II varta eva ca karma1}i I engage nevertheless in action. pass. 179 . pr. pr. Nor is there anything not attained to be attained. in the three. me (gen. Son of Prtha. <mU. to be done. tri~u (m.III 22 <f it qpffi~ ~ na me piirthiisti kartavyam not of me. in deeds. avaptavyam(m. nor. Son of Prtha. 1st sg. my. acc. voc. unattained. loco pl. sg.).dhi for varte. indic. to be reached. mid. I move. JV1:t). loc. to be attained. karmalJi (n. gerundiveavaJap). not attained.). p. there is nothing whatever To be done in the three worlds. notwithstanding.

'" m: II engage.). at all in action. I should be occupied with. universally. altogether. if I.). hi. loco sg. aham (nom. piirtha sarvasal. . not. sg. everywhere. Mankind would follow My path everywhere. Son of Prthii. jdtu. if.JVI:t). anu . nom. mama (gen. pr. na. pl. karmalJi (n.). sg. wholly. acc. opt. anuvartante (3rd pI.). act . varteyam (1st sg. men. they follow. epithet of Arjuna. in deeds. cffi<t yadi hyaham na varteyam if indeed I not should engage ~~Ire":1 yadi. 1. path. vartma (n. mid. at all. 180 .:t). ever. sg. sg.). indeed. Son of Prthii. atandritas (m.). of me. unwearied. mankind. nom.Jv. way. +nr~~ mama vartmiinuvartante of me the path they follow +r'l~: '1T~ manu~yiil. mankind.zyatandrital. vOC.III 23 m<:: ~~ . truly. turning.. sg. manuryas (m. in action. free from lassitude.). 0 Arjuna. indic. unwearie~ should not engage In action at all. partha (m. unwearied. my. everywhere.). Indeed. I should jiitu karmm. sarvasas (adv. completely.

ced.Jhan). nom. ud .. IfI did not perfonn action. prajas (f. act. act. salnkarasya (m. sg.). lokas (m. sg. I should smite. descendants. deeds. samkarasya ca karta syam and of confusion maker I should be. beings. These worlds would perish And I would be the cause of confusion. and. sg. imas (f. karma (n. pl. '3%~41lJ. ca." or scattering to-gether.). if I. opt. . opt.~'filT~1 na kuryam karma cedaham not I should perform action. opt. upahanyiim (1st sg. nom.). ~~:q'Rl'l~ utsideyus (3rd pI. karta (m. creatures.).).III 24 ~rq~~~ utsideyur ime loka they would perish. upa . pl.:. I should be. creator. performer. maker. these worlds.rr: /I upahanyam imal} prajal} I should destroy these creatures. they would sink down. I would destroy these creatures. if. worlds. na. I should do.Jsad). these.). . aham (nom. pl. "of together-pouring. syiim (1st sg. of confusion. people. .). acc. sg. opt. offspring.Jkl:).Jas). kuryam (1st sg.). I should destroy. not. act. progeny. ~:>t. acc. I should perform. acc. they should perish. nom pl. action. I. ime (m. these. gen. 181 . doer.

sg. TP cpd. so. asaktas (m. participle . participle a . desiring to do. f:q<fi~~~~ II cikirfur lokasamgraham intending to do the holding together of the world. kuryat (3rd sg. the wise.). [oka (m. act. kurvanti (3rd pI. desiderative ~k~). the unwise ~¥f~~1 yathii kurvanti bhiirata as they act. they do. p.). 182 . maintenance. smngraham (m. pass.Jvid). nom. . maintenance of the world. and others. avidvamas (m.Jsaflj). So the wise should act without attachment. not clinging. he should perform.). acc. pI. sg. act. clinging. unattached. acc. yatha. thus. loco pl.). they act. particple a . in this way.Jvid).) attached in action. the wise one. karmalJi (n. attached. in deeds.. sg. indic.Jk~). pI. m. intending to do. holding together. unattached. While those who are unwise act From attachment to action. as. act. pr. bharata (m. he should do. in which way. ~f~i1~ kuryiid vidviins tathiisaktas he should act.Jsaflj). pass. . (loka-smngraham. the unwise. ciklr~us (3rd sg. tatha. Bharata was the patriarch of the dominant tribes about whom the Mahiibhiirata was sung. Descendant of Bharata. Intending to maintain the welfare of the world. voc. desiring to make. vidvan (m. the wise. nom. in action. p. so.Jkr). nom. participle . the unwise ones. epithet of AIjuna. opt.III 25 ~:~<mm saktii/:z karma?Zyavidviimso saktas (m. perf. sg. sg. nom. world. 0 Arjuna. and later written. he should act. Descendant of Bharata (Arjuna).

he should cause to arise.III 26 'forf. 183 . 00. na buddhibhedarh janayed not intelligence-fragmentation one should produce buddhi (f. sg./yuj).r~~TfiJrl jo~ayet sarvakarmii1}i one should cause (them) to enjoy all actions. of the actionattached. One should not unsettle the minds of The ignorant who are attached to action. sg. fragmentation. "/jan). nom. jO:fayet (3rd sg. fragmentation of the mind. pass. II . yoked. he should give birth to. gen.:. karmasaflginam (m. of the ignorant. acc. from "/bhid). '" vidvan yuktab samacaran the wise. The wise one should cause them to enjoy all actions. (as TP cpd. rending. sg.) of those who cling to action. joined. m.). vidvan (m. rupture. disciplined performing. splitting. sg. While himself performing actions in a disciplined manner.). the wise.. acc. yuktas (m. acc.). not. bhedam (m./car). caus. ~<fi4m~ ajiianarh karmasanginarh of the ignorant. intelligence. sam a . TP cpd. pl. sg. samacaran (m. tearing. performing. he should cause to enjoy. nom. ajiianam (m. f<!'irA" <rei: ~ ¥it:q (~. "/jU:f). breaking. of the action attached. pl. the wise one. sarvakarmaIJi (n.). pl. bursting. nom.[~~ '" . among the ignorant ones. all actions.. stead-fast in Yoga. practicing. .). disciplined. gen. causative act. participle . he should cause to delight. one should produce. act. observing. pr. p. opt. opt.) janayet (3rd sg. participle act.. (buddhibhedam.

las. m. by the gUl)aS. sarvasas. He whose mind is confused by egoism Imagines. inst.). '.). nom. pl. (ahmnkiiravimulfhiitma. sg. vimiil!ha (m. karmiilJi sarvasal.) karta (m. he whose self is confused by egotism. gUIJais (m./man). nom." egotism. pass. kriy. participle vi 'Jmuh) . sg. aham (nom. p. "I am the doer..). lit. nom. kriyamii1}fini of material nature performed Ti: 'filhfur m: I gUlJiiil. sg. actions in all cases ~q1<tI. he thinks. participle Jkl:). sg. actions..). gen. he believes. performed. being performed.ama1Jiini (n. nom. creator. "I making. atma (m.). he imagines. iti. deluded. 1. pl. by the gUI.III 27 ~: f"fi?:fll111lTf<r prakrtel. self. prakl:tes (f. mid. pI. sg. in all cases.hiitmii the egotism-confused self ~+J:~f~~11 kartiiham iti manyate "doer I" thus he thinks. entirely. everywhere. thus (used to close quotations). adv. nom.).ill ahamkiiravimuq. altogether. confused. ahafhkiira (m. BV cpd.. of material nature. pr." 184 .). mid. manyate (3rd sg. Actions in all cases are perfonned By the qualities of material nature. doer. of nature. karmiiIJi (n.

pr.a and action.). sg. action . (guTJGkarmavibhiigayos. 0 Arjuna.as. pr. gUl)." ~Q 'I1\<lT"f ~ II gUlJe~u (m. nom.as. gen. mahiibiiho (m. they act.). ~<nn<T(ft: I tattvavid (m.a. in the two shares. vartantaJsamdhi for vartante. he is attached. not he is attached. 3rd pI. "that- ness knowing. not. iti. but. gU1Jii gU1Je~u vartanta "the gUlfas in the gUlfas they are working.) gUlJiis (m. na.III 28 ~qq:<1~ tattvavit tu mahiibiiho The truth-knowing. About the two roles of the qualities and action. dual). gU1Jakarmavibhiigayo/. truth-knowing. but. indic. indic. vibhiigayos (m. matvii (gerund . ''1he qualities work among the qualities. TP cpd. they work. pl. voc. karma (n.Jman).Jsaflj). gen. thought. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. mid . Mighty Armed One. thinking... in the two roles. But he who knows the truth.). m." tu.). having iti matvii na sajjate thus having thought.). gUl)." Is not attached. . thinking.z gUlfa and action of the two roles . 185 . sg. o Long Armed.). loco pl. thus. in the two spheres. loc.as. 0 Mighty Armed. the gUl). in the gUl). gUlJa (m. sajjate (3rd sg. v~t). of the two roles of gUl). nom.

acc. loco pl.. fools. nom. he should cause to waver. pl. sg. krtsnavid (m. sg. opt.). the deluded. vi. tan (m. dullards. not. gUfJa (m. The perfect knower should not disturb The foolish men of incomplete knowledge.la actions.la. 186 . not knowing the whole. gen. pl.). m. the knower of the whole. TP cpd. they are attached.a-deluded ~~I sajjante gU1}akarmasu they are attached in gUI). h:tsnavin na viciilayet the complete knower not he should disturb.) sajjante (3rd pI. pl..). sa/nmiiqhas (m. foolish.). nom. mandan (m. (guna-sammiiqhas. pI. '¢ C'\ prakrter gU1}aSammUtjhti/. of material nature. them. mid. Those deluded by the qualities of material nature Are attached to the actions of the qualities. prakl:tes (f. those who are deluded. pl. the gUI).l of material nature. not knowing the entirety. causative act.. indic.jcal).).). the complete knower. those who are deluded by the gUl. na. G .a actions ffi'f :q'RRf<fiiT ~ .). :)safij). incomplete knowing. gUfJakarmasu (n. acc. acc. gUl. tan akrtsnavido mandan them incomplete-knowing. foolish.las. ak~tsnavidas (m. of nature. pr. viealayet (3rd sg.III 29 ~iJ'1lT~: eo ..). nom. in gUl.

entrusting. jvaras (m. . by thinking on the Supreme Self. Having become free from desire and selfishness. being. yudhyasva (2nd imperative mid. ~ fq. BY cpd. in me. free from asking. becoming. pl. indifferent to "mine" having become.). asking for. With your fever departed.III 30 l1f~ ~ur Cfilhfur mayi (loc. sg. free from desire. pass.).JbhU) .). • I. sarviilJi (n. all. allowing God to initiate all actions. I<:"1 \Tq (: II yudhyasva vigatajvara1. " adhyiitmacetasii (n. by meditating on the Supreme Spirit (adhyiitma) . not niriisir nirmamo bhiitvii free from desire. fever.). pl.Jyudh). having become.t fight! gone away fever. nom. renouncing. acc.Jgam) . Meditating on the supreme Spirit. gone away. sg. bhUtvii (gerund . not wishing for. sg. fight! .). to me. meditating on the Supreme Spirit f'fmT~ f"flhit +Tffi . on me.e. participle vi . sanmyasya (gerund sam ni Jas). departed. 187 . fight! engage in battle! vigata (p. indifferent to "mine. grief. relinquish- mayi sarviirJi karmiirJi on Me all actions ~I ing. sg. acc. inst.). sg. nom. disappeared. nom. nirmamas (m. one whose fever is departed. Deferring all actions in Me.). samnyasyiidhyiitmacetasii relinquishing. nom. having been." free from desire for possessions. sg. karmiilJi (n. niriiSfs (m. actions deeds. vigata-jvaras (m.).

of me. men.). sraddhiivantas (m. Are also released from the bondage of actions. participle an . pl.Jsthii) .). inst. perpetually. sg. pl. they practice. pl. anu . idam (n. nom. not caviling. not sneering. sg. .). full of faith. Believing.). even. pl. miinaviis (m. not showing jealousy. descendants of Manu.). they carry out. my. which. also. they. not speaking ill of. Men who constantly practice This teaching of Mine. they also by actions. progenitor of the human race. Jmuc).).). pr. eternally. api. act. acc. nityam (adv. pI. pr. pass. me (gen. they follow. mankind. nom. not sneering.). thought. they are released.III 31 ~ lr ltalT ~ f~ .Jasiiya). from actions. men. they are liberated. doctrine. ye me matam idam nityam who of me doctrine this constantly ~~~ +!l"'fCIT: I anuti~thanti miinaviilJ they practice. ~ ~ sf'1 Cfi1ff''f: II '" mucyante te 'pi karmabhilJ they are released. who. this. nom. nom. te. believing. indic. anasiiyantas (m. matam (n. pr. karmabhis (n. ~s~ sr addhiivanto 'nasuyanto believing. pl. not sneering.). anuti~!hanti (3rd pI. ye (m. (m. not envious. by actions. 188 . constantly. not grumbling. not spiteful. mucyante (3rd pI. acc. nom. sg.

. doctrine. (n. acc. lost.). sneering. know to be lost and mindless. niinuti~thanti me matam not they practice of me the doctrine. acc. anu . who.). acc. this. imperative act. sneering at this. jfiana (n. thought. anuti~!hanti (3rd pl. etad. pass.g: ~~~: II viddhi na~tiin acetasaJ. m.) tan (m. abhyasuyantas (m. Know them to be lost and mindless. viddhi (2nd sg. sg. participle . them who are mindless. pI.Jna§). Confusing all wisdom. indic. showing ill will. acc. confusing. confusing all knowledge. TP cpd. caviling. they follow.n. they carry out. knowledge. but. they practice. acc. pI. wisdom.asuya) . . pI. my. me (gen. act.III 32 <t~~~ ye tvetad abhyasiiyanto who.Jsthii) . . ye (m... destroyed.). acetasas (m. pl. pass. pr. nom. sg. matam (n. deluding. sarvajfiiinavimiir/hiiizs tiin all wisdom confusing. vimu4hiin (m. (sarva-jfiana-vimu4hiin. but. them. 189 . na. this sneering at. Do not practice My teaching. participle abhi :. them whose minds are not. acc.f~~lT ~ I '" ' ~~<1T'f '" .). participle vi . nom. sarva.). know! learn! na~!an (m.Jmuh). sg. pl. p. tu. pI. pl. p. acc. But those who.).Jvid). the stupid ones. them fqf. of me.). all. not. pr.

existences. One acts according to one's own material nature. she. Even the wise man does so. according to. through own.). one moves. they follow. nom. prakr:tes (f. sg.).). gen. api. control.II nigrahal. cqtate (3rd sg. act. beings. beings. indic. indic. pl.Jce~O. gen. it will make. sg. What will restraint accomplish? 190 . material nature. one acts.III 33 ~~~: sadrsam ceFtate svasyiil} according to one acts from own ~~mq-I prakrter jfiiinaviin api material nature.). from own. nom. from material nature. sg. he. prakl:tim (f. sg. it will accomplish. svasyas (f. restraint. pr. what? kari~ati (3rd sg. sg.). acc. it will do. subduing. they go. mid . nom. one strives. .Jkr:) . Beings follow their own material nature. future act . . nigrahas (m. the wise man even. kim kari~yati restraint what it will accomplish? sadr:sam (adv. yanti (3rd pI. wise. . pr. prakrtim yiinti bhittiini material nature they follow. bhUtani (n. kim (interrog. one struggles. also.). even.). full of wisdom.). jfianavan (m. f~: f~ Cfif~a.Jya). wise man.

passion and hatred. of him.). na.). object. One should not come under the power of these two. CflrR . tau (m. two adversaries. one should come under. asya (m.03(1. nom.. of one.. one should come near. hi. desire. nom. two enemies. sg. indriyasya (n. vasam (m. tayor na vasam agacchet of these two not the power one should come under. not. seated.. them two. artha (m. passion. dual p. paripanthinau (m. of a power. nom.) vyavasthitau (m. truly. of these two. <roll' ~ 1. of one. dual). power.Jgam). ragadveFau vyavasthitau passion and hatred seated.) raga (m. acc. (indriyasyendriyasyarthe.). participle vi ava . two things that stand in the way. m. dual). aversion. m.). two hindrances. . of a sense. two antagonists. will. sg. d"1~l:ff~~111 tau hyasya paripanthinau they two indeed. control.JstM). authority. one should fall into. act. purpose. of it.III 34 ~~~ indriyasyendriyasyarthe in of a sense of a sense-object ~1 0<fCff~11 indriyasya (n. gen.. dvesa (m. Passion and hatred are seated In the senses in relation to their objects. dual DV cpd. tayas (m. sg. of a power.1 . sg. loco sg.). . dual). nom. of a sense in relation to an object of that sense. two antagonists.. gen. agacchet (3rd sg. abiding in. one should come. gen. gen.. they two. opt.).). (raiadve~au. hatred. pass. a . 191 . indeed. They are indeed one's enemies. of a sense.

).Jsthii). nom. svadharme nidhanarh sreyal.loc. than duty of another (here meaning of another caste). sg. sv. danger.). duty of another (caste). duty of another. svadharme(m. ~1~:11 paradharmo bhayavahal. (bhaya-iivahalJ. iivahas (from ii ". preferable. superior. sg. preferable. than done. danger inviting.). in own duty. sreyas (n. sg. nom. fear. pass. participle anu .). p. ineffective. from duty of another.) paradharmal svanu~thilal than duty of another (caste). paradharmas (m. in own caste duty. vigufJas (m. abl. settling down. The duty of another invites danger. bringing. 192 . bringing fear. svadharmas (m. m. ~!:1lff~~: ~~~I '''' . compar. deficient. good. end. better.)..Jvah). better own duty deficient sreyiin (m. nom. TP cpd. sg.). nom. well performed. '" sreyan svadharmo viguIJal. opposite duty. imperfect. than practiced. anu~!hitiit (abl. paradharmiit (m. superior. sg. su well. unsuccessful. bhaya (n. sg. better. in own duty death better. comparative). sg. Better one's own duty though deficient 1han the duty of another well perfonned. inviting. nom. Better is death in one's own duty. sg.III 35 ~ ~1 fCJ1T1lT: . nom. nidhanam (n.). than performed. nom. own duty (here meaning duty of one's own caste).). death. sg.

enjoined.:r ~T s<t atha kena prayukto 'yam then. var~1Jeya (m. interrog. man. anicchan (m. not desiring.jyuj). pr. not wishing. nom.). refers to the race of the Yadavas or Miidhavas. sg. also. spirit. participle pra ". then. in this case. ordered. perf. sg. by what Does a man commit this evil. Arjuna. p.~: I papam carati purufal. epithet of Krishna. sg. api.). carati (3rd sg. pass. sg. Vrsni was the name of a Yiidava dynasty to' 'which Krishna traced his lineage (this refers to the earthly Krishna. nom. kena (inst. papam (n. ayam (m.).nfa. not the avatar of Vishnu which entered Krishna's body). piiru~as (m. abl. evil he commits a man m~q~ anicchannapi Varf1Jeya unwillingly even. act. sg.li. sg. this.yuj) . . urged.). from force. impelled.. Unwillingly even. he spoke. nom.ji~). Clansman of Vr~lfi ~ ~ f<r<il'f. as if. nom. sg. by what impelled this q-rq' :. by what? prayuktas (m. urged Arjuna spoke: Then impelled. he said. As if urged by force? atha. voc. uvaca (3rd sg. misfortune.jcar). p. 193 .). sg. he acts. iva. 36 'q"q if. pro indic. from force. act.III " arjuna uvaca Arjuna spoke: m~1 arjunas (m. sg. balat (n. evil.).. even. attached to. pass. nom. nom. "Jvac). from strength. Clansman of Vr~l. niyojitas (m. unwilling. he commits. participle an .m : II baliid iva niyojital. participle causative ni . caused. set in motion. like. as if. he moves. sg. 0 Krishna.). commanded. acc. harm.

origin.). . asana (n. iha. born of the guna of rajas. this force is anger. The Blessed Lord spoke: This force is desire. nom.. sg. evil. cause.).Jvid).Jvac). sg. nom. gUl. nom. 37 <fil11 Q. perf. sg. nom. m. in this matter.Jas). e~as (m. (rajo-gulJa-samudbhavas. acc. rajas (n. nom.).) mahti. the enemy. (mahtisanas. consuming. acc. desire.la or rajas. vairifJam (m. he said. m. voracious. greatly injurious f~~~cff~11 viddhyenam iha vairir. know! learn! enam (m. participle .am know this.Jbhu)."ll ~ ~ kama e~a krodha e~a desire this anger this '" " rajogUl. source. it of which the evil is great. of desire and power. foe. eating. TP cpd. from sam ud . acc. gUfJa (m. nom. crime. this. nom. nom. samudbhavas (m. fury. Its source is the rajas guna. injurious.a the source ~ij€flqICl'j1 mahasano mahapapma mighty eating. 194 .) viddhi (2nd sg.. (mahapapmas.). pr. m. in this case. sg. e~as (m. misfortune. this. Voracious and greatly injurious.) mahti.la. hurtful. nom. uvaca (3rd sg. love. krodhas (m. nom. here. hostile. papma (m. sg. Know this to be the enemy. sg. sg. great. greed. he spoke. sg. . imperative act. kamas (m.). this (refers to the "force" of stanza 36). the gUl.).III l!1~~1 Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavdn (m. the Blessed Lord. sin. great. sg. nom.asamudbhaval} ('Jil'IOI*lij~: I rajas gUI). mighty.).). anger. in this case.). wrath. BY cpd. enemy. sg. sg. sg.). the Blessed One. sg. mighty. act.

adarsas (m. pass. av~tas (m. tatha. similarly as. malena (n. from a '. inst. ulbena (n. nom. with smoke. he is covered. covered. inst. a . by smoke.III 38 ~mqf~ dhiimeniivriyate vahnir dhiimena (m. vahnis (m. the god of fire. participle a :jv~). sg. (f~ ~mcra+r II . tathii tenedam iivrtam thus by this that covered.). he is enveloped.). participle a :jv~). by envelope. and.JVI:). with dust. bearer (applied to draught animals.). nom. sg. ca. yatha. sg. womb. G .). idam (n. 195 . inst. mirror. So the intellect is obscured by passion. god of fire). sg. avriyate (3rd sg. As fire is obscured by smoke. sg.). pass. by this. pass. similarly as. And a mirror by dust. here to Agni. so. by membrane. garbhas (m. lf~·fl<:"4 '11 <l ti'r G m . the embryo. covered. nom. nom. pr. indic. av~tam (n.Jd~s). sg. the bearer (Agni. thus. by smoke he is covered. enveloped. sg. sg. lf~~1~:q1 yathii ' darso malena ca and as similarly a mirror by dust. p. sg. sg. in which way. tena (n. enveloped. by dust. charioteers. foetus. As the embryo is enveloped by the membrane. yatha. this. embryo. nom. who bears oblations to the gods). inst. nom. p.). yatholbeniivrto garbhas as membrane-covered. that. in which way.).

sg. eternal. nom. inst. du~purelJa o Arjuna. sg. the wise ones. p.).) kdunteya (m. by the form. rupelJa (n. the knowledge even of the wise ones is obscured By this eternal enemy. with fire. Having the fonn of desire. by the adversary.). 196 . sg.III 39 m¥~~ iivrtam jiiiinam etena covered knowledge by this mf. instr. voc.)..:rr f~<:'lTT I jiiiinino nityaviiiri1Jii of the knowers by the eternal enemy aV/:tam (n. enveloped. etena (m. participle a :JV/:). and. pl. inst.). desire. by this. ca. Son of Kunt!. vairilJa (m. lust. inst.). TC cpd. nitya (adj. inst.). inst. imperishable. analena (m.). of Arjuna referring to his mother. pass. sg. covered. the knowing. by insatiable. sg. obscured. by the enemy. wisdom. sg. (kama-rupe!JG. by hard to fill. sg. nom.. knowledge. with the ~~""W<:f kiimariipe1Ja kiiunteya by the form of desire. jfianam (n. Which is as insatiable fire.). by fire. Son of Kun(i. nom. kama (m. m. ~{ijli'1M'1 'if II du~piire1Jiinalena shape. with the form of desire. jfianinas (m. with that.).).. (m. epithet ca and by hard-to-fill fire. sg. sg.

jiianam (n. vi . the embodied one. pr. wisdom. gen. sg. the mind. e. mind. Obscuring his knowledge.ras (m. vimohayati (3rd sg. indic. causative act. by these. the intelligence ~"'I\S61'1lj. nom. knowledge. with these. asya (m. sg.Jvac). indic. abode. of this.III 40 ~f.).). the mind and the intellect Are said to be its (i.).~1 I asyiidhi~thiinam ucyate of it the abode. it causes to confuse.). pr. pl.). nom.). The senses. sg. the embodied soul. it confuses. enveloping. powers. manas (n. ~~(lf~~11 jfiiinam iivrtya dehinam knowledge-obscuring. avrtya (gerund a . acc. etais (m. the senses. With these.. obscuring. the atman. covering.). sg. inst. of it. adhiHhiinam (n.lrlITf1Jf lA"T ~~ indriyii?Zi mano buddhir indriyalJi (n. it deludes.. intelligence. senses.e. intuitive knowledge.). pl. this. nom. the embodied one. sg. acc. passive . dehinam (m.). it confuses. buddhis (f./vr). it is said. thought. this. sg. 197 . resting place.Jmuh). ~f<. it is said. nom. the eternal enemy's) abode. nom.. sg. it confuses the embodied one.flt~ etiiir vimohayatye~a with these. ucyate (3rd sg.

). evil being. tasmat tvam indriyii1. thou. voc. Bull of the Bharatas.). in the beginning.). destroying.Jhan) . epithet of Arjuna. from this. at first. enam (n. knowledge. acc. imperative act. adau (m. TP cpd. indeed. sg.)..r piipmiinam prajahi hyenam evil demon kill indeed this m. kill! destroy! hi.Jyam). the senses. ~~~~. vijiiana (n. bharatar~abha (m. prajahi (2nd sg. m. jiiana (n. subduing. nasanam (m.).). abl. devil. pl. sg.) therefore thou. acc. 198 . restraining. understanding.lyiidiiu tasmat (m.. (jiitinavijiiananasanam. losing.!i (n. restraining the senses First. truly. acc. Kill this evil demon Which destroys knowledge and discrimination.fiHII '1 '11 ~ 1 '! II '1 jfliinavijfliinaniisanam knowledge and discrimination destroying. sg. discrimination. sg. niyamya (gerund ni . pra . the senses first f~~1 niyamya bharatarfabha restraining. tvam (nom. Bull of the Bharatas.III 41 ~~~~~T . indriya. this. sg.). from . sg. papmanam (m. sg. in first. controlling. acc.Jnas). loco sg. Therefore. acc. 0 Atjuna. knowledge and discrimination-destroying. therefore. .).).

). acc. pl. sg. 199 . see following stanza. nom. That which is superior to the intellect is the Self. buddhis (f. higher. superior. nom. moreover. indriyebhyas (n. highest. sg. abl. the Yoga of action.lyahur the senses high. ~~: qi l1<f: I tant. pl. but. ing).).). nom.~ur q (I 0 41§ \ indriyaTJi (n. yas (m. but. sas (m.). nom. indeed. IRT "!f~\ manasas tu para buddhir than the mind. Moreover. nom. the intellect is superior to the mind. param (n. manas (n. paraTJi (n. • I. manasas (n. para (f.e. who. high.e. also stanzas 40 and 41. The mind is superior to the senses. sg. abl. from the senses.). moreover. they assert. tu.). pl. mind. sg. stanza) They say that the senses are superior. from the intelligence. higher. see foIl. they say. the intelligence. higher. the atman or self. imporahus (3rd pI.). nom.li para1. yo buddhelJ paratas tu salJ which than the intelligence much higher indeed. from the mind. which. nom. buddhes (f. intelligence. abl. sg. sg. with present mean- indriya1. this (i.). the mind. perfect .Jah. than +r<tmJ: <J. than the senses. what. tu. higher. without desire for the fruits of action.). sg.).III 42 ~f. senses. than the intelligence. indeed. indriyebhyalJ param manalJ than the senses higher.~: \I the mind. sg. paratas (adv. 4')~:~<J.). they say.). this. elevated.

Thus having known that which is higher than the intellect./stabh). kiimariipam (n. than the intelligence. duriisadam (n. acc. acc. evam buddhel. nom. 0 Arjuna. 0 Mighty Armed One. from the intelligence. (as BY cpd. . upholding. mahiibiiho (m.. desire-form. 0 Mighty Armed One.). acc. acc. sg. iitmanii (m. difficult to approach. ~~AlI\lll'1¥t ~ I samstabhyatmanam atmana together sustaining the self by the self ./han).).). voc. thus.). iitmiinam (m.). Sustaining the self by the Self. abl.III 43 =i«:~~GfT ~-. End of Book III The Yoga of Action 200 .. imperative act.. sg. higher. ~ . sg. jahi (2nd sg. adversary. sg. param (n. Kill the enemy.). having learned. self. kill! destroy! satrum (m.). sg.:>.). ~~II kamarupam durasadam having the form of desire. together sustaining. difficult to approach. Which has the form of desire and is difficult to conquer. having the form of desire. inst. even so. param buddhva thus than the intelligence higher having learned.) which has the form of desire. epithet of AIjuna and other warriors. buddhes (f. samstabhya (gerund sam . sg.. by the self. sg. evam.. buddhvii (gerund Jbudh).rf~~~) jahi satrum mahabaho kill the enemy. enemy. sg. encountered wtih difficulty.

uviica (3rd sg.Jbru) . act. Manu. the Blessed One. sg. priiha (3rd sg. manave (m.. Manu Vaivasvata. proktaviin (m. he communicated. sg. manus (m. +r'f<: ~~~ ~m II The Blessed Lord spoke: I proclaimed this imperishable yoga to Vivasvat. nom. nom. he told. sg.). acc. vivasviin (m. to Vivasvat. imperf. nom. father of Manu Vaivasvata who was the seventh of the fourteen Manus. I. m. act. vivasvate (m. Vivasvat communicated it to Manu. imperishable. dat. act.)." the Sun God. sg. abravft (3rd sg. the Sun god. and founder of a dynasty of kings. son of the Sun god. And Manu imparted it to Ikshvaku. Manu. ik~viikave (m. Vivas vat. to Vivasvat. i. to Ik~vaku. nom. t Ik~vaku. the Noah of Hindu mythology and the progenitor of the human race. sg. Manu Vaivasvata. Yoga ~~~I proktavan aham avyayam having declared. perfect act. son of Manu Vaivasvata.). sg. sg. acc.). perf.BOOK IV ~~~I srfbhagaviin (m. dat.e. See chapter on "The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita. he told. 1. this. declaring. sg. to Manu. f~~>m?: vivasvan manave praha Vivasvat to Manu communicated. sg. imperishable. pra . he imparted. he spoke. All are early legendary figures. dat. having declared. the Blessed Lord.). Manu Vaivasvata. yogam (m. sg. he related.).). . sg. see above. perf. sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: 1 ~f~~m imam (m.).).). imam vivasvate yogam this. avyayam (m." t 201 . participle pra . Yoga. he said. • Vivasvat.Jvac). eternal.n'ur lk~vakave " bravit Manu to Ik~vaku imparted.Jvac). aham (nom. Ik~vaku was a son of Manu Vaivasvata. "Shining Forth.Jah). . acc.

perfect act.Jvid). obtained. here. Scorcher of the Foe. sg. This yoga has been lost. paralntapa (m. sas (m. mahata (m. received. one to another. this. inst.Jnas). ~~)f~:1 imam rajar~ayo vidub this the royal seers they knew. imam (m. succession-received.).). by time. inst. nom. Thus received by succession. 202 . nom. pass. Scorcher of the Foe. nom. p. voc. iha. Arjuna. rajar~ayas (m. extended. parampara (f. sg. sg.). participle pra yap). epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. they knew. After a long time here on earth. vidus (3rd sg. destroyed. praptam (acc. ~rr)~:~11 yogo na~tab paramtapa Yoga lost. here on earth. nom. it. succession. with time. ~~~ sa kaleneha mahata this with time here on earth long. lost. sg. great. p. this. sg. evam. . thus. royal seers. long. acc. sg. nom.). sg. attained. pI. Yoga. The royal seers knew this.).). kiilena (m. in time. raja J:sayas). so. participle . yogas (m. sg. pass.). royal J:sis. sg.IV 2 ~ q (I:q :(1 511 <R evam paramparapraptam thus. na~{as(m.

sg. imparted.).). comrade. of olden times. today. eso- ~~~~II rahasyam hyetad uttamam secret indeed this supreme. sg. comrade. sg.). sg. sg. p. of me. this. iti. eva. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). Jas). nom. primaeval. friend. hi. ancient. de- votee.). uttamam (n. so. te (dat. nom. thou art. now. me (gen. truly. Since you are My devotee and friend. This secret is supreme indeed. proclaimed. sg. this. bhaktas (m. participle pra Jvac) . pass. nom. nom. and. declared. sg.). private. p. sa evayam maya te 'dya it this by me to thee today liFT: mm:~: I yogalJ proktalJ puratanalJ Yoga. puratanas (m. nom. nom. supreme. this. indeed. sakha (m. described. sg. pr. teric teaching. secret. indic. devoted.).). etad (n. maya (inst. shared. sg. sg. sg. participle Jbhaj) . and thus. asi (2nd sg. it.). ancient yogas (m. nom. This ancient yoga is today Declared by Me to you. rahasyam (n. nom. nom. adya. ayam (m. pass.). nom. worshipped. mfiT sf~ if mcrr 'i!rf~ bhakto 'si me sakha ceti devoted thou art of me. sg. Yoga.). by me. 203 . sg.IV 3 ~~lflIT~m sas (m. proktas (m.). declared. thus. ca. nowadays. to thee.

thus. sg.).Jvac). vivasvatas (m. I should understand. acc. perf. in the beginning.). prior. bhavatas (formal address. act. Arjuna. gen. proktavan (m. sg. I should comprehend. nom. this. he spoke. so. janma (n. not previous. act.).). thou. sg.). sg. 4 . participle pra . nom. That You declared it in the beginning? 204 . nom.).. earlier. vi . aparam bhavato janma later of your lordship the birth qi~f~:1 param janma vivasvatal} earlier the birth of Vivasvat.). nom.I'RT ~ ~a. . sg. later. birth. ". how? etad (n. sg. uvaca (3rd sg. of the Sun God. katham (interrog. How should I understand this. birth. opt. gen. nom. sg. katham etad vijaniyam how this I should understand ~ '. adau (Ioc.).).). iti.I. declaring. of your lordship. sg. having declared. vijanfyam (rst sg. janma (n. sg.Jvac). perf.Jjiia). . sg. previous. of Vivasvat.II . ~~f~T<rt .IV ~~I arjuna uvaca Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. of you. nom. tvam (nom. he said. param (n. m. not earlier.r1:!i: +T<ffi"f ~ aparam (n. The birth of Vivasvat earlier. sg.). tvam adau proktavan iti thou in the beginning declaring thus? Arjuna spoke: Your birth was later. act.

Jvac). tvam (nom.). 1. passings away. of me. passed away.). sg.). Foe. pI.). Arjuna. thy. You do not know them. with present meaning). not. the Blessed Lord. arjuna (m. nom. many.:r 1r <XrnTffif.:r bahuni me vyatitiini many of me passed away ~~'<Ff~1 bahiini (n. perfect act. sarviiTJi (n. me (gen.). janmiini tava ciirjuna births. I know. pl. pass. nom. paramtapa (m. Jvid. of thee. Scorcher of the not thou knowest.:r~~~11 na. all. with present na tvam vettha paramtapa meaning). voc. and of thee Arjuna ~~~1lT tiinyaham veda sarvii1}i janmiini (n. pl. And also yours. acc. sg.. nom. my. I know them all.). The Blessed Lord spoke: Many of My births have passed away. aham (nom. 5 ~. Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed One.).). vyatitiini (n. pl. act. perf. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. births. them I know all . Arjuna. veda (1st sg. vettha (2nd sg. sg. and. voc. thou knowest. p.). 205 . perfect act. sg. sg. tiini (n. them. sg. pl.IV s>. sg. ca. Jvid. participle vi ati Ji).f~~1 sribhagawin (m. thou. nom. he the Blessed Lord spoke: spoke. gone away. acc. Scorcher of the Foe.). Arjuna. uviica (3rd sg.). he said. tava (gen.

sg. act. inst.). unborn. lSvaras (m. nom. imperishable self. avyaya (m. sg. shelf. TP cpd. of beings. imperishable. self. atma (m. I come into being. I come into being by My own power. ~~ro+rm~ prakrtim sviim adhifthiiya material nature own controlling ~"+Iq":<:m+i~ II sambhaviimyiitmamiiyayii I come into being by own supernatural power. sg. governing. being. standing over. (armamayaya. nom. gen. birthless. sg. nom. I originate myself. bhUtanam (m.). being. nom. own. sg. • There appears to be a contradiction here between "birthless" and "many of my births" of the preceding stanza. although. pr.).. m. sg.). acc. inst. Although I am the Lord of all beings. bhiitiiniim iSvaro 'pi san of beings.IV 6 ~T sf'1 ~. f. svam (f. even. even.). nom. 206 . prakJ:tim (f. participle Jas).) Although I am birthless and My nature is imperishable.. ajas (m. by controlling My own material nature. the lord although being. by power of illusion. imperishable self). KD cpd.). lord. api. Yet. although.). miiyaya (f. sainbhavami (1st sg. sg. api. own. but Krishna's "births" refer to his "giving forth" of himself . pr. material nature. nom. indic. sg. ~~sf'1~1 '" .q 0lI111. san (m. by supernatural power.see following stanza. san (m. atma (m. sam JbhU). pl. by own supernatural power. adhi!i!hiiya (gerund adhi J sthii). (avyaya-atma. sg. acc. controlling.). by magic. participle Jas).). pr. sg.+i I ajo 'pi sann avyayiitmii birthless although being.

it is. decrease. indic. of righteousness. pr. pr. Whenever a decrease of righteousness Exists. gltinis (f. abhyutthanam adharmasya rising up of unrighteousness (fGT S~~\ifIRl~¥j II . of law. emerging. I create. myself. yada yada hi dharmasya whenever indeed of righteousness ~~~a+m:Cf1 glanir bhavati bharata decrease exists. Descendant of Bharata. sg. then. atmanam (m. sg. epithet of Arjuna. nom. indic. I give forth. sg. gen. bhavati (3rd sg. J bhii).Js~j).). truly. acc. tada 'tmanam srjamyaham then myself give forth I. it exists. Then I manifest Myself. sg. act.). sg. act.). exhaustion. voc. sg.). whenever. abhyutthanam (n. rising up. . dharmasya (m. of duty.Jstha). adharmasya (m. self. tada. Descendant of Bharata. it comes to be. . of unlawfulness.). Arjuna.IV 7 <RT<RTf~~ yada yada. aham (nom. of undutifulness. I let go.). bhtirata (m. gen. 1. 207 . And there is a rising up of unrighteousness. verbal noun from abhi ud . standing up. sg. hi. s~jami (rst sg. of unrighteousness. acc. indeed.

Messianic Judaism. in age after age. arthtiya (m. for the purpose of. For the protection of the good And the destruction of evil doers. though they require only one visitation of the Messiah.). dat. from vi --loot). act. m. sg. of evil doers.. indic. dharma (m. causative noun from sam --Isthti). have parallels. Buddhism has a Buddha who arrives at different times for that purpose. to preservation. to deliverance. gen. pr. For the sake of establishing righteousness. and thus Christianity. I come into being.). of the virtuous ones. to protecting. paritral'Jiiya (n. safhsthtipana (pr. to the destruction. 208 . and. ~qrf+r l!<T ~ II sambhaviimi yuge yuge I come into being from age to age. to the loss. with the aim of. sg. stidMniim (m. The conception of the Hindu yuga is explained at length in a footnote to stanza 17 of Book VIII. righteousness.).IV 8 qf~~ paritrii1piya siidhUniim to protecting of the good f~:q~1 viniisiiya ca du~krtiim and to the destruction of evil doers ~~ dharmasamsthdpandrthiiya for the sake of establishing righteousness. pl. law. du~k1:tam (m. sam --IbM). sg. I originate myself. ca. the establishing. duty. ) sambhavami (rst sg. (dharmasamsthtipanarthtiya. vinasiiya (m.). of the good. dat. from age to age. yuge yuge (n. sg. pl. • This conception of the" coming into being" from age to age to protect the good and punish the evil is not confined to Hunduism. or avatar of God. I am born in every age. of doers of wicked deeds. from pari --Itra). gen. dat. loco sg.). to the perishing. of the righteous. dat. for the sake of. for the sake of the establishing of righteousness. TP cpd. to refuge.

). Arjuna. sg. sg. tyaktvii (gerund . janma (n.Jtyaj). sg. act. acc. this. he is Not reborn.).). (to) rebirth . karma (n. pr. having left. of me. sas (m.). truly. material body. acc. in truth. tattvatas (adv.ff(f mlf lif(f ~T S II "' niiiti miim eti so '"'rjuna not he goes. acc. acc. he. arjuna (m. nom. Arjuna. miim (m. he comes. he goes. me. evam.). .IV 9 . acc. thus. "again birth.). nom. sg. my. to me. sg. deeds. acc. body. he comes. act .). Having left his body. Atjuna. indic. who. voc.Ji). pr. 209 . sg. eti (3rd sg. he goes. act. renouncing. . divine. sg. "by thatness. action. pr. yas (m.Jvid)." by the truth about.). . godlike. na. divyam (n.). not. sg. sg. me (gen. having abandoned." rebirth. abandoning.).. '*" He who knows in truth My divine birth and action. and. sg. ca. birth.Ji).rrT1 'fill :q if f~ janma karma ca me divyam birth and action of me divine ~<rT~~~:1 evam yo vetti tattvatal} thus who knows in truth ~~~ tyaktvii deham punarjanma having left the body. he comes to Me. to me goes he. leaving. indic. vetti (3rd sg. eti (3rd sg. indic. heavenly. he knows. deham (n. punarjanma (n.). the.

IV 10 q~ vitaragabhayakrodhii gone passion fear and anger ~~~~:I manmaya mam upiiSrita/. nom. fear and anger.). many. krodhiis (m. madbhavam (m. come to.) manmaya (m. me. acc. (vftaragabhayakrodhiis. clinging to. pl. p. nom. attained. by knowledge-austerity. mam (acc. thinking solely of me. nom. resorting to Me. cleansed. disappeared. purified. raga (m. participle Jpu). TP cpd. p. m. pI. sg. reached. fear. pl. free of passion. nom. participle upa a J sri). sg. pass. "of me being. pl. danger. nom.). Purified by the austerity of knowledge. p. fear. nom. bhaya (n. participle vi Ji). by the austerity of wisdom. absorbed in me. participle a J gam). pass. my state of being (have) attained. passion.) whose greed.). inst. (as BV cpd. anger. putas (m." my state of being. Have attained My state of being.). greed.). vita (p. disappeared greed. jiianatapasa (n. pI. Many whose greed. ~:j1I'1aq~1 bahavojfianatapasa many. purified. Thinking solely of Me. pass. absorbed in me. me resorting to.). sg. gone away. resorting to. agatas (m.). and anger have departed. fear and anger. 210 . upasritas (m. fear and anger have departed. bahavas (m. pI. nom. pI. by knowledge austerity ~~~:II puta madbhiivam agata/.). pass.

me.). piirtha sarvasal. they resort to. sarvasas (adv. acc. sg. path.. . who. nom. on all sides. tam (m. human beings. Son of Prtha. epithet of Arjuna. vartma (n.). indic. road.). aham (nom. mid. my. sg.). act. mama vartmiinuvartante my path they follow ~:qr~·m:11 man~yal. anuvartante (3rd pI. partha (m. I reward them. in which way. them. pl..VI:t). tatha. pra . pl. men. in this way.z they follow. Men everywhere. mid. Follow My path. sg.). mam (acc. 1. everywhere. indie. indic. they take refuge in.). sg. voc. Arjuna. as. 211 . so. I . pr. Son of Prtha. share with. anu -:. manu~as (m. men. pl. eva. nom.~GPl'J1I "4 C!+!. Men take refuge in Me. In whatever way. pr. pr.). sg.Jbhaj).IV 11 ~'~m~ ye yathii miim prapadyante who. bhajami (I st sg. I love. I reward. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). tams tathaiva bhajamyaham them thus reward I. thus.Jpad).). yatha. turning.). prapadyante (3rd pI. of me. acc. '< ye (m. in whatever way Me they take refuge in ~ ~. everywhere. mama (gen.

Men sacrifice here on earth to the Vedic gods. act. of ritual acts.). ment. fulfillment. hi. accomplish- siddhir bhavati karmajii the success comes to be (of ritual) acts born.).). pl. Quickly indeed in the world of men Ritual acts bring success.). mid . accomplish- ment.Jyaj). indic. born of Desiring the success of ritual acts.~ II . participle . loke (m.Jkaiiklf). in the world of fm-~:"li<ffa. pr. . success. sg. here on earth. to the yajanta iha devatiil} they sacrifice here m the world to the (Vedic) godheads f~f~~~~ ~iprarh Vedic godheads. it comes to be. loco sg. siddhim (f. m. ritual acts. devatiis (f. indeed. 212 . truly. desiring. gen. quickly. pr.). success. karmajii (f. sg. in human.). loco sg. . bhavati (3rd sg. nom. it is. acc. nom. they sacrifice. iha.. men. acc. they worship. pl. here in the world. yajanta (sarhdhi for yajante. pI.IV 12 <m\!\1i'i1: ~1Jft kiifik~antal} fm-.Jbhii). (miinulfe loke.). sg. indic. born of action. 3rd pI.iirh siddhirh desiring of (ritual) acts the success ~~~:I kaiik!!antas (m. karmalJiim (n. wishing for. in the world. of acts.[ karmm. in the human world. fulfillment.) siddhis (f. belonging to hi miinu~e loke quickly indeed in the human world mankind. nom. miinulfe (m. pr. hankering after. to the godheads.). loco sg. klfipram (adv. instantly. here.

. sg. . nom. tasya kartiiram api miim of it the creator although me fq.) tasya (m. action. non-doer.). maker. of it. (guf!!lkarmavibhdgasas. The system of four castes was created by Me. created. acc. system of four castes. According to the distribution of the qualities and their acts. sg. also. according to the distribution of the gUl)as and their acts.). brought forth. acc.Jbhaj).). maya (inst.Jvid). 213 . gen. four-caste sys- tem. creator. avyayam (m. from vi . acc. mdm (acc. -sas (adverbial suffix). viddhyakartiiram avyayam know (me to be) non-doer eternal.). distribution. gUf!!l (m. Know Me to be the eternal non-doer. gUl)a. sg. karma (n.Isd).). sg.).IV 13 ~+r<rr~ ciiturvar1}yam mayii sr~tam the four caste system by me created ~~:I gU1}akarmavibhiigasal. kartaram (m.a action-distribution according to. viddhi (2nd sg. . s~!ftam (n.. although. sg. even. imperative act. me. nom.). p. participle . eternal. let go. gUI). adverbial TP cpd. of this. according to. api.). one who does not act. sg.). by me. sg. ~~qfq-llt caturvanJyam (n. sg. imperishable. know! learn! akartaram (m. sharing. Although I am the creator of this (the system). pass. vibhdga (m.gll'fld I (ij ~ II .

by actions. he is fettered. nom. karmabhis (n. he comprehends. sg. who. me. na. iti. na. Jlip) . 214 . miim (acc. nom. inst. they defile. abhi Jjliii). not. of me. pr. loco sg. karmiilJi (n.IV 14 if mCfi1hfvr f~iQ na mam karma!li limpanti not me actions they befoul if1:t~~1 na me karmaphale sprha not of me in action-fruit desire ~am~sf~a iti mam yo 'bhijanati thus me who comprehends Cfilif~ if ~ ~ II karmabhir na sa badhyate by actions not he is bound. miim (acc.). by deeds. in the fruit of action. Actions do not taint Me. nom. passive Jbandh). abhijiiniiti (3rd sg. covetousness. pr. desire. he. they befoul. badhyate (3rd sg. pl. indic. they smear. not. karmaphale (n. act. me.). actions. nom. sprhti (f. in action fruit. he understands. thus. act. indic. sg. Thus he who comprehends Me Is not bound by actions. I have no desire for the fruit of action. me (gen. indic. sg. not. sg. yas (m.). pl.).).). so. my.).). pr.). sg. sas (m. he is bound. sg. limpanti (3rd pI. na.

pass. even.z purvataram krtam (as was) by the ancients earlier done. piirvais (m. having known. deeds. by the seekers of liberation. by the prior ones. performed. action. imperative act. in olden times. do! perform! make! karma (n.IV 15 ~ mro ~ 'fi"lf G evam jiiiitvii krtam karma thus having known performed action ~mq~~f~:1 purviiir api mumukfubhil. abl. thou. -1kr:). the ancients. by the ancients. sg. sg. pl. inst. sg. kuru (2nd sg.). piirvataram (comparative). karma (n. done.).z by the ancients. mumuk~ubhis (inst. made. acc. sg. thus. p. pI. evam. pass. jnatva (gerund -1jna) .). tasmat (m. by the ancients. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). by the seekers for release. ~m~~ '-' . sg. kuru karmiiiva tasmiit tvam perform action therefore thou ~:~~II purvail. therefore. by the prior ones. made. kr:tam (n. done.).). action. p. api.). acc. acc. desiderative noun from -1muc). performed. Having known this. knowing. from this. participle -1kr:) . Therefore perfonn action As it was earlier perfonned by the ancients. also perfonned action. piirvais (inst. by the desirers of release. acc. pl. earlier. 215 . also. tvam (nom. eva. Seeking release. kr:tam (n. also. participle -Ikr:).

that. pravakfjiimi (1st sg. kavayo 'py atra mohitii/. I shall declare. from evil. action? what. mohitiis (m. pI. sg. sg. future act. from sin. from the disagreeable. mokfjase (2nd sg. sg. iti. non-action. kim karma kim akarmeti "what. Having known which. this. inaction. confused. pra Jvac). p. future passive Jmuc). Thus "poets" here (often translated "sages") were religious teachers who wrote. tad (n. what? karma (n. thou shalt be released. yad (n. I shall speak.w.). "What is action? What is inaction?" Thus. sg. yaj jiiiitvii mok~yase ' subhiit which having known thou shalt be released from evil. sg. sages. One must remember that much of Sanskrit religious literature was conceived in poetic form.rmr~: I kim (interrog. in verse. acc. asubhiit (m. nom. non-action?" thus ~T SQ{ .z the poets even in this matter confused.). nom.). This action I shall explain to you. atra. nom. pass. even the wise are confused in this matter. nom. poets.). api. • kavayas.IV 16 f~ CfilT f<fill: ~f(f kim (interrog. you shall be released from evil. mt ~ CfilT 5fOf~11 tat te karma pravak~yiimi this to thee action I shall explain <nr~m~~11 . from viciousness.). knowing. action.). te (dat.). even. kavayas (m. jniitvii (gerund Jjna). also.). which. to thee. thus (often used to close a quotation). or rather sang. 216 . I shall explain. action. having known. deluded. karma (n. acc. here. abl. '" .). sg. in this matter. pl. participle Jmuh). poets. thou shalt be liberated. what? akarrrlfl (n.). in this respect. acc.

). to be enlightened. and to be known of wrong action ~~~ boddhavyam and of non-action to be known akarma~asca iJW'IT mr 'Tfo-: II gahanii karma~o gatil. of action. of inaction. difficult to understand. going. gen. One must know the nature of action.). truly. hi. sg. boddhavyam (n. vikarma7J(ls (n. gen. gahanii (f. boddhavyam (n. path. dense. to be enlightened.). gerundive . ca. gen. way. sg. indeed. to be known. sg. profound. to be learned. hard to comprehend. The nature of wrong action. The way of action is profowtd. also. sg.aO<f karma~ohyapiboddhavyam of action indeed also to be known. to be known. sg. gatis (f. karmalJas (n.Jbudh). And also the nature of inaction. even. of unsuitable action. of action the way. of wrong action.). and. karma7J(lS (n.Jbudh). of non-action. api. thick."fr. deep. nom. 217 . sg. "f~"ff~:1 boddhavyam ca vikarma~al. gerundive .IV 17 mr wfq.).). of action. and. to be taught. nom. nom. road. sg. profound. sg. ca. nom. gen. akarmalJas (n.

sg. wise. 218 . and. He who perceives inaction in action. sas (m. among men.). all. action. steadfast in Yoga. he. Is wise among men. the. ~1lT:. karma (n. loc. pl. And action in inaction. optative act.Jyuj). yas (m. inaction. nom. k~tsna (adj. sg.). the. this. nom.). nom.loc. disciplined. krtsnakarmakrt he disciplined all action performing. ca. action. who. sas (m. nom. yas (m.). in inac- akarmat:zi ca karma ya/. non-action. making.n~~ sa buddhiman manu~ye~ he wise among men. in deeds.). He is a yogi and performs all actions. entire. sa yuktal. in non-action. sg. who.z pasyed in action non-action who should perceive. akarmafJi (n.). tion. he should see. ~. doing. nom. whole. participle . acc. p. in action. karmafJi (n.Jpas). pasyet (3rd sg. sg. sg. acc. nom.z and in non-action. intelligent.). -krt (n. pass. he. buddhimdn (m. sg. karma (n. full of wisdom.). in men. sg. .). sg. action. yuktas (m. ~ lim: ~CRr " '" < . performing. nom.). manuryelfu (m.IV 18 'fi1tU<iCfi4" If: ~ karmat:zyakarma ya/.). sg. akarma (n.:r 'fi1t If: . he should perceive. loc. sg. this. sg. suffix). who.). yoked.

perfect acc .). the intelligent. of whom. deeds. acc. karmiilJam (m. the wise ones.). (kama-samkalpa-varjitiis. 219 . ones who have excluded desirous intentions.). pundit. pl.JV1j). nom. pass. pI. ace. desire.f>('QCjfGlqr: I kamasamkaZpavarjital. knowledge.~ tam ahul. samkalpa (m.. from sam ii . fire.t of whom all enterprises CflI*i41. used in present sense). purpose. withheld. agni (m. . gen. acc.iit. participle .) tam (m.). sg. burned. samiirambhiis (m. all. wise man. acc. they designate. He who has excluded desire and motive From all his enterprises. And has consumed his karma in the fire of knowledge. m<ITf~ twisted off.. paIJ4itam (m. this. nom. sg. action. enterprises.).IV 19 ~ri~: yasya (m.Jdah).. sg.). pl. nom. iihus (3rd pI. yasya sarve samarambhal.Jah.). sg. participle . p. consumed.. pal).Jrambh). sg.Qit.) jiiiina (n. they call.t patpJitam budhal. BY jiianagnidagdhakarma1}Om who has consumed his karma in the fire of knowledge. undertakings.t him they call paI). excluded. dagdha (p. they say. the god of fire. karma. a+r ma-: qf~~: II '" .Jrabh. pI. budhiis (m.<. nom.). m.t desire and purpose excluded. aim. sarve (m. pass. Him the wise men call a sage. he who has consumed his karma in the fire of knowledge. pI. wisdom. kama (m. (jfiiiniignidagdhakarmiilJam. varjitiis (m. nom.. love. him.). the wise ones. cpd. m. BY cpd.).

pass. he makes. acc.Jtyaj). na. always satisfied. nis ii . not anything does he. f~gT f. not de- karmmJY abhipravrtto 'pi in action proceeding even .Jsri). fl:ptas (m. whose dependence is lacking. clinging. pendent. pro indic. in action. sg. Even when performing action.). karmafJi (n.) nitya. nothing at all. action.). not dependent. 220 .). participle . he performs. this one. result. sg. TP cpd. He who has abandoned all attachment to the fruits of action.. phala (n. Always content. having tyaktvii karmaphaliisangam having abandoned action-fruit attachment. act. engaging. sg. abhipraVl:ttas (m. (karmaphaliisafigam. kilhcid. acc. he.:ro~: I abandoned. iisafigam (m. not resorting to. fruit. turning ahead. karoti (3rd sg. p. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). eternally. proceeding. p. api. niriisrayas (m. attachment. karma (n. nom.Jtl:P). abandoning. m. nityatrpto niriiSrayal. nom. attachment to the fruit of action. eva.tor f~:qg: cn:Tf9"~: II niiiva kimcit karoti sal. not dependent. he does. nom.Jkl:).). CflltU<J:m~T sfq- satisfied. sas (m. sg. pass. not. also. loco sg.).JVl:t). sg. Does. participle abhi pra . . anything whatever. nom. even. always. in effect.IV 20 ~ Cflii 'h~ i'a 1\: tyaktvii (gerund . content.

). not he incurs guilt. . With all motives of acquisition abandone~ niriiSis (m. acc. acc. Performing action with the body alone. alone. thought. restrained. nom. <ref~ nirasir yatacittatma without wish. 221 . sg. action. sg. free from desires. BY cpd. nom. pass. hopeless. bodily. kilbi~am (n. renounced. He incurs no evil. merely. kevalam (n. he reaches. having a self with a controlled mind. only.). sg. indic. pr. pass. restrained in thought and self. sg. grasping. yata (m. m. citta (n. atma (m. sg.). with the body. sg. making. participle .). exclusively. mind. all. nom. indifferent. abandoned all acquisition. self. Without wish. pr. restrained thought and self.). left. (yata-citta-atma. kurvan (m.Jtyaj). he obtains. na. karma (n.. ~'rt~CfilT sariram kevalam karma (with) the body alone action R <mrTfa. sarfram (n. parigrahas (m. fault. sg. nom. sg. sg. acquisition.Jap). from pari .f'fik~ II kurvan napnoti kilbi~am performing. nom. abandoned. possessions. acc.Jgrah).). not.IV 21 f<rmrn. acc. he attains. he incurs. guilt. controlled. without wishes.Jyam). sarva.JkI:).) tyakta (p. apnoti (3rd sg. performing. participle . doing. .ll'ffi*l<iqf~: I tyaktasarvaparigrahal. p. act. property.). act. getting. participle .. attaining. evil.

nom. participle ati . pass. BY cpd. 222 .). m. one who has contentment. also. gain. etc.) dvandva (n. samtu~fas (m.tu~). sg. indifferent. gone beyond opposites. nom. polarity of opposites. going beyond. dualities. sg. Transcending the dualities (i. (f. nom. sg. nom. nibadhyate (3rd sg. obtaining. p.).). Even though he acts. having acted. not. (dvandva-atftas. sg. in failure. pleasure. free from greed. Content with whatever comes to him. sg. having made. and. free from envy. Constant in mind whether in success or in failure.Jk~).). free from malice. chance. not he is bound. api. pairs.. (liibha-samtu~fas. na.Ji).e. he is bound down. nom. having done. spontaneous. nom. in nonsuccess. loco sg. samas (m. in success. in accomplishment.). asiddhiiu (f. ~:f~m~l:q samal:z siddhiiv asiddhiiu ca constant in success and in failure. p.Jbadh). content. BY cpd. he is not bound. free from envy. whose envy is gone. accidental. free from envy. atftas (m. nom. loco sg. transcending. liibha (m. passive ni . sg. ca. siddhiiu (f. pr. indic.). m. iiffi sf'1<f f~ II krtvii 'pi na nibadhyate having acted even.) vimatsaras (m. pain. making. sg.IV 22 yadrcchiiliibhasamtu#o chance gain content.). participle sam :'. k~tvii (gerund . the same.. Rffirmf~:1 ~ yad~cchii dvandviitito vimatsaral:z the dualities transcending.). constant. pass. satisfied. he is bound. even.

m gen. in the aggregate.Jsthii). participle . iicaratas (m.) yajiiiiya (m.) muktasya (m. pass.. indic.). knowledge. sg. pass. is is melted away. dat. gatasangasya muktasya of the free from attachment.JZl). p. for sacrifice. The work of one who is free from attachment. of clinging. BY cpd. of attachment. sg. avasthita (p. of mind. pra vi . pass. Whose thought is established in knowledge.). sg. nom. gen. participle act. undertaking. ii . cetasas (n.Jcar). supported.). of the released. sg.) of one from whom attachment is gone. pr. participle . sg. gone.Jgam). wholly. to sacrifice.Jmuc). pravillyate (3rd sg. it becomes dissolved. action. m. (as BY cpd. participle ava . of the released.). sg. who is liberated. samagram (adv. Who does work only as a sacrifice.IV 23 lld*l1j·fl! ~ gata (m. (gatasaiigasya. gen. of thought. action ~ m<n?"'r:ffi II samagram praviliyate wholly it melts away. established. of the free from attachment.). gen. nom. saiigasya (m. jiltina (n. sg. karma (n. gen. 223 . of the liberated one. of him whose thought is established in knowledge. ~~:I jiiiiniivasthitacetasal} of him whose thought knowledge. moving towards. 4#1141'q(d: ~ IS established ill yajiiiiyiicaratal} karma for sacrifice undertaking. Is wholly dissolved. it vanishes. sg. p. pass.. pr. (jnaniivasthitacetasas. together.). ritual action.

nom. by absorption. 224 . the utensils are Brahman. Brahman is the offering. Brahman. to be gone.). Brahman.r1 ~ ga+( I brahmagnau brahmalJa hutam in the fire of Brahman by Brahman poured out $~~ brahmaiva tena gantavyam Brahman by him to be attained <jf~Cfi*ll:lIr<RT II brahmakarmasamadhina by him who contemplates the action of Brahman. from sam a . pass. because his acts are of Brahman's nature. brahmakarma (n. Brahman is to be attained by him Who always sees Brahman in action. Brahman. the fire in which the sacrifice is offered is Brahman. hutam (m. contemplates the act-as-Brahman. the acts performed by an aspirant have the form of knowledge because they imply the realization that they consist of Brahman and are therefore a means of contemplating the titman . (brahmakarmasamadhina. havis (n. agnau (m.). Brahman. He who contemplates this insight. tr. brahma (n. placing upon. inst. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). to be attained.).).Jdha). m. brahma (n.. sg.through his acts. Brahman is the oblation Poured out by Brahman into the fire of Brahman. TP cpd. the sacrificer himself is Brahman. nom.).). entrusting. brahma (n. tena (m.) • "The entire act consists of Brahman because it is of Brahman's nature: the sacrifice is Brahman. Ramanuja. acc. Brahman action.). nom. sg. sg. by it by him. sg.Jhu). In other words.. eva. p. participle . ~wrr... in contemplation. inst. BV cpd. by contemplating. inst.) brahmaTJii (n.). action of Brahman: samt'idhina (m. sg. in the fire of Brahman. oblation. gantavyam (gerundive Jgam). Brahman the oblation. nom. inst.). loco sg. to be approached. in the fire. by one who contemplates the action of Brahman.. brahma (n. Such a one is capable of knowing the proper form of the titman which is Brahman .. by Brahman. to be accomplished.). sg. pouring out. m. sg.. (brahma-agnau. sg. nom. poured out into the sacrificial fire. offering. arpafJam (n. van Buitenen. loco sg. sg.IV 24 ~'iIW~~ brahmarpalJam brahma havir Brahman the offering.

apare (m.). nom. relating to a god. in the fire of Brahman. paryupasate (3rd pI. religious offering. indic. they offer. by sacrifice. Others offer sacrifice. pr. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). indic. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). some. nom. upajuhvati (3rd pI.). they present oblations. By sacrifice itself. eva. ~~.). pl. pl. sg. upa . acc.owit<ri daivam (m. sacrifice. daivam evapare yajnam to a god some. loco sg. acc.:rll yajnenaivopajuhvati by sacrifice (itself) they offer. lilf'T'1: ~ I yoginal. yajiiam (m.). in the fire of Brahman. paryupasate yogins they practice ~. pari upa vas). yogins. mid.). inst. eva. others.rn<ri brahmagnav apare yajnam in the fire of Brahman. religious offering. some. yoginas (m.IV 25 ~1J. Some yogins perfonn Sacrifice to the gods. act. sacrifice. apare (m.). sg.jhu).). in Brahman fire. 225 . sacrifice. others. sg. to a god. pl. others. sg. nom. acc.). yajiiena (m. they sacrifice. they practice. pr. brahmagnau (m. yajiiam (m. sacrifice.

). m.). nom. pl. juhvati (3rd pI. in the fires of restraint. pr. hearing like senses others ~'J"!~(fl satityamiigni~u juhvati in the restraint fires they offer ~l9:f~~ sabdiidin v#ayiin anya sound commencing with.IV 26 mm:r. samyamagni!!u (samyama agni!!u. sg." vi!!ayan (m acc. and so forth. pl.). sabda (m. they sacrifice. they offer. in restraint fires. pr.jhu). act. objects of the senses. provinces of the senses.).). hearing.lY anye srotra (n. indic. anya (samdhi for anye. loco pl. objects of the senses others ~~'J"! ~(f II indriyiigni~ juhvati in the sense fires they offer.r1f. they sacrifice. pl. m. in the fires of the senses. acc. . adfni (n. anye (m. "whose first was. senses. in the fires of control. pl.). pl. others. acc. act. pl. "whose first was. Ioc. adfn (m. indriyagni!!u (m. others. indic.).).jhu). and so forth. acc. juhvati (3rd pI. nom. . they offer.~~ Srotriidinindriyii1. in sense fires. sound..). commencing with. commencing with. Still others offer sound and other objects of the senses In the fire of the senses. they honor. Others offer senses like hearing In the fire of restraint. powers." indriyalJi (n. lit.). 226 .

. m. and. nom. pl. karmalJi (n. loe. acc. in Yoga fire. m.).~~ur sarviiT!i (n.). jliiina (n. pl. dfpite (m.. p. act. loc. pl. self restraint.Jdfp). participle . 227 .). vital breath. some. acc. sense actions.l 1\14 ~ "114 "I"'!lmrr iitmasamyamayogiigniiu in the self-restraint-of-Yoga fire ¢a-~Tf~11 juhvati jiiiinadipite they offer. ca. in kindled.) Others offer all actions of the senses And actions of the vital breath In the fire of the yoga of self-restraint. loc.). self control. sg. priiT!a (m.) juhvati (3rd pI.Jhu). they offer. pl. sg. sarviitJindriyakarmiitJi all sense actions ~Tfur~1 actions of the senses.).). caus.IV 27 ~1f. TP priitJakarmiitJi ciipare and vital breath action others 'J. cpd. (jliiinadfpite. they sacrifice. loc. all. sg. pass. apare (m. sg. pr. (iitmasamyamayogiigniiu. in the fire of the Yoga of self restraint. kindled by knowledge. indic. TP cpd. in knowledge kindled.). actions. Which is kindled by knowledge. indriyakarmiiT!i (n. others. . iitmasamyama. yogiigniiu (m. knowledge. acc.

(tapoyajfitis. ~:~f~:11 yatayal} samsitavratiil} ascetics (with) sharpened vows.). nom. offerings. those whose sacrifices consist of Veda study and the knowledge sacrifice. svtidhytiya (m. ~~~~I yogayajiiiis tathiipare Yoga sacrifices.) ca.). rules. yajfitis (m. pass. ) yoga (m.) tapas (n. Some offer as sacrifice their material possessions Or their austerities and practice of yoga. (svtidhytiyajfitinayajfitis. thus some. mate- dravyayajiiiis tapoyajiiii rial possession. yajfitis (m. men of austerity. thing. nom. reciting the Veda to oneself.). sacrifices. thus.). pI. pl. nom.). m. offerings. saTnsita (p. BV cpd.). object. m. 228 . nom. sharpened. nom. pl.IV 28 s= Olll<ali ~ (flTT<rm dravya (n. and. jfitina (n. yajfitis (m. participle sam . self-denial. offerings. yatayas (m.).) tatha. pI. pl. whetted. knowledge. likewise. m. While ascetics of severe vows Offer study of the scriptures and knowledge as sacrifice.. yajfitis (m. pI. BV cpd.). BV cpd. apare (m. those whose sacrifices take the fotm of Yoga. nom.. those whose sacrifices are made in the fotm of austerity.). commands.Jsi). austerity sacrifices.. ~ 11I$11'111$1~ sViidhyiiyajiiiinayajiiiisca whose sacrifices consist of Vedic recitation and the knowledge sacrifice. pl. others. nom. also. ordinances. pl. (yogayajfitis. npm. sacrifices. pI. (dravyayajfitis. those material possession sacrifices. offerings. pl. some. BV cpd. m.). pl.). wisdom. Veda study.). Yoga. nom. substance. sacrifices.. austerity. sacrifices. ascetics. nom. whose sacrifices are made with material things. vrattis (m. vows. nom.

vital breath. prii7]e (m.Jyam). apiine (m. dominal breath (the Hindus believed in two breaths: the vital breath (pral). in exhalation. supposed to have been breathed through the anus. restraining. SlI01141 l jq(1401i : II priiniiyii1napariiya~ii~ control of the breath intent upon. control. dual). (prii7]iiyiima-paruya7]iis. others. Intent on control of the vital breath.). inhalation.). ruddhvii (gerund . acc. the abdominal breath. some.. loco sg.a). TPcpd. vital breath. stopping. act. nom. . nom.1<1 i11-qeGfT prii'!lapiinagatiruddhvii the path of inhalation and exhalation restraining. pariiya7]iis (m. in the vital breath. from ii . prii7]iipiinagatf (f. priilJ(l (m.) • These are Yoga breathing excercises. which is their meaning here). exhalation thus others Sli Oil q 1. they offer. also. in inhalation.). ifc. apiinam (m. the paths of inhalation and exhalation. intent upon. juhvati (3rd pI. but familiar to all Yogins. pr. as yet understood by few in the West. inhalation. m.). and the abdominal breath (apana). sg.IV 29 ~~(f>rruf apane juhvati pra. iiyiima (m. in the ab- 5ITtiT sqR (f~ I prii'!le 'piinam tathiipare in inhalation. thus. Restraining the path of inhalation and exhalation. nom.Jhu) . pl. they sacrifice.). priilJ(lm (m. Some offer inhalation into exhalation. though the two terms were also used for inhalation and exhalation respectively. indic. And others exhalation into inhalation. tathii. pI. pI. intent on breath control.!ain in exhalation they offer inhalation.). exhalation. sg. apare (m. acc.). loco sg.J2 rudh). 229 . acc.

Jhu). (yajfiak~apitakalma~iis. nom. pI. loc. ete (m.). pass. priilJeSu (m. . ri~~~cro apare (m. nom. pl. nom. pr. vital breaths.). act. All these are knowers of sacrifice. pI.. sacrifice-destroyed. pl.IV 30 ~ft f"illd 1(101 (I: apare niyatiihiiriilJ others who have been restrained in foods JITOTl"{ ~ ~Wd" I prii1}iin prii1}e~ juhvati inhalations into inhalations they offer. nom. pl. nom. whose evils have been destroyed through sacrifice. the sacrifice-knowing. some. destroyed by sacrifice. api. inhalations. pl.J4k~i).).). m. pl. 230 . in vital juhvati (3rd pI. others. sarve 'pyete yajiiavido all even these sacrifice knowing ~e:rfqdCfl("+lqJ: II yajiia~apitakalma~iilJ whose evils have been destroyed through sacrifice. who have been restrained in food. wrongs. And their evils have been destroyed through sacrifice. evils. indic.). sarve (m. nom. kalma~iis (m. all. priilJiin (m.). BY cpd.). pl. those with knowledge of sacrifice. BY cpd. even. also. they offer. niyatiihiiriis (m. pl. yajfiavidas (m.) breaths. they sacrifice. acc. nom. these. in inhalations. Others who have restricted their foods Offer the life breath into the life breath.). causative participle . yajfiak~apita (yajfia + p.

indic . voc. (yajiiasi~!a-amrta-bhujas.). aged. sg. enjoying. Best of Kurus? The enjoyers of the nectar of the sacrificial remnants Go to primeval Brahman. takas (m. kurusattama (m. Highest of Kurus.). to Brahman. this.). . nom. kutas (interrog. ancient. not. Not even this world is for the non-sacrificing. G '" yajiiasi~!a yajfiasiftiimrtabhujo the sacrifice-remnant-nectar-enjoying zrrf..). indic. brahma (n. bhujas (f. pl. they come. ". ayam (m. pr.). acc. ~. Brahman. sanatanam (n.). na. acc. gen. amrta (n..:i'nTW'(1<iI("'l~ I yiinti brahma saniitanam they go to Brahman."~~ niiyam loko 'sty ayajiiasya not this world it is for the nonsacrificing. BY. nom.). nom.Jas). pI. nectar. they go. world. sg. how? anyas (m. remainder consumed after the gods have taken their portion of the sacrifice. 231 . for the non-sacrificing one.ya) .). Arjuna? (n. Best of Kurus.wi~Ff. primaeval. ayajiiasya (m.IV 31 <rnf:il Q IlOj <:P1"\ij·. nom. act. pr. sg. s. primaeval. other.). f. sg. it is. eating. nom.. of the nonsacrificing. epithet of Arjuna. asti (3rd sg. sg. How then the other. remainder of the offering. sg. . sacrifice remainder.:l!": ~ II kuto 'nyal} kurusattama how the other.). sacrifice-remnant-nectar-enjoying ones. sg. abl. immortality.). yanti (3rd sg.

). in the mouth. nom. thou shalt be released. pass. acc. nom.IV 32 q. sacrifices. karma}iin viddhi tii~ sarviin action born. know them all (to be).Jmuc). participle vi . fut. gen. this. acc. knowing. in the face. mukhe (n. fqmrr~T~1 evam. thus. karmajiin (m.cf~a. acc. . vitatiis (m. bahuvidhiis (m. all. Know them all to be born of action.).). ~~fcniT~11 ~ fa.). offerings. of many kinds. pass. shalt be released.Jjiiii) .f. evam. having known. yajiiiis (m. know! learn! tiin (m. sacrifices. vimok-rYase (2nd sg. pl. jiiiitvii (gerund . arising from action. thou evam jiiiitvii vimok~yase thus knowing.g: m. 232 .:r ~ action. of Brahman. born of vitatii brahma1}o mukhe arranged of Brahman in the mouth. accordingly. spread. sg.). Thus knowing. sg. pl.). you shall be released. brahmalJils (n.~~ evam bahuvidhii yajiiii thus of many kinds. Thus sacrifices are of many kinds. them. of many sorts. p. viddhi (2nd sg. thus. pl. imperative act . pI. nom. action born.Jtan). sarviin (m.Jvid). arranged. Spread out before Brahman. loco sg. pl.). stretched. vi . thou shalt be liberated. pl.

all.).). in wisdom.). abl. material possessions. than offering. than consisting of jfiiinayajfia/:t parmiztapa (is) knowledge sacrifice. pr. comparative). offering. Scorcher of the Foe. karma (n. than material. completely. it is contained in. m.IV 33 ~~O£P:lljl. sg.). nom. All action without exception. without exception. dravyamayiit (n.). jiiiina (n. Better than the sacrifice of material possessions Is the wisdom sacrifice. Son of P!1ha.Jiip). sg. Scorcher of the Foe. sg. nom. 233 . passive pari sam .. Is fully comprehended in wisdom. loco sg. voc. jiiiine (n. nom. sreyiin dravyamayiid yajfiiij better than material-possession sacrifice ~:~~I preferable. nom. nom. yajiiii( (m. (jiiiina-yajiias. ~ Cfi1hf~~ qN sarvam karmiikhilam piirtha all action without a gap. sg. without a gap.) paramtapa (m.\~ sreyiin (m. knowledge. sg. TPcpd. Arjuna. yajiias (m. than property. parisamiipyate (3rd sg.). Arjuna. piirtha (m. than sacrifice. than substance. sg. sg.). indie. epithet of Arjuna. it is fully comprehended. it is finished.). sacrifice. in knowledge. Son of Prtha mor qfUll'll Clj <1 II jfiiine parisamiipyate in knowledge is fully comprehended. sacrifice of knowledge. sg.). epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. akhilam (adv. voc. sarvam (n. sg. better. wisdom. action. abl.).

jndnam (n. qf~~1 pariprasnena sevayii by enquiry. dadinas (m. Know this! Through hmnble submission. the knowing. seers.). imperative act. fut. know! learn! pralJipdtena (m. from pari . m.). sg. by waiting on. (n. that.) this. sg. by attendance. sg. to thee. by service. by humble submission. TP cpd. pl. perceivers.IV 34 ~ fcrf. The knowing ones. knowledge. acc. the perceivers of truth. Through enquiry. understanders. by prostrating oneself.Jvid). sg. act. . upa .). by interrogation. seers of truth. viddhi (2nd sg.Jdis). sevayd (f.Jprach). nom. by bowing respectfully to.) tad viddhi pra1Jipiitena this know! by humble submission. they will point out.). they will instruct. 234 . pI. the perceivers of truth. from pra ni . inst.Jd~s). ~~~a-m upadek~yanti te jfiiinam they will teach to thee knowledge.). from . Will be led to teach you knowledge. by service.. wisdom. pI. acc. inst." truth. they will teach. nom. the wise ones. pariprasnena (m. "thatness. (tattva-darsinas. through service (on your own part). te (dat. tattva (n.e: 5ff~ tad. upadeksyanti (3rd pI. sg. by enquiry. nom. thee. mf~~~:11 jfiiininas tattvadarSinalJ the knowing. jndninas (m.Jpat). sg. inst.

having known. in the self. having known. thou shalt go to.).Qu.). inst.). sg. then. asqelJa (m. act. Knowing that. na. sg. punar. thou shalt come to. all. delusion. knowing. in me. Jyii). yiisyasi (2nd sg. voc.011 II dra~yasy atmany atho mayi thou shalt see in thyself. thus. loco sg. piiIJ4ava (m. not. not again delusion ~~~~I yad (n. act. epithet of Arjuna.). then in me. mayi (loc. fut. sg. jfultvii (gerund Jjfiii) . 235 . you shall not again Fall into delusion. fut. sg. sg. And by that knowledge you shall see all beings In yourself. dralqyasi (2nd sg.9u yena bhUtany ase~e1}a by which beings without remainder ~~ ~wit. which. acc. iitmani (m. by which. yena (m. Son of Pa1). Jdrs). and also in Me. thou shalt behold.IV 35 ~mffi'f~~ yaj jiiatva na punar moham which.). what. again.). atho. Son of Piil). beings. thou shalt perceive. in thyself. bhutiini (n. acc.). sg. creatures. evam. moham (m. without remainder. inst. sg. Arjuna. with which. evam yasyasi pa1}{iava thus thou shalt fall into. so. confusion. thou shalt see. acc.). thou shalt fall into.

jt~).).). inst. piipebhyas (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). abl. pl. ced. abl. jiiiina (n. the most evil-doing. pl. sarvam (n. ~#1I'\~44Of sarvam jiiiinaplaveniiiva all by knowledge boat . superl. sinfulness. thou shalt transcend. if. the greatest evil-doer. act. pr.). of evil-doers. acc.r~mn~~11 vrjinam samtarif)'asi wickedness thou shalt transcend. nom. n. sam . of sinners. sg. sg. wickedness. . sarvebhyas (m. knowledge. acc. api.). by the boat. piipak~ttamas (m. fut.). inst. asi (2nd sg.jas). of all. v~jinam (n. thou art. sg. also. m.IV 36 mq~m~~: api ced asi piipebhyab even if thou art of evil-doers ~: QIQ'll'i"1¥l: I sarvebhyab piipakrttamab of all the most evil doing. indic . TP cpd. 236 .).). You would cross over all wickedness By the boat of knowledge. plavena (m. even.. thou shalt cross over. all. sg. samtariD'asi (2nd sg. sg.) eva. (jfiiiplavena. the greatest sinner. by the boat of knowledge. Even if you were the most evil Of all evildoers.

bhasmasiit (adv . actions. kindled. ~. fire.. (jfziiniignis. KD cpd.[T sf~ yathaidharhsi sam~'ddho 'gnir as firewood the kindled fire +lfiHlld'!j(i(\ ~ I . thus. acc. mid . Arjuna.:~Tfur yatha. sg. mid. to ashes. tatha. '" bhasmasiit kurute 'rjuna to ashes it reduces. sg. sg. nom. p. pl. agnis (m. jfziina (n. participle sam .). all.. kurute (3rd sg. nom. edhamsi (n. So the fire of knowledge Reduces all actions to ashes.) sarva..). as. pr. agnis (m. kindling.JkI:). . . sg. karmiifJi (n.). pl.IV 37 ~~mtr.). 237 . pass. in this way. + 3rd sg. voc. samiddhas (m.Jindh). knowledge.). so. As the kindled fire Reduces firewood to ashes.). the fire of knowledge.). pro indic. Arjuna. bhasmasiit kurute (bhasmasiit adv. m. sg. firewood. to ashes it reduces so. sarvakarmii1Ji the fire of knowledge all actions ~?<I"d"~11 bhasmasiit kurute tathii duces. indic. nom. in which way. nom. it re- jiiiiniignil. set on fire. wisdom. arjuna (m.. fire. Arjuna.JkI:). it reduces to ashes. nom.

that. acc . one finds. pass.. pro indic. accomplished. himself. with time. inst.. .. successful. not indeed to knowledge similar qf~~f<rn~1 pavitram iha vidyate purifier here in the world it is found. sg. in the self. sg. iha. own. p.f~m. m. sg.). Yoga. here in the world. (n. sad~sam (n. here. it is found.~ na hi jiiiinena sadrsam not.Jsidh). jiiiineoo (n. indeed.). samsiddhas (m. sg. indie. loco sg. hi. self. nom.f~a II kiileniitmani vindati with time in the self he finds. inst. by knowledge. pavitram (n. participle sam .). nom. to knowledge. tad. ~mlfTmif~: tat svayam yogasamsiddhal} that himself the perfected in Yoga CflIJ"m+if. (yoga-samsiddhas. sg.IV 38 . svayam (adv. cleanser. vidyate (3rd sg.).). iitmani (m. nom. sg. TP cpd.). He who is himself perfected in yoga In time finds that knowledge in the Self.). similar.J2 vid). by time. sg. pr. equal. he finds. vindati (3rd sg. purifier. perfected in yoga. in time. No purifier equal to knowledge Is found here in the world. passive --12 vid). yoga (m. perfected.) l(ii/eoo (m. 00. nom..). 238 . acc.

one with restrained senses. sg. participle sam . sg. nom. subduing. partim (f. devoted to. peace. paras (m. pr. wisdom. sraddhiivtin (m. nom. indic. nom. holding as highest object. devoted to that. sg. labhate (3rd sg. soon. sg. sense.) jiitinam (n. he attains. by not for long. he goes.IV 39 ~ • ~m<f Sraddhiiviiitliabhate jiiiinam possessing faith he attains knowledge ~:~"1:<r:1 tatparal. mid .. attaining. he meets with. he attains. tranquility. indriyas (m. restraining his senses.). highest. knowledge. he meets with. he quickly attains Supreme peace. tad (m. by not slowly.). m ~<rr q"ti" mf~ jiiiinam labdhvii pariim siintim knowledge having attained. acc. controlling.). m.Jlabh). (samyata-indriyas. nom. indic. 239 .). acc. wisdom. acc. Having attained knowledge.). to supreme peace m~~~11 acire1}iidhigacchati not slowly he goes. sg. he obtains. jiitinam (n.Jyam).). supreme. full of faith. nom. samyatendriyal. . BY cpd. samyata (p.). restraining sense. stintim (f. power. possessing faith. acirefJa (adv. He who possesses faith attains knowledge. sg. pr. sg.). speedily. adhi . obtaining. knowledge. Devoted to that (knowledge). sg. sg.).. acc. acc. pass.Jgam). restraining. adhigacchati (3rd sg. labdhvti (gerund . act. that.Jabh). having attained.

sg.Jsi). beyond.Jnas). sg. and. for the self. indic. for him whose self is doubtful.t. Nor happiness.) 240 . sukham (n. nom.l'j'1: II na sukham samsayatmanal. sg. paras. without giving faith. na. agreeableness. lokas (m. Neither this world nor that beyond.. atmanas (m. nom. sg. asti (3rd sg. former.). self. doubting. bliss. from sam . BY cpd. sg. nom.). remote. ayam (m. not. he is destroyed.T sf~ . he is lost. is destroyed. qit nayam loko 'sti na para not this world it is. smhsaya (m. . vi .). sg. nor beyond. hesitating. na. unknowing. (samsayatmanas. joy.Jas). Who is of a doubting nature. sg.:t ~f. na. ajnas (m. sg. indic . not happiness for the doubting self.). delight. is for him who doubts. pr. and.. and does not have faith. nom. of the self of him who doubts.Jsi).). of the self. asraddadhanas (m. not placing faith. The man who is ignorant. hesitating. it is. m. comfort. ignorant. doubting.:n.). nor. not. gen. ca. distant. gen. .l'j1 f~<:r I sa1nsayatma vinasyati he whose self is doubtful is destroyed.) vinaSyati (3rd sg. nom. this. nom. there is. sg. act. world. pleasure. nom. lacking in resolution. later.IV 40 ~~~ ajnascafraddadhiinaSca and ignorant and not faith giving ~~11I1. from sam . (smhsayatma. happiness. pr. BY cpd. "~~~11I1. atma (m.. not.). samsaya (m. ca. he whose self doubts. not giving faith.

irresolution. ni Jbadh Jbandh). not. act. thrown down. sg. pr. knowledge. renounced.. And who is possessed of the Self. sg. they fetter.). not actions f. indic. they bind.f. n. Action does not bind him Who has renounced action through yoga.r. ~~~I In jiiiinasamchinnasamsayam whose doubt is cut away by knowledge. Whose doubt is cut away by knowledge.). they bind down.:. Conqueror of Wealth.. karmii1}i (n.. sg.) iitmavantam (m. participle sam ni J2 as). pl. (jfiiinasamchinnasamsayam. pass.-q ~ II nwadhnantidhanamjaya they bind. sg. acc. 241 . na. epithet of Arjuna. composed. dhanamjaya (m. him who has renounced action in Yoga. yogasamnyastakarmii1:zam him whose actions are renounced Yoga. BY cpd. sg. severed.:. self possessed. nom. participle sam Jchid) . action.). Yoga. hesitation.re-. doubt.). pass. prudent. samchinna (p. :q 1. BY cpd.). m. sg. acc.). Conqueror of Wealth. actions. give up.+1 c( '"<'t' . voc. abandoned. having a self.IV 41 l:j'w:ii'lf~Cfi4rvr yoga (m. acc. samsayam (m. cut away. CfilITfur iitmavantam na karmii1}i self-possessed.) jniina (n. acc.). samnyasta (p. nibadhnanti (3rd pI. Arjuna. acc. karmiilJ(lm (n. whose doubt is cut away by knowledge. (yogasamnyastakarmiilJ(lm.

abl.). this. therefore..Jchid). non-knowledge. chittvt'i (gerund .).Jstht'i). hr:tstham (m. knowledge. having severed. from this. cutting away. enam (m. This doubt that proceeds from ignorance and abides in your heart. sg.flf~~~11 iiti~thotti~tha bhiirata resort! stand up! Descendant of Bharata. sg. acc.). Arjuna. epithet of AIjuna.). m. with thine own knowledge-sword from thyself f~~~ lfFr+1~ knife. t'i -:'. stand up! arise! bht'irata (m. End of Book IV The Yoga of Renunciation of Action in Knowledge 242 .). t'iti!ffha (2nd sg.. abiding in the heart. proceeding from.) t'itmanas (m. hesitation. imperative act. Therefore. Resort to yoga! Stand up. of thyself.). Descendant of Bha- rata. sg. acc. produced by.). ud . sg. acc.). inst. asint'i (m. sainbhutam (m. Yoga. with the sword of knowledge. ing. acc. imperative act. re- sort! go towards! perform! utti!ffha (2nd sg. situated in the heart. gen. sever- chittviiinam samsayam yogam having cut away this doubt.). ignorance. sg.).stht'i). voc. to Yoga. with your own sword of knowledge. sg. with the knife.IV 42 ~~ tasmiid ajiiiinasambhutam therefore ignorance proceeding from ~~ m<rrfwrr~: I tasmt'it (m. to Yoga 'l. ins!. originating in. of the self. acc. by the hrtstham jiiiiniisinii 'tmana!. sg. own. sg. doubt.). (jiit'ina-asint'i. having cut away. having cut away. by the sword. jiit'ina (n. abiding in the heart. ajiit'ina (n. TP cpd. sainsayam (m. yogam (m. sg. sg. irresolution.

preferable.). yogam (m.). to me.).J2 as). sg. pass. wr\ <rm" m~ I punar yogam ca samsasi and again Yoga thou praisest. again. Krishna. Arjuna spoke: 1 ~Cfilfurt~ samnyiisam karma1}iim krf1}a samnyasam (m. he said. punar.). act. this.Jci). and.). thou approvest. nom. ekam (acc. sg. uvaca (3rd sg. pr. sg. sg. tad (n. perf. the one. thou praisest. me (dat. sreyas. gen. gen. that. tell! say! suniscitam (adv.BOOK V ~~I arjuna uviica arjunas (m. definitely. throwing down. sg. samsasi (2nd sg. Yoga. renunciation. thou recitest. acc. of deeds. what. yad (n.Jsams). better. voc. from p.Jbru) . of actions. etayos (m. k1:!f1Ja (m. AIjuna. participle su nis . Krishna. which. the one? cq if <ilf~ W'1f~ II tan me briihi suniscitam this to me tell definitely. karmalJam (n. from sam ni. of these two.).). :. sg. sg. . thou declarest. Krishna. 243 . indic. acc. abandonment. pl. And again You praise yoga. Arjuna spoke: You praise renunciation of actions. nom.). . firmly resolved. he spoke. bruhi (2nd sg. sg. act. renunciation of actions. acc. dual). Which one is the better of these two? Tell this to me definitely. imperative act. one. in a settled way. ~<r~~~ yacchreya etayor ekam which better of these two.Jvac). ca.

sg. kariiu (m. dual. the Yoga of action.). it is distinguished. (nilJsreyasa-karau. rnFrTfqf~ II karmayogo visi~yate the Yoga of action is better. the Blessed Lord.). TP cpd. samnyiisas (m. 2 ~:rn~ samnyiisalJ karmayogasca renunciation and the Yoga of action f.. ultimate bliss. however. of the two. nom. nom. from renunciation of action. • Ramanuja:" Both the Yoga of action and the Yoga of knowledge are . nom. the Blessed One. karmayogas (m. renuncIatIOn. gen. TP cpd. But the Yoga of action is better than the Yoga of knowledge. dual). The aim of both is the same. and. TP cpd. uviica (3rd sg.). he spoke. sg. Jvac). abandonment.) ubhiiu (m.. a<rrnn~~RlI'lAld . actionYoga. sg. however. nom. leading to. highest happiness. nom. effecting. karmayogas (m. than renunciation of action.V ~~~I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m.~ tayos tu karmasamnyiisiil of the two. . sg. abl." The reason is that the atman can be secured through the Yoga of action. equally autonomous means of attaining beatitude. but. incomparable bliss. it is better. making for. perfect act.). ca. it excels. leading to bliss. Of the two. . nom. inviting. throwing down. of these two.). karmasamnyiisiit (m. he said. du. visi/fjate (3rd sg.). 244 . tayos (m. both. m. sg.:iill'IACfi<I<{ ~'t I nilJsreyasakariiv ubhiiu ultimate bliss effecting. than renunciation of action. but the Yoga of knowledge cannot be attained without the prior acquisition of the Yoga of action. it is superior.. nilJsreyasa (n. tu. intending to accomplish. the yoga of action Is superior to the renunciation of action. The Blessed Lord spoke: Both renunciation and the yoga of action Lead to incomparable bliss. the Yoga of action. passive J si~). however.). pro indie. dual). both. nom.

pro indic.). from bondage. eternal perpetual. jiieyas (m. pramucyate (3rd sg. nor. mahiibiiho (m. indifferent to pairs of opposites (heat. hi. yas (m. cold. pro indic. he covets. dve~{i (3rd sg.).). nom.. He is easily liberated from bondage. [f1SC . he the eternal renouncer. easily. indeed.). bandhiit (m. o Mighty Armed One. the. nom. not. he is released..=lf'mr jiieyal} sa nityasamnyiisi to be known. renouncer. he. cm. passive pra . truly.Jmuc). nom. etc. pleasure pain.r: ~ f~-. Who is indifferent to the pairs of opposites.). sg. act. 245 . m truth. act. He is to be known as the eternal sannyasi Who neither hates nor desires. he hates. sg. abl.Jdvi~). who. sg.).). sg. kiiiiklf) .~~ I yo na dve~ti na kiiii~ati who not he hates not he desires. gerundive . sukham (adv. to be known. he desires. voc. 0 Arjuna. . not. he is liberated. kiiiik~ati (3rd sg. pleasantly.Jjiiii). sarimyiisf (m. sg. sg. f~)f~~) throws down.v 3 W. 00. sg. nitya. sas (m. nirdvandvo hi mahiibiiho indifferent to the opposites. nom. one who lit . ~~5fli~11 sukham bandhiit pramucyate easily from bondage he is liberated. nirdvandvas (m. epithet of Atjuna and other warriors. 00. nom. pro indic.). 0 Mighty Armed One.

.). p. ekam apy asthita!.iits. samyag one even practiced correctly ~Rf~~11 . 11. wise men. right. not. the childish SI'CRf~.Jvad). pra .<ti+I'~~~: ~ . pass.J2 vid). yogau (m. 246 . Siirilkhya. . na. samkhya.). fruit. Even with one of them. childish. sg.). ubhayor vindate phalam of both one finds the fruit. not the wise. .). practiced correctly. dual DV cpd. one of the oldest of Hindu philosophies. MIas (m. of both. qf~: I pravadanti na pmp!ital:z declare. not the paI). p~thak (adv. Yoga. even.<." The childish declare. indic. pr. separate. they maintain.) true. gen. nom. "Sankhya and yoga are different. one by one. participle a . mid . nom. nom. vindate (3rd sg. one. nom. pl. sg. indic. One finds the fruit of both. foolish. performed. api.Jsthii). correctly. they declare. he finds. asthitas (m.). sGlnyanc (adv.). one finds. undertaken. pafJ4itas (m. followed. (adj. sg. act. paI~4its. pl. nom. . pr. single.v ~i!§lll:f'tlI1q-~: ~ samkhyayogau Prthagbalal:z sarhkhya and yoga distinct. ubhayos (m. concerned with theory (see discussion in footnote to II 39).. ekam (n. non-theistic. distinct.). phalam (n. dual). acc. practiced. pravadanti (3rd sg.

act. tad (n. it is at- tained. yad (n. pa§yati (3rd sg. passive . ceives. passive pra . acc. nom. indic. pr.v 5 ~~:~~~ y~t siimkhyiii/:l priipyate sthiinam which by the Samkhyas is attained. siimkhyam (m. that. by Yogas.). yas (m. sg. yogam (m. sg.). by the Sarilkhyas. it is attained.).).).). also. sg.~ I . pl. and. sg. tion. sg.jpas). ~u~:qll"m:q lowers of Yoga. he perceives.jpas). acc. pa§yati (3rd sg. pr. Yoga.). it is reached. . place. pr. which. acc. standing. pl. it is obtained. nom. nom. even. he sees. . what. the place. sg. truly perceives. ca. acc. priipyate (3rd sg. inst. ekam (m. sg.). . one. he per- The place that is attained by the followers of Sankhya Is also attained by the followers of yoga. yogiiis (m.). it is reached. sthiinam (n. who. he sees.jgam). SariJkhya. posi- 1R ll"1<T' mq. He who perceives this. ceives. scuhkhyiiis (m. pr. he per- yaJ:r pasyati sa pasyati who perceives. nom. and. sas (m. indie. act. inst. ekam siimkhyam ca yogam ca one Samkhya and Yoga ll":q-~i'fu"~i'f II ca.jiip). by the fol- tad yogiiir api gamyate that by Y ogas also it is attained. by the followers of the SariJkhya doctrine. it is gone to. he. gamyate (3rd sg.). this. sg. api. Sankhya and yoga are one. 247 .

0 Mighty Armed One. yogayuktas (m. adhigacchati (3rd sg. samnyiisas (m.). nacirelJ<l (adv.) disciplined in Yoga. 0 Mighty Armed One. sg..). adhi . voc. but.Jiip).). tu. (as TP cpd. sg. pr. sage. sg. to encounter.Jgam).v 6 ~i). abl. sg. sg. sg.). acc. he attains. Yoga yoked. without Yoga. difficult.ftunf~f<:r II nacirer. iiptum (infinitive . indeed. renunciation. brahma (n. Brahman.). ~:~m~~:1 du~kham iiptum ayogata~ difficult to attain without yoga <r~lif~~ yogayukto munir brahma the Yoga-disciplined sage Brahman '1f:.). he reaches. 248 . sg. painful. indic. act. nom. munis (m. Renunciation indeed. mahiibiiho (m.). wise man. quickly. to obtain.iidhigacchati in no long time he attains.~omT sarimyiisas tu mahiibiiho renunciation indeed.. throwing down. 0 Arjuna. Yoga disciplined. The sage who is disciplined in yoga Quickly attains Brahman. nom. nom. dulJkham (n. epithet of AIjuna and other warriors.).. in no long time. to attain. ayogatas (m. Is difficult to attain without yoga. nom.

). fqf~f~~:1 '" ~ viiitiitmii iitendriyal. Is not tainted even when acting. even. sg.). he is not befouled. . nom. all. TP cpd. viSuddha (p. m.JkJ:). BY cpd.) sarva. self. m. whose senses are conquered.Jji).). cleansed. he who is yoked to Yoga. passive .. indriyas (n. Whose self is subdued.Jji). atma (m.. lipyate (3rd sg.. sense. BY cpd.f~11 ~ kurvann api na lipyate acting even. pass. yogayukto vifuddhiitmii he who is yoked to Yoga. also. sg. Whose self has become the self of all beings. whose self is subdued. 249 . whose self is purified. self. participle act. doing. controlled. " " sarvabhiitiitmabhiitiitmii whose self has become the self of all beings. purified. self. sg. nom. api. bhUta (m. self.Jlip). (visuddhatma. He who is devoted to yoga.). atma (m. pass. nom. sg. nom. pass. sg. he is defiled. m. participle vi .) jita (p. conquered. na.:"l I yogayuktas (m. with m. participle vi .. indie. becoming. pr. nom. whose self is conquered. ~mq-. BY cpd. controlled. being. BY cpd.). whose self is purified. whose senses are conquered. whose self has become the self of all beings. m. sg.) vijita (p. nom. (vijitatmii. he is smeared..). nom. he who is disciplined in Yoga. nom. not.). whose self is purified. subdued. sg. (sarvabhUtatmabhutatmii. participle . being. (jitendriyas. sg. whose senses are conquered. subdued.Jsudh). whose self is cleansed. nom. atma (m. atma (m.) kurvan (pr.v 7 ~ f"ltilog". sg. he is befouled. acting. whose self is subdued. conquered. ending). bhuta (m.

~m. participle . svasan (m. the knower of truth.. perceiving. he thinks. I do. observing. anything. he thinks.JsprS). . smelling. steadfast. pr. mid . sp~san (m.Jgam). participle . sg.!van (m. act. Eating. touching.:r~ . indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). paSyan (m. pro act. 00. disciplined. nom. touching. qlp:p>. hearing. anything whatever. kificid or kirhcid. p. act.). indic. participle . act. ~ lf~'( ~CfW( II aman gacchan svapaiiSvasan eating. nom. the knower of "thatness. blowing. hearing.Jpas). nom.. walking. fixed in Yoga. . act. yoked in Yoga. sg. scenting. nom.svap). act.v 8 . nom. pr. walking. participle .Jghrii). pr. I make. "I do not do anything.. sg. gacchan (m. yuktas (m. 250 . pr. participle. naiva kiiicit karomiti "not anything I do. nom.. participle "'. ~) ~ i:iffiqq: I yukto manyate tattvavit steadfast. karomi (1st sg.a oOf<1. seeing.Jas). the knower of truth should think. breathing. .. even a little. Whether seeing. pr. sg. participle . asoon (m. eva. thus (often used to close a quotation). participle. smelling. sg. smelling. hearing. sleeping. jighran (m. ~ . pr.Jman). svallan (m. walking." the knower of truth. nom. pr. sg.Jsvas). s~. touching.Jyuj). pr. eating. sleeping. sg. pasyaiiSr1Jvan sP!saiijighrann seeing. iti." thus. pr. I act. pass. tattvavid (m. breathing. going. nom. act. nom. manyate (3rd sg. sg. sg. act. indic. act.tq fCfifi<:J: ~lf1:i not. participle . nom. sleeping. Steadfast in yoga. breathing." thus.Jk1:).Jsru). sg.

pr.). participle ni . powers. they abide. sending forth. participle vi . pl. act./sr:j). defecating. grasping. pr. excreting. participle pra ·jzap). opening the eyes. unmifan nimifann api opening the eyes. unmi. causative act. chattering. participle . act. Talking. api." praIapan (m." thus believing. they tum. mid.v 9 >T~ f~ ~~1lf{ praiapan visrjan grh1}ann talking. dhtirayan (m. resolving. nimil!an (m. visr:jan (m. 251 . excreting. pr.. indriytirthel!u (n. indic . grasping.). shutting the eyes also. they dwell. nom. act.Jvr:t).Jmil!). believing. . Believing "The senses abide in the objects of the senses. 3rd pI. nom. indriytiTJi (n. laying hold of. discharging. sg. Opening the eyes and shutting the eyes. ~~ fTff~ m'1l . nom. being convinced. thus (often used to close a quotation). addressing. sg.fgrah). iti. pl. eliminating. act. participle ud . they work. nom. also. nom. ~~')f~ indriyii1}indriyiirthefU "the senses in the objects of the senses ~~a~11 vartanta iti dhiirayan abide. act. participle . shutting the eyes. gr:hnan (m. sg. in the sense objects. nom.JdhrJ. evacuating the bowels. nom. pr. letting go. pr.ran (m. in the objects of the senses. sg. senses. pr.Jmil!). vartanta (samdhi for vartante. maintaining. talking. sg. . loc. even. sg. pr. grasping.

like. he is lipyate na sa piipena defiled not he by evil ~~mll padmapattram iviimbhasii lotus-leaf-like by water. who. by wrong.. sg. karmiilJi (n.).). padma (m. sas (m. sg. He who acts is not tainted by evil Any more than a lotus leaf by water.). having safigam tyaktvii karoti ya/. this. in Brahman. piipena (n. he. pl. lotus leaf.. 252 . sg. Having abandoned attachment.). on Brah- brahmat}y iidhiiya karmii1}i on Brahman placing actions.). acc. KD cpd. tyaj). he is defiled. attachment. passive .z attachment having abandoned. lotus. actions. karoti (3rd sg. clinging.). placing. n. inst. by water. loco sg. sg. ~ ~CfiUf~ If: I man.). putting. yas (m. indic. nom. na. leaf.. tyaktvii (gerund . sg. not. nom. sg. iidhiiya (gerund ii .). abandoning. . inst. saiigam (m. lipyate (3rd sg.) iva. pr. deeds. he acts. sg. nom. acc. act .).v 10 ~~ memr 'fi1hfur brahmalJi (n. he acts. Offering his actions to Brahman. by evil. nom.Jdhii). ambhasii (n. (padma-pattra.JkI:). who f~<f~~ abandoned.Jlip). pattram (n. pr. smeared. he is befouled..

by the body. tyaktva (gerund . nom.). f. toward self purification. suddhaye (f.Jtyaj). kevalais (m. inst. sg. ) With the body. with the senses. for self purification. act. by the mind.). also. atma (m. sg. karma (n. with the intelligence. abandoning. attachment.). alone. api. clinging.). action. own. self. . manasa (n. sg.). inst. sg. dat. mind.. yoginas (m. pl. acc.Jk/:). they do. The yogins perform action toward self-purification. pr.). saiigam (m. kurvanti (3rd pI. with the intellect. inst. karma kurvanti the yogins action perform ~~~II safigam tyaktvii 'tmasuddhaye attachment having abandoned. sg. wholly.). Having abandoned attachment. 253 . inst.v 11 ~ 11"rnT ~lIT kiiyena (m. they perform. having abandoned. pl. indic. buddhya (f. pl. TP cp.). with the mind. with the kevaliiir indriyiiir api merely with the senses even ll'TfiR": Cfi1t ~~ yoginal. yogins. acc. solely. indriyais (m. Even merely with the senses. with the mind. to purification. body. sg. they make. by the senses. dat. by the intelligence. with the intelligence.). inst. sg. (atma-suddhaye. toward purification. with the kiiyena manasii buddhyii with the body. merely. even.).

254 . having abandoned. attached.).Jsaiij). he reaches.). participle . steady. action fruit. by desire-action. by action resulting from desire. unfixed in Yoga. passive ni . sg. ~~f~11 phale sakto nibadhyate in fruit attached. abandoning.v 12 l{ffi:~~ yuktas (m. action fruit having abandoned. sg.). undisciplined. tyaktva (gerund . p. clinging. saktas (m. He who is disciplined in yoga. phale (n. last. unsteadfast.z karmaphalam tyaktvii he who is disciplined. pro indic.Jtyaj). sg.a he who is undisciplined. pass.). he is fettered. peace. Jap) .Jyuj).ff'1SOcfiTl!: 1 siintimiipnoti nii#thikim peace he attains complete. acc. he is bound. p. pass. he attains. acc. ntii~{hikim (f. Wffli: "'I +I "'I'{ol <> ayuktal. final. in fruit. Attains steady peace. having abandoned the fruit of action. highest. tranquility. definitive. ktimaktirelJa (m. nom. inst. apnoti (3rd sg. participle . nom. he is bound down. decided. attached to fruit. fixed in Yoga.z kiimakiire1J. mf~(f . pro indic. yuktal. disciplined. he obtains. sg. ayuktas (m. Is bound by actions prompted by desire. sg.). nom. sg. by desire-action. steadfast. acc. act. complete.Jbandh). karmaphalam (n. loco sg. he is bound. fruit of action. nibadhyate (3rd sg. sg.). The undisciplined one. santim (f.

nom. whose gates are nine. mid . . ruler. ruler ~~~T navadviire pure deht in the nine-gated city. actions. at all.). Renouncing all actions with the mind. karmalJi (n. causing deeds. nom.. sg. eva. renouncing. sg. nor. all.). not causing to act. within the gate. 255 .. <fq~t={. sukham (adv. participle .. he sits. happily. inst. the embodied one. not. nom. the two ears. vasf (m. BV cpd. . act. as the ruler Within the city of nine gates.). loco sg. sg. pl.jkr). acting..). indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). by the samnyasyiiste sukham vast renouncing it sits happily. making. causing to act. nava.12 as). the atman. dehf (m.). acc. causative act. in the city. loco sg. na.~ II niiiva kurvan na kiirayan not at all acting. participle Jkr:). deeds. with the mind. not.) pure (m. lord. in the gate. causing action. (navadvare." The "city" is the body. kiirayan (m. sg. nor causing action. The" nine gates" are the two eyes. pleasantly. Not acting at all. it sits.v 13 mmr1Jf+Rm sarvakarmii:tzi manasii sarva. nom. m. indic.jas). inside the gate. aste (3rd sg.). na. having mastery. the two nostrils. dvare (m. pr. loco sg. The embodied one sits happily. pr. • "the city whose gates are nine. nine. sa/hnyasya (gerund sam ni mind. throwing down. sg. doing. pr. kurvan (m. the embodied one.). all actions with the mind ~i'lj~ 1«1 ~ <roT I manasa (n. the mouth and the organs of excretion and generation. the embodied soul.

nom. it proceeds.. but. agency. sl../Vl.). not. the atman or self.). mid. state of performing action. prabhus (m. of people. he creates. sg. of people He creates. it works. act . nom. the Lord. means of action.v 14 . phala (n.). it turns. 'flhf1lT na kartrtvam na karmatzi not agency not actions <. karma (n.). it creates. sg. sarhyogam (m. . 'filf~1<f na karmaphalasathyogam nor action-fruit union. m. sg. it lets flow. o '" . not. sg. proceeds (in all this). spontaneousness (in the sense of nature's spontaneousness) .) svabhavas (m.. pravartate (3rd sg.). 256 . pro indic. of the world. TP cpd. The Lord does not create Either the agency (the means of action) or the actions of people. pl. he brings forth. the Mighty One. nature. on the other hand. acc. acc. not.jati (3rd sg. tu. na. lokasya (m. na. ~~ . Or the union of action with its fruit. pra . nor. action. on the other hand. union. on the other hand.). fruit.t).). nor. sg./Sl. yoking together. gen. (karmaphalasamyogam. proceeds. pro indic. kartT:tvam (n. na.).. acc. acc.j). Nature... the Lord.. karmiifJi (n. actions. the union of action with its fruit. ~~~II svabhavas tu pravartate inherent nature. sg.)~~m<:i~:1 lokasya srjati prabhul.

of anyone whatever. wrong. it accepts. the Omnipresent. nom. sg.). evil. not. jantavas (m. na. the Omnipresent. acc. ~~~~' ajiiiineniivrtam jiiiinam by ignorance (is) enveloped knowledge ~~i'(!'~:11 .t and not either the good doing. it receives. it takes. suk~tam (n.e. pro indic. goodness.). inst. sin.Jmuh). tena (n. and. vibhus (m. . ignorance) they are deluded the people. :'. act .t by it (i. by this . ca. nom. good doing. gen. jiiiinam (n. sg. men. living beings. concealed. by it.Jdii). surrounded. the atman. eva. by ignorance. pro indic.). acc. either." tena muhyanti jantaval. p. The Lord does not receive Either the evil or the good deeds of anyone. sg. knowledge.). mid.v~). inst. not.). indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). people. the Eternal. kasyacid (m. pass. virtue. pl. ajfiiinena (n. nom. Knowledge is enveloped by ignorance. enveloped.). nom. the All Pervading. participle ii . ii . they are crazed. na.). 257 . piipam (n. wisdom. sg. offspring. muhyanti (3rd pI. sg.v 15 ~~:qq:qM niidatte kasyacit piipam not it receives of anyone the evil if '<hr ~ fonr: I na ciiiva sukrtam vibhul.). they are confused. they are deluded. sg. iidatte (3rd sg. sg. of anyone. By it (ignorance) people are deluded. iiv~tam (n. sg.

sg. Supreme Highest. 258 . te~am (m. destroyed. like the sun. by knowledge. atmanas (m. .). sg. nom.) destroyed of the self ~mf~m te~am adityavaj jfianam of them like the sun knowledge wrnr:rf~ ~ ~ II . gen.).). gen. it causes to shine. pl.). sg. pra Jkas). sg. tad (n. tu. That knowledge of theirs Causes the Supreme to shine like the SlUl. it causes to appear. sg. nom. sg. pl. participle Jnas). causative act. of the self. however.). yqam (m. adityavat. ajiidnam (n. nasitam (n. inst. this ignorance ~~t. pass.rf~~: I jiianena (n.). But for those in whom this ignorance of the Self Is destroyed by knowledge. this. lost. jiianam (n. nom.). prakasayati tat param it illumines that Supreme. nom. nom. prakasayati (3rd sg. that. but. nom. however.). this. of whom. sg.v 16 ~~~~ jfianena tu tad ajfianam by knowledge. yesam nasitam almanalJ of whom (pl. causative p. ignorance. knowledge.).. with knowledge. it illumines. param (n. gen. tad (n. that. of them. sg.

) 259 . rebirth. BV cpd.¥W1*!. BV cpd. BV cpd. f. whose selves are fixed on that. who hold that as highest object. they whose selves are fixed on that. nirdhUta (p. pI.>I. return.q (Ill 011: I tanni~thiis tatpar iiympi!:t whose basis is that. sg. pass. m.:rf~~:11 jfiiinanirdhutakalma~ii!:t their evils shaken off by knowledge. ll~'\lI':0 (11f~ gacchantyapunariivrttim they go to rebirthlessness. from ii "/vrt). they who hold that as highest object. evils. nom. pI.v 17 ~~ \1<./dhu).. nom. tadiitmiinas (m. shaken off. BV cpd. tadbuddhyas (m. who hold that as the highest object. nom. they whose evils have been shaken off by knowledge. go to the end of rebirth. Whose selves are fixed on that. acc. they whose minds are absorbed in that.). to the end of rebirth. the Supreme). act. tatparayatyis (m. pI. acc.. participle.). nom. gam). tanni~!hiis (m. pI. pl.e. apunar. kalma~iis (m. Whose evils have been shaken off by knowledge. tadbuddhayas tadiitmiinas they whose minds are absorbed in that. they whose basis is that.) jfiiina (n. nom. They whose minds are absorbed in that (i. Whose basis is that. knowledge. avrttim (f.). not again. wisdom. pI. to rebirthlessness. sg. shaken. gacchanti (3rd pI. nom. they go. nir . ffi?f1SO~ \1. they whose foundation is that.). wrongs.. (apunariivrttim. BV cpd. indic. m.). (jfiananirdhutakalma~as. from tad ni~!hii). pr.

on an elephant.). same. a type of outcaste.. and. wise men. or of parents of various foreign mountain tribes. sg. on a dog. in an elephant. eva. sg. on an the Pal)./pad). The wise see the same (Atman) In a bralunan endowed with wisdom and cultivation. accomplished. • Dog-cooker. ca. observing. from vi -Inf). (vidyii-vinaya-smnpanne. equally. seeing.) briihmafJe (m.v 18 f<RTTf<l 'i4 ~ q.). hastini (m. nom. pass.).).loc. sarhpanne (m. And even in a dog or in an outcaste. and. 260 . paQQits. nom pl. endowed. suni (m. vinaya (m. looking.). cultivated. svapiike (m. on a member of the priestly caste. on a cow. TPcpd.). loco sg. on an elephant ~'1"~~~:q vidyii (f. gavi (f. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). educated. or offspring of a cal:u!ala (son of a sadra father and a brahman mother). loco sg. cultivation. or of mixed ktatriya and vaisya lineage. finding. training.J vidyiivinayasampanne on a wisdom and cultivation endowed ~~Cf~~'1"1 briihmat}e gavi hastini Brahman. impartially. pafJ4itiis (m. (adv. on a Brahman. participle sam .<. sama. or of a prostitute. pl. p. loco sg. Such people served as public executioners and in other menial or unpleasant occupations.iits the same seeing. loco sg.). m. or of parents of a mixed ktatriya and sadra lineage..). wisdom. darSinas (m. offspring of a sadra father and a brahman mother. on a dog-cooker. loco sg. endowed with education and wisdom. In a cow. knowledge. suni ciiiva svapiike ca and on a dog and on a dog-cooker'*' qf~:~~:11 pa1}¢itii~ samadarSina~ ca.). loco sg. on a cow. outcaste.

261 . nom.). te. rebirth is conquered By those whose mind is established in impartiality. jitas (m. remaining.). nom. by those. they. thought. nom.. sg. in sameness. indeed impartial.Jji) . nirdo~am (n... nom. conquered. established. equal. in impartiality.). gen. p. here on earth. sg. . pass. dispassionate. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). in Brahman.). eva. nom. mind. f<RW f~~: 'XW nirdo~am hi samam brahma guiltless. therefore. sthitils (m. birth. sg." i. to The word" impartial" refers to those who "see the same. subdued. ye~ilm (m. sg. inst. silmye (n. participle . nom. manas (n. here. equable. pl. established. controlled.). nom.e. in equality. loco sg. from this.). coming forth.). abiding in. same. in equability. disinterested. guiltless. sthitam (n.).). truly..). tilis (m. Brahman is spotless and impartial. situated. sargas (m. without evil. loco sg. of whom. brahma (n.).v 19 ~q <:h: f. Brahman ~ 'X¢1lT a. of whom in impartiality established the mind. samam (n. indeed. abl. Brahman. abiding in.).rn: wrT . sg. sg. impartial. sg. ihaiva tair jita!. Even here on earth. iha. by them. tasmilt (m.f~: II tasmad brahma1}i te sthita!. Therefore they are established in Brahman. hi. situated. ~-qt ~ f~ +1'1: I ye~am samye sthitam mana!. brahmafJi (n. pl. sg. sargo here on earth by those conquered birth. nom. see that all atmans are identical with their own (see introductory chapter on Cosmology). pl. therefore in Brahman they established. in disinterestedness.

). Knowing Brahman. sg. attaining the uncherished. brahmavid (m. uncherished. participle a sam Jmuh). undeluded. act. prapya (gerundpra Jap).).). the preferred. ~~~urf~:11 brahmavid brahma1Ji sthital. reaching. sg. nodvijet priipya ciipriyam and not one should shudder. sg. sg. undeluded. nom.). one should be excited. reaching. not.v 20 if ~ fw:t >rr=<r na prahnyet priyam priipya not one should rejoice. not. attaining. and. one is established in Brahman. one should shudder. na. the cherished. pra Jh~~).). ud Jvij). firm intelligence. KD cpd. in Brahman (one is) established. unshakable. (sthira-buddhis. undeluded. solid.. 'sthirabuddhir asammut/ho (with) firm intelligence. situated. mm >rf'ClJ "I'lf5fll'lr. one should rejoice. intelligence. one should tremble. Brahman knowing. nom. firm. apriyam (m. opt. f. priyam (m. na. in Brahman. buddhis (f. ) asammu4has (m. nom. unconfused. prah~ryet (3rd sg. prapya (gerundpra Jap). attaining. undesired. p. the dear. optative act. With finn intellect. pass. brahmalJi (n. Brahman knowing. nom. sthitas (m. sg. udvijet (3rd sg. sg. loco sg. sthira (f. One should not rejoice upon attaining what is pleasant. 262 . acc. abiding. ca. the cherished attaining. acc. non-dear. Nor should one shudder upon encountering what is unpleasant. I . nom. sg.). established.). a knower of Brahman.

happiness. self. from . acc. asnute (3rd sg. pr. f4~'klll.). loco sg. indic.). he reaches. sparsqu (m. Whose Self is united with Brahman through yoga. in touchings. yoga (m. .v 21 411!H::q~TtS4*lffil. BY cpd. (bahyasparSe/ivasaktatma. sg. nom. indic. he. atma (m.). Yoga. yukta (p.).. ak/iayam (n. loco pI. indestructible. acc. self. which. nom. sg. in contacts. not clinging. ~~~~~II sukham ak~ayam asnute happiness imperishable he reaches. he whose self is unattached to external sensations. sg. imperishable. p ss. happiness.). sg. sg. soul. sg. sukham (n. atmani (m.ill biihyasparse~vasaktiitmii whose self is unattached to external contacts.Jas) . acc.. He whose self is unattached to external sensations. united.) sukham (n. what. Brahman. BY cpd. he attains.Jyuj) . who.). sas (m. nom. m. yad (n.). this. ~~1'11ffil.). (brahmayogayuktatma. pass. bliss. participle . outside. acc. sg.).). joined. nom. whose self is united in Yoga with Brahman. brahma (n. bliss. participle a . in the self.J2 vid).Jsprs). unattached. situated without. . yoked.) vindati (3rd sg.Jsafij) . he finds.ill sa brahmayogayuktiitmii he whose self is united with Brahman by Yoga. who happiness. mid . Who finds happiness in the Self. m. atma (m. nom. biihya. Reaches imperishable happiness. pr. asakta (p.il PI" «<l: ~ I vindatyiitmani yat sukham he finds in the self. act. sg. sg. 263 .

gratifications.~m<r~: II Pleasures born of contact. epithet of Arjuna. beginning. nom.). he is content. sg. indeed.). rich in. anta. TP cpd. The wise man is not content with them. he rejoices. nom. samsparsajas (m. ramate (3rd sg. nom. the wise man. m. pleasures. Sun of Kunti. te~u (m. hi. nom. Son of KuntI.). unhappiness. sources of pain. n. having. Are wombs (i.. pl. Jram). sg. in them. nom. man of intelligence. pI. he is delighted.e. not.).). (adyantavantas. . sources) of pain. indeed.) kaunteya (m. suffix). sg. who. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). end. they ~~:Cfim iidyantavantab kiiunteya having a beginning and an end.e. wombs. born of touching. are not eternal). pI. they. loco pl. yonayas (m.). voc. bhogas (m. pl. 264 . te (m. having a beginning and an end. wise man. Since they have a beginning and an end (i. m. commencement.v 22 ~fpl\q~I"11 m<rr ye hi smizsparsajii bhogii which indeed contact-born pleasures ~:~). ye (m. sources. nom. Arjuna. born of contact. mid. which. nom. nom.) eva. -vantas (m.). (dulJkha-yonayas. pI. pl.:r:r~~ I dubkhayonayaeva u wombs (i. truly. dulJkha (n.). '" " na te~u ramate budhab not in them he is content.e.. misery.. adi. budhas (m.). pl. pain. tending toward. na. sources) of pain.

p.Jsah). love. nom. The agitation that arises from desire and anger. desire. fortunate. he is able.Jmuc). sas (m. from release.). he is a happy man. to tolerate. liberation from the body. abl. sol/hum (infinitive . he disciplined. naras (m. nom.). before. momentum. nom. act.) kama (m.). body. prak (pranc. who. n. pr. he. sg. sas (m. sg. (sariravimok~alJat. . nom.liit before liberation from the body ~T<T~~ kiimakrodhodbhavam vegam desire-and-anger-origination agitation ~~:~~rrr<:: II sa yuktal. sg. fixed in Yoga. nom. bodily frame. yuktas (m. nom. here. sorfhum he is able here on earth. abl. udbhavam (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). from liberation. Is disciplined. sukhf (m. sg. sg. sg. disciplined. he. saknotihiiiva yal. verbal noun from vi .. acc. this.Jyuj).). 265 . here on earth. m. sg.v 23 mffift~<r 1:1: ~ saknoti (3rd sg.. to endure. onset. krodha (m. impetus.). orgasm. acc. greed. shock. pass. sg. origination. sa sukhi naral. He who is able to endure here on earth.. priik sariravimo~a1.). iha. wrath.). anger. nom. sarira. participle . previously. .).. 5Trefi mro<rm~ I . yas (m. sg. former. sg. eva. vegam (m. he happy man.). sg. vimok~a/Jat (m. steadfast in Yoga.Jsak). man. to bear. Before liberation from the body.). he can. who. this. to endure. agitation. happy. indic.

brahmanirviilJOm (n. yas (m. And his light within. thus.). He who finds his happiness within. sg. brahmabhutas (m. acc. adhi . (f~1f~~lf: 1 . he attains.) he who has radiance within. sg. adhigacchati (3rd sg. nom. yas (m. ~Tsf~(fll brahmabhiito. delight within.vii." following the round of rebirths. tatha. the nirval). he.). interior delight. . nom. eva. • nirviiIJa. thus who ~ lfrr'T ~il<frot sa yogi brahmanirvii1Jam this yogin Brahmanirval). (as BV cpd. refers to the final extinction of the "self. he ascends to. nom. sg. sg. sg. content within. antariiriimas (m.). nom. this. indentical in being with Brahman. ness. "withinhappi- tathiintarjyotir eva ya~ as a consequence inner radiance. nom. nom. sas (m. sg.). who. This yogin attains the bliss of Brahman.a. delight within.). interior brightness. as a consequence. yogf (m. in this way. from nir ". pr. his delight within.a.). inner radiance.) he who has happiness within. "blowout" as a candle is blown out. 266 .). It is related to the Hindu belief that to be born at all is a tragedy. interior contentment. he attains. indie. radiance within.a of Brahman.). yogin.v 2+ lfT Rf:~ SkI (I (I'i~ yo 'nta~sukho 'ntariiriimas who (having) happiness within. sg.) he who has delight within. absorbed in Brahman. antarjyotis (n. becoming Brahman. act. nom. Brahmanirval). (as BV cpd. antalJsukhas (m. sg." having happiness within. nom. which the Hindus (Buddhists of the Theravada School too) regard as the ultimately desirable state of nonbeing. who. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. (as BV cpd.dhigacchati absorbed in Brahman.). the extinction of the self in Brahman.Jgam). he goes.

pr. doubts.Jchid).. participle . evils. kalma~as (m. delighted.). whose doubts are dispelled.). loco sg. whose selves are restrained.Jram). souls. participle . 267 . content. cut away. whose evils are diminished. in friendship. p. pass. they attain. labhante (3rd pI. hite (m. pass. p. f~ayas (m.). twofold states. dvaidhas (m. whose evils have been destroyed. BV cpd. nom. in favorableness. whose selves are restrained. f~err iO@.). pl. whose selves are restrained. nom. participle . pass. m. creature. participle . BV cpd. uncertainties. made an end of.) ratas (m. passed away.. atmanas (m. the seers (of) destroyed evils. dualities. rejoicing. pl. pass. all. nom. disputes. whose doubts have been cut away.) chinna (p.Jyam) . ~ffi~~:11 sarvabhiitahite ratii!. BV cpd. destroyed. wrongs. loco sg. nom. participle Jksi) .) sarva. . restrained. nom. pI. selves. the f~is the seers."II"1: chinnadviiidhii yatiitmiina!. nom. pl. in benefit. the extinction of the self in Brahman. who delight in the welfare of all beings The seers. pI. acc. m. pI. sins.). pass. indic. they acquire. nom. being. the nirvalJa of Brahman. severed. in advantage. controlled. p. in welfare.). m. Whose doubts have been cut away.Jdhii).. brahmanirvalJam (n. k~ilJa (m. bhiifa (m. sg.) yata (p. pl. pI. nom. Who delight in the welfare of all beings.Jlabh).v 25 ~~~ labhante brahmanirvii1}am they attain BrahmanirviiIfa ~: &fjuICfl<-"I"1I: I uaya!.. (sarvabhiitahite. (yata-atmanas. Attain the bliss of Brahman. mid . in the welfare of all beings. (chinna-dvaidhiis. (k~ffJa-kalma~as. they obtain. m. k~i1}akalma~ii!.

abhitas (adv. (viditiitmaniim. indic. vartate (3rd sg. pI. of the restrained m thought. pI. pl. pl. TP cpd. gen. of the disjoined. iitmaniim (m. I kama (m.) yatfniim (m.:rt 1I (1 '<l ~HII '!. of the ascetics.). Who are knowers of the Self.v 26 ~f~ kiimakrodhaviyuktiiniim of the desire-and-anger-separated-from <rn'). close. of the unyoked.). p. of those to whom the self is known. desire. near. wrath.. gen.. greed.Jv~t).) of those whose thoughts are controlled. pr. it exists. of the separated from. The bliss of Brahman exists everywhere. of the knowers of the self. it turns.!a of Brahman. gen. participle . To those ascetics who have cast aside desire and anger. knower. the extinction of the self in Brahman. of those who are separated from desire and anger. participle vi . nom. of the restrained in thought.) yatiniim yatacetasiim of the ascetics. of the souls. of the selves. love. learned. gen.). krodha (m.).).!am (n. m'RfT 'ilWf~ abhito brahmanirvii1}am close BrahmanirvaQa ~fqf~~11 vartate viditiitmaniim it lies. viyuktiiniim (m. pI. mid . pass. it lies. yatacetasiim (m. (as BY cpd. vidita (p.Jvid). Whose thought is controlled. BY cpd. anger. knowing. m.). sg. 268 . (kiimakrodhaviyuktiiniim. gen.Jyuj). pass. it works. gen. m. brahmanirvii. of the knowing selves. . the nirvii.). pl. known.

) • These are elementary Yoga exercises. Expelling outside contacts And fixing the gaze between the two eyebrows. acc. eaksus (m. eva. '" '" ~1W11~ of the two brows. the same. of the two eyebrows. sg. wellknown to all yogins. dual. acc. eye movement is apt to accompany thought. m. bhruvos (f. within. perform- ing. imd.).). gaze.). 269 . doing. moving within the nose. from JsPt:s)." in other words rolling the eyeballs to their highest attainable point and drawing them toward the nose. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ~~111 nasabhyantaracarifJau the nose within moving. abhyantara. having made. in between. having made. Equalizing the inhalation and exhalation. even such unconscious thought as occurs in dreams. excluded. It might be remarked that. (nasdbhyantaraeariIJau. eye. exhalation. m. kt:tva (gerund Jk1:). inhalation. " Putting the gaze between the two eyebrows.) samiiu (m. bahyan (m. (praIJapanau. making. ea. external. outside. keeping them there steadily. the vital breath prafJapanau samau krtva inhalation and exhalation equal making. dual). :q~~~~:1 cak~uScaivantare sparsan (m. is a method of inhibiting thought. touchings. making. seeing. pl. expelled. interiorly.). exterior. according to modern physiology and psychology. moving. gen.). sg. foreign.). pI. abdominal breath. vital breath. nasa (f. acc. kt:tva (gerund Jkt:). dual. The other directions are for Yoga breathing exercises. loc. bahis (adv. nom. inhalation and exhalation. earinau (dual from Jear). similar. nose. antare (m. equal. inside. apana (m. contacts. praIJa (m. Moving within the nostrils. dual). acc. acc. and the abdominal breath. having performed.v 27 ~~<n~~ sparsan krtva baht'r bahyams contacts having made outside (to be) expelled. bhruvol:z and the gaze in between the two brows.).

mind.). sg. (yatendriyamanobuddhis. participle . nom. sage. vigata (p.). (with) release as highest aim. sg. fear and anger have disappeared. indriya (n. mind and intellect are controlled. sg.:n: +rT~: . a"'01 ~Teit vigatecchiibhayakrodho gone desire.). sg. nom. controlled. pass. mind and intelligence are controlled. sg. munir mok~apariiya1Jal} the sage..Jyam). who. f. nom. fear. intelligence. forever. sas (m. mental detennination. always. sg. BV cpd. nom. ["'. fear and anger have departed..Jmuc). pass. sg. nom. If:~~qq~: " yal} sadii mukta eva salJ. pass.v 28 yatendriyamanobuddhir with controlled sense. The sage whose highest aim is release. m. intuition. nom.) munis (m. sense. subdued.) yas (m.. bhaya (n.). Is forever liberated. gone away. fear and anger. From whom desire. icchii (f. released. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). muktas (m.). p. yata (p.). mind and intelligence. from whom desire. he. manas (n. wise man. '" . sada. liberated. desire. sensation. who has release as highest aim. (vigatecchabhayakrodhas.).). participle . BV cpd. eva. lff. this one. anger.Jgam) . nom. perpetually.). disappeared. who. nom. Whose senses. 270 . whose senses. sg.). whose highest course is release. mok!iaparayalJas (m. krodhas (m. he. participle vi . forever released. BV cpd. nom. sg. buddhis (f. wrath.

Jjiia). tranquility.J~). santim (f. acc. tapasam (n. sg. all. act. . companion. yajiia (m. loka (m.). pl. mighty Lord of all the world. he ascends to. TP cpd. offering. having known. jiiatva (gerund . maheSvaram (m. The friend of all creatures.) suh~dam (m. sg. world. he obtains.).~~ suhrdam sarvabhiitanam friend of all creatures. gen.)..).). gen.. sg. gen. (sarva-loka-maheSvaram. End of Book V The Yoga of Renunciation 271 . me. of the heatings.). mam (acc. sacrifice."' ~40iifll"l ~ ~I sarvalokamahesvaram (of) all the world the Mighty Lord. of all beings. knowing. of the sacrificial austerities. m. enjoyer. of the austerities. acc. acc. sacrificial. pI. he reaches. sg.).). acc. ) sarva. peace he attains. The mighty Lord of all the world. friend. mml1tmf~(f II jiiatva mam santimrcchati having known me. pr. ~cchati (3rd sg. Having known Me. He (the sage) attains peace. peace. the enjoyer of sacrifices and austerities. he attains. n. pl.). bhoktiirain yajiiatapasiiin the enjoyer of the sacrificial austerities . Mighty Lord. of all creatures. acc. eater. sg. sarvabhUtanam (m. indic.v 29 ~~ bhoktaram (m. (yajiiatapasam. ~. sg.

sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: the Blessed One. indic. thrower down. ca. karoti (3rd sg. participle an ii -Jsri) . perfect act. he performs. ritual action. he spoke. yas (m. sg. not. nom. p. who ~ ~r:q '1Frr:q sa samnyiisi ca yogi ca he a renouncer and a yogin done. -Jvac).) he who is without a consecrated fire.). yogin. yogf (m.).f. without ritual action. (as BY cpd. without fire. niragnis (m. nom. not (he who is) without a (consecrated) fire. not resorting to.) he who is without sacred rites. Is a renunciant and a yogin.). the to-he-done (ritual) action he does. nom. sg. (as BY cpd. ca. acc. and who fails to perform sacred rites.'1: I kiiryam karma karoti yal. akriyas (m. nom. uviica (3rd sg. and. renouncer. not. nor. -Jk1:). gerundive -Jk1:). and. sas (m. sg. and.). action fruit. nom. Not he who is without a consecrated fire. ca. pass. sg. sg. nom. action. 1 'l. he said. acc. not depending on. nom. he. While renouncing the fruit of action. who. sg. karmaphalam (n. consecrated fire. sg. he does. karma (n. without sacred rites. na.). nom. sg. sg. act. sg. the fruit of action.rfssra: 'fi1t~ aniisrital. The Blessed Lord spoke: He who performs that action which is his duty. 272 . and without sacred rites. na. acc.). pr. kiiryam (m. to be <fiTlf 'fi1t CfiiTfa.).). karmaphalam not depending (on) action fruit aniisritas (m.BOOK VI ~~~I srfbhdgaviin (n. sg. without <r f~~ <r :qrf~: II na niragnir na ciikriyal. this.. saf!lnyiisf (m.). the Blessed Lord. prescribed duty.

without renounced. nom.). sg. without renounced purpose. know! learn! piiIJ4ava (m. desire. thus. acc. epithet of Arjuna. sg. purpose. indeed. pra . viddhi (2nd sg. voc.VI 2 <i~~Q"~~ yam samnyiisam iti priihur which renunciation thus they call lfFT a. this. sg. sg. sg. Know that to be yoga. nom. Arjuna. anyone whatever. not renounced. sg. (asamnyasta-samkalpus. Without renouncing selfish purpose.zrfava Yoga it know. volition." ~ I yogam tam viddhi piit.). priihus (3rd pI. That which they call renunciation. sg. casting aside. Yoga. sg. acc.Jah with present meaning). asamnyasta (m. imperative act. Son of PaI)9U . na. perfect act.). he is. yam (m. anyone. samkatpas (m.) yogi (m. m.).. smnnyiisam (m. kascana. he becomes.).). which. they call.). pr. yogin. indic. No one becomes a yogin. they say. acc.Jbhu). yogam (m. hi. anyone. truly. bhavati (3rd sg.). Son of Pa1)Qu. not. throwing down. 273 . . renunCIatIon.Jvid). .:r~~4r4W4<fl('q') na hy asamnyastasamkalpo not indeed without renounced purpose lfFrT '1<lfQ" ~ II yogi bhavati kascana a yogin he becomes. tam (m. iti.f<n4. nom. acc. act. it.

eva. passive Jvac). gen. method. because karmayoga means practicing one's interest in objects. ~:~~II samalJ kiirat}am ucyate (m. iiruruk~os tranquility the means it is said. of the sage. i. of the desirous of ascending. one should save oneself by disengaging one's mind from its interest in objects and not perish by neglecting to do so. p. when has a man attained Yoga? When the yogin is no longer able to interest himself in the objects of prakrti (material nature) differing from the litman. to release. tasya (m. nom.). or in corresponding acts. of the desirous of climbing. acc. to Yoga iiruruk~or 'lilt CfiT\1JT~ ~ I karma kiira'!lam ucyate action the means it is said. or. inactivity. sg. to yoga. of the Yoga ascended. means. because naturally he does not experience anything but the iitman.). in other words. it is said. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).e. When a man aspires to the contemplation. acc. Tranquility is said to be the means. it is said. ucyate (3rd sg. sg. kiiralJam (n. gen. sg. only when the contemplation of the iitman has already been secured. of him. ucyate (3rd sg. sg. gen. of the sage. gen. tranquility. cause. (as TP cpd.). deeds. indic. kiiralJam (n. Action is said to be the means.). pr. 274 . samas (m. means. it is called. lfllllNf4 rn-q yogiiriitjhasya tasyiiiva of the Yoga-ascended. sg. participle yoga ii . desiderative noun from ii J ruh). sg. nom. sg. When a man wishes to attain Yoga. munes (m. yoga. For the sage desirous of attaining yoga. cause him to succeed. Rllmllnuja. calmness. For him who has already attained yoga.J ruh). sg. a man must perform acts until he has attained release. pass.VI 3 ~~li~lfm muner yogam of the desirous of ascending.e. yogiiru4hasya (m. karma (n.). i. Now. of the wise man. yogam (m. pr. of him. acc. then he can only do so by practicing karmayoga.) of him who has ascended to Yoga.). sg. passive Jvac). indie. action. quiet. method. it is called.). karmayoga will cause him to succeed. However. for at that stage one is still unable not to experience the objects and therefore karmayoga is one's only resource. for then all desires have gone. of this. • By karmayoga (the Yoga of Action) one is able to succeed in Yoga because in karmayoga one does not risk being negligent about it. willjiiiinayoga (the Yoga of Knowledge).

~~ yada hi nendriyarthe~u when indeed not in the objects of the senses if~~1 na karmasv anusajjate nor in actions he is attached ~~~Cfld~i'lIl'Gr sarvasamkalpasamnyiisi all purpose renouncing lf~~11 yogaruif. renouncing. when. ucyate (3rd. (sarvasamkalpasmnyasf. p.). sg. loco pl. all resolve. hi. he clings. then. yada. sg. ascended. He is then said to have attained yoga.has tadocyate Yoga-ascended then he is said to be. pass. Yoga. it is said. TP cpd. TP cpd. indeed. in deeds. nom. • See footnote previous stanza. participle a . not. pr. sg. indic. passive .). When he is attached neither to the objects of the senses Nor to actions. arudhas (m. sarvasamkalpa (m.).)saj . loco pl. ascended to Yoga.). mid. not. na.)saiij).. m. karmasu (n.)vac).ff. anusajjate (3rd sg. pr. in the objects of the senses. he is attached. anu .. climbed. he hangs onto. mounted to Yoga. renouncing all determination. nom. m. indie. he is said to be. throwing down. all purpose. nom. samnyasf (m. (yogaruqhas.) tada. in actions. truly.). sg. nor.) yoga (m. indriyarthqu (n..VI 41RT f~ . all determination. na. And has renounced all purpose. sg. 275 . renouncing all purpose.Jruh). nom. casting aside.

uddhared iUmanii 'tmiinam one should uplift by the self the self. sg. indeed. sg. one should cause to sink. hi. sg. ~rn~T~~ iitmiiiva hyiitmano bandhur the self indeed of the self a friend ~f~~:11 iitmiiiva ripur iitmana!. companion. nom. For the Self alone can be a friend to oneself. he should rise up. the self. eva. the self. mind (manas) will be his enemy and bring about the opposite of beatitude . niitmiinam avasiidayet not the self one should degrade.freely adapted from Ramanuja. not. atmana (m. acc. relative. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). alone. inst. sg. one should render downhearted. atmanam (m.).).). causative act.VI 5 ~=q~~ uddharet (3rd sg. atmanam (m. acc.). And the Self alone can be an enemy of oneself.). sg. avasadayet (3rd sg. alone. of the self. gen.). alone. eva. optative act. sg. atmanas (m. nom. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). of the self. the self alone enemy of the self. atma (m. bandhus (m. optative ava Jsad). nom. na. who thus equates manas (mind) with iitman (self) in interpreting this stanza. one should uplift.). self. one should degrade.). atmanas (m. friend. self. One should not degrade oneself. by the self. sg. ripus (m. enemy. the mind (manas) will be his friend. ud Jdh~). One should uplift oneself by the Self. truly.). in the case of one who wishes not to perish by neglecting to so disengage his mind. sg. one should lift up. • In the case of one who is saving himself by disengaging his mind from its interest in the objects of sense. sg. 276 . nom. atma (m. gen.

).).B'1*l . companion.4Gf ~ II '" . controlled. atmanas (m. sg. sg. atma (m. sg. varteta (3rd sg.). nom. of the unconquered self. gen. pass. in rivalry. subdued. nom. optative mid .). eva. it should exist.). inst.Jv~t). self. p. bandhus (m. eva. by the self. of the self. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). nom. tasya (m. nom. self. sg. in the manner of an enemy. atma (m. but. sg. indeed. it might exist. like an enemy Gfdcll. satruvat (n. tu.). nom. sg. participle . But for him who has not conquered himself. atma (m. gen. like an enemy. The Self is a friend.). in hostility. of this. bandhur atma 'tmanas tasya a friend the self of the self of him ~"1I<:4Gf 1. (as BV cpd. sg.VI 6 ~~~~ "" . friend. relative. in enmity vartetatmaiva satruvat it would exist.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). • See previous footnote.) for him whose self is not. satrutve (m. of him. the self. by whom the self by the self conquered ~'1I. atmana (m. by whom. sg. however. indeed.). like an enemy. 277 . For him who has conquered himself by the Self.~ '" anatmanas tu satrutve he whose self is not. The Self remains hostile. conquered. yena (m. nom. anatmanas (m.). loco sg. sg. inst. jitas (m. sg.). of the not-self. gen. self. in enmity..Jji).:r~~ .11'11 f~: I yenalmaivatmana jital. . sg.

dual. participle . gen. the self which has been exalted by Yoga practice.). (manapamanayos. combined.khe~ in cold. participle pra . pleasure. m. fame. pain. sfta (n. apamana (m. loco pI. of him who has conquered himself. happiness. U:ffJ£l (n. misery. pride. heat. pleasure. BV cpd.). loco DV cpd. devoted. honor. heat. composed.) prasantasya (m. samahitas (m. thus. gen. of the peaceful. (sfto~lJasukhadulJkhe~u. sg. Thus also in honor and dishonor. pain. united. The highest Self of him who has conquered himself And is peaceful. nom. sukha (n.). 278 .).). jita (p. til"jij t)Q1W-'1~:~ "n ' Sito~1Jasukhadul. of him who is peaceful. thus (also) in honor and dishonor.) • Highest self. of the peaceful ~wnf~:1 paramatma samahitalJ. conquered. cold. ill fame. in cold. pleasure. praiantasya of the conquered self. pleasure and pain. pass. n. Supreme Self. nom. subdued. p. in honor and dishonor. sg. pass.). DV cpd.Jsam).) tatha. is steadfast In cold. (f~ Ii 1'1 Iqli l'1lfT: II tatha manapamanayolJ. m.). sg. highest self.VI 7 f~: 51t!II"dfli jitatmanalJ. and pain. (jitamanas.Jji). atmanas (m.Jdha). paramatma (m. steadfast. the highest self (is) steadfast. sg. gen. sg. heat. mana (m. p. dulJkha (n. dishonor.. collected. heat. in this way. of the self. participle sam a ..). pass.

nom. self. nom. The yogin who is satisfied with knowledge and discrimination. jizana (n. nom. indic..ffif. knowledge of the iitman as well as of the iitman as a different entity from prakrti (material nature). yogin. sg. similar. 279 . n.:>-'9'1: II samalo~tasmakaiicanal. m.) • Discrimination.) yuktas (m. stone. iti. vijita (p. a stone and gold are the same. a stone. he is said to be.). thus he yogm ~~lSCl~Wfll. disciplined. lo~{a (m. kiiizcanas (m.). atma (m.. lump of clay. nom. nom. yogi (m.) ku{asthas (m. sg. m. the same. nom. the to whom a clod. content. pr. clod. one whose senses are subdued. BV cpd. unchanging. satisfied. participle -Jyu}). nom. sg. (jizanavijizanat~ptatma. pass. discrimination. sg. power.. BV cpd.). <rni~~lfmr '" '" yukta ityucyate yogi disciplined.). Is said to have attained samadhi. passive -Jvac). i. (samalo~tasmakaizcanas. (vi}ita-indriyah. sg. perception. to whom a clod. vijizana (n.e. standing at the top.). t~pta (p.). IS said to be. subdued. he is called. Who is unchanging. To whom a dod. sense.). sg. and gold are the same. sg.. pass. ucyate (3rd sg.VI 8 mrrf~~ jiianavijiianatrptatma the knowledge-discrimination-satisfied self ~~~T f<lf. nom. indriyas (m. BV cpd.). a stone and gold are the same. p. asma (m. sg. understanding. he whose self is satisfied with knowledge and discrimination. steadfast. gold. thus. conquered.. immovable. fixed in Yoga. unchanging. sama. sg. pass. knowledge. equal. m. (with) conquered sense. participle -Jt~p). with conquered senses.). participle vi -Jji).""1:<l": I kiitastho vljitendriyal.

slttmg apart. disinterested. udasfna (m. (as BV cpd. among the sinful. Is to be distinguished among men. free from affection or hatred. and. he is preeminent. Who is neutral among enemies and kinsmen.rrfmrRsuhrnmitriiryudiisinafriend-companion-enemy sitting apart. • A consequence of contemplation of the dtman exclusively. And who is impartial among the righteous and also among the companion and enemy. nom. companion. he IS to be distinguished.:r:. companion.).).) he who is of impartial insight.).). 280 . loco pl. companion. pro indic. neutral. pape~u (m. foe. companion. samabuddhis (f. dispassionate. kinsman.). loco pl. pro participle ud -las). . madhyastha (m.). vi si~). standing in the middle." . sg. even. mitra (m. dve~a (m.) siidhu~u (m.). in-different. api. enemy. impartial minded. ca. evil. ari (m. among the righteous. mid. impartial toward friend. friend.). among the good. friend. enemy." siidhu~v suh~d (m. He who is equal-minded toward friend. bandhu (m. among the evil ones.. (suh~nmitraryudasfnamadhyasthadve~abandhu~u. ife~~~~1 madhyasthadve~yabandhu~u standing in the middle among enemIes and kinsmen ~mq-~~ . associate. impartial. and enemy. he is to be distinguished. and neutral among enemies and kinsmen. also. visi~ate (3rd sg. loco pI.).VI 9 w-. m. api ca piiPe~u among the righteous and also among the evil ~~fqf~11 samabuddhir visi~yate impartial minded.

yogf (m. atmanam (m. thought. nom.). he should yoke himself. KD cpd.Jyam) . destitute of possessions. remaining in solitude. sg. nom.).fTlr'T '1:3fmmrn+t yogi yuiijita satatam the yogin should concentrate constantly ~~~f~~:1 iitmiinam rahasi sthital. controlled.VI 10 .). sg. participle Jstha).) niraSfs (m. nom.). subdued. with controlled mind and body. yogin. Jyuj) . on the self. aparigrahas (m. sg. loco sg. mind. solitary. acc. sg. alone. Having no desires and destitute of possessions. alone.). without desires. yufijfta (3rd sg. he should discipline himself. satatam (adv. sthitas (m. nom. pass. (yata-citta-atma. sg. yata (p. without possessions or a wife.. without wish. nom. rahasi (n.. nom. m. having no desires. participle . sg. in solitude remaining. 281 . without asking. ~'Tlfflf~ ekiiki yatacittiitmii alone controlled thought and self f. in solitude. nonaccepting. optative mid.fqf~: II niriiSfr aparigrahal.).:fmT~ 'l. destitute. nom.). pass. constantly. he should concentrate. citta (n.). to the self. with controlled thought and self. situated. sg. self. remaining. atma (m. the self. Alone. p.). on the self. The yogin should concentrate constantly On the Self. ekakf (m. sg.

acc. kusa grass. bottom. The kusa grass is on the bottom. ajina (n. in a region. acc. in radiant. seat. locating. acc. acc. causing to fix.Jsri). uttaram (n. in clean. kusa (m. in holy. atinlcam (n. ultimate layer. deSe (m. a firm seat for himself natyucchritam natinicam not too high. BY cpd. Not too high. sg.) sucau dese prati~thapya in a clean place establishing f~~~~:1 sthiram asanam atmanal.). in white. acc. Establishing a firm seat for himself In a clean place. too much elevated. whose covering is cloth. ~~~II cailajinakusottaram a cloth. firm. raised too high. the antelope skin on top of it. antelope hide and kusa grass. gen.). participle ati ud . • N. loc.B. in a spot.VI 11 ~1~>rf~ sucau (f. sg. not too low. sg. sg.). na. in a place.). in virtuous. covering. an antelope skin. na. in pure. for himself. too short. sg.J2 afic). sg. a kind of fragrant grass. asanam (n. acc. cloth. too low. sthiram (m. steady. sg. 282 . Covered with a cloth.). and kusha grass. sg. establishing. loc. skin of an antelope. too base.).). caila (m. atmanas (m. not too low. pass.Jstha). (cailajinakusottaram. n. of himself. from ati ni . sg. This was the proper seat for the meditating yogin. p. not. an antelope skin and kusa grass cover.).). not. in undefiled. atyucchritam (m.. too mean. and the cloth topmost. prati~{hapya (causative gerund prati .

dat./yuj). sg. manas (n. visuddhaye (f. concentrated on a single object. ~~~11 There. indriyakriyas (m. toward purification.). krtva there. loco sg. thought. making.Jkr). sitting. . With his thought and the activity of the senses controlled. m. ~~~~ upavisyasane yuiijiid seating himself on the seat. there. • Directing the mind (concentrating it) on a single point or object is one of the preliminary techniques of Yoga. Yoga. he who controls the activity of thought and the senses. (atma-visuddhaye. restrained. activity of the senses. directed to a single point. nom.).) tatraikagram manal.). dat. acc. TP cpd. on the seat. f. for purfication of self. thought. Its purpose is control of the mind. he should concentrate. asane (n.). (yatacittendriyakriyas.. having directed his mind to a single object. ekagram (n. sense activity. which tends to wander. having made. he should yoke himself. sg.) upavirya (gerund. upa "/vis). to purification. sg. BV cpd. he should practice. yuiijat (3rd sg. to Yoga. he should practice '" yogamatmavisuddhaye yoga to self purification. mind. participle "/yam). It is very difficult for the average person to keep the mind concentrated on a single object for any length of time. acc.). krtva (gerund . having performed. sg. seating himself... sg. directed to a single object the mind having made 1fflfm~'Jfi<r: I yatacittendriyakriyal. pass. sg. atma (m. he should fix himself. controlled.VI 12 ~Wf:~ tatra.). controlling thought and sense-activity. yogam (m. for the purpose of purification. acc. he should practice Yoga for the purpose of self-purification.). 283 . yata (p.). self. Seating himself on the seat. nom. citta (n. sg. optative act.

m. anavalokayan (m. acc. 284 .). nom.). immovable. acc. 10k). pr. nostril. regions. sg.5~ II disaSciinavalokayan and (any) direction not looking towards. sg. sthiras (m. indic. svam (m.)..). acc. nom. acc. head and neck. nose. motionless. tip.). acc. body. kiiya (m. body. sg. pl. agram (n. head. erect. quarters. holding. looking at. neck.).VI 13 ~ GfiTlifmrnW samam kiiyasirogrivath erect the body.). causative participle Jdhl:). the lotus position with legs intertwined and feet emerging behind the opposite knee.). participle an ava".l holding. Holding the body. sg. own. nasikii (f.). head and neck ~~f~~:1 dhiirayann acalam sthira/. of course. • This and the following stanza concern yoga techniques aimed at controlling the mind. !>alanced. samam (m. grfvam (m. causative act. equal. steady B>1~ 'f1f~ Bf samprek~ya niisikiigram svam looking at the tip of the nose own f~~I~"'I"Fl':. placing. concentrating the eyes on. sg. steady. sg. motionless.) dharayan (m. Gazing at the tip of his own nose And not looking in any direction. acc. directions. acalam (m. head and neck erect. acc. not looking toward. foremost point. sg.). The sitting position is. (kiiyasirogrfvam. siras (n. and. nom. Motionless and steady. pr. not looking. sg. ca. unmoving. sg. disas (f. of oneself. sainprek~a (gerund sam pra Jfk~).

in brahmacarin vow (of continence) established. Controlling the mind.).Jtis). nom. tislta (3rd sg. sg. (with) quieted self. lfffi ~ffi~: II concentrated he should sit. nom. lA":~m~) mana!. thoughts fixed on me. banishing fear. apprehension. banishing. disciplined. f. nom. devoted to me. in vow of continence. fright. 285 . self.). smnyamya (gerund sam .). fear. participle pra . yoked. ~~r~~:1 brahmaciirivrate sthita!. sg. made peaceful. concentrated. titmti (m.). disappeared. bhls (f. pass.. pass.Jgam) . sg. yuktas (m. manas (n.Jsam). sthitas (m. p. acc. loco sg.Jyam) . quieted. established. KD cpd. with thoughts fixed on Me. nom. satnyamya maccitto the mind controlling. dread. nom. standing. devoted to me. pass. thoughts fixed on me. He should sit. matparas (m. optative mod .). participle . sg. p.Jyuj). holding me as highest object. concentrated.). sg. '" yukta iisita matpara!. Established in the brahmacharin vow of celibacy.). (vigata-bhls. nom. in brahmacann vow. controlling. . participle vi . thought. thinking of me. banishing fear. banishing fear. mind. maccittas (m. he should sit. subduing. gone away.VI 14 5l*flifl k141 r<!1Rf'fr~ prasiintiitmii vigatabhir prastinta (m. steadfast.) brahmactirivrate (n. in pledge of chastity. banished. nom. sg. devoted toMe. sg. vigata (p. With quieted mind. sg.

Jyuj). nirvana supreme. nom. supreme. of subdued yogi niyatamiinasal. sg. yogin. continually disciplining himself.VI 15 ~~~~~ yunjann evam sadii 'tmiinam disciplining thus always himself. to supreme peace. (nirvana-paramtim. tranquility. atmanam (m.).) whose mind is subdued. acc. yogf(m.). acc. pr. gen.) matsalnsthtim (f.). 286 . sg. highest. sg.). he goes. sada (adv.Jgam). To union with Me. he goes. participle . Thus. nom. santim (f. always. f. indic. The yogin whose mind is subdued Goes to nirvana. acc. sg. himself.. sg.). acc." union with me.). thus. adhi . perpetually. sg.z the yogin of subdued mind ~~f<1<:jIQlq(lii santim nirvii1Japaramiim to peace. nirvaI:la. extinction of the self in Brahman. mind. acc. KD cpd. he attains. peace. nirvalJ(J. paramam (f. disciplining. adhigacchati (3rd sg. concentrating. sg. sg. (as BV cpd. to nirvaI:la supreme ~m~CfII matsamsthiim adhigacchati to union with me. niyatamanasas (m.). pro act. lIl<rTf<i4dlil'HI: I yufijan (m. act. evam. "me together standing.

BV cpd. ca. • This statement.VI 16 '11. natyasnatas tu yogo ' sti not of eating too much. and. <it<it sf~ na. and. absolutely. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).. participle ati Jas). participle Jjag~). gen. Yoga. of awakening. sg. pr. of necessity. of one who refrains from food. na. m. sg. Arjuna. of one who does not eat.). of being watchful. ekantam (adv. of eating too much.). 287 . sg. of keeping awake. ca. ca. solely. gen. na. exclusively. (atisvapnaSilasya. And not keeping awake either. not. it is. Yoga is not eating too much. sg. Silasya (m. indeed. tu. AIjuna.). voc. eva. is among several references in the Bhagavad GItll to extreme practices on the part of some ascetics. and. not dissimilar to the" middle way" of the Buddha.tq~11 jagrato naiva carjuna and of keeping awake not either. gen. act. of him who has the habit of sleeping too much. Yoga it is '1"~~:1 na caikantam anasnatal. J as). yogas (m. of habit. pro participle an J as). pr. not. sg. but. asti (3rd sg. oversleeping. of custom. na.). indeed.lili"ld*t (]. only. sg. arjuna (m. anasnatas (m. gen. Arjuna. not. Nor is it not eating at all. indic. atyasnatas (m. there is. sg. pr. The following stanza continues the idea. and not absolutely of not eating '1"~~~ na catisvapnasilasya and not of the too-much-sleeping habit ~).) jagratas (m. of usage. too much sleeping. nom. not. atisvapna (m. And not the habit of sleeping too much.). gen.

nom. m. g. sg. (yuktace~!asya. yukta (p. Who is moderate in sleep and waking. pass. it becomes. m.. 'i'ffifCl\'lICl<lr~ 10 performance of yuktasvapniivabodhasya of the moderate in sleep and waking "1mr "flqfa.). dulJkhahii (m. participle . gen. sleep. sg. BY cpd.).Jyuj). it is.) yogas (m. of actions. disciplined. of sport. 288 . sg. (yukta-ahiira-vihiirasya. For him who is moderate in food and diversion. disciplined. m. disciplined..Jhan). sg. moderate. avabodhasya (m.Jyuj).).. pr. BY cpd. indic.). Whose actions are disciplined. bhavati (3rd sg. moderate. gen. svapna (m. Yoga destroys all sorrow. Yoga. vihiirasya (m. whose actions are disciplined. 'i'ffi'<ttSCf"Pfiii~ I yuktace#asya karmasu of the disciplined actions. sg. ahiira (m.~:~ II yogo bhavati dul. loco pl. pass. sg. moderate. who is moderate in sleeping and staying awake. gen. of play. gen. food.). sg. ce~!asya (m. sorrow destroying.) karmasu (n. (yuktasvapnavabodhasya. from dulJkha .khahii yoga it is sorrow destroying. nom. act . participle . sg. BY cpd. participle .VI 17 'i'ffiI~I<f~ yuktiihiiravihiirasya yukta (p. of the moderate in food and diversion. gen. yoked. in actions.) yukta (p. of waking. of being awake.). pass.Jbhu). .).Jyuj). one moderate in food and diversion. of diversion.

lfffi~~~11 " . sg. from all desires. thought. Then he is said to be a saint. pr. With controlled mind. indie. nom. he is said to be. he abides in. free from longing. disciplined. he remains. Free from longing. thus. from all desires. nom.Jsthi'i). in the self.Jvac). then. ava . avati~rhate (3rd sg. when (with) controlled thought ~~~I iitmany eViivat#thate in the self alone he is absorbed.). sg. steadfast. cittam (n. he is called. he is said to be. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). 289 . p. passive . pass. ni"sPl:has (m. f<f:~~: ~l:IT ni/:zsprha/:z sarvakamebbyo G free from longing. iti. sarva. yukta ity ucyate tada "disciplined" thus.VI 18 liGT fCffmf~ yada viniyatam cittam yada. kiimebhyas (m. participle vi ni . controlled.Jyam).). free from desire. indie. sg. atmani (m. subdued. loe. eva. from desires. pr. from lust. all.). nom. viniyatam (n. abl. yuktas (m. tada. sg. he is absorbed. mid. ucyate (3rd sg. when. then.). sg. sg. When he is absorbed in the Self alone.).

nom. p. sg. nom. gen. of controlled thought. -sthas (m.Jiiig). in which way. Yoga. iitmanas (m. act. na. yogam (m. situated. participle . windless. sas (m. As a lamp in a windless place Does not flicker. the simile is recorded lI"Tf~)~~ yogino yatacittasya of the yogin. sg. dfpas (m. yatacittasya (m. pass.).VI 19 lI"qr~mf~q) yatha dipo niviitastho as a lamp in a windless place . thought. lantern. pr. to such is compared The yogin of controlled mind. sg.). indic. .). sg. Performing the yoga of the Self. iiigate (3rd sg. of the yogin. sg. of steadfast. smr:tii (f. situated in. of the shelf. participle . it stirs. lamp. recorded. sg. not. as. gen.). of performing. of him of controlled thought. yoginas (m. sg.Jsmr:). of concentrated.). suffix). without wind. sg. pr. being not it flickers. gen. acc. niviita (m.f~~)qm~1 nefigate sopamii smrtii yathii. yuiijatas (m.). md .). simile. standing in. gen. nom. 290 . of one of subdued thought. sg. remembered. '!3f~ lI"ftn:{~: II yufijato yogam iitmanaiJ of performing the Yoga of the self. nom.Jyuj) . BV cpd. it flickers.

by practice of yoga. Restrained by the practice of yoga. ca. seeing. by practice. reflection. it ceases.).jrudh). (yoga-sevaya. it stops. yatra. nom.f '<T<m+r<rr ~ yatra ciiiviitmanii 'tmiinam and where by the self the self ~~"~QII pasyann iitmani t~yati beholding in the self he is content.. yoga (m. He is content in the Self.VI 20 llflq(l4cl f~ yatroparamate cittam where it is at rest. pr. p. act. sg. sg. by the self. acc. pr. pafyan (m. uparamate (3rd sg. atmanam (m. inst. niruddham (n.). upa . by the self. sg. indic. he is content. where. . thought. Yoga. nom. eva. . held back. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). When the mind comes to rest. it is inactive. f. in the self.jtu~). sg. indic. cittam (n. pr..jram). loco sg.). restrained. mid.). by service.) yatra. it is at rest. beholding. where. And when beholding the Self. TP cpd. he is satisfied. sg.).). tu~ati (3rd sg. thought fNll"~1 niruddham yogasevayii restrained by Yoga practice zr. sg.jpas). pass. the self. it pauses. sevaya (f. inst. 291 . sg. participle ni . inst. nom. atmani (m. atmana (m. participle act. and.

endless. sg.. indic. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). he knows. where. ayam (m. standing. sg. sg.Jvid). tattvatas (n. tad (n. and. nom. he moves. abiding. beyond the realm of the senses.). perpetual. he deviates from the truth. .). yad (n. He knows that inftnite happiness Which is grasped by the intellect and transcends the senses.). sg. Does not deviate from the truth. act. indic. 292 . sg. And. sg. . eva.). from "thatness.). and not this (one). iityantikam (n. sthitas (m. pr. this. buddhigriihyam (n. which. infinite.~1 sukham (n. not. vetti (3rd sg. grasped by the intelligence. joy. this. acc. abl. nom. transcending the senses ~D<r?T<r~ vetti yatrq na ciiiviiyam he knows where. sg. acc.). pleasure. na. fp1(f~m(f(f~: II sthitascalati tattvatal} established. transcending the senses. acc. established there. he. acc. acc.). acc. ca. act." from the truth.: sukham iityantikam yat tad happiness infinite which that ~. he deviates. atfndriyam (n. yatra. sg.a~~1f.). happiness. that. calati (3rd sg.).Jcal). this one. sg. buddhigriihyam atindriyam (by) intelligence grasped.VI 21 ~lJ: ~~ «<l: en. pr. established.

adhikam (m. mid. having obtained. not. attainment. yasmin (m. sg. having attained. other gain +r«ra-. in which. superior. sg. acc. Having attained this. sg. from this point. situated. established. abiding in. subsequent. indic. he imagines.). even. abl. sthitas (m. by heavy. and. which. mr: I manyatc: niidhikam tatalJ he thinks not greater from there.rfl:'l'f. nom. obtainment. gain. na. in whom. 293 . labdhvii (gerund Jabh).). loco sg. he is shaken. m~ f~T" ~:@. inst.iipi viciilyate profound even. No greater gain can he imagine.). dulJkhena (n. greater.). obtaining. pro indic. ca. who. Jman).. liibham (m.). pr. attaining. api.). causative passive vi "'Jcal).:r yasmin sthito na dulJkhena in which established not by sorrow.).t yam labdhvii ciiparam liibham yam (m. he is shaken. he thinks. gurulJii (n. other. He is not moved even by profound sorrow. also. acc. sg. additional. not.). from there.VI 22 <t ~e<rT ~ m-. he is moved. by profound. sg. na. sg. by sorrow. manyate (3rd sg. by misfortune. sg. 'I~qf~11 gurur. Established in this. aparam (m. acc.). inst. ace. and which having attained. tatas (m. viciilyate (3rd sg. sg.

(yoga-samjiiitam. let it be known. termination. duI!kha (n. KD cpd.). acc. viyogam (m. sg. this. known as yoga.). cetasii (n. Let this. samyoga (m. union-with-paintam (m. p. with mind.Jci). coming together. anirvifJlJ<l (p. with determination.). with thought. with thoughts which are not downcast. pain. acc. sg. by de- trmr sf. moving apart. with determination to be practiced. sg. inst. to be practiced. he. may it be known. undismayed. him. m.Jyuj). participle a nir .) sas (m. (anirvifJfJacetasii. called.).). with undismayed mind. Be known as yoga. active optative . sg. niscayena (m.Jvid). sg.) 294 . nom. Yoga. m. vidyiit (3rd sg. sg.) yoga (m. pass. dissolution of union with pain. this yoga Is to be practiced with detennination And with an undismayed mind. acc. not downcast. cognized as. sg. samjiiitam (m.VI 23 ~f~~:~mtam vidyiid dul}khasamyogathis. with absence of doubt. yoktavyas (m. re- sa niscayena yoktavyo this. sg. acc. known as.lacetasii Yoga with undismayed mind.).). (duI!kha-samyoga-viyogam. it. nom..:rfqOOI"'~~11I yogo 'nirvilp. acc. gerundive . inst. sg.). union. let it be known. m. nom. TPcpd. from nis . to be concentrated on.. nom. acc. this. sg.. participle from noun samjiiii). yogas (m. inst. sg. TP cpd. Yoga called ~f~tr~ ing. Yoga. sunder- fcr:rm trmfmfl\ I viyogam yogasamjfiitam dissolution. dissolution.Jvid). the dissolution of union with pain. pass. sg.

by thought. pl. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). acc. indriyagramam (m. all. without remainder. wholly. (samkalpaprabhavan. BY cpd. whose origins lie in one's intention.). All of them. aim. pl. having renounced.). subduing.VI 24 ~~ samkalpaprabhaviin kiimiiits whose origins lie in one's intention. the aggregate of senses. samkalpa (m).). tyaktva (gerund Jtyaj). viniyamya (gerund vi ni Jyam). lusts. ~~Tl::f manasiiivendriyagriimam by the mind the multitude of senses. produced. sarvan (m. acc.) ktiman (m.). acc. without exception..). completely. purpose. born. entirely. restraining. fqf~~:11 viniyamya samantatal} restraining completely. samantatas (adv. wholly. the multitude of senses. manasa (n. pl. eva. pI. controlling. sg. desires. sg. desires ~~'q~:1 tyaktvii sarviin ase~atal} having abandoned all without remainder.). abandoning. intention. having forsaken.). prabhavan (m. m. ase~atas (adv. acc. by mind. inst. 295 . cravings. come into being. And completely restraining The multitude of senses with the mind. Abandoning those desires whose origins lie in one's intention. acc. having abandoned. origins.

~:~~ , ,

saniii!; saniiir uparamed by little by little he should cease from action
~ m~Tcr<:rr I Co
..,;:).... Co

buddhyii dhrtigrhitayii with the intelligence firmly grasped.
~mlffip:t If.T: ~

iitmasamstham mana!; krtvii the self fixed, the mind having made,
'f f'fif~ mil f~ II na kimcid api cintayet not anything even he should think of.

Little by little, he should come to rest, With the intellect finnly held. His mind having been established in the Self, He should not think of anything.

sanai" saniiis (adv.), little by little, gradually. uparamet (3rd sg. optative act. upa .Jram), he should cease from action, he should renounce action, he should be quiet. budhya (f. inst. sg.), by the intelligence, with the intelligence. dh~ti (f.), firmness, firm, firmly . g~hitaya (f. inst. sg. p. pass. participle .Jgrah), grasped, controlled, gripped. (dh~ti-g~hftaya, f. instr. sg. KD cpd., firmly grasped.) atma- (m.), self, own. salnstham (m. acc. sg.), "together standing," fixed, situated together with. manas (n. acc. sg.), mind, thought. k~tva (gerund .Jk~), making, having made. na, not. kirheid, anything, anything whatever. api, even, also. eintayet (3rd sg. causative optative act. .Jeint), he should think of, he should reflect on, he should consider.



lRfT <reT f~Cf
yato yato niscarati wheresoever it wanders away,

manascancalam asthiram the mind, moving to and fro, unsteady,

mmffiT f"'W:4d,\
tatastato niyamyaitad from thence holding back this (i.e. the mind)
~ Q;Cf <ffi ~ II iitmany eva vasam nayet

yatas yatas, whensoever, whencesoever, wheresoever. niscarati (3rd sg. pro indic. act. nis.Jcar), it moves away, it wanders away. manas (n. nom. sg.), mind, thought. cancalam (n. nom. sg. intensive verbal noun from .Jcal), moving to and fro, dancing here and there, wandering. asthiram (n. nom. sg.), unsteady, unfixed. tatas tatas, from thence, from there. niyamya (gerund ni .Jyam), holding back, subduing, controlling. etad (n. acc. sg.), this. iitmani (m. loco sg.), in the self. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). vasam (m. acc. sg.), control, dominance, to the will, to the control. nayet (3rd sg. optative act. .Jnf), he should lead, he should direct.

in the self to control he should lead. Whenever the Wlsteady mind, Moving to and fro, wanders away, He should restrain it And control it in the Self.


SI~II"dll"Hi ~
prasiinta (n. p. pass. participle pra '/sam), composed, peaceful. manasam (m. acc. sg.), mind. (prasiintamanasam, m. acc. sg. BV cpd., whose mind is tranquil.) hi, indeed, truly. enam (m. acc. sg.), him, this. yoginam (m. acc. sg.), yogin. sukham (n. nom. sg.), happiness, joy, bliss. uttamam (n. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. upiiiti (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. upa .,; i), he approaches, he attains, he goes to. siinta (m.), calmed, pacified, appeased. rajasam (m. acc. sg.), passion, emotion. (siintarajasam (m. acc. sg. BV cpd., whose passions are calmed.) brahmabhUtam (m. acc. sg.), one with Brahman, united with Brahman, become one with Brahman. akalma!iam (m. acc. sg.), without wrong, free of evil.

praSiintamanasam hyenam composed in mind indeed, him

yoginam sukham uttamam the yogin; happiness supreme
~fa ~11"d <"'~

upaiti Siintarajasam he approaches, pacified passion

brahmabhutam akalma~am one with Brahman become, without evil.

The yogin whose mind is peaceful, Whose passions are calmed, Who is free of evil and has become one with Brahman, Attains the highest bliss.


yufijann evam sada 'tmiinam practicing Yoga thus constantly himself
11mrfq'ldif)~l'1(1: I


yogi vigatakalma~al} the yogin, freed from evil,

sukhena brahmasamsparSam easily Brahman contact

w<Rf~~11 atyantam sukham asnute beyond end happiness he attains.

yufijan (m. nom. sg. pr. participle act. .Jyuj), practicing Yoga, yoking, performing Yoga. evam, thus. sadii, always, constantly, perpetually. iitmiinam (m. acc. sg.), himself. yogi (m. nom. sg.), yogin. vigatakalma~as (m. nom. sg.), "gone away evil," freed from sin, freed from evil, vanished evil, (as BV cpd.) whose evil has vanished. sukhena (n. inst. sg.), by happiness, easily, readily. brahmasafnsparsam (n. acc. sg.), contact with Brahman, touching Brahman, encountering Brahman. atyantam (n. acc. sg.), beyond end, endless, boundless. sukham (n. acc. sg.), happiness, joy, bliss. asnute (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid. ::.;as), he attains, he reaches.

Thus constantly disciplining himself, The yogin, freed from evil, Easily encountering Brahman, Attains happiness beyond end.



sarvabhutastham iitmiinam present in all beings, the self,
sarvabhiitastham (n. acc. sg.), existing in all beings, present in all beings. atmanam (m. acc. sg.), self. sarvabhiitani (n. acc. pl.), all beings, all creatures. ca, and. atmani (m. loco sg.), in the self. fk~ate (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid. Jfk~), he sees, he observes. yogayukta (m.), disciplined in Yoga, steadfast in Yoga, yoked to Yoga. atma (m. nom. sg.), self. (yogayuktatma, m. nom. sg. BV cpd., whose self is disciplined by Yoga.) sarvatra, at all times, everywhere, in all cases. samadarsanas (m. nom. sg.), seeing the same, * seeing equally.

'" sarvabhutiini ciitmani and a'l beings in the self,

{mr ~'t<r<{mKlIT yogayuktiitmii he sees, the yoga-disciplined self


sarvatra samadarsanal; at all times seeing the same.'"

He who is disciplined by yoga sees The Self present in all beings, And all beings present in the Self. He sees the same (Self) at all times.

• Samadarsana has a special meaning which the words "seeing the same" scarcely convey. The iitmalls, or selves, of all creatures are conceived to be the same once they have been separated from the material nature with which they are temporarily conjoined in life. "A person who has brought his iitman into Yoga, will see similarity in all iitmans when separated from prakrti (material nature); he will see that all beings are in his own iitman; in other words he will see that his own iitman has the same ferm as the iitmalls of all other beings and contrariwise, so that he has seen all that is iitman when he has seen one iitman." - Ramanuja.


yas (m. nom. sg.), who. mam (m. acc. sg.), me. pasyati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. -Jpas), he sees,

yo mam pasyati sarvatra who me he sees everywhere

he observes, he perceives.
sarvatra, everywhere, at all times, in every-

w.f :q mlf ~(f
sarvam ca mayi pasyati and all in me he sees,
~;; 5!1lT~+T

sarvam (m. acc. sg.), all.

tasyaham na prm.lasyami of him I not I am lost
~ :q ?r ;; 5!1lT~(f II

sa ca me na pral}asyati and he of me not he is lost.

ca, and. mayi (m. loc. sg.), in me. paSyati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. -Jpas), he sees. tasya (m. gen. sg.), of him, to him. aham (nom. sg.), 1. na, not. prafJilSyami (rst sg. pr. indic. act. pra -Jnas), I am lost. sas (m. nom. sg.), he. ca, and. me (gen. sg.), of me, to me. na, not. prafJaSyati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. pra -Jnas), he is lost, he is destroyed.

He who sees Me everywhere, And sees all things in Me; I am not lost to him, And he is not lost to Me.

• Krishna (the Supreme Spirit) is here equating himself with the atman.



sarvabhUtasthitam (m. acc. sg. TP cpd.),

sarvabhiitasthitam yo mam (as) all-beings-abiding who me
~~mf~:1 , ,

abiding in all beings, situated in all beings.
yas (m. nom. sg.), who.

mam (acc. sg.), me.
bhajati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. .Jbhaj), he

honors, he worships, he resorts to.
ekatvam (n. nom. sg.), oneness. iisthitas (n. nom. sg. p. pass. participle ii .Jsthii), established in, abiding in, resorting

bhajaty ekatvam iisthital; he honors, oneness established in,

to, having regard for, practiced in.

sarvatha vartamtino 'pi in whatever way (otherwise) acting even
~p:iT.,.r +rflf ~ II

sarvathii, in whatever way. vartamiinas (m. nom. sg. pro middle participle .Jvr:t), turning, moving, existing, act-

api, even, also. sas (m. nom. sg.), he, this. yogf(m. nom. sg.), yogin. mayi (loc. sg.), in me. vartate (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid . .Jvr:t) , he

sa yogi mayi vartate he, the yogin, in me he dwells.

lives, he dwells, he abides, he turns.

The yogin who, established in oneness, Honors Me as abiding in all beings, In whatever way he otherwise acts, Dwells in Me.

• I.e. who recognizes that all iitmans are one, and all pervaded by the Supreme Spirit.


atma (m.), self, himself, oneself. aupamyena (n. inst. sg.), by comparison, by resemblance, by analogy. sarvatra (adv.), in all cases, everywhere. samam (m. acc. sg.), the same similarly. pa§yati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. "Jpa§), he sees, he considers. yas (m. nom. sg.), who. arjuna (m. voc. sg.), AIjuna. sukham* (n. acc. sg.), pleasure, happiness. va yadi va, whether, or if. duIJkham* (n. acc. sg.), pain, misery. sas (m. nom. sg.), he, this. yog! (m. nom. sg.), yogin. paramas (m. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. matas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle J man), thought, thought to be.

iitmiiupamyena sarvatra himself by comparison in all cases
~+f ~(f liT ~ I

samam pasyati yo 'rjuna the same he sees, who, Arjuna,
~ err <rf~ err ~:~

sukham vii yadi vii dulJkham* pleasure whether or pain,
~ liNT ~ l1\f: II

sa yogi paramo matalJ he a yogin supreme thought to be.

He who sees equality in everything In the image of his own Self, Arjuna, Whether in pleasure or in pain, Is thought to be a supreme yogin.

• It is perhaps amusing to note the etymology of the words" sukha" (pleasure, comfort, bliss) and "dul;kha" (misery, unhappiness, pain). The ancient Aryans who brought the Sanskrit language to India were a nomadic, horse- and cattle-breeding people who travelled in horse- or ox-drawn vehicles. "Su" and "dus" are prefixes indicating good or bad. The word" kha," in later Sanskrit meaning " sky," "ether," or "space," was originally the word for "hole," particularly an axle hole of one of the Aryan's vehicles. Thus .. sukha" (a BV cpd.) meant, originally, .. having a good axle hole," while" dul;kha" meant" having a poor axle hole," leading to discomfort. t I.e. that pleasure and pain in others is the same as pleasure and pain in himself, since the selves of all beings are equal to his own self, or identical with it.



arjuna uvaca

Arjuna spoke:

arjunas (m. nom. sg.), AIjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. -!vac), he said, he spoke.


lfT s<t lfT<r~ ~ >rTffi: yo 'yam yogas tvaya proktal.z
which this yoga by thee declared
~+r~1 samyena madhusudana

with evenness of mind, Slayer of Madhu,

etasyaham na pasyami of this I, not I perceive,
:q.".:q<i'l\ClI~ f~ci" f~ II

cancalatvat sthitim sthiram

because of instability the foundation permanent.
ArjIDla spoke: This yoga which is declared by You As evenness of mind, Krishna, I do not perceive The steady continuance of this because of (the mind's) instability.

yas (m. nom. sg.), which, who. ayam (m. nom. sg.), this. yogas (m. nom. sg.), Yoga. tvaya (inst. sg.), by thee. proktas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle pra -!vac), declared, propounded, explained. samyena (n. inst. sg.), with eveness of mind, with eqUilibrium, with impartiality. madhusiidana, (m. voc. sg.), Slayer of Madhu, epithet of Krishna, referring to an asura, or demon, killed by Vishnu (Krishna), not to be confused with Madhu, the Yadava, who was Krishna's ancestor. etasya (m. gen. sg.), of this. aham (nom. sg.), I. na, not. pa§yami (rst sg. pr. indic. act. -!pas), I see, I perceive. caflcalatvat (m. abl. sg.), from instability, from unsteadiness, from capriciousness, because of instability. sthitim (f. acc. sg.), foundation, standing, maintenance, permanence, continued existence. sthiram (f. acc. sg.), permanent, immovable, fixed, steady, changeless.



caiicalmn hi manalJ knrJa unstable indeed the mind, Krishna,
5flITf~ ~¥~ I pramathi balavad drt;lham troubling, powerful, intense,

~f~~ tasyaham nigraham manye of it I restraining, I think,
<lW~ ~or '1~\$'fI <'l.. II

vayor iva sud~karam of-the-wind-like difficult to achieve.

cancalam (n. nom. sg.), unstable, unsteady, wandering. hi, indeed, truly. manas (n. nom. acc. sg.), mind. kr:~1Ja (m. voc. sg.), Krishna. pramathi (n. nom. sg.), troubling, harassing, destroying. balavat (n. nom. sg.), powerful, strong. dr:4ham (n. nom. sg.), intense, hard, fixed, massive, unyielding. tasya (n. gen. sg.), of it, of this. aham (nom. sg.), I. nigraham (m. acc. sg. noun from ni .Jgrah), keeping back, restraining, suppression, subjugation. manye (1st sg. pr. indic. mid . .Jman), I think, I believe. vayas (m. gen. sg.), of the wind. iva, like. sudu~karam (n. acc. sg.), difficult to do, hard to achieve, hard to bring about.

The mind, indeed, is unstable, Krlslma, Turbulent, powerful and obstinate; I think it is as difficult To control as the wind.


~~~I Sribhagaviin uviica
srfbhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed Lord, the Blessed One. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. Jvac), he said, he spoke.

the Blessed Lord spoke:

~~ asmhSayam mahiibiiho without doubt, 0 Mighty Armed One, lA"T~~~l mano durnigraham calam
asamsayam (adv.), without doubt, doubtless.
mahtibtiho (m. voc. sg.), 0 Mighty Armed

the mind difficult to restrain, unsteady;
~~'fiRP1 abhyiisena tu kiiunteya

by practice, but, Son of Kuntl,
~~lT~1\ viiiriigye1Ja ca grhyate

and by indifference it is restrained.

One, epithet of Atjuna and other warriors. manas (n. nom. sg.), mind. durnigraham (n. nom. sg. from dur ni J grah), difficult to restrain, hard to control, hard to subdue. calam (n. nom. sg.), moving, unsteady, unstable, restless. abhyasena (m. inst. sg.), by practice, by performance. tu, but. kiiunteya (m. voc. sg.), Son of KuntI, epithet of Arjuna. vairagyelJa (n. inst. sg.), by indifference, by disgust, by aversion to worldly objects. ca, and. g~hyate (3rd sg. pr. indic. passive Jgrah), it is restrained, it is gripped, it is subdued, it is controlled.

The Blessed Lord spoke: Without doubt, 0 ArjtU1a, The mind is unsteady and difficult to restrain; But by practice, ArjtU1a, And by indifference to worldly objects, it is restrained.


~ ij lldi (il '11 lI"FTT
asamyata (p. pass. participle a sam -.lyam) , uncontrolled, unsubdued. iUmana (m. inst. sg.), by the self. (asamyatatmanii, m. inst. sg. BY cpd., by him whose self is uncontrolled.) yogas (m. nom. sg.), Yoga. du~prapas (m. nom. sg. from du~ pra -.lap), difficult to attain, hard to reach. iti, thus. me (gen. sg.), of me, my. matis (f. nom. sg.), thought, opinion. va§ya (m.), controlled, subject to the will. iitmanii (m. inst. sg.), by the self. (va§yatmana, m. inst. sg. BY cpd., by him whose self is controlled.) tu, but, however. yatata (m. inst. sg. pro act. participle -.lyat), by striving, with effort. sakyas (m. nom. sg. gerund -.lsak), possible, able. avaptum (infinitive ava -.lap), to attain, to reach, to obtain. upaya (m.), means, course. -tas (adverbial suffix), through, by.

asamyatiitmanii yogo

by him whose self is uncontrolled, Yoga

iti me matil:z

difficult to attain, thus of me the thought;
'WI kil '11
~ l:ffiffi

vasyiitmanii tu yatatii

by him whose self is controlled, but, by striving,

sakyo 'vtiptum upiiyatal:z

possible to attain through a (proper) course. I agree that yoga is difficult to attain By him whose self is uncontrolled; but By him whose self is controlled, By striving, it is possible to attain through proper means.


arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke:
arjunas (m. nom. sg.), Arjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perf. act. :.Jvac), he said, he spoke.

ayatis (m. nom. sg.), the uncontrolled one, the unsubdued one. sraddhaya (f. inst. sg.), by faith, with faith. upetas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle upa Ji), arrived at. yogat (m. abl. sg.), from Yoga. calita (p. pass. participle J cal), moved, gone astray, deviated, fallen away. miinasas (m. nom. sg.), mind, spirit. (calitamanasas, m. nom. sg. BV cpd., whose mind has fallen away.) aprapya (gerund a pra Jap), not attaining, not reaching, without attaining. yogasamsiddhim (f. acc. sg.), Yoga-perfection, perfection in Yoga. kam (f. acc. sg. interrog.), what? gatim (f. acc. sg.), road, goal, path. kr~lJa (m. voc. sg.), Krishna. gacchati (3rd sg. pr. indic. act. J gam), he goes, he walks, he moves.

ayatilJ sraddhayopeto the uncontrolled one who has arrived at faith,
<r~0<:f'"lI"H1: I

yogiiccalitamiinasal; whose mind has fallen away from Yoga

apriipya yogasamsiddhim not attaining Yoga-perfection

<fit m~ 'l'1SUf ~a II
kiim gatim krfl}a gacchati what road, Krishna, he goes?

Arjuna spoke; One who is uncontrolled though he has faith, Whose mind has fallen away from yoga, Who does not attain perfection in yoga, Which way, Krishna, does he go?



kaccin nobhayavibhra~tas is it that not (from) both (worlds) fallen,
fmn"l;if~~q ~a- I

kaccid, is it that? na, not. ubhaya (m.), both.

(m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle vi

.Jbhrans), fallen, failed, deserted.

chinnabhram iva nasyati disappearing-claud-like, he is lost,

mahiibiiho having no solid ground, 0 Mighty Armed One (Krishna),


vimurjho brahma1}a~ pathi confused of Brahman on the path?

Is he not lost like a disappearing

(m. nom. sg. TP cpd., failed in both.) chinna (p. pass. participle .Jchid) , cut off, split, pierced, effaced, blotted out, disappeared. abhram (n. nom. sg.), cloud, thunder cloud. (chinna-abhram, m. nom. sg. KD cpd., blotted-out cloud.) iva, like. nasyati (3rd sg. pr. indie. act. .Jnas) , he is lost, he is destroyed. aprastiqlJas (m. nom. sg.), having no solid ground, fluctuating, unsafe. mahabiiho (m. voc. sg.), 0 Mighty Armed One, epithet here applied to Krishna. vimii£!has (m. nom. sg. p. pass participle vi .Jmuh), confused, deluded. brahmalJas (n. gen. sg.), of Brahman. pathi (m. loco sg.), on the path, on the road.


Having fallen from both worlds, Having no solid ground, 0 Krishna, Confused on the path of Brahman?

" "Both worlds," viz. the here and the hereafter, earth and heaven. t This is one of two instances in the Bhagavad Citii where Krishna is addressed as "Mighty Armed," usually Arjuna's nickname. The other instance is in XI 23. The nickname is used throughout the Mahiibhiirata as a designation for eminent warriors.


~lrm~ etan me samsayam kTf'Ja this of me doubt, Krishna ~~'J;[~~~:I chettum arhasy ase~atalJ to efface thou art able without remainder;,
~: ~~14f4lf4

tvadanyalJ samsayasyiisya other than thee, of (this) doubt, of it,

chettii na hy upapadyate an effacer not indeed he comes forth.

etad (n. acc. sg.), this. me (gen. sg.), of me, my. samsayam (m. acc. sg.), doubt, uncertainty, irresolution. k~~1Jfl (m. voc. sg.), Krisha. chettum (infinitive .Jchid), to cut away, to efface. arhasi (2nd sg. pr. indic. act . .Jarh), thou art able, thou art capable, please to. ase~atas (adv.), without remainder, wholly, totally. tvadanyas (m. nom. sg.), other than thee. samsayasya (m. gen. sg.), of doubt, ofuncertainty. asya (m. gen. sg.), of it, of this. chetta (m. nom. sg.), cutter-away, effacer. na, not. hi, indeed, truly. upapadyate (3rd sg. pr. indic. mid. upa ../pad), he arrives, he comes forth, he exists.

You are able, Krishna, To dispel the totality of this doubt of mine; Other than You, no one Comes forth to help me erase this doubt.


e. nom. vidyate (3rd sg. he goes. he spoke. doing good. pr. indic.). nom. epithet of Arjuna. there above.Jgam). tasya (m. durgatim (f. verbal noun from vi . eva. neither here on earth nor in heaven above Is there found to be destruction of . . gacchati (3rd sg. tata (m. amutra (adv. Son of Prthii. from kalyalJa + JkI:). indic. voc. passive . neither. the Blessed One. sg.). uvaca (3rd sg.). my son.Jnas). of him. the Blessed Lord. sg. nom. he said. vinasas (m. him' No one who does good Goes to misfortune. virtuous. na.lakrt kascid not indeed good-doing anyone ~a' GTcf ~f(f II durgatiriz tata gacchati to misfortune. act. nor. iha. '" I. perfect act. not.J2 vid). hi.. not. sg.VI ?l~~ sribhagavan uvaca srfbhagavan (m. it is to be found. the uncontrolled man who has arrived at faith but has fallen from Yoga. he goes. indeed.). sg. he walks. na." to misfortune. .f~~~ 'fif~ na hi kalya1. to the unfortunate goal. nor there above f~~f<rn~1 vinasas tasya vidyate destruction of him it is found . "hard road. truly. kaly'alJakft (m. Son of Prthii. My Son. anyone whatever. neither here on earth. sg. of this.). destruction.). my son. The Blessed Lord spoke: Arjuna. not. it is found. acc. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). misfortune. father (term of affection between seniors and juniors). the Blessed Lord spoke: 40 q-r~~<fTlP piirtha naiveha namutra partha (m. na. voc. here. gen. here on earth. sg. loss.Jvac). kascid anyone. pr. there in heaven. 311 .

srimatam (m. abhijayate (3rd sg. of the auspicious making. 312 . pro indic. nom. acc.). lost to Yoga. he is born again_ acting. BY cpd. gen. loco sg./3 vas).fRt :»r'"'lmrt ~ sucinam srimatam gehe of the radiant and of the illustrious in the dwelling '" yogabhra~to (fm.Jbhrahs). p.Jjan).). of the happy. he is reborn.). Utiitva (gerund . of the virtuous acting. He who has fallen from yoga is bom again In the dwelling of the radiant and the illustrious.).. worlds. of the good doing. years. of the illustrious.VI 41 >no:r~-~ prapya PU?lyakrtam lokan attaining of the meritorious doing.. lawn (m. participle yoga .Jap) .. of the radiant. reach- ing. passive abhi . sucinam (m. yogabhras!as (m. pl. attaining. Attaining the worlds of the meritorious.-.). of the meritorious u#tva sasvati!. pass. pl.. acc. the worlds ~1WfT~r:~: I prapya (gerund pra . gehe (n.). fallen from Yoga. he is born. pl. constant. Having dwelt there for endless years. dwelling. endless. gone from Yoga. ace. pl. gen.. pl. sama!.[Gc't sf~ II 'bhijayate he who has fallen from Yoga. having dwelt. gen.) in the dwelling. he is born again. pUfJyakt:tam (m. perpetual. sasvatis (f. sg. having dwelt for endless years ~:. samas (f. of the famous. in the house. pl.

in the world. ~f~~m!i etad dhi durlabhataram this indeed more difficult to attain ~~ '1f"Tf lR ~ II . loco sg. sg. kule (n. he exists. yoginiim (m. nom. more difficult to attain. act. nom. idfsam (n. pl. harder to obtain. of wise. which. indeed.). loke janma yad idrsam in the world birth which such. Or he may be born in the family Of wise yogins. sg. durlabhataram (n. he comes to be. sg. eva. of the learned ones. nom. loco sg.VI 42 ~~1:1Tf~tzCf athavii. gen. etad (n. G . sg. lake (m. 313 .). such. this. truly. gen. yad (n. comparative). hi. pro indic. or else.). of the wise.). bhavati (3rd sg. otherwise. nom. birth. nom. athavii yoginiim eva or else of yogins ~ <TCff~ eft1fflTl{ I kule bhavati dhimatiim in the family he comes to be. dhimatiim (m. Such a birth as this is very difficult To attain in the world. sg.). of such a kind. in the family. JbhU). of yogins.).). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). janma (n. pl.

again. sg. Son of Kuru.). ca. derived from a former body. sg. and he strives from thence once more m~1~11 samsiddhiiu kurunandana toward perfection. pro indic. from thence.Jyat) . toward success. pr. he receives. tam (m. from there. he makes effort. sg. and. indic. Joy of Kuru. bhuyas (adv. tatra. acc.). it. samsiddhiiu (f.Jlabh) . toward perfection.VI 43 ~a'"frnFt tatra tam buddhisamyagath there it. accretion of knowledge. ~ "f ear -rr: yatate ca tata bhuyal. labhate (3rd sg. him. kurunandana (m. he strives. mid . joining together of knowledge. he obtains. intelligence-accretion. sg. there. tatas. buddhisamyogam (m. intelligence-accretion. epithet of Arjuna. piiurvadehikam (m. mid .). derived from a former incarnation.). loc. this. Descendant of Kuru.). There he regains the knowledge Derived from a former body. ArjIDla. from a former body. 314 . sg. . once more. voc. And he strives onward once more Toward perfection. acc. ~q'1cf~f~1 labhate piiurvadehikam he receives. yatate (3rd sg. from a previous birth. TP cpd. .). accretion of experience. acc.

hriyate (3rd sg. also. gen. also. Vedic recitation) he transcends. f~mq'<r~ jijfiiisur api yogasya the wishing to know even. hi. inst.). sabda (m. passive -Jh~). of Yoga ~1$<:. avasas (m. exammmg. nom. nom. piirva-abhyiisena (m. this. eva.). sg.VI 44 ~m piirviibhyiisena teniiiva by prior practice. he is conveyed. without wish. sg. sg. by prior performance.). desirous of knowing. truly. Vedic recitation). sg. f~W. Brahman. (sabda-brahma. sg. anxious to know. sg. ati -Jv~t). of Yoga. indic. pr. by this. KD cpd. even. by it. acc. wishing to know.) ativartate (3rd sg. He is carried on. jijfziisus (m. indeed.e. api. he.). he is carried on.)..~sfq'~:1 h~iyate hy avaso 'pi sal} he is carried on. api. he is brought. sg. without will.). sas (m. he goes beyond. sg. brahma (n. n. by prior practice. acc. even against his will. KD cpd. indeed against will even. He who even wishes to know of yoga Transcends Brahman in the fonn of SOWld (i. he transcends.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).e. sound. 315 . word. pr. he.~@lr~1I sabdabrahmiitivartate word Brahman (i. mid. by it. yogasya (m. wordbrahman. from desiderative -Jjfiii). against will. By prior practice. nom. even. tena (m. inst. indic.

) tatas (m. sg. gatim (f. pass. controlled. successful. samsiddhas (m. prayatnat (m. perfected through many births. sg.. 316 . participle sam Jsidh). t!~'fl'Jj~144f~ anekajanmasamsiddhas not-one-birth-perfected. many. participle sam Jsudh). act. param (f. p. sin. from persevering effort. he goes. the supreme. Then goes to the supreme goal. to the supreme. from there.. pass.). nom. participle).). pr. (samsuddhakilbi~as. birth. not one.).) aneka (n. goal. yogin. mid. sg. restrained. perfected. sg.). completely cleansed of guilt. sg. yati (3rd sg. eRrr llTfcr q-U 'lfi:r II tato yiiti param gatim then he goes to the Supreme Goal. m. indic. acc. m.). yatamanas (m. nom. from exertion.). nom. (anekajanmasamsiddhas. abl. samsuddha (p. successful through many incarnations. J ya). sg. sg. janma (n.). sg. nom. evil. completely purified. to the highest. The yogin.). completely cleansed of evil. nom. completely cleansed. BV cpd. sg. but. who is completely cleansed of evil. TP cpd. Through persevering effort and controlled mind.e. tu. abl. pr. yogi (m. guilt. path. i. sg. indeed. then. nom. acc. And perfected through many births. kilbi~as (m.VI 45 ~ llcP'lI'Ht <I prayatnad yatamanas tu from presevering effort (and) controlled mind indeed yogi sa1itSuddhakilbi~alJ the yogin.

sg.). abl. going beyond. yogin. And the yogin is superior to those who perform ritual works. voc.t to the learned also thought to be superior. Therefore. yogi (m.VI 46 ~~lfT sf"l'JiT ll1<rr tapasvibhyas (m. adhikas (m. bhava (2nd sg. nom. thought. nom.).). '1if~ '<ITf"l'JiT l1mr karmibhyas cadhiko yogi and to the active (in ritual) superior the yogm ~l1mr~11 .Jman). pl. participle . pl. yogin. matas (m. superior. going beyond. karmibhyas (m. yogi (m. sg. to the learned. yogi (m.). and. sg. Arjuna. '" tasmiid yogi bhaviirjuna therefore a yogin be! Arjuna. . be! arjuna (m. pl. The yogin is superior to the ascetics. sg. to the active. api. from this. to the ascetics. sg. nom. adhikas (m. also. thought to be. jfitinibhyas (m. be a yogin. m[<n-'-TT sf'1lRrT sf"l'Ji: I jnanibhyo 'pi mato 'dhika/. imperative act.). pass.). ca. to the knowing. adhikas (m. superior. superior. tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yogi to the ascetics superior the yogin. nom. 317 .).). abl.Jbhu). therefore. tasmtit (m. going beyond.). nom. sg. sg. nom.). A1juna. sg. nom. to those active in ritual. p. abl. abl. even. He is also thought to be superior to the learned.). yogin. sg. believed to be.

madgatena (m. rich in faith. he worships. of the yogins. sarve~iim (m. sg. api. thought. pro indic. superlative of yukta. by going to me. inst.). he. nom. sg.Jbhaj) . sas (m. antariitmanii (m. he honors. most steadfast. End of Book VI The Yoga of Meditation • I. most devoted. even. pass. pass. sg.). he to me the most devoted thought to be. yas (m. or love. of all these.). nom. participle. thought to be. also. with the inner self. miim (acc.e. pl. inst. sg.VI 47 <fn~mtfmt yoginam api sarve~am yoginiim (m. sg.). of .). me.). Of all these yogins. nom. most attached. me ~lf~+ffi: II sa m~ yuktatamo mata!.). nom. sraddhiiviin (m. or the Supreme Spirit. this. madgatenantaratmana to me by going with inner self. mid . through bhokti. p. Honors Me. ~ffi<fT+rt Sraddhiivan bhajate yo mam full of faith he honors. he loves. Is thought to be the most devoted toMe. matas (m. to me. gone to me. full of faith. sg. me (dat. gen. He who has merged his inner Self in Me. sg. of the yogins even.Jyuj). gen. believed. . by the inner self. whose mind is perpetually fixed on God. who. yuktatamas (m. who. 318 . sg.).). believed to be. sg. bhajate (3rd sg. of all these. p. nom. pl.Jman). part. full of faith.

Yoga. me.Jyuj). he spoke. in me. dependent on me. sg. imperative . Son of in. Son of Pl1ha. future act.). mam (acc. yogam (m. taking refuge in me. ~~+rt asamsayam samagram mam without doubt. sg. sg.. yufijan (m. ace. nom. thought.). sg. participle a . partha in me whose mind is absorbed. epithet of Arjuna. sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: the Blessed One. 1 . mantis (n. participle . attached to.). this. sg. that. one whose mind is absorbed. asakta (p. jfiasyasi (2nd sg. in which way. the Blessed Lord. hear! 319 . mind. You shall know Me completely. that hear! The Blessed Lord spoke: With mind absorbed in Me. voc. without doubt.Jjfia). without irresolution. dependent on me.:\1: '1T~ mayi (loc.rVp>t 1*1 'ffi 14 . nom.Jsafij). sg. pass. entirely me.BOOK VII ~~~I srfbhagavan (m. how. samagram (adv.). BY cpd. nom. Without doubt. nom. practicing. pr. performing.).). sg. nom. madasrayas (m.). Practicing yoga. . <rmm+ro~:1 tion. sg. <r~ IDBrf*1" ~ur II yatha jiiasyast t~c chr1}u how thou shalt know. acc. Arjuna. devo- Pr tha . yatha. uvaca (3rd sg. wholly. ST:1Ju (2nd sg. thou shalt know. hear that! whose mind is attached.). m. sg. intent on. (asaktamantis. sg. he said. without qualification. absorbed mayy asaktamanal. entirely. perfect act.Jvac). asamsayam (adv. tad (n.).). dependent on Me. .Jsru). one yogam yuiijan madasrayal. Yoga practicing.) partha (m.

without remainder. to be known. not here the world further (anything) other ~:wn~11 III jiiiitavyam avaSiFyate to be known it remains. jiiiitavyam (n. nothing further Remains to be known here in the world. anyat (n. further. knowing. 320 . acc. sg. having been known. (adv. sg. ase!!atas (adv. with understanding. nom.Jvac). bhUyas. pr. not. iha. wisdom. this. I shall tell. along with discrimination. future act. acc. passive ava . aham (nom. having been understood.Jjiiii).). indic. having known. idam (n. I shall say. knowledge. yad (n. te (dat.VII 2 m<t~~m~ jiiiinam te 'ham savijiiiinam jiiiinam (n. Along with realization. gerundive . Which. having understood (here in a passive sense. as "having been understood"). sg. along with discrimination. sg. To you I shall explain in full this knowledge. vak~iimi (1st sg. which.).Jjiiii). avasi~ate (3rd sg. ~q~~:1 idam vakFyiimy aseFata/J this I shall explain without remainder ~mm~'rl)~ yaj jiiiitvii neha bhUyo ' nyaj which.). acc. . jiiiitvii (gerund . nom.). again. acc. knowledge to thee I. sg. in full.Jsi!!). sg.). other.). I shall explain. na. it is left. 1. sg. here on earth.). savijiiiinam (n.).). sg. with discrimination. to thee. it remains. here.

of the perfected. loco pl. he strives. pl.Jyat). ~~fq-f~ yatatam api siddhanam of the striving even. api. to perfection. tattvatas (adv. Scarcely anyone strives for perfection.). yatatiim (gen. pro indic. anyone (here. he knows.).).). also. pro act. gen. in thousands. pro indic. anyone whatever (here. sg. me. yatati (3rd sg. toward perfection. act. miim (acc. sahasrelfu (m. pl. siddhiiniim (m. vetti (3rd sg. 321 . (scarcely) anyone strives for perfection. of the striving. kascid. participle . kaScin mam vetti tattvatalJ (scarcely) anyone me he knows in reality.VII 3 JOt"1tS4l ojj ~ '" "'<""1 manu~ya1}am sahasre~u of mankind in thousands <fif~ <refa. he stretches. in reality. Of thousands of men. scarcely anyone). pI.). .Jvid). of mankind.Jyat). anyone. dat. siddhaye (f.fm I kascid yatati siddhayc. of the perfected. act . <fif~ +IT ~~ m<m: II manuryiilJiim (m. truly. sg. . of men.). kascid. even. Scarcely anyone knows Me in truth. Even of the striving and the perfected. scarcely anyone). gen.

sg. bhinna (f. ca. intelligence and ~~r:ti:r ahamkara itiyam me self consciousness thus this of me f"+!?IT ~~ ~err II bhinna prakrtir a~tadha divided nature eightfold. ~ +!'fT ~. sg.). fire. apas (f.).).). ahmnkiiras (m. thus. nom.). analas (m. thought.). mind. participle. iti. vayus (m. • These are Siimkhya categories. sg. air. p. material nature. prak~tis (f. nom. pl. manas (n.a~ ~ "f I kham mana buddhir eva ca ether.Jbhid).)." consciousness of the self (sometimes. sky. split. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). eva. intellect And egoism this. divided. sg.). me (gen. nom.). eightfold. water. kham (n. sg. a~(adhii (adv. nom. earth. nom. nom. nom. nom. fire. this.VII bhiimir apo 'nalo vayw. nom. sg. so. iyam (f. water. "egotism"). ether. my. mind. wind. the waters. sg. intelligence. nom. nature. space. fire. sg. wind. bhUmis (f. mind. and. sg. earth.). "I making. My material nature. is divided into eight parts.). Ether.). water. sg. Earth. of me. nom. buddhis (f. sg. 322 . pass.

. indic. imperative act. lower. epithet of Aljuna and other warriors. consisting of the jfvas.). But know it as different from My highest nature. consisting of spiritua jivabhiitiim mahiibiiho the spiritual beings. other.). world. By which this universe is sustained.). learn! me (gen. viddhi (2nd sg.. iyam (f. itas. means and occasions of material experience and divided into eight categories" (see stanza 4) . tu.).VII 5 ~~~~ apareyam itas tv anyiim inferior this. here. nom. acc. nom. 0 Arjuna.). dhiiryate (3rd sg. idam (n. sg. pariim (f. Such is My inferior nature.). yayedam dhiiryate jagat by which this it is sustained the universe. this. voc.Ramanuja. • God has two prahrtis.). 323 . sg. know! prakrtim viddhi me pariim nature know of me the highest. however. 0 Mighty Armed One ~~~II beings. causative passive -Jdhr:). The lower one is the prahrti of this world consisting of endless various objects. acc. sg. my. nature. this.). pr. "God's higher prahrti. sg. sg. sg. this. sg. sg. nom. it is supported. is not of the same order of this non-spiritual prahrti which solely consists of the objects experienced by the spiritual beings. the jivas. sg. jagat (n. mahiibiiho (m. jfvabhutiim (f. anyiim (f. a lower and a higher one. inferior. universe.). by which.). sg. -Jvid). the Self. prakr:tim (f. consisting of souls. it is sustained." . acc. inst. supreme. acc. sg. highest. but other ~cf f<if{r l'r em+!: I aparii (f. of me. nom.). indeed. but is constituted by the spiritual beings themselves. 0 Mighty Armed One. yayii (f.

tatha. creatures. gen. dissolution.).). nom.). prabhavas (m. coming to be. upadharaya (2nd sg. pro indic. pl. of the entire. pl.). All creatures have their birth in this. thus understand! ~~~: iti. I. causative act. sg. pralayas (m.). sg.). nom.VII 6 ~RTf'f~'f etadyonini bhiLtiini this (my highest nature) the wombs (of) beings. kI:tsnasya (n. this. nom. prehend! aham (nom. of the world. jagatas (n. sg.). nom. (etadyonini bhiitani sarvafJi. of the whole. thus. imperative upa -:. gen. of the universe. all creatures have their wombs in this. bhiitani (n. I of the entire universe 'Sl~: ~~?IT II prabhaval. wombs. nom.) sarviil/ity upadhiiraya all. pralayas tathii the origin and the dissolution also. yonini (n. origin. beings. sg. origins.). sg. understand! com- aharh krtsnasya jagatal.}dhl:). sg. also. sarvafJi (n. pl. ceasing to exist. ~~~I etad (n. nom.). Understand this! I am the origin and also the dissolution Of the entire universe. thus. 324 . My highest nature. all.

).Jve).igm. pl. than me. o Arjuna.f111 kimcid asti dhanamjaya anything there is. parataram niinyat than me higher not other fit. anyat (n.).VII 7 . on me. nom. sg. pearls. On Me all this universe is strung Like pearls on a thread. loco sg. clusters of pearls. participle pra .). epithet of AIjuna. sg. sarvam (n. na. +rflT~~m mayi sarvam idam protam on me all this universe strung ~ +rf1lJlT1llT ~ II sutre mm. nom. dhanamjaya (m. lIUlyi (loc. sg. nom. Nothing higher than Me exists. strung. sg. there is. siitre (n. comparative). iva. anything.). on a thread. IIUllJigmJiis (m.). this. protam (n.. Conqueror of Wealth. .). 325 . superior. not.f~ mm <R. nom.). indic . woven. nom. sg. from me. sg. all. like.ii iva on-a-thread-pearls-like. it is. anything whatever. sg. Conqueror of Wealth.). sg. in me. idam (n. matta!. asti (3rd sg. other. pr. nom. higher. kimcid. clusters of jewels.re-:~~ IIUlttas (abl.Jas). voc. parataram (n.

1. flavor. sg. and the manhood in men. splendor. sound. Son of Kunt!. the manhood in men." 326 . The sacred syllable (Om) in all the Vedas. sg. gen. the radiance I am in that which contains the rabbit.). loco pl. loco pl. sg. in the waters. I am the liquidity in the waters. the sacred syllable "Om. voc.e.). sg.). >!1JfGf:~ pralJaval. aham (nom.Jas). sg.).) pralJGvas (m. khe piiuruwm nNu the sound in the air. 5Tmf~m~T:1 prabhiismi saSisuryayol. .). • "That which contains the rabbit" (SaSin). liquidity. The sound in the air.. in the ether. sg.!'\ II ~ sabdal. in water. Arjuna. i. pr. the moon. sabdas (m. in all the Vedas.). manhood. indic . nom.). virility.). loco pl. in men. . epithet of Arjuna. nom. of the moon and sun.).VII 8 ~T~~'fi~ raso 'ham apsu kiiunteya. taste. potency. rasas (m.). along with sasiiilka (rabbit marked) one of the most common of all Sanskrit terms for the moon. (sasisuryayos. asmi (1st sg. that which contains the rabbit (Sasa). the liquidity I in the waters. nom. sarvavede~u the sacred syllable (Om) in all the Vedas ~:~q~. said to arise because the Hindus saw a "rabbit in the moon. '"' and the sun. nom. surya (m. khe (n." sarvavedqu (m. prabha (f. sg. light. pauru!iam (n. m:!iu (m. the sun. apsu (f. loco sg. sasi (m. radiance. I am.). m. I am the radiance in the moon and sun. dual.). Son of KuntI. in the air. kaunteya (m.). nom.

of the earth. sg. vibhtivasau (m. nom. in all beings. 327 . ~ffifflT f<nrr<m11 tejaiciismi vibhiivasiiu and the brilliance I am in the sun. and. sg. asmi (rst sg.). indie . austerity. ca. sarvabhiitqu (m. in holy men. The life in all beings.yo gandha~ prthivyiirh ca and the pure fragrance in the earth. . life. gandhas (m. p~thivyam (f. sacred. pr. nom. jfvanam (n. loco pl. sg. loco sg.). .). pu"yas (m. nom. I am. nom. pr. tapas (n. pleasant. in the earth. heat. in the sun. . And the brilliance in the ftre. And the austerity in ascetics.).jfl "''1 ~~ '" '" jivanarh sarvabhute~u the life in all beings (1q"ffif'flT ~~ II '" tapaiciismi tapasvi~u and the austerity I am in ascetics.loc. and.). auspicious. sg.VII 9 ~) '1"0i: ~~ 'if pur. asmi (rst sg. and. fragrance. nom. loco pl. smell. sg. selfdenial. indic . sg. ca.). radiance. I am the pure fragrance in the earth.). tapasvi~u (m.).Jas). pure. ca. brilliance.). tejas (n. I am. in ascetics. splendor.Jas). in flame.

pr. pl. seed. germ.Jvid). of all creatures fcrf. indic . Know Me to be the primeval seed Of all creatures.). the seed.. gen. sarvabhutiinam (m. tejas (n. 328 . . viddhi (2nd sg. of those who are intelligent. sg. know! learn! piirtha (m. ~ ~ buddhir buddhimatiim asmi the intelligence of the intelligent I am ~~ ~. sg. . nom. The splendor of the splendid. of the brilliant. gen.. of the splendid.).. viddhi piirtha saniitanam know. tejasviniim (m. I am the intelligence of the intelligent.VII 10 Gf'hf+rt~ bijam miim sarvabhutiiniim bijam (n. pl.). nom. asmi (1st sg.). of all beings. of the intelligent. of the radiant.. brilliance. Son of Prthii. nom. sg. ArjW1a... voc. of all creatures. intelligence. splendor. am I.. me. sg. miim (acc. primaeval. 1. nom.rf~~~ II tejas tejasviniim··aham the splendor of the splendid. gen. buddhis (f. sg. pl. radiance.g: qr~ (1 '11 d '1 S!.). ancient. I am. buddhimatiim (m. primaeval crf~crf~m~ . me.Jas). imperative act . . sanatanam (n.). primary cause. aham.1. sg.). epithet of Arjuna. Son of Prtha.).).

nom.) bhiitqu (m.). I am. (dharma-aviruddhas. m. nom. not opposed to. loco pl.). n. TP cpd. I. TP cpd. sg. Which is freed from lust and passion. ca. (kama-riiga-vivarjitam. sg. pl. nom. of the mighty. and the might of the mighty. Bull of the Bharatas. love.). desire. voc. 329 .lv~j). bharatar~abha (m. Arjuna. freed from passion. sg. aham (nom. desire. -. in creatures. balavatiim (m. gen. sg. Bull of the Bharatas. sg. in beings. of the strong.).. duty. kamas (m.). nom.). according to. diverted from passion. pass. consistent with. participle raga vi -.lrudh). strength. rule. force. with passion set aside. sg.). nom. not encountering resistance from.).VII 11 ~~~ balain balavatam caham balam (n. law. pro indic. sg. kama (m. epithet of Arjuna. asmi (1st sg. might. not opposed to law. And I am that desire in beings Which is according to law. ~~T+!~ " '" dharmaviruddho bhiitefu according to law in beings CfiTliT sf~ ~+T II kamo ' sf!li bharatar~abha love I am. p. and. justice.. ~ffi~1 kamaragavivarjitam desire and passion freed from. pass. love. sg. aviruddhas (m. nom. I. participle a vi -. riigavivarjitam (n. And the might of the mighty I am. freed from passion and desire. p.las).) dharma (m.

God himself.). does not depend on them. sattvic. pl. but. nom. . rajasas (m. from me. bhiivas (m. iti. . know! learn! na. in me. they are in Me. which.).Jvid). matlas (abl. who. but. pl. pl. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). nom. are se$as (remainders) of God and depend on God inasmuch as they constitute his body. siittvikiis (m. loco sg. thus. loco pl. pl. These entities which are of the nature of sattva. pl. material objects and their causes. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler) . aham (m. te!ju (m.~~~~llflf II na tv aham te~u te mayi not.. rajas and lamas and which exist in this world in the form of body. 330 .). they In me. tamasas (m. not.[ matta eveti tan viddhi from Me indeed them know! ..Riimiinuja. in them.). ye (m. depend on God whose body they constitute. and God himself is modified by all these entities of which He is the iilman. modes of behavior. and. them. nom. <t I riijasiis tiimasiisca ye rajasic and tamasic which ~~~~f<n. All these entities with their peculiar individuality and characteristics have originated from God. eva. pl. . nom.). however.>m.VII 12 <t ~ ~~ '+lIcIT ye ciiiva siittvikii bhiivii and which (are) sattvic states of being ~ d ll'Hm"l ye (m. states of being. And those states ofbeing which are sattvic. which. nom. mayi (m. But I am not in them. sg. and. eva. I in them. nom. Know that they proceed from Me. tamasic. nom.). sg. derived from the tamas gUl)a (gul)a of darkness and sloth). imperative act. derived from the sattva gUl)a (the gUl)a of goodness).). te (m. who. tu. senses. they. derived from the rajas gUl)a (gul)a of passion and power). pl. ca.).). comings into existence. And those which are rajasic and tamasic.). ca. viddhi (2nd sg. tan (m.). acc. rajasic. I. pl.

this Sagur. The aim of the upward reaching atman.zas.). ebhyas (m. rajas with energy and tamas with mass. sg. me. ebhis (m. idam (n. confused. inst. pl.). higher. by these. determining his mental outlook and his actions. ""+r:m~~1 '-'. causative participle .). are constituents of that maya. abhijaniiti (3rd sg. radiant and truthful. Later they became attributes of the psyche. acc. possessed by Qualified (Sagur. moreover." and prakrti.za) Brahman. rajas. sloth and dullness . pl. A man whose nature is dominated by sattva will be clear thinking. universe. mohitam (n. avyayam (m.a made.).). Sattva has been equated with essence. or material nature is conceived as a cord woven from the three gur. and all are subject to the influences of the gur. . by the three. right action and the aquisition of knowledge through many lives are permitted to voyage beyond maya and the gur. The gur. highest. . inst.za of Brahman. by the Samkhya philosophers who first identified and named them. finally to reach Brahmanirvar. They chain down the soul to thought and matter. According to still another interpretation.VII 13 f~~~~ tribhir gU1}amayiiir bhiiviiir by the three gUQa-made states of being. All the universe and all the things in it are the creations of Sagur. this. sg.~: qnr ~ II miim ebhya~ param avyayam me. jagat (n. eternal. break free of their bondage. A man whose nature is dominated by rajas will be passionate. acc. sg. or self.za Brahman. sg. to be motivated by a combination of gur. param (m. The word gUl:za means" strand. All this universe is deluded by these three states of being.e. act.zas. world. pl.).a produced. and tamas or darkness. than these. sativa is intelligence. imperishable. • bhavais (m. and eternal. by states of being.as . Through the gur. gUl']amayais (m. They can exist in different proportions in a single being. But most men will be found to have elements of gur. It does not recognize Me. it becomes aware of. lfTf~m~~ mohitam niibhijiiniiti deluded. indic. Who am higher than these. nom.).a formed.. nom. nom. to be substances. mam (acc. abl. all this universe tribhis (m. or power of illusion. all.za or the nirvar. not it recognizes lfTll. by gUl). sarvam (n. by gUl). or illumination and truth. na.zas. it recognizes. And only those who persevere in meditation. than these higher (and) eternal..zas. it perceives. sg. quick to anger and greedy. A man whose nature is dominated by tamas will be stupid. by modes of behavior. or passion and desire.Jmuh). pl.zas.Jjfiii). Composed of the qualities. rajas is movement and tamas is obstruction. lazy and stubborn.zas different from their dominating ones. The three gUl). not. 331 .)." "thread" or "rope. by gUl).). Only the sages are able to lift the veil of maya and perceive the reality that is Brahman behind it. deluded. is to transcend the gUlJas. sg. ebhi~ sarvam idam jagat by these. sg. inst. and attain liberation and union with Brahman. i. from these. pl. abhi .zas.' .). pr. by three.sativa. nom.).were originally thought.za Brahman creates and maintains the world (or the cosmic illusion) by its powers of projection and concealment. inst.

this. nom. ye (m. magic power. pl. prapadyante (3rd pI.0. they take refuge with.). divine. indeed. duratyaya (f. they pass beyond. eva. difficult to master. sg. e~a (f. nom. me. mid. mam (acc. +m1~~~ . pl.VII 14 ~<frw. illusion. sg. they transcend. etam (f. from dur ati :'. this. gUl}aproduced. act. maya (f.)U:). sg. difficult to penetrate. sg.). miim eva ye prapadyante me only who they resort to l1l7n+{ ~ ~~ ff II miiyiim etiim taranti te illusion this they transcend. sg. indic. they penetrate. pr. truly. indic. they. mama (gen. nom. Divine indeed is this illusion of Mine made up of the three qualities. my. nom. pra -Jpad). daivl (f.).). hi. sg. nom. of me. sg. heavenly. . difficult to penetrate. gUlJamayl (f. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). gUl}a-made. Only those who resort to Me Transcend this illusion.). magic. And difficult to penetrate.).). they resort to. they. acc. miiyam (f. power. they attain.). hard to go beyond. nom. who. nom. sg. sg. 332 . taranti (3rd pI. pr. te (m. illusion.~~r diiivi hy efii gw:zamayi divine indeed this gUl).). acc.a-made l1l1m<rr~1 mama mayii duratyayii of me illusion.

). existence. pl. by magic miiyayiipahrtaJiiiinii power. pl.) iisuram (m. having re- Evil doers.VII 15 . indic. pI. by illusion. deluded. BV cpd. sg. demon. narii (m. wisdom (plural because of nariis. acc. m. nom.. mudhiis (m.). they take refuge prapadyante nariidhamiil} they resort to. nom. men lowest ~14l:nq&:a*1111 with. p.. pr. inst.Jmuh). mid. men). men. nom. apahr:ta (p. knowledge has been carried away. course to. pass. participle apa . nom. miim (acc. participle . pI.). adhamiis (m. nom. bereft. worst. sg. pra vpad). confused. evil doers. sg. participle ii . nom. not. jfliiniis (m.Jhr:). resorting to.).). pl. miiyayii (f.m~~~: na mtim du~krtino miirjhtil} na. me. carried off. 333 . knowledge. du~kr:tinas not me evil-doers deluded ~~:I (m. being. Deprived of knowledge by illusion. removed. nom. (apahr:tajfliiniis. whose demon existence attached.). vilest. Attached as they are to a demoniacal existence. they attain. iisritiis (m. p. Do not seek Me.). acc. attached. taken by illusion bereft of knowledge ~~mf~:11 iisuram bhtivam iisritiil} away. demonic. prapadyante (3rd pI. sg. wrong doers.Jsri). they resort to. bhiivam (m. pI. pass. pass. lowest. lowest of men.). pl.

men. ." or material nature.). pl. pro indic. ca. benevolent. nom. sg. of arthiirthin) refers to "those who aspire to acquire knowledge of the iitman as distinct fromprakrti.). Arjuna. is obviously so much at odds with the other teachings of the Bhagavad Gita.). Bull of the Bharatas. jijiiasur artharthi those bereft who seek to regain spiritual power. miim (acc. jijiiasus (m. Arjuna. sg. 334 . he who desires the Highest Truth. bhajante (3rd pI. janas (m. sg. me. sg. arjuna (m. or highest spiritual knowledge. And the man of wisdom. Sri Krishna Prem has suggested that" artha " here refers to the paramiirtha. bharatar~abha (m. '*' ~r"f~11 jiiani ca bharatar~abha and the man of wisdom. nom. nom. they worship.). sg. ~1f~w. suffering. sukftinas (m. nom.). nom.h~1 arto.).Jf ). he who is desirous of knowing. pl." which is favored by many native translators. nom. those who desire knowledge. of four kinds. sg. mid . The meaning of the last three catagories of "benevolent men" is further explained in the next book (VIII) from stanza 8 onward. pl. wise man. jiianf (m.Jjiiii). epithet of Arjuna. learned man. arthiirthf(m. from desiderative . they honor.JbhaJ). and. four kinds they honor me ~:~~T$I jana& suhrtino 'rjuna (among) men good-doing. voc. nom. voc. fourfold. four kinds worship Me.).). Those who desire knowledge. Among benevolent men. that it cannot be entertained by the thoughtful reader. the desirous of wealth. those who desire wealth. artas (m. Arjuna: The distressed. participle a . desirous of knowledge. gooddoing. man of wisdom. pass. bereft. Bull of the Bharatas. sg. he who is desirous of wealth.VII 16 ~crm~+rt caturvidha bhajante math caturvidhiis (m. p. • The common translation " desirous of wealth. afflicted. sg. Arjuna. Ramanuja says that the expression arthiirthl (which is the nom.

worshipping a single god or absolute (as BV cpd. Of them the man of wisdom. nitya (adv. voted to one alone.jsi~). the man of wisdom." de- ekabhaktir visi~yate devoted to one alone. atyartham (adv.).).). wise man. viSi~ate (3rd. sg. imperishably. whose devotion is to one. "one devoted. tqiim (m. ~fni\fqf~1 ekabhaktis (f.). he is pre-eminent f5T<iT f~ mf'1"fT ~~ priyo hi jiiiinino 'tyartham fond indeed of the man of wisdom exceedingly ~ ~ "pm f5T<i: II aham sa ca mama priyalJ I. sas (m.). I am indeed exceedingly fond of the man of wisdom. sg. Devoted to the One alone. gen.VII 17 ~m<fTf~ te~iim jiiiini nityayukta of them. disciplined. he is distinct. he is preeminent. priyas (m. eternally. pr. nom. extraordinarily. And he is fond of Me. sg. jfziininas (m. ca. 335 . sg. steadfast. nom. man of wisdom. joined to Yoga. sg. indeed. fond. mama (gen. nom. exceedingly. dear. jfziinf (m.). sg. 1.). of the wise man. and. sg. yuktas (m. sg. passive vi . aham (nom. eternally steadfast. priyas (m. dear. pl. of them. indic. gen. he. hi. he is distinguished.).). nom. and he of Me fond.). nom. of me. eternally steadfast. nom.). sg. of the man of wisdom. truly.). fond. sg. is preeminent.). learned man.

nom. but. yuktatma (m. nom.). thought to be. indeed. whose mind is steadfast. nom. eva. sg. sarve (m. nom. nom. my. wise man. nom. noble. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). sg. mtim (acc. way.). path. the self thus of me thought to be. jiiiinf tv iitmiiiva me matam the man of wisdom. of me.). goal. gatim (f. tu. nom. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). 336 . this. pl. exalted. indeed. But the man of wisdom is thought to be My very Self. sg. situated in. unsurpassed. BV cpd. sg.).VII 18 'Rro:~~ udiiriilJ sarva eviiite udaras (m. these.).). the steadfast self. ete (m. jiiani (m. anuttamam (f. he indeed. hi.). eva. acc. miim eviinuttamiim gatim me. acc. nom. supreme.). eva. asthitas (m. sg. noble all indeed these. atma (m. mf~~:~fl2:~ iisthitalJ sa hi yuktiitmii abiding in. pl. me (gen. sg.). sas (m. man of wisdom. all.). truly. sg. me. matam (n. sg. the supreme goal. sg. but. the Supreme Goal.). He. abiding in. nom. sg. thought. he. self. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). whose self is steadfast. pl. Abides in Me.). All these are indeed noble.

of much.).) one whose self is great. nom.). gen. pl.). Son of Vasudeva. • Vasudeva. Thinking "Vasudeva (Krishna) is all. me. this great soul hard to find. this.). at the end.). difficult to obtain. whose father was a son of Sura. in the end. ante (m. thus. sas (m. of births.e. gen. great soul. i." thus ij"~~:11 sa mahiitmii sudurlabha!. (as BV cpd. nom.). the gods sounded the heavenly drums. sg. hard to find. pro indic. nom. great self. sarvam (n. Here Krishna is identified with Brahman. he. he resorts to. Krishna) was to be born into his family. mahatma (m. descendant of Yadu. of many. At the end of many births. all. he takes refuge in. mid. nom.). 337 . nom. At the birth of Vasudeva. loc. bahiiniim (n. prapadyate (3rd sg.Qu princes (see chapter" The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita "). The man of wisdom resorts to Me. from su dur vZabh) . jfianavan (m. miim (acc. mother of the three principal Pal). sarvam iti "Vasudeva (Krishna) (is) all. pl. sg. sg." or Krishna.). Krishna was a brother of Kunti. sg." Such a great soul is hard to find. the father. wise man. Krishna. sg. sg. nom. literally" the son of Vasudeva. knowing that an avatiir of Vishnu (i. sg. janmanam (n.). sudurZabhas(m.e.VII 19 <iR<rt~~ bahiiniirit janmaniim ante of many births at the end ~+rt~1 jfiiinaviin miirit prapadyate the man of wisdom me he resorts to ~:~~a- viisudeva!. sg. iti. vasudevas (m. pra vpad). he attains. man of wisdom.

inst. they resort to. (h~tajfziiniis. acc.Jh~). bereft of knowledge ~~:I kiimiiis (m. worship. pl.. controlled.VII 20 ~~e-~~: kiimais taistair hrtajiianal. Having recourse to this and that religious rite. godheads. other. pra . they take refuge with. pl. sg. whose knowledge has been carried away. by own. nom. by lusts. prak~tyii (f.).). devatiis (m. svayii (f. by material nature. by these and those. h~ta (p. 338 . prapadyante 'nyadevatal. religious obligation. pl.). constrained. sg. niyamam (m.). m. tam tam (m. taken away.. knowledge. inst. sg. subdued. mid. pl. inst. Constrained by their own material natures.. this or that. BV cpd.). resort to other gods. iisthiiya (gerund ii .Jsthii) . participle . inst.) prapadyante (3rd pI. nom. they resort to other gods ~f~~~ tam tam niyamam asthaya this or that religious obligation having recourse to 'Sl~f~:~11 prakrtya niyatal. Men whose knowledge has been carried away By these and those desires. acc. sg.). practicing. tiiis tiiis (m. pass. nom./pad) . pl. they worship. jfziiniis (m.). nom.). by desires. pI. anya-. gods. wisdom. svaya by nature constrained by own. bereft. by desires. niyatiis (m. be these and those. pr.). held down. stolen away. discipline. indic. having recourse to. following.

sraddhaya (f. he wishes.). acc. sg. vi .). vidadhiimi (I st sg.VII 21 <1T <1T lit lit a1 +m. I. icchati (3rd sg. sg. yam yam (f. to honor. tanum or tanum (f. 1. ~df4I:q<"'li~ tasya tasyacalath Sraddhiim on him on him immovable faith d1l!~f~~~~11 tam eva vidadhamy aham it I bestow. pass. sg. faith. sg. sg. p.. body. with faith. pr. act. inst. gen. form. acc. participle . I bestow. he desires. acc. I establish. steady. sg. .Jarc). acc. this. sg. act. with belief. to praise. honored.).). indic.dhii).). arcitum (infinitive . immovable. indic. worshipped.).). steadfast. Whoever desires to honor with belief Whatever worshiped form. acc. tam (f. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). eva. acalam (f. sg.). on whoever he is. it. I grant.: yo yo yam yam tanum bhaktalJ whoever whatever form worshipped ~~~a-I sraddhayarcitum icchati with belief to honor he desires. unmoving. yas yas (m. 339 . nom. bhaktas (m. sraddhiim (f. on him. aham (nom. On him I bestow Immovable faith.Jbhaj). pr. to worship. whatever. nom. tasya tasya (m. sg. sg.Ji~).). whoever.

He. sg. acc. pass. also of its religious tolerance. are granted by Him alone. desires. mid. The stanza is an instance of the strong monotheistic element in the Gltli. by faith. and the speaking God explains that all worship. who. • All religions are subsumed here. tasya (m. of it. endowed. ariidhanam (n. sg. Receives from it his desires Because those desires are decreed by Me. sa tayii sraddhayii yuktas he with this faith endowed ~~~lf~ ~~I tasyiiriidhanam ihate of this (source) propitiation he desires. pl. kiiman (m. sg. sg. pl. gen. p. kiimiin and he receives from thence (his) desires ~f<n~f~<:I'"r'(11 mayiiiva vihitiin hi tiin by me decreed. them. taya (f. maya (inst. and. talas. endowed with this faith. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ca.).). of this. nom. indeed. with faith. he is eager for. ltabh) . lfh). from a lriidh). sraddhaya (f. 340 . hi. [hate (3rd sg. he. pI.). he obtains. decreed. nom. he receives. propitiation. ~"fmr:~ labhate ca tatal. acc. pass. pro indic. ordained. inst. Desires to propitiate that fonn. p.).). tan (m. begged from whatever gods. of whatever kind. goes to Him. wishes. eva.). by this. he desires to obtain. pr. from there. sg. inst. sg. of him. yuktas (m. participle lyuj). participle vi ldhii). with this. yoked to. truly.VII 22 '" . this.). acc. indeed. determined. acc. joined. sas (m. sg. by me. indic. tabhate (3rd sg. from thence. and that all boons. mid. them. vihitan (m.

to me. madbhaktas (m. antavat (n. nom. from deva . pr. tad (n. of those of little intelligence. me. result.VII 23 ~~~~ antavat tu phalam te~iim temporary. those who worship the gods. To the gods the godworshipers go. but. Jya). surely. devayajas (m.).). this. they go. indeed. gen. indic.II madbhaktii yiinti miim api the me-worshipping. My worshippers come surely to Me. of the small in understanding. temporary. pl. sg. miim (acc. it is.). that.). phalam (n. nom. bhavati (3rd sg. pI. act. the god-worshipping they go ~ ~~ +rTll: mq. sg. sg. 341 ." those who worship' me.Jyaj).Jya). tqam (gen. yanti (3rd pI. devan (m. act. fleeting. of them.). But temporary is the fruit For those of small understanding. the god worshipping. it becomes. sg.). yanti (3rd pI. pl. pro indic.). acc. fruit. the fruit for them ~'l1CR«~fl11 " . ~~~~ deviin devayajo yiinti to the gods. pl. pl. "those worshipping me. they go to me surely. api. indeed. the gods. . they attain. but. nom. even. they go.). they attain. tu. having an end. indic . tad bhavaty alpamedhasiim this it becomes. to the gods.JbM). pr. alpamedhasam (m. for them. nom. of the small in understanding. . nom.

). participle a vi :Jafij). of me. unsurpassed. sg. being.). unmanifest. nom. pass. the unintelligent. me. sg. not knowing. manifestation. participle a . 342 . as a statue.e. entered into. participle Ii . mid . my. mlim (acc. the unintelligent Think ofMe as having manifi.Jjiili). indic. sg. acc. manifestation fallen into ~ +rT11 ~. the worship of the God "fallen into manifestation. visibility. ajlinantas (m. manyante (3rd pI. lipannam (m. fallen into. they imagine.). sg. pr. sg. pl. sg. sg.Jpad) .~~) param bhiivam ajiinanto higher being not knowing mamiivyayam anuttamam of me imperishable. Though I am unmanifest.). param (m. unapparent.). highest. nom. pass. p. not being aware of. mama (gen.[<r: I manyante miim abuddhayal. Not knowing My higher being Which is imperishable and unsurpassed.). imperishable. vyaktim (f. sg. acc. pr." i. incomparable. acc. invisible. avyayam (m. acc. higher. ~m<fll. avyaktam (m.Jman) .). bhiivam (m.VII ~~ O<ff~ mtfi avyaktam vyaktim iipannam (though) unmanifest. abuddhayas (m. acc.). or image. or even an animal or inanimate object. or as a human being. sg. they think. * This stanza discusses idolatry. changed into. eternal. pI. anuttamam (m. unsurpassed. the stupid ones. sg. they think me.>station. . the unintelligent. acc. p. acc. existence.

magic.f0lf<:[+J: II loko rniirn ajam avyayam the world. sg. covered. it recognizes.VII 25 '!T~5f'Fm: ~~ niiham prakiisa!. shining. sg. not passing away. me.). world. nom. I am not manifest to all. ~) s<t '1Tf~'1TfQ rnu¢ho 'yani niihhijiiniiti deluded. sg. nom. This deluded world does not recognize Me. pass.) mudhas (m.. sg. sg. p. gerund a vi . not I manifest to all. acc. nom. avyayam (m. apparent. The birthless and imperishable. aham (nom. p.). gen. na. birthless. TP cpd. <r'rTlWmf~: I yogarniiyiisamiivrta!. act. of all. sg.Jmuh). it perceives.). prakasas (m. sg. this. to all. mam (acc. Yoga magic enveloped. (yoga-maya-samav~tas. ~T'F) llTj:t ~ 'J. sg. this not it recognizes. sg. ayam (m. eternal.Jjiia). pro indic. nom. ajam (m. not. sarvasya na. unborn. manifest. yoga (m. lokas (m.Jv~). m. participle . not. sg. maya (f. 1. nom. nom. Being enveloped in yoga maya. unborn.). visible. covered by the illusion of my yoga. me. participle sam a . sg.). confused. acc. 343 .). abhi . samav~tas (m. power of illusion. pass. abhijanati (3rd sg. sarvasya (m.). deluded.Ji).). imperishable.). Yoga. enveloped. imperishable.

.:r~. And those who are yet to be.). existing.:r bhavi~yii1Ji meaning). samatftiini (n. I know. perfect act. ca bhUtiini and the yet-to-be beings +rt<!~.). ka§Cana. pl. he knows not anyone. participle sam ati . acc. pI. he knows. arjuna (m. 1. aham (nom.JVI:t). participle .:r I vartamiiniini ciirjuna and the living. turning.VII 26 ~~Tmf. about to become. perfect.:r veda (1st sg. moving. I know the departed beings And the living. Arjuna m~11f:q¢. ca. and. beings. yet to be. sg. the departed cffiltRlf.). acc. 344 .). sg. but. veda (3rd sg. creatures. tu. But no one knows Me. future. Arjuna.Jvid with present meaning). but. bhavi~iifJi (n. bhiitiini (n. acc. me. sg.Jvid with present vediiham samatitiini I know. act. anyone. ArjIDla. indeed. ca. the departed. anyone whatever. . pI. acc. I. na. pl. the crossed over. living. voc. pr. miim (acc. the passed beyond. vartamiiniini (n.).Ji). the dead.:r~1I miim tu veda na kascana me. and. not.

. by the coming forth. at birth. they go to. beings. hatred. creatures. samutthena (m. 345 .Jya). act. sg. Atjuna. . nom. sarva -.). paraintapa (m. they go. dve~a Because of the arising of desire and hatred. sainmoham (n. at creation.VII 27 i~chiidve~~samutthena by de~:re ~~(~ and hatred rising up ~'$~I dvandvamohena bhiirata by duality delusion. yanti (3rd pI. by the delusion of the dualities (desire-hatred. all. instr. bhutani (n. desire. sg. they fall into. indic. m. etc.Jstha) .).) dvandvamohena (m.~~ sarvabhiitiini sammoham all beings delusion ~<nf~qimll " sarge yiinti paramtapa at birth they fall into. All beings fall into delusion At birth.).).). heatcold. sg. Descendant of Bharata. acc. sg.). by the rising up. pr. Because of the deluding (power) of the opposites. inst. aversion. delusion. sg. sg. inst. (m. from sam ud . pl. bharata (m. voc. TP cpd. voc. epithet of Arjuna.. by the arising of desire and hatred. loathing. ~. epithet of Arjuna. confusion. iccha (f. loco sg. Scorcher of the Foe. Descendant of Bharata.).). (iccha-dve~a-samutthena.). sarge (m. antipathy. Scorcher of the Foe.

pl. pass. pUlJyakarmalJiim (n. pl. gen. (as BY cpd. of those of good deeds. of those of pure actions. duality delusion liberated from. pI. participle anta .). nom. pass. polarity.). sg. vows. pl. janiiniim (m. d~4ha (m. mid . p. liberated from duality and delusion. wrong. But those in whom evil has come to an end.) 346 .Rl1¥rnimT te dvandvamohanirmuktii they. a. p. acc. liberated from the deluding power of the opposites. evil. sin. freed from. ordinances.iim of men whose actions are pure. ~~OlfCfl4oll"ll janiiniim pu'!yakarmar. BY cpd. of those of righteous acts.).Jgam). of men. yqam (m. tu. nirmuktas (m. come to an end. but.Jbhaj).). commands. liberated from. .) bhajante (3rd pI. me. Those men whose actions are pure. TP cpd.VII 28 ~t~~qN ye~iim tv antagatarn piipam of whom. dvandva (n. stable.Jmuc) . te (m. miim (acc.). pI. "end gone. confusion. they. gen. nom. They. nom. gen. acc. pl.). solid. they honor. delusion. nom. whose vows are firm. participle nir .). sg. m. come-to-an-end evil. pI.. pl. ~lli~:11 bhajante miim drr}havratii}.).). duality. sg. (d~4havratas." papam (m.. they worship me (with) firm vows. of whom.) of those whose actions are pure. m. gone to an end. antagatam (m. but.). indic. Worship Me with firm vows. they worship. moha (m. nom. vratas (m. pr. . firm. (dvandva-moha-nirmuktas.

sg.). acc. ca. TP cpd. iisritya (gerund ii . wholly. vidus (3rd pI.Jyat).Jsri).). kr:tsnam (adv. dat. sg.). mok~iiya 347 .). pl.).). nom. karma (n. acc. perfect act. Know Brahman thoroughly. . . and. toward release. to liberation. who e-~~f~:~ te brahma tad vidul. yatanti (3rd pI. the Supreme Self. they know. te (m. who. toward old age and dying release from m+!.VII 29 "'<lll<OI'1l~ jariimarm.) miim (acc. tad (n. (jariimaralJamok~iiya. old age.z krtsnam they Brahman this they know entirely ~ 'fill "f1f~ II adhyiitmmiz karma ciikhilam the Supreme Self and action without gap. action.). acc. act. completely. this. sg. they. toward release from old age and dying. resorting to. without a gap. m. akhilam (adv. pro indic. mararJG (n.). 'mfswr ~~ ~ I miim iisritya yatanti ye me depending on. depending on.).). taking refuge in. brahma (n. deeds. sg.)..Jvid with present meaning). sg.lamok~iiya jara (f. they strive. dying. As well as the Self and all action.). that. adhyatmam (m. sg. Those who strive toward release from Old age and death. pl. ye (m. the Adhyiitman. dat. they strive. acc. entirely. Brahman. depending on Me. (m. sg. they stretch. me. nom.

perfect act. J vid with present meaning).). perfect act. sa. sadhiyajiiam ca ye vidul} and along with the chief sacrifice.Jvid with present meaning).). they know. yuktacetasas (m. who they know Sl4101"'1~ sfq-:qlit praya1}akale 'pi ca math and at departure time even me a-~'i~:ll te vidur yuktacetasal} they know. sg. loco sg. They truly know Me with steadfast thought Even at the hour of death.). pl. at the time of departure. prayalJakale (m. adhibhUta (m. at the hour of death. at the time of death. adhiyajfzam (m. BY cpd. acc. along with.(prefix).VII sadhibhidadhidaivath math along with the adhibhiita. nom.). miim (acc. along with. ca. and. As well as the chief of sacrifice. miim (acc.). me. and. pI. sg. Basis of Sacrifice. nom. vidus (3rd pI. also. They who know Me as the Adhibhuta and the Adhidaiva. who. adhidaivam (m. acc. nom. '*' me sa. Chief Sacrifice. ye (m. api. te (m. '*' and the adhidaiva. vidus (3rd pI. having steadfast thought. End of Book VII The Yoga of Knowledge and Discrimination • adhibhata (supreme being) and adhidiiiva (supreme god) are sometimes translated as "the penetrating influence of the Supreme Spirit" and "the divine agent operating on material objects" respectively.). sg. Supreme God. with steadfast thought.(prefix). they know. sg. 348 .).). those whose thought is steadfast.). even. ca. pl. mfm:q <t f~: I Lord of Sacrifice. Supreme Being. me. with. they. with. The two terms are further explained in the following chapter. .

it is said to be.). '" arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: 1 fir. brahma (n. nom. 0 highest among Spirits? And the Adhibhuta. it is said. n. uvaca (3rd sg. Arjuna. action. that. nom. Supreme God.). sg. kim (interrog. Highest among Men. perfect act. what? proktam (n.). ca. nom. nom. Brahman. sg. he said. sg. kim (ingerrog. nom. what? tat (n.). what? karma (n. and. nom. Highest among Spirits. declared to be. sg.). said to be. sg. n. voc. nom.). m~o':. participle pra -Jvac) . pro passive . what? ucyate (3rd sg. sg. aggregate of elements of the individual self. nom.). what the adhyatma? fir. Supreme Being. sg.:rf~~ " . adhibhiitam ca kim proktam and adhibiita what declared to be? m~fCfil{ ~ II adhidiiivam kim ucyate and adhidaiva what it is said to be? kim (interrog.).).BOOK VIII ~'f~1 arjunas (m. declared. Arjuna spoke: What is this Brahman? What is the Adhyatma? What is action. puru~ottama (m. sg.). sg. what is it declared to be? And the Adhidaiva. n. adhidaivam (n. n. kim (interrog. nom.). Supreme Self. sg. what? adhyatmam (n. aggregate of physical elements. sg. nom. nom.Jvac). sg. adhibhutam (n.). here applied to Krishna. sg. this. kim (interrog. he spoke. ~ ~w fCfi~ ~ kim tad brahma kim adhyiitmam what this Brahman. n.). nom. sg. what is it said to be? 349 . ~ ~~tf('t1l'l I kim karma puru~ottama what action? highest among spirits. nom. -Jvac).

). Slayer of praya1}akale ca katham and at time of death. epithet of Krishna-Vishnu referring to his killing of the demon Madhu. Lord of Sacrifice.VIII 2 m. pI.Jas). asi (2nd sg. madhusiidana (m. katham ko 'tra the Adhiyajiia in what manner. nom.. vOC. at the time of death. in this. katham (interrog.). Chief Sacrifice. sg.. thou art. . interrog. niyata (m. who. in this instance. nom. what? here ~sf~~1 dehe 'smin madhusudana in the body. dehe (n. (niyatatmabhis. 0 Krishna? And how at the hour of death Are You to be known by those who are self-controlled? 350 . loco sg. pass. in this.). how? in what manner? kas (m.). what? atra. to be known. Basis of Sacrifice. and.) In what manner. pl.. sg. BV cpd. in this case.Jyam).Jjiiii). to be known thou art by the controlled selves Madhu.. katham (interrog. and what.). asmin (n..). participle ni . nom. at the time of departure.). loco sg. m. inst. sg. by those whose selves are controlled. how? ~ sf~f'1l1al. p. subdued. sg.p:rn: . indic . prayiifJakiile (m. controlled. gerundive . 0 Slayer of Madhu 514 IOI<flIM :q 'fi~ adhiyajiias (m. by selves. loco sg. at the hour of death. in the body. is the Adhiyajna Here in this body.'lf~: II jneyo 'si niyatatmabhil. pr. inst. ca.). how? in what way? jiieyas (m. atmabhis (m. here.).pi 'fiT S"f adhiyajnal.

). causing. ~~) "- bhutabhiivodbhavakaro which originates the being of creatures. adhyiitmam (n.). own nature.)." The point is debatable. sg. 351 . sg. Supreme Self. nom.. action known as. understood to be. nom. ucyate (3rd sg. known as. udbhava (m. pro indic. and all that is connected with it. m. doing. brahma (n. 3 9.). imperishable. nom.).ft~~:. highest. sg.) visargas (m.). he said. called.f~~tn:+t ak~aram brahma paramam imperishable Brahman supreme. nom. sg. (bhiitabhiivodbhavakaras.Jvac). aggregation of elements of the individual personality. action. uviica (3rd sg. which causes him to be reborn in this or that condition of being). eternal. passive . Which originates the being of creatures. perfect act . the Blessed Lord. The Blessed Lord spoke: Brahman is the supreme imperishable. bhUtabhiiva (m. smnjfiitas (n.VIn ~. sg. .). nom. An aspirant to kiiiviilya (complete detachment of the iitman from material nature) should know that all this. the Blessed One. sending forth. • But Ramanuja says: "Karman (action) is the procreative act connected with a woman which causes a human being. svabhiivas (m. is to be feared and avoided. f~:~mmf:11 visarga/:t karmasamjflital:z creative power. paramam (n. Action is known as the creative power (of the individual.:rl sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. TP cpd. nom. ~)~~I svabhiivo ' dhyiitmam ucyate inherent nature the adhyatman it is said. sg. it is called. which originates the being of creatures. nom. nom. Karma has many meanings. making. etc. sg.). And Adhyatma is said to be the inherent nature of the individual. sg. sg. supreme. karma (n. inherent nature. karas (m. creative power. to originate. nom. existence. from samjfiii). discharging. origin. sg.). state of being.. Brahman.Jvac). he spoke. akliaram (n. sg. nom. it is said.).). nom. production.

eva. according to him. k!faras (m.). nom.. perishable. dehabhrtiim vara (m. it means' being beyond the pantheon of Indra. sg.VIII ~f~ m:r)lTGf: adhibhutam ~aro bhtival. loco sg. sg. and. sg.e. Ramanuja identifies the Adhyiitman with svabhiiva (inherent disposition) or prakrti (material nature) ." The Adhibhuta. in the body. the adhibhiita perishable existence . bOOvas (m. soul. Prajapati. are developments. Divine agent. sg.). sg. etc. destructible. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). existence. here. in this case. touch." The Adhidiiivata "connotes the purufa.. spirit. The Adhiyajna (Lord of Sacrifice) is Myself.' The Adhiyajiia is GodHe who is to be propitiated by sacrifice. sg. aham (nom.). vOC. I. but is conjoined with the self. 0 Arjuna. 0 Best of the Embodied. Here in this body. man. is "the transitoriness of the elements. Edgerton regards the language of these stanzas as grandiloquent. nom. i. 0 Chosen of the Embodied. 0 Best of the Embodied. etc. being. ca." 352 .).)."that which is not the self.!~q~"'lf~1 purzqaiciidhidiiivatam and the Spirit (is the) Supreme Divine Agent m~r~~ adhiyajiio 'ham eviitra the adhiyajiia I here ~~~II dehe dehabhrtiim vara in the body. dehe (n.). The Adhidaivata is the supreme divine Agent itself (the purusha). aggregate ofphysical elements. ether. The Adhibhuta is the perishable nature of being (or the sphere of the supreme Spirit in acting on the individual. sg.). nom. applied to AIjuna.). Basis of Sacrifice. atra. adhibhatam (n. nature). Chief of Sacrifice. But native commentators take it very seriously. Supreme. of which elements sound. puru!fa (m. Lord of Sacrifice. nom. adhidiiivatam (n. etc. nom. sg. • All the terms here are technical and sometimes puzzling. nom. noun from Jk!far). adhiyajiias (m. and some of their definiions are included here.

:rl1Tl{~ antakiile (m. acc. he dies. "at end time. pra . he who dies remembering Me. In this matter there is no doubt.. act. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). at the time of departure. nom. prayati (3rd sg. he is.). which. this. in this instance. madbhiivam (m. thinking of. '1": >r<nf~ ~ ~ yalJ prayiiti sa madbhiivam who dies. samsayas (m.VIII 5 ~:.Jas). having relinquished the body. not. kalevaram (m. acc. doubt. loco sg. having relinquished. act. pr. na. participle . atra. muktva (gerund . it is.). smaran muktvii kalevaram remembering.ya).JsmT:). body. sg. cadaver. who. . eva. at the hour of death. he attains. and. he departs. remembering. to my being. smaran (pr. yati (3rd sg.Jmuc).. my state of being. Goes to My state of being. ':.). having been liberated from. thinking on. sg. sg. to my state of being. lit. sg. indic . me. sg. And at the hour of death. 353 .).).). nom. he goes. sas (m. pro indic. in this case.Jya). . irresolution. . nom. question. he to my state of being <rrf~~~~~:11 yiiti niisty atra samsayalJ he goes. asti (3rd sg.). he. yas (m. miim (acc. Having relinquished the body. sg. relinquishing. here. not there is in this case doubt. antakiile ca miim eva and at the end-time me ~1l'R<IT~1 . act. pro indic." ca. there is.

0 Son of KunU. kalevaram (m. he abandons. nom.). nom. eva. state of being. m. voc. being. remembering. to that.). he attains.va:n (m. thinking of. sg. sg. nom. whatever state of being he remembers When he gives up the body at the end. bhiiva (m. loco sg. sg. Arjuna.Ji). transformed into.y tyaj). pr. whatever. m.).) Moreover. act. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). bhii. physical body. sg. body. nom. indic. Transformed into that state of being. acc.).. He goes respectively to that state of being. that. act. act. invariably. (bhiiva-bhiivitas. tam tam (repetition indicates distribution. at the end. in the end. pro mdlc. epithet of Arjuna.VIn 6 li li ~1: +net yam yam viipi smaran bhiivam whatever. sg. . vii api. . pr. remembering. kiiunteya (m. TP cpd.).JsmJ:) . moreover. he gives up.). 354 . yam yam (m. causative participle . 0 Son of Kunt! (Arjuna) ~ qr<fmfCf<:f: II sadii tadbhiivabhiivita~ always that state of being caused to become. being. bhiivitas (m. caused to become. always. acc. state of being ~w€t~l!:1 tyajaty ante kalevaram (when) he gives up at the end the body. ante (m. transformed into that state of being. participle . acc. acc.). sg. sg. smaran (m.Jbhu) . moreover.. sg.). sg. he goes. or also. this. tad (n. eti (3rd sg. respectively that. tyaJan (3rd sg. mer a' a' ~<:f 'fiRrr tam tam eviiiti kiiunteya to respectively that he goes. sadii. st~te of being.

sg.) miim (acc. . remember! think of! mam anusmara yudhya ca me remember. sg. (arpitamanobuddhis. sg. imperative act. anu . in times. in all.VIII 7 ~~~ tasmat sarve~u kale~u therefore at all times tasmiit (abl. mind and intelligence.. therefore. miim (acc. without doubt. . arpita (m. entrusted. kiile:fu (m. at all times Meditate on Me. nom. loco pl. sg. With your mind and intellect fixed on Me.). me. without doubt.Jsm~).). in me. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).ff~~f~ mayy arpitamanobuddhir on me fixed mind and intelligence yudhya (2nd sg. fixed. future act. 355 . lITl{~~~11 mam eva#yasy asmnsayam to me thus thou shalt come. aSGlnsayam (adv. having mind and intelligence fixed.Ji).).). from this. imperative act. thou shalt come. thou shalt attain. placed. manobuddhis (f. surely.). anusmara (2nd sg. and. on me. Therefore.). at all. BV cpd. at times. e:fYasi (2nd sg.). m. loco pl.). sarvqu (m. to me.). fight! ca. you shall surely come toMe.Jyudh). eva. mayi (m. nom. In this way. me. loco sg. and fight ~i. sg.

m. (paramam puru~am. stanzas 8.) paramam (m. not. causative participle anu .. sg. Which does not tum to anything else.). With a mind disciplined by the practice of yoga. performance. TP cpd.Jcint). 9 and 10 refer to the tiisvarytirthin (He who aims at superhuman power). sg. • According to Ramanuja's commentary. To the divine supreme Spirit He goes. acc.).). inst. sg. by going.). sg.). (nanyagamina. meditating (on him). heavenly. meditating. by one who is disciplined. m. voc. anya. acc. TP cpd. to the Supreme. yuktena (m. sg. one goes. to the Supreme Spirit. ~~lATl abhyasa (m. disciplined by the practice of Yoga. divine. na. Person. the Highest. other. Spirit. anucintayan (m. . and who" remains fixed on God as the result of daily practice of Yoga. Yoga. where he is referred to as the jijfitisu. the Supreme Spirit.VIII 8 ~~ abhyiisayogayuktena by the practice of Yoga disciplined. inst. meditating on Him. inst. inst. by going toward. Soul.J2 as). sg. acc. epithet of Arjuna. acc. partha (m.. yati (3rd sg. yoga (m.) cetasa (n. who sees God in terms of God's power. Arjuna.). pro act. pr. by thought.. which does not tum to anything else. cetasii niinyagiiminii by thought.). thinking of. puru~am (m. nom. it. lR~~q'f~' paramam purUfam divyam to the Supreme Spirit divine yiiti piirthiinucintayan one goes. by no other going toward. he. indic. sg. practice. Son of Prthii. Son of Prtha. by mind. from abhi . she. 356 . act. sg. sg." He is the "desirous of knowledge" of VII I 6. sg. inst. sg. m.) divyam (m.Jya).). (abhyasayogayuktena. gamina (m.

alJlyiiinsam (m. rupam (n. sg. anusmaret (3rd sg. acc. sg. chastiser.Jsmr:).). governor.) iiditya (m. sg. than the atom. unthinkable. unimaginable. sarvasya dhiitiiram acintyarupam of all supporter. noun from anu . the seer. abl. abl. abl. And who is effulgent like the sun. varlJam (m. acc.. smaller than the atom. when he has concentrated his pra!la (vital breath) between the brows and then.. n. sg.). previous. sg. comparative). punisher. The ruler. whose form is unthinkable. from the atom. sg. acc. sg. t "He will attain the • Tri~!ubh metre. with his mind unwavering because all samskaras (preparatory reformations of the mind) have been passed. dhiitiiram (m..) tamasas (n.) puriilJam (m. gen. Much Sanskrit religious thought was expressed in poetry. sg. controller."l{ilmanuja. in virtue of his daily practiced worship.). than darkness. from darkness beyond. he should meditate on. the supporter. hence the poet was its chronicler or expositor. the sun. represents God to himself as the omniscient. more minute. whose form is unthinkable. sg. ancient. aiivarya (power) which God himself possesses. ruler. acc. mf~~:~11 iidityavartJam tamasalJ parastiit the color of the sun. censor.). anusiisitiiram (m.B.).4 ¥. acc. sarvasya (m. the one who places or puts. sg. (acintyarupam. Who is the supporter of all.VIII 9 'fif~ ~ ~mfmrro{ kavim puriitJam anusiisitiiram* the poet. sg. sg. smaller. BV cpd. He who meditates on the ancient seer. the poet. the unthinkable form. atJor atJiyiimsam anusmared yalJ than the atom subtler.). he should call to mind. subtler than the jfva (monad of the life principle). acintya (n. (iidityavarlJam. parastiit (n.Jsiis) . sg. the creator of all. (N. of all. BV cpd.). alJos (m. the ruler kavim (m. entity. nom. whose proper form is of another order than everything else and who is possessed of a divine form peculiar to none but Him.). shape. caste. subtler. m. yas (m. the ancient. acc.q ll.). whose color is that of the sun.). sg. acc. he should meditate on. who.). beyond darkness. color.). form. beyond. 357 . primaeval Lord of the universe. former. further. acc. anu . acc. optative act. who ~ emrR:l! m:q.

with mind.0 " "\ " . with worship. joined. him. dual). with devotion. eva. • Tri~!ubh metre continues. prayiilJakiile manasiicalena* at departure time with mind unmoving ~ ll"ffiT ~~<i':. bhruvos (f. madhye (m.Jvis). inst. aveSya (causative gerund a . At the hour of death.). bhruvor madhye priilJam iivesya samyak of the two eyebrows in the middle. sg. p. He reaches this divine supreme Spirit.).). tam (m. this. with umnoving mind. in one direction..for I bhaktyii yukto yogabalena ciiiva with devotion yoked and with Yoga power ~ ll"lf m1JIl1 m~ lj"~ .). sg. ca. yogabalena (m.). the vital breath entering correctly. lj" (f qi ~ '3'ifa. sg.. heavenly. Supreme. sg.. gen. inst. divyam (m.). upaiti (3rd sg.). loco sg. yuktas (m.). pass.). param (m. samyak (adv. with the strength of Yoga. puru~am (m. sg. by mind.). sas (m.f~ II sa tam param puru~am uPiiiti divyam he this Supreme Spirit approaches. united. motionless. sg. act. held. indic. nom. divine. bhaktya (f. sg. Endowed with devotion and with the power of yoga. inst. by unmoving. The last line is one syllable too long. he goes to. yoked. 358 . having caused to enter. acc. acc. inst. sg. acalena (n. nom. in the middle. and. united. acc. Having made the vital breath enter between the two eyebrows.).Jyuj). pralJam (m. t As in several such Yoga techniques. upa . he. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler) . at the time of death.VIII 10 5l11101<fi1~ 14<ilj l"il~<i prayaTJakiile (m. sg.Ji). divine. pr. at departure.).). manasa (n. sg. with love. properly. he approaches. Soul. acc. loco sg. sg. participle . directly. with Yoga power. this. Highest. the anatomical elements arc vague to the non-yogin. correctly. acc. the vital breath. Spirit. of the two eyebrows.

they move. yad (n. pl. pro act. 359 . sg. ~~T~:erf~~ yad icchanto brahmacarYalh car anti which desiring. free from passion. pro indic.).). Jvad). future pra Jvac). I shall speak of.).~ ~ 5fq~<t II tat te padam salilgrahe1Ja pravak~ye that to thee path in brief I shall declare. vedavidas (m.). participle Ji~). fcrof. which. to thee. this. path. vadanti (3rd pI. sg. act. briefly. the strivers.). yail (n. te (dat. desiring. brahmacaryam (n. they call. life of chastity.). they say to be. acc. sg. pl. sg. nom. sg. pravak~e (rst sg. nom. samgrahelJa (m. the free from passion. they pervade. or adv. icchantas (m. the Veda-knowing. nom. pI. yatayas (m. That path I shall explain to you briefly. • Tri~tubh metre continues. Jvis). vitaragas (m. inst. pro indic. nom. those versed in the Vedas. act. they follow. Which the ascetics. step. ak~aram (n. life of a Brahmaciirin. imperishable. nom. sg. wishing for. free from lust. J car). the performers of austerities. acc. in brief. visanti (3rd pI. sg. enter. nom. I shall explain.). the ascetics. a life of chastity they follow. I shall declare. pro indic. nom. pl. eternal.. they say.). that. tad (n. sg.Q ~ l:ffi<fT <r'Rrn<rr: I visanti yad yatayo vitariigiil} they enter which the ascetics.).). they go into. That which those who know the Vedas call the imperishable. Desiring which they follow a life of chastity. caranti (3rd pI.). acc. they enter.). yad ak~aram vedavido vadanti* which the imperishable the Veda-knowing they call. sg. free from passion.VIII 11 ~ ~~-. padam (n. which. ~ a. free from desire. acc. which.:: M<r~T GRf~ yail (n. act.

priil]Gm (m. of the self. samyamya (gerund sam . Yoga concentration.. sg. two ears.). Having placed the vital breath in the head. pl./yam). sg. controlling.). 360 . inhalation. Established in yoga concentration. seated. Closing all the gates of the body.. iitmanas (m. gates of sarvadviirii1}i samyamya* all the gates (of the body) controlling.). own. mind. two nostrils. lle~'{ m~: >fT1IT~ murdhny iidhiiyiitmanal} prii1}am in the head having placed own vital breath. iidhiiya (gerund ii . nine in number. • Sloka metre resumes. acc. doors. nom. sg. loco sg. Yoga fixation. organ of excretion. suppressing.. in the heart. loco sg. miirdhni (n. nirudhya (gerund ni . the two eyes.). shutting up. mouth. +r. manas (n. having placed. yogadhiira1]iim (f. all. sg. gates.). mf~~T~m~11 iisthito yogadhiira1}iim confining./dhii) . dviiriil]i (n.).ft~~:ql mana hrdi nirudhya ca the body.). sg. t Gates of the body. in the head. ca./rudh). And confining the mind in the heart. iisthitas (m. established. organ of generation. vital breath. and.VIII 12 ~1lT~~ sarvii-. viz. established in Yoga concentration. and the mind in the heart shutting up. placing. acc. acc. acc. ht:di (n. situated in.). gen.

act. tyajan (m. ~: >r:rrfa ~ ~ ya/:l prayiiti tyajan deham who he goes forth. he dies. or seeker of knowledge of the atman as different from prakrti. Goes to the supreme goal. . me. He who goes forth. the sacred syllable. vyaharan (pr. the single-syllabled Brahman ~'lf111 tl'1 Pi ---"l1Q. he goes forth. renouncing the body. he.. '-!. indic. paramam (f. he attains. remembering. as the artharthin. yati (3rd sg. participle vi a . nom. speaking. pr. sg. body. vyiiharan miim anusmaran uttering. he goes.. act.. or material nature. who. act. pr. renouncing.). acc. . brahma (n. gatim (f. this one. sg. said to embrace all the secrets of the universe. deham (m. sas (m. iti. eternal essence (Brahman). This is the" Highest Truth" of VII 16. to the highest. He is mentioned in VII 16. mtim (acc. goal. Brahman. pronouncing. anusmaran (m. thinking about.). renouncing the body.). ('1 I . sg. ~ <nfa crort 'TfalJ: II sa yiiti paramiim gatim he goes to the highest goal. sg.jtyaj). participle anu .). indic. pr. sg. pr. yas (m.). or indestructible.VIII 13 ~T+!~~~~ om ity ekiik~aram brahma "Om" thus. 'V om.jya).jsm~). . acc. thus.). Uttering the single-syllable "Om" Brahman Meditating on Me. me meditating on. single syllabled. According to Ramanuja's commentary.jhr).. sg. nom.!n. acc.. nom. abandoning. sg. sg. uttering. acc. pra . to the supreme. one syllabled. ekak~aram (n. act. and worships God as the ak~ara.jya). prayati (3rd sg.). participle act. nom. .. sg. meditating on. path. sg. 12 361 .). acc.. stanzas and 13 refer to the kaivalyarthin (seeker of complete detachment) who seeks the complete severance of the atman from the body.

BV cpd.).) of him who is constantly yoked.). • According to Ramanuja's commentary. sg. but go to union with Brahman. ananyacetiis (m. satatam whose mind does not go elsewhere. gen. for the yogin. . miim (acc. yas (m. sg. or God. nityayuktasya (m. partha for him I casy to reach. described in this and the following stanzas. for the constantly yoked yogin. tasya (m." who is never without direct concentration on God. And God himself.).). of the yogin. sg.q '1 '"4 '<\ d nre~ ananyacetal. ever. whose mind does not go elsewhere. nom. he thinks of. easy to reach. . epithet of Arjuna. always. I am easy to reach. f~~ <rnlf'1": II nityayuktasya yoginal. constantly. act.) is reborn. piirtha (m. of him. and because he cannot sustain his iitman without representing God (to himself). Son of Prtha. yoginas (m. For him. he remembers. the" man of wisdom. the yogin who is constantly devoted. will choose him. indic. Arjuna. nom. sg. sg. gen. aham (nom. ever. nityasas (adv. are not reborn. of the eternally yoked in Yoga. But the kiiivalyiirthin (stanzas 12 and 13) and the jfiiinin. "his mind focussed on God alone because God is incomparably dear to him. <rT +IT ~d" f~: I yo mam slllarati nityasal.. 1. sg.). sg. sulabhas (m.).). He who thinks of Me constantly.VIII 14 . who me he thinks of constantly. perpetually. pr. ~~:qr~ tasyaham sulabhal. Son of Prtha.). 362 . easy to attain. who.). (as BY cpd. sg. the iiisvaryiirthin (stanza 8 et seq. unable to endure separation from his worshipper." According to the same source. of the constantly disciplined. smarati (3rd sg. gen. satatam (adv. Jsm~).). voc. for him. sg. this and stanzas 15 and 16 are devoted to thejiilillin of VII 16. nom. Whose mind does not ever go elsewhere.). me.

).). gatas (m. to success. BY cpd. coming near to. supreme..il:" trort iTffi': II sarhsiddhirh paramiirh gatii!. Who have gone to the supreme perfection. they incur.) those whose selves are great. sg. nom. inconstant. Do not incur rebirth. acc. not they incur. nom.VIII 15 lfTl{~~ miim upetya punarjanma me approaching. acc. me. abode. acc.). impermanent. misery. participle Jgam). approaching. perfection. indic. sg. those whose souls are great. (dulJkha-alayam. paramam (f.).) asasvatam (m.Ii). mm. home. punarjanma (n. mahiitmanas (m. p. "again birth.). home of misery. rebirth ~:~~I du!. great selves. sainsiddhim (f. the great selves. sg. pl. acc. na. gone. ~~41~I\41I"1: niipnuvanti mahiitmiina!." rebirth. to me. to accomplishment. great souls. Approaching Me. TP cpd. acc.). m. That impermanent home of misfortune. apnuvanti (3rd pI. upetya (gerund upa '. sg. unhappiness. 363 . misfortune.khiilayam asiisvatam misfortune home. they attain.. sg. (as pI. to perfection. alayam (m. sg. pass. dulJkha (n. ap). not. pI. miim (acc. to perfection the highest gone. sg. acc. they reach. act. impermanent. highest.).). pr.

up to Brahman's realm of being. sg.). to Brahman's realm of being. Son of Kunti. upetya (gerund upa .. nom. pr. Arjuna. punarjanma (n. Son of Kuntl. to. it is found. miim (acc. approaching. sg. up to. sg.fmll ii.). ~. The worlds are subject to successive rebirths. sg.). passive . Arjuna. tu. sg.Ji). arjuna (m. me.). worlds. brahmabhuvaniit (n. return to successive births. nom. but. peoples.J2 vid)." rebirth.). na. Up to Brahma's realm of being. Arjuna. epithet of Arjuna. voc. abl. but. punarjanma na vidyate rebirth not it is found.). rebirths. voc. to Brahman's world. nom. But he who reaches Me Is not reborn. the worlds ~~T$I punaravartino 'rjuna subject to again return. pl. punariivartinas (m. "again birth. lokiis (m. not. coming near to.). kiiunteya (m. pl.VIII 16 m~~m: a brahmabhuvanalloka/. +n+f ~ ~ 'll'Rtli mam upetya tu kaunteya me approaching. vidyate (3rd sg. indic. 364 .

an equal number to make one night of Brahmii. acc. or one day of Brahmli. or dark age. gen. acc. which lasts for 1. It takes a thousand mahayugas. to make a kalpa. extending as far as a thousand yugas. a thousand. they know. * sahasra (n. yuga.~R:rn'GfG:T. pl. the day which of Brahma.:.). of Brahma.728. day. 365 . those who know day and night.C.000 years. which lasts for 864.. And that the night of Brahrna ends only in a thousand yugas. There are four yugas: the krtayuga. The treta yuga. is a period of predominant evil and is named for the side of the die marked with a single dot.Jvid with present meaning). end.n: II te ' horiitravido janiiJ. or period of 4. ratrim (f. . a thousand. brahmafJas (n. m.). acc.).000 years.). sahasrayugaparyantam a thousand yugas"" extending as far as. yuga. vidus (3rd pI.). sg. sg. antam (f.o viduJ. pl. janas (m. they.). which. age. f. acc. which lasts for 432.p{'lfl ~f. they the day and night knowing men.) te (m. yuga (n). night. ending. acc. nom. sg. TP cpd. and the kali yuga.). yuga (n. acc. they know 'uF.r. nom. sg. pl.) ahar (n. (sahasra-yuga-paryantam. as this volume goes to press. day and night knowing.VIII 17 fl~f.)..000 years. yad (n. ending in a thousand yugas. extending as far as. which is less virtuous and is named for the side of the die with three dots. sahasra (n.000 years.).079th year of a kali yuga that began on February 18. ahoratravidas (m. in the 5. men.). We are.000 years. acc. or 4.000. nom.320.320. * paryantam (m. sg.). sg. perfect act.296. an "age" of the world. 3102 B. which is a division of a mahayuga. ~~~Tf~:1 ahar yad brahmar. . limit. extremity. represents a growing predominance of evil over good and is named for the side of the die marked with two dots. end.'Il~d i riitrim yugasahasriintiim the night a thousand yugas ending a. the dvapara yuga. or golden age.000 years and is named for the side of the die marked with four dots. They who know that the day of Brahma Extends as far as a thousand yugas. (yuga-sahasra-antam. age.'Illllq~r(11i '" . which lasts for 1. They are men who know day and night. yuga. border.. sg.). sg. TP cpd.

tatra. loco sg.). appearances.Jlf).). unmanifest. <1?lj1'1~ ~~ riitryiigame praliyante at the arrival of (Brahma's) night. they are reabsorbed. in that case. they originate.VIII 18 \I Oll'ffi I ~ 0lfffilI": ~: avyaktiid vyaktayal. loco sg. samjiiake (m. they disappear. pr. there.z sarviil.). nom. avyakttit (m. At the arrival of (Brahma's) night.. pra . avyakta (m. (of Brahma). indic. <:1~<l10lj'ffi4~~ II tatriiiviivyaktasamjfiake there the unmanifest known as. they are dissolved. vyaktayas (f. all manifestations Come forth at the arrival of (Brahma's) day. loco sg. nom. pl. loco sg. when known as. all.). in known as. m.z from the unmanifest the manifestations all ~~~I prabhavanty ahariigame they come forth at the arrival of the day . to be known as. at the arrival of night. (avyaktasamjiiake. at the arrival of day. prabhavanti (3rd pI. from the invisible. they are dissolved. pralfyante (3rd pI.). eva. they come forth.Jbhu). rtitrytigame (m.). sg. ahartigame (m. abl. BV cpd. known as. from the unmanifest.). they are dissolved. pra . pl. sarvtis (f.) From the urunanifest. pr. act. manifestations. whose name is the unmanifest. At that point to be known as the munanifest again. pass. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). indic. 366 .

indic. ratryagame (m. ayam (m. bhl!tva bhUtva (gerund . Son of Pr tha . loco sg. dissolved (1'>41'lfl IS scm: qr~ ratryagame 'vasal} partha at the arrival of night without will.crr<t bhiitagramal} sa evayarh the multitude of existences it this m<!T "l1CcfT >I<'?'l<r€t I <-<-bhutagramas (m. this.320. epithet of Arjuna. nom. and during this time all life is in latent. it is dissolved. it is reabsorbed. see footnote to VIII 17). animal.).). at the arrival of day. loco sg. to go through their much smaller lives and reincarnations. sg. without will. partha (m." when they pass into the unmanifest again. at the arrival of night. prallyate (3rd sg. he.). are created again. inevitably. pra . it. eva.JbhU). pra . sg. nom. this.). sg. This multitude of beings. multitude of existences.). aggregate of beings. ~. having come into being again and again.J1f). avasas (m.000. At the arrival of the "day of Brahma. vegetable and mineral.JbhU) . sas (m. • This and the previous stanza describe the periodic creation of all beings and their subsequent dissolution. pr. aharagame (m." all beings. "unmanifest" form. is dissolved Helplessly at the arrival of night. coming into existence again and again. pr. prabhavati (3rd sg.qel'lflll prabhavaty aharagame it comes into existence at the arrival of day. it disappears.000 years. 367 . indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). willy-nilly. nom. sg. Having come to be again and again. nom.VIII 19 ~:~r. it arises.). The" night of Brahma" which lasts for a kalpa (4. act. all of which end at the recurrence of the" night of Brahma. it comes into existence. pass. voc. Arjuna. Son of Prthii.). And it comes into existence again at the arrival of day. bhiitva bhiitva praliyate having come to be again and agam. sg. The day of Brahma is equal in length to the night of Brahma.

tasmat (abl. sg. nom. sas (m. pass. loco pl. sarvqu (m. nom. nom. it is lost. loco absol. from this. it perishes. 368 . bhiite~u (m. does not perish. nom. than this. not.). vi . but. it.). sg. ancient.). when all beings perish. which. higher. sg. indic. sg. loco pl. primaeval. than the unmanifest. it dies. sg.. act.Jnas). who.). paras (m. anyas (m.). abl.). but. invisible.).). yas (m. avyaktat (m. from the unmanifest. nom.). sanatanas (m. state of being other SOlffiiT so<rnmr~: I 'vyakto 'vyaktat sanatanal} unmanifest. in all. bhiivas (m. when all beings perish. this. sg. in beings. existence. naSyatsu (m. unmanifest. state of being. vinaSyati (3rd sg. indeed. IT:~m<1~ " '" " yal} sa sarve~u bhute~u which it in all beings ~~f~qll nasyatsu na vinasyati in the perishings not it perishes.) na. sg. sg. other. in the perishings.). Which. avyaktas (m. But higher than this state of being Is another unrnanifest state of being Higher than the primeval unrnanifest. in the losses. pr. p. than the unmanifest pnmaeval. sg. in existences.). loco pl.VIII 20 rroJ: ~ <]. participle a vi :Jafij). tu. nom. nom. (sarve~u bhiitqu naSyatsu. mcfT Si'lfT paras tasmat tu bhavo 'nyo higher than this.

sg. yam priipya na nivartante which attaining.f~ meaning). they declare.). nom. sg. 369 . inde- structib Ie. of me. ni J vr:t) . declared. acc.). eternal. they turn back. gatim (f. iihus (3rd pI. participle Jvac). which.). do- main. said. highest. sg. dhiima (n. pass. tad dhiima paramam mama that the dwelling place supreme of me. yam (m. acc. sg. paramam (n. sg. nivartante (3rd pI. ak. goal. nom. so. sg. they do not return. highest. J ah with present tam iihul. they say. indic. tam (m. Attaining which. that. p. nom.). thus it is said. sg. acc. ~ vwr ~ +11111 na. participle a vi avyakto 'k~ara ity uktas the unmanifest (is) the imperishable. it. They call it the supreme goal. thus said. iti. reaching. not they return. this. attaining. acc. abode. perfect act. this. way. tad (n. acc. priipya (gerundpra Jiip) . paramiim (f. uktas (m. nom. sg. imperishable.). supreme.). my. not. mid. pr. This is My supreme dwelling place.).:. nom. pass. supreme. p. paramiim gatim it they call the supreme goal.). sg.). sg. dwelling place. unmanifest. (1l{ mg: ~ 'lf~l1: I :jan)). invisible. path. mama (gen. sg. <i~.raras (m. they return. thus.VIII 21 ~TS&1~~~ avyaktas (m. This unmanifest is the imperishable.

piirtha (m. stretched.).).:r~. nom. nom. nom. inst. gen. beings. bhiUiini (n.). antalJsthiini (n. standing within.). by worship. Son of Prtha. all this. sarvam idam (n. not by it directed elsewhere. man. highest. existing within. he. nom. ~:t~. nom. And by which all this universe is pervaded. Within which all beings stand.r~~~11 yena sarvam idam tatam by which all this (universe) pervaded. supreme. ananyayii (f. yena (m. labhyas (m. pl.). sg. sg. sg. participle . paras (m. sg. ~~~~I sas (m. This is the supreme Spirit. voc. 370 . tatam (n. of which. to be attained. pl. attainable.). sg. nom. sg.VIII 22 ~!f: ~ ~: '1T~ puru~al} puru~as (m. by which. Attainable by one-pointed devotion. Son of Pltha. sg.). p. sg. yasya (m. pass. this. nom.). sa paral} piirtha spirit this supreme. but. tu. gerundive . epithet of bhaktyii labhyas tv ananyayii by devotion attainable. pervaded. Arjuna. spirit. inst. indeed. not by other.). all beings.:r yasyiintal}sthiini bhiitiini of which within-standing (all) beings <t. all this universe. nom.). inst.Jlabh). indeed.Jtan). sg. by devotion. bhaiaYii (f.). Arjuna referring to his mother KuntI or Prtha. sg.

).). and. indeed. I shall speak. . 371 . tam (m. sg. this. As they depart at death.fq If)fq. him.). (of) this time q~lf~thrll vak~yiimi bharatar~abha departing. ca. pro participle pra . Bull of the Bharatas. return. but. Bull of the Bharatas. non-return.Jya). sg. iivrttim ciiiva yogina/:z and return the yogins avr:ttim (f.). sg. non-return tu. turning back.VIII 23 yatra where. vakryami (1st sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). kale (m. dying. sg. loco sg. kalam (m. yatra kiile tv aniivrttim where in time. Arjuna. mcrf\i :. pI. epithet of Arjuna. in time. future act. sg.). acc. but. . nom.). act.Jvac). nom. yanti (3rd pI. voc. time. acc. acc. not turn- ing back. But at which times the yogins Return or do not return. I shall speak. acc.:r: I . bharatar~abha (m.). pl. wmrr lI1f~ ~ ~ prayiitii yiinti tam kiilam departing they go. prayatas (m. Of these times I shall speak. they go. whither.Jya). yogins. yoginas (m. aniivr:ttim (f. eva.

brahmavidas (m. lfUlffilT agnis (m. sg.). .). jyotis (n. thither. they attain. brightness. the bright lunar fort- night. uttartiyalJam (n. they go brahma (n. Heaven. 5. they go.). the Rain god. VI 2.Jgam).). pl. to Brahman. six months. nom. nom.Jyti) . praytittis (m. ~a1}masa uttaraymJam the six months of the upper goingt (northern phase of the sun). brightness.-""'l~ . Brahman know- ing. god of fire. brightness. the latter going the path of darkness and rebirth. there. sg. suklas (n. the distinction between those who follow the path of light and those who follow the path of darkness lies not only in the time of death but also between those who meditate on the "five fires" (viz. Man and Woman) and those who merelY perform rituals. upper going of '3" . indic.. bright.). the bright lunar fortnight.).. nom. pl. day. 15 and 16. There is also a shorter reference in Chandyoga IV 15. men. . the northern phase of the sun. act.. tatra. 372 . I to 5. nom. pl.). V 9.: ~1F?: ..). " This and the following stanzas present a formula to be found in the Chandogya Upanishad. i.. sg. nom. the Brahman-knowing men. pr. nom. pI. The six months of the northern course of the sun: Departing then. the World.(14 I+1. day. Fire. I U the sun.). and in the BrhadaraQyaka Upanishad. sg. participle pra . <1"?f '5l""11RfT ~f~ departing.:. tatra prayata gacchanti there departing. sg.e. day. ahar (n. dying. fire. Brahman. pr. In the BrhadaraQyaka Upanishad. acc.. sg. jantis (m. agnir jyotir aha!l sukla/:t fire. which does not mention the" dark" path. nom.VIII 24 m<:n: ~n~ n<. the men who know Brahman Go forth to Brahman. gacchanti (3rd pI. 'lW ~GRT 'JR"T: II brahma brahmavido jana/:t to Brahman. nom. lfalJmtistis (m. nom.. t "upper going" means northern because the north of India is higher than the south. the bright lunar fortnight.

yogin. sg." the southern phase of the sun. ratris (f.). the Hindu faces east where the sun rises. he is born again. brightness. nom. sg. nom. yogi priipya nivartate the yogin attaining. mid. reaching. sg.Jvr:t). acc.). sg. sg. Thus" right hand" means south.o tatra ciindramasam jyotir there lunar brightness lfFr1~f~11 (also the name Krishna. sg. The yogin is born again. dakl!inayanam (n. Smoke. pl. he is born again. 373 .). lunar. tatra. yogf (m.). night. the dark lunar fortnight.).VIII 25 <lifT m?f~ ~~~: 0. he returns. but that is not meant here). he turns back. prapya (gerundpra yap).). attaining. smoke. kI:l!lJas (m. sg. nom. six months. light. and so the dark lunar fortnight. lfOlrnIT ~f~ 1 dhUmas (m. The six: months of the southern course of the sun.). acc. so. nom.ln. nom. l!alJmasas (m. night. .. ni . nivartate (3rd sg. thus. "the right hand going. the dark lunar fortnight ~a1Jmiisii dak#1Jiiyanam the six months of the right hand going (southern phase of the sun). Attaining by these the lunar light. dhumo riitris tathii krpJalJ smoke. candramasam (n. • When identifying directions. tatha. nom. thither. night. jyotis (n. there.).

punar (adv. .). acc. he returns. ekaya (f. the case of Bhi~ma. by the other. sg.Jv~t). yati (3rd sg. hi. thought. Thought to be eternal for the universe. antiv~ttim (f. who delayed his death at the Battle of Kuruk~etra . truly. (Cf. of the universe.). ete (f. nom. he turns back. dual). eternal. he goes. nom. for the world. sg.). By the other he returns again.VIII 26 ~ifM'lit\Ol m=rr ~ suklakr~1Je gati hyete light and dark two paths indeed these ~:~~ jagatalJ siisvate mate for the universe eternal thought to be ~~~~ ekayii yiity aniivrttim by one he goes to non-return ~. dual). inst. gatl (f. nonreturn. 374 . gen. thought to be. to non-return. avartate (3rd sg. These are the two paths. he attains. The choice of whether to return or not is apparently up to the yogin. The literature abounds with yogins who have delayed their deaths so as to reach the half-year that will eventuate in either return or non-return. dual). these two. light and dark. two goals. nom. by one. Ramanuja refers them to the jiiiinin and kiiivalyiirthin of VII 16 on the one hand. sg. anyaya (f. suklak~~lJe anyayiivartate punalJ by the other he returns again. sg. inst. nom. But this does not explain the element of free will which allows the yogin to fix the time of his death and choose between the two paths.Ti: II (f. act. light and dark. dual).. a . once more. one goes.Jya).. two paths.). sasvate (f. dual).ol!llIOld-a. indeed. and the iiiivarYiirthin of the same stanza on the other. perpetual. nom.). jagatas (n. . By one he does not return. again. mid.see chapter" The Setting of the Bhagavad GitiL)" The existence of the "two paths" (light and dark) must seem rather arbitrary to the Western reader. mate (f.

AIjuna. participle . steadfast. sg. TP cpd.). voc. yogin. sg. he is deluded. be! arjuna (m. sg.). from this. Therefore. ll1<rr~i9"~1 yogi muhyati kascana the yogin he is confused at all <:fBITq: ~ 'fiT~ tasmat sarve~u kale~u therefore at all times yogayukto bhavarjuna steadfast in Yoga be.Jmuh). therefore. knowing. Son of Prtha. ete (f. in all. epithet of ArJuna. pr. at all. yogf (m. nom. not. Arjuna. nom.). at all. jiinan (I?' nom. imperative act. loco pl. loco pl. nom. Arjuna. united to Yoga disciplined. act. two wanderings. muhyati (3rd sg. . kascana. act. these two. naite srti partha janan not these two paths. 375 . yoga-yuktas (m. voc. indic.Jbhii). nom. Be steadfast in yoga. in times. Knowing these two paths The yogin is not confused at all. in any way. kiilqu (m. Sftf (f. sg.JPiii). abl.). he is confused. at times. dual). yoked. two roads. sg. .VIII 27 ~~i9"rqr*~ G ' na.). piirt~ (m. pr. sg. at all times. pass participle ~yuj). dual). sarve~u (m. tasmiit (m. knowmg. two paths. p.). Son of Prtha. ' bhava (3rd sg.

). yajfie~u End of Book VIn The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman • Tri${ubh metre. pure. all this having known limT Iii ~~ '. being at the beginning.). (m. he goes beyond. original. pu'!ya (n. KD cpd. The yogin. 376 . sg. loco pl. acc. in sacrifices and austerities.). sg. ordained. adyam (n. In diine~u ~~~5!f~1 yat pU1Jyaphalam pradi~tam in gifts. pure fruit. acc.). which. And goes to the supreme primal state.r~ '" '" ~ vede~u yajfie~u tapal:zsu ciiiva* in the Vedas. in austerities.Jdis). all this. loco pl. nom.). viditvii (gerund .VIn 28 ~m~:. sg.). primal. loco pl. participle pra . knowing. place. ca. diine~u (n. pass. he attains. sthiinam (n. to the highest. yad (n. he transcends. commanded. ca. which pure fruit ordained ~f~~~~fqfWfT atyeti tat sarvam idam viditvii he goes beyond that. acc. sacred. vedesu (m. sg. yogin.jqf(f ~l!: II yogi param sthiinam uPiiiti ciidyam and the yogin to the supreme state he goes. that.). goes beyond The pure fruit of action which comes from study of the Vedas. and.). acc. ca. this. acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). act. ati :ji). upiiiti (3rd sg. acc. p. he goes. and gifts.Jvid) . acc. tad (n. in sacrifices. the supreme. upa .). atyeti (3rd sg.) pradi~(am (n. having known.). sg. state.). Sacrifices. in gifts. act. acc. and. tapal]su (m. ancient. and. in the Vedas. abode. phalam (n. fruit. (punya-phalam. eva. sarvam idam (n.). pro indic. austerities. n. yog! (m..). sg. primal. acc. sg. station. sg. loco pl. prescribed. having known all this. sg. sg.Ji). param (n. in charities.

thou shalt be freed. placed together. ab!.).Jmuc) . pravak~yiimy m.). to thee. to the not disbelieving. sg. most secret. future act. knowledge. who do not disbelieve: Knowledge and realization combined. I shall explain. together with. the Blessed Lord. sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: 1 ~~a-~~ idarh tu te guhyatamarh* this. to the not sneering. sg. thou shalt be liberated. the Blessed One. from evil. indeed.).). sg. this.). sg.Jvac). pravak~ytimi (rst sg. anasiiyave (m. he spoke. but. sg. perfect act. tu.<rn m+mr II . . released from evil. to the not disbelieving. asubhtit (m. yad (n. guhyatamam (super!.Jvac). yaj jfiatva mok!iyase 'subhat ~ which having known. . dat. discrimination. acc.). vijfztina (n. idam (n. te (dat.). mok~ase (2nd sg. combined. sahitam (n. understanding. I shall declare. sg. • Sioha metre resumes. nom.). having known. from impurity. acc. acc.).Jjfzti) . thou shalt be released. 377 . but. jfztitvti (gerund . to thee the most secret 5I<T~~1 anasuyave I shall declare. . sg. acc. ~ ~ l1T!?.:ff~~ jiiiinarh vzjiiiinasahitarh knowledge and discrimination combined.). thou shalt be The Blessed Lord spoke: But this most secret thing I shall declare to you.BOOK IX ?1~~1 srlbhagavtin (m. jfztinam (n. sg. which. future pass . Having learned which you shall be released from evil. knowing. pra . he said. uvtica (3rd sg. realization.

sg. intelligible. pratyak~a.). n.). nom. highest. this. Plainly intelligible. lawful. pavitram (n. whose understanding is before the eyes. nom. Easy to practice. nom. sg. royal secret. righteous. nom. This is royal knowledge. easy.). eternal.) dharmyam (n. righteous. BV cpd. ~~~ pratyak~avagamam dharmyam as if before the eyes.). uttamam (n. rajavidya rajaguhyam royal knowledge. royal secret. before the eyes. pleasant. cleanser. rajaguhyam (n. understanding. which is intelligible before the eyes. imperishable. nom. ~~~II susukham kartum avyayam easy to practice. nom.IX 2 <FIf<RrT~ rajavidya (f. intelligible. sg. which can be plainly understood. to practice. A supreme purifier. royal wisdom. nom.).1 pavitram idam uttamam purifier this supreme. purifier. to do. nom. sg. supreme. sg. a royal secret. avyayam (n. sg. imperishable. imperishable. nom. (pratyak~avagamam. susukham (n. qf~ ~ ~t+Pt. 378 . sg. royal knowledge.).).JkI:). avagamam (n.). righteous. nom. sg. sg.). idam (n.. kartum (infinitive . sg.

pI. dharmasya (m.). II .) Men who have no faith In this knowledge. succession of rebirths. epithet of Arjuna. indic. gen. of this rule. without faith. mid.). men..Jtip). to me. mtim (acc. nom. they are reborn. pr. . asraddadhaniis (m.JVI:t). nivartante (3rd pI. in the path of death and transmigration. "liif41+:4 ~ I dharmasyasya parmittapa of this law. Scorcher of the Foe. in the path. not reaching. Not attaining to Me. nom. they are born again ¥l. pr. loco sg. puru~tis (m. smnstira (m. sg. mrtyu (m. pl.. voc. non-faith-holding. they are born again. n. transmigration. asya (m.. 379 . of it. loco sg.. of it.Jdha). vartmani (n.IX 3 ~~<rAT:~T aSraddadhana~ puru~a who do not give faith men. sg. participle a sradda .4~*l1 (""ii f.). (mrtyu-samstira-vartmani. not attaining. paralntapa (m. ~mf~ aprapya mam nivartante not attaining to me.). aprtipya (gerund a pra . sg.). of this law. gen. death.. mrtyusamsaravartmani in the death transmigration path. without giving faith. of this worship.). TP cpd. ni . sg. are born again In the path of death and transmigration. Scorcher of the Foe. spirits. Arjuna. of law.). me.).

). by image. pass. stretched. by unmanifest aspect. f.). by me. nom.Janj). as BY cpd. sg. This whole universe is pervaded By Me in My unmanifest aspect. pass. nom. aham (nom. not. All beings abide in Me. nom. all.). " jagad avyaktamiirtina universe by unmanifest aspect ~'~Ol{ttllifWfT I +m=mfiT~iT matsthani sarvabhiitani me abiding all beings iT "mf ~~ ~~~: II na cahath te~v avasthitalJ and not I in them abiding.IX 4 l1l1T~~~ maya tatam idath sarvath by me pervaded this whole .). abiding. universe.Jtan). na. I do not abide in them. sarvam (n. ace. tqu (n. all beings. (avyaktamurtina. avasthitas (m. unmanifest. sg. resting. nom. ca. p. all creatures. pl. sg. sg. maya (inst. by me whose aspect is unmanifest. nom. this. sg.).). entire. idam (n. standing. sg. participle .). pervaded. murtina (f. in them.. and. jagat (n. in me situated. ) matsthani (n. pl.). world. inst. avyakta (p. pl. participle a vi . whole. sarvabhutani (n.). 380 . by aspect. in me abiding. nom.). sg. inst. tatam (n. sg. 1.. sg. loe.

majestic.). sg.). acc.). bhulabht:t (m. ca. causing beings to be. sg. supporting beings. acc. sustaining beings. lordly. abiding in me. pl. bhutasthas (m. creatures. nom. ~ lr <iT<r+( ~ I pasya me yogam iiisvaram behold of me the power majestic! bhiltabhrn na ca bhiltastho beings sustaining and not beings dwelling in.Jpas). acc. my. .. • The explanation of the apparent paradox follows: "God is the source of all phenomena. power. bhutani (n. 381 . nom. sg. acc. not. bearing beings. nom.. beings. alma (m. na..). yogam (m. sustaining.Radhakrishnan. sg.).). not. abiding in beings..). bhutabhiivanas (m. pr.IX 5 iT 'if +m=~nf.). and. And yet beings do not abide in Me. pl. t "God pervades beings by virtue of his will . sg. Behold my divine yoga! Sustaining beings and not dwelling in beings Is my Self. God supports all beings. behold! see! me (gen. Yoga. pa§ya (2nd sg. sg. of me. na. sg. na ca matsthiini bhiltiini and (yet) not from me abiding beings. causing beings to be. existing in beings. self.). ~~:II mamiitmii bhiltabhiivanal} myself beings causing to be. ~. but is not touched by them" . sg. but no being is of use to him." . imperative act. beings. mama (gen. of me. beings dwelling in.). my. matsthiini (n. causing beings to come into existence.freely excerpted from Ramanuja. and. aisvaram (m. ca. nom.

thus.). mahan (m.).Jdhl:). sg. nom. viiyus (m. nom. thus consider! As the mighty wind. bhUtiini (n.). eternally. situated.). matsthani (n. pl. pl. iikasa. nom. perpetually. nom.:wi yathiikasasthito nityatiz as (in) space dwelling eternally CfT1!: m<Tr ~ I sarvatrago mahan the wind everywhere going.). as. pro imperative causative act.). mighty.). in which way. upa . going everywhere. ether. in me existing. sg. nityam (adv. in me abiding. so.(m. all. sarviilJi (n. iti. sarvatragas (m. beings. strong. nom. tatha. dwelling in. consider! reflect! matsthantty upadharaya in me abiding. vayu~ ~~~1lf~" tatha sarva1Ji bhUtani so all beings ~R<1:~11 yatha. Dwells eternally in space. this. nom. creatures." omnipresent.). space. wind. So all beings Dwell in Me. upadharaya (2nd sg. pl. sg. nom.IX 6 ~~~f. mighty.!n. "everywhere going. sg. sthitas (m.). Consider this! 382 . in this way.

sg. • Day of Brahman. kalpadau (m. loc. act. prakl:tim (f.). AtjlUla.). I create.). my own. sg. 4. epithet of Aljuna referring to his mother. at the destruction of a kalpa. they. kalpaklfaye (m. Go to My own material nature At the end of a kalpa. at the burning of a kalpa. Son of Kunti ~~<rrf~mf~ I prakrtirh yiinti miimikiim (into) material nature. pl.000 years). mamikiim (f. acc. Kunti or Prthii. yanti (3rd pI.. kiiunteya (m. I send them forth. At the beginning of a kalpa. '*' again them ~lf~~~~11 kalpiidiiu visrjiimy aham at the beginning of a kalpa I send forth. kalpak~aye punas tiini at the end of a kalpa. I send forth. acc.IX 7 ~-rcrrf. sarvabhiitiini kiiunteya all beings. my own.). All beings.e. 383 . at the end of a kalpa. material nature.). I let go.). punar. all beings. ~~~mf. mine. indic. sg.).000. at the beginning of a kalpa. vis~jami (I st sg. note (i. they go. act. aham (nom. tani (n. see Book VIII 17. sg. sg. pr. loc.. at the originating of a kalpa. Jya).320. acc. they go. pl.). them. vi . I. again. my. to material nature.J s~j). Son of Kunti. 'fiRl<r sarvabhiU[mi (n. voc. I. sg. nom.

). vasat (m. the multitude of beings. He develops this prakrti into eight forms (cf. resting on. sg. send forth. I create. acc. VII 4 and following stanza). sg. avasam prakrter vasat without will. . which is capable of development into various shapes.IX 8 ~~~~ prakrtim svam ava~tabhya material nature own resting on. f~::. from the power.). material nature.).Js~j). I send forth again and again This entire multitude of beings. animals and immovables every now and then because of his bewildering prakrti which consists of gu'.).Jstabh). again and again. sg. 384 . this. prak~tes (f. acc. abl. ava~fabhya (gerund ava . imam (m. vi . punalJ punalJ. . sg. acc. without will. the aggregate of beings. by the power.las. act. bhiitagramam (m. visrjami (1st sg.).rrf+r Tf: Tf: I visrjami puna~ puna~ I send forth again and again ~f1s+i~ ". reposing upon his own prakrti (material nature). ~ ~ <ffiTq: II prakl:tim (f. bhufagramam imam krtsnam multitude of beings this entire. acc. men. k~tsnam (m.).). swim (f. powerless. from the will. Which is powerless. pro indic.Rlimlinuja. • God creates these beings anew (at the beginning of a new kalpa). sg. sg. avasam (m. Resting on My own material nature. of material nature. of material nature. by the power of My material nature. from the will.). propped up by. acc. God creates the fourfold creation of gods. gen. sg. acc. own. whole. supported by. entire. willy-nilly. sg.

sitting. from". Unattached to these actions. act. dhanmnjaya (m. nom.). And these actions do not bind Me. in deeds. 'if lIT ('I'lf.. acc. 'fi1hfur na.Jbadh). these. asaktam (m. sg. I sit indifferently. acc. karmiiTJi (n.). epithet of AIjuna. as). and. sg. me tani (n. ~mr~~'R+l: udasinavad asinam indifferently sitting ~ffi ~ 'Pl'1. they bind down. tqu (n. asfnam (m.Jsanj). pro indie. ni . na ca mam tani karma!}i and not me these actions f~-. p. conqueror of wealth. ca.f~~1 nibadhnanti dhanamjaya they bind. sg. to actions. sg. pl. "like one sitting apart. II asaktam te~u karmasu unattached in these actions. they bind. unattached. not. impartially.)." indifferently. seated.). nibadhnanti (3rd pI. Conqueror of Wealth. udasfnavat (adv. pl. deeds. participle a .IX 9 . 385 . pass.). loco pl. karmasu (n. not clinging. loco pl. nom.. in these. Arjlll1a. actions. they fetter. voc. in actions..). mam (acc.).

sg. material nature. by me. from cause. With Me as overseer. with me as overseer. from reason.). sg. it pro- w:rn ~"'HI. by cause. both the moving and the unmoving. pr. inst.). from this. mid.).IX 10 lfllTe<:f~ ~~: mayiidhyak~e1Ja prakrtil. as overseer.). epithet of Arjuna. Son of KuntI. nom. inst. as in- spector. by reason. it revolves. sg. indic. hetuna (m. it revolves.). Son of KuntI. material nature maya (inst. indic. kdunteya (m. nom. both the animate(cara) and inanimate (acara). sg. acc. ArjlUla. mid. world. universe. Jsu). suyate (3rd sg. anena (m. ~fqqf~11 this. vi pari J v~t). it impels. sg. voc.'HSJ. I siiyate sacariicaram it produces both animate and inanimate (things) duces. jagat (n. it creates.).). it exists. DV cpd. sacaracaram (m. The universe revolves. inst. as eye witness. From this cause. acc. by this. material nature Produces all things animate and inanimate. with me. pr. sg.). adhyak:jelYl (m. with ~Cfim hetuniinena kiiunteya from this cause. viparivartate (3rd sg. jagad viparivartate the universe. sg. prak1:tis (f. 386 .

not knowing. p. ajanantas (m. a -JjM). mtinusfm (f. human. ignorant of. acc. participle -Jmuh). higher.). bhiita (m. ava -JjM). fools. acc. employing. existence. sg. acc. my. body. sg. TP cpd. mtim (acc. the confused ones.Jsri). mahesvaram (m. assuming. pr.IX 11 ~~+rt11(fl " avajiinanti miith mfujhii they despise me. they disesteem. great lord. tanum (f. miidhas (m. nom. having recourse to. creature. pass. pI. sg. being. acc. pass. (maheSvaram. avajananti (3rd pI. Great Lord of Beings. param (m.). mama (gen. Not knowing My higher being As the great Lord of beings.. nom. sg. act.). bhtivam (m. pr.). they treat with contempt.) 387 . they despise. sg.). sg. acc. sg. dwelling in. the Great Lord of Beings. participle a . the deluded. asritam (m. m. being. p. miinu{ith tanum iisritam human form assuming qimcq~T parath bhiivam ajiinanto higher being not knowing l1l1~11 mama bhiitamahesvaram of me. the deluded.).). sg. form. pI. The deluded despise Me. sg.). Clad in human fonn. mighty lord. acc. indic. using. of me. participle act. me. acc.

vain actions. Vain knowledge. • prakrtim (nature) is not used here in the usual sense of" material nature. nom. resting on. those of vain knowledges." but is part of a simple attribute. asurfm (f. pertaining to devils. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). prak1:tim (f. pass. acc. those whose actions are vain. pl.rCf riik~asim iisurim ciiiva fiendish and demonic thus 51~i. Which is deluding.). nom. ~~1~~T. eva. those of vain hopes. pI. l1~f~:1 moghajiiiinii vicetasab vain know ledges.). nom. delusive. acc. those whose knowledges are vain.) those whose thoughts are lacking. those of vain actions.). without thought. sg. BV cpd. resorting to. without thought.). and. p. acc.). vicetasas (m.4 1011 moghasas (mogha asas. moghajnanas (m. nature. nom. without sense. m. Those of vain hopes. Abide in a fiendish and demoniacal nature. those whose hopes are vain. pl. 388 . demonic. sg.IX 12 111<mTr to{l "l ". pI. confused. BV cpd.). moghakarmalJas (m. ca. mohinfm (f. acc. (as BV cpd. rak~asfm (f. pl. sritas (m. evil. moghiisii moghakarmii1Jo those of vain hopes. participle . devoid of &saimination. pI..). pI. nom. l1Tf~T f!Q'ID: II prakrtim* mohinim sritiib nature delusive abiding. character. clinging to.Jsri). vain actions. BV cpd. fiendish. abiding.

mahiitmiinas tu miim piirtha those whose selves are great. Worship Me single-mindedly. Partaking of a celestial nature. those whose minds are not elsewhere. acc. 389 . sg. epithet of Arjuna. ananyamanasas (m.IX 13 1'li3: 1<:I'll"H( ~lltqr~ mahiitmiinas (m. ~T 41\I1f~ ~~ II " . (as BY cpd. bhajanti (3rd pI. indic. iisritiis (m.). nom. resorting to. jiiiitvii (gerund Jjiiii). participle ii Jsri). nom. acc. but. celestial.). sg. But those whose souls are great.) those whose selves are great. the beginning of beings.). abiding in. knowing. pass. they worship. sg. nom. sg. bhutiidim (m. mighty souls. resting on. acc. but. me. the Imperishable. great selves. BY cpd. p. miim (acc.). Son of Prthii. pI. piirtha (m. having known. character. divine.). ~~1"41'l1~1 bhajanty ananyamanaso they worship not other-mindedly. acc. Son of Prthii. heavenly. diiivfm (f. clinging to. sg. act. &cr151~~ ~~: I diiivim prakrtim iisritiil} celestial nature abiding in. great souls. Arjuna. pr. . Knowing Me as the origin of beings and as the imperishable. they share with. nature. jiiiitvii bhutiidim avyayam knowing (me as) the beginning of beings.). Jbhaj). me. avyayam (m. they honor. prakl:tim (f. sg. pl. the origin of beings.). pI. imperishable. voc. eternal.). tu.

Jklrt). yatantas (m. stretching. me. pr. bhaktya (f. glorifying. continually. vow. sg. ca. pI. pI. making mention of. BY cpd. nitya (adv. paying homage to.).Jyat). united in Yoga. pI. Ever steadfast. nom. honoring. inst. steadfast. sg.Jas) .Jnam). yuktas (m. pr. they honor. yoked.).). pr. eternally. pr. p. always. nom. with devotion. sg.) namasyantas (m. firm. fi'f~ll<ffiT ~ II Perpetually glorifying Me And striving with firm vows. solid. and striving with firm vows "Pif4"t1~'iI +IT ~ namasyantaica mam bhaktya and honoring me with devotion '" nityayukta upasate ever steadfast they worship. and. they worship. klrtayantas (m. participle . causative participle . sincere. pI. (d~4havratas. nom. miim (acc. striving. those vows are firm.Jyuj). pass. they worship Me. mdm (acc. ca. indic. nom. celebrating.IX 14 mffi 'fi~ +IT satatam kirtayanto mam perpetually glorifying me yatantaica drr!havratal. And honoring Me with devotion. nom. perpetually. ever. participle . participle . participle .).).Jd~h). praising. pI. upa . act. 390 . vrata (n. act. satatam (adv. d~4ha (p. mid. me. and. m. with love. pass. with piety..). upasate (3rd pI.

sg. and. they honor. act. api.e. ekatvena (n. p~thaktvena (n.). ~<IT f~~l{ II bahudhii visvatomukham variously manifested. inst. variously manifested. even. as the manifold.IX 15 ~1'14ii'1 ~~ jiiiinayajnena ciipy anye and by the knowledge-sacrifice others. sg. omniscient). ca. as the manifold.). by manifoldness. variously placed. ~T+m(~1 also yajanto miim upiisate sacrificing. omniscient. And by the wisdom sacrifice. participle :'. nom.). sg. Variously manifested. by the sacrifice of knowledge. 391 . sacrificing. pI. miim (ace. upiisate (3rd pI.yaj). as the one. also. bahudhii (adv. mid. they worship. me. inst. me they worship ~~~ o ekatvena prthaktvena as the one. jiiiinayajiiena (m. facing in all directions (i. worship Me As the one and as the manifold. pr. nom. by the knowledge sacrifice. by oneness. others. indic. pr. upa . facing in all directions. inst. visvatomukham (adv. yajantas (m. Others. worshipping.). pl.).). anye (m.). sg. facing in all directions.Jiis). sacrificing.

intention. offering. svadha (n.). the oblation. I. plan.). clarified butter. aham.). I am the sacrifice. sg. ajyam (n. I the medicinal herb.~ mantro 'ham aham evajyam the sacred text I. I am the sacred text. aham. formula. sg. ceremony. sg. medicine. aham. I am the fire. aham. ritual. I am also the clarified butter.). aham. I the pouring out: I am the ritual. and I am the pouring out (of the oblation). I. the pouring out.).). mantras (m. nom. ~T~~~lJ:t:!. 392 . I. aham I. sg. sg. kratus (m. sacrifice. I am the medicinal herb. agnis (m. sg. I also the clarified butter. aham kratur aham yajnaft I the ritual. nom. eva. au~adham (n. ~~mlJ\~~11 aham agnir aham hutam I the fire.). yajnas (m. sg.). I. Br~~~M~1 svadhaham aham a~adham the offering I. I the sacrifice. sacred text. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sg. I. I. nom. nom.).IX 16 ~~<. I am the offering. nom. ghee. remedy. aham. I. sg. nom. fire. medicinal herb. nom.I~~<rn": aham (nom. hutam (n.

~g Veda. the arranger. the second to the traditions of chant applied largely to the same verses. of this. mata (f. I arn the father ofthe universe.). vedyam (n. omkiiras (m. and Yajur Vedas. the Sarna and the Yajur (Vedas). nom. eva.). the purifier.). nom. of the universe +mIT 'Cum Fr~rr~: I mata dhata pitamahal:z the mother. the purifier. pitaham asya jagato the father I of it. the sacred syllable" Om.the~bllimer. nom. yajur. Sarna. sama. father.IX 17 f~~~T pita (m. of the world. Sarna and Yajur Vedas are the three principal Vedas. the establisher. 393 . the cleanser. sg. sg.). dluita (m. nom. mother. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ca. or compilations of ancient Vedic lore. sg. the to-be-known. sg. pavitram (n. asya (gen. pitamahas (m.). gen.Jvid).the grandfather. sg. • The ~g. the grandfather. sg. sg.). of the universe. aham (nom.n: vedyam pavitram omkara the to-be-known.). nom. nom." The Rig. The object of knowledge. Sarna Veda. sg. the first being devoted to verses of praise.). grandfather." fk. the purifier. ~ qf~ ~:fcl. the establisher.). gerundive . the sacred syllable "Om. jagatas (n. and the third to ritual formulas." ~ml1~<. nom. the syllable "Om. Yajur Veda. sg. sg.:~~11 rk sama yajur eva ca the ~g. I. and. Themother. of it. the object of knowledge.

niviisas (m. the friend. nom. origin. sthiinam (n."~ ~+I: II nidhanam bijam avyayam the treasure house. eye-witness.). >!"l1cl": ~: ~~ prabhavab pralayab sthiinam the origin.). the witness. the dissolution. siik~f (m. sg. bringing forth.). nom. the seed imperishable. home. the great Lord. 394 . the friend. suh~d (m. the refuge. supporter. dissolution. refuge. gatis (f. the eye witness.). shelter. nom. nom. The treasure house and the imperishable seed. treasure house. nidhiinam (n. sg. the supporter. goal. seed. the Great Lord. The abode.IX 18 '1f<:n: mIT >nr: m~r . prabhavas (m. great lord. dying.). nom. prabhus (m. sg. eternal. maintenance. nom.).). birth. sg. avyayam (n. nom. nom.). the supporter. (as BV cpd. -0 gatir bharUi prabhu!t sak~i the goal.) he whose heart is good.). sg. support.). sg. The origin. saraf}am (n. pra/ayas (m. the dissolution and the foundation. f~: m'!1J' ~ I nivasab sarat}am suhrt the abode.). bijam (n.). path. abode. bhartii (m. companion. sustainer. sg. friend.). nom. nom. nom. the staying f"<1R". observer. sg. sg. sg. sg. nom. imperishable. bearer. sg. the refuge. nom. sg. basis. I am the goal.

mwus (m. 395 .:lI being and non-being. f~. pro participle . sat (n. And I am both immortality and death. nom. amrtam ciiiva mrtYuSca and immortality thus and death. untruth. utgjiimi (1st sg. ca. ni . immortality.). I withhold. ~~~mll sad asac ciiham arjuna " ""I. ca.Jas). and. pr. I hold back. act. nectar. and I send forth.).Jtap). aham. I heat up. tapiimi (1st sg. sg. aham. am~tam (n. I.Js~j). I let go.f~~~ tapiimy aham aham var~am I radiate heat. I. I send forth. acc. . truth. death. and.IX 19 ~~'l. ca. eva.Jgrah). nom. . nom. sg. nom. and. act. indic. sg.). I. arjuna (m. I. Atjuna. ca. asat (n.).). I withhold and Send forth the rain. sg. sg. Arjuna. sg.. I radiate heat. sg.. indic.). non-being. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). rain. I. var~am (m. vOC. pro indic. I radiate heat. ud .mprTIl1 "f I nigrhIJiimy utsrjiimi ca I withhold. pr. being. act. Being and non-being. Arjuna. and. I the rain. nig~hfJiimi (1st sg. aham (nom.

by another name.. m. acc. attaining the god-Indraworld.) yajiiiiis (m. indic. nom. evils. in the sky. they ask for. divyan (m.) asnanti (3rd pI. god pleasures. t . mam (acc. they. lokam (m. sg. pl. goal of heaven. the lord of the gods. pure. (surendra-loka. This is the only mention in the Gita of the chief of the Vedic gods. purified.Jas).).). going toward. world of Indra. loco sg.Jarth).thus the Indra or "chief" of the gods. asadya (gerund a . pl.lyam iisiidya surendralokam they. by sacrifices. (piltapapas. with sacrifices. sg.. approaching. those whose evils are cleansed. They. acc. te (m. Tri~!ubh metre.). i~tva (gerund . they seek. heaven goal they seek. svargatim (f. cleansed. godly pleasures. the Indra (chief) of the gods. ~~~ro~~ te pU1. divi (n.).). ~ ~Tmf~ 5rT~ I yajiiiiir i~tvii svargatim priirthayante with sacrifices worshipping. nom.). nom. heaven goal. the pure. papas (m. offering. divine. encountering. pl. me. meritorious. pr. whose evils are cleansed. soma drinkers. indic. surendra (m. devabhogan (m. sg. sg.). pl. heavenly. Worship Me with sacrifices and seek to go to heaven.. pl. though the surviving mutation of his name in the word" indriya" meaning" sense" or "power" is common. prarthayante (3rd pI. TP cpd. sins. acc. the cleansed of evils. world. pra . me.). they eat. "chief" . 396 . pl. triiividyii miim somapii/. pilta (m. mid. attaining the pure world of the Lord of the gods. inst. holy. nom. pl.). pr. in heaven. act.IX 20 '"<roT +IT ~T+P1T: qwrrqr . they enjoy. and he is mentioned in X 22. Indra. m.. they desire..Jsad). .). The use of the name here is in its common meaning. Enjoy in heaven the gods' celestial pleasures . attaining. pU1Jyam (m. the soma drinkers. acc.). sg. somapas (m. BV cpd.). acc. nom. ~~f~fcnq~Trr II aSnanti divyiin divi devabhogiin they enjoy divine.Jyaj). knowers of the three Vedas. in the sky. divine enjoyments. the soma drinkers. sg. path of heaven.).). traividyas (m. acc.z putapiipii* The three-Veda knowers. Those who know the three Vedas. worshipping.

in purity. pu'!ye (m. sg. the world of heaven. . svarga (m. desiring objects of desire.). going and coming. sg. following. they obtain the state of going and returning. indic. (svargaLokam. in goodness. evam. trayfdharmam (m. acc.). "three law. pl. loc. . world of mortals. sg.Jpad) . ~~<ft~~iSlq>J1 evam trayidharmam anuprapannii thus the law of the three Vedas conforming to. pI. they obtain. conforming to. in merit. indic.le pU1. sg.). lTaTm'fCflIWflll'l1 ~~ II gatiigatam kiimakiimii labhante going and coming. k~f. acc. pr. mortal world. act . tam (m. kamakamas (m. world. martyaLokam (m. sg. in destroyed. wide.). visanti (3rd pI. mid .!e (m. p.Jlabh). in virtue. in exhausted. acc.).). they obtain (them).). pass. having enjoyed. thus.([ ~ ~l<f. they get. nom. They enter the world of mortals when their merit is exhausted.Jksi). participle anu pra .). Labhante (3rd pI.IX 21 a." law of the three Vedas. they enter. bhuktva (gerund . spacious. participle . p. • Tri~!ubh metre continues. fcrnf~ I k~i1. carrying out. 397 . heaven. f~ te tam bhuktvii svargalokam visiilam'" they.lye martyalokam visanti with exhausted merit.). Desiring enjoyments. what comes and goes. acc. in this manner. gatagatam (m. m. Having enjoyed the vast world of heaven. sg. Lokam (m. wide. the world of heaven. sg. TP cpd. extensive. they. pass. desiring objects of desire. acc. loc. Thus confonning to the law of the three Vedas. nom. the world of mortals they enter. this. nom. enjoying. it having enjoyed. sg.. acc. it. te (m. sg. ~1UT ~ ~l<f.Jbhu}).Jvis) . acc. anuprapannas (m.) visaLam (m.). pl. pr.

). eternally. ye (m. pari upa viis). to the acquiring and protection of property. For them. sg. participle . sg. pI. I bring. of those united to Yoga. who are constantly steadfast. sg. acc. vahami (1st sg. nom. ananyiis (m.) yogakliemam (m. pr. men.). gen. pro indic. . I carry.). to them. pl. tqiim (gen. directing thoughts to. directing their thoughts to Me.. they worship.). of them. nom. abhiyuktiiniim (m. of the steadfast ones.1~f~T1IT ananyiis cintayanto miirh· without other (thoughts). gen.Jcint). which. Those men who worship. janas (m. BV cpd. meditating on. me. who. m.). indic. nom. act.Jvah). they honor.).). I secure what they lack and preserve what they already possess.). they worship. not directed to another. (nityiibhiyuktiinam. ~f~~ te~iirh nityiibhiyuktiiniirh of them of those who are constantly steadfast. pr. pl. of those who are eternally steadfast. nitya (adv. pI. 1. I. I lead.). nom. miim (acc. to acquisition and possession. directing thoughts to me. • 8loka metre resumes. paryupiisate which men. paryupiisate (3rd pI. pl. Whose minds do not go elsewhere. 398 . cintayantas (m. constantly. pl. it~:~1 ye janiil. pl.IX 22 9. mid. lfTlTent ~ ~l!: II yogak~emarh vahiimy aham acquisition and possession I bring. aham (nom.

). Jyaj) . Jyaj). godheads. with faith. (anya-devata-bhaktas.). pass. act. yajanti (3rd pI. in the absence of fixed rules.craT: I yajante sraddhayanvital. not according to rule. by faith. 399 . they sacrifice. api.. te (m. Though they do so in ignorance. nom. nom. ~mqf~11 yajanty avidhipurvakam (though) they sacrifice not according to rule.). sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).) yajante (3rd pI. pl. anya-. nom. mam (acc.). also. Arjuna. they sacrifice. TP cpd. pl. who. they worship. Son of Kuntl. me. Even those who worship other gods With faith. even. they worship.. gods. sharing with.+ITl\ ~ 'tim te 'pi miim eva kaunteya they also to me. worshipping other gods. pI. participle Jbhaj). p.IX 23 <t ~ 1.). indic. epithet of Arjuna. pl. sraddhaya (f. api. bhaktas (m. kaunteya (m. sg. ye (m. pr. inst.). also. accompanied by. devatas (f. avidhipurvakam (adv. Son of KuntI.!~4~6(d I +miT ye 'py anyadevatabhakta who even other gods worshipping 4"~ ~rf. Also worship Me. nom. m. anvitas (m. indic. other. sg. along with. even. they. to me. eva. nom. worshipping.). pr. pI. voc. mid.). they sacrifice by faith accompanied ~ sfq.

But they do not recognize Me in truth. indic. truly. enjoyer. indeed. they. pr. prabhus (m. sg. .).Jjna). sg. abhijananti (3rd pI. nom. not.Jcyu). by truth. lord. and.). they know. abhi . sg. nom. '1" ~ lflll: m'l1~~ "" na tu miim abhljiinanti not. they vanish. in truth.1~ f~ *1<14#11'1 i aham hi sarvayajiiiiniim I indeed of all sacrifices aham (nom. " atas. nom. cyavanti (3rd pI. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). they fall. hence they fall. ca. me. eva. pl.). bhokta (m. na. but. For I am the enjoyer and the Lord Of all sacrifices. pl. sg. they deviate. they. indic. 400 . but. tattvena (n.). hi. from this.IX 24 'l. inst. they recognize. me they recognize Cf~~~a-II tattveniitas cyavanti te in truth. indeed.). act. 'l1'rttir :q sr'lR t:!. I.Cf :q I bhoktii ca prabhur eva ca the enjoyer and the lord. in "thatness. and. pr. sg. tu. Hence they fall. ca. gen. act. te (m.). sarvayajnaniim (m.). mam (acc. of all sacrifices. hence.

). also. those who are devoted to the ancestors. to the ancestors go those who are devoted to the ancestors. to the gods. the gods. nom. pl. even. fqq'l: <nf~ f~<. those devoted to the spirits. . those who sacrifice to me. Those who are devoted to the ancestors go the the ancestors. sg. to the spirits.IX 25 1. acc. the spirit-sacrificing. pl.. act . .TTf~~~ yanti devavratii devan they go. yanti (3rd pI. piu:vratas (m. pitfn (m. they attain. they attain. devan (m. they go. those who are devoted to me. bhutani yanti bhutejya to the spirits go those who sacrifice to the spirits.). nom.r. act. the me-sacrificing. devavratas (m. pl. . the god-devoted. acc. act. spirits. pl.). Those who are devoted to the gods go to the gods. surely. pl. to me. the ancestor-devoted.[iIT: I pitrn yanti pitrvratal.). pro indic.Jya).Jya). to the gods. the ancestors. madyajinas (m. yanti (3rd pI. indic. nom.). pl. they attain. acc. bhutani (n. those who are devoted to the gods.:rT sflTlITl! II yanti ntadyajino 'pi mam they go.Jya). yanti (3rd pI. mam (acc. pl.Jya). nom. they go. api. pr. indie. to the ancestors. pr. act. they go. surely to me. those devoted to the gods. Those who are devoted to the spirits go to the spirits.). <nf~ ~rf. me. Those who worship Me come surely toMe. bhutejyas (m. 401 . . yanti (3rd pI.). they go. beings.). they attain.

sg. bhakti (f.).). with devotion.Jhr:).Jyam) . (n. TP cpd." The ancient belief was that the gods actually" ate" part of the sacrificial offering. or water. a fruit. sg.) asniimi (Ist sg. sg.IX 26 ~~q'~mlf pattram pu~pam phalam toyam a leaf.Jyam) . sg. controlled. pr. m. pattram (n. I partake. sg. from the self. iitmanas (m. acc. sg. pra .. sg. I eat.) • "I eat. p. pass. pure. me (m. ~(p. abl.. sg. pro indic. a fruit. of the self. love. tad (n. That offering of devotion I accept from him. from him whose self is pure.:r~ '+l 'R'i. presented. dutiful. to me. he presents.q ~d It tad aham bhaktyupahrtam that I devotion offered ~rfl15f<r<:lWFf: II asnami prayatatmana/. act.). fruit.).). acc. water. participle pra .). acc. BY cpd. dat. 402 . he offers. phalam (n. devotion. (bhakti-upahr:tam. toyam (n. participle upa .Jas) . acc. yas (m. prayacchati (3rd sg.l I eat* from him whose self is pure. prayata (m. I. n. inst. indic. a flower. (prayatiitmanas. sg. nom. offered. a flower. acc. pu~pam lfr l:r 'l1'RlfT ~~ I yo me bhaktya prayacchati who to me with devotion. offering of devotion. with love. that. acc. bhaktyii (f. who. water. sg. abl. p. I accept. acc. this. flower. act. . aham. he offers. pass.).). He who offers to Me with devotion and a pure heart A leaf. sg. sg.). leaf.). upahr:tam (n. he goes toward.

act. what. thou eatest.Jda). yad (n. dadasi (2nd sg. voc. what thou eatest. tad (n. which. mr~~l1:11 tat kuru~va madarpat}am that do (as) an offering to me. thou performest (in the way of austerities). indic. act. sg.). what. whatever you give. .Jkl:) . this. .). sg. what.). yat karo# yad asniisi what thou doest. indic. do! make! madarpaTJilm (n. act. thou makest. acc. indic. pro indic. epithet of Arjuna. pr. which. pr. thou doest. yad (n. sg. acc. asnasi (2nd sg. 403 .Jtapasya).Jhu). acc. Whatever you do. . kuru~va (2nd sg. . act. what. karo~i (2nd sg. acc. sg.Jas). yad (n. yad (n. thou strivest. tapasyasi (2nd sg.).). which.~"'fi~ yat tapasyasi kiiunteya what thou performest in austerities. as an offering to me. imperative . pr. what. sg. Whatever you offer. acc.). Do that as an offering to Me. ~~l'f~~<ql yaj juho# dadiisi yat what thou offerest. . kaunteya (m. mid. act . Son of KuntI. juho~i (2nd sg. acc.IX 27 ~~Tfl'f~~~ . that.Jk~). thou offerest (in sacrifice). sg. pr.). Whatever austerities you perform. indic.). lfcr. whatever you eat. thou givest what. acc. . which. yad (n. Arjuna. sg. Son of Kunt!. thou givest. sg.

f<ll!'ffiT ~ ~ II vimukto miim upii#yate liberated. steadfast. You shall come to Me. auspicious and unfortunate. pl. karmabandhaniiis (n.). sg. me thou shalt come to. In the You shall certainly be liberated From the bonds of action which produce good and evil fruits. sg. phalais (n. from the fruits. p. sanmyasa (m. sg. sg.Jyuj).).) evam. from good and evil fruits. nom. thyself. thus. nom. certainly. l1Tm~:1 mok~yase karmabandhaniiilJ thou shalt be liberated from the bonds of action. yoga (m. thou shalt come. nom. by the fruits. thou shalt be freed. thou shalt attain. pass. participle . future pass .). from the bonds of action. disciplined. with your mind disciplined by the yoga of renunciation.Ji). joined in Yoga. (subhiisubhaphalais. thou shalt go. upa .). pI. inst..Jmuc).l'll samnyiisayogayuktiitmii thou whose self is disciplined Yoga of renunciation.) vimuktas (m. n. upairyate (3rd future 2nd sg. good and evil. inst. thou shalt be liberated. mam (acc.. liberated. ~"I'i'ffil.). (samnyasayogayuktatma. pl. self. BY cpd. by the fetters of action. . inst. m. pass. renunciation.Jmuc).IX 28 ~~~ '" '" . mokryase (2nd sg. whose self is disciplined in the Yoga of renunciation.).). me. Liberated. participle vi . yukta (p. subhiisubhaphaliiir evam subhiisubha (n. relinquishment. freed. from good and evil fruits certainly. yoked. 404 . atma (m. by good and evil fruits. Yoga.

me. nor dear. disliked.). indic.).). with devotion. even.). lac. indeed. configuration. inst. disinterested. ye (m. indic. samas (m. exist in an infinite plurality of forms. which. it is.). but. na. sg. they. nom. according to their class.).). bhajanti (3rd pI. 405 . men. nom. also.).). not. animals and immovables. pr. aham (nom. equal in quantity. not.IX 29 wit ~. sg. aham (nom. Me with devotion lTf<1ir~~~11 mayi te te~u ciipy aham in me they. in me. mam (acc. thus "the same" in all beings. but. I am the same (Self) in all beings. There is none disliked or dear to Me. impartial. sg. '*' if 11~) sf~ if f>n1: I na me dve~yo 'sti na priyal. hated.). nom. The meaning is that God exists in all iitmans (selves) and is therefore a part. Jbhaj). they honor. nature and knowledge. nom. with love. sg. pl. God is the same toward all iitmans (selves) of gods. gen. priyas (m. of all beings. they worship. I. act. nom. dear. nor. of me.). who. pl. sarvabhUte~u (n. and. and I am also in them. sg. mayi (m. sg. there is. <t 'l1'iff~ ~ lIT ~ ye bhajanti tu miim bhaktyii who they worship. favored. te:fu (m.~ c-- '" samo 'ham sarvabhiite~ the same I am in all beings. dvqyas (m. ca.Ramanuja. asti (3rd sg.). pl. sg. me (m. and in them also I. • "Being a refuge for all. pr. na. lac.). J as). sg. in all beings. pl. But they who worship Me with devotion Are in Me. the same. bhaktya (f. sg. api. I. in them. lac." . to all beings. te (m. not of me disliked there IS. tu.

Jcar). suduriiciiras (m. devoted to no one else.). sg. determined. from su dur ii . ananyabhak (m. indeed. me. sg.1 " '" apicetsuduracaro even if the evil doer ~l1T11~1 bhajate 'miim ana'nyabhiik he worships me (with) devoted. . sg. he. settled. eva. participle vi ava . nom. miim (acc. ced. nom. he honors. For he has indeed rightly resolved. sg.). men:~~~: api. pr. mid . sas (m. to be considered. samyanc (adv. if.). evil doing. nom. He is to be thought of as righteous. nom. he worships. righteous. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). this. he.). sg. sg. sas (m.Jbhaj).Jman). ~ ozrqfmir f~~: II samyag vyavasito hi sa/:t rightly resolved indeed he. 406 . even. good. this. nom. sg. pass. p. sg. gerundive . indic. not-another siidh~r eva sa mantavya/:t righteous he to be thought. rightly.IX 30 mtr ~ ~(I:ql <. If even the evil doer Worships Me with undivided devotion. to be thought. nom.).). resolved.Jso). mantavyas (m. bhajate (3rd sg. also. vyavasitas (m. nom. undertaken. siidhus (m. evil doer. hi. truly.

Son of Kunti. ~~f~(fl IS sasvacchiintim nigacchati everlasting peace he goes to 5If~Tf~ kiiunteya pratijiinihi Son of KuntI. act. sg. everlasting.. law. iT +rn.IX 31 f~~(f~ k~ipram (adv. santim (f. pass. immediately. tranquility. sg.). he becomes.). pro indic. quickly.. perpetual. of me. m. sg. dutiful. atma (m. act. sg.. bhavati (3rd sg. p. pro indic. he is destroyed.). peace. be aware! 'lim . Quickly he becomes virtuous and Goes to everlasting peace. Atjuna. prati Jjfia) . sg. 5fUr~(f II na me bhaktal:z pra1}asyati not of me a devotee he is lost. bhaktas (m. worshipper. (dharmatma. acc.) sasvat. he acquires. nom. not. my. kaunteya (m. nom. nom. me (m. pratijanlhi (2nd sg. sg. know for certain that No devotee ofMine is ever lost 407 . he goes to.).). imperative act. ni Jgam). nigacchati (3rd sg.). worshipping. righteous. JbhU). k#pram bhavati dharmiitmii quickly he becomes one whose self virtuous. be aware! become aware! understand! na. pra J nas). eternal. act. BV cpd. one whose self is virtuous. dharma (m. he is. epithet of Arjuna. self. he enters. rule. voc. pro indic. participle Jbhaj). pralJaSyati (3rd sg. gen. he is lost. virtuous.

epithet of Arjuna. yiinti (3rd sg. api. also. nom. pl.e. women. viiiSyiis (m. pI. wombs. vyapiisritya (gerund vi apa ii Jsri) .). pl.yu/:z papayonayaf:t who. Women. Even if they are born of those whose wombs are evil (i. goal. origins.). • viiisyiis . (piipayonayas. pr. miim (acc. Also go to the highest goal. Son ofPrthii. optative act.). they attain. pl. they. vaisyas. members of the fourth caste. piipa (m. also.). they should be.. sinful. even. ye (m. members of the third caste. highest. nom. te (m. who.) striyas (f. to the goal. sg. me.sf'1 <nfi'Q crU m~ II te 'pi yanti pararh gatim they also go to the highest goal.members of the merchant or peasant caste. sg. api. Jyii). gatim (f. tathii. truly. Arjuna. pariim (f.). even be they (from) evil wombs f~T~~~m:m . even siidras a.:r<:r: I ye 'pi . they go. Siidras. to the highest. sg. pl.). nom. taking refuge in <r sf'1~: qrq<:ff. fourth in order of rank and lowest of the four original castes. indic. be they. nom. 408 . BV cpd.). those whose wombs are evil. acc. t sudriis .). third in order of rank. sg. pl. wicked. even. Viiisyas. acc. yonayas (m. hi. indeed. also. m. even Shudras. nom.members of the servant caste. even. evil. Son of Prtha. nom. act.). J as). They who take refuge in Me.). pl. piirtha. path. '" striyo ?Jaisyas tatha sudras women. Vaishyas. voc.).IX 32 +IT f~ qr~ <><mf~ math hi partha vyapasritya me indeed. those oflow origin). (m. taking refuge in. having recourse to. nom. syus (3rd pI. siidriis (m. thus. should they be.

acc. unhappy. devote thyself to me. pure. nom.). bhaktas (m. perishable. what? how? punar.). thus.). sg. anityam (m. the pure Brahmins And the devoted royal seers! Having attained this impennanent and unhappy world. attaining. sg. devoted.IX 33 f~ Tf\ ~UfT: ~ kim punar briihma1Jii/J pU1Jyii how much more the brahmans pure. world. sg. nom. How much more easily then. again. acc. pl. more. tatha. nom. rajar~ayas (m. Devote yourself to Me. asukham (m. brahmarJtjs (m. nom. pl. imam priipya bhajasva miim this attaining. -. imperative mid. to me. acc.). too. reaching. holy. "l1'rfiT . unpleasant. pl. prapya (gerund pra -. acc.lap). the Brahmans. lokam (m.). sg.). 409 .lbhaj). this. sg. also.(1"1q4~l q~ I bhaktii riijar~ayas tathii devoted royal seers too anityam asukham lokam impermanent unhappy world ~ >rr=4" ~ lfl'l!: II mwnr ~ ~Tcfi+t kim (interrog. impermanent. pU!Jyas (m.).). bhajasva (2nd sg. devote thyselft honor! worship! mam (acc.). royal seers.). me. imam (m. pl.

me worshipping. sg.). namas Jkl:). united in Yoga. eva. evam. me worshipping. With mind fixed on Me. miim (acc. ~T+rt~1 manmanas (m. me-minded. with me in mind. Thus steadfast. sg.). ~ l1\CfU1l1lT: II iitmiinam matpariiYa?}al. namaskuru (2nd sg. be! madbhaktas (m. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). bhava (2nd sg.). e.). End of Book IX The Yoga of Royal Knowledge and of Royal Mystery 410 . of me devoted. self. (as BV cpd. nom.IX 34 ~"l1cf~T manmanii bhava madbhakto by thought be to me devoted. sg. nom.). Sacrificing to Me. yoked.z thyself (with) me as supreme aim. to me. atmanam (m. me. thinking of me. disciplined. yuktva (gerund Jyuj). imperative act. sg. thus. made steadfast thus. future vi). sg. made steadfast. madyiiji miim namaskuru to me sacrificing to me reverence make! l1Tl\ ~~~ 'i~ miim eviii~yasi yuktviiivam to me thou shalt come. matparaya1Jlls (m. nom. to me. thou shalt go.). sg. nom.). make reverence to Me. Jbhu). sg. steadfast.ryasi (2nd sg. thyself. to me sacrificing. acc. with me as supreme aim. imperative. be devoted to Me. with me as supreme object. with Me as your supreme aim.) one whose mind is fixed on me. make reverence! make obeisance! miim (acc. me. You yourself shall come to Me. madyajl (m. thou shalt come.

from me. word. sg. sg. future act.). acc. nom. mahabiiho (m. ~ lr q-ni Cf'f: I G '" bhuyas. participle Jpri). dat. uviica (3rd sg. st:TJU (2nd sg. Hear My supreme word Which I shall speak to you. 0 Arjuna.liiya which to thee. aham (nom. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. hitakiimyayii (f. pro mid.). yad (n. . sg. who are beloved. 411 . prfy'amiiT]iiya (m. to the beloved one. paramam (n. ST1JU me paramarh 'vacalJ hear of me the supreme word te (dat.Jsru).). eva.Jvac) .Jvac). perfect act. once more. 1.). to the delighting one.i Izitakamyayii I shall speak with desire for (thy) welfare. Mighty Armed One. 1 'l'1~Cf~) blutya eva mahiibiiho again. he said. of me.). hear! me (gen. advice. to thee. I shall speak. I. with desire for welfare. again. sg. which. The Blessed Lord spoke: Again. highest. imperative act . .BOOK X ?.).). sg. inst. I shall tell. acc. sg. . the Blessed one. is beloved. supreme. sg. sg. voc. sg. to the one who <icfff ~5flll1410Illl yat te 'ham priyamii1. With a desire for your welfure.).). he spoke. Cf!\:mfl1 fQdifllt:lIlIl II ~'(/h:~yiill/.("mcrq~1 srfbhagaviin (m. sg. vak~iimi (I st sg. the Blessed sribhagaviill uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: Lord. acc. vacas (n. 0 Mighty Armed One. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).

pl.). of the gods. mahar{itJiim ca sarvasalJ and of the great seers universally. suragafJiis (m.). not. gen. sarvasas (adv. In truth I am the SOlllU! of the gods And the great seers. sg. origin. truly. gen. prabhavam (m. sg. the great seers. nor the great seers. l1WI~t'qm: II J vid with present meaning).x 2 iflff~:~: na me vidulJ suragmJiilJ 00. pl. 412 . aham (nom. hi. not of me they know.). and.). beginning. na. nom.). nor.). sg. not. ca. pl. I. of the great seers.). in all cases. the multitudes of gods. the multitudes of gods. coming to be. of me. nom. Neither the multitude of gods Nor the great seers know My origin. acc. the aggregate of gods. perfect act. of the gods. ~mf~f~~ aham iidir hi deviiniim I the source. in every way. sg. vidus (3rd pI. nom. me (gen. mahar~ffJiim (m. iidis (m. they know.). in truth. pl. universally. deviiniim (m. mahar~ayas (m. >!+f<f if ~<r: I prabhavam na mahar~ayalJ the origin.). indeed. source.

nom. indic. from all evils. He among mortals is tUldeluded. pr. p. sg. unconfused. unborn. . he is liberated. he knows. inst.Jmuc). sas (m.lha~ sa martye~u un deluded he among mortals ~:5!11:~11 sarvapiipiiilJ pramucyate yas (m. from all evils he is released. pass. He who knows Me. who. great lord of the world. aniidim (m.Jmuh). from all sins.).). he is released. participle a sam ". birthless. and. me. pramucyate (3rd sg. he.). beginningless. pr.). ca. sg. indic. lokamahdvaram (m.x 3 llT lIT+! ~~ ~~:q yo miim ajam aniiditiz ca who me. undeluded. sg. without beginning.). pl. acc. The mighty Lord of the world. 413 .). passive pra . world's mighty lord. miim (acc.). act. he is freed. sg. ~liq. sg. vetti (3rd sg.). the birthIess and the beginningless. loco pl.Jvid). He is released from all evils. acc. asammudhas (m. in mortals. the birthless and the beginningless ~~<'>~~I vetti lokamaheSvaram he knows. sarvapaptiis (m. nom. ajam (m. by all evils. nom. this. sg. the World's Mighty Lord. martye~u (m.:~lR~ asatizm{l(. among mortals. sg. acc.

eva. sg. Pleasure. nom. sincerity.<f:q11 bhayam ciibhayam eva ca and fear and fearlessness Intellect. becoming. tameness. freedom from delusion.). domination of the self. sg. sg. sg.). sg. non-delusion.:rq) sukham duJ. sg. wisdom. abhavas (m. non-being.tkham bhavo 'bhavo pleasure. sg. passing away. self restraint. nom. birth. And fear and fearlessness. sg.g:'. intelligence. discomfort. Patience. pain. kliama (f. happiness. nom. abhayam (n. nom. ca. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). knowledge. fearlessness.). comfort. truth. pleasure. control. knowledge. ~+rr ~ <n1: ~: I k~amii satyam damaJ. forbearance. bhavas (m. fear. nom.).x 4 ~. sg. nom. passing away.t patience. pain. dulJkham (n. self-restraint. veracity. arising.). ~~t1. nom. knowledge. ~ ~:@' mrf s. nom.). becoming. patience. intelligence. nom. sg. pain. misery. 414 . non-delusion. buddhis (f.). asammohas (m. self restraint. being. equanimity. sg. and. tranquility. nom. terror. satyam (n. calmness.). non-confusion. sg. sukham (n. nom. bhayam (n.). death. ace. damas (m. tranquility.~~: buddhir jiiiinam asatizmohal. sg.).). tranquility.). absence offear. ca. nom. jiiiinam (n. truth. veracity..t samaJ. and. samas (m. nom.).

gen. bhavanti (3rd pI. austerity. eva. nom. of creatures.). disrepute. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). conditions. Arise from Me alone. fame. placed many times.. ayasas (n. tucy!is (f. nom..:n +rn1 ~ bhavanti hhiivii bhutiiniim they arise conditions of beings lffi ~ 1:~rqcn: II matta eva prthagvidhiil} from me alone manifold. sg.). nom. Non-violence. charity. gift.). The manifold conditions of beings.).jbhii) . bhiitanam (m. fame. nom. +1<If.). nom. tapas (m. states of being.). impartiality. 415 . they are. Austerity.. nom. of beings.x 5 m~~w~ ahimsii samatii tu~tis non-violence. pl. . sg.). Cl'1T ~ <roT ~: I tapa diinam yasa 'yasal} austerity. sg. contentment. ahimsa (f.). benevolence. manifold. sg. from me. sg. celebrity. danam (n. they come to be. bhavas (m. act. existing in many forms. satisfaction. sg. impartiality. disrepute.). p~thagvidhas (f. pl. here m. charity. samata (f. they arise. good name. nom. nom. contentment. indic. sg. yasas (n.). heat. fame. pr. non-violence. disrepute. sg. harmlessness. alone. impartiality. pl. contentment. charity. nom.). bad reputation. of many varieties. equableness. mattas (abl. here m.

author of the post-Vedic Miinava dharmasiistra.). Gotama. loco sg. Manu Vaivasvata. nom. world. nom. of whom. pI).mIT madbhiivii miinasii jiitii from me the origins. For Kasyapa see chapter" The Setting of the Bhagavad Gita. pl. these. ~ 11T"lm . yqam (m. and progenitor of the human race.). brought forth. piirve (m. sg.Kasyapa. lokas (m. nom. originating from me.). bam of My mind. ancestors of the human race. in the past. Visvamitra. Jamadagni and Bharadvaja . seven. From whom have sprung these creatures of the world. nom. great seers. nom. manasas (m. And also the four Manus. deriving from mind. also. Seven legendary seers (r#s) . Manus. Fourteen are commonly listed.). pl. nom. nom. One.." t Manus seem to come in various quantities. pl. jatds (m.). beings. II Vasi~tha. pl. four. born. Originated from Me. creatures.). nom. sg.).). from me origins. mana vas (m. gen. pl. mentally.). tatha.x 6 ~:~gTf mahar-rayas (m. thus. sapta purve the great seers seven in the past ~T~cr~ mahar~aya/:l catviiro manavas tathii the four Manus also. nom. pl. mentally brought forth. sapta. 416 . ~: ~: II ye~iirh loka imii~ prajii~ from whom the world these creatures The seven great seers of old. in previous times. madbhavas (m. is supposed to have been the great Hindu lawgiver. prajas (f. pl. catvaras (m. imds (f.). Atri. sometimes with other heavenly bodies. irq-t ~1<f.sometimes identified with the seven stars of the Lesser Bear constellation. mighty seers. All are purely legendary figures.

act. of me who knows in truth 'IT sf<fifi~ <rfiR so 'vikampena yogena he by unwavering Yoga l!~ i'fT"'1 ~~: II yujyate natra samsayal. of me. acc. vetti (3rd sg. doubt.). is united (with me). this.).). manifested might.). who. by unwavering. acc.). yas (m. from "thatness. inst. sg. Of this there is no doubt. pro indic. yogam (m. {lvikampena (m. from a vi Jkamp). inst. sg. sg. he is joined. ca. in this case. he. sg. yujyate (3rd sg. Is united with Me by unwavering yoga. Jvid). here. 417 . irresolution. this. samsayas (m. my. mama (gen. My manifested glory and power. sg.). he is yoked. by Yoga.). nom. questioning. nom.x 7 ~ fcqf~ <rm 'if etiim (f. manifested power. vibhutim (f. by untrembling.). na. sg. tattvatas (n. not. he knows. in truth. sg. power." sas (m. he is united. pro indie. nom. etam vibhutim yogarh ca this manifested lordship and power lfl1 <rT ~~ m=<m: I mama yo vetti tattvatal. and. yogena (m. abl. sg. acc.). sg. sg. He who knows in truth This. passive Jyuj). not here doubt. atra. Yoga.

bhava (m. m. endowed with. it happens. meditation. TP cpd. having considered. thus. prabhavas (m. wise men.). thinking. endowed with the faculty of meditation.. state of mind. pI.). sg. . me. nom. so.). Thinking thus. indic. all.JVI:t). pravartate (3rd sg. it begins. mid. acc. contemplation. bringing to be.Jbhaj). intelligent. endowed with state of being. sarvasya (m. mattas (m. learned.). All proceeds from Me. iti.).Jman). sg. they honor. mid . I. sg. nom. gen. they worship.) samanvitas (m. pl. having thought. nom. mam (acc.). it proceeds. pl. from me. it rolls onward. pr. pr. disposition. Worship Me. the intelligent ones. indic. state of being. matva (gerund . (bhava-samanvitas. sarvam (m. accompanied by. origin. budhas (m. sg. I of all the origin +rff:~~' mattal:z sarvam pravartate from me all proceeds ~~~~+rt iti matva bhajante mam thus thinking they worship me Of'i:lT ~CffiT: II " budha bhavasamanvital:z the intelligent. sg. abl. pra . nom.). sg.). 418 . bhajante (3rd pI. I am the origin of all. of all.).x 8 ~~~T aham sarvasya prabhavo aham (nom.

causative participle . and. each other.). Those who think of Me. and. they rejoice.Jbudh). explaining. They are content and rejoice. they are content.). those who have concentrated the vital breath on me. BV cpd. 419 . enlightening. they are pleased. act. act..Jram). nityam (adv.x 9 +rf~~Pl~lld$1I011 maccittas (m.. ramanti (3rd pI. pI.. causing to enlighten. ~"d" 'if ~<q 'if II tu~yanti ca ramanti ca they are content and they rejoice. pI. nom. tu~anti (3rd pI. ca. who absorb their lives in Me. me. parasparam awakening each other. eternally. pr. speaking of. nom. indic. nom. . those who think of me. pI. 'fi~ +IT fw:i kathayantaSca mom nityam and speaking of me constantly. miim (acc. ca. who concentrate the vital breath on me. BV cpd. nom. maccitto madgatapro1Jo those who think of me. relating about.Jtu~). pr. act. indic.rT~:~1 bodhayantal. parasparam. and.. awakening. kathayantas (m. And speaking of Me con stantly.. one another. constantly. act. sg. . pr. ca.). Enlightening each other. madgatapralJas (m. participle . . bodhayantas (m.). they are delighted.Jkath). pI. pr.

prltipilrvakam (adv. pl. Those who worship Me with love. gen. 420 . of those who are constantly steadfast. it. tam (m. mam (acc. this. KD cpd. TP cpd. constantly. with affection. with the accompaniment of kindness. they go. sg. to me.). pl.). yena (m. act.). m. buddhiyogam (m. act. To those who are constantly steadfast. power of discrimination.).). discipline of mind. upayanti (3rd pI.). participle . sg. of those who worship. gen.. they. me. Yoga of discrimination. act. upa Jya) . satata (adv. pI.) bhajatam (m. (satatayuktanam. of those who are constantly steadfast. ~l1~{f11m& dadiimi buddhiyogam tam I give intelligence-Yoga. indic.). te (m. they. pr. of them. affectionately. pr. dadami (rst sg. of the steadfast. indic. iR~~Cfi=f11 yena miim upayiinti te by which me they come to. nom. it. the Yoga of intelligence. pr. inst. sg. to them. by which. they come. gen. gen. of the worshipping. pl. perpetually. I give the yoga of discrimination By which they come to Me. I give. acc. acc.jbhaj) . yuktanam (m.x 10 ~@dl~}fil'1i te~am (m.). Jda). of the worshippers.).. pI. intelligence Yoga. te~iim +nrnt >r1f~ I bhajatiim pritipurvakam of the worshipping with affection. satatayuktiiniim of them. of the disciplined. I bestow.

~m niisayiimy iitmabhiivastho I cause to be destroyed. shining.). ignorance-born. of them. sg. situated in own being. jfziinadfpena (m. "trembling alongside. from anu Jkamp) . Destroy the darkness bom of ignorance With the shining lamp of knowledge. dwelling in own being. I cause to be lost. 421 . compassion. eva.. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). acc. (anukampii-artha. inst. produced by ignorance.). sympathy. sg. I. sg. indic . ajfziinajam (n. acc. darkness. bhiisvatii (m. shining. gen. tamas (n." and some others follow him. acc. I cause to be destroyed. luminous.). acc. Edgerton makes it "while remaining in my own true state. gUI. ~~Cflr:1 aham ajiiiinajam tamal. ~~~II In their own jiiiinadipena bhiisvatii with knowledge lamp. who dwell within their own beings. sg.x 11 ~~~ tesiim eViinukampiirtham of them (with) compassion aim.). pl. anukampii (f. aim. murk.la of tamas. by the lamp of knowledge. Out of compassion for them.). sg.). with the lantern of knowledge. te~iim (m.) aham (nom. lit. I ignorance-born darkness '11~141Rl. I. . • This phrase has been variously translated. purpose. beings dwelling. sg. ifc. nom. inst. sg.).Jnas). iitmabhiivasthas (m. m. niisayiimi (1st causative pr. I prefer the present translation. out of compassion.). sg. bright. goal." artham (m.

heavenly. uviica (3rd sg. bhaviin (m. param (n. acc.). acc. place. being. . acc. he said.). highest. perpetual.Jvac).).). birthless. acc.). person. paramam (n. honorific). sg. purifier. The eternal divine Spirit. sg. the supreme abode.). The primal God. param brahma param dhiima the Supreme Brahman. acc. godly.). dwelling. qf~~~1 pavitram paramam bhaviin Purifier Supreme Thou (honorific). primal god. Arjuna. vibhum (m. nom. ajam (m. supreme. acc. thou.). sg.). puru~am (m. the supreme abode. unborn. perfect act.). 12 tR~<rr+1 param (n. he spoke. acc. cleanser.. acc. sg. all-pervading.). acc. sg. god existing from the beginning.x ~"~I arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. sg. thy Lordship. pavitram (n. supreme. siisvatam (m. sg. highest. all-pervading. domain. sg. birthless. omnipresent. The supreme purifier. puru~am ~~f~ siisvatam divyam spirit eternal divine mf'm. man. sg. dhiima (n.r ~ fq41lf II . Atjuna spoke: You are the supreme Brahman.). acc. iididevam (m. highest. 422 . sg. eternal. iididevam ajam vibhum the Primal God. Brahman. acc. acc. sg. abode. acc. divine. unborn and all-pervading. brahma (n. spirit.). divyam (m. supreme. '<> . sg. sg. sg.

z Asita Devala and Vyasa. nom. they say.Jbrrl). asitas devalas (m. ~~RnQ"l:r11 svayam ciiiva bravi# me and Thyself Thou tellest me. also. thee. own. nom. ca.). me. sg. sg. tvam (m. thou tellest. perfect act . and. said to have been the composer of some hymns in the Bg Veda. legendary compiler of the Vedas and natural grandfather of the Pandava Princes. legendary compiler of the Vedas and the Mahabharata.). divine seer. devar#r niiradas tathii the divine seer Narada. sg. sg. And You Yourself (now) tell me so. ahus (3rd pI. svayam (adv. me (dat. and Vyasa. Vyasa. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). all. pr. seers.). also m~CiT ~ o<:mr: asito devalo vyiisa}. t Vyasa. they tell.x 13 ~0!~~:~ iihus tviim r~aya}. pl. wise men. act.). thou sayest.). The divine seer Narada. thus. nom. pl.Jah with present meaning). t Asita Devala." or "divider. the seers all MQf-'::~Ci~1 . legendary sage. acc. bravi~i (2nd sg. tatha. indic.)." "compiler. Niirada. sg. Thus they call You." 423 . a legendary seer to whom some of the verses of the Bg Veda are ascribed. all the seers. r:~ayas (m. nom. devar~is (m. The name means "arranger. naradas (m. . sg. nom. sarve (m.).). • Narada.). they call. .z sarve they call Thee. legendary composer of some other hymns of the Bg Veda. to me. eva. oneself. Devala. Asita Devala. thyself. vyasas (m. Also Asita.

thou sayest.Jvid with present meaning). vidus (3rd pI. I believe. Know Your manifestation.x 14 ~~~~~ sarvam etad !tam manye all this true I believe sarvam (n. thou tellest. sg. voc. act. not.). indeed. sg. right. 0 Handsome Haired .. nor. bhagavan (m. becoming visible.). na. what. manifestation. etad (n. sg. ~tam (n. ke. Krishna. 0 Blessed One. the gods. which. voc. diinavas (m. sg. te (gen.). the gods nor the demons. sg. f~ ~ ~ <i<1fffi na hi te bhagavan vyaktim not indeed of thee. thy. all. Indeed.). . All this which You speak to me. evil spirits. sg. pl.Jman). 0 Blessed One. pl.). I think. . indic. devas (m. Handsome Haired One (Krishna) vadasi (2nd sg. of thee. sg. acc. acc. 424 . manye (1st sg. yad (n. sg. na. 0 Blessed one. pr.: lIT CRf~ m I (acc. sg.).). this.). One. mid . the manifestation f~~"~:11 vidur deva na danavalJ they know. yan mam vadasi kdava which to me thou speak est.Jvad) . to me. vyaktim (f. indic. true. acc. not. me. hi. neither the gods nor the demons. truly . demons. acc.). pr. nom. acc. they know.sava (m.).). nom. perfect . I believe to be true. nu'im <R.

inst. 0 Lord of the Universe. own.). thyself.). Lord of the Universe.). Supreme Spirit.). 'rf~~ bhUtabhavana bhiitesa causing welfare in beings. Highest of Spirits. sg. oneself. voc. highest of men. by thyself. 425 . svayam evatmana 'tmanam thyself alone through thyself thyself ~~~~Rfl:rl vettha tvam puruFottama thou knowest. God of gods. sg. jagatpate (m. m. voc.). highest of spirits. Lord of beings. thou. bhiitabhiivana (m.). voc. sg. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). alone.). Supreme Being. through thyself. nom. bringing welfare to be in beings. 0 Lord of the universe. indic. voc. atmanam (m.). sg. sg. devadeva (m.acc. thyself. thou knowest. Highest of spirits. sg. sg.x 15 ~ ctcll~'11 ~ svayam. thou. . sg. bhiitesa (bMta [sa. causing welfare in beings. atmana (m. Lord of Beings. vettha (2nd sg. ~~II devadeva jagatpate God of gods. purulfottama (m. 0 Lord of the universe. Lord of Beings. You know Yourself through Yourself alone. God of Gods. eva. pr. Source of welfare of beings. self. tvam (m. voc. act.Jvid) .

pl. pro indic. sg.).x 16 q~l!~M~ vaktum arhasy ase~e1. hi. the divine indeed self-manifestations yabhir vibhiitibhir lokiin by which manifestations the worlds ~+mr. nom.~~:1 vaktum (infinitive . pro indic.). and abide in them. pl. acc.). self powers. pervading. inst.Jsthii). imiin (m. divya hy atmavibhiitayal. act.).la to describe please do without remainder f~~.Jarh). inst. worlds. to describe. pervading. please do! aselfeT]a (m. ~ ~ fa-tOf~ II imaizs tvam vyapya ti~thasi these Thou. indeed. appearances.).). tvam (m. thou abidest in. arhasi (2nd sg. manifestations. yiibhis (f. iitmavibhUtayas (f. pl. sg. acc. powers. without remainder. abidest in. Please describe without reserve The divine self-manifestations By which You pervade These worlds. self manifestations.Jvac). pl. completely. tilf!hasi (2nd sg.). nom. with which. truly. thou art able. pl. . vyiipya (gerund vi Jiip). thou canst. these.). by which. pl. lokiin (m. inst. act. nom. vibhUtibhis (f. divine. to tell. . divyiis (m. thou are situated in. thou. to speak. permeating. 426 .

to be imagined. asi (2nd sg. katham vidyam aham yogitis how may I know. . reflecting on. to be thought.). Constantly meditating on You? And in what various aspects of being Are You to be thought of by me. sg. sg. maya (m. I shall know. by me. nom. aham (m. pro indic . kelfu kelfu (m.. how? in what way? vidyam (1St sg. thee. meditating on.x 17 <fi~ f~· ~ 'iTfirn . sg. sada. always. repetition indicates distribution). sg. loco pl. sg. by me? How may I know You. in what various? ca. 0 Blessed One./as). in states of being. 0 Illustrious One. sg. bhiivelfu (m. I.). voc. pari "/cint). interrog. 0 Yogin.). nom. optative act. pro causative participle act.). gerundive "/cint). katham (interrog. 0 Yogin. inst. constantly.. yogin (m. 0 Blessed One. I. nom. bhagavan (m.). voc. paricintayan (m. thinking about.. tvam (m.""llT sf~ ~ lflIT 11 cintyo 'si bhagavan maya to be thought thou art. 0 Yogin ffi~ qf"d'~ 1 tvam sada paricintayan on thee constantly meditating? ~%q-:q~ ca bhiive~u and in what particular aspects of being ke~uke~u "" " f:. acc. in aspects of being. and. o Blessed One? 427 . may I know. loco pI. thou art. "/vid). sg.). cintyas (m.).

sg. tell! relate! explain! tI:ptis (f. sg. sg. to me (of this) Mover of Men.). voc. sg. acc. . o Krishna. inst.!kath).x 18 f"lfd{OI I. there is. 0 Agitator of Men. power. vibhiitim (f. bhiiyas. by detail. amr:tam (m. act.). vistarC1Jtitmano yogarh in detail of thyself the power f~&:q~1 '" ca. satiation indeed bhuya~ Sr1}vato niisti me 'mrtam of hearing not there nectar. ~: 'li~ qf~r\ f~ kathaya trptir hi further explain. not. sg. in detail.jas). Yoga.f vistarelJa (m. of thyself. manifestation.).JOI<fT~). imperative . epithet of VishnuKrishna. of hearing.). sr:TJvatas (n. sg. pro indic . janiirdana (m. gen. further. 0 Agitator of Men. to me. me (gen. again. o Explain to me further in detail Your power and manifestation. sg.). I am never satiated with hearing Your nectar-like words. hi. acc. 'lJibhutirh ca janiirdana and manifestation. na. satiation. 1S. sg. indeed. kathaya (2nd sg. of me. immortality. nectar.).). sg. and. yogam (m. 428 .). iitmanas (m. of self. gen. nom. acc. it is. participle sru). truly. asti (3rd sg.

). mainly. gen. pr. future act. Best of Kurus. kurusrqfha (m. Those only that are prominent. nom. own manifestations. antas (m. kathayi~ami (1st sg. sg. of the expansion. -/vac). pl.). 429 . -/as). hanta te kathayi~yiimi listen! to thee I shall explain f~ ~ ~<flla<r: I divyii hy iitmavibhiitayal. I shall explain. self manifestations. divine.). pradhiinyatas (adv. na. not. shall say. my. he said.perfect act. most prominent.). there is.). sg. nom. hi. listen! look! let us get on! te (dat. the Blessed One. indic. For there is no end to My extent. acc. to thee. sg. The Blessed Lord spoke: Listen! I shall explain to you My divine self-manifestations. acc.). voc. epithet of Arjuna. divyas (f. sg.).). end. uvaca (3rd sg. it is.rrfl1 hanta (exhortative particle). ~~i'QTf~lrll nasty anto vistarasya me (for) not there is an end of the extent of me. truly. sg. of the spreading. sg. indeed. chief.z the divine indeed self-manifestations 5fT~:~~~ priidhiinyatal. he spoke. Best of Kurus.z kurusre~tha (those that are) prominent. 19 ~ ~ Cfi~<ro. of the extent. the Blessed Lord. I shall tell. pl.X lQ"~ \3G!T"f I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. asti (3rd sg.). atmavibhutayas (f. -/kath) . me (gen. vistarasya (m. of me.

). abiding in. Abiding in the heart of all beings. start.) aham (nom. of beings.). being. end. ~va ca. bhiita (m. nom. creature. sg. nom. asaya (m. too. and. sg.). all. Thick Haired One. sg. and. bhiitaniim (m. resting place.x 20 ~~~ aham iitmii gurJiikesa aham (m. voc. nom. middle. 0 Thick Haired One.). 430 . indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler).) I the self. sthitas (m. epithet of Arjuna. Arjuna. I. of creatures. ca. sg. self.). sarv~bhiitiisayasthital:z all-being-heart-abiding. (sarvabhiitasayasthitas. atma (m. ~. sarva (m. nom. mind. m. iidis (m. situated in. heart. ~~ mf~~ lfUt:q ~~:I aham iidiica madhyam ca and I the beginning and the middle ~i{~rn~:qll bhiitiiniim anta eva ca of beings and the end as well. nom.). as well.). I am the Self. gu4akda (m. sg.). also.). ca. sg. and the end as well. And I am the beginning and the middle Ofbeings. abiding in the heart of all beings. sg. eva. and. nom.. TP cpd.). pl.).). nom. sg. sg. commencement. beginning. I. gen. antas (m. madhyam (n.

saSf (m. nom. shining. I am. sg. sg.).). ofluminaries. nak~atriilJiim (n. Among the heavenly bodies I am the moon. of the Adityas. nom. indic. of stars. radiant. 431 .x 21 mf~~f~ iidityiiniim aham vip. jyoti~iim (n. Of lights. asmi (Ist sg. sg.). -Jas). the radiant sun. I am VIShnU. later twelve in number. t Marlci was the chief of the Maruts or storm gods. Vishnu. sg. ~ ~ marici marutiim asmi Martci of the Maruts I am . gen. ravis (m.). gen.). • The Adityas. of the Maruts. the moon. originally seven. nak~atrii1}iim Of the Adityas.). were a group of supreme gods.lur of the Adityas I Vishnu :J<1Tfa-qt ~~ ~ I jyot#iim ravir amsumiin of lights. radiant lI':Tf:. nom. gen. marutiim (m.). Marici.). 1. aham (nom. alnsumiin (n.). vi~lJuS (m. that which contains the rabbit.. pl. chief of the storm gods. of the lunar zodiac. of the nightly ones. t Maruts were the storm gods who helped Indra slay the cosmic dragon. pl. sg.~~mr ~ mrr II adityiiniim (m. pl.). mar/cis (m. the sun. sg. nom. pl. aham sasi of the stars I that which contains the rabbit. pr.n.). gen. in order to bring water to the world. 1. oflights. nom. I am Marichi of the Maruts. the sun. of the storm gods. aham (nom. sg..

Vedic chief of the gods. I am the mind. pl. ~f. gen. pl.). thought. ca. sg. ~ ~fB1 cmrcr: I deviiniim asmi viisava}. pro indic.. names of Indra. pl. of the Vedas.las). sg. indriyiilJiim (m. intelligence. one of the vediiniim siinlavedo 'smi of the Vedas the Sarna Veda I am. 432 . mentioned by his usual name only in IX 20.). Jas).). I am.). indic.). bhiitiiniim (m. sg. pr. and. I am the Sama Veda. of crea- of the gods I am vasava. sg. Vasava. viisavas (m. the chief Vedic god. nom. nom. pro indic . Of the gods. asmi (rst sg. And of the senses. of the gods. gen. deviiniim (m. manas (n. I am. nom. thought. I am. cetanii (f. asmi (rst sg. t One of the names of Indra. Jas). nom. of the senses. the Sarna Veda. I am.).x 22 ~mmTsfB1 vediiniim (m. Jas).~+J:~B1 indriyiit:liim manasciismi tures. I am Vasava. I am the consciousness of beings. • The Veda concerned with chants. siimavedas (m. . indic. Of the Vedas. of beings. mind. consciousness.). pl.). and of the senses the mind I am. asmi (rst sg. pr. gen. asmi (rst sg. mind. bhutiiniim asmi cetanii of beings I am the consciousness. gen.

II Pavaka. spirits of vague character. • Rudras. sg." storm gods and gods of destruction and renewal. sg. sikharifJam (m. Meru was the Olympos of Hindu mythology. God of Fire. merus (m. or" roarers. t Sarilkara. gen. vasuniim (in. •• Mt. the Vedic god of fire. pl. Hindu Olympos. (m. Vittesa of the Y ak~as and ~ q 1':l"fl:r'illf~ vasunilrh piivakasciismi and of the Vasus Pavaka I am.). of the Yak~as and Raksas.). of mountains. nom. yak~arak~asam And of the Rudras. nom. of mountain peaks. pavalws (m. asmi (1St sg. gen. the flame. one of the names of Agni. i1nd. 433 . 1.). the Purifier.). pl. '/as). lord of wealth. aham (nom. a group of eight" bright" gods. rudriilpirh sarhkarasciismi and of the Rudras Samkara «< I am. sg. pl. nom. pr. I am fire of the Vasus And the Meru of mountains. and. god of fertility and destruction. of the Rudras. lord of wealth. ~:f~~~11 meru~ SikharilJiim aham Meru of mountains. t Vittesa. of the gods of destruction lind renewlli. pr. fAbulous mO\. ca. sometimes hostile and sometimes benevolent.). gen. Rak~as. vitteSas (m. sg. indic.x 23 murt~rf~ rudra'14m (m. 1.). . otherwise known as Kubera. Shiva." . gen. Agni. indic. fcrmrr If&n:~ I vitleSo yak~arak~asiim ca. Shiva. asmi (1st sg. nom. pl. '/as).). chief god of renewal and destruction. of the Vasus (a class of gods). sg. or K\. § Yak~as and Rak~as. I am. The word means "purifier. Vit~sil. I am Kubera of the Yaksas and Rakshasas. Vas us. I am. I am Shankara.).).Ibera.lntain. samlwras (m.

I am the ocean. sg. viddhi (2nd sg. gen. epithet of Arjuna. pl. ~~~~: seniininiim aham skandal} of the commanders of armIes. -Jas). Know that I am the chief of household priests. gen. sg.pr. miim (acc. Brhaspati. otherwise known as Karttikeya. know! know to be! piirtha (m. -Jvid). sg. purodhasiim ca mukhyam miim and of the household priests. acc. Arjuna. nom.). sg. the god of war. imperative act.. voc. god of war. ~m~~:11 sarasiim asmi siigaral} of bodies of water I am the ocean. Son of J>rtha. and.). sg. Lord of Sacrifice. priest of the gods. I am. sarasiim (n. the chief. of the commanders of armies. Skanda.[ qN "!~~ I viddhi piirtha brhaspatim know to be.). . of bodies of water. pl.). Me fqf. . me. sg. asmi (1st sg. the head. of household priests. mukhyam (m.). indic. Skanda. I am Skanda. ca. aham (nom. acc. pl.x 24~W'q~11t purodhasiim (m. the chief. Of bodies of water. sg. nom. seniininiim (m.). Of the commanders of annies. 1. the ocean.).).). siigaras (m. Brihaspati. gen. Son of Prtha. 434 .). I am Skanda. b~haspatim (m. skandas (m.

I am japa (silent repetition). I am. indic. sg. ancient seer.). pl. nom. • Bhrgu. foro+{ ~ ~ ~&ro!: I giriim asmy ekam ak~aram of utterances I am the one syllable (Om).:ri . of immovables. so illustrious that he mediated quarrels among the gods.). sg. yajiiiiniim japayajiio 'smi of sacrifices the muttered prayer I am. Of immovable things. of the great seers . Of words. pr.. I am Bhrigu. the mystic syllable "Om." the Himalaya. 'Q. Bhrgu. I. ekam ak~aram (n. I am the single syllable "Om".. J as).). gen.x 25 =q-1urt ~<::. asmi (1st sg. nom. of utterances. pl. sg.." yajiiiiniim (m. I..).).)." c. the one sylla- ble. gen. ~~Tsffl1 bhr:gus (m. ~ . asmi (1st sg. gen. the Himalayas. sthiivariiljiim himiilaya~ of immovables the Himalaya. himalayas (m. pro indie. of sacrifices. Jas). gen. the muttered prayer. 435 . sg. nom.). Of the great seers.). nom. I am. ~f~:11 of unshakables. japayajiias (m. mahar{i1Jiim bhrgur aham of the great seers Bhrgu.! mahar~f1Jiim (m. sthiivara'Jam (m. pl. If.).. giram (f. an illustrious mythical seer. sg. aham (nom. "abode of snow. Of sacrifices. pl.

436 . of the successful.). Kapila the sage. of the Gandharvas. one of the oldest of the Hindu systems. § Kapila. And of the Gandharvas. ~f~~: gandharvii1Jiim citraratha~. sarvaV1:k~iilJiim of the perfected Kapila the sage. "He whose chariot is bright. the asvattha.). gandharviilJiim (m. sg. ca. Narada. Citraratha. gen. Kapila. nom. sg. gen. t Citraratha. asvatthas (m. pl. an ancient seer.x 26 ~~:m~ asvattha~ sarvavrk~ii1Jiim .). sg. a sage. of divine seers. devar~flJiim (m. pl.. a school of philosophy. (m. or the sacred fig tree among all trees. The name is a BV cpd. citrarathas (m.). sage. heavenly chief of the Gandharvas. Among all trees.. Narada. And of the divine seers. And of the perfected." siddhiiniim (m. I am the sacred fig tree. sg. founder of the Saritkhya school of philosophy. pl. Niirada. gen. nom. chief of the Gandharvas. nom. pl. and. of the heavenly musicians. t Gandharvas. gen. kapilas (m.). niiradas (m. sg. Narada. wise man. munis (m. nom. founder of Samkhya. ancient seer to whom some verses of the ~g Veda are ascribed. Chitraratha. . among all trees. of all trees. nom. the musicians of paradise.).). m1urt"f~1 devar~i1Jiim ca niirada and of the divine seers. of the perfected.). and of the Gandharvas Citraratha siddhiiniim kapilo munilJ sacred fig tree.).

the king.).x 27 ~:~wewrt ucciiibsravasam asviiniirh Ucdii!:tsravas of horses ucciii"sravasam (m. Uccai!:tsravas. UcciiiJ:tsravas. pl. f%m+t~~1 viddhi miim amrtodbhavam know me (to be) born of nectar ~~ 'I'j! ~a loli iiiravatarh gajendriif. .n:rf~ II nariif. born of nectar. Airavata of princely elephants. sg. . king. great lord.Jvid). pl. gen. sg. or of the horse of the Sun god. asviiniim (m. of princely elephants. pl.). And of men.)." t Airavata.). Know that I am Ucrhaishravas of horses.. acc. men. me. gen.larh Airavata of princely elephants ~ '<i. nariidhipam (m. am~todbhavam (m.). and. acc.).). sg. The name means "high sounding. lord of men. gen. originating in nectar. born of nectar that was churned from the ocean. acc. name of Indra's horse. of horses." 437 . know! learn! know to be! miim (acc.). iiiriivatam (m. Born of nectar. imperative act. ca. sg. The name means "produced from the Iravati River. acc. Indra's elephant. the name of Indra's horse. Indra's elephant. Airiivata. protector of men. produced from nectar. nariil'}iim (m.liirh ca nariidhipam and of men the Great Lord of men. gajendriil'}iim (m. viddhi (2nd sg. sg.

. a mythical cow. gen. kandarpas (m. kiimadhuk (f. sg. gen. ca. t Kandarpa. . Kama. ~PJ11+!: m~ cnWCfi: II sarpii1. 438 . dhenuntim (f. aham (nom.. pr.. of cows.). I am. otherwise known as Kama. of serpents.liim asmi viisukil...Jas). indic . tion. Of weapons. god of love or desire. I am. of weapons. sarpaTJam (m.:rr+rm~~ I c-. t Vasuki. leg- of weapons I the thunderbolt. Vasuki. gen. of snakes. I am the thunder bolt. and I am procreating Kandarpa. I am the progenitor Kandarpa. pr. . a serpent king. $r. and. • Kamadhuk. dheniiniim asmi kiimadhuk endary cow of plenty. sg. begetting. !NI<i~~tffif~: prajanasciismi kandarpal.).Jas). pl.).).). Of cows. . I am Vasuki. of serpents I am Vasuki. asmi (1st sg. vasukis (m. I am the wish-fulfilling cow. sg. able to provide its master with anything desired. pr.:) . vajram (n. 1. thunderbolt. god of desire. genera- of cows I am the cow of wishes.). sg. pl.). I am. And of serpents. sg. king of serpents.). indic . nom. procreating. nom. . nom.). nom.x 28 ~~~~~ iiyudhiiniim aham vajram ayudhiinam (n. indic . Cow of Wishes. sg. asmi (1st sg. nom. pl. asmi (1st sg. god of love.Jas). prajanas (m.

wfk1~::q I ffll".,rrrRi"
anantas (m. nom. sg.), Ananta, "endless," "eternal," a mythical snake. ca, and. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic. Jas), I am. niigiiniim (m. gen. pl.), of snakes. varulJas (m. nom. sg.), Varul}a, the Supporter, one of the chief Vedie gods, later "King of the waters." yiidasiim (n. gen. pl.), of water creatures, of sea monsters. aham (nom. sg.), 1. pitfniim (m. gen. pl.), of the ancestors. aryamii (m. nom. sg.), Aryaman, chief of the ancestors. ca, and. asmi (1st sg. pr. indie. Jas), I am. yamas (m. nom. sg.), Yama, god of death. sainyamatiim (m. gen. pI. pr. participle act. sam Jyam), of the subduers. aham (nom. sg.), 1.

anantasciismi lliigiiniim and Ananta I am of snakes,
~T l!'rofTl{ ~ I

varuIJo yiidasiim aham VarUl;ta of the water creatures, I,

fqqurq ~ "'Ilf~
pitfIJiim arymnii ciismi and of the ,mcestors Aryaman I am,

yamab samyamatiim aham Yama of the subduers I.

I am Ananta of the Nagas; Varuna of the water creatures; Of the ancestors, I am Aryaman; And Yama of the controllers.

• Ananta, a mythical snake whose coils encircle the earth and who symbolizes eternity. The word meal;1s "unending." t Varul)a, originally a Vedic god, the sustainer of the universe. Here, in the later religion, a water god, the" water king." t Aryaman, chief of the ancestors. § Yama, god of death.


51@i!~~"l!ffl1~ prahliidasciismi diiityiiniim
prahliidas (m. nom. sg.), PraHidha, a prince

and Prahl ada I am of the Daityas,

kiilal} kalayatiim aham

Time of the calculators, I,
G G ".

mrgii1}iirh ca mrgendro 'ham

and of the beasts the beast king, I,
~~ crf~UfTll: II viiinateyasca pak#1}iim

of the Diiityas. ca, and. asmi (rst sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. diiityiiniim (m. gen. pI.), of the Daityas. kiilas (m. nom. sg.), time personified. kalayatiim (m. gen. pI. pro participle act. .Jkal), of the calculators, of the reckoners. aham (nom. sg.), I. m~gii1Jiim (m. gen. pl.), of beasts, of animals. ca, and. m~gendras (m. nom. sg.), King of Beasts, the lion. aham (nom. sg.), I. viiinateyas (m. nom. sg.), Garu<;la, son of Vinatii, the bird vehicle of Vishnu. pak~i1Jiim (m. gen. pl.), of birds.

and Vainateya of the birds.
I am Prahlada of the demons; Time, of the calculators; Of the beasts, I am the lion; And Garuda, of the birds .

.. Prahlada, a Daitya (enemy of the gods) prince who defected from the Daityas, became pious and worshipped Vishnu. t Daityas, demons at war with the gods. t The word" mrgendra" (mrga indra) means literally" king of beasts." § Vainateya (son of Vinata), otherwise known as Garu<;ia, a fabulous bird, and vehicle of Vishnu.



pavanaJ:t pavatiim asmi

pavanas (m. nom. sg.), the wind. pavatiim (m. gen. pI. pr. participle act. --Ipu),
of purifiers, of cleansers.

the wind of purifiers I am,
Ul1: ~n:J:~ I

asmi (1st sg. pr. indic. --las), I am. riimas (m. nom. sg.), Rama, warrior hero of
the RamayaQa. (m. gen. pl.), of the weapon bearing, of warriors. aham (nom. sg.), I. jha:jiiniim (m. gen. pl.), of sea monsters. makaras (m. nom. sg.), Makara, a sea monster or crocodile, avatar of Varuna. ca, and. . asmi (1st sg. pr. indic. --las), I am. srotasiim (m. gen. pl.), of rivers. asmi (1st sg pr. indic. --las), I am. jiihnavf (f. nom. sg.), the Daughter of Jahnu, the Ganges.

riimal:z sastrabhrtiim aham

Rama of the weapon bearing, I.
~ 11"n:ffifBr


of the sea monsters I am Makara,
~Tam+rmBr ~r II srotasiim asmi jiihnavl

of rivers, I am the Daughter of Jahnu (the Ganges).

Of purifiers, I am the wind; Rama of the warriors; Of the sea monsters I am the alligators; And of rivers I am the Ganges.

" Rama, warrior and hero of the epic, the Ramayal)a, or possibly Parasurama, see chapter " Setting of the Bhagavad GWi." t Makara, a sea monster sometimes equated with a crocodile, shark or dolphin, the Capricorn of the Hindu zodiac, and vehicle of Varuna. ! So called because when Vishnu permitted the Ganges to flow, the sage Jahnu drank it up. Later he allowed it to flow from his ear.


~mf~~ sargii1:u1m iidir antasca of creations the beginning and the end
sargalJam (m. gen. pl.), of creations, of bringings forth. Mis (m. nom. sg.), beginning. antas (m. nom. sg.), end. ea, and. madhyam (n. nom. sg.), middle. ea, and. eva, also, indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). aham (nom. sg.), I. arjuna (m. voc. sg.), AIjuna. adhyatmavidya (f. nom. sg.), Supreme-Self knowledge, knowledge of the Supreme Self. vidyanam (f. gen. pl.), of knowledges. vadas (m. nom. sg.), discourse. pravadatam (m. gen. pl.), of those who speak. aham (nom. sg.), I.

madhyam ciiiviiham arjuna and the middle I, Arjuna,
;q-~qm f<rnAt

adhyiitmavidyii vidyiiniim the Supreme Self knowledge, of knowledges,
<fR: ~;q-~ II

pravadatiim aham the discourse of them that speak, 1.

Of creations I am the beginning and the end, And also the middle, 0 Arjuna; Of all knowledge, the knowledge of the supreme Self. I am the logic of those who debate.


~~~sf~ akfariil}tim akiiro 'smi of letters the letter A I am,

dvandval; siimiisikasya ca and the dvandva of compound (words),
~~~:~r aham eviik~ayal; kiilo I alone infinite time,

dhiitiiham visvatomukhal; the establisher, I, facing in all directions.

(m. gen. pl.), of letters of the alphabet, lit. "indestructibles" or "irreducibles." akiiras (m. nom. sg.), letter A. asmi (1St sg. pr. indic. Jas), I am. dvariuivas or dvandvas (m. nom. sg.), simple copulative compound (consisting of two or more words). siimiisikasya (m. gen. sg.), of the system of compounds. ca, and. aham (nom. sg.), 1. eva, alone, indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). ak~ayas (m. nom. sg.), infinite, imperishable, indestructible. kiilas (m. nom. sg.), time. dhiitii (m. nom. sg.), establisher, arranger. aham (nom. sg.), 1. visvatomukhas (m. nom. sg.), facing in all directions, omniscient.

Ofletters I am the letter A, And the dual of compound words; I alone am in£nite time; I am the Establisher, facing in all directions (i.e. omniscient).

• dvandva is the simple copulative compound, where two or more words are joined together.


1WT: 1j~~(~"lI~14
o '" ,


(m. nom. sg.), death.


sarvaharaSciiham and death all-destroying, I,

sarvaharas (m. nom. sg.), all-destroying, all

udbhavasca bhavi~yatiim and the origin of those things that are to be,
Gfin~: ?1~ ~ "l" i1n:Turt

srir viik ca niiri1}iim fame, prosperity, and speech of feminine things,

smrtir medhii dhrtil:z k~amii (also) memory, wisdom, courage, patience.
I am all-destroying death, And the origin of those things that are yet to be. Among the feminine qualities, I am fame, prosperity, speech, Memory, wisdom, courage, and patience.

seizing. ca, and. aham (nom. sg.), I. udbhavas (m. nom. sg.), origin. ca, and. bhaviD'atam (m. gen. pl.), of those things that are to be, of those events that are to happen. kfrtis (f. nom. sg.), fame, good name. srfs (f. nom. sg.), prosperity, wealth. vak (f. nom. sg.), speech. ca, and. niirflJiim (f. gen. pl.), of feminine things, of womanly words. sm~tis (f. nom. sg.), memory, reflection. medhii (f. nom. sg.), wisdom, mental vigor, intelligence. dh~tis (f. nom. sg.), courage, firmness, constancy. kliamG (f. nom. sg.), patience, endurance, submissiveness.

.. All these listed nouns are of feminine gender.


(n. nom. sg.), the Brhatsaman, a type of Vedic melody. tathii, also, thus. samnam (n. gen. pl.), of chants. giiyatrf (f. nom. sg.), the giiyatri metre, used in the Vedas, obsolete in later Sanskrit. chandasam (n. gen. pl.), of metres. aham (nom. sg.), I. miisanam (m. gen. pl.), of months. miirgasfr'ias (m. nom. sg.), month of miirgaslr~a, roughly November-December. aham (nom. sg.), I. ~tiinam (m. gen. pl.), of seasons. kusumakaras (m. nom. sg.), abounding with flowers, Spring.

brhatsiima tathii siimniirh

the Brhatsaman also of chants,

giiyatri chandasiim aham

the gayatrl of metres, I,

+rnwrt llT1T~ffq"1 ~


of months,





rtiiniirh kusumiikaral;

of seasons, the abounding with flowers (Spring). Of chants I am the Brihatsaman; Of meters I am the Gayatri; Of months, the Marga-shirsha; And of seasons, the spring, abounding with flowers .

.. brhatsaman, a type of chant to Indra in the Sarna Veda. t gayatTt, a B-g Vedic metre consisting of three lines of eight syllables each, thought suitable for brahmans. It exists only in the Vedic literature. t maTgaStT~a, the month when the moon enters the constellation of mrga siras (" deer head," fifth lunar mansion), roughly November-December. It is interesting that Krishna's months and seasons are the Spring and Autumn. The hot Indian summer and the damp Indian winter are avoided.


dyutam (n. nom. sg.), gambling. chalayatiim (m. gen. pl.), of the dishonest, of cheats. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. tejas (n. nom. sg.), splendor, brilliance. tejasviniim (m. gen. pl.), of the splendid, of the brilliant ones. aham (nom. sg.), I. jayas (m. nom. sg.), victory. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. vyavasiiyas (m. nom. sg.), effort, resolve, exertion. asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am. sattvam (n. nom. sg.), goodness, virtue, truth, reality. sattvavatiim (m. n. gen. pl.), of the good, of the virtuous, of those who are full of truth. aham (nom. sg.), I.

dyutam chalayatiim asmi the gambling of the dishonest I am,

~M~~I tejas tejasviniim aham the splendor of the splendid, I,
~ sf~0lI4~1l(1 sf~

jayo 'smi vyavasiiyo 'smi victory I am, effort I am,
~~\44~1"l ~ II

sattvam sattvavatiim aham the goodness of the good, I.

I am the gambling of the dishonest, The splendor of the splendid; I am victory, I am effort, I am the goodness of the good.

• This line may also be translated: I am the truth of truth-tellers. (Sattva means either "good," "true" or "reaL")



'FIr.IT ~T sf~
Vrf1}inam vasudevo 'smi of the Vr~l).is, Vasudeva I am,
qlo:gcll"li~: I pa~4avanamdhanamjaya~

of the sons of Pal).9u, Conqueror of Wealth (Arjuna),
~f;:rr+J: ~ ~ o;mr:

muninam apy aham vyasa~ of the sages, moreover, I, Vyasa,

CfiCff;:rr+J: ~ Cfifcr: II
kavinam usana kavi~ of poets, Usanas the poet.

(m. gen. pl.), of the Vm1is, a clan from which Krishna sprang. viisudevas (m. nom. sg.), the Son of Vasudeva, Krishna himself. asmi (rst sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. piilJefaviiniim (m. gen. pl.), of the Sons of Pandu. dhan"a"mjayas (m. nom. sg.), Conqueror of Wealth, epithet of Arjuna. munfniim (m. gen. pl.), of sages. api, moreover, also. aham (nom. sg.), I. vyiisas (m. nom. sg.), Vyasa, "the divider or arranger," legendary compiler of the Vedas. kavfniim (m. gen. pl.), of poets. usanii (m. nom. sg.), Usanas or Usana, an ancient seer. kavis (m. nom. sg.), poet.


Of the Vrishnis, I am Vasudeva; Of the sons of Pandu, Arjuna; Of the sages, moreover, I am Vyasa; Of poets, the poet Ushana.

• Vr~l).is, a clan from which Krishna himself is descended. t Vasudeva, patronymic of Krishna himself: .. Son of Vasudeva." t Vyasa, legendary sage supposed to have compiled the Vedas. His identity is chronologically confused. He is supposed to have compiled the Mahlibhlirata, of which the Bhagaved GTta is a part, and he appears in that Epic as the natural grandfather of the Pal).Qava princes. (See chapter, .. The Setting of the Bhagavad Glta.") § Usanas or UsanA, an ancient seer and poet.


dafJqas (m. nom. sg.), power (lit. "stick,"

da1,lr;lo damayatiim asmi

exactly like the modern word "clout").
damayatiim (m. gen. pI. pro participle act. .Jdam), of rulers, of kings. asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am. nftis (f. nom. sg.), guidance, advice. asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am.

the power of rulers I am,
'l')f~ m~ f;;m~ I , ,

nUir asmi jigi~atiim

the guidance I am of the desirous of victory,
+rR~~~t miiunam ciiiviismi guhyiiniim,

and the silence also I am of secrets
m<f~~~11 jfiiinam jfiiinavatiim aham

the knowledge of the knowing, 1.

(m. gen. pI. desiderative pro participle act . .Jji), of the desirous of victory, of those desiring victory. miiunam (n. nom. sg.), silence, taciturnity. ca, and. eva, also, indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). asmi (1st sg. pro indic . .Jas), I am. guhyiiniim (n. gen. pl.), of secrets. jiiiinam (n. nom. sg.), knowledge. jiiiinavatiim (m. gen. pl.), of the knowing, of the rich in knowledge. aham (nom. sg.), I.

Of punishers, I am the scepter, And I am the guidance of those desirous of victory; Of secrets, I am silence and The knowledge of the wise.


yac ciipi sarvabhUtiiniim and which also of all creatures
<r<f "fTf'q- ~ , '"
yad (n. nom. sg.), which. ca, and. api, also, even. sarvabhataniim (m. gen. pl.), of all beings, of all creatures. bijam (n. nom. sg.), seed. tad (n. nom. sg.), that. aham (nom. sg.), I. arjuna (m. ·/OC. sg.), AIjuna. na, not. tad (n. nom. sg.), that. asti (3rd sg. pr. indic . ..;as), there is, it is. vina, without. yad (n. nom. sg.), which. syat (3rd sg. optative act. ..;as), it should be, it could exist. maya (m. inst. sg.), by me, through me. bhUtam (n. nom. sg.), being, existing. caracaram (n. nom. sg.), moving or not moving, animate or inanimate.

bijam tad aham arjuna the seed, that I, Arjuna
;:; <'R m~ fq;:rr <rc1 ro;:; , "

na tad asti vinii yat syiin not that there is without which it could exist
lPIT<rn' .... <I .... VIII '" , mayii bhiilam cariicaram by me existing, moving or not moving.

And also I am that which is the seed of all creatures, Arjuna; There is nothing that could exist without Existing through Me, whether moving or not moving.



<fRI1 sf~ If+1 f~
ntinto 'sti mama divyiiniim not end there is of me, of the divine
f~r.rt q"t;q I

" vibhiitiniim paramtapa manifestations, Scorcher of the Foe,

efa tuddesatal; prokto this indeed by example declared
f~ fCf~T l1<IT II

vibhUter vistaro mayii of manifestation extent by me.

00, not. antas (m. nom. sg.), end. asti (3rd sg. pr. indic . .Jas), there is, it is. mama (gen. sg.), of me, of my. divyanam (n. gen. pl.), of divine, of heavenly. vibhfit[nam (n. gen. pl.), of manifestations. paraintapa (m. voc. sg.), Scorcher of the Foe, epithet of Arjuna. etlas (m. nom. sg.), this. tu, indeed, but. uddesatas (adv.), by way of explanation, for example. proktas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle pra .Jvac), declared, explained. vibhutes (n. gen. sg.), of manifestation. vistaras (m. nom. sg.), extent, expansion, spreading. maya (inst. sg.), by me.

There is no end to My divine Manifestations, Arjuna. This has been declared by Me As an example of the extent of My manifestations.

• I.e. the preceding declarations.


yad yad (n. nom. sg.), whatever. vibhutimat (n. nom. sg.), powerful, splendid, glorious. sattvam (n. nom. sg.), being, existence, truth. srimat (n. nom. sg.), glorious, pleasant, splendid, prosperous. urjitam (n. nom. sg.), vigorous, powerful. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). va, indeed. tat tad (n. acc. sg.), that that, this and that, in every case. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). avasaccha (2nd sg. imperative act. ava ...; gam), understand! comprehend! tvam (nom. sg.), thou. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my. tejas (n. acc. sg.), splendor, brilliance, power. ali/sa (m.), fraction, portion, share. sambhavam (m. acc. sg.), origin, coming to be. (tejas-amsa-sambhavam, m. acc. sg. TP cpd., origion of a fraction of splendor.)

yad yad vibhutimat sattvam whatever powerful being

srimad urjitam eva vii glorious or vigorous, indeed,
ffi{~O:qlq'I",{9 ~

tat tad eViivagaccha tvam in every case understand thou

mama tejo'msasambhavam of me splendor fraction origin.

Whatever manifested being that is Glorious and vigorous, indeed, Understand that in every case He originates from a fraction of My splendor.


~~~ athava bahunaitena but with extensive this
athava. however, but, or rather. bahuna (m. inst. sg.), with extensive, with abundant, with much. etena (m. inst. sg.), with this. kim (interrog.), what? jfziitelUl (m. inst. sg. p. pass. participle .Jjfza), with knowledge, by knowledge, "by the known." tava (gen. sg.), of thee, to thee. arjulUl (m. voc. sg.), Arjuna. vi~tabhya (gerund vi ....; stabh) , supporting, propping up. aham (nom. sg.), I. idam (n. acc. sg.), this. kr:tslUlm (n. acc. sg.), entire, whole. eka. one, single. mnsena (m. inst. sg.), by a fraction. (ekiimselUl, m. inst. sg., by a single fraction.) sthitas (m. nom. sg. perf. .Jsthii), standing, can be rendered adverbially as constantly, continually, remaining. jagat (n. acc. sg.), universe, world.

kim jfiatena tavarjuna what with knowledge to thee, Arjuna?
f~~~ idam krtsnam supporting I this entire,


ektimsena sthito jagat by a single fraction constantly, world.

But what is this extensive Knowledge to you, Arjuna? I support this entire universe constantly With a single fraction of Myself.

End of Book X The Yoga of Manifestation


arjunas (m. nom. sg.), Arjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac). he said, he spoke.

arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke:

>i<:'j;"i2:I~ ~

madanugrahiiya paramarh* as a favor to me the highest
~~~~~I guhyam adhyiitmasarhjnitam

secret, the supreme self known as,
l:Ja, w:lTtt; ~ i!fif

yat tvayoktarh vacas tena which by thee spoken the words, by this,
+r~r s<i fcma-r +r+r II

moho 'yam vigato mama delusion this gone of me.

madanugrahiiya (m. dat. sg.), as a favor to me, as a kindness to me. paramam (n. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. guhyam (n. nom. sg.), secret. adhyatma (m.), Supreme Self, Supreme Soul. sainjnitam (n. nom. sg. denominative p. pass. participle from sainjna), known as, recognized as. (adhyatmasainjnitam. n. nom. sg., known as the Supreme Self.) yad (n. nom. sg.), which. tvaya (m. inst. sg.), by thee. uktam (n. nom. sg. p. pass. participle ../vac), spoken, uttered. vacas (n. nom. sg.), word, speech. tena (m. inst. sg.), by this. mohas (m. nom. sg.), delusion, confusion. ayam (m. nom. sg.), this. vigatas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle vi :.;gam), gone, departed. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my.

Arjuna spoke: As a favor to me, You have spoken About the highest secret Known as the supreme Self. With this my delusion is gone.

" The line is one syllable too long, a rarity in the Sloka stanzas of this poem.


~)f~~ bhaviipyayiiu hi bhittiiniim
bhavapyayau (m. nom. dual bhava api .Ji), origin and dissolution, origin and going. hi, indeed. bhutaniim (m. gen. pl.), of beings, of creatures. srutau (m. nom. dual p. pass. participle .Jsru), heard, they two have been heard. vistarasas, in detail. maya (m. inst. sg.), by me. tvattas (m. abl. sg.), from thee. kamalapattrak~a (m. voc. sg.), Lotus Petal Eyed, description honorific of Krishna. mahtitmyam (n. nom. sg.), majesty, greatness. api, also. ca, and. avyayam (n. nom. sg.), eternal, imperishable.

the origin and dissolution indeed of beings

Srutiiu vistaraso mayii they two heard in detail by me
~: Cfl+1~q,AI~

tvatta!;. kamalapattriikfa from thee, 0 Lotus-Petal-Eyed,
+110£(,'"4+1 mtf~ II "-, , miihiitmyam api ciivyayam and majesty also eternal.

The origin and the dissolution of beings Have been heard in detail by me From You, 0 Krishna, And also Your imperishable majesty.




evam etad yathiittha tvam thus this (is) as thou sayest, thou

iitmiinam parameivara thyself, 0 Supreme Lord.
~'I'Z+r ~+r ",


a- ~ ,

icchiimi te rupam to see I desire of thee the form


evam, thus. etad (n. nom. sg.), this. yatha, in which way, as. iittha (2nd sg. perf. act. J ah with present meaning), thou sayest, thou tellest. tvam (nom. sg.), thou. iitmiinam (m. acc. sg.), thyself, self. parame§vara (m. voc. sg.), Supreme Lord. dra~rum (infinitive Jdrs), to see, to behold. icchiimi (rst sg. pr. indic. act. Ji~), I desire, I wish. te (gen. sg.), of thee, thy. rupam (n. acc. sg.), fonn, shape, figure. iiisvaram (n. acc. sg.), lordly, godly, princely. puruifottama (m. voc. sg.), Supreme Spirit, Highest of Men.

iiisvaram pur~ottama princely, 0 Supreme Spirit.

Thus, as You have described Yourself, 0 supreme Lord, I desire to see Your divine form, o Supreme Spirit.


manyase (2nd sg. pr. indie. mid. Jman), thou thinkest, thou eonsiderest. yadi, if. tad (n. ace. sg.), that. sakyam (n. acc. sg.), possible, practicable. maya (inst. sg.), by me. dra~!um (infinitive JdfS), to see, to behold. iti, thus. prabho (m. voc. sg.), 0 Lord, 0 God. yogeSvara (m. voc. sg.), Prince of Yoga. tatas, then, thence. me (dat. sg.), to me. tvam (nom. sg.), thou. darsaya (2nd sg. causative imperative act. JdfS), cause to be seen! exhibit! allow me to behold! atmanam (m. acc. sg.), thyself, self. avyayam (m. acc. sg.), imperishable, eternal.

manyase yadi tac chakyam thou thinkest, if, that possible
+Pn~~ ~a >nit I maya draftum iti prabho by me to see thus 0 Lord,

yogdvara tato me tvam Prince of Yoga, then to me thou
~ljl\'"lI'1'"l, ~ II , darsayatmanam avyayam cause to be seen thyself, the imperishable.

If You think it possible

For me to see this, 0 Lord Of Yogins, then show me Your imperishable Self.


srfbhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed

sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke:

Lord, the Blessed One.
uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac), he said, he


paSya (2nd sg. imperative .Jpas) , see! behold!

pasya me piirtha rupii1Ji behold of me, Son of Prtha, the forms

me (gen. sg.), of me, my.
partha (m. voc. sg.), Son of Prthii, epithet of

rupaf]i (n. acc. pl.), forms, shapes, figures. satasas, a hundred fold. atha, rather, or. sahasrasas, a thousand fold. nanavidhani (n. acc. pl.), various, multiple. divyani (n. acc. pl.), divine, heavenly. nana, various, multiple. varf]a (m.), color, caste. akl:tfni (n. acc. pl.), shapes, appearances. (varf]a-akr:tff]i, n. acc. pI. BV cpd., colors and

sataso 'tha sahasrasa~ a hundred fold, rather, a thousand fold,
~<f'i:1Tf., f~.,

niiniividhiini divyiini various, divine,
<i 1<1!<'lUII<titflf., "f II

ca, and.

niiniivar1Jiikrtini ca and of various colors and shapes.

The Blessed Lord spoke: Behol~ Arjuna, My forms, A hundred fol~ a thousandfold, Various, divine, And of various colors and shapes.


pasyiidityiin vasun rudriin behold the Adityas, the Vasus, Rudras
pa.sya (2nd sg. imperative act . .Jpas), behold!



mv.:rr ~



asviniiu marutas tathii the two Asvins, the Maruts too

adityiin (m. acc. pl.), the Adityas. vasun (m. acc. pl.), the Vasus. rudriin (m. acc. pl.), the Rudras. asviniiu (m. acc. dual), the two Asvins. marutas (m. acc. pl.), the Maruts. tatoo, thus, also, too. bahUni (n. acc. pl.), many. adr::ffa (p. pass. participle a .Jdr:s), unseen,

not seen.

G1R",{ ;q1tSC~<l1 fur
bahuny adr~tapilrvii1.li many unseen before

purviilJi (n. acc. pl.), before, previously. pa.sya (2nd sg. imperative act . .Jpas), behold!

iiScaryiilJi (n. acc. pl.), wonders, marvels. bOOrata (m. voc. sg.), Descendant of Bha-

rata, epithet of Arjuna.

pasyiiscaryii1.li bhiirata behold wonders, Descendant of Bharata

Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, The two Asvins, the Maruts too; Many wonders unseen before, Behold, Arjtma!

• Adityas, celestial deities led by the Vedic god VarUl;la. t Vasus, beneficent gods led by Indra, Agni or Varuna. . t Rudras, lit. "roarers," gods who drive away evil. § Asvins, celestial horsemen, always a pair, who herald the dawn and are skilled in healing. II Maruts, storm gods, friends of Indra, the thunderbolt hurler and chief god of the Vedas.


~~~~ iluiikastham jagat krtsnam here standing together the universe entire

iha, here. ekastham (n. acc. sg.), assembled, standing

together, standing as one.
jagat (n. acc. sg.), universe, world. krtsnam (n. acc. sg.), entire, whole. pa§ya (2nd sg. imperative act. .Jpas), behold!

pasyadya sacaracaram behold now with everything moving and not moving

adya, now, today. sacariicaram (n. acc. sg.), with everything

mama dehe gut/-akda of me in the body, Thick Haired One
zrq~~~~11 " .... '

yac canyad dra~tum icchasi and whatever else to see thou desirest.

moving and not moving, with the animate and the inanimate. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my. dehe (n. loco sg.), in the body. gu4iikeSa (m. vOC. sg.), Thick Haired One, epithet of Arjuna. yad (n. acc. sg.), what, whatever. ca, and. anyat (n. acc. sg.), other, else. dra~fum (infinitive .Jdrs), to see, to behold. icchasi (2nd sg. pro indic. act. y i~), thou desirest, thou wishest.

Behold now the entire universe, With everything moving and not moving, Standing together here in My body,

And whatever else you desire to see.


not. by eye. acc. paSya (2nd sg. iiisvaram (m. eye. acc. . I give to you a divine eye. sg.). te (gen. acc. divyam (n. sg.Xl 8 .). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sva. with eye.Jd~s).Jdii) . .).). to behold.). power. eva. pr.). tu. Yoga. sg. dadiimi (1st sg. dra~?um (infinitive . anena (n. own.Jsak). heavenly. behold! see! me (gen. of me. with own eye.). but. to see. thou canst. aneniiiva svacak~u~ii with this. thou art able. to thee. sakyase (2nd sg. indic. me. sg. with this. f~~+r~'q~: divyam dadiimi te cak~ul:z divine I give to thee eye pasya me yogam iiisvaram behold of me the power majestic! But you are not able to see Me With your own eyes. I give. . pass . yogam (m. majestic. imperative act. I bestow. act.). princely. indic. divine.JpaS) .<J. pr. acc. cak~us (n. but.). sg. sg. me thou art able to see ~*rR"'T~~1 na. sg. inst. on thee. inst. sg. Behold My majestic power! 460 .:. sg. miim (acc. my.+rr+{~~~ na tu miim sakyase dra#um not. cak~u~ii (n.

paramam (n. majestic. nom. paramam riipam iiisvaram (his) supreme form majestic. sg. haris (m.). 0 King. acc. sg. sg. princely. the mighty prince of Yoga. he revealed. and hence also of Krishna. sg. the Great Yoga Lord Hari (Vishnu) ~ 'l. sg. riipam (n. epithet of Vishl}u. then. he spoke. 461 . nom.). voc.XI ~~I samjaya uviica Samjaya spoke: samjayas (m. he showed. the narrator who is describing the scene to the blind king Dhrtara~!ra. shape. Jvac). Sanjaya spoke: Having spoken thus. Samjaya. 9 ~. rajan (m.ffi1 qr~ darsayam iisa piirthiiya revealed to the Son of Prtha q-nf~~~11 mahiiyogdvaras (m. sg. thus having spoken then. ~T<hn:T ~\: I mahiiyogesvaro hari/. the great lord of Yoga. form.). highest. The great Lord of yoga. having spoken. 0 King. figure.).). Hari. aisvaram (n. tatas. Revealed to Arjuna His majestic supreme form. thus. supreme. perfect act. parthiiya (m. he said. 0 King (meaning Dhrtara~!ra). Hari (Krishna). dadayam asa (periphrastic perfect J dr:s + Jas).).). to Arjuna. sg.). uvaca (2nd sg. his avatar. to the Son of Prtha.men ffifT ~ evam uktvii tato riijan evam. sg. dat. acc. speaking. uktva (gerund Jvac). nom. acc.

BV cpd. acc sg.flGjif?t<i4<i'!.XI 10 ~~i. BV cpd. n. (anekavaktranayanam.). (anekadbhutadarsanam.e. "talker. heavenly. acc. having many divine ornaments... many. ornament.am not one divine ornament f~roffi"lf<nr II . uplifted.) aneka. participle ud Jyam).). sg. having many wondrous aspects. i.)"weapon. sg. many. BV cpd. wondrous. eye. having many uplifted divine weapons. ~ divyiinekodyatiiyudham divine." nayanam (n. aspect. aneka. n.). Of many mouths and eyes.. acc..) aneka. upraised. sg. not one.). weapon. i. divine. anekavaktranayanam not one mouth and eye anekiiJbhutad~rsanam not one wondrous aspect ~~~ ~~~I anekadivyiibharat. acc. vaktra (n. i. Of many divine ornaments.). acc. 462 . having many mouths and eyes. divine. Of many wondrous aspects. acc. sg. (anekadivyabharalJam. abharalJam (n. udyata (p. sg. sg.).) divya (n.e. not one. BV cpd. acc. many. (divyanekodyatayudham. heavenly. pass. adbhuta (n. darSanam (n. Of many uplifted divine weapons. leading organ. n. raised.e. aneka. mouth. acc. nom. not one. not one uplifted. decoration. many. i. sight. sg.).e. n. marvelous. divya (n. ttyudham (n. implement of war. not one.

dharam (n. sg. scent.). acc. acc.).). acc. god. divine. visvatomukham (m. heavenly. m'<f4tp:f~ sarvascaryamayam devam and all-marvels-made-of. -mayam (n. sg. apparel.. . BY cpd. acc.). ointment. sg. divya (n. wearing. anulepanam (n.) divya (n. all marvel. the god anantam visvatomukham infinite. gandha (n. sg. facing in all directions. ambara (n. malya (n. carrying. acc. With divine perfumes and ointments. supporting.). having divine perfumes and ointments. endless. acc. sg.). BY cpd. sg. 463 . acc. (divyagandhiinulepanam. perfume. devam (m. divine. the resplendent Lord. garland. infinite.. sg.XI 11 f~olP"l1 c-lIl ~<' divyamalyambaradharam divine garland and garment wearing. heavenly. f~0I1'10q'1l"l I . sg. (divya-miilya-ambara-dharam. acc. omniscient. facing in all directions.). all wonder. unguent. Wearing divine garlands and apparel. garment. anantam (n. endless. Made up of all marvels. clothing. facing in all directions.). suffix).).). n. made of. n. wearing divine garlands and garments. wreath.) sarviiscarya (n.~ divyagandhanulepanam divine perfumes and ointments.).

m.). brightness. all at once. Such splendor would resemble The splendor of that great Being. participle ud . gen. of the Great Self. sadJ:s[ (f. loco sg.Jbhu). sg. it might be. it. yugapad. optative act. syat (3rd sg. all at once. yadi bhiif:z sadrSi sa syad if brightness such it would be mmr:Q'BT~: II brilliance. in the sky. of brightness. of a thousand.) of Him whose Self is Great. rising..~~ I bhaved yugapad utthita it should be. if. TP cpd. risen. sg. nom. it would be. If a thousand suns should rise all at once In the sky. gen. bhiis (f. tasya (m.). risen. gen. gen. of bril- bhasas tasya mahatmanaf:z of brightness of this of the Great Self.). . of the Great Being.).).).). 464 . such. of splendor. to This was the stanza that occurred to the American nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the explosion of the first atom bomb. of it. it should be. <rf~ m: ~~r m ~ G ' bhavet (3rd sg. she. this. nom. there should be.). splendor.XI 12 fGfq~~ divi (m. utthita (f. sg. sahasras. a (m.Jas).) ~11'Tcr:. yadi. a divi suryasahasrasya in the sky of a thousand suns thousand [of] suns. gen. luminescence. sg. surya (m. (surya-sahasrasya. sg.). nom. optative act. sg.Jsthii). pass. (as BY cpd. liance. bhiisas (f. sg. nom. . p. at once. it might be. of this. sg. sa (f. sun. sg. mahiitmanas (m.

l"~~ apasyad devadevasya he beheld of the god of gods m"ft~~11 sarire pa1}¢avas tada in the body the Son of PaQ<. sg. ekastham (n. entire. in many ways. participle pra vi .iu then.). epithet of Arjuna.l". There ArjIDla then beheld The entire universe established in one. 465 . sg. apaSyat (3rd sg.XI 13 ~~~~~ tatraikastham jagat krtsnam there standing as one the universe entire mCfl1~ 'l. i. whole. sg. he saw. . tada. acc. he beheld. then. sg. acc. devadevasya (m. in the body. of the god of gods. sarfre (n. Son of PiiQQu.). pravibhaktam (n. gen. anekadhii. divided. acc. kftsnam (n. pravibhaktam anekadha divided in not one way 'l.).Jpas). standing together.e.Jbhaj). imperfect act .). loco sg. assembled.).). acc. in not one way. nom. universe. distributed. pafJ4avas (m. p.l'F'C:lT I tatra. In the body of the God of Gods. world. sg. pass. jagat (n. sg. there. Divided in many groups.

). sg. he said. (n. he spoke. to the god. Conqueror of Wealth. Who was filled with amazement. kr:tiiiijalis (m. the. ace. nom. BV epd. whose hair was standing on end. amazement en- hHtaromii dhanamjayal. . sg. J:fUTnr fmm ~ pra1}amya Sirasii devam bowing with the head to the god ~3P~'l. pra1]£lmya (gerund pra ::. h~ifraromii krtiiiijalir abhiifata (with) a reverent gesture he said: Then Arjuna. (as BV cpd.r:r: I tatas.). making obeisance. said: 466 . nom. devam (m.Xl 14 <:f(f: ~ f~crscT tatal. Conqueror of Wealth. whose hair was standing on end. possessed by amazement.i.). bowing. with the head.1~11 tered into. then. sg.) by whom an aiijali (reverent gesture) was made. epithet of Arjuna. sas (m.:. sg.).). Bowing his head to the Lord With joined pahns. ~Prr tr.. thereupon. nom. sirasii (n. vismayiivi:!!as (m. inst. nom. reverent-gesturemaking. sa vismayiivifto then he. sg. sg. Whose hair was standing on end. he. who was possessed by amazement. abhiiifata (3rd sg.nam). sg.jbhiiif). nom.). dhanamjayas (m.). imperfect act.

Lord Braluna on his lotus seat. pr. of thee. I behold. vise~a. thus. I see.•. pI.). sg.). [sam (m. dehe (m. body ill the sarviifls tathii bhiitavise~asarizghiin all. sitting on the lotus seat (kamala. acc. seers.). deva (m. pl. sg. uragan (m. . 467 . sarvan (m.)..Jpas). AIjuna. and. lord." ca. serpents. kamalasanastham (m. pI. I see the gods. in the body. situated). asana. all of them. 0 God. the all-pervading essence. tatha.XI ~~I arjuna uviica arjunas (m. in this way. acc. and continues through most of this book (i. divyan (m.). kind. kinds of beings assembled. gods. 0 God. t Brahmil (masculine). he spoke. ~ ~ ifl¥l("5I*l'1f~ . acc. lotus seat seated. all.). in Your body. lotus-seat situated. kinds of beings assembled. And all the seers and divine serpents. bhuta (n. sg. until stanza 51). acc. he said. the Vedic god of creation. heavenly. acc. 0 God. perfect act. being. Not to be confused with Brahman (neuter). acc.). heaped together. voc. Brahmii. . uvaca (3rd sg. seat.).). And all kinds of beings assembled. god. pl.Jhan). (bhuta-visqa-samghan. r:~[n (m. samghan (m. of thee. indic.).) brahmalJllm (m. and also. Arjuna spoke: 15 ~'1 ~cmr aq ~ ~ pasyiimi deviifls tava deva dehe* pa§yami (1st sg.). creature. devan (m. acc. divine. .e. loco sg. and. lotus. pl. KD cpd. n~' ~ brahmii1Jl1m [sam kamaliisanastham Brahma Lord.). the creator god of the Hindu trinity. assembled.). acc. sg.Jvac). from sam . • Tr#tubh metre begins as Arjuna commences to describe the Great Manifestation. sg. ~~~~f~11 sarviin uragiinsca divyiin f~[nsca and the seers all and the serpents divine. Arjuna spoke: I see the gods. thy. acc. m. nom. act. acc.ln. ca. pl. acc.). pl. "earth-goers. species. indeed. all. sg. sarvan (m. tava (gen. pl. stham. crowded together.

everywhere. 0 Lord of All. yet. I behold.). ananta. indic. tidim (m. . in every direction. indic. beginning q~1llflf f<f-9Jm f~ II pasyiimi visveSvara visvariipa I see.. 0 Lord of All (visva isvara). sg. (as BV cpd. sg. 0 Lord of all.!~?j aneka.. I see. nor. act. ~lfffimT S"Fd~q+t I pasyiimi tviim sarvato 'nantariipam I see thee in every direction. sg. udara (n. punar. acc. madhyam (n.). unending. I see.flf~ niintam na madhyam na punas taviidim not end nor middle nor yet. nor.). thy. fonn. 0 Fonn of All.jpas). sg. acc. sg. sg. acc. 468 . eye.e. moreover..jpas). I see You everywhere. infinite. mouth. . of thee. belly. of thee. paSytimi (Ist sg. nor yet the beginning of You do I see. sg. BV cpd. Not the end. eye. (aneka-btihu-udara-vaktra-netram. ~ ('f"<. figure.XI 16 ~ifliill~<.). vaktra (n. i. bellies. not one.). bellies. belly. visveSvara (m. riipam (n. pr. acc. tvtim (acc. many. na. and eyes. sg.). not. sarvatas. pr. acc. act. middle. voe. voc. infinite form. antam (m.{q'f.). faces. faces. visvariipa (m.). beginning." netram (n.) paSytimi (Ist sg.). not.) whose fonn is the Universe. acc.). nor the middle. na. not. thee. face. shape. "talker. With many anTIS. I behold. having many arms. infinite in fonn. na. end. sg. Whose form is the Universe. ~ . anekabiihiidaravaktranetram not one arm.).). n. +re<t . face. tava (gen. biihu (m. sg. and eye~. again. whose fonn is the universe. arm.

sg. acc. (dfpta-anala-arka-dyutim. acc. With the immeasurable radiance of the sun and blazing fire. sg. sg. ray. full of brilliance. beyond measure. mass of splendor.). brilliance. shining. shining on all sides. who are difficult to behold. fire. crowned. diptiinaliirkadyutim aprameyam blazing-fire-sun-radiance immeasurable. tejortiSim (m. dyutim (f.). I behold. flaming. acc. f. completely.). samantiit (adv. ~lr~if~r~<l~ pasyiimi tviim durnirikfyam samantiid I see thee who art difficult to behold completely. on all sides shining. sg. arka (m.Jfk~). 469 . KD cpd. acc. wholly.). on all sides. pafyiimi (1st sg. armed with a club and bearing a discus inrrof~~cfaTm~ I tejoriiSim sarvato diptimantam a mass of splendor. radiance. cakrilJam (m.). sg. acc.). dfptimantam (m. sg. and. dfpta (m. ca. everywhere.). sarvatas. blazing. act.). arwla (m. acc. gadirwm (m. shining. sg. acc.JpaS). durnirfk~am (m. bearing a discus. hard to see. in every direction. tviim (acc. acc. armed with a club and bearing a discus. sg. I see.) aprameyam (f. sun. kiritinam gadinam cakri1}am ca crowned. immeasurable. . blazing-fire-sun-radiance. on every side.). ~HI'101"'mrr+r~Slm II "" .).). acc. flame. heap of splendor.. sg. A mass of splendor.). sg. gerundive dus nis .XI 17 f<fi\n~ lTf~ 'ilf~ :q kirf(irwm (m. I see You. anned with a club. difficult to behold. Crowned. thee.

sg. eternal law defender. the ultimate. nom. sg. thou.). veditavyam (n. unchanging.). sg. . nom. thou. ~ ~T +rn1lr II sanatanas tvam puru~o mato me primaeval thou spirit understood of me. supreme. You are the imperishable defender of the eternal law.). param (n. nom. tobe-known.r I . nom. righteousness. of all. tvam (nom. place for storing up. spirit. virtue. thou. of this. dharma (m. the supreme. sg. protector.). eternal. sasvatadharmagopta thou the imperishable. of it.. the ultimate resting place ~:~ tvam avyayal. paramam (n. sg. indestructible. me (gen. p. purulfas (m. sg. thought.). understood. sg.).m. perpetual. sg. tvam (nom. nom..). You are the unchanging. *i'1ld'1tt.). sg. by me. nom. primaeval. 470 . goptii (m. resting place.). man. nom. nom. sg. nom. matas (m.). tvam (nom. imperishable. tvam asya visvasya param nidhanam thou of it.) sanatanas (m. asya (gen.).). I believe. sg.:f tvam ak~aram paramam veditavyam thou unchanging supreme the to-beknown WI" ~ f~ qi f. (siisvata-dharma-goptii. sg. thou. sg. sg. law. believed.. m.). tvam (nom.. the highest. defender of eternal law. gerundive JVid) .). ancient. the supreme object of knowledge. eternal. imperishable. nidhiinam (n. sg. visvasya (m. avyayas (m.).XI 18 fc:f+!: ~m: ~ ~f~o. nom. aklfaram (n. gen. defender. siisvata (m. TP cpd.). sg. participle Jman) . of me. nom.). pass. of all. sg. object of knowledge. You are the primeval Spirit. You are the ultimate resting place of all. sg.

). With infinite power." The present translation. by own splendor.1 anantabiihum saSisuryanetram end. hOhum (m. BY cpd. middle or end. by own brilliance. or end. endless. m. acc. ~f~~~~11 svatejasii visvam idam tapantam by own splendor all this universe burning. acc. and this is a very common term for" moon.).). ananta (n. I see You. sg.) svatejasa (n. (anataviryam. sg. participle . vaktram (n. sun." 471 . (dfptahutasavaktram. sg. by own power..). middle or infinite power 'Wr. that which contains the rabbit. nom. thee. that which contains the rabbit.) sasi (m. BY cpd. sg. m.). BY cpd. with blazing. vigor. pr. ~+r ffi ~')gg~ pasyiimi tviim diptahutasavaktram I see thee." and translate vaktram as "face.. m. having the moon and sun as eyes. pr.. tapantam (m. the blazing fire Your mouth. m. sg. dipta (m. I see. With innumerable anus. and vaktra means" talker" or organ of speech." t Most translators avoid hutasa (huta asa). acc.).nf~'i.). sg. acc. "mouth. sg. oblation fire. coincides with vaktra. BY cpd.). endless." which refers to the partaking of sacrifice. acc. The Hindus saw a rabbit in the moon.). having innumerable arms. oblation consuming. blazing-oblation-eating mouth. without beginning. aniidimadhyiintam anantaviryam without beginning. ojpas). illuminating. act. consuming. power. hutasa (m.XI 19 ~. sg. sg. acc. as well as "face.. however. oblation eating. indic. acc.).). I behold.Jtap) . visvam idam (n. the moon and sun being Your eyes. viryam (n. Burning all this universe with Your radiance. tvam (acc. netram (n. sg. oblation-eating mouth. acc. blazing. burning. all this universe. the moon. acc. sg. (with) innumerable arms. (anantahOhum. inst.). innumerable. acc. acc. face. rabbit-holder*and-sun-eyed. (sasisiiryanetram.). having infinite power." in stanza 23. infinite. fiery. strength..fl~ m~I~~q~lJ. arm. without beginning. or render it as "fire. eye.<rr~ WRfGrT<P:!: anadimadhyantam (m. siirya (m. middle. • saSin.) pasyami (3rd sg.). sg. "oblation eating. sg.) ananta (m. mouth.

Is pervaded by You alone in all directions.). truly. lokatrayam pravyathitam mahatman the three worlds trembling. seeing. antaram (n. dual). ugram (n. sg. 0 Great Self. 0 Great Self. of heaven and earth. hi. by thee. spaces. idam (n. formidable.Jd~s).).). Seeing Your marvelous and terrible fonn. this. . alone. nom. sg. mahiitman (m. shaking. atmosphere). pass. adbhutam (n. mighty. sg. 0 Exalted One. this. participle pra Jvyath). ca. of thee. the three worlds (heaven. idam (n. acc.). 472 . The three worlds tremble. p. voc. rupam (n. sarvas (f. indeed. shape. participle vi Jap).). this. nom. acc. form.XI 20 mcwn~ol:r'T~ ~ ~ f~ < " dyavaprthivyor idam antaram hi of heaven and earth this between indeed.) 0 Thou whose Self is Great. tava (m. inst. nom.).). points. sg. terrible.).). wondrous. 0 great Being. figure. between. sg. 1~~:r ~l1l! ~ ~ dNtvadbhutam rupam ugram tavedam seeing the marvelous form terrible of thee. filled with. disas (f. acc. directions. gen. alL dmva (gerund '. nom. This space between heaven and earth. earth.). sg. thy. pravyathitam (n.). ~~>fOl1f~~ II . marvelous. pervaded. lokatrayam (n.). nom. tremble. gen. inst. (as BY cpd. sg. pl. pl. nom. sg. occupied by. . acc. tvaya (m. trembling. O<:fTa~f~~: I vyaptam tvayaikena disasca sarva/:z pervaded by thee alone and (in) directions all. having seen. sg. nom. sg. ekena (m. sg. and. dyaVtip~thivyos (f. sg. vyaptam (n. having beheld.).

pl. . indeed. tviim (acc. m. hi.Jg~). they enter. abundant. with reverent gestures praise You. they praise. The throngs of gods enter into You. some. multitudes. sing praises.) whose aiijalis (reverent gesgflJanti (3rd pI.XI 21 ~r f~m ~fcrof~ ami hi tviim surasamghii visanti am! (m. (mahiir~isiddhasafnghiis. pI.Jhan). as- stuvanti tviim stutibhil} p~kaliibhil} they praise thee with praises abundant.). ~~ . act. heaps.).-Q" I . nom. with reverent gestures they praise ~R<l:~~q-r~: svastlty uktvii mahiir~isiddhasainghiilJ tures) are proffered. nom. pro indic. priifljalayas (m. nom. they kecid bhitiil} priiiijalayo g!1}anti some.rm: >IT~T <rUTf. svasti (exclamation). terrified. thus. thee. indic. yonder.JviS) . stutibhis (f. pl. crying." thus saying the great-seer-andperfected-one-throngs. act. mahiir~i "hail. nom. pr. uktvii (gerund . siddha (m.Jstu). terrified. thee the throngs of gods they enter. indeed..).Jvac). nom. some or others. terrified.). kecid (m. from sam . .).). pUlikaliibhis (f. saying.). the throngs of great seers and perfected ones. Some..). perfected one.). with praises. successful one. great seer. pl.) stuvanti (3rd pI. throngs. visanti (3rd pI. thee. surasafnghiis (m. bhUiis (m. tviim (acc. fearful. hail! good health! iti. safnghiis (m. nom. reverent gestures. (as BV cpd. inst. pl. they praise. yonder. . Saying "Hail.). pl. pl. sg. semblages. nom. sg. pI. ~Q"m~ffi+T: ~+f: II (m. '" 0 assemblages of gods. act. pl. throngs of gods. truly. inst. 473 .)." the throngs of great seers and perfected ones Extol You with abundant praises. TP cpd.

astonished. dua!). •• Asuras. and. ca. aIL • l\1inor gods. Adityas. and.). the two Asvins. a group of twelve minor godlings.:1Ol Ii 1~4 q ri II vik~ante tviirn vismitiilciiiva sarve they behold thee amazed all. the Rudras and Adityas. sarve (m. see note stanza 6. Visve devas./. TP cpd. Asuras. t 474 . a group of supernatural beings. thee. § Steam Drinkers.).Rr+ifid~:. mid.). a class of demons. p!.XI 22 ~~~~Tit:q~ rudriidityii vasavo ye ca siidhyii the Rudras. nom. the Sadhyas. gandharvayak~asurasiddhasa/hghiis(m. a group of celestial beings with exquisitely refined natures thought to inhabit the ether. ca. eva. ruqradityils (m. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). Steam Drinkers. they see. Yakshas. vasavas (m. Vasus.). nom. nom. celestial musicians. vfk. asvinau (m. Adityas. and. II Gandharvas. sg. ca. who. overcome. pl.rmapas (m. pl. Vasus. nom. and. pl.fllSqql~"" I visve 'sviniiu marutakoimapiii ca the Visve devas. participle vi "/smi). the two Asvins. The throngs of Gandharvas. nom.). nom. li. tvam (ace. The Vtshve devas. All behold You. t Visve devas. ca. the throngs of Gandharvas. visve (m. Maruts.. .). sometimes not . pI. and the Ushma pas. amazed. the Maruts and the Steam Drinkers ~~~ g andharvayakiiisurasiddhasamghii the Gandharva-Yaksa-Asura-perfectedone-throngs cr1~ <:Crt fcrf. amazed.. vismitas (m. and perfected ones. Slidhyas. sadhyiis (m. pass. The Rudras. nom.).). Yak~as. a class of ancestors. Vasus who and S1ldhyas. y ak~as. pl. nom. they behold. pl.). Asuras and perfected ones.rante (3rd pI. nom. vi . enemies of the gods. p. the Maruts.). pl. nom. Siidhyas. f~sfY. the two Ashvins. sometimes benelovent. nom. ye (m. pl. marutas (m./ik~). pl.

also. nom. epithet of warriors. many mouthed and eyed +r~T "lg"lI~P'iql<::l'\ I mahabiiho bahubiihurupiidam o Mighty Armed One. Which has many bellies. tatM.). bahu. shaking. shape. sg. 0 Great Armed One. acc. acc. nom. many bellied. foot. n.) which has many mouths and eyes. thighs. also I.m: ~~(ffif Cf~ ~+r II Co <::I " . figure. nom. thighs and feet. nom. sg.Xl 23 ~~a-"l§qiPI~~ rupam (n. but here to Krishna. sg. mahat (n. which has many arms. sg. thighs and feet. many. (as BV cpd. p. sg. dam. udaram (n. many. pI.). lokas (m. fonn. having seen. many thighed and footed ~~org~. acc. many armed. many. participle pra Jvyath). of thee. n. (bahUdaram. sg. sg.. which has many mouths and eyes. thy. I. worlds..). voc. (bahu-dam~!rii-kariilam. pravyathitiis tathii 'ham having seen. • Here referring to Krishna.. great. sg.wii (f. shank. acc. pl. trembling. pravyathitiis (m. Which has many arms. dr~tvii lokii~ Having seen Your great form. piidam (m.). (bahubiihurupiidam.). sg. BV cpd. acc.) bahu. seeing.). and mouths gaping with many tusks.. many mouth and eye.). having many arms. uru (m. sg. riipam mahat te bahuvaktranetram form great of thee. acc. belly.). and feet. thus.) terrible. aham (nom. pass. sg. acc. mighty..). bearing many tusks ~T <7.). sg. te (gen.). usually applied to Atjuna. kariilam (n.(10 bahiidaram bahuda~triikariilam many bellied. m. and so do I. nom. quaking.. having many terrible tusks. the worlds tremble.?I"'. thigh. BV cpd.) bahu. 475 . the worlds trembling.. bahuvaktranetram (n. tusk. o Krishna.) d~~!Vii (gerund Jd~s). maMbiiho (m.). biihu (m. arm.

shaking. sg. pr. voc. sg. nabha~sPrsam dip tam anekavanJam sky-touching. acc. and.. nom. sg. truly.). gaping.e. many) colored. n. p. not. trembling inner self. calmness. many colored. opened. blazing. with enonnous fiery eyes.J2 vid). participle pra . act. not one (i.. 04 I'd 1'1"1 ~rgf*dIM~"'1IJ.+\ I < • '< dntva hi tviim pravyathitiintariitmii having seen indeed thee. sg. blazing.). acc. vi~lJo (m. mouth. blazing. indeed. having seen.).). (vyattananam. samam (n. acc. sg.). fiery. KD cpd. face.). trembling in the inner self. trembling. pass. sg. acc. acc. acc.. fiery. . ) d~~f. (dfpta-visala-netram.). anekavarlJam (m.) dh~tim (f. <. extensive.va (gerund .). hi. not one colored.). netram (n. vyatta (p.). <rfa.rr fCRTfl1 ~ :. antaratma (m. acc. OVlShnU! nabhal]sPf:sam (m. blazing. 476 . inner self. shining. sg. ca. I find. and I find neither courage nor tranquility. ananam (n. (pravyathita-antaratma. sg. participle vi a . firmness.) dfpta (n. acc. pass.Jda). or. touching the sky. prayyathita (m. acc. n. tvam (acc. sg. eye. KD cpd. sg. dfptam (m. sg.).XI 24 i1+T:~ ~"Trrl1 ~ < "~. I tremble indeed in my heart.). Gaping-mouthed. quaking. spacious. nose.Jvyath). na. BV cpd. sky touching. 0 Vishnu. the god of whom Krishna is the avatar. tranquility. indic. courage. seeing. nom.:r fcrmrr II dhrtim na vindiimi samam ca ViglO courage not I find or tranquility.Jd~s). vindami (rst sg.:1SCT f1' 0ft 5fOlIf\!l¢1 Irct '(1. having a gaping mouth. m. fiery-enormous-eyed. Having seen You touching the sky. sg. I vyiittiinanam diptavisiilanetram gaping-mouthed. • Vishnu. sg. thee. enormous eyed. blazing. o Vishnu. visala (n.

indic. jagat (n. sarma (n. Dwelling of the Universe. sense of direction. .Jjfzii). have mercy! be merciful! deveSa (m. srn-R~~~II prasida devesa jagannivasa have mercy! Lord of Gods.Jsad). fires of time. directions. mouths. not.). I lose my sense of direction. mukhiini (n.:r~ fflfmfrr kiiliinalasamnibhiini having seen time-fire-similar. indic. samnibhiini (n.). .). similar. eva. pl. imperative act. '" damftrakaralani ca te mukhani and bearing many tusks of thee the mouths ~q 'fl'lm_f'f'lnfrr I d~~!Viiiva ~~cl'f){I~lf. and. niviisa (m.. having seen. prasfda (2nd sg. I obtain. (jagat-niviisa.Jvas)..). not. acc. acc. like. And having seen Your mouths.) 477 . pr. voc. n. pI.). acc. dwelling. te (gen. comfort. time-fire.Jdrs).). Glowing like the ftres of universal destruction. na. pr. jiine (1st sg. pl.rr mT ~ ~ diso na jane na labhe ca sarma directions not I know. bearing many tusks. with terrible tusks.. voc. fires of destruction. sg. dmvii (gerund . seeing. faces. kiiliinala (m. world.). gaping with tusks. sg. pl. acc. universe. Dwelling of the Universe.rA. ca. home. abode of the universe! damWiikariiliini (n. mid . refuge.). sg. and not I find comfort.). thy. TP cpd. I find. I know. voc. from ni . and I do not ftnd comfort. na. acc. sg. f~r rr . sg. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). mid . and. Have mercy! Lord of Gods. pra .) disas (f. bearing many tusks. nor. of thee. (kiiliinala-samnibhiini. like the fires of destruction.XI 25 . ca. labhe (ISt sg. acc.Jlabh). Lord of Gods. m. points of the compass. pl.

drorJas (m. sg. with head warriors. samghais (m. together. even. nom. there. saha.'141'··Hl€l: I 'V~ . pl.). inst. BhI~ma. sarve (m.l amf (m. pl. sg.). throngs of kings. inst. to thee. avanipala (m. and Kama. Son of the Charioteer (Le. sg. and with (our) chief warriors And entering into You. ca. and.).). with chief warriors. tatha. all the sons of Dhritarashtra. nom. m. sutaputras tathiisiiu BhI~ma. earth protector. king. And also with our chief warriors.'1. together with ours also. the son of the charioteer. earth ruler. 'lfm:ft ~Tur: ~ d"~1 bhi~mo droIJal. pl. Kart).XI 26 ~fl:ft "f ffi '<{d «i\?fll '. Along with the throngs of kings. nom. 478 . TP cpd. nom. sg.) bhf~mas (m. saha.). along with. yonder.l all indeed along with the earth-ruler (king) throngs. sons. gen.). asmadfyas (m. nom. of Dhrtara~tra the sons uq"Q. Drona.f-IT: ami ca tviirit dhrtarii~!rasya putrii/. with throngs. with ours. all. eva. protector of the earth.ff4"lj"~: II sahiismadiyiiir api yodhamukhyiiil. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). Drol}a. dh~tarawasya (m.). thus. yodhamukhyais (m. nom. yonder. sg. inst. putras (m. Bhishma.).a and the son of the charioteer (Karl).a).~ sarve sahiiiviivanipiilasamghiii/. with assemblages. also. and yonder (into) thee. tvam (acc.a) thus yonder ~~'J.). of Dhrtara~!ra. pI). inst.. thee. pl.'1.). api.). together with. (avanipala-samghais. pI. sutaputras (m. nom.). asau (m. Drol). pl. sg.

pl. Which gape with many tusks. they are seen. dasana (n.). clinging. participle vi Ylag). inst. antare~u (m. p.Jvis) . Some are seen with crushed heads.). in between.! da~triikariiliini kecid vilagnii dasaniintare~u some clinging the teeth in between ~~"I'\1 < . pI. some. indic. samdrsyante cun}itiiir uttamiifigiiil} they are seen with crushed heads. speedily. pl. acc. they are observed. bearing many tusks. 'vaktrafJi (n. Clinging between Your teeth. they enter. m. pr. ~~f~G1iI'iI<'d~.XI 27 ~ur ~ . uttamaiigais (n. kecid (m. faces. visanti (3rd pI. pl. loco pl. TP cpd. --=:. (da§ana-antare~u.Cj <141 0 11 f<ref. pass. loco pI. vilagniis (m. acc. of thee.). in between the teeth. participle. They quickly enter Your fearful mouths. tooth. "'I1UKR:'3'dIOlI1j< II '" . nom. gaping with tusks. dam~frakaralani (n. with pulverized.). passive sam .:a- vaktriiIJi te tvaramiiIJii visanti the mouths of thee quickly they enter ~1S?ICf><10IfiT~iT I bhayiinakiini gaping with many tusks. inst. bhayanaktini (n. te (gen. curfJitais (m. pl. lit. sg.Jcum). terrible.). with heads. mouths.~. bite. act. fearful. sg.). attached. nom.).). with haste.." 479 .Jd~§). . pI. ..). with crushed.) sarhd~§yante (3rd pI. acc. fearful. dreadful. "with highest limbs. pass. tvaramaniis (adv. pr.

pI. eva. so.). water torrents.:a.) visanti (3rd pI. . as of rivers many water torrents ~rlnr':r lJ:m~ ro. flaming forth. heroes. abhimukhiis (m. world. pl. ocean. burning. viras (m. samudram (m.Jdru). nom. approaching.qrn tathii taviimi naralokavirii so of thee yonder man-world heroes fcmf. sg. abhivijvalanti (n. pl. water floods. vaktrani (n.). heroes of the world of men. gen. of thee. pr. So those heroes of the world of men Enter your flaming mouths. man. yathii. (naralokaviras. ami (m. m.XI 28 l:f~ ~')". in which way. they run. act. pl. loka (m.). of streams.. acc. pI. tava (gen. they flow.:a. 480 . facing toward.). toward. yonder. pl. nadinam (f. in this way. many.).). pl. nara (m. indic. indic. pr. participle abhi vi vjval). thus. faces.). pl.:a. acc.I "" . . pr. As the many torrents of the rivers Flow toward the ocean. nom. water currents. act . nom. sg. pl.). acc. dravanti (3rd pI.Jvis). mouths.rt ~T~: yathii nadiniim bahavo 'mbuvegii/. samudram eviibhimukhii dravanti the ocean toward they flow a~ acTTlTT ~1ef. ambuvegas (m.). TP cpd. tatha. nom. as. nom.II visanti vaktrii1}Y abhivijvalanti they enter the mouths flaming forth. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). bahavas (m. of rivers. nom.).~ mm~. they enter. sea.. thy.).

pl. participle pra Jdfp).). so. acrrfq.lf. tion. eva. worlds. mouths. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). they enter. acc. sg. also. dat. having increased flow.). shining forth. faces. pr. with great speed. thy. to perishing. nom. pl. dat. from Jnas). acc. blazing forth. even. insects. the worlds. ntistiya (m. nom. act. pass.Jvis) . moths fcmfi'(f <rnTT"lr ~~: I visanti nasaya samrddhavegal.). lokas (m. to destruction. acc. in this way. sam~ddhavegtis (m.). ntistiya (m. pr. light. nom.). jvalanam (n. to destruction. these creatures swiftly enter Your mouths to their destruction. 481 . pl. tatoo. having increased flow. they enter. in which way. fire. (m.).). prmifptam (n. sg. vaktrtilJi (n. indic. pataflgtis (m. as. sg. ". tava (gen. p. 44'1 t: II tavapi vaktriiTJi samrddhavegal. sg. sam~ddhavegtis As moths enter a blazing flame To their destruction with great spee~ So also.). of thee. pl. nom. act. moths. (f~ <rnTT"lr fcmfi'(f ~~ yatOO. pl. visanti (3rd pI. they enter. to destruc- tathiiiva nasaya visanti lokas so thus to destruction they enter. of thee also the mouths with great speed. flame. api. having great speed.~1Jf fit"!. indic. visanti (3rd pI. with great speed.XI 29 <1m5fGrg~~ yathii pradiptam jvalanam patanga as the blazing flame. to perishing. sg. Jvis) .

Jtap). samantiil thou lickest. indic. iipurya (gerund ii .r. Your terrible rays blaze forth. devouring.). samagriin (m.). pr. nom. entire. pl.:~~rn tejobhir iipurya jagat samagram with splendor filling the universe all. participle act. act. . pl.). lokiin samagriin vadaniiir jvaladbhil. with brilliance. accl. world. with splendor.). bhiisas (f. pratapanti (3rd pI. they consume. pr. 0 Vishnu. 0 Vishnu! You lick up.). pl. participle mid. terrible. sg.:r~~~~:1 . they bum. swallowing on all sides All the worlds. urgiis (f. with mouths. powerful. . filling.o the rays of thee. sg.Jlih). acc. thou lickest.Jp~). all. inst. all that moves. acc.). whole. . swallowing from all sides. they consume it. jvaladbhis (n.). universe. with your flaming mouths.). on all sides. with fiery. voc.XI 30 m~~:~ lelihyase (2nd sg. of thee. samagram (n. sg. ~ijqM:~raf~TII bhiisas tavogriil. ray. pI. tejobhis (n.Jjval). lokiin (m. nom. . vadaniiis (n.Jgras). pl. inst. vi!flJo (m. tava (gen. all. ~Tcf. worlds. acc. grasamiinas (m. sg. lelihyase grasamiinal. from all sides. samantiit (m. abl.). nom. pl. fierce. intensive . radiiance.). radiation. sg.). pratapanti vip. Filling all the universe with splendor. swallowing. jagat (n. inst. with flaming. sg. pr. 0 Vishnu! 482 . pra . thy. the worlds all with mouths flaming. whole. terrible. ~Tf<n. entire. pl.!n.

). reverence. pr. 'flfT ~ a. to know. honor. of thee. I wish. acc. thee. sg. Thou) of terrible form. Tell me who You are. to me.).Jjiia). nom. iikhyiihi me ko bhaviin ugrariipo tell to me who thou (art. have mercy! be merciful! vijiiatum (infinitive vi . pra . to comprehend. indeed. .XI 31 ~Q iT 'fiT"l1cfF( ~ akhyahi (2nd sg.Jsad). prav~ttim (f. pr. thy. namas (n. prasfda (2nd sg. pra . sg. I do not comprehend what You are doing. act.~ 5ffiR I namo 'stu te devavara prasida homage may it be to thee. na. One who has existed from the beginning.Jjiia).). acc. sg. formal). tell! inform! explain! me (dat. sg. sg. not. I desire. 0 Best of Gods. primal One. Salutations to You.Jas).). of terrible form. act. sg. Primal One. thy lordship. Have mercy! I wish to Wlderstand You. astu (3rd sg.). . I comprehend. Indeed. nom. hi. devavara (m. of mIghty form. sg. who? bhavan (m. prajanami (1st sg. to understand. truly. 483 . indic. bhavantam (m. adyam (m. voc. purpose. of so terrible a form. kas (m. sg. indic.). 0 Best of Gods. working. formal). ugr~rapas (m. thou. nom. nom. 0 Chosen of Gods.).). gen. imperative act. may it be! be it! te (dat. tava (m. thy lordship.). sg. 0 Best of Gods. sg. icchami (1st sg. sg. imperative act. I understand. Primal One. a . if f6:• ~l1 GCf 5fCff~ II 0 . acc. to thee. imperative act.Jkhya). have mercy! f~~l1~~ vijiiiitum icchiimi bhavantam adyam to understand I wish thee.Ji~). homage. na hi prajiiniimi tava pravrttim not indeed I comprehend of thee the working.

warriors. the warnors. nom. loco pl. they shall be. to annihilate. mighty. participle pra .). sg. pl. The Blessed Lord spoke: I am Time. ~te. arranged in battle formation.).Jvac). sg. Who has come forth to annihilate the worlds. all these warriors Who are arrayed in the opposing ranks. sg. world destruction causing. thee.JbhU) . cause of the perishing of the world. sg. pl. tvam (acc. +rf~a ~ rte 'pi tviim na bhavi~yanti sarve without even thee. time. the Blessed Lord. in facing armies. in opposing ranks. nom. bhavi~anti (3rd pI. pratyanfke~u (m.0li. nom.). avasthitas (m. lokak~ayak1:t (m. also. arrayed. samiihartum (infinitive sam a . he spoke. come forth. uvaca (3rd sg. prav~ttas (m. to destroy. not they shall exist all if sq"fP:PfT: ~~ liT1:lT: II ye 'vasthitiib pratyanike~u yodhiib who arrayed in the opposing ranks. indic . nom.Jas). mighty.~ ~T kiilo 'smi lokak~ayakrt pravrddho Time I am. . not. participle ava . sg. act.Jh~). p. sarve (m. worlds.). I am.. nom. nom. 484 . excluding. api. without. asmi (1st sg. he said. arisen. perf. who.). all. excepting. . Even without any action of yours. nom. world destruction causing. 32 <m?T sffl1 ~fcI.). pI. the Blessed One. pass. they shall exist. p. even. nom.).Jsthii). prav~ddhas (m. the mighty cause of world destruction. here.Jv~dh). iha. pr. lokiin (m.). pl. yodhiis (m. ~T~~+{~'5I¥: I [okiin samiihartum iha pravrttab the worlds to annihilate here come forth ~ sfq. shall cease to exist kiilas (m. . acc. ye (m. nom. powerful.XI 5!1~~1 sribhagaviin u'viica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. fighters.). pass. sg. here in the world.). future act. na. pl.

sg. enjoy rulership prosperous. nom. sg. These have already been struck down by Me. 0 Ambidextrous Archer. acc. merely. KD cpd.). Jbhu). pI. pl. sg. 0 dextrous Archer. attain! obtain! jitva (gerund Jji).). therefore. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).XI 33 ~~~~l:ffiT~ tasmat (m. uttilf!ha (2nd imperative act.). acc. abl. imperative act. n. glory. Jlabh). total. ~cre-f~:~~ mayiiiviiite nihatiilJ purvam eva by Me these destroyed already. f. previously. material cause. purvam (adv.). sg. thriving. stand up! arise! yasas (n. 485 . ete (m. maya (m. nimitta (n.). imperative mid. voc. eva. acc. p. labhasva (2nd sg.. matram (n.). these. nihatas (m. be! savyasacin (m. only. destroyed. pl. sg. acc.).). acc. pass. instrument. bhuiiklfva (2nd sg. (nimitta-matram. Ambi- Therefore stand up and attain glory! Having conquered the enemy. already. tasmiit tvam utti~tha yaso labhasva therefore thou stand up! glory attain! jitvii satrun bhuiik~va riijyam samrddham having conquered foes. sg.). ) bhava (2nd sg. eva. enjoy! rajyam (m. sg. domain. struck down.). nom. 0 Arjuna. instrument-only. enemies. inst. having conquered. sg. Jbhuj). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). sam~ddham (m. thou.). mere. ud Jstha). tvam (nom. sg. by me.). foes. fame. honor. from this. acc. conquering. enjoy prosperous kingship.:rf~ '1cf ~"q II nimittamiitram bhava savyasiicin the instrument merely be. kingship. imperative mid. satrun (m. participle ni Jhan). prosperous. Be the mere instrument.

thou. api. and. Do not hesitate! Kill! Fight! You shall conquer the enemy in battle. others also. kill! slay! yudhyasva jetasi ra7Je sapatnan fight! thou shalt conquer in battle the enemies. p. w:rr ~ ~ ~~ lIT Olff~ maya hatatis tvam jahi ma vyath#tha by me killed. acc.).). 'fi1lf ~~. hatan (m. pl. periphrastic future act. Jayadratha.Jji). and. do not hesitate! <1~ ~~ -. . vyathi~rhas (2nd sg. pI. yodhaviran (m. ace. rna (prohibitive).). pl. and Kama too. injunctive . even. loco sg. imperative act. in joy of battle. and. pass.XI 34 ~)ut 'if ~~ 'if ~~ 'if drofJam (m. have been killed by Me. others. thus. not.Jhan) . fighter heroes. slain. tvam (nom. acc. Jayadratha. killed.in battle. hesitate. sapatnan (m. acc. sg. sg. imperative mid . 486 . pl. Bhishma. acc. anyan (m. adversaries.).). battle heroes.). also. jayadratham (m. fight! jetasi (2nd sg. warrior heroes. .). mer <1T~q'"m<1l . Drona. . never. jahi (2nd sg. kar7Jam tathanyan api yodhaviran Kart:la too.:uT ~ II "" . warrior heroes.).Jyudh). acc. Karrya.). thou shalt conquer. thou kill. by me. bhi~mam (m. participle . karlJQm (m. tremble. Bhl~ma. sg. dro7Jam ca Drot:la bhi~mam and Bhl~ma ca jayadratham ca and J ayadratha and ca. tatoo. yudhyasva (2nd sg. rafJe (n. sg.). sg. maya (inst. ca. others also. too. also. warrior heroes ca. acc. sg. rivals.Jhan). .Jvyath). acc. DroQa.

he spoke. nom. he said. utterance. the utterance of the Handsome Haired One ~~~: speech. act.). nom. acc. hearing. (m.Xl ~~I smnjayas (m. having heard. sg. pralJamya (gerund pra -Jnam).). terrified. sagadgadam (adv.). falteringly.). f<R:Tc1 I kftiifzja/is (m. sg. nom. thus. trembling. -Jah). sg. acc. the Diademed One. bowing down: Sanjaya spoke: Having heard this utterance of Krisima. trembling. And bowing down. making a namaskrtva bhiiya evaha krrr}am bow. very much frightened. acc. bhuyas. sg. he who made a reverent krtaiijalir vepamanal} kiriti gesture. thus spoke in a choked voice to Krishna: spoke. kf~lJam 487 . this.). quaking. ep- he who made a reverent gesture. again. sg.). bowing. Prostrating himself. be- +rrn+rrn: sroTRf II sagadgadam bhitabhita/:z pra7Jamya falteringly very much frightened. sg. kdavasya (m. imperfect act. Krishna. BY cpd. sg. to Krishna.). having made a bow. word. pr. epithet of Krishna.). perfect act. of Kesava of the Handsome Haired One. sg. 35 ~~(CITcr~~ etac chrutvii vacanam keiavasya etad (n.). this having heard. iiha (3rd sg. spoke. uviic~ (3rct·sg. stutteringly. vacanam (m. indeed (often used as a rhythmic having made obeisance again thus spoke to Krishna tl'T ~ filler). he who made an afzjaii. the nar- samjaya uvaca Samjaya spoke: rator who is describing the scene to King Dhrtarastra. the Diademed One (Arjuna) '1 '1f'l":cO ~ ~ ~ ithet of Arjuna. bowing low. nom. -Jvac). gen. stammeringly. bhUabhUas (m. participle "-Jvip). vepamiinas (m. srutvii (gerund Jsru). trembling. Arjuna. kirlfl (m. namaskftvii (gerund namas -Jk/:). sg. eva. Sariljaya. nom. with joined palms.

they shall make reverence. h~~fkeSa sthiine hr~ikesa tava prakirtya rightly. prakfrtya (f.). and. in (all) directions they flee ~ . J dru). loe. nom. the throngs of perfected ones. thy. they run. 0 Krishna. inst. siddhasamghiis (m. And all the throngs of the perfected ones bow before You.). anurajyate (3rd sg. Jvac). they shall bow.XI ~"~I arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. sarve (nom. the assemblages of perfected ones. it is glad. indic. world.nom. sg. all. sg. Arjuna spoke: Rightly. they flee. bhftani (n. nom. sg. 488 . terrified. indic. dravanti (3rd pI. jagat (n. Jnam). ca.'R<IT sthiine (n. the universe Rejoices and is gratified by Your praise.. pr. justly. frightened. (m.:n rak~iimsi bhitiini diso dravanti the demons. rightly. Bristling Haired One. prahm'ati (3rd sg. epithet of Krishna.). directions. pl.:r:wrf. sg. demons. future act. pr.). pl.). tava (gen. it exults. namasyanti (3rd pI. of thee by the fame 'Jfm! ~~~ 'Tf I jagat prahuyaty anurajyate ca the universe it rejoices and it is gratified. act. and. disas (f. voc. terrified. indic. nom. it rejoices. rak~amsi (n. flee in all directions.). act. ca. pr. uvaca (3rd sg. it is delighted.). the throngs of the perfected ones. perfect act. universe. ~mf~ +r'Tmf. he spoke.-a 'Tf f~ : II sarve namasyanti ca siddhasamghiil} and all they shall bow. f~T~. The demons. acc. points of compass. 36 ~~ ~r~ ~ SlCf.).). terrified. Arjuna. ace. pl. by fame.). sg. by renown. Bristling Haired One. pra Jh~~).). pl. of thee. it is gratified. anu Jraftj). pl. he said. nom. sg.

that beyond which. sat (n. the non-existent. 0 Great One. Who are the original Creator. (as BY cpd.. sg. voc.).). sg. o great One. original. and that which is beyond both. nivasa (m. eternal. the non-existent. Lord of Gods. to the original creator.rcrnr ananta devesa jagannivasa infinite Lord of Gods. heavier. existent. o Great One? <n:'1<:ffi ~urT SO{ mfm I gariyase brahmm}o 'py adikartre greater than Brahma even. mahatman (m. devesa (m. voc. ak~aram (n.). dweJIing place. nom.) 0 Thou whose Self is Great. voc. 0 Great Self.). to the creator. sg. na. optative mid . sg. not. infinite. true. sg. nameran (3rd pI.. voc.). from what? wherefore? why? ca.~~ kasmac ca te na nameran mahatman and why to thee not they should bow.). thou. interrog. existing. to the maker.. katre (m. untrue.). sg. sg. ~~ ~ 'Jf'!f. universe. garfyase (m. the existent. nom. m. sg. to thee. tatparam yad (n. api. te (dat. dwelling place of the universe. voc.). The imperishable. asat (n.). beginning. dat.). sg. (adi-kartre. more venerable. greater.). unending. sg.. nom. nom. And why should they not bow to You. TP cpd. even. sg. ~~m:~~~~11 tvam ak~aram sad asat tatparam yat thou the imperishable. primal. sg.). original creator. nonexistent. Dwelling of the Universe. greater even than Brahma! Infinite Lord of Gods. horne. dat.). sg. dat. kasmat (abl. m. abl. 489 .). which is beyond that. brahmalJas (n. they should make reverence. also. world.XI 37 ~'if~. and. sg. (jagat-nivasa. you are the dwelling place of the universe.) tvam (nom. sg. imperishable. adi (m. they should bow.Jnam). . than Brahma. KD cpd. jagat (n.). comparative of guru). the existent. sg..) ananta (m.

inst. all this universe.). original puru~as thou the Primal God. sg. man. the to-be-known. anantarupa (m.).). param (n. --las). You are the knower.). nom. of this. dhiima (n. and. nom.). fi'f<rT ern' fcPJlp'l '1 "d ~q II tvayii tatam visvam anantarupa by thee pervaded all the universe. ca.). 0 Thou of Infinite Form. sg. BY cpd. nom. tvam (nom. participle --Itan). vedyam (n. One of infinite fonns. highest. god. voc. visvam (n.). param (n. nom. 0 Thou of Unending Form. adidevas (m. of all this universe. sg. nom. (m. highest. asya (n. nom. thou art. supreme. All the universe is pervaded by you. sg. prior. and the supreme state. resting place. nom. of all the universe the supreme resting place ~~~:q~:q<n+f vettiisi vedyam ca param ca dhiima the knower thou art. thou. primal god. sg. the ancient Spirit. nom. abode. knower. and. tvaya (m. of it. sg. sg. You are the supreme resting place of all the universe. visvasya (n. god from the beginning. asi (2nd sg.). ancient. that which is to be known. sg. sg. You are the primal God.). o 490 . sg. pro indic.). stretched. ca. vetta (m. state. dwelling place. sg. sg. sg. p.XI 38 ~mfm:~:~ tvam iidideval} puru~al} puriirzas tvam (nom. by thee. supreme. nom.). and the supreme state.). the spirit of ancient times tvam asya visvasya param nidhiinam thou of it. nidhiinam (n nom. gen. sg. gen.).). tatam (n. all. pervaded. 0 Thou of Infinite Form. sg. from ancient times. condition. sg.). thou. gerundive --Ivid) . pass. the object of knowledge. the object of knowledge. treasure house. spirit. sg. puralJ(ls (m. person. nom.

~ lfl1T sflJ': cn;ur: ~: ~" " -,.t,., ~
vayus (m. nom. sg.), Viiyu, the god of the wind. yamas(m. nom. sg.), Yama, the god of death. agnis (m. nom. sg.), Agni, the god of fire. varulJCls (m. nom. sg.), Varul).a, the "sustainer" of the Vedic pantheon, later, and here, god of the waters. sasaiikas (m. nom. sg.), the "rabbitmarked," the moon. prajapatis (m. nom. sg.), Lord of Creatures, Lord of Reproduction. tvam (nom. sg.), thou. prapitamahas (m. nom. sg.), original paternal great grandfather. ca, and. nama namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence! reverence! te (dat. sg.), to thee. astu (3rd sg. imperative act. .Jas), may it be! it shall be! sahasrakrtvas, a thousand times made. punar, again, further. ca, and. bhuyas, again. api, even, also. nama namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence! reverence! te (dat. sg.), to thee.

fJiiyur yamo 'gnir varut}al} sasiinkalJ Viiyu, Yama, Agni, VarUl).a, the rabbitmarked,

prajiipatis tv am prapitiimahas ca Lord of Creatures, thou, original great grandfather,

'111T ~ ~ ~ ~~(i('ti~-q:
namo namas te 'stu sahasrakrtval; reverence! reverence! to thee may it be a thousand times made.
~ ~T sfq-""T~~ II punasca bhuyo 'pi nama namas te And further again also reverence! reverence! to thee.

You are Vayu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, the Moon, The Lord of creatures, and the great grandfather. Salutations to You a thousand times, And again salutations, salutations to You!

t Yama, literally "going," the Vedic god of
the dead, and punisher of departed spirits. t Agni, god of fire. § Varul)a, Vedic" sustainer of the universe," later, and here, god of the waters. II sasiinka, the moon, literally the "rabbit marked," sometimes simply saSin, "that which contains the rabbit," favorite Hindu designation for the moon, because the Hindu's saw a rabbit instead of a " man" in the moon.

• Vayu, the Vedic wind god.


~~?:f ~ namalJ purastdd atha P':~{hatas te reverence from in front and behind to thee


namo 'stu te sarvata eva sarva reverence may it be to thee on all sides also, 0 All.
~'P:ITf+:rafCf~ ~

anantaviryiimitavikramas tv am infinite valor, unmeasured might, thou
~ ~Tf~ (i(iT sf~~: II

sarvam samiipno# tato 'si sarvalJ all thou penetratest, therefore thou art all.

Salutations to You from in front and behind, Salutations to You on all sides also, o All. You are infinite valor and boundless might. You pervade all, therefore You are all.

namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence, bow. parastat (adv.), from in front, from before, from afar. atha, moreover, and. pwhatas (adv.), from behind. te (dat. sg.), to thee. namas (n. nom. sg.), reverence, bow. astu (3rd sg. imperative act. .Jas), may it be! be it! te (dat. sg.), to thee. sarvatas (adv.), on all sides. eva, indeed, also (used as a rhythmic filler). sarva (m. voc. sg.), 0 All. ananta (m.), unending, infinite. vfrya (n.), valor, heroism. amita (m.), unmeasured, boundless. vikramas (m. nom. sg.), might, force. (ananta-vfrya-amita-vikramas, m. nom. sg. KD cpd., infinite, heroic, boundless might.) tvam (nom. sg.), thou. sarvam (m. acc. sg.), all. samapno!ii (2nd sg. pr. indic. act. sam .Jap), thou fulfillest, thou pervadest, thou attainest, thou penetratest. tatas, from there, therefore. asi (2nd sg. pr. indic . .Jas), thou art. sarvas (m. nom. sg.), all.


~a-l1m ~ <:r;: ~
sakha (m. nom. sg.), friend, comrade. iIi, thus (often used to close a quotation). matva (gerund .Jman) , thinking, having thought, imagining. prasabham (adv.), impetuously, importunately. yad (n. nom. sg.), which, what. uktam (acc. p. pass. participle .Jvac) , said, uttered, spoken. he, Oh!, Ho! kr:~fJll (m. voc. sg.), Krishna. he, Oh!, Ho! ytidava (m. voc. sg.), Descendant of Yiidu, epithet of Krishna. he, Oh!, Ho! sakha(m.voc.sg.,sariuihiforsakhe),friend, comrade. iti, thus (often used to close a quotation). ajanata (m. inst. sg. pr. act. participle a .Jjfia), by ignorant, by ignorance. mahimanam (m. acc. sg.), majesty, lordliness, power. tava (gen. sg.), of thee, thy. idam (n. nom. sg.), this. maya (inst. sg.), by me. pramadat (m. abl. sg.), from intoxication, from confusion, from negligence. praIJayena (m. inst. sg.), with love, with affection, with attachment. va, or. api, even, also.

sakheti matva prasabham yad uktam friend thus thinking, impetuously which said,

~~~~~~a-I he kr~IJa he yadava he sakheti "Oh Krishna, Oh Descendant of Yadu, Oh Comrade," thus,

ajiinatii mahimanam tavedam by not knowing the majesty of thee this
+r<IT 5I"lITm!:

m;:r <rrfq II

maya pramadiit praIJayena vapi by me from negligence or with affection even,

Whatever I have said impetuously as if in ordinary friendship, "Oh Krishna, Oh Son ofYadu, Oh Comrade," In ignorance of Your majesty, Through negligence or even through affection,


lR" :qt<l€;OI~tq.,~T sf~ , ,

yac ciivahiisiirtham asatkrto ' si and as if with jesting purpose, disrespectfully treated thou art,
f<l€;01 (t!ll4I~'1 ~~ I

in diversion, in bed, while seated or while dining,
~T ~ ~ (ffill1e:f

eko 'thaviipy acyuta tatsamakfam alone or even, 0 Unshaken One, before the eyes of others
~~~~~II tat kfiimaye tviim aham aprameyam (for) that I ask indulgence (of) thee, I, the immeasurable.

And if, with humorous purpose, You were disrespectfully treated, While at play, resting, while seated or while dining, When alone, 0 Krishna, or even before the eyes of others, For that I ask forgiveness of You, immeasurable One.

yae ea (yad ea), as if, and as if. avahiisa (m.), joking, jesting, in jest, laughing. artham (n. nom. sg.), purpose, aim. (avahiisa-artham, n. nom. sg. TP cpd., purpose of jest.) asatk~tas (m. nom. sg.), disrespectfully treated, badly treated. asi (2nd sg. pro indic . .Jas), thou art. vihiira (m.), diversion, play. sayya (f.), bed. asana (n.), seated, sitting. bhojane~u (n. loco pl.), in dining. (vihiirasayyasanabhojanqu, n. loco pl.), in diversion, in bed, while seated and while dining.) ekas (m. nom. sg.), alone. athava. or. api. even, also. acyuta (m. voc. sg.), 0 Unshaken One (Krishna). tatsamak~am (adv.), before the eyes, before the eyes of others. tad (m. acc. sg.), that, this. k~amaye (1st sg. causative mid . .Jk~am), I ask pardon, I ask indulgence. tvam (acc. sg.), thee, of thee. aham (nom. sg.), 1. aprameyam (m. acc. sg.), the Immeasurable One, the Boundless One.


fqmf~ ~~ "'I '(1"'1 '(flI
pita (m. nom. sg.), father. asi (2nd sg. pr. indic . .Jas), thou art. lokasya (m. gen. sg.), of the world. caracarasya (n. gen. sg.), of the moving and the not moving, of the animate and the inanimate. tvarn (nom. sg.), thou. asya (m. gen. sg.), of it, of this. pujyas (m. nom. sg. gerundive, .Jpuj), to be revered, to be honored. ca, and. gurus (m. nom. sg.), guru, teacher. garfyan (m. nom. sg. compar.), more venerable, heavier. na, not. tvatsarnas (m. nom. sg.), of thee the like, like thee, comparable to thee. asti (3rd sg. pr. indie . .Jas), there is, it is. abhyadhikas (m. nom. sg.), greater, surpassing. kutas, how? anyas (m. nom. sg.), other. lokatraye (m. loco sg.), in the three worlds. api, even, also. apratirnaprabhava (m. vOC. sg. BV cpd.), 0 Incomparable Being, 0 Thou of Incomparable Glory.

pitiisi lokasya cariicarasya father thou art of the world, of the moving and the non-moving
~ 'l;fflI" ~ ~~ irft<1F( I

tvam asya pujyasca gurur gariyiin and thou of it revered guru very venerable
.,~ S@{~er'fi: ~ ~T

na tvatsamo 'sty abhyadhikab kuto 'nyo not of thee the like there is, greater how other?

lokatraye 'py apratimaprabhiiva in the three worlds even, 0 Incomparable Glory!

You are the father of the world, of all things moving and motionless. You are to be adored by this world. You are the most venerable Guru. There is nothing like You in the three worlds. How then could there be another greater, o Being of incomparable glory?


~ >f1lT~ m1Jfenlf


tasmiit prm}amya pra1}idhiiya kiiyam therefore making obeisance, prostrating the body,
WRtl- ~crn-r '1;f~lJ: {~lJ: ~ I prasiidaye tviim aham iSam i<jyam I ask indulgence of thee, I, lord to be praised;

fqacr TiBf m~:
piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyul} father-like of a son friend-like of a friend
fw:r:f~~~~~11 priyal} priyiiyiirhasi deva so<jhum a lover to a beloved, thou canst, 0 God, be merciful.

Therefore, bowing down, prostrating my body, I ask forgiveness of You, 0 Lord; As is a father to a son, a friend to a friend, A lover to a beloved, please, 0 God, be merciful!

tasmat (m. abl. sg.), from this, therefore. praT]{lmya (gerundpra -Jnam), making obeisance, bowing with reverence. pralJidhaya (gerund pra ni -Jdha), prostrating, laying down. kiiyam (m. acc. sg.), body. prasadaye (1st sg. mid. causative pra -Jsad), I ask indulgence, I ask mercy. tvam (acc. sg.), thee, of thee. aham (nom. sg.), I. fsam (m. acc. sg.), lord, prince, ruler. fqyam (m. acc. sg. gerundive -Jfq) , to be praised, to be honored. pita (m. nom. sg.), father. iva, like. putrasya (m. gen. sg.), of a son, to a son. sakha (m. nom. sg.), friend. iva, like. sakhyus (m. gen. sg.), of a friend, to a friend. priyas (m. nom. sg.), dear, a lover. priyaya (m. dat. sg.), to a beloved, to a lover. arhasi (2nd sg. pr. indic. act. -Jarh) , thou art able, thou canst, please do. deva (m. voc. sg.), 0 God. soqhum (infinitive -Jsah), to endure, to tolerate, to be merciful, to have patience.


~~ ~lffiT sf~ ~ adr~tapurvam hr#to ' smi dntva the unseen before delighted I am having seen
ad~~!a (p. pass. participle a .Jd~s), unseen, not seen. purvam (n. acc. sg.), before, previously. (ad~~!apurvam. n. acc. sg., previously unseen, never before seen.) h~~itas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle .Jh~~), excited, delighted. asmi (1st sg. pr. indic . .Jas), I am. d~~!Va (gerund .Jd~s), seeing, having seen. bhayena (n. inst. sg.), with fear. ca, and. prayyathitam (n. nom. p. pass. participle pra .Jvyath), trembling, quaking, shaking, shaken. manas (n. nom. sg.), mind. me (gen. sg.), of me, my. tad (n. acc. sg.), that. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). me (dat. sg.), to me. darSaya (2nd sg. causative imperative), cause to see! cause to behold! show! deva (m. voc. sg.), 0 God. rupam (n. acc. sg.), form, shape. prasida (2nd sg. imperative act. pra .Jsad), have mercy! be merciful! devesa (m. voc. sg.), Lord of Gods. jagannivasa (m. voc. sg.), "universe-abode," abode of the universe, dwelling place of the universe.

m "f 5fO<!f~cf lA"T It I
bhayena ca pravyathitam mano me and with fear trembling the mind of me,
~~lt~~~ tad eva me darsaya deva rupam that to me cause to see, 0 God, the form (originally seen)

Sffi'R ~;;mf?l<mi II
prasida devesa jagannivasa have mercy Lord of Gods, universe abode.

Having seen that which has never been seen before, I am delight~ And yet my mind trembles with fear. Show me that form, 0 God, in which You originally appeared. Have mercy, Lord of Gods, dwelling of the universe.




f'l>{nc.i m~;f :q ~ta ¥1,
kiritinam gadinam cakrahastam wearing a diadem, armed with a club, discus in hand,

~+rm~l{~~~1 icchami tviim dra~tum aham tathiiiva I desire thee to see, I, thus (i.e. as before),




teniiiva riiPe1}a caturbhujena with it with the form four armed

sahasrabiiho bhava visvamiirte o Thousand Armed One, o Embodiment of All.


I desire to see you wearing a crown, Armed with a club, discus in hand, as before; Become that four-armed form, o thousand armed One, 0 You who have all forms.

kirf(inam (m. acc. sg.), wearing a diadem. gadinam (m. acc. sg.). anned with a club. cakrahastam (m. acc. sg.), having a discus in hand, holding a discus. icchami (1st sg. pr. indic. act . .Ji~), I desire, I wish. tviim (acc. sg.), thee. dra~(um (infinitive .Jd~§), to see, to behold. aham (nom. sg.), I. tatha, thus. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler.) tena (n. inst. sg.), with it, with this. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). rupelJa (n. inst. sg.), with the form, with the shape. caturbhujena (n. inst. sg.), with four anns, four-anned. sahasra, a thousand. Mho (m. voc. sg.), anned. (sahasrabiiho, m. voc. sg. BY cpd., 0 Thousand Armed One.) bhava (2nd sg. imperative .Jbhu) , be! become! vi§vamurte (m. voc. sg. BY cpd.), 0 thou Who hast all Forms.



Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke:

sribhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed Lord, the Blessed One. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. "/vac), he said, he spoke.


srnWr ~~ maya prasannena tavarjunedam by me by grace of thee Arjuna this
~~~~~~WPt~1 riipam param darSitam atmayogat form supreme manifested from my own power
~T+r<t f~ ~~Jl'"~ , ,

tejomayam visvam anantam adyam splendor-made, universal, infinite, primal

yan me tvadanyena na dr#apiirvam which of me by other than thee not seen before.

maya (m. inst. sg.), by me. prasannena (m. inst. sg.), by being gracious. lava (gen. sg.), to thee, toward thee. arjuna (m. voc. sg.), Arjuna. idam (n. nom. sg.), this. riipam (n. nom. sg.), form, shape, figure. param (n. nom. sg.), highest, supreme. darsitam (n. nom. sg. p. pass. causative participle .jd~s), manifested, shown. atmayogat (m. abl. sg.), from own power, from own Yoga. tejomayam (n. nom. sg.), made of splendor, made of brilliance. visvam (n. nom. sg.), universal, aU. anantam (n. nom. sg.), unending, infinite. adyam (n. nom. sg.), primal, original, from the beginning. yad (n. nom. sg.), which. me (gen.), of me, my. tvadanyena (m. inst. sg.), by other than thee. na, not. d~:ffapiirvam (n. nom. sg.), seen previously, seen before.

The Blessed Lord spoke: By My grace toward you, Arjuna, this Supreme form has been manifested through My own power, This form of Mine, made up of splendor, universal, infinite, primal, Which has never before been seen by other than you.


rr~e~rr~ na vedayajiiadhyayanair na danair not by Veda sacrifice or recitation; not by gifts,
na, not. veda (m.), Veda. yajfza (m.), sacrifice. adhyayana (n.), study, recitation. (vedayajiUidhyayanais, n. inst. pI. TP cpd., by Vedic sacrifice or Vedic recitation.) na, not. danais (n. inst. pl.), by gifts. na, not. ca, and. kriyabhis (f. inst. pl.), by ritual acts, by ceremonial acts. na, not, nor. tapobhis (n. inst. pl.), by austerities. ugrais (n. inst. pl.), by terrible, by strenuous. evam, thus, such. rupas (m. nom. sg.), form, shape, figure. sakye (rst sg. pr. mid . .Jsak) , I am able, I can. aham, I. m:loke (m. loco sg.), in the world of men, in the world of humans. dralffum (infinitive .Jdrs)' to see, to behold. (sakya aham dralffum, can I be seen.) tvadanyena (m. inst. sg.), by other than thee. kurupravlra (m. voc. sg.), Kuru Hero, Hero of the Kurus.

rr '9 f<A'i<lTf-.n.;: rr ~Tf-.n.;:~:


na ca kriyabhir na tapobhir ugrai/:t and not by ritual acts nor by austerities terrible

evathrupa/:t sakya aham nr loke (in) such a form can I, in the world of men,
~~ \q<";~ij'i~li$l':fR: II

tvadanyena kurupravira be seen by other than thee, Kuru Hero.

Not by Vedic sacrifice nor (Vedic) recitation, not by gifts, And not by ritual acts nor by severe austerities, Can I be seen in such a fonn in the world of men By any other than you, Arjuna.


lIT ~ Olf~T lIT 'if f~
rna (prohibitive), not, never. te (gen. sg.), of thee. vyathiis (2nd aorist subjunctive .Jvyath), thou

ma te vyatha ma ca vlmiirf,habhavo Do not tremble! and not confused state,

shouldst quake, thou shouldst tremble.
rna (prohibitive), not, never.

ca, and.
virnu4habhiivas (m. nom. sg.), confused

dr;tva riipa'm ghoram' idrn mamedam having seen form terrible such of me this
~T: Q""Kl+AT: ~ 0t
vyapetabhi~ pritamana~

state, deluded state of being.
dflffVa (gerund .JdfS), having seen, seeing.

ruparn (n. acc. sg.), form, shape, appearance. ghorarn (n. acc. sg.), terrible, frightful,ven-

erable, sublime.
idrs, such. rn~rna (gen. sg.), of me, my. idarn (n. acc. sg.), this. vyapeta (m. p. pass. participle vi apa .Ji),

punas tv am freed from fear cheered in thought again thou,

gone away, disappeared, freed from.


tad eva me riipam idam prapasya this thus of me the form this behold!

bhis (f. nom. sg.), fear, apprehension, dread. (vyapetabhis, f. nom. sg. BY cpd., being

without fear, whose fear has departed.)
pritarnanas (m. nom. sg. BY cpd.), whose

mind is cheerful, cheered in heart.

Have no fear or confusion On seeing this terrible form of

Be again free from fear and cheered in heart. Behold, My (previous) form!

punar, again, once more. tvarn (nom. sg.), thou. tad (n. acc. sg.), this, that. eva, indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).

(gen. sg.), of me.

ruparn (n. acc. sg.), form, appearance. idarn (n. acc. sg.), this. prapaSya (2nd sg. imperative act. pra .Jpas),

behold! see!



samjaya uviica Samjaya spoke;

smnjaya (m. nom. sg.), Sariljaya, the original narrator who is describing the scene to the blind King Dhrtarii~!ra. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac), he said, he spoke.


~~;:f~~~ ity arjunam viisudevas tathoktvii thus to Arjuna Vasudeva (Krishna) thus having spoken,

svakam rupam darsayiim iisa bhuyal; his own form he revealed again,
~ ;qm "f"l1ffil:!: tfrf

iisviisayiim iisa ca bhilam enam and he calmed frightened one this,
~~; <m+4<1g\ ~ II bhUtvii punal; siiumyavapur mahiitmii having assumed again (his) gentle, wonderful appearance, the Great One.

Sanjaya spoke: Having spoken thus to Arjuna, Krishna Revealed his own (previous) fonn again. Having resumed His gentle, wonderful appearance, He cahned Arjuna, who was terrified.

iti, thus. arjunam (m. acc. sg.), Arjuna, to Arjuna. vasudevas (m. nom. sg.), Son of Vasudeva, epithet of Krishna. tatha, thus. uktva (gerund .Jvac), speaking, having spoken. svakam (n. acc. sg.), own. rupam (n. acc. sg.), form, shape, aspect. darsayam asa (causative periphrastic perfect 3rd sg . .Jd~s +.Jas), he revealed, he caused to be seen. bhuyas, again, once more. asvasayam asa (causative periphrastic perfect a .Jsvas + .Jas), he consoled, he calmed, he caused to take heart, he assuaged. ca, and. bhftam (m. acc. sg.), frightened one. enam (m. acc. sg.), this. bhatva (gerund Jbhu), becoming, having become. punar, again, once more. saumya (n.), gentle, mild, pleasant. vapus (m. nom. sg.), handsome appearance, wonderful appearance. (saumya-vapus, n. acc. sg. KD cpd., gentle, wonderful appearance.) mahatma (m. nom. sg.), the Great Self, the Great One, (as BV cpd.) He Whose Self is Great.


~~ arjuna uvaca Arjuna spoke:
arjunas (m. nom. sg.), Arjuna. uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. Jvac), he said, he spoke.

~~~~ '"

dNtvedam manu~am rupam* seeing this human form



lava saumyam janardana of thee gentle, 0 Agitator of Men,

idanim asmi samvrtta~ now I am composed,
~: 5!Wf~ mr: II

prakrtim gata~ with mind to normal restored.

dr~rva (gerund J drs), seeing, having seen, beholding. idam (n. acc. sg.), this. manu~am (n. acc. sg.), human, manlike. rupam (n. acc. sg.), fonn, aspect. tava (gen. sg.), of thee, thy. saumyam (n. acc. sg.), gentle, mild, pleasant. janardana (m. voc. sg.), Agitator of Men, epithet of Krishna. idanim, now, at this moment. asmi (1st sg. pro indic. Jas), I am. samvr:ttas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle sam JVI:t), fulfilled, composed. sacetas (f. nom. pl.), with thoughts, with mind, with heart. prakr:tim (f. acc. sg.), to nature, to natural state, to nonnal. gatas (m. nom. sg. p. pass. participle J gam), gone, returned, restored.

Arjuna spoke: Seeing Your gentle Human form, 0 Krishna, Now I am composed And my mind is restored to normal.

• Here iloka metre resumes.


srfbhagavan (m. nom. sg.), the Blessed Lord,

Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke:

the Blessed One.
uvaca (3rd sg. perfect act. .Jvac), he said, he


~~~ sudurdarsam idam rupam difficult to see this form
~ m~ l!'f +1+11 , ,
sudurdarsam (n. acc. sg.), hard to discern,

difficult to see.
idam (n. acc. sg.), this. rupam (n. acc. sg.), form, aspect.

dr#aviin asi yan mama beholding thol.l art which of me


devii apy asya rupasya the gods even of this form

f;:w;t ~s;&fur: II
nityam darsanakiink#1}a/:l constantly the sight wishing.

(m. nom. sg. perfect participle :Jd~s), seeing, having beheld, having seen. asi (2nd sg. pr. indic. J as), thou art. (d~lffavan asi, periphrastic formation, thou hast seen.) yad (n. acc. sg.), which. mama (gen. sg.), of me, my. devas (m. nom. pl.), gods. api, even, also. asya (gen. sg.), of it, of this. rupasya (n. gen. sg.) of form, of aspect. nityam (adv.), constantly, eternally. darsana (n.), sight, beholding, seeing, observing. kanklfilJlls (m. nom. pl.), desiring, wishing. (darSana-kanklfifJas, m. nom. pI. TP cpd., wishing for the sight.)


The Blessed Lord spoke: This form of Mine which you have beheld Is difficult to see; Even the gods are constantly longing To behold it.



niiham vediiir na tapasii not I by Veda study, not by austerity,
na, not. aham (nom. sg.), I. vediiis (m. inst. pl.), by the Vedas, by Veda

na, not. tapasii (n. inst. sg.), by austerity, by disci-

na diinena na cejyayii not by gift, and not by sacrifice


na, not, nor. diinena (n. inst. sg.), by gift, by charity. na, nor, not.

sakya evamvidho dra~tum possible in such a way to be seen

dT~taviin asi miim yathii seen thou art me in which way.

Not through study of the Vedas, not through austerity, Not through gifts, and not through sacrifice Can I be seen in this fonn As you have beheld Me.

ca, and. ijyayii (f. inst. sg.), by sacrifice, by ritual. sakye (1st sg. pr. mid. -Jsak) , I am able, I can. eValnvidhas (m. nom. sg.), in such a way. dra~!um (infinitive -Jdrs), to see, to be seen. dr~!aviin (m. nom. sg. p. act. participle Jdrs), having seen, having beheld. asi (2nd sg. pr. indie. -Jas), thou art. (drcr!aviin asi, periphrastic formation, thou hast seen, thou hast beheld.) miim (acc. sg.), me. yatha, as, in which way.


as here sakya draftum. by truth. pravef/um ca paramtapa and to be entered into. aham. not elsewhere directed. jfiiitum (inifinite vjfiii).). and. to know. nom.). voc. into. dra~!um (infinitive Jdrs). I can. by worship. ca. I am able. paramtapa (m. tattvena (n. the auxiliary . sakye (1st sg. Scorcher of the Foe. voc. truly. By undistracted devotion alone Can I be known." sakya jiiiitum. prave~!um (infinitive pra Jvis). And be entered into. in truth. sg. sg. sg.). in truth. to see. inst. Arjuna. m~:q~ <> <> jiiiitum draf/um ca tattvena to be known and to be seen.). bhaktyii (f. ananyayii (f. sg. in such a way. I. indeed. Jsak) . to enter. Scorcher of the Foe. "I can be seen. • Sanskrit has no passive infinitive. tu. and.XI 54 ~~~~ bhaktyii tv ananyayii sakya by devotion alone undistracted. Arjuna. "I can be known. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors. sg. is used. inst. to attain.). inst. To form one. Arjuna. pro mid. to reach. alone. arjuna (m. by love. but. to behold." 506 . ca.). And be truly seen in this fonn. evamvidhas (m. by devotion. possible ~~CI1:1T*1 aham evamvidho 'rjuna I in such a way.jsak. sg.

indic. holding me as highest object. Comes to Me. sg. in all beings. ~: ~ +rT1l ~a ~ II ~ ya/} sa miim eli pii1Jr!ava who. Arjuna. fm:~~ nirviiira/} sarvabhiUe~u free from enmity toward all beings. me. nirvairas (m. p. voc. pr. madbhaktas (m. Ji). on me depending. who. nom. to me.). considers Me as the Supreme. loco pl. abandons all attachment. epithet of Arjuna. nom. attachment abandoned. sangavarjitas (m. free from hostility. depending on me. sg. nom. He who does all work for Me. Son of Pal)Qu. eti (3rd sg. Is devoted to Me.). act. matkarmakr:t (m.).Qu. he goes. attachment abandoned.). to me devoted. sg.). sg.~ matkarmakrn matparamo of me work doing. yas (m. he to me goes. devoted to me. sg. sg. renouncing attachment. sarvabhiite~u (n. nom. relinquished clinging.). nom. pass. participle sanga Jvr:j) . free from enmity. End of Book XI The Yoga of the Vision of Universal Form 507 . sg. sg. matparamas (m. miim (acc. performing my action. he.). ~:~~:I madbhakta/} safigavarjila/} to me devoted. nom.).XI 55 '1(ifl4'!l1. sas (m. worshipping me. sg. And is free from enmity toward any being. Son of Pal).). pafJqava (m. he comes. toward all beings. nom. my work doing.

pass. pass.). unmanifest. pl.). he spoke.Jbhaj). of them.Jvac).Jyuj). yuktas (m. nom. p.).). 1 r.). pl.BOOK XII ~. tvam (acc. Which of these has the better knowledge of yoga? evam. acc. sg. ye (m. having the best knowledge of Yoga. Arjuna. sg. ~t iii lfM<R!11T: II te~iim ke yogavittamii/:l of them which most knowing of Yoga? Arjuna spoke: The constantly steadfast devotees Who worship You with devotion. steadfast. constant. who. and. disciplined. gen. interrog. nom. devoted.ct~mT<t " evam satatayuktii ye thus the constantly steadfast who. pl. ca. pl. participle . paryupasate (3rd pI. pI. even. imperishable. pI.). he said. uvaca (3rd sg. eternal. also. perpetually. pl. most knowing of Yoga. ke (m. participle a vi :jan)). ak~aram (m. And those who worship the eternal unmanifest. pari upa . sg. thee they worship <t ~ ~~ wxre'i ye ciipy ak~aram avyaktam who and also the eternal unmanifest.f"~1 arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. satata (adv.). who.Jas) . api. bhaktas (m. nom. which? which ones? yogavittamas (m. nom. nom. thee. thus.. nom. tqam (m. sg. ye (m. avyaktam (m. participle . perfect act. acc. ~ m~!ffiffi I bhaktiis tviim paryupiisate devoted. 508 .). they honor. . constantly. invisible. p. nom. pass. mid. they worship.). p.

pass. sg../vis). pI. pass. mind./as).. ye (m.).).). pl. . they worship. sg. the Blessed Lord. Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: the Blessed One. in me. sg. nom. Fixing their minds on Me. inst.). p. he spoke. paraya (f. nom. nom. superlative). IrUlnas (n.. they honor. yuktas (m. participle . initiated. thought to be. sg. disciplined. acc. causing to enter. most devoted. most yoked. regarded as. sg.).XII ~~~I sribhagavan (m. a-lt ~ +reT: II te me yuktatama matal} they to me the most devoted thought to be. fixing. ~~ffim:{ lrUlyi (loc. thought. The Blessed Lord spoke: Those who are eternally steadfast.. participle . preme. nom. who worshlpMe./vac).). upetas (m. most disciplined. te (m. with su- sraddhaya parayapetas with faith supreme endowed.)... on me. sraddhaya (f. pI. or adv. nitya (adj. fallen to the share of. perfect act ./yuj). upasate (3rd pI. with highest. yoked. upa. uvaca (3rd sg. delivering. IrUltas (m./i). I consider them to be the most devoted toMe. inst. eternal. pI. who.). Endowed with supreme faith. nom. 2 II un <l ~4 lFfT <tllT mayyavesya mana ye math on me fixing the mind who me f~ffiT~1 nityayukta upiisate those who are eternally steadfast they worship. eternally. per- petually. me. sg. he said. with faith. sg. participle upa . miim (acc. steadfast. yuktatamas (m. pI. nom. me (dat. p. nom./man) .). p. 509 . pl. endowed. to me. avefya (causative gerund a . mid.). pass. they.

The unchanging.).). p.. they worship..Jcint). acalam (m. the eternal. indeed.. incomparable. acc. sg. undefinable. paryupasate (3rd pI. The indefinable. inexplicable. unchanging.Jdis). pl. standing on a mountain peak. acc.). anirdeSyam (m. sg. acc. acc. acintyam (m. sarvatragam (m. acc.).XII 3 ~~J. constant. mid. but.:>'" ~. unseen." omnipresent.). surpassing thought. the immovable.f~~~ ye tv ak~aram anirdesyam who. the imperishable. and. sg. "everywhere going. but. ~~I avyaktam paryupasate ye (m. acc. pari upa . immovable. unchanging. avyaktam (m. who tu. all pervading. sg. unmanifest they honor ~~'i1"q'i'f sarvatragam acintyam ca the all pervading and unthinkable "'~~wn111 -. unmoving. ca. gerund a nir . sg. fixed. But those who honor the imperishable. immovable. pass. the unmanifest. participle a vi :janj). dhruvam (m. inconceivable. constant. acc. unmanifest. sg. The all-pervading and unthinkable.). steady. not to be thought of. nom. sg. ku!astham acalam dhruvam the unchanging.. kurastham (m. imperishable. sg. they honor. unthinkable. acc. undefinable.Jas). ak~aram (m. 510 . gerundive a .

5rr~cn~ l111\ ~ te prapnuvanti mam eva they attain to me also ~~~:II sarvabhutahite ratal. nom. eva. Even-minded on all sides.). But those who worship Him as the atman. they attain. sg. pl. loco sg. pI. even minded. Rejoicing in the welfare of all creatures. They also attain Me. TP cpd. and this point has been discussed by several native commentators. samabuddhayas (f. indifferent. 3 and 4 concerns two aspects of the Lord. nom. also. indriyagramam (m. samniyamya (gerund sam ni . sg. Controlling all the senses. p.t in all creatures welfare rejoicing. also attain to Him.XII 4 m~~ samniyamyendriyagramam controlling the multitude of the senses. devoid of all attributes and formless (stanzas 3 and 4). pr.Jap). sarvatra. exulting. • The substance of stanzas I. act. fixing their minds on Him are considered the most devoted (stanza 2). the multitude of senses.). TP cpd.). ) sarvabhutahite (n.). impartial. disinterested. on all sides. acc.). rejoicing. made content. in the welfare of all beings. to me. Those who worship Him as an imaginary form. the ag8regate of the senses. 511 . everywhere. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler. me. m~:1 sarvatra samabuddhayal. in the welfare of all creatures. they reach. pra . they. pl. pass. controlling. te (m.Jram). 2. or Brahman.t on all sides even minded a. indic. sUbduing. prapnuvanti (3rd pI.Jyam). ratas (m. mam (acc. participle . dispassionate. nom.

(avyaktasaktacetasam. of those whose thoughts are fixed on the Unmanifest. sg. attached.). The trouble of those whose minds Are fixed on the unmanifest is greater. dehavadbhis (m.). pr. adhikataras (m. greater. du17kham (adv. hi.). unmanifest. sg. path. pl.. nom. gen. avyakta (m. 512 . avyaktiisaktacetasiim whose minds are attached to the Unmanifest. gen. of thoughts. unseen. by the embodied. goal. pain. For the goal of the unmanifest is attained With difficulty by embodied beings. nom. m. anguish. minded.). with difficulty. tqam (m. nom. it is reached. it is attained. difficulty goal (with) ~~ wno:ffi II dehavadbhir aviipyate by embodied (beings) it is attained. hard.XII 5 ~Tsfq~~ kleso ' dhikataras te~iim exertion greater of them ~olrffil*l'ffi""d~lI~ I kle§as (m. clinging. gen. surpassing.). pl. BV cpd. indeed. unseen. of minds.). by embodied beings. toil. ins!. nom. asakta (m. cetasam (n. truly. avapyate (3rd sg. exertion. of them. sg. difficult. passive ava Jap). sg. indic.) avyakta (f.).). indeed.anifest. comparative). unmanifest.). ~ f~ trfCf\ ~:@ avyaktii hi gatir dul}kham the unrr. pI. gatis (f. pl.

sg. eva. abandoning. Brahman (in stanza 5). nom. '1>I"1~44"llf~ ananyenaiva yogena with undistracted Yoga +rt~~11 mam dhyayanta upasate me meditating on. with Yoga. meditating on. mayi (loc. pro act. miim (acc. yogena (m. karmii. deeds. sg. all actions mlf~~:1 mayi samnyasya matpara/.XII 6 ~ ~ ucmur 'filITfur ye (m. pl.). who. participle :. intent on me as highest. • Again. sg.). sarva. upiisate (3rd pI. The former method is described as the more difficult. pI. in me. actions.li karma1. sa/nnyasya (gerund sam ni . on me.). by Yoga. acc. holding me as highest object. pl. meditating on Me With Wldistracted yoga. dhyayantas (m. they worship. mid. pl. inst.J2 as). undistracted. or self. they worship: But those who.Jas). thinking of.!i (n. they honor.!i (n. pl. sg.). and the two corresponding methods of worship are discussed. in me renouncing. or. renoWlcing all actions In Me.). 513 . Those who worship the Lord as the iitman. all. upa . laying down. inst. with not going elsewhere. the two aspects of the Lord. acc.).). Worship Me. renouncing. ye tu sarva1. nom. ananyena (m. but. me. nom.li who. indeed. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). and those who worship the imaginary image on which the mind is "fixed" or " intent" (in stanzas 6 and 7). and regarding Me as the Supreme. but.Jdhyii). tu.). matparas (m. in a larger sense. intent on me as highest.

m.Jvis).. .. mayi (loc. entered..). 7 aham samuddhartii of them I the deliverer te~iim '" . I am soon the deliverer From the ocean Of death and transmigration. of those whose thoughts have entered. ptirtha (m. transmigration.Jbhu). presently.XII ~ .).).) Of those whose thoughts have entered into Me. pI. 514 .. before long. cetastim (n. ~la'<ld(11111 mayyiiveSitacetasiim. reincarnation . gen. pl. of them. "<1crrfl1 . soon. in thoughts. of thoughts. aham (nom. deliverer. gen. BY cpd. m~tyu (m. from the ocean of death and reincarnation. bhaviimi naciriit piirtha I am. gen.). epithet of Arjuna. act. mrtyusamsiirasiigariit from the death-transmigration-ocean. death. Arjuna. Son of Prtha. I am.). voc. in me. pl. sg. sg. nacirtit (adv. Son of Prtha. sg.f~ qr~ 1l. sg. of those whose consciousness has entered.~~ . (m~tyusamstirastigartit. indic. I. nom.). extricator. abl. from the ocean. lifter up. samuddhartti (m.). before long. sg ). abiding in. abl. whose thoughts have entered into me.'Hi(11 «(tI"l (Ia I . (tivesitacetastim. tiveSita (causative participle ti .). TP cpd. stigartit (m. tqtim (m. samstira (m. pr.).) bhavtimi (1st sg. sg. n.

sg. samsayas (m. sg. doubt. mayi (loc. ii . understanding. future act. keep! place! mayi (loc. Keep your mind on Me alone. nom. on me. on me. na. imperative ni . 515 . not doubt (of this).Jvis). mayi (loc. adhatsva (2nd sg. sg. question. not. in me.proach! nivasiryasi (2nd sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).Jdhii). Your intellect on Me.).).).). henceforth. causative act.XII 8 lW{~ll'{~ mayy eva mana iidhatsva on me alone the mind keep. sg. acc. thought. sg. in me. thou shalt dwell. Thus you shall dwell in Me hereafter. eva. cause to enter! cause to ap. eva. f~~~~ +nli qf~ f~ I nivas#yasi mayyeva thou shalt dwell in me ~~<f"~:11 ata urdhvam na samsayal. manas (n. ni Jvas). alone. mind. mayi'" buddhim niveSaya into me the intelligence cause to enter. in me. acc. There is no doubt of this. imperative mid. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler).).). ata urdhvam (adv. thenceforward. thou shalt abide. sg. intelligence. thence-forward.. niveSaya (2nd sg. buddhim (f.).

concentration. practice. thought.). 516 . iccha (2nd sg. Conqueror of Wealth. mayi (loc. sg. by the practice of Yoga. samiidhatum (infinitive sam a .) tatas.ffi ~<m! atha. Arjuna. epithet of Arjuna. imperative. act . to keep. to reach. thou art able. or if.Jap). in me. (abhyasayogena. steadily. on me. me. ffif) abhyiisayogena tato by Yoga practice. dhanamjaya (m. sg. by Yoga practice. inst.Jdha) . to place.). Or if you are not able To keep your mind steadily on Me. then.Jsak). steadily. atha cittam samiidhiitum or if thought to keep . indic. llTll:~~11 miim icchiiptum dhanamjaya me seek to attain. by Yoga. pr..). continued effort. sg. yogena (m. acc.). voc. then. sg. fixedly. sg.). sakno~i (2nd sg.Ji~). TP. ~~'til". Conqueror of Wealth.).). seek! wish! aptum (infinitive . sg.. not. thou canst. sthiram (adv. act.~1!fl1flff~ I na sakno# mayi sthiram not thou art able on me. m. cittam (n. . inst. from there. abhyasa (m.XII 9 ~~ f:. . Then seek to attain Me By the constant practice of yoga. to attain. na. mam (acc.

also.). sg. work of me. pr. "Jas). intent on. perfection. (matkarma-paramas. holding as highest object. pl. thou shalt reach. 517 . unable. nom. ~~~I matkarmaparamo bhava my work intent-on be.'filhfur madartham api karmii1Ji for my sake even. sg. even. lR~ mq. kurvan (m. siddhim (f.Jap) . Be intent on My work. actions ~fm~~~11 kurvan siddhim aViipsyasi performing. performing. api. sg. in continued effort. asi (2nd sg.). my work. be! madartham (m. in practice.). You shall attain perfection.).XII 10 ~ SQ( ~'~pp-T1 sf~ abhyiise 'pyasamartho 'si (if) in practice even incapable thou art. sg. pr. ava .Jbhu). perfection thou shalt attain.Jk~). m. acc. nom.) bhava (2nd sg. api.). acc. for the sake of me.). success. loco sg. incapable. TP cpd.. nom. nom. sg. acc. for my sake. even. thou art. karmafJi (n. matkarma (n. making. indic. actions. imperative act . also. Even perfonning actions for My sake. sg. . thou shalt attain. avapsyasi (2nd sg. participle act.). intent on my work. paramas (m. If you are incapable even of practice. future act. asamarthas (n. abhyase (m. doing. .

imperative act. sarvakarmaphala (n. acc. . pr.jas). abandoning all fruits of action. my power resorting to.).jkr:) . self-restrained. abandonment. sg. Then. relinquishing. abandoning. api.jsak). sg. thou art. p. (sarva-karma-phala-tyiigam. incapable. depending on.jsri).jkl:). kuru (2nd sg. my Yoga. 518 . p. all fruit of action. adhering to. Act with self-restraint.XII 11 ~~~~Tsf~ athaitad apy asakto 'si or if this even unable thou art ~ '" . etad (n. pass. all action fruit. ffif: ~ II (11\"1 ell "t II tatal} kuru yatiitmaviin then act. acc.) with controlled self. this. nom. pass. TP cpd. asi (2nd sg. asaktas (m. indic . act! do! perform! yatiitmaviin (m.jtyaj). self-restrained. mf~: I kartum madyogam iiSrital} to do. sg. unable. from there. acc. to make. to do. kartum (infinitive . iisritas (nom. atha. sg. or if. nom. even. participle a .) tatas. sg. But if you are unable even to do this.. sg. resorting to devotion to Me. lrorn:r ~cjCfi4'fl<i5'lll·i sarvakarmaphalatyagam all action fruit abandoning. resting on. then. madyogam (m. with self restraint. acc. And abandoning all the fruits of action. tyiigam (m. sg. from .). my power.). thereupon. participle ii . m. . also. to perform. of-me-Yoga. resorting to.

tyiigiit (m. Knowledge is indeed better than practice. sg. Renunciation of the fruit of action is better than meditation. karmaphalatyiigas (m. knowledge. nom. . abandon- ment of the fruit of action. hi. better. from meditation. elfA'Rf CflIi'fi0\1I1.). it is superior. more fortunate. abi. abi. meditation.).XII 12 ~Tf~~~ sreyo hijiiiinam abhyiisiij sreyas (n. nom. peace. jiiiiniit (n.). action-fruit abandonment. sg.). soon. sg. than dhyiiniit karmaphalatYiigas than meditation.). 519 . immediately. it is pre- ferred. from abandonment. sg. jiiiinam (n. passive vi .). sg. nom. visillyate (3rd sg. anantaram (adv.m:1)!'1kWl. .). siintis (f. abi. sg.1~ . from practice. Peace immediately follows renunciation. from knowledge. abi. Meditation is superior to knowledge. meditation. tranquility. sg. knowledge. sg. dhyiinam (n. indeed. truly. peace immediately. sg. nom. ~~fqf~1 practice.). nom. abhyiisiit (m. more valuable. meditation is superior. tyiigiic chiintir anantaram from abandonment. dhyiiniit (n. ~wf.). II . than better indeed knowledge than practice. than jiiiiniid dhyiinam viSi~yate than knowledge.).Jsill).

gen. samadulJkhasukhas (m. non-hater. He who hates no being. nom. sg. sg.). nom. and. sarvabhiitaniim (n.). nom. compassionate. nom. of all creatures. nirahamkiiras (m. ~:~:~rll (m. patient. free from egotism. ~:~ur~:ql miiitral. enduring. sg. of all beings." free from attachment to possessions.). k~ami indifferent to pain and pleasure. eva.). ca. nom.). 520 . karu1}a eva ca friendly and compassionate. Free from attachment to possessions.). free from "I" making. karulJas (m. maitras (m. a friend. free from egotism.khasukhal." free from" I" making. indifferent to pain and pleasure. k~amf (m. friendly. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). patient. sg. Friendly and compassionate.). sg. sg. nom. nirmamas (m.). samadul. sg. Indifferent to pain and pleasure. pl. the same in pain and pleasure. free from "mine. f~Tf~~: nirmamo nirahamkiirah free from" mine. patient.XII 13 ~~ adve~tii adve~!a sarvabhUtiiniim a non-hater of all beings.

Jr:). nom. participle sam '. pass. sg. nom. <rn"KlIT ¢~: I saintu~(as (m. under- standing. nom. sg. being of firm resolve.). dear. beloved. sg. Who is self-controlled. thought. nom. sg.XII 14 ~: mffi <tNT samtUftal. of controlled self and firm resolve.). Whose mind and intellect are yas (m. being of fixed resolve. of controlled yattitmti drrfhaniicayal. sg. to me. manas (n. always. me (gen. who. madbhaktas (m. sas (m. arpita (causative participle . whose mind and intelligence are fixed. perpet- ually. buddhis (f. nom. sg. in me. nom.). mayi (loc.).). en- trusted. <t)~:~lrfW1: II self. l1V{m~f~ mayy arpitamanobuddhir on me. he. 521 . contented. the yogin.). he to me dear.). devoted to me. with mind and intelligence fixed. nom. sg. And who is devoted to Me. dr:4haniscayas (m. f. The yogin who is always contented and balanced in mind. sg.). and whose conviction is firm. yatiitmii (m.) yo madbhaktal. fixed. of me. on me. BY cpd. priyas (m. (arpitamanobuddhis. nom. is dear to Me. mind.). constantly. p.). fixed on Me. sg. sg.Jtufi). sg. KD cpd. sg. of me devoted. satatam (adv. intelligence. nom.). yogi (m. delighted. satatam yogi contented always. sa me priyal. yogin. of subdued self. satisfied. nom.). who of me devoted.

not. lokat (m. priyas (m. udvijate (3rd sg.). distress. He from whom the world does not shrink. pleasure. intolerant.). who.).). nom.. abl. ~'1<r~ lzar~iimar~ablzayodvegiiir from joy. pl. lokas (m. distress.Tfu~ ~T<r. to me. sg. who. Who is freed from joy. instr. (har~iimar~abhayodvegiiis. sg. beloved. and. he also to me dear. fear. sg. impatience. he trembles. of me. pI. indic. p.). inst. and distress.).). And who does not shrink from the world. 522 . fear. So is the karmayogin (practitioner of the Yoga of action) who does nothing to vex the world. the world. abl. fear and distress. If'ffiT 11: ~ :q it fw:r: II :nukto yal. mid. released who. yas (m.T yasmiit (m. karmayoga (the Yoga of action). sg. bhaya (n. not.). ud . mid. envy. ca. nom. indignation. m. it shrinks. nom. and. through . it shudders. he shudders. who. iimar~a (m. sg. pr. fear. practices bhaktiyoga (the Yoga of devotion or love) is beloved of God. sg. impatience. yas (m. trembling. na. ud . who is not vexed by the world because he is not interested in it and who therefore is not joyous. pass. sg. anxiety. from whom. by pleasure. sg. also. happiness. impatience.)." . me (gen.). freed. nom.:ftf~:q 11: I [okiin nodvtJate ca yal. sg. he. he shrinks.. ~~. Is dear to Me.. world. dear. yasmiin nodvzJate [oko from whom not it shrinks.. har~a (m. fearful and irascible. udvijate (3rd sg. pro indic../vij). sas (m. released. I< "A devotee who.. ca. from the world. participle "/muc). nom. nom. it trembles.). udvegais (m. liberated.).) muktas (m. joy.XII 15 ~ . sa ca me priyal./vij). na. and from the world not he shrinks.Ramanuja.

disinterested.). able. pure. sg. priyas (m. nom.). sarva. parityiigl (m. nom. l:f)~:~i'tf'Sl"ll": II yo madbhaktal.).). madbhaktas (m. nom. beginning. sg. sg.). he. sg. udiislnas (m. bright.XII 16 rn-~:m~~~ '" . commencement. pure. sg. nom. nom. who has abandoned all undertakings. free from anxiety.rr~:1 udasino gatavyathal." unprejudiced. relinquishing. capable. devoted to me. anapekfal. dak~as (m.). disinterested.) yas (m. holy. who. (as BY cpd. "sitting apart. sg.) whose anxiety is gone. indifferent. sg. of me. pure.). sucir dakfa (m. nom.). sg. 523 . gatavyathas (m. to me devoted. (sarviirambhaparityiigl. sucis (m. Who has abandoned all undertakings And is devoted to Me. sg. from . is dear to Me. capable. all. free from anxiety. impartial.Jtyaj). sg. sas (m. he to me dear. nom. undertaking. nom. nom. ~r. sg. capable. nom. free from trembling. free from anxiety. sa me priyal. anapek~as indifferent. Disinterested.. dextrous. beloved.).). me (gen. nom. He who is free from wants. to me.). sg. dear. m. iirambha (m. TP cpd. abandoning. ~wnlTr sarvarambhaparityagi all undertakings abandoning. who. indifferent.

(§ubha-a§ubha-parityiigl. priyas (m. . nom.:r~M(f. he sorrows. he.). of me.. indic. he lusts after. act .C yo na hr~yati na dve~ti who not he rejoices. .). relinquishing.). is dear to Me. devoted. . na socati na kafik~ati not he mourns. pr. sg. ~w:rT'fr '" .:r [fl. abandoning. nom. indic. renouncing. dvq(i (3rd sg. na.Jhr~). me (gen. hr~ati (3rd sg. indic . nom.Jkiiiik~). who. full of devotion. pr. sa me priyaJ. he loathes. nom. sas (m. na. sg. not. sg. And is full of devotion. not.).) bhaktimiin (m. Nor grieves nor desires. nom. m~li:~lffW1: II bhaktiman yaJ. §ubha§ubha (n. . filled with devotion. pr. kiiiik~ati (3rd sg. m. sg. pr.<> subhasubhaparityagi agreeable and disagreeable abandoning.). indic .). sg.J§uc). sg. act. to me. he rejoices.Jdvi~). full of devotion. parityiigl (m. 524 . sg. not. na. agreeable and disagreeable. not he desires. he hates.XII 17 liT. beloved. He who neither rejoices nor hates. TP cpd. sg. nom. he to me dear. who. yas (m. §ocati (3rd sg. he mourns.:r ~(f .). pleasant and unpleasant. not he hates. . who. not. he is happy.:r ~~(f I yas (m. nom.). na. abandoning the agreeable and the disagreeable. he desires. dear. Has renounced good and evil.

dufJkhqu (n. ~: ~crqf. pleasure and pain. misery. thus.). in honor and disgrace. nom. pain. alike.:rqr+iI'1IQ+iI'111T: I tathii miiniipamanayol:z the same in honor and disgrace.). and. sg. in this way. sukha (n. in cold. p. and. mitre (m.. m. the same. tatha. freed from attachment. unchanged. nom.). in good name and bad. indifferent. nom. ca. attachment freed from. (sanga-vivarjitas. vivarjitas (m. heat. (Sfto!!fJasukhadufJkhe!!u.. 525 . clinging. . attachment. The same in honor and disgrace. the same. n. Freed from attachment. freed from. U!!fJa (m. sg. n. ~fRr~~:~ sito~1}asukhadul:zkhe~u in cold and heat.). heat. loco sg. in friend. the same. loco pl. participle vi .rn: II samal:z saiigavivarjital:z alike..) Alike toward enemy and friend. in enemy. satrau (m. sanga (m. pleasure. samal:z satriiu ca mitre ca alike toward enemy and toward friend. pleasure and pain. toward enemy. Alike in cold and heat. sg.). loco dual). loco pI.). sg. nom. cold. pleasure and pain. alike. loco sg.). TP cpd.) samas (m.Jv~j).XII 18 ~:~T~f+0f~ samas (m. mtinapamanayos (m. ca. pass.). toward friend. twisted. happiness. sfta (n.).

KD cpd. nom. with anything whatever). 526 . KDcpd. sg. censure. sg. this man is dear to tulya. participle sam ~tUI!). taciturn. taciturn. with anything. Full of devotion. content. priyas (m. satisfied. m~~ltf~)~:11 bhaktimiin me priyo nara/:t full of devotion to me dear (this) man. p.). dear. sg. sg. stutis (f. mind. (tulya-ninda-stutis. kenacid. f. matis (f. sthira (adj. nom. nom. sg. blame.). alike in blame or praise. with what. comparable.XII 19 ~~~lfAT tulyant"ndiistutt"r miiuni similar in blame or praise. inst.. finn. me (gen. sg.) bhaktiman (m. beloved. sg. nom. steady-minded. sa/htu~ras (m. silent.' steady minded. without a house. full of devotion. nom.).). nom. homeless. sg.) mtiunl (m. f. nom. nindii (f. Homeless.). similar.). Me. aniketas (m.). m~:f~~~ aniketa/:t sthiramatir homeless. of me. sg. nom. (yena kenacid. ~)~W:qq:1 samtu~to yena kenacit content with anything whatever. yena (m. silent. Indifferent to blame or praise. sg.). steady. nom. devoted. sg.)..). steady minded. naras (m. sense. praise. Content with anything whatever.). sg. (sthira-matis. man. pass. judgement. to me. nom.

uktam (n. pl.). who. dear. devoted. (dharmyiimt:tam. of me. surpassingly. acc. exceedingly. priyiis (m. matparamiis (m. holding me as highest object. acc. sraddadhiiniis (m. me (gen.. propounded. ~ ii't m"r<! it fw:rr: II bhaktiis te 'tiva me priya/:t devoted. yathii.).).") idam (n. nom. Those who honor this immortal law described above. they.).). but.)." Either translation may be correct. indic. nom. me as Supreme intent on. dharmya (n.). as. pl. previously. above. beloved. nom. te (m.). has been translated both "nectar of duty" and "immortal law. pl. amt:tam (n. acc. bhaktiis (m. they exceedingly to me dear. nom. pari upa . indeed. duty. ye (m." . mid. Devoted and intent on Me as the Supreme. said. The confusion arises because" amrta " means both "nectar" and" immortality. to me. pass. pl. sg. sg. righteousness. this.). p. ~RT~ sraddadhana matparama faith holding.Jvac). declared. sg. they honor. in which way.).:rtlf41'ld'l ~ ~ who indeed wisdom nectar this lNT~ ll'fmri't I yathoktam paryupasate above declared. wisdom. pl. sg. at/va (adv. paryupiisate (3rd pI. End of Book XII The Yoga of Devotion • Some translators have rendered dharmyamrtam idam as "this means of attaining immortality. immortality. 527 . nectar. nom. Endowed with faith. giving faith. intent on me as supreme object. they worship..). tu. participle . pr. faith holding.Jiis). acc.' ye tu dharmyamrtam idam ~. They are exceedingly dear to Me. sg. nom.XII 20 . pl. virtue. they honor. n.

man. purufjam (m. sg. . I wish to know about these. acc. voc.). ~~+J:~'91 k~etram k~etrajiiam prakl:tim (f. • This first unnumbered stanza does not occur in all versions. sg. uvaca (3rd sg.Jifj). kdava (m. spirit. field knower. icchami (rst sg.. ~a'T'-q'~ prakrtim puru~am ciiiva material nature and spirit.). kfjetram (n. eva. act. to know. and. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). One. sg. sg.).). Knowledge and the knower of knowledge. eva. jiieyam (n. 0 Handsome Haired jiiiinam jiieyam ca kesava knowledge and the to-he-known. knower of the field. material nature. and. 0 Handsome Haired One. sg. acc. field. Arjuna said: Prakriti and Purusha. sg. etad (n. The field and the knower of the field. perfect act. sg. person. I desire. this.). jiianam (n.). gerundive :/jiia). he arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: spoke. nom. and. acc. 528 . ca. Krishna.Jvid). ca.). . It may have been deleted in order to make the total number of verses an even seven hundred. Aljuna.Jvac). kfjetrajiiam (m. the to- ~~~~rf11 etad vtditum icchiimi this to know I wish ~rr.:hl<l' '9 ~ II be-known. acc. eva ca the field and the field knower. knowledge wisdom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).~I arjunas (m. sg. acc. acc.BOOK XIII ~. acc. the object of knowledge. I wish. sg. veditum (infinitive . epithet of Krishna. he said. ca.

kiiunteya (m.). this. sg. tam (m. • "Sages who possess exact knowledge of the body call it the experiencing-atman's field of experience. The Blessed Lord spoke: This body.). is called a k~etrajiia (knower of the field) by these sages. 1 ~m:P''fim idam sariram kiiunteya this body. 0 Son of Kunt!. nom.>rIg: etad yo vetti tam priihul. sg. priihus (3rd pI. sg. 529 . he spoke.). field. perf." . thus. it. pra J ah with present meaning). this. it is explained. Son of Kunt!. the knowers of this. A person who knows this body and. ~~ ~ m'1erl<ffi I kfetram ity abhidhiyate the field. pro indie.). this. ~ <Tr ~fD a. Jvid). knowing the field. body. they call. he knows.Ramanuja. pr. nom. frame. thus the knowers of that. him they declare ~~f(T(T[~: II kfetrajiia iti tadvidal. they declare. pl.). voc. bodily. k!fetrajiias (m. nom. Is said to be the field. tadvidas (m. passive abhi J dhii).). sg. thus. sg. vetti (3rd sg. thus it is explained. who. sg. idam (n. field knower. etad (n. k!fetram (n. knower of the field. the Blessed Lord.). Arjuna. indic. Jvac). it is called. he said. He who knows this is called the knower of the field By those who are wise in such things. him. nom.). nom. this who knows. they say. iti. perfect act. act. iti. sarfram (n. sg. act.). acc. epithet of Arjuna. sg. yas (m. because of this very knowledge.XIII ~~~I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. nom.). the Blessed One. nom. must be different from his body which is the object of his knowledge. the knowers of that. acc. uviica (3rd sg. the field knower. sg. abhidhfyate (3rd sg.

Jvid). bhdrata (m.m lqetrak~etrajiiayor sarvak~etreFU '" jiiiinam of the field and the field knower. jndnam (n. sg.ffiq-m fqf4: lqetrajiiam ciipi miim viddhi and the field knower also me. know! learn! sarvaktietretiu (n. also. knowledge. Knowledge of the field and of the knower of the field. acc.). sg. api. me. knowledge. sg. tad (n. epithet of Arjuna. considered. acc. pl. thought. sg.). voc.Jman). matam (m. ca. Descendant of Bharata. field knower. knower of the field. viddhi (2nd sg. participle . sg. imperative act. in all fields. ktietraktietrajnayor (m.). know! ~~~q-~I bhiirata in all fields. dual). p. Arjuna. sg. That is considered by Me to be true knowledge. jndnam (n. sg.XIII 2 m :. which.).). ktietrajnam (m. and. this. by me. miim (acc. yad (n. the knowledge ~~ m +ffi +P:[ II yat taj jiiiinam matam mama which that (true) knowledge considered byrne. even. 530 . Descendant of Bharata w. of me.).).r~R. sg. acc.). nom. gen. acc. mama (gen. sg. loc. deemed. Know also that I am the knower of the field In all fields. . of the field and the knower of the field. nom. pass. that.).

). "- yadvikiiri yatasca yat what (its) modifications. what. ea. And who he (the knower of the field) is. yas (m. field. nom. of me hear! This field. and what are his powers. nom. of me. me (gen. nom.). nom. yad (n. what like. and. whence which (i. hear! learn! 531 .). yad (n. what.).XIII 3 mr~lR"f~"f tat ~etram yac ca yiidrk ca this field what (it is) and what kind lffe. power. which. and. ea. what kind. which. sg. What its modifications are and whence they come. yiid~s. from where. vikiiri (n. samiisena (adv.). . the modifications). ea. yatas. nom.). and. this.). prabhiivas (m. of what nature.). nom. tad (n.). nom. ea. briefly. yad (n. in brief. S~1JU (2nd sg. nom. ace. sg. hear from Me: tad (n. sg.CfiTf~ ~ ~ I " " c. briefly. what. sg. nom. sg. That. having modifications. whence. liability to change. and.). who. from me. this. sg. and of what kind.Jsru) . sg. sg. what. and what (his) powers tat samiisena me sr~u that. nom. sg. transformations.). ea. that. imperative act. sas (m.). that. in brief. ~ "f~) <mr+I~ sa ca yo yatprabhiivasca and he who. which.). he. with briefness. might. yad (n. and. sg. sg. sg.e. what it is. k~etram (n. which.

ins!.). chanted. pl. by the seers. provided with reasons. ~~~?fq~m br ahmasutr apadaiscaiva and with Brahman aphroisms. participle -Jgai). with Brahman aphorisms. Sages have sung of it in many ways. hetumadbhis (m. written. with Vedic hymns. pass.). ins!. with undeniable. separately. distinctly. and definite. and.. ca.). gUam (m." ~l1f~ fcrf'ff~a-: II hetumadbhir viniscitai& f~bhis (m. ins!. vividhiiis (n.). with sacred hymns. many times. distinctly. pl. orgen lfm r#bhir bahudha gitam by the seers many times chanted ~Tfm fcrfCfo1: q~ I . p.).D. 532 . with unquestionable. ins!. with lines sacred to the Brahmans. of many kinds. distinctly. bahudhii.ln. provided with reasons. pfthak (adv. acc. pI. ins!.) probably did not exist at the time the Gita was. viniscitais (m. with definite. eva. pl. Full of reasoning.ln. and that the meaning of "brahma siitra padais" here is probably therefore more general. pl. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). brahmasutrapadais (n. ins!. And with quotations concerning Brahman. G' chandobhir vividhai& prthak with sacred (Vedic) hymns vanous. chandobhis (n. TP cpd.). in many ways.).XIII 4 ~fqf+n. sg.a's Brahma Sutra (zoo A. In various sacred (Vedic) hymns. sung. pl. singly. <I< Edgerton has pointed out that Badarayal). various. with full reasons.

viz. nom. buddhir avyaktam eva ca the intelligence and the unmanifest. sg. i. fields perceptible to the senses. foot. water and earth. sg. intelligence.).) ca. and. nom. nose and the five organs of action. panca cendriyagocariil} and the five fields of action of the senses.). ten and one. pl. t Eye. eleven. " I. sg. ~~~fq-u:11 mahiibhiitiini (n. skin. The senses. one. 533 . unmanifest. Intellect and the unmanifest. the consciourness of " I. fields of action of the senses. hand. color. as are the gw:zas. dasa. senses. nom.). great elements. pl. sensations. buddhis (f. t The mind. ekam (n. nom. avyaktam (n. fire.e. nom. consciousness of "I. paiica. ca. indriyiifJi (n.XIII 5 ~$U mahiibhiltiiny ahamkiiro the great elements. ~~Uf ~~jof. N. eva. § Sound. tongue. ace. anus. ten and one.).e. ether.). ca." consciousness of self. gross elements. and. and.)..). ten. touch. five.B. genital organ. These are all Samkhya concepts. (dasiiikam. air. ahainkiiras (m. 'i:f indriyiiIJi dasiiikam ca the senses ten and one. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler) . taste and smell. TP cpd. nom. egoism. The great elements. pI. indriyogocariis (m. nom. sg. And the five objects of the senses. ear.n~<:~~'i:fl '" . mouth." .

hatred. . k~etram etat kfetram samiisena this the field. briefly. nom. • The physical body. nom. the body. described. sg. ~et-. nom. udiihr:tam (n. described. sg. sg. mind. nom. etad (n. Desire. with capacity for change. dhr:tis (f. nom. wish. explained.).). pleasure. pain. organism. sg. field. aversion.q~'11 icchit (f.). sukham (n. nom. sg. sg. organic whole.). intelli- gence. duilkham (n. desire. steadfastness. comfort. announced. aversion. sg. misfor- m<r: I samghiitaScetanii dhrtilJ the organic whole.). steadfastness this briefly is described as the field with its modifications.).XIII 6 ~ [q-: wet ~:~ icchii dvefalJ sukham dulJkham desire. with transformations. pleasure.t~ tune. inclination. sg.). 534 . illustrated. dve~as (m.). misery. sg. samghiitas (m. nom. intelligence. aggre- gation. hatred. acc. samasena (m.). courage. (n. 4€j1~4. nom. nom. pain. consciousness. inst. whole. savikiiram udiihrtam with modifications.). firmness. with modifications. pass. participle ud it . cetanii (f.). nom. p. dis- like. steadfastness. savikiiram (n. sg. multitude. this. sg. pleasure. consciousness. in brief. briefly m~'3~I~~'l II .Jhr:). sg. pain.

nom. freedom from hypocrisy.). rectitude. nom. sg. sitting beside a teacher. saucam (n. freedom from hypocnsy.). sg. nom.XIII 7 wnf~~~ amiinitvam adambhitvam absence of pride. non-violence.t stability. virtue. attendance on a teacher.).:f~W amanitvam (n. self restraint. ~f~mf~~1 ahithsii k~iintir iirjavam non-violence. purity. absence of arrogance. nom. firmness. acaryopasanam (n. sg. sg. patience. freedom from hypocrisy. integrity. honesty. harmlessness. nom. f~~~~:11 sthiiiryam iitmavinigraha/. Constancy. sthairyam (n. atmavinigrahas (m.). absence of pride. patience.).). nom. Absence of pride. self-restraint.). nom. stability. absence of deceit.). sg.). 535 . self restraint. sg. Service of the teacher. sg. klfantis (f. rectitude. iiciiryopiisanam siiucam teacher attendance upon. sg. fortitude. ahimsa (f. purity. rectitude. patience. arjavam (n. purity. nom. sg. nom. Non-violence. self control. adambhitvam (n. ~1CfT'U. constancy.

birth.~'fiT"{ ~ "'f I anahamkiira eva ca and absence of egotism. disease. unhappiness.). sg.).XIII 8 ~~q~~ indriyiirtheFu viiiriigyam toward the objects of the senses. and.). keeping in view.).). toward the objects of sense.)." eva. nom. vyiidhi (m. nom.). TP cpd. anudarSanam (n. aversion. n. sg. disease. janmamrtyujariivyiidhibirth-death-old age-diseaseG:~"M"R~ II . janma (n. death. nam. ailment. 536 . dul]kha (n. mr:tyu (m. anahmnkiiras (m. nom. wrong. nom. "not I making. absence of egotism. aversion. sg. viiiriigyam (n.). hatred. sg. keeping in view the evils of birth. old age. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). loco pl. in the objects of sense. death. (janmamr:tyujariivyiidhidul]khado~iinudarsa­ indriyiirthe~u du&khadoFiinudarsanam pain-evil keeping in view.). Keeping in view the evils of birth. And absence of egotism. ~. misery.) Indifference to the objects of sense. keeping in mind. and pain. do~a (m. jarii (f. (m. disease and pain. ca. evil. decrepitude. plain. becoming old. sickness. death." lit..3 '" . old age. Old age.). absense of the sense of "I..

perpetual. (i!!(iini!!topapatti!!u. home. diira (m. 537 . ca. anabhi!!vangas (m. nom. constant.) nityam (adv. TP cpd. loco pI. absence of clinging ~¢'~~I putrad<iragrh<idi~u asaktis (f. g~ha (m. samacittatvam (n. undesired. wife. in happenings. as adv. in events.). Non-attachment. et cetera. i!!(a (p.).). toward desired and undesired events. absence of clinging. nityam ca samacittatvam and constantly even mindedness ~. and so on.). steadiness of thought. sg. And constant even-mindedness Toward desired and undesired events.).XIII 9 mffi\wrf~ asaktir anabhi~vaiiga non-attachment. wife.). KD cpd. to son. absence of clinging To son.:psc)q-qf~ II #t<ini~topapatti~ toward desired and undesired events. loco pI. non-attachment. to son. home. desired. wife. house. nom. ani!!(a. beginning with. wife. pass. loco pl. home beginning with. sg. m. loco pl. non-attachment.Ji!!).) (putradiirag~hiidi!!u. and.).. et cetera. nom. sg. f"R<i:q~~ iidi (m. perpetually. putra (m. f. son.). home.).. evenness of mind. participle . upapatti!!u (f. ab- sence of clinging.

and. janasamsadi (f. p. participle vi .). in the society of men. in mancrowd. sg. a/Umyayogena (m. solitary.).XIII 10 +If~~Tit. nom.). inst. secluded. tnayicananyayogena and in me with not other Yoga ~ffi\~~~1Jft I bhaktir avyabhicari1Jl devotion not going astray fCff~f~ viviktadesasevitvatn a secluded place frequenting ~~~~II aratir janasamsadi having dislike of men-crowd. sg. pass.. from a vi abhi :'. TP cpd. avyabhicarilJi (f.). lonely. with not other discipline. separated. frequenting a secluded place. frequenting.Jvic) . having discontent. not wandering away. nom.). (vivikta-dda-sevitvam. Distaste for the society of men. loco sg. TP cpd.). nom. 538 .) aratis (f. n. And unswerving devotion to Me With single-minded yoga. devotion. love. sg. mayi (m. sg.. loco sg. bhaktis (f. in me. not going astray.). nom. dda (m. with Yoga exclusively. sg. sevitvam (n. place. Frequenting secluded places. inhabiting. ca. vivikta (m.car). sg. having dissatisfaction. resorting to. having dislike. in meeting crowds of men. nom.

~~~<:r~ etaj jiiiinam iti proktam this knowledge thus. nom. from this.XIII 11 ~UlI. participle pra J vac). observing. Constancy in knowledge of the supreme Spirit. iti. (tattvajfiiiniirthadarsanam.S1*. constancy. knowledge of the Supreme Spirit. sg. artha (m. ~qm.). participle Jdrs). knowledge. anyathii. nom. jiiiinam (n. absence of knowledge. knowledge of the Supreme Self. alas. 539 .:lf~ II ajiiiinam yad ato 'nyathii ignorance which to this contrary.).).. keeping in sight. to this.:rr~~1 tattvajiiiiniirthadarSanam truth-knowledge-goa I-observing. sg. what. sg.). knowledge. which.). ~m ~ ~(fT s. otherwise..). perpetualness. declared to be. said to be. nom. so. p. Observing the goal of knowledge of the truth. sg. contrary. nom. called. purpose. declared to be. thus. TP cpd.). goal. yad (n. nom. nom. nom.!n. n. not in which way. nityatvam (n. TP cpd. sg. observing the goal of knowledge of the truth." truth.) etad (n.) tattva (n. darsanam (n. wisdom.). jiiiina (n. (adhyiitmajfiiinanityatvam. sg. n. sg. adhyiitmajfiiina (n.I'1f~ adhyiitmajiiiinanityatvam Supreme-Spirit-knowledge-constancy. ignorance. sg. proktam (n. seeing. constancy in knowledge of the Supreme Spirit. pass. nom. object. pr. This is declared to be true knowledge. this. ajfiiinam (n.). sg. Ignorance is what is contrary to this. "thatness. nom. continualness.

. which. having known. sg. nom. Which is said to be neither existent nor non-existent. to tobe-known. It is the beginningless supreme Brahman. this. yad (n.ryami (1st future act. mid. acc. na sat tan nasad ucyate not being. existing . jnatva (gerund . sat (n. the object of knowledge.).). sg. . tad (n.. this. asnute (3rd sg. ~r~n. sg.rn+r ~~ I "' Co" ~ yaj jfiatva 'mrtam asnute which knowing. acc. indic. sg. na. indic. it is said. acc.). it is said. anadimat (n. nom. pr.fjna). not not being. being. tad (n. nom. amrtam (n. pr. supreme. brahma (n. passive . beginningless.fvac).).).). sg. nom. lR" ~ s. acc. immortality one attains. knowing. I shall explain. nom. param (n.=r ~ ~ II " .. pra . that. which. acc. sg. what. ucyate (3rd sg. not. one attains. he attains.). I shall declare that which has to be known. sg. that. Knowing which. yad (n. one attains immortality. sg. not existing. which.XIII 12 ~ lffi" ffil Wf~+r . sg. 540 .). he reaches.fjna). without beginning. immortality. shall declare. sg..). highest.fvac). sg. wnf~~'ifW anadimat param brahma the beginningless supreme Brahman . not. Brahman. gerundive ..). jneyam (n. not being.. pravak. nom. vas). asat (n. jfieyam yat tat pravak~yami the to-be-known. na. that I shall declare.

nom. sg.). pervading. that. having ears. sg.). everywhere. pr. pa. BV cp. on earth. sarvatalJpii1Jipiidam tat everywhere hand and foot. sarvam (n.) sarvatas (adv. m:~~~ '" . sarvatalJsrutimal loke everywhere having hearing in the world. foot. heads and faces everywhere. Eyes.XIII 13 m:qrf1l'J'l~~ sarvatas (adv. nom. having a hand and foot. head and face. this. act. Having hands and feet everywhere. acc. sg. ak~i (n.). padam (n. enveloping. ~sf~~l(\I'I(<l1'I1 '" . enveloping everything in the world.v~). it remains. all. sarvatas (adv. sg. ~~f~~11 sarvam iivrtya t#thati all enveloping it stands. . (pa. sarvato 'kfiSiromukham everywhere eye. nom. spreading. this. indic. n. nom. tinhati (3rd sg. siras (n. it stands.!iptidam. head and face.Jstha). having hearing. everywhere. eye. in the world. Having ears everywhere. mouth.. face. sg. having an eye. head. skull. srutimat (n. av~tya (gerund a -. acc. it is present. That stands. covering. lake (m.!i (m. acc. nom. sg. sg.. 541 .). loco sg. mukham (n. nom. n. hand.).) tad (n.).).).).). BV cpd. everywhere.).). (ak~isiromukham..

(sarvendriyagu¢bhiisam. nirgu1Jam (n.TOl\ I sarvendriyavivarjitam all sense freed from. semblance.). freed from. nom.).).Jsanj). rif~crorf. all . pass. indriya (m. abhasam (n. participle a . n. sg. 542 . having the appearance of all the gUl}as of the senses.). nom. all-maintaining.. sense. nom. nom. sg. BV cpd. appearance. p. indriya (m. all. ca.. enjoyer of the gUl}as. n. f~~~'"fll <> <> • nirgu1}am gU1JObhoktr ca free from the gUI)as and experiencing the gUI)as. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). not clinging. free from the gUl}as. sg. nom. sense.).). twisted away from. nom. ca. Yet freed from all the senses. color.. freed from all the senses.). maintaining all. gU1Jabhoktr: (n. sg.JVI:j). power. vivarjitam (n.. experiencing the gUl}as. (sarvendriyavivarjitam. TP cpd. and. p.XIII 14 rifi-S:4<IOII ~ .) sarva (m. sarvabhr:t (n.). and. sg. experiencer of the gUl}as. sarva (m. gUl}a. nom. asaktam sarvabhrc ciiiva unattached and all maintaining thus.) asaktam (n.. Free from the qualities yet experiencing the qualities.). participle vi . pass. sg. Unattached yet maintaining all. nom. Shining by the function of the senses. sarvendriyagu1}iibhasam all sense guI)a appearance. sg. gU1Ja (m. unattached. eva. sg. power.

and. proximate. ca. Those that are moving and not moving. a« Outside and inside beings. antas (adv. of creatures. tad (n. ca. sg.:n~:q II durastham ciintike ca tat remote situated and near. and. ca. caram (n. that. nom. inside. Because of its subtlety This is not comprehended. gen. This is far away and also near. nom.). sg. because of fineness.). remotely situated. sg.). suk~matvat (n. situated far off. abl. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). 543 . inanimate. moving. avijfieyam (n. because of subtlety. tad (n. this. animate. durastham (n. nom. sg. in the vicinity. sg. not to be understood.). outside.).). from subtlety. nom. sg.). loco sg. pl. acaram caram eva ca the unmoving and the moving ~~~~m~ sukrmatviit tad aVljiieyam because of subtlety this not to be comprehended ~~ :·rrf.XIII 15 orf~~~ bahir antas ca bhutiiniim outside and inside of beings rn~~:ql bahis (adv. nom. eva.).). antike (n. and. not to be comprehended. sg. bhiitaniim (m.). gerundive a vi . that. of beings. nom. acaram (n.Jjfia). not to be known. ca. near. unmoving. this. this. and.

nom. bhiitabharfl: (n. participle vi . this. devourer. the to-beknown. tad (n. sg. sg.Jbhaj). lord of creation. Their devourer and creator. p. nomen agentis). sg. this. undistributed. m~ >Nf~ '<f II <> <> grasip. gerundive .). and. in beings. iva. ca. supporter of beings. grasi~TJu (n. prabhavi~TJu (n. 544 . mr+nt '<f a. of course. ca.). as if. nom. shared. sg.XIII 16 avibhaktam ca bhute~u undivided in beings f~~'<ff~~1 vibhaktam iva ca sthitam (yet) divided-as-if remaining. p. ca.Jbhaj). bhiite~u (m.u prabhavi~1}u ca devourer and creator.. sg. pass participle . pass. nom. • This and stanzas 13. vibhaktam (n. unshared. accustomed to devour. nom. nom. divided. creator. accustomed to absorb. nom. existing. p. bhutabhartr ca taj jiieyam and being-maintainer. that. This is to be known as the sustainer of beings. participle a vi . remaining. and. 14 and 15 are. sg. the object of knowledge. being-supporter.Jjfiii). distributed. among beings. the tobe-known. and. ca.Jsthii) .). sg. a description of Brahman and the dtman. nom. jfieyam (n. avibhaktam (n. nom. pass. sthitam (n. sg. standing.r ~ " G . like. Undivided yet remaining as if divided In all beings. loco pl. and.). undivided.

Ramanuja.Jjfiii). hrdi sarvasya vi#hitam in the heart of all seated. situated. even. m<f~~~ api. also. nom. jfiiinagamyam (n. sg. goal of knowl- jiiiinam jfieyam jiiiinagamyam knowledge. sg. ~G: ~ f<rl'~ II edge. the goal of knowledge. gen. hr:di (n. the to-be-known. It is seated in the hearts of all. it is said. a lamp.). nom. gen. pass. 545 . nom. illuminates even luminaries . jyotis (n. light. of lights.~iim (n.Jvac). tad (n. sg. participle vi 'Jsthii).such as the sun. sg. ucyate (3rd sg. It is beyond prakrti (material nature). jfiiinam (n. the attainable through knowledge. I< "Knowledge." . p. gen. vi~!hitam (n. nom. Also This is said to be the light of lights That is beyond darkness. the to- be-known.). pl. wisdom. pro indic. tamasas (n. beyond.). sg. it is said. seated. sg.XIII 17 ~Tf~m'1~~Tf~ jyoti~iim jyoti. that. nom. this. nom. sg.). param (n. jfieyam (n. It is knowledge.which dispel only that darkness which hinders the contacts of the senses with objects. etc. api taj jyotis of lights also this the light a+rn:q-q~1 tamasab param ucyate of darkness beyond. the light of the titman.). of all. of stars. loco sg. sg.).). nom.). sg. sarvasya (m. knowledge.). the object of knowledge and that which is to be attained through knowledge. . passive . the object of knowledge. of darkness. in the heart. gerundive -:.

at. p. tatha. this understanding. gerundive -:. ~~f<rnT<f madbhakta etad vijiiiiya my devotee. upapadyate (3rd sg. sg. k~etram iti k~etram tathii jfiiinam thus the field. Thus the field. he arrives madbhiiviiyopapadyate to my state of being approaches. described.). Enters into My state of being. nom.pad). mid. thus. pr.~ a-~ ID'f iti. participle . thus. understanding this. my devotee. with briefness. And the object of knowledge have been briefly described.Jvac). sg. explained. 546 . and. sg.). nom. wisdom. indic. this. dat. jiieyam (n. samiisatas.'rffi~: I (n. madbhaktas (m. nom.Jjiiii).). pass. my worshipper.Jjiiii). described briefly. upa ". knowledge. madbhaviiya (m. understanding. in brief. My devotee. to my state of be- ing. jiiiinam (n. ca. thus knowledge ~ :. 1'j4:1<!11I~ II said.. etad (n. comprehending.). uktam (n. sg. he enters.XIII 18 ~a. acc. sg. nom. field. jiieyam coktam samiisatal} and the to-be-known. briefly. vijiiiiya (gerund vi . devotee of me. nom. sg.). the object of knowledge. sg. he approaches. knowledge. the to- be-known.

api. ca. acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). and. transformations. '" . ubhtiu (n. capacities for modifcation. (prakr:tisainbhavtin. acc. sainbhavtin (m. origins.[~mt~ II viddhi prakrtisambhaviin know to be those which spring from material nature Know that material nature and Spirit Are both beginningless. acc.las. m. vikiiriit.as fcn. gUI. imperative . material nature. And know also that the modifications of the field. gUlJtin (m. sg. f~:q tflJrrn ~ . and. eva. acc. imperative . pl. spirit. acc. and. viddhi (2nd sg. both. And the qualities.. dual). changes.liiiz{ciiiva and the modifications and the gUl).Jvid).XIII 19 5f~a'~q~ prakrtim purUfam ciiiva prakr:tim (f. pl. even.). beginningless. which spring from material nature.). acc. know! learn! prakr:ti (f. acc. puru~am material nature and spirit f~~T~qmql " ' viddhy aniidi ubhiiv api know to be beginningless both also. know! learn! antidl (n. also.). arise from material nature. ca. acc. ca. sg. pl. viddhi (2nd sg.).Jvid). material nature. (m.). not having a beginning.S ca gU1. viktirtin (m. modifications. eva.). too. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). dual). pI.) 547 . BV cpd. act.

in ~:~~~I hetul. nom. pr. Material nature is said to he the cause In the producing of cause and effect.). of pleasures and pains. reason. sattva. in the experiencing. kartJ:tve (n. etc. the matter of the to-be-done. This agency of the puru~a means that the puru~a is the cause and initiator of all activities to which the subservient prakrti is instrumental. in the matter of the agent. spirit. of pleasure and pain ~~~II bhoktrtve hetur ucyate in the experiencing. sg. loco sg. it is said. the instrument and the agent are concerned. prakrtir ucyate the cause: material nature. cause. it has experiences of happiness. When. • "The activity of body and organs . sg. prak1:tis (f.Jk1:). etc. nom. ~:~:~Rt puru~af:z sukhaduf:zkhiiniim the spirit. which are conditioned by its conjunction with prakrti and effectuated by gU1:zas. the puru~a is conjoined with prakrti. be-perfonned. pro indic. nom. of happinesses and unhappinesses. where the object of action.). passive . ucyate (3rd sg..Jvac).). DV cpd.). pl. hetus (m. The pur~a itself finds no happiness except in self-experience.which are activities in experiencing . sg.akartrtve as to the to-he-done. ucyate (3rd sg. (karykaraIJakarn:tve.XIII 20 < < iflillifli '(Oliflq. karalJa (n. indic. loc. nom. bhoktJ:tve (n.). sg. unhappiness. puru~as (m. to to-he-done. it is said. 548 . So all experience of happiness and unhappiness depends on the puru~a conjoined with prakrti.~ karya (gerundive . the instrument and the doer. passive .). The Spirit is said to be the cause In the experiencing of pleasure and pain. the to- kiiryakiira1. gen.). in the state of being an enjoyer. instrument.) hetus (m. the cause it is said. sg.Jvac). it is said. loco sg. as stated in the Sutras. reason. however.Rlimlinuja. sukhadulJkhiiniim (n. material nature." .). in the enjoying. the instrument and the doer. This prakrti is subservient to the person or puru~a who is the agent. cause. n.depend on the prakrti (material nature) developed into k~etra (field or body)..

).las. enjoys. nom. of it. prakl:tisthas (m. CfiR17f ~T st<1 kiira1}am gU1}asaiigo 'sya the source. births in good and evil wombs." .). In order to experience the results of his acts he is born in a certain nature. evil. gen. loc. bhufikte (3rd sg.).. truly.as. nom... reason. gUl. good or evil. human etc. sg.Jbhuj) . ~ ~ pUTU!!aS (m.XIII 21 ~: Wlif~qT f~ puru~a1.divine.. Attachment to the qualities Is the cause of its birth in good and evil wombs. spirit.). abiding in mate- rial nature. this new existence induces him again to be active and consequently to be born again in samsara (reincarnation). 549 . pI. indic. hi. gUl). until he cultivates the qualities of humility. yoni (L). janman (n. source. asat (n. mid .. asya (m.. . gUfJiin (m. sg. (m. birth. . indeed. acc. it experiences. m. existing in a particular shape and nature . it m:$ Wlif~ <f1JWf I . by which he may attain the atman. abiding in material nature. gUfJasafigas (m. etc.a-attachment. origin. etc. which consist of the gutJas and are proper to that particular nature. not good. situated in material nature. good.) prak~tijiin For the Spirit. is attached to happiness. kiirafJam (n.. nom. sat (n. instrument.). (sadasadyonijanmasu.).. born of material nature. .).las. • "The puru~a (spirit of the individual).Rarnanuja. etc.). acc. ~Tf~11 sadasadyonijanmasu in good-and-evil-wombs birth. sg. . bhuiikte prakrtijiin gU1}iin it experiences the born-of-material-nature gUl). cause. nom. and is active in performing the good and evil acts leading to that happiness. pl. originating.t prakrtistho hi spirit (in) material nature abiding indeed. clinging to the gUl. pl.). sg. of this. gUl. sg. womb.which is a result of previous developments of prakrti.). in material nature. pr.la attachment. of it. TP cpd. Experiences the qualities born of material nature.

the consenter. • "The purufa (spirit of the individual). Nevertheless. nom. sg. sg. thus. said to be. uktas (m. nom. p. when existing in such a body and conniving at its activities. In the same way it experiences the happiness and unhappiness resulting from the body's activities. looks on and consents. ca. bhoklii (m. permitter. api. bearer. the purUfa is sovereign only as compared with the servile body. i. And also the supreme Spirit. The highest Spirit in this body Is called the witness. the spirit highest. a puru~a whose knowledge and power are not to be circumscribed by the body . enjoyer. experiencer.sovereign as compared to the body .. called. and. paramiitmii (m. the Great Lord ~~~~T paramatmeti capy ukto and the Supreme Self thus also is called ~sf~~~:~:11 dehe 'smin puru~alJ paralJ in the body. even. in the body.). nom. the experiencer.)." . pass.Jvac). nom. ca. bharta bhokta maheSvaralJ the supporter. nom. consenter. the experiencer. spirit. nom. so long as it is attached to gu':tas.XIII 22 upadra~tanumanta ca the witness and the consenter mITmmr~:1 '3 q ~ <>e I <i l1<'ffi' :q upadra~tii (m.). loco sg. So because it rules. 550 . nom. in this.).. observer.). sg.). iIi. this. The supporter. sg. sg.). maheSvaras (m.). dehe (m. participle . sg. sg. sg. paras (m. nom.. it is a sovereign lord as compared to its body. approver. sg. and. Supreme Self. highest.and a most sublime purUfa. asmin (m. anumantii (m.). puru~as (m. loco sg. supporter. supports and exceeds the body.). the great Lord. great lord.e. witness. bhartii (m.Rlimlinuja. therefore it is the lord of the body. nom. also. senses and mind. Likewise it is called the body's sovereign iitman .

sas (m. acc. again. • "He who knows that the pUTU~a and the prakrti have the aforesaid natures and who knows the nature of the gUlJas .). sg. nom. vetti (3rd sg. also. na. He will not be reborn conjointly with prakrti but attain the purified iitman characterized by non-circumscribable knowledge. in whatever way. ca.). with the gUl). sg. pr. gUlJais (m. sg. saha and material nature with the gUf). indic..XIII 23 <r~~~~ yas (m. who. evam.).as together. He who in this way knows the Spirit And material nature.). pr. Is not born again.he knows discriminatingly. participle Jv~t). In whatever stage of transmigration he may exist. even. act. moving.as. ~~ <ffi+rRT sfll sarvathii vartamiino 'pi in whatever (stage of transmigration) existing even. and.). ~ "+!<iT sf~ II "na sa bhuyo ' bhijiiyate not be again is born. he. however. acc. prakl:tim (f. 551 . this. he is born . ya evam vetti pur~am who thus he knows the spirit ~a. not. along with the qualities. existing. nom. sg. in whatever stage of transmigration. material nature. living. pl. passive abhi Jjan). spirit. he knows. pro indic.which is still left to explain . together. Jvid). vartamanas (m. sarvatha. saha. thus. bhiiyas. mid. nom. puru~am (m."I 'luT: ~ I prakrtim ca gUl. which. api. abhijayate (3rd sg.Uiil. . sg. as soon as he dies. inst."Ramanuja.

II 39.). yogena (m. samkhyena (n. with the self. some. nom. by meditation. and believing that nothing new is ever created. regarding prakrti and puru~a as the ultimate realities of existence. pr. dualistic. ~mm~ anye siimkhyena yogena others by Siirilkhya discipline rnrR~11 karmayogena ciipare and by action-Yoga still others. non-theistic.). they perceive. self. Others by the discipline of Sankhya And still others by the yoga of action . indic. karmayogena (m. they see. atmanam (m. by the self. . by the Yoga. some. the self by the self. kecid.). ~~ dhyanena (n. pl. all things being manifestations of what already exists.). dhyiineniitmani pasyanti by meditation in the self they perceive. See note. they discern. by the power. nom. pl.). in the self. others. Some perceive the Self in the Self By the Self through meditation. Siimkhya. apare (m. ca. acc. ~~.. act.:{I\tll'1~ ~ I kecid iitminam iitmanii some.). through meditation. others. inst.XIII 24 e41~'1I\tl f. inst. one of the earliest systems of Hindu philosophy. atmani (m. sg. by the Yoga of action. loco sg.). atmand (m. sg. . sg. sg. whoever. sg. paiyanti (3rd pI. inst. by the Siirilkhya doctrine. anye (m. inst. by the discipline. sg. and.. rational.Jpas). 552 .).). by the discipline of action. inst.

indie. And they also cross beyond death. they worship. pl. m~tyum (m.). pr. parayalJas (n. mid. some. death (what they) hear devoted to. nom.). act. pI. holding as highest object. devoted to. they transcend. participle a . others. however. also. from others. they honor. anyebhyas (m. api. thus not knowing. i.Jt~).XIII 25 ~. upa . pl. death. indic. ~"<r~1 srutviinyebhya upiisate hearing from others. they cross beyond. however. thus. not knowing this. but. 553 . tu. pl. Devoted to what they have heard. te (m.). atitaranti (3rd pI. even. '" anye (m. pr. they worship. ignorant.ii!. pr.).) Yet others. ati . . devoted to what they hear.Jjiiii). hearing.~~~: anye tv evam ajiinanta~ some.e. having heard it from others. evam. Death. . ca.). TP cpd. n. (sruti-parayalJas. sg. and. acc. eva. upasate (3rd pI.nf~ ~ te 'pi ciititaranty eva they also cross beyond +Rli'mdq(I~OIl: II ~ mrtyum srutipariiyat.). the kind of death that eventuates in rebirth. nom. ajanantas (m. abl.. nom. pl. pI. nom. act. hearing. srutva (gerund . not knowing.Jsru). nom..Jas). ff sfq:. they. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). sruti (f. Worship.

living. abl. sg. nom.).XIII 26 <rr<R[ ~ f'fff'~ yiivat sam/iiyate kirhcit inasmuch as it is born. DV cpd. Jvid).). samyogiit (m. (klfetraklfetrajfiasamyogiit. tad (n.a~11 tad viddhi bharatar~abha that know! Bull of the Bharatas.. standing still. field knower. nom. abl. sattvam (n. Moving or unmoving. sg. sg.e. sg. Arjuna. ~~lTT<mr k~etrak~etrajiiasarhyogiit yiivat. so much.). kimcid. 554 . indic. passive sam -Ijan). stluivara (n. from the union of the field and the field-knower. jangama"'\(n. ~fqf. the union of body (field) and spirit (purufa). I. in- animate. as. Bull of the Bharatas. TP from the field and the field-knower union.. standing and moving. not moving.) klfetra (n. sg. pr. . m. acc. that Any being whatever that is born.). voc.. imperative act. any whatever. salnjiiyate (3rd sg. as much.). klfetrajfia (m. existence. know! learn! bharatarlfabha (m. that. standing or moving.). viddhi (2nd sg. any. standing still or moving. being. animate. Know.). sg. moving. any whatever rn ~4101 <"'1 '{P1¥t I sattvarh sthiivarajangamam being. this. sg. field. Arises from the union of the field and the knower of the field. inasmuch. n. cpd.). from the union.. epithet of Arjunas. it is born. (stluivarjangamam. nom.

nom. acc. he per- ya!. participle bhUtqu (m. Not perishing when they perish. in beings. act. sg. paSyati (3rd sg. in all. avinaSyantam (m.Jpas). participle a vi . loco pI. acc. existing. not dying. act . acc. in deaths. ceives. ti~{hantam :'. .). similar. loco pl. Existing alike in all beings. this. he (truly) sees. in creatures. If:~a-~~a-II he perceives. alike. vinaSyatsu (m. paSyati (3rd sg. sg. the Highest Lord.). sg. (m. the Supreme paramesvaram existing the Supreme Lord f<l'1~"I(f't ~f~ ti~thantam Lord. pro act. sas (m. sg.Jpas). not lost. vinasyatsv avinasyantam in (their) perishings not perishing. gerund vi .Jnas).sthii). sg. he. parameSvaram (m. he sees.). he sees. yas (m. what. sarve~u (m. sg. the same. loco pl. situated. pasyati sa pasyati who sees.).Jnas). who. 555 . pro indic. acc. . He who sees the Supreme Lord. in losings. Truly sees. nom.). pro indic.). standing. in perishings. not perishing.XIII 27 " '" " samam sarve~u bhute~ alike in all beings f~~1 ~m41~ samam (m. pro act.

acc. same. one injures one's own self. equal. iitmanam (m. by the self. truly. seeing. ace. paSyan (m. inst. beholding.). samam pasyan hi sarvatra the same seeing indeed everywhere ~~~l!~~1 samavasthitam isvaram established the Lord . acc. he hurts . He does not injure the Self by the self. acc. then. isvaram (m. supreme. sg. acc. the line means that in injuring the self of others. from there. p. not.). yati (3rd sg. sarvatra. pass. by the self. prince.). tatas. path. participle sam ava ~ sthii). lord. ~pas). samavasthitam (m. he goes. everywhere. ~ya). established. pr. ~T lIlf~ tRt 'lf~ II tato yiiti pariim gatim then he goes to the supreme goal. sg.. na. similar.XIII 28 ~~f~~<f'. the self. sg. he injures.). param (f. on all sides. hinasti (3rd sg. atmana (m. Seeing indeed the same Lord Established everywhere. indic.). sg. sg. the self. highest. existing. act.. nom. indeed. ~hins). goal. acc. sg. pr. • Since the self (atman) of others is identical with one's own self. hi. sg. na hinasty iitmanii 'tmiinam not he injures. gatim (f. 556 . Thereupon he goes to the supreme goal.). discerning.f~~~ samam (m. participle act. ruler. sg.

XIII 29 ~:. pr.). this. and then he has an exact perception of the atman. pass. exclusively. sg. performed. thus. done.). pasyati (3rd sg. he perceives. sg. and that the atman has the form of knowledge. inst. wholly. iitmiinam (m. he sees.nT<f~: 1 kriyamiilJiini sarvasal. that therefore the atman (self) is non-agent. ca. participle :'Ik~). then he perceives that the atman's conjunction with prakrti (material nature). by material nature. he sees. He who sees that all actions Are perfunned exclusively by material nature. paSyati (3rd sg.Riimiinuja. act. pI. he perceives.).effected by karman (action) -. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). akartiiram sa pasyati not the doer. karmafJi (n." . completely. actions. sarvasas. Truly sees.). . pl. acc. nonmaker. nom. and. tatha. performed exclusively lj":~crcr~ yal. And thus the Self is not the doer. pr.). 557 . • "When a person perceives that all acts are performed by the prakrti (material nature). sas (m. made. acc. sg.Jpas). sg. kriyamiifJiini (n.:r'filhfur prak~tyii prakrtyiiiva ca karmiilJi and by material nature actions f"'llt1101If. . pr. indic. eva. its (the atman's) directing capacity and its experience of happiness or unhappiness all result from ignorance . acc. thus himself mR~~crll (f. himself. he. nom. non-doer. pasyati tathiitmiinam who he sees. he (truly) sees. self.). who.Jpas). act. deeds. yas (m. indic. akartiiram (m. acc. sg.

he sees. acc. various states of being. resting in one. pr. then. alone. from there. anupaSyati (3rd sg. sg. abiding in one. and that the varieties of new beings issuing from these beings again arise from prakrti. ca. acc. he attains.). sam vpad). sg. Then he attains Brahman. then he will attain the otman in its purest form"Rllmllnuja. ekastham (m. when. • "When a person perceives that all different modes of existence of all beings depend on one principle. indic. prakrti (material nature). brahma (n. acc sg. bhiitaNthagbhiivam (m. When he perceives the various states of being As resting in the One. spreading out. he discerns. vistiiram (m. indic. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). 558 .XIII 30 lro'1~~ yadii. pr. from that. and. tatas. sg. extent. And from That alone spreading out.).). ffif~::qf~ tata eva ca vistiiram and from that alone spreading out i~~~11 brahma sampadyate tadii Brahman he attains then. act. tadii. Brahman. eva. anu Jpas). and not on the titman. sampadyate (3rd sg. yadii bhUtaprthagbhiivam when being-various-states ~~~(fl ekastham anupasyati resting in one he perceives. he goes to. mid. acc. he arrives at. he perceives. multiple states of being.).

Cfi'Ufd"" f~ II na karoti na lipyate not it acts. from gUl). passive . nom. nom. nirgulJatvat (n. sg. imperishable. abl. pr. indic. and is not tainted. ayam (m. not. aniiditvat (n. even.'fi'Rr.4 Id~ aniiditviin nirgu1}atviit from having no beginning and from absence of gur.. from absence of gUl).Jlip). imperishable. 559 . it is smeared. from having no beginning. sg. from beginninglessness. lipyate (3rd sg.). Arjuna. sg. he acts.as.XIII 31 'l.).). Son of Kunt!. eternal. It does not act. avyayas (m.Jk~). api.'l<I0 1. kiiunteya (m. act. sg.1.:ffiwlT''1J. this. not it is befouled.). . sg.). . it is befouled.. na not. This imperishable supreme Self Is beginningless and without qualities. Supreme Self. it is stained. sg. sarfrasthas (m. Even though situated in the body. karoti (3rd sg. epithet of AIjuna. paramatma (m. it is polluted.).as q<>1I'>11~4OI. situated in the body. it acts. nom. nom.). abiding in the body.~: I paramiitmiiyam avyayal} Supreme Self this. Son of Kunti. also. voc.aslessness.:r sarirastho 'pi kiiunteya in the body situated even. pro indic. na. sg. mm21T sfq. abl.

).Jsthii). all pervading. As the all-pervading ether. ether. So the Self. because of subtlety. Is not tainted in any case. sg. seated. 00. p. so. participle ava . not. na. from subtlety. Is not tainted. everywhere. space. avasthitas (m.). loc. iitmii (m. abl.. sg. indic. dehe (m. tatha.XIII 32 l[~~~r~~ yatha. nom. abiding. it is befouled. seated in the body. upalipyate (3rd sg.M~1 iikiisam nopalipyate the ether not it is befouled.Jlip).ln.). 560 . ~~~T~ sarvatriivasthito dehe in all cases seated in the body. from subtlety. not. thus. pass. nom.. in all cases.). siiuk!fmyiit (n. upalipyate (3rd sg. as. it is befouled. nom.Jlip). ~~. iikiisam (n. omnipresent. passive upa . mcmT. it is smeared. self. in this way. it is stained. sg. yathii sarvagatam siiu~myiid as the all pervading. sarvagatam (n. sg. pr. pr. in the body. sg. sarvatra. situated. it is smeared. sg. indic. in which way. because of its subtlety. nom. passive upa .). it is polluted.M~II tathiitmii nopalipyate so the self not it is befouled.

k~etrf (m. sun.Jkas).). Arjuna. owner of the field. prakasayati (3rd sg. whole. pro indic. ravis (m. as. 561 . acc. sg. imam (m.). sg. as it illumines alone ~~~~-nCf:l krtsnam lokam imam ravil. singly. pro indic.). So the Lord of the field illumines The entire field.). acc. Descendant of Bharata. lord of the field. entire. so.). ekas (m. it causes to appear. sg. whole. one. k~etram (n. so the entire ~~mmll yatha. field. ~~T~~~ k~etram k~etri tathii krtsnam the field. it illumines. sg.XIII 33 11~ SI'fllfilll("<t. sg. acc. acc. entire world this.). Descendant of Bharata. kr:tsnam (n. he causes to appear. alone. this. sg. nom. thus. nom.).). nom. sg. acc. ~: yathii prakiisayaty ekal. prakiisayati bhiirata he illumines. the lord of the field. world. bharata (m. in which way. As the sun alone illwnines This entire world.). sg. universe. tatha. prakasayati (3rd sg. causative act. the sun.Jkas). entire. sg. in this way. pra . lokam (m. kt:tsnam (n. causative pra . voc. he illumines.

pl.).).XIII 34 ~'. sg.). prakfti (f. material nature. release. distinction. TP cpd. nom. The distinction between the field and the knower of the field. dual DV cpd. inst. Go to the Supreme. .). thus. acc. acc. and. k~etrak~etrajflayos They who know. they.f~~~ k~etrak~etrajiiayor evam of the field and the field-knower thus ~(~~TI antararh jiitinacak~tqii the distinction by the knowledge-eye ~~~:q bhutaprakrtimok~arh ca and being-from -material-nature-liberation <t f~ lIlf~ ~ q-q II ye vidur yiinti te param who they know. by the eye of knowledge.). ye (m. they go. they. by the knowledge-eye. liberation of being from material nature.Jya). evam.). sg. (bhiitaprakftimok~am. param (m. acc. sg. mok~am (m. of the field and the knower of the field. by the eye of wisdom.Jvid with present meaning). perfect . sg. gen. jflanacak~u~a (n. liberation.). acc. As well as the liberation of beings from material nature. the highest. the Supreme. to the Supreme. to the Supreme. sg. antaram (n. who. being. bhiita (m.). pl. nom. te (m. difference. vidus (3rd pI. (m. m.). yanti (3rd pI. they go. End of Book XIII The Yoga of Distinction between the Field-Knower and the Field 562 . relation..) ca. they know. through the eye of knowledge.

jiiiinam (n. from here.). perfection.). again. knowing. of knowledges. munayas (m. sg. perfect act. sages. "fvac). Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed One. pl. supreme. sg. pravakryiimi (Ist sg. all. sg. the Blesse Lord. nom. uviica (3rd sg. acc.t m.). best. nom. I shall declare. bhiiyas. the sages all rrti H:rf~~ ~ mrr: II having known. gone. sg. jiiiitvii (gerund "fjiiii) . success. he said. acc.). I shall explain. which. acc. sg. gatiis (m. of know ledges. pravak~yiimi the highest further I shall declare mrrr.).~ ~ I jiiiiniiniim jiiiinam uttamam wisdoms. the highest Knowledge.. the knowledge best ~ ~T l!'flT: ri yaj jiiiitvii munaya!. knowledge. to supreme perfection from here gone.). yad (n.).) highest. siddhim (f. acc. sg. acc.. future act. pariim siddhim ito gatii!. itas (adv. 563 . highest.). sarve which. sarve (m.BOOK XIV ">I"~~I srfbhagaviin (m. uttamam (n. of param bhuya!. supreme. highest. gen.). pra "fvac). 1 ~ +rtf: >r<f~11 '" param (m. further. pl. sg. pl.). Having known which all the sages Have gone from here to supreme perfection. nom. nom. having known. The Blessed Lord spoke: I shall declare. jiiiiniiniim (n. further. wise men. the best of all knowledge. he the Blessed Lord spoke: spoke. pariim (f. pl. acc.).

they are born. mama (gen. at letting go. The ideal is to escape birth. not. ~ . one must remember that. pr. loco sg. sg. knowledge. na. and. sarge (m. in this instance. loco sg. "beings" are assumed to be born at the creation of the universe and to be constantly reborn thereafter until the dissolution of this particular universe. Olf"~~ "i II pralaye na vyathanti ca and at the dissolution (of the world). • In reading stanzas like this. to be born is a misfortune. ca. sg. passive upa . wisdom. sadharmyam (n. agatas (m. of me. depending on. come to. pl. this.). sg. my. acc. lfl1 m"lPhl: m<rm: I m'lma siidharmyam iigatiib of me state of identity arrived at. arrived at. they tremble. indic. indic.). even. not. api. Jvyath). na. or rebirth. And arriving at a state of identity with Me. they quake.). pra/aye (m. nom. ri sfq-"lq'Jf14~ sarge 'pi nopajiiyante at creation (of the world) even. jfianam (n. or divine nonexistence. Nor do they tremble at its dissolution.. act. sg. not they tremble. idam jfiiinam upiisritya this knowledge resorting to. at creation. 564 .). upajayante (3rd pI.Jjan). upasritya (gerund upa a J sri). in the Hindu view. state of identity of nature. pr. resorting to. at the dissolution.). acc. Even at the creation of the world they are not born. acc. also. Resorting to this knowledge. not they are born.). and go on to nirva~a. vyathanti (3rd pI. Also. at dissolution.XIV 2 ~~~~ idam (n.).

XIV 3 . mama (gen. bharata (m. indic. dadhiimi (rst. I. from that. mahat (n. acc.). loc. my. it comes to be. voc. seed. in it. ffi~ ~ ~<l"TR{ ~ I tasmin garbham dadhamy aham in this the seed I place. sainbhavas (m. great. in this. sg. sg. of me. sg. I. Jbhu). grabham (m. sg. act. egg.). Descendant of Bharata. tatas. tasmin (n.). nom. pl. aham (nom. foetus. The origin of all beings Exists from that. for me. Bharata. sarvabhutanam the origin of all beings ffifT +rcrf(f ~ II tato bhavati bharata from that it exists.). sg.). sg. Arjuna. sg. ~~:~~ sambhaval. of all beings. brahma (n.). bhavati (3rd sg.). it exists. epithet of Arjuna. nom. Descendant of Great Brahma is My womb. womb. sg. In it I place the seed.). coming to be. from there.pr lfTf'f\ ~'\ ?rW mama yonir mahad brahma for me the womb (is) great Brahman. Jdha) . origin. of all creatures. sarvabhutiiniim (m. I put. nom. nom. indic. pr. 565 . sg. sg.). Brahman. place.). act. pr. gen. yonis (f.

seed giving. act.. ~Of~: fqm-II sarvayani~u (f. nom. yas (f.). brahma (n. pl. sambhavanti yal. great. bfjapradas (m.XIV 4~~Cfim . epithet of Arjuna. pr.). father. sam --IbM). pl.). The great Brahma is their womb. sg.). sarvayoniiU kaunteya in all wombs. sg. of them.. sg. Brahman. nom. mahat (n. seed sowing. which. Son of Kunti. gen. Arjuna. pl. lffi~: ~~~: I . I.. pita (m. they arise. forms come to be which rnrt~~~)f~ tiisam brahma mahad yonir of them Brahman the great womb..). loco pl. images. they come to be. voc. in all wombs. aham bijapradal. womb.). sg.). nom. nom. nom. And I am the seed-sowing father. tasam (f. sg. sg. 566 . indic.). fOnTIs. yanis (f.. aham (nom. nom.).). sg. miirtayas (f. sambhavanti (3rd pI. kiiunteya (m. pita I the seed-sowing father.). nom.. Whatever forms are produced In any womb. Son of Kunti. miirtayal.

iti.ln. Imperishable. whose origins are in material nature. sg. springing from. epithet of Arjuna and other warriors.). thus..). material nature. BY cpd. passion. sg.XIV 5 rn~~~fa sattvam rajas tama iti sattva. sattva. sg. thus ~: >I'lf~):jGfT: I gm. the self. emotion. dehinam (m. the embodied one. 0 Mighty Armed One. sloth. rajas. darkness. tamas. prakrti (f. 0 Arjuna.as material-nature-born-of. voc. they bind. tamas. The imperishable embodied One (the atman).). truth. originating in.). acc.. gUfJas (m. mahiibiiho (m. pl.). the gUl. nom. Sattva. gUI~as. pr. nature.ore:. born of.). nom. loco sg. smhbhavas (m.). sg.Jbadh). acc. the atman. avyayam (m. nom. imperishable.). m. thus. Bind fast in the body. 567 . rajas (n. tamas. dehe (m. The qualities born of material nature. sg. they bind down.).) nibadhnanti (3rd pI.). pI. f. pl. rajas. rajas. ~~~~II dehe dehinam avyayam in the body the embodied one.~T nibadhnanti mahiibiiho they bind down. they fetter. in the body. eternal.:rf<a. act. tamas (n. prakrtisambhaviil. ni . nom.iil. indic. the embodied. nom. nom. sg. (prakrtisambhavas. virtue. sattvam (n. 0 Great Armed One.

m~ sukhasafigena badhnati by virtue attachment it binds ~1<iW~<i ~ II jfuinasaiigena ciinagha tatra. ca. hadhntiti (3rd sg. sattvam (n. salubrious. healthy.XIV 6 ~ m<i f<iii0. there. 568 . ~~Of"--. by attachment to wisdom. free from dirtiness. Binds by attachment to happiness And by attachment to knowledge. anamayam (n. act. Arjuna. sg. by attachment to virtue. nirmalatvtit (n. truth. free from disease. abl. 5f~:q<i1l"l4li I prakasakam anamayam illuminating. jiitinasaiigena (m.). free from impurity. indic. sg. sg. free from impurity. sg. by attachment to knowledge. TP cpd. inst. free from disease.<iI~t tatra sattvam nirmalatvat there sattva free from impurity.). inst. and by knowledge attachment. Sinless One.). in regard to these. it binds. sg. illuminating. nom. pr. sattva. Sinless One. illuminating and free from disease. anagha (m. Of these. epithet of Arjuna.Jbadh). sg. prakasakam (n. . shining. and. sukhasaiigena (m. nom.). sg.). in connects. voc. nom. by attachment to the good.).). virtue. sattva.

thirst. 569 .. sg. karmasafigena (m. of the nature of passion. acc.a rajas (n. dehinam (m. pr. by attachment to action. know. (t~~lJa-safiga-samudbhavam. act. TP cpd. emotion. that.)./badh). Know that rajas is characterized by passion Arising from thirst and attachment. sg. acc. it binds down. raja riigiitmakam viddhi rajas passion characterized by.. arising from thirst and attachment. indic. rajas. originating in. q'lOII*l1i'*lii~ I tN1Jiisangasamudbhavam thirst-attachment-arising-from. know! learn! t~~rJii (f. this. acc. it fetters. Son of Kuntl.).). sg. safiga (m. Arj1ll1a. voc. the atman. sg. ragiitmakam (n. desire. <1'\ f<rOr'e'lTfa <fi~ tan nibadhniiti kiiunteya this it binds down.XIV 7 ~r (l'II. By attachment to action. the self. TP cpd.). nibadhnati (3rd sg. attachment. the embodied. characterized by passion. viddhi (2nd sg. born of. m. sg. passion.).). sg.. arising from. imperative act .). acc. epithet of Arjuna.rf. nom. Son of Kunt!. ni . kiiunteya (m."t'fi fr./vid). <fi~~~l{11 karmasangena dehinam by action-attachment the embodied one. . This binds fast the embodied one.). sg.).) tad (n. sg. acc. inst. samudbhavam (m. ifc. the embodied one.

pr.XIV 8 ~~~fqf.. viddhi (2nd sg. acc. this. indolence. nom. indeed. DV cpd. negligence. sg.) tad (n. tu. sleep. distraction. tamas.). act. voc. instr. sg. inst.). acc. know! learn! mohanam (n.. Descendant of Know indeed that tamas is born of ignorance.Jbadh). Ajuna. confusing. sg. iilasya (n. ajnanajam (n. nidriibhis (f. know.. arising from ignorance.). that. sloth.rur II tan nibadhniiti bhiirata this it binds down Bharata.). pl. Which confuses all embodied beings. delusion. bhiirata (m. indolence and sleepiness ~ f~t:'fTf~ -. acc. gen. and sleepiness. 11~<f~~1 mohanam sarvadehiniim the confusion of all embodied ones. (pramiidiilasyanidriibhis. With negligence. imperative .). laziness and sleepiness.Tl1~rrrnm{ pramiidiilasyanidriibhis by distraction. ignorance-born. nibadhniiti (3rd sg. This binds fast. it fetters down.a tamas (n. sg. confusion.). pl. deluding. pI.. of all iitmans. J. born of ignorance. indolence. tamas tv ajnanajam viddhi tamas. but. f. indeed. drowsiness. pramiida (m.). by distraction. ni .). of all embodied ones. indie. laziness.Jvid) . Descendant of Bharata. it ties down. sarvadehiniim (m. darkness. 570 . sg.). it binds down. epithet of Arjuna.

sg. to negligence. in delusion. karmalJi (n. Descendant of Bharata. ~~~~lT: jiiiinam iivrtya tu tamal} knowledge-obscuring indeed tamas. sg. loco sg. vsanj). in happiness. truth. wisdom. obscuring knowledge. veiling. tamas (n. aVl:tya (gerund a y VI:). obscuring. vsafij). ~: 'filtfur 'rr<:Cf I sattvam (n. n. 571 . Descendant of Bharata.). darkness. ~*I:>-"'4<::"t~1I pramiide saiijayaty uta to negligence it causes attachment even. reality. sattva. it causes attachment. ArjW1a. pro indic. rajas. even. tamas.). sg. voc. to action.). to delusion. indeed. sg. it causes attachment. but. sukhe (m. rajal} karmalJi bhiirata rajas to action. enveloping. pramiide (m.). tu. sanjayati (3rd sg. knowledge. causative act. passion. causative act. loco sg. rajas (n. Causes attachment to negligence. emotion. sg. indeed. Rajas to action. to confusion.XIV 9 ~w<f~Cf sattvam sukhe saiijayati sattva to happiness it causes attachment. Tamas. sloth. sanjayati (3rd sg. pro indic. acc. jnanam (n. to hap- piness.).).). Sattva causes attachment to happiness. nom. good- ness. bhiirata(m. nom. loco sg.). nom. uta. in action.

sg.). thus. The distinction is in the relative proportion of one gur.). Rajas prevailing over sattva and tamas also comes to be. act. sg.). truth. darkness. emotion. tamas.). Sattva arises. rajas. tathii. met ~(I" -.Jbhu).Jbhu) . nom. sattva. emotion. sg. it arises. The idea is continued in the next three stanzas. sattvam rajas tatha tamas (prevailing over) sattva and rajas likewise. Likewise tamas prevailing over sattva and rajas. and. sg. rajas. sattva. truth. tamas (n. passion.). or proportions of. (1"11: met~(I"~ II tamal.XIV 10 ~~'l11<1 rajas tamascabhibhuya. ~:met~ raja/:t sattvam tamascaiva rajas (prevailing over) sattve and tamas (similarly).). eva. passion. sg. bhiirata (m. sg. tamas (n. sg. sloth. Descendant of Bharata. abhibhuya (gerund abhi . goodness. voc. darkness. When prevailing over rajas and tamas. acc. rajas. nom. sloth.). representing three types of personality. sattvam (n. ca.). and. rajas (n. Arjuna. purity. purity. sloth. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). " Three different relationships between. bhavati (3rd sg. truth. darkness. acc.). over-powering. 572 . tamas. acc. tamas. acc. predominating. prevailing. sattva. rajas (n. Descendant of Bharata. reality.za to the others in a given personality. acc. ca. raj as-an d -tamas-prevailing over.rIm I sattvam bhavati bharata sattva it m'ises. .). passion. indic. sg. acc. emotion. are intended here. likewise. sattvam (n. sg. sg. epithet of Arjuna. or three phases of behavior. rajas (n. the three gUlJas. tamas (n. sattvam (n. it comes to be. nom. pr.

Then it should be known that Sattva is dominant. participle vi . of the body. . yadii. prakiisa upajayate a light is born m<RT~f~ shine. asmin (m.). thus. optative act. loco sg. light. upajiiyate (3rd sg. When the light of knowledge shines 1brough all the gates of this body. when.).Jvid). iti. sg.). it is born. pr. splendor. vidyiit (3rd sg. loco sg. nom.XIV 11 ~~sf~ sarvadvarefu dehe 'smin in all the gates of the body in this. in all the doors. uta.Jjan).[~~~11 o " grown powerful. good- ness. loco pl. it should be known. nom. mid.Jvr:dh). in this. when. sattvam (n.). then it should be known fqq. vivr:ddham (n. jiianarh yada tada vidyad knowledge. jfiiinam (n. sattva. prakiisas (m. upa . 573 . >f'Ii'ro '34'51I11d I sarvadviirqu (n. sg. nom. dehe (m. vivrddharh sattvam ity uta dominant sattva thus indeed.ln. then. in all the gates. nom.). indic. may it be known. sg. in the body. sg. indeed. so. dominant. mighty.). wisdom. even. truth. tadii. knowledge.

pravr:ttis (f. progress.). desire. Greed. epithet of Arjuna. activity and the undertaking Of actions. nom. avarice. loc. of actions. mid .).).). in rajas. setting out. Bull of the Bharatas. exertion. nom. they are born. vivr:ddhe (n. activity the undertaking ~~~:=I . voc. etiini (n. pl. sg. in the gUl). rajasi (n. activity. nom. sg. undertaking. m. pro indic.). nom. commencing. desire. ~~<f~ rajasy etiini jiiyante in rajas these are born. jiiyante (3rd pI. avarice. iirambhas (m. lobhas (m.). karmarJiim (n.r: '5I<!fm~: . bharatar~abha (m. restlessness.).. . sg. sprhii of actions. gen. lack of calmness.. loc. nom. lust.. sg. pI). they arise.). sg. disquietude. restlessness. sg. sg.a of passion. of deeds. These are born when rajas Is dominant. 574 . karmalJiim asama!.Jjan). these. pravrttir lirambha!. in the dominance. fqq~ +roI1h111 vivrddhe bharatar~abha when dominant. ' ~<:?. when dominant. disquietude.. greed.XIV 12 lobha!. sg. asamas (m. nom.). Bull of the Bharatas. desire. spr:hii (f. . Arjuna.

ertness. thus.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ca. nom. ca. voc. sg. Darkness and inertness. Descendant of Kuru. Joy of Kuru.XIV 13 9. these. in the guna of . loco sg. heedlessness. they are born. sg. aprakiiso 'pravrttisca unenlightenment and inertness. unenlightenment. sg.). in- 5I"ll"RT l1~ t:t<f 'if I pramiido moha eva ca heedlessness and confusion. mohas (m. lack of exertion. delusion.Jjan).). kurunandana (m. 575 . when dominant. nom. epithet of Arjuna. confusion. ~r. tamas. in tamas. and. sg. indic. viw:ddhe (n. . and. they are produced. Arjuna. in the dominance. nom. pra. mid . Heedlessness and confusion. in darkness. nom. nom. neglIgence. Descendant of Kuru.mf'f~ tamasy etiini jiiyante in tamas these are born fCf<{~~11 vivrddhe kurunandana when dominant. jayante (3rd pI. loco sg. pl.).fwmrT~f~ aprakiisas (m. absence of illumination. apraw:ttis (f.). tamasi (n.). eva. etani (n. sg.madas (m. pr.). These are born when tamas Is dominant.).

of those who know the highest. shining. indic. but. . acc. pl. ~ffi+nCRt ~~ tadottamavidiim lokiin then to the highest-knowing worlds. dissolution. he arrives at.). ~~>rfCl~11 amaliin pratipadyate stainless. pro indic. indeed. the embodied one. pl. to dissolution. amalan (m. pralayam yiiti dehabhrt to dissolution he goes. he arrives at.). loco sg. dehabh~t (m. yadii sattve pravrddhe tu when in sattva in the dominance. sg. in truth. he goes. sattve (n. in virtue. when dominant. when. tu. pr. stainless. he attains. acc. gen. worlds.). mid. pralayam (m. lokiin (m. indeed. >l~<rrfQ~1 yada. pure. sg. act. the atman.XIV 14 ~~>l~ry. nom.Jpad). When an embodied being goes to dissolution (death) Under the dominance of sattva. he enters. loco sg. Then he attains the stainless worlds Of those who know the highest. the embodied one. the body-borne. uttamavidam (m.). 576 .). acc.). tada. pl.). yati (3rd sg. in sattva. prati . then. pratipadyate (3rd sg. death.Jya). in the dominance. prav~ddhe (n.

indic. pralfnas (m. likewise. in the action attached. tamasi (n. in sloth.XIV 15 ~~~w-rr rajasi (n. .). among those attached to action. he is born. 577 . indic. Is reborn among those attached to action.).). ~jan). dissolving. pralayam (m. gatva (gerund ~gam). going. loco sg. rajasi pralayam gatva in rajas to dissolution having gone mrm~1 karmasafigi~u jayate among the action-attached he is born.). in darkness. dissolved (dying) when tamas is dominant. thus. in passion. loco sg. He is reborn from the wombs of the deluded. jayate (3rd sg. sg. jayate (3rd sg. tatoo. He who goes to dissolution (death) when rajas is dominant.oni~u jay ate in deluded wombs he is born. frompra ~ll). nom. in tamas. he is born. a~~~a+1f~ tatha pralinas tamasi likewise dissolving in tamas lWrTf<p'f ~ II ~u¢ha. mid. pr.). to death. mid . in wombs of the deluded. acc. Likewise. loco pl. mu4hayoni~u (f. in deluded wombs. sg. in emotion. pr.Jjan) . in rajas. to dissolution. loco pl. having gone. karmasaiigi~u (m. dying. dissolution.

of tamas. sattvic. sg. tamasas (n.).-qif. phalam (n. of action well done they say mf. pertaining to the gUl)a of sattva. sg. gen. of well performed. sg. of action.f~~1 karma1]£ls (n. nom. of rajas.). gen.. sukt:tasya (n. sg.XIV 16 'filtur: +g!ldf41 §: karmm. tu. gen. nom. ~~:~II ajiiiinam tamasa!.Jah with present meaning).). nom.). fruit. misery. rajasas (n.). but. dulJkham (n. nom. sg.). ignorance.).kham of rajas but the fruit pain. perfect act . without impurity.). without stain. phalam ignorance of tamas the fruit.). sattvikam (n. phalam (n. the fruit. well done. sg.). they say. sg. nom. They say the fruit of good action Is sattvic and without impurity. of the gUl)a of tamas. nom. 578 . ~~~~:~ rajas~s tu phalam du!. fruit. . of siittvikam nirmalam phalam sattvic. fruit. nirmalam (n. sg. without impurity. nom.a!. phalam (n. sukrtasyiihu!. ajiiiinam (n. But the fruit of rajasic action is pain.). lack of knowledge. sg. gen. And the fruit of tamasic action is ignorance. ahus (3rd pI. sg. of the gUl)a of rajas. pain. sg.

tamasas (n. wisdom.Cf "f I rajaso lobha eva ca and from rajas desire. ajiianam (n.). sg. mid. avarice. knowledge. nom. they two arise. and.). from purity.). from darkness. samjayate (3rd sg. indic.). desire. greed.). 579 . ca. From sattva knowledge is bom. sg. abl. Negligence and delusion arise From tamas.Cf "f II bhavato 'jiianam eva ca arise and ignorance also. nom. sg. it is born. lack of knowledge. And from rajas desire. from truth. indic. pramadamohau (n. from sattva. sg. sg. eva ca. sam .XIV 17 ~q:~m sattvat (n. heedlessness and confusion. . and ignorance too. abl. and also.). they two come to be. abl. from passion. jiianam (n. distraction and delusion. sattvat saTnjayate jiianam from sattva is born knowledge ~T ~N 1J. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). rajasas (n. act. pr. ignorance. nom. nom. 51~r~ pramadamohau tamaso negligence and delusion from tamas ~Cf(fT ~ 1J. dual). from desire.JbhU). lobhas (m. from rajas. sg. bhavatas (3rd dual pr.Jjan). eva. from tamas.

Jsthii).a condition established 'W=TT ~~ aTlrnT: II adho gacchanti tiimasii!} below they go. . gacchanti (3rd pI. nom. last. nom. established in gUl)a condition. the rajasic ~1J!C!fmm jaghanyaguTJavrttisthii lowest gUI). Go downward. the sattva-established. established in the lowest gUl)a condition. remaining in gUl)a condition.). the tamasic. riijasiis (m. rising. pl. pro indic.) adhas. hindmost. m.). pro indic. The rajasic stay in the middle.. downward. lowest. they stand. pro indic. madhye (m. act.). the tamasic. The tamasic. loco sg.). sattvasthiis (m. those established in sattva. gUlJav~ttisthiis (m. they remain. nom. TP cpd. they go. pl. below.Jgam). pI. they stay. urdhvam (adv. gacchanti (3rd pI. in the middle. nom.). those attached to rajas. the sattva-established +rcir f~f"ff~: I madhye ti~thanti riijasii!} in the middle they stay. Those established in sattva go upward. . the rajasic.). act. those who are ruled by tamas. pl. nom. they go.Jgam). 580 . tiHhanti (3rd pI. tiimasiis (m. (jaghanya-gulJa-v~tti-sthiis. . jaghanya (m.XIV 18 3i'Ccf ~f"ff ~ iirdhvam gacchanti sattvasthii upward they go. upward.). act. established in the lowest quality. pl.

higher. dra!!!a (m. kartaram (m. my state of being. When the seer perceives No doer other than the qualities. anyam (n. vetti (3rd sg. from the gUQas. ace. from the gUQas. nom. he knows. . anupaiyati (3rd sg. yada. act. he atains.). anu . indic. kartiiram not other than the gUI).). the doer lRT~~~1 yadii dra~tiinupasyati when the beholder perceives. my being.). than the gUQas. ~~~~ gU1}ebhyasca param vetti and than the gUI). ace. pro indic. he sees.). not. other. sg. gUl!ebhyas (m. act. when. ca. else. he perceives. ace. pr. param (n. maker. nom. sg.). doer. pl.Jvid). act. sg.XIV 19 ~TT"l-1l:~ niinyam gUlJebhyal.). than the gUQas.as higher he knows ~~Tsf~~11 na. madbhiivam so 'dhigacchati my being he attains. He attains My being.Jpas). madbhiivam (m. abl.). beholder. sg. gUl!ebhyas (m. abl. me. pl. adhigacchati (3rd sg. and. he goes to.). pro indie. ace. he.Jgam). 581 .as. sas (m. observer. sg. highest. And knows that which is higher than the qualities. sg. adhi .

gUQas. dehasamudbhavan (m. pl. immortality. ~r ~~<ITi'!: I dehi dehasamudbhavan the embodied one." 582 . G. pass. which are the source of the body.) vimuktas (m.).. death. absorption in Brahman. pain.. the embodied.w.). acc. misery. TP cpd. three. pl. nom. going beyond.). G'~-I"t. death. pI..zkhair from birth. gUTJan (m.). . p. sg. (janmam~tyujaradulJkhiiis. acc.).. ~ vimukto 'mrtam asnute released.. The stanza makes sense if one considers that Brahman is "immortal. or divine non-existence.Ji). by birth. nirvii1. ~ gU7Jan etan atitya trin gut. acc.). Ramanuja suggests that amrtam. death. released. the body originating In.). the atman. old age.). means the opposite of what it means to us. and pain. immortality he attains . transcending.. indic. dehf (m. freed. When an embodied being transcends These three qualities. asnute (3rd sg.Jmuc). DV cpd. pI. trin (m. pl.). He attains immortality. acc.. mid. acc.. misfortune... coming to be in the body. pr. old age. he attains..as). m~tyu (m... these.fA"'. old age and pain.XIV 20 lf1lTR ~." "unchanging" and "permanent. participle vi . ~~:~ . liberated. janma (n. :.. sg.. Since the iitman of every being is already considered to be "immortal" the attainment of immortality through transcendence of the gUlJas would seem to be redundant. immortality . dulJkha (n. • This would appear on the surface to be one of the GWi's slight contradictions. nom. three.. age and pain f~T Sl10l1 ~ II . etan (m.. atitya (gerund ati . WI"R<r '. the embodied one. birth. Released from birth. originating in the body.:. inst. sg.). death. n. that is. jara (f.. am~tam (n.las these transcending..6 janmamrtyujariidu/.

. pl. he moves beyond. transcending. p. by character- istics. perfect act. 0 Majestic One. pl. kimiiciiral} katha'm ciiitiins what conduct? and how these practice. these. pl. participle ati >Ii). three gUI). bhavati (3rd sg. he transcends.as these kiiis (n.). pl. >lvac). ep- ithet of Krishna. acc. sg. inst. etan (m.).11: ~urq ~f~ 11 trin gw}iin ativartate three gUl). gUfJan (m. ativartate (3rd sg.). sg. acc. he comes to be. kim. pl. mid. three. mr'RfT "lfGIf<i "SP1T 1 atito bhavati prabho transcending. voc. indic. sg. he is (recognized). nom. by marks. pl.). pl. be said. sg. pro indic. gUl}as. trin (m. pass. of what behavior? of what conduct?) <. BY cpd. behaviour. gUfJan (m.). gUl}as. (kimacaras. AIjuna. he spoke. 21 ~f~"t~TTq~ hair lifigiiis trin gw}iin etiin by what marks.XIV ~. acc. acc. o Majestic One? f~:'li~~ going beyond. these. three..). pr. sg. inst. 0 Lord? What is his conduct? And how Does he go beyond these three qualities? katham. act. what? acaras (m.f<r '3<fT~ 1 arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: arjunas (m. pl. 583 . nom. prabho (m. nom. nom. m. how? ca.). acc.).). uvaca (3rd sg.). and. acc.). ati >lvft). atftas (m. by what? liiigais (n.as he goes beyond? Arjuna spoke: By what marks is he recognized Who has transcended these three qualities. >IbM). he is. conduct. trin (m. etan (m.

perfect act.Jvac). he spoke.~u.). sg. ep- <r [f1SC ~mf<r na dve~ti sampravrttiini not he hates the presences <r f~mf<r 'fiTS. nom. he hates. ca. 22 wmt 'if 5P!fffi :q prakiisam ca pravrttim ca illumination or activity l1~u'cr'if~ I prakiisam (m.. . . ca. acc. rajas and tamas. acc. sg.ma. comings forth. ithet of Arjuna. non-occurrings. The characteristic attributes of sattva. he loathes. acc. illumination.).XIV l!1'hl<m<J: '3CIT"f I sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. moham eva ca pii1. act. sg. pl. na. eva. and. splendor.Jkiiiik~). acc.). . he said. and. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). na.). 584 . The Blessed Lord spoke: He neither hates nor desires The presence or the absence Of light or activity Or delusion. the Blessed Lord. and. sg. ca. or. pro indic. Son of Pal). not. the Blessed One. he wishes for. sg.Jdvi~).II na nivrttiini kiifik~ati nor the absences he desires. delusion. nivr:ttiini (n. activity. not. pravr:ttim (f.). Son of Pii~<ju. occurrences. indic. uviica (3rd sg. not.). . occurrings. voc. sG/hpravr:ttiini (n. piiTJqava (m. kiiiik~ati (3rd sg. na. advance. pr. or. he desires. Arjuna . or. pl. acc. pro- gress.ujava or delusion. nor. confusion. moham (m. nonoccurrences. bright- ness. act. dve~fi (3rd sg.). presences.

sg. ava .Jiiig). inst. pl.). viealyate (3rd sg. they exist. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).XIV 23 ~~~R1" udiisinavad iisino udasfnavat (adv. asfnas (m. vartanta (sarhdhi for vartante. pro indic. not. eva.Jv~t). nom. nom. sg.Jas). disinterestedly. . sg.Jsthii). they move. 3rd pI. avastil!{hati (3rd sg. he is disturbed. . nom. gUfJas (m. he stirs. he stands firm. yas (m. tially. act." And who stands firm and does not waver. causative passive vi:'. pro indic.cal). iti.). he is shaken. not he wavers. he remains standing. gU1}ii vartanta ity eva "the gunas working" (only). by the gUQas. Thinking "the qualities are operating. he takes his stand. na. He who is seated as if indifferent. seated. who. pl. pro indic. dispassionately. mid . gUQas. they operate.). iiigate (3rd sg.). thus <11" sqf~~ ~ II yo 'vati~thati nengate who he stands firm. gUfJais (m. pro indic. thus (often used to close a quotation). Who is not disturbed by the qualities. 585 . pro participle . they roll. sitting. impar- as if seated apart seated gUl}iiir yo na viciilyate by the gUIJ-as who not he is disturbed. not. he wavers. they work. na. indifferently. who. as if seated apart. mid . nom. yas (m.).

sama (m.). asma (m.) he who is indifferent to pain and pleasure. self contained. being equal in pain and pleasure.). sg. equal.). nom. steadfast.). (samalo~(asmakiiiicanas. nom. To whom a clod. sg. same. for whom a clod. sg.ln. nom. clod. m. sg.) 586 .) tulya (m. (tulyanindatmasamstutis. the loved and the unloved. svasthas (m.). equal. the dear and the undear. (as BV cpd. lump of earth. to whom blame and praise of himself are alike. nindatmasamstutis (f. ~11IC1~'l'fiI::>-"''1: I samalo~!asmakaiicanal} (to whom are) the same a clod.). (tulyapriyapriyas. being the same in pain and pleasure. atma = self.).. sg. firm. who is steadfast.). BV cpd. gold.ln. m. stone. ~~~a-:II tulyanindatmasamstutil} (to whom are) equal blame of himself and praIse. to whom the pleasant and the unpleasant are equal. sg. priyapriyas (m. a stone and gold ~wrrfW1T <r'ro{ tulyapriyapriyo dhiras (to whom are) equal the loved and the unloved. samadulJklwsukhas (m. nom. nom. the pleasant and the unpleasant. a stone.) dhfras (m. blame of himself or praise (ninda = blame.). To whom blame and praise of himself are alike. who dwells in the Self. and gold are the same. lo~(a (m.). nom. sg. a stone.ln. tulya (m. m. nom. BV cpd. nom. sg. constant.. samstuti = praise). depending on the self. BV cpd. To whom pain and pleasure are equal. self contained. steadfast. kiiiicana (n.XIV 24 ~:~:RN: samadu~khasukha~ svastha~ (to whom are) the same pain and pleasure. To whom the loved and the unloved are alike.). equal.. a stone and gold are the same.

impartial. ucyate (3rd sg.t sa ucyate transcending the gUl). commencement. nom. pak~a=wing. nom.).).. Dispassionate toward the side of friend or foe. renouncing all undertakings.). nom. participle ati vi).). parityiigf (m. nom. sarva (m. (sarva-iirambha-parityiigf. indifferent. loco dual TP cpd. it is said. tulyas (m. equal. nom. lI1Iml. TP cpd. sg.'tr: ~ ~ II miiniipamiinayos (m. undertaking. loco dual DV cpd. passive .t impartial toward friend or enemy sides ~qf~r sarviirambhaparityiigi all undertakings renouncing.). faction). renouncing. equal.). sg. in honor and dishonor. tulyas (m.) gUlJiitftas (m. ari=enemy. iirambha (m. toward friend or enemy sides. abandoning. this. m. going beyond the gUl). nom. mitriiripa/qayos (m.). gUlJa + p.as. pass. 587 . toward the party or faction of friend or enemy (mitra = friend. RenOlUlcing all undertakings He is said to transcend the qualities. sg. he. To whom honor and dishonor are equal. disinterested.!as. sas (m. sg. '" gu1}(ititaJ. TP cpd.). sg. side. he. it is said. he is said to be. transcending the gUI.XIV 25 'i1'1{q'iI<141~t ~ miiniipamiinayos tulyas in honor and dishonor equal. pro indic.as. sg. all.Jvac). wiT flP-frf~&1<fT: I tulyo mitriiripalqayoJ. in esteem and disesteem.

. inst.). brahmabhUyaya (m.XIV 26 +IT ~ llT SOlIf~ miim ca yo 'vyabhiciire1Ja and me who with unswerving mam (acc.). sevate (3rd sg. avyabhicarelJ<l (m.Jklp). who. he. with the power of devotion. Yoga.). he serves. pr. with the Yoga of devotion. sg. he is suited. nom. he obeys. with unwavering. Is ready for absorption in Brahman. transcending. sg. kalpate (3rd sg.). And he who serves Me With the yoga of unswerving devotion. sg. indic. . for absorption in Brahman.). pl. nom. he is adapted. he waits upon. mid . acc. he honors. me. these. to absorption in Brahman. mid . passed through. and. Transcending these qualities.Ji). he is ready. sg.).Jsev). sg. with devotion- bhaktiyogena sevate devotion Yoga he serves ~rr1lTRwm~ "" . passed beyond. 588 . m ing. yas (m.). sg. the gUQas. I bhaktiyogena (m. with constant. inst. brahmabhuyiiya kalpate for absorption in Brahman he is ready. dat. these. etan (m. sas (m. this. sa gU1Jiin samatftyiiitiin ~<m1~11 he the gUIfas transcending. acc. ca. with unswerv- mffiti'l<t.). samatftya (gerund sam ati . pl. gUfJan (m. .

of happiness. siisvatasya ca dharmasya and of everlasting virtue ~~~'i'fll sukhasyiiikiintikasya ca and of bliss absolute. of the imperishable. gen. nom. basis. ca. gen. gen. hi.). prati:f{hti (f. of the perpetual.dfllIOllllfll 'i'f I brahmalJas (n. gen. support. ca.ln.o hi prati~thiiham oi Brahman indeed the foundation I. truly.). gen.). sg. of singular. sg. ekiintikasya (n. sg. and. End of Book XIV The Yoga of Distinction between the Three GUl. sg. and.las 589 .XIV 27 ~Tf~5lf~ brahmat. of the law. sg. and. indeed. dharmasya (m. of righteousness. 1. sg. ca. am~tasya (n. of the one and only. siisvatasya (n. "q+!.). of the everlasting. For I am the abode of Brahman. And of absolute bliss. gen. of bliss.). Of everlasting virtue. foundation. of absolute. of the immortal. sukhasya (m. Of the immortal and the imperishable.). amrtasyiivyayasya ca of the immortal and imperishable ~'i'f~ avyayasya (n.). of unique. of Brahman. sg. gen. aham (nom.).). sg. of the eternal. sg.

above. acc. per. • The asvattha (derived by some from asva stha meaning "where the horse remains" or "where the horse is tied "). 1 3i<-~~'i:l":~ c-. tam (m. chandMlsi (n. acc. sg. The symbol refers to the Supreme Spirit branching downward into the urdhva. acc.). him. vedavit (m. which appears. he knows.: II yas tam veda 5a vedavit who it knows. sg. sacred hymns. wise in the Veda. imperishable.). Having its roots above and branches below. sg. acc. sg. (n. nom. however. whose branches stretch forth below. acc. nom. . m. act. uviica (3rd sg. 590 . eternal wqtf~ ~ qujrf. perf. but not in this fanciful upside down form.). eternal. sg.Jvac). who. I).). limb. acc.. Vedic hymns. he said.). Whose leaves are the (Vedic) hymns. this. He who knows this is a knower of the Vedas.liini the (Vedic) hymns. he spoke. (adhal]siikham. mulam (n.Jah with present meaning).). '* they say. low. knower of the Veda.BOOK XV ""~~I Sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagaviin (m. The Blessed Lord spoke: They speak of the eternal ashvattha tree. the Blessed One. parl!tmi (n. is mentioned in the Vedas. perf. avyayam (m. adhas. pl. . this.:r chandiimsi yasya par1. in the later Katha Upanishad (6. act.. nom. pl. ~sng~~1 asvattham priihur avyayam the asvattha tree. acc. yasya (gen.). below. high. It belongs to the fig family. with present meaning). sg. was used to kindle sacrifices. root. act. nom.) asvattham (m. leaves. urdhvamulam adha~siikham high the root. they say. acc. .). along with that of the par~a tree. he. siikham.). branch. bough. BV cpd. sas (m. it.).). sg.). the Blessed Lord. the asvattha tree. of which. . he Veda knowing. yas (m. of which the leaves ~(f~~~<rn. Veda-knowing.Jvid. veda (3rd sg. priihus (3rd pI. sg. sg. below the bough. sg. It is a sacred tree whose wood. sg. pra .

js~). adhasca miilany anusamtatani and below roots stretched forth. low. Both trees are considered sacred in India. Nourished by the qualities." but the asvattha tree. nom. particle pra . pI. gen. boughs. anusarhtatani (n. in the human world. and.). pl. . nom. pass. TP cpd.. pI. pI. And below its roots stretch forth Engendering action in the world of men. below.. below. earthly realm. 591 . realm of the senses. gUl. nom. . nom.) adhas. stretched out. action engendering.~)ef. sprouts composed of sense objects. promoting action. sakhas (f. roots. gUlJaprav~ddhas (m.xv ~~Tecf~· ~lT WlfT .apravrddha vi~ayapravalal. participle pra . widely flowing. low. object of the senses.). ~ '" karmanubandhini manu~yaloke action-engendering in the world of men. sense object. pass. high. ardhvam. gUI). of this. vi~aya (m. pI. like the banyan to which it is related. adhaicordhvam prasrtas tasya sakha* below and above wide spreading of it the branches l10ISl"l41 f"l1'flfSl"ClTm: I '" gU1. ca. participle anu sam . nom. (vi~aya-pravalas. karmilnubhandfni (n. m. branches. pI. young shoots. with objects of the senses as sprouts. The following stanza seems to blur the symbolism somewhat by speaking of the "roots stretched forth below. pl. tasya (m. II Below and above its branches spread. stretched forth. TP cpd. in the world of men.jtan). p. p. nom. manu~aloke (m. fostered by the gUl. malani (n. pras~tas (nom. adhas.). pravalas (m. followed by action.). karma anubandhfni).la nourished. TP cpd. limbs. sg. loco sg.). strikes roots from its branches. pass. 'filWf0f71:1')f.). and. above.jv~dh). nom.las. sense-object sprouts. pl. of it.a nourished. • Tr#tubh metre begins again. wide spreading. ca. sprouts.

miilam (n. tatha. antas (m. n. pr. not. nom. iha. with its well grown root. fully ascended.". saJnprati~~ha (f. chopping. na. non-attachment. it is perceptible. fully developed.). sg.hamulam asvattha tree this well grown root tl~ 1j'. sg. By the strong axe of non-attachment. by the axe. of it. and stanza 4 indicates that after the tree of life. Mis (m. here in the world.). na rupam asyeha tathopalabhyate* not the form of it here in the world thus it is perceptible 'lRfT.). Cutting this ashvattha tree. upalabhyate (3rd sg. by the knife. sg. this. .).. acc. ca. of this.. sg. is cut. maintenance. and. form. continuance. sg. BV cpd. ~fCf~l1: asvattham enam suvirurj. nom.). acc." The metaphor is rather confused by the lower" roots" of stanza z. basis. or of rebirth. gen. passive upa --ilabh). it is attainable. cutting. nor its beginning. line 3.). termination. shape. Its fonn is not perceptible here in the world. na. whose roots are fully grown. chittva (gerund --ichid). na.~(fq~ na.df"l 01 ~~ f£9ffi II asangasastre1}a drrj. asya (m.or roots of stanza z). fully grown. root. pass. staying. by the strong. severing. m. participle su vi --iruh) . here on earth. acc. nom.:r "f M~ I minto na cadir na ca samprati~tha not the end and not the beginning and not the staying. and leaving only the spiritual part which exists "above. not. by the axe of non-attachment. sastrelJa (m. not. nor its existence.) asaiiga (m. The cutting of the tree involves doing away with earthly desires (the branches . sg. sg. in this way.). and. (asaiiga-sastrelJa. sg.ffi~. enam (m. asvattha tree. sg. riipam (n. inst. thus. sg. existence. by the weapon. ca. nom. asvattham (m. (suviru4hamiilam. nor. figure.q~q~ '1:.:r:. instr.).hena chittva non-attachment axe strong cutting. acc. sg. '" Line I of stanza 3 (trif!ubh metre) has an extra syllable. not. TP cpd. inst. that is to say Brahman.). end. t Cutting the supernatural asvattha tree is a symbol for destroying the process of rebirth. Not its end. sg. 592 . and seeks refuge in the primal spirit whence activity streamed forth (see following stanza). here.xv 3 "1~. one seeks the place (nirva~a) from which there is no return to rebirth.) d~4hena (m. suvirii4ha (p. beginning.).).

nom.). that. gone. spirit. ni . prav~ttis (f. nom. parimargitavyam (n. gatas (m. Cfl( ~:.). sg." Then that goal is to be sought From which. I take refuge.Jgam). site. sg. indie. p. they return.Jmarg). progress. tam (m. na. beginning. flowed. him. gerundive pari . sg. acc.). nom. to the original. to the primal. this. nom. tad (n. being. again. and. act. abode. to be sought.Jv~t). acc. sg. sg. whence.Jpad). mid. bhiiyas. then. pI. pr. In that primal Spirit I take refuge. tatas. nivartanti (3rd pI. not. indic. sg. p.:r f~~ ~: I .). activity.). acc. gone. participle pra . pras~ta (f. to that. yasmin gala na nivartanti bhuyal:z to which. participle . acc. that. puru~am (m. 593 . tidyam (m. anciently. footing. ancient. eva. to be run after.). loco sg.xv 4 ffif: cR mr qf~~ ~ tatal:z padarh tat parimargitavyarh then place that to be sought m~tffiT. yasmin (n. sg. place.Js~). they tum back. sg. no one returns. in which. pass. primaeval.). to which. not they return again. I resort to. in the primal. primal. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler. purafJ! (f.:mj ~ m tam eva cadyarh puru~arh prapadye and "in that very primal spirit I take refuge «<1": 5!'Gff~: >rnm {1TI1Jfr II e e -b'" yalal:z pravrttil:z prasrta pura1fi whence activity streamed forth anciently. pr. Whence the primeval energy streamed forth. from there. ca. nom. in former times.). padam (n. once more. sg. prapadye (1st sg. streamed forth. nom. pass. having gone. but here intensifying tam). yatas. pra . from where.

pass. turned away desires. nom. nom. eternal. freed. and misery. kamas (m. m. sukhaduiJkha.) adhyatma (m.. BV cpd. constantly. participle vi ni .e. acc. released. sg. Without arrogance or delusion. vimuktas (m.).:l1il'1l'll~1 f'jjd~l'~·(fM nirmana (m. acc. to place. perpetually. pl. recognized as. nom. lusts.). tad (n. nom.xv 5 f. pl. attachment. turned away. pI. by known as. nom. by the pairs of opposites. that. acc. TP cpd. avyayam (n. ~e<m+1f"Rln f<ff'1"!'i'1CfiIJiI: I adhyatmanitya vinivrttakamal} (in the) Supreme Self constantly (dwelling). nityas (m. pleasure and pain. t I. pleasure-painknown-as. undeluded. as BV cpd. nom. evils.Jgam) . whose desires have been turned away... with the evils of attadunent conquered.khasamjfiair by the dualities released.). dvandvair vimuktal} sukhadul.). place. whose attachment-evils are conquered.. pI. saflga (m. confusions. participle vi . indic.Jmuc).). (nirmana-mohas. participle . conquered. 594 • Triltubh metre continues. amu4hiis (m. m. padam (n. saJnjiiais (m. (viniv~ttakamas. to abode. clinging.). do~as (m. eternally. inst.). inst. DV cpd. m. by the dualities. delusions. without pride. nom. mohiis (m. abode. (jitasaflgado~as. act.. nom. m.). m. pI. imperishable. eternally in the supreme self. desires. pI. pI.). pass. sg. nom. BV cpd. . without pride or delusions. (adhyatma-nityas. Dwelling constantly in the supreme Self. this. instr. conquered attachment-evils. with desires turned away.. n.) dvandvais (n. pl.) jita (p.. known as pleasure and pain. The undeluded go to that imperishable goal. Brahman. nirmanamoha jitasafigado~a* without arrogance or delusion. p.). .) viniv~tta (p.). pass.) gacchanti (3rd pI. without arrogance. gacchanty amu¢hal} padam avyayam tat they go undeluded to place imperishable that. Supreme Self. pr. Released from the dualities known as pleasure and pain. pl.)./ji). twisted away. nom.Jv~t). conquered attachment-evils. happiness. with the evils of attachment conquered.). pI. site. they go. (sukha-duiJkha-samjfliiis. pl. wrongs. unconfused. sg. pl. pl.

sg. highest.). going. mama (gen.. sg. sg. nom. sasaiikas (m. gatva (gerund gam). • 8loka metre resumes. my. sun. no one returns.). nom. ~~. fire. na. having gone. they return. That is My supreme abode. the sun. it illumines. suryas (m.xv 6 . nor ftre. paramam (n. of me. not they return. the sun . sg. that." the moon. nor. sgJ' The sun does not illwnine.). ni JVI:t). nivartante (3rd pI. nor fire. dhama (n. that. nom. not. na. acc. not. nom.. na. sg. nom. 595 .f~ yad gatva na nivartante to which.. sg. flame. ~. abode. nom. home. not. pavakas (m. acc.. tad (n. to which. yad (n. having gone.). nor.). they turn back. ~~~ltl111 tad dhama paramam mama that abode supreme of me. na. tad (n. sg. this. pr.).). which. bhiisayate (3rd sg. causative Jbhiis). not. indic. having gone. sg. that place To which.~~~1 na tad bhasayate suryo* not that (place) it illumines. . Nor the moon. mid. this. supreme.). it causes to shine. q-rGfCfi: I na sasafiko na pavakalJ nor the rabbit-marked. the "rabbit-marked.

~1lT alive. '" Mind. pl. Draws to itself the senses. nom. acc. becoming jivabhiita!. . jivaloke (m. abiding in material nature. itself.).:~1f. ancient. and the (other) senses. of which the sixth is the mind. act. of me. mind. That exist in material nature.. 5[~~~" cmf(111 (n. it draws to Merely a fragment of Myself. sg. eternal. saniitanas (m. part. kar:jati (3rd sg. it draws (as in plowing). nom.. indeed. acc. indriyiilJi (n. as the sixth .f~R. nom. !fa!f{hiini (n. filler). a soul becoming. it draws to itself. sg.).). being. pl.. saniitana!.). Becoming an eternal (individual) soul in the world of the living. acc. prakrtisthiini kar~ati material-nature-existing. in Gita psychology.. pl. loc. sg. sixth.). pro indic. prak~tisthiini mana!. becoming a self. manas (n. my. amsas (m. sg. the sixth. jivabhiitas (m. share. ~a~thiinindriyii1Ji mind. sg. eternal. is regarded as the sixth sense.).). eva.). mama (gen.xv 7 ~T. in the world of the living.). 596 .jk~s). fragment. primaeval.. sg. acc. merely (often used as a rhythmic mamiiiviimso fivaloke of me merely a fragment in the world of the living. . senses. existing in material nature.

like. when.). which. sar'iram (n. indic. from source. also. sg. grasping. the wind. sg. he steps out of. act.. 597 . utkriimati (3rd sg. Thus. he goes. 'T~~'1 Wnfi1 grhitviiitiini samyiiti taking these along. them. indic. taking them aiong. pr. act. ca. from resting place. the Lord. acc. When the Lord acquires a body. as if. He goes. pl.: ~ 'WffirTfi1 sariram yad aViipnoti a body when he acquires lfi\~~'hR: I yac ciip). scents. sg. he departs from.). act. the iitman is not totally devoid of characteristics between one incarnation and another. indic. abl. even. nom. gandhiin (m. perfumes. sg. acc.Jkram) . which.). he goes. g~h[tvii (gerund . yad (n. acc. api. acc.. apparently. ava . he acquires. iva. The mind and other senses. sg. aviipnoti (3rd sg. ud . body. sQlnyiiti (3rd sg. 'isvaras (m. nom.Jiip). iisayiit (m. acc. And also when He departs from it. the Lord. and. sg.). taking."Ramanuja. yad (n.xv 8 m:r.j grah) .). t "Whatever body the iitman enters and from whatever body it departs. when. it will always retain those senses with the subtle elements and roam with them as the breeze roams with odors which it has carried from their original abodes. pr.ml: II viiyur gandhiin iviisayiit the wind-perfumes-like from (their) source.). Like the wind blowing perfumes from their source. wind. utkriimatisvaralJ and when also he departs from. sam . pl. he attains. etiini (n. .Jyii). from seat. pr. G ~~ <f"~ ~ffiI'. taking along.). bodily frame. to be used in connection with another acquired body. viiyus (m. he obtains.). these.

pl. sg. Presiding over hearing. He (i. the fragment of the Lord incarnated as the individual soul) Enjoys the objects of the senses.Jsev).). Taste and smell. acc. sg.). eva. this one. acc. nom. sense of smell. sense of taste. eye. sense of hearing.). touch. upa . and.). acc. he enjoys.). ruling. sight and touch. sg. ca. hearing. sparsanam (n.Jsthii). cak~us (n. commanding. he is addicted to. ca. adhi~fhiiya (gerund adhi . sense of sight. mind. sg. acc. and the mind. upasevate (3rd sg. as well as the mind. he abides in. flavor. mid. smell. and. manas (n.). taste. acc. presiding over. acc. objects of the senses. ghriilJam (n. and. sense of touch. sight. rasanam (n. 598 . territory of the senses.Cf:q I rasanam ghrii1Jam eva ca taste and smell ~~~ adh#thiiya manasciiyam presiding over. ca. sg.). sight and touch ~ muTl!: t:1.e. ayam (m. srotram cakiulz sparsanam ca hearing. vi~ayiin (m. acc. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). this.xv 9 ~:q~:~:q srotram (n. indic. pr. sg.). sg. this one f~~11 vi~ayiin upasevate the objects of sense he enjoys.

p.'Jf. those vimurfhii nanupasyanti the deluded. bhufljiinam (m. remaining. pl.od f~ cnfq utkriimantam (m. The deluded do not perceive Him. staying. sg. Or enjoys (sense objects) while accompanied by the qualities. anupa§yanti (3rd pI. . departing. they see. Those who are perplexed by ignorance do not perceive that the atman-with-gu~as is conjoined. perceive. act. albeit present in all conditions. They are unable to perceive this.and have only one form. acc. viipi (vii api). for they have the misconception that the iitman is akin to that mass to which it is conjoined. anu . whether. participle gUfJa anu :. 599 . nom. pass. with human nature etc. na. nor do they perceive that this iitman is either departing from a certain mass of prakrti. not. participle -Jbhuj). not they perceive (him). sthitam (m. remaining. accom- panied by the gUlps. they perceive. utkramantam sthitam vapi departing. gUl. '!arR err Tffi. they jfliinacak~u~as they see (him). they see. acc. va. or. the knowledgeeyed. whether.) those who have the eye of knowledge. gUl}a-accompanied. p. gUfJiinvitam (m. the deluded. nom. sg. which are particular developments of prakrti consisting of gu~as. the knowledge-eyed. forms a whole.. and that (this) iitman might at some time be different from such a masshuman nature etc.a-accompanied.). they behold. sg.}i).xv 10 '3.Jpas). indic. pass. remains.Riimiinuja.-<ra+!: I bhuiijanam va gUl}anvitam enjoying or. who know the difference between mass and iitman and so perceive that the iitman. -Jpas). is different from whatever mass it is conjoined with. Those with the eye of knowledge see Him. When He departs. have a clear vision of the truth. pro participle ud -Jkram). (m. stepping away. vimii4hiis (m. however. or existing in it and experiencing the objects (of the senses). acc. pro indic. acc.. pl." . pa§yanti (3rd pI. act.). Those. those with the eye of knowledge. • . ~~m<R~:11 pasyantijiianacak~u~a~ who are confused. sg. pr. participle -Jsthii) . fGf"~T 'fA~~ " '" enjoying. pr. (as BY cpd. knowledge..I&l.

But the unthinking. the thoughtless ones. nom. loco sg. the unthinking. nom. participle Jyat).). yatanto yoginasciiinam striving. act.). pI. ca.). api. p. this. pr. pl. the fools.!lC1I\~ I"1T yatanto 'py akrtiitmiino (but) striving even. of unprepared selves. pr. acc. na. the yogins this one ~~~crf~~1 pasyanty iitmany avasthitam they see in the self situated <rcRfT S'=l{ ~. and. the unthinking. striving. see Him (the embodied fraction of the Lord) Situated in the Self. pro act. him. stretching. also. nom. ak~tiitmiinas (m. even. indic. pl. pass. those of unperfected selves. particple Jyat) . enam (m. nom. pI. pr. not this one they see.). they see. unperfected selves. J pas).). sg. Strive but do not see Him. yogins. this. existing. Jpas). this one. pI. avasthitam (m. (as BV cpd. unperfected selves 4<i'~~:11 niiinam pasyanty acetasal. indic. yatantas (m. they perceive. from ak~ta iitmanas) . participle ava Jsthii). paiyanti (3rd pI. paiyanti (3rd pI. The yogins. abiding. acetasas (m.xv 11 lRRfT<1Tf~ yatantas (m. act. striving. acc. sg. they see.) those whose selves are unperfected. 600 . yoginas (m. acc. striving. stretching. iitmani (m. situated. act. sg. not. enam (m. nom. this one. they perceive. in the self.

splendor.).). acc. candramasi (m. mine. iidityagatam (n. Which illumines the entire universe. sg.:mf~~T yad (n. world. without a gap. the sun. sun-proceeding. nom. akhilam (adv. it illumines. it causes to shine. this. sg. nom. viddhi (2nd sg. loco sg. . brilliance.Jbluis). which. in fire. .). sg. which. Know that brilliance to be Mine. tejas (n. and.). bluisayate (3rd sg. what.). proceeding from yad iidityagatam tejo which sun-proceeding splendor ~mmsf~l . imperative act. . tejas (n. nom. brightness. acc.). loco sg. yac candramasi yac ciignau which in the moon and which in fire tat tejo viddhi miimakam that splendor know to be mine. tad (n. know! be aware! miimakam (m. which. without a gap.). sg.xv 12 <n. agniiu (m. completely. causative mid . yad (n. nom. what. jagat (n. all that jagad bhiisayate 'khilam the universe it illumines. sg. nom. 601 . splendor. yad (n.). sg. sg.). ca. Which is in the moon and which is in fire.). sg. what. in the moon. universe. acc. that. That brilliance which resides in the sun. belonging to me.). sg. moves.Jvid). acc. brightness. brilliance.).

pl. lit. all beings ~~:q"). pr. sg. wornl1 :q'tq-<TT: ~ch: p~1Jami caufadhi~ sarva~ and I cause to thrive the plants all " soma bhutva rasatmakal} the Soma having become.Jvis).rm I gam (f. Verona.).Jga). acc. aham (nom. and. pl. by energy. substitutes for it were used . having become.). I support All beings with energy. bhUtva (gerund . having the nature of flavor or juice. juicy-selved. approaching.. acc. herbs. in fact.g Veda. the laity and the gods during sacrifices described in the Vedas. somas (m. beings. sg. ~Tl1T +rm~: II Entering the earth. Wasson thinks. settling on.Jdhr). au~adhfs (f. with strength.Jpu~). dhiirayami (Ist sg. And. and. aviiya (gerund a . soma. even from late Vedic times. . I cause all the plants to thrive. the knowledge of the Soma plant seems to have disappeared. creatures. As the Vedic Aryans moved into India. . causative act. and.xv 13 gam avisya ca bhutani and the earth entering. by energy. a hallucinogenic mushroom (the amanita muscaria) which grew in the Aryans' original homeland in western Asia. dharayamy aham ojasa I support. Recently R.). Vedic drink of the gods. It would also explain the rapturous descriptions of the effects of Soma drinking recorded in the B.). ca.). This circumstance. acc. (See" Soma the Divine Mushroom.Jbhii). becoming. I cause to thrive. I preserve. would explain the loss of the Soma as the Aryans migrated southward.). liquid-selved.mostly plants of the milkweed family whose juice is not inebriating. flavor-selved.). pu~1Jiimi (Ist sg. juicy-selved. acc. bhUtani (n. nom. with power. sg. has advanced a persuasive but still controversial hypothesis . act. pl. I maintain. 1. indic. sg.). a mycologist acquainted with the Vedas in translation. sarvas (f.the juice of a plant with inebriating properties that was drunk by the priests. the earth. ojasa (n. the drink of the gods . entering. plants. all. inst. ca. Gordon Wasson.) 602 . • There has been much speculation among scholars as to the identity of Soma. I. I cause to prosper. that on which one goes (. sg. I support. rasatmakas (m." published by the Stamperia Valdonega.that the Soma plant was. I cause to flower. pro indie. nom. and in Southern Asia only in the highest mountains. having become the watery moon.

joined with the vital and abdominal breaths.). the digestive fire of all men becoming. gen. vital and abdominal breaths. sg. prii. I (digest) the four kinds of food. participle sam ii .). acc. nom. TP cpd.. I. belonging to all men. bodily frame. prii1}iipiinas~miiyuktal} the vital breath and the abdominal breath joined with. inhalation and exhalation. And joining with the prana and apana. iiSritas (m. I abide in the body of all living beings. united with. m. the digestive fire of all men. sg.Jbhii).!n. deham (m. samayuktas (m. Having become the digestive fire of all men. I digest.) paciimi (1st sg. sg. sg. . 603 . sg. having become. indic.!iipiina (m. of four kinds. (prii'!iipiina-samiiyuktas. annam (n. nom. sg. p. I cook.Jsri). pass. sg. joining. sg. participle ii .xv 14 ~~)m<n aham (nom. entering. nom. . nom. act. caturvidham (n. viiisviinaras (m. inhabiting. grain). acc. bhiitvii (gerund . becoming. acc.).Jyuj).!iniim (m. pass. " 5ITfurrrt ~ mf~: I prii1}iniim deham iisrital} of breathing beings the body entering. fourfold.). pr. joined with.).Jpac).). body. prii. of the breathing. of breathing beings. aham viiisviinaro bhUtvii I. pl.). food (esp. p. ~~>i ~cf~~ II 511 0 11 q 1<1 iip·lIIHfi: paciimy annam caturvidham I cook (digest) four kinds of food.

lac. sg. jiiiinam (n. to be recognized. literally" the end (in the sense of conclusion) of the Veda. sarvasya ciiham hrdi samnivi~to· and of all I in the heart entered.C. nom. and. aham (nom. pl. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). sg. nom. knowledge. nom. ca. eva. aham (nom. ca.).). by the Vedas. seated. knowledge and reasomng ~q-q~~~~~T vediiisca sarviiir aham eva vedyo and by the Vedas all I alone to be known.). sg. pass. to be known. denial. I alone am that which is to be known in all the Vedas. Vedanta means primarily the thought expressed in the Upanishads. sg.CT sarvasya (m. sg. inst. apohanam (n.C. and. • TriNubh metre. nom. aham (nom.). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). 1.). sg. I am the author of the Vedanta and the knower of the Vedas. by all. 'l. sg. reasoning. abl. a system of philosophy based on it. from me. mattas (m. 1. sg. sg. gen. in the heart. sarviiis (m. and it has many points of difference from the Vedas of the original Aryans who invaded India circa 1600 B. t 604 . wisdom. sg. I have entered into the hearts of all beings. c!~I<difi~iRf~~~11 vediintakrd vedavid eva ciiham Vedanta making and Veda knowing.1!:flwf "f I ca. expressed in the Brahma sfitra of BadarayaQa and the Upanishads. sg. knowledge." the predominant system of religious thought in India. objection.). Its formulation dates from approximately 500 B. and. pl. p. sainnivi~!as (m. 1.). sg.). eva. participle sam ni Jvis). Vedanta maker. Vedanta making. nom. mattal} smrtir jiiiinam apohanam ca from me memory.xv 15 ~ ~ ~~ ~FrfCP. gerundive Jvid). memory. nom. as well as in the present poem. and. ca.). 1. sm~tis (f.). alone. h~di (n. with all.).). vediintak~t (m. vedyas (m. of all. vedavit (m. Vedanta. entered. inst. From Me come memory and knowledge. nom. as well as their loss.). and secondarily. vediiis (m. Veda knowing. lffi: ~f~ ~T""f+1. sg.

it is said. immovable.).). sg. dual). in the world. imperishable. perishable.xv 16 ~~r~r~~ dviiv imiiu puru~iiu loke'" two. all. eT<:: ~Uf~. bhUtalJi (n. pr. passive . destructible. unchanging.).Jvac). ak~aras (m. nom. and. sg. dvau (m. • Sloka metre resumes. eternal. sg. two entities. it is said to be. ca. nom. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). and. pl. two spirits. ucyate (3rd sg. The lUlchanging is called the imperishable. puru~au (m.). nom. imperishable it is called. perishable. dual). beings. nom. nom. sg. sg. 605 . ca. nom. There are these two spirits in the world The perishable and the imperishable. ~m-~:ql eva ca the perishable and the imperishable.).). dual). eternal. sarvalJi (n. loke (m. loco sg. k~aras (m. nom. these two. imau (m.). imperishable. ak~aras (m. k~aras (m. kU[asthas (m.. An beings are the perishable. nom. it is called. sg. eva. creatures. destructible. nom.nom. two. these spirits in the world. k~arab k~arasciik~ara sarvii1}i bhutiini perishable all beings ~~TSm-~11 kiitastho 'k~ara ucyate the unchanging. indic.

spirit. sg. but. Supreme Self. named. being. imperishable. entering. other. fsvaras (m. he bears. f~~~:11 uttamas (m. Lord. nom. the three worlds entering. nom. the three worlds. which. iti. anyas (m. tu. nom. the Supreme Self thus called ~T~~mf~ yo lokatrayam iivisya who. highest. Called the supreme Self. bibharty avyaya isvaral:z he supports. nom. he supports. Supreme Being. entering the three worlds as the eternal Lord.). lokatrayam (m. approaching. called.Jvis). iiviSya (gerund ii . Who.1{ ~: I puru~as paramiitmety udiihrtal. pass. acc.Jbhr) . Supports them. But the highest Spirit is another. nom. nom. sg. p. sg. higher. act . sg.). pr. participle ud ii . sg. (m. indic. God.). paramiitmii (m.). sg. sg.f!. taking possession of.). man. sg. puru~as tv anyal. the Eternal Lord.xv 17 ~W~~Wlf: uttamal.). nom.Jhr).). . avyayas (m. thus.). sg. other q <"I 1. udiihrtas (m. but. the highest spirit. who. nom. yas (m. 606 . bibharti (3rd sg. eternal.

transcending. p. . higher. sg. api. atftas (m. Therefore I am.. spirit. nom. gone beyond. prathital. nom. m. sg. transcended. and. p. inasmuch. I am. I. highest. pr. abl. sg.).). uttamas (m. in the Veda. going beyond.). nom.). and in the Vedas. sg.). nom. abl. in the world. sg. nom. participle .). ca. sg. from which. and than the imperishable also higher. Celebrated as the supreme Spirit. celebrated as the Supreme Spirit. from this. loco sg. participle ati . sg. than the imperishable. sg. ~~mcr:q~:1 akFariid api cottamal.) 607 . 'WfT sf~ (7i~«:q ato ' smi loke vede ca therefore I am.).Ji).xv 18 lWffit ~ 'WfTaT ~ yasmiit kFaram atito 'ham since the perishable transcending I. loco sg. 5If~: '!~t() *114: II yasmiit (m. destructible. aham (nom. vede (m. even. puru!ja (m. known as. as.). Since I transcend the perishable And am higher than the imperishable. sg. acc. prathitas (m. atas. ca. and. k!jaram (m. pass. than the eternal.Jas). Supreme Spirit.). therefore. in the world and in the Veda. celebrated as. since. loke (m. uttamas (m. highest. perishable. (puru!jottamas. also. ak!jariit (m. in the world. puruFottamal. pass. asmi (1st sg. supreme.Jprath).

He who. worships Me With his whole being. ~~f~~(fm sa sarvavid bhajati miim he. He.xv 19 '1)lW{~~) yo miim evam asammur. sg. sg. sg. Arjuna. 608 .). thus undeluded. pr. sg. nom. he worships. this.) . puru.nf(f Ti1"frnl1ll: I jiiniiti puru~ottamam evam. sg.Jbhaj) . sarw:vit (m~ nom . indic. all knowing. p. sarvabhiivena (m. 0 Descendant of Bharata. with entire being. he. with all being.. he loves.jmuh). all-knowing. knows Me As the supreme Spirit.). sg. inst. sg. me. me. Supreme Spirit. miim (acc. aSalnmucfhas (m. nom. acc. sg. pass. who me thus undeluded .Jjiw.). worships me ~~mmll sarvabhiivena bhiirata n cogmzant. all-knowing.). thus. sas (m.). who.). act.).. bhiirata (m. bhajati (3r with whole being.rottamam (m. voc. he knows. participle a sam '.). undeluded. pr. act.jho yas (m. Descendant of Bharata. which. . indic. with whole being. epithet of Arjuna. . unconfused. jiiniiti (3rd sg. nom. 0 sCIent. miim (acc.sg. sg. omni- he knows (as) the Supreme Spirit.rr.

anagha (m. idam (n..). this.). declared. . syat (3rd sg. sg.. and. Descendant of Bharata. super!. enlightened one should be. teaching.:rer I idam uktam maya 'nagha this declared by me. this. so. doctrine.).jffi +PIT iti. sg.Jvac).Jbudh).<ff~l1R flmf " ".xv 20 U\i~~ iti guhyatamam sastram thus most secret doctrine ~ .).4 ~iI "llrof II known. sg. p. thus. proclaimed. etad (n. .). wise.). kr:takT:tyas (m. bhdrata (m. he should be. knowing. 'lld 'll. sg. sg. treatise. epithet of Arjuna. epithet of Arjuna. 0 Blameless One.. sg.Jas). nom. nom. most secret. sg. voc. sg... explained.. Having awakened to this. 0 Blameless One. buddhiman (m. Descendant of Bharata. sastram (n. having awakened. fulfilled.). . nom. sg. by me. guhyatamam (n. s. voc. enlightened. one should be. pass. . sg.. nom. a man becomes wise And fulfills all his duties. acc. ~ ~CfT. uktam (n. participle . Thus this most secret doctrine Has been taught by Me. nom.. Arjuna. ca. End of Book XV The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit 609 . with all duties krtakrtyasca bharata and fulfilled all duties. optative act .). nom. buddhva (gerund .). awakened. 0 Arjlma. having etad buddhva buddhiman syat (to) this having awakened. maya (inst.

uvaca (3rd sg. sg. sattvasamsuddhis (f. repeating to oneself. reciting sacred texts to oneself. and. self-restraint and sacrifice.). knowledge-Yoga persevering in. sg. restraint. rectitude.). ca. taming. nom.. sg. he said. purity of being. the Yoga of knowledge. from vi ava -IstM).). staying with. sg. ca. austerity. fearlessness. damas (m.). Vedic recitation.) diinam (n. jnanayoga (m. nom. self-denial. Giving. worship. absence of fear. sg. yajnas (m. iirjavam (n. 1 '" . 610 . knowledge-Yoga. sacrifice. f. m.).). tapas (n. nom.BOOK XVI s>. abhayam sattvasamsuddhir '1. abiding in.). persevering in. sg. purity of heart. (jnana-yoga-vyavasthitis. austerity. TP cpd. nom. heat. nom. abhayam (n. and. domination. righteousness. The Blessed Lord spoke: Fearlessness.). nom. sg. nom.:r:r~~~fCf: I jiianayogavyavasthitilJ. rectitude. austerity. nom. Study of sacred texts. the Blessed One. and uprightness. -Ivac). charity. purity of being. nom. sg. sg. sg.).l~q~~f~ fearlessness. purity of being. GR~~ danam damasca yajiiasca giving and self restraint and sacrifice. abiding in jiiiina-yoga.). directed towards. vyavasthitis (f. nom. sg.j"~~:ql Sribhagavan uvaca the Blessed Lord spoke: sribhagavan (m. svadhyiiyas (m.. he spoke. self-control. Perseverance in yoga and knowledge. ~~crcr~ll svadhyayas tapa arjavam reciting sacred texts to oneself. nom. giving. perfect act. the Blessed Lord.

serenity.). truth. freedom from desire. bhUtqu (n. "" tyagal. tranquility. sg. hrfs(f. nom. steadiness Non-violence. Gentleness. acapalam (n. non-slanderousness. nom. nom. absence of calumny. absence of calumny. for beings. ~:mf~~1 . absence of fickleness. sg.). nom. abandonment. mardavam (n.). II (S' '.). truth telling. freedom from desire. absence of anger. freedom from desire. absence of anger. nom. sg. discretion."""tl":\lq0l'l. timidity. nom.). compassion. kindness. freedom from lust. nom. santir apaisunam renunciation. Renunciation. (f. mardavam hrir acapalam gentleness.). Compassion for all beings. in beings.XVI 2 m~~'W'fi~ ahi1h. daya bhute~v aloluptvam compassion for beings.. sg. veracity.). absence of anger. nom. akrodhas (m. satyam (n.). santis (f. harmlessness. nom. modesty. aloluptvam (n. for creatures. pity. nom.). renunciation. sg.). serenity. daya.). sg. non-violence.). modesty. non-calumny. peace. sg. veracity. sg. tyagas (m. ~ '. sg. shyness.sa satyam akrodhas non-violence. sg. sg. 611 . apaisunam (n. loco pl. absence of fickleness. gentleness. absence of wrath. nom. modesty. ahirhsa (f. absence of fickleness. serenity.

). These are the endowment of those Born to a divine destiny. nom. nom.). acc. daivrm (f.). nom.XVI 3 tejas (n. forgiveness. na. sg. divine. Descendant of Bharata. saucam (n. strength. power.z kFamii dhrtil. gen. ~~1Q"T m~PTIf<mT I adroho niitimiinitii freedom from malice.z siiucam vigor. to the divine. nom. voc. sg. Freedom from malice. they are. k~amii dh~tis tejal. patience. destiny. cleanliness of mind and body. sg. act. absence of hatred. acquisition. >IbM). fortitude. bhavanti (3rd pI. sainpadam (f. epithet of Atjuna. nom. pr. purity. purity. of the born. 612 . vigor. patience. sg. fortitude. ¢~ ~qi ~ql+J: bhavanti sampadam diiivim they are the endowment to the divine destiny m~m"@11 abhijiitasya bhiirata of the born.).). Vigor. sg. nom. not. Arjuna. freedom from malice. Descendant of Bharata. indic. sg. sg.). sg. freedom from pride.). forbearance. excessive pride. atimanita (f. adrohas (m. (f. bharata (m. endowment. purity. splendor. (f. acc. fortitude. sg.). not excessive pride. courage. requisite.). high honor.). condition. abhijatasya (n. sg.

the demonic. of language). qr~ m+J: ~"t+\ II piirtha sampadam iisurim Son of Prtha. destiny. nom. sg.). sg.). gen. epithet of Arjuna. sg. nom. endowment. of the well-born. sg.). ajnanam (n. ca. sg.XVI 4 ~~1sf~ dambhas (m. of the born. voc. harshness. pride. are the endowment of those born To a demoniacal destiny. ~T<l:~~'i'fl krodhal:z piiru~yam eva ca anger and harshness (of language) too. fraud.). insolence. nom. krodhas (m. nom. ignorance. Arjuna. hypocrisy. Son of J11ha. quality.). roughness (esp. sg.). ca. to the Hypocrisy. sg.). eva. and. to the demonic. ca. sg. hostility. condition. haughtiness. abhijatasya (n. conceit.). arrogance. sg. acc. sg. darpas (m. nom. nom. and conceit. acc. and. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). asurfm (f. demonic destiny. lack of knowledge. wrath. anger. Anger. smnpadam (f. ~:qrf~ ajiiiinam ciibhzjiitasya and ignorance of the born. insolence. abhimanas (m. 613 . And ignorance.). paru~am (n. and.). arrogance. arrogance. endowment. dambho darpo 'bhimiinasca hypocrisy. partha (m.

Arjuna. p. sG/npad (f. acc. sg. do not sorrow. nom.). nom.9u.Jrnan). (rna sucas. abhijatas (n. never.). aorist subjunctive .Jjan).).Jsuc.Jsuc) . do not. sg. participle . sg. dat. nom. daivfrn (f. sampadam daivim do not grieve! to the endowment divine 'qf~T sf~ qmq II abhijalo ' si pa1:u!ava born thou art. Son of pal). heavenly. do not grieve. charac- the divine destiny (leads) to liberation. pass. endowment. lIT~:~~1+r '" . to liberation. sg. acc. sucas (2nd sg. Son ofPiiQgu. thou art. participle abhi . divine.) safnpadarn (f.). p.). nom. The demoniacal to bondage. sg. dat.). mala (f. 2nd sg. virnok~aya 614 . to release. it is thought.). endowment. demonic. ma. to bondage. thought. aorist subjunctive . born well-born. pass.). nom. nibandhiiya (m. ma meal. divine.XVI 5 ~T~f<fl1T~ daivi sampad vimok~aya daM (f. sg. quality. teristic. ::las). f~Tl{'ffi1 nibandhayasuri mala to bondage the demonic thought to be. Do not grieve! You are born to a divine destiny. palJ4ava (m. heavenly. (m. destiny. characteristic. voc. grieve. asurf (f. quality. pertaining to demons. thou grievest. it is thought. asi (2nd sg. thou sorrowest. sg. thought to be. The divine destiny leads to liberation. sg. sg. sg. epithet of Aljuna.

partha (m. pertaining to demons. asmin (m. vistarasas (adv. bhutasargau (m. asuras (m.XVI 6 " . daivas (m. divine. divine. pass. acc.). participle pra Jvac). to demons. declared. two. demonic. dvau (m.). me (gen. and.). in detail. loco sg. eva. voc. from me. sg. about the demoniacal. nom. sr:IJU (2nd imperative act. Son of Prtha. sg. in the world. nom. explained. ~qT fcmrw: [1~~sf~ >rlni diiivo vistarasalJ prokta the divine at length (has already been) explained. at length. heavenly. nom. daivas (m. of me. 615 . hear! There are two classes of created beings in this world The divine and the demoniacal. p. Arjuna. in this. ~tTT~lr~" iisuram piirtha me S!1:lU the demonic.). sg.). Now hear from Me. two being-creations. sg. loco sg. Son of Prthii. pertaining. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler).). lake (m. sg. nom.). epithet of Arjuna. sg. asuram (m. demonic.). sg. dual. heavenly.). from me hear. dviiu bhiitasargiiu loke 'smin two being-creations in world this ~~~"fl diiiva iisura eva ca the divine and the demonic.). two classes of created being. nom. praktas (m. The divine has been explained at length. dual). ca. nom. Jsru).

passive .J2 vid). pl. not. cessation. satyam (n. perfect act. 616 . saucam (n. and. not. truth.r<IT. loco pl. na. nor good conduct. . Nor truth is found in them. acaras (m.XVI 7 pravr:ttim (f. good conduct. ~W rrrftr "IT'm:r na siiucam niipi ciiciiro nor purity nor even good conduct.~~fmll Demoniacal men do not understand When to act and when to refrain from action. purity. sg. cleanliness of mind and body. men. .. ca. vidyate (3rd sg.. sg. nom.). f~~: I leaving off. nor . inactivity. it is found. they know. nom.). in them. te~u (m.). jami na vidur iisurii/:t men not they know the demonic. pravrttim ca nivrttim ca activity and inactivity . sg.). pl. na. not. nom. .).. api. ca. ca.). acc. progress. pr.). sg. good behavior. the demonic. nivr:ttim (f. and . acc. Neither purity. na. they understand. na. even.).. janas (m. asuras (nom. vidus (3rd pI.Jvid with present meaning). nom. not. sg. and. activity. " na satyam te~u vidyate not truth in them it is found.

or atheist and anti-orthodox school of philosophy which may be the object of this denunciation. from a prati . brought into being. perfect act. te (m. "is without truth. ~q. f1. they declare. caused by desire. aparaspara. the last line becomes redundant. without truth. world.Jsthii). followers of a nastika. acc. they maintain. pl.) "The universe. (kamahiiitukam. sambhUtam (m. without a god.).e. having no solid ground. acc. sg. all that moves.(fq<*i~ aparasparasambhutam not one by the other (cause) brought into being. How else? It is caused by lust alone. an interpretation favored by some native translators which does explain the fourth line better than the common translation. unstable. what else? how other? kama (m. sg. Brought about by a mutual union. nom. not by a succession. nom. they \il1T. acc. The idea that sexual passion was the cause of all beings was held by the lokayatikas.." asatyam (n." • aparasparasambhiUam is somethines translated as "brought about by mutual union of man and woman." they say. godless.)." i. sg. hiiitukam (m. unstable. nom. jagat (n.). caused.).). However. originated.). acc." they say (is) "without a God. Without basis. sg.Jah with present meaning). created. TP cpd.\ ~rg~ 'l.XVI 8 ~ '1. motivated.ln. II " kim anyat kiimahiiitukam what else? desire-caused. anfsvaram (m. without a God. sg.f>ff(fGi ~ asatyam aprati~tham te without truth. sg. not one by the other. non-truth. 617 . ~i1Cf\ Ii. aprati~!ham (n. if one accepts this version of the line. by sex. lust. desire. sg. acc.fi11 ~i'lN Cf\ \1. untruth. universe. kim anyat. they. .{'iPJ-q I jagad iihur anisvaram "the universe.). ahus (3rd pI. m. they say.

point of view. pI. they arise. come forth as enemies Of the world for its destruction.flffiT sf~: II k~ayaya jagato 'hital} to destruction of the world. BV cpd. they come into being. of small intelligence. ahitiis (m. sg.). pI.). dat. BV cpd.(i"AIOI: prabhavanty ugrakarma1}al} they come forth. they come forth. ava!f!abhya (gerund ava :'. of evil actions. These men of lost souls. ~ \. enemies. act. of cruel actions (as BV cpd.). pra . of the universe. prabhavanti (3rd pI.). sg. nom.). sg. alpabuddhayas (m. of the world. those whose actions are evil. for destruction. of all that moves.). those whose intelligence is small..). nom. small intelligence. Holding this view. And of cruel actions. view. 618 . acc. holding. cruel actions.JbhU). foes. na!f!iitmanas (m.XVI 9 ~ifl'iGl1: ~ etam dr~tim ava#abhya this view holding. pl. supporting.). jagatas (n. sg. pro indic. ugrakarmiilJas (m. nom. enemies. they of lost selves. k!fayiiya (m. gen. of 'lpabuddhayal} (men of) lost selves and (of) small intelligence. to destruction. '1 ISC 1('1 I'll ~: I >0 na~tatmano etiim (f. ~'3. acc.). this. dr:!ffim (f. pl. they who have lost their selves.stabh). nom.

" insatiable.). nom. they act. '" pravartante ' sucivratii/. Attached to insatiable desire. pl. arrogance and lust..XVI 10 CfiTlTl{mf~~ kt'imam iisritya dUfpuram kiimam (m. ~"II<i"l~I~CRIT: I dambhamiinamadiinvitii/.Jsri).. grasping.. sg. arrogance.) desire attached to.) mohat (m. pI. conceptions. m.. "1t2. KD cpd. ideas.("·J. m. Full of hypocrisy. intoxication. pra . sg.Jv~t).. untrue. pride.).r.). customs. mana (m.). mada (m. participle anu . mid. hypocrisy. g~hftva (gerund . abi. impure. acc. mohiid grhitvii 'sadgriihiin from delusion having accepted false notions. vratas (n.). adhering to.). from confusion. hilarity. . acc. depending on. accompanying .:r~~SM'Alal<i.Jas). pI. lust. asat (pr. acc. attached to. having accepted. and pride. du~piiram (m.). pI.). attended by hypocrisy. (asat-grahan. (asuci-vratas. dambha (m. asritya (gerund a . unclean vows. desire. m. unreal. pro indic. 619 . (dambhamanamadanvitas. attended by. lust. nom. attaching to. "difficult to fill.Jgrah) . pass. pI.rt::... vows. sg. false. nom.lm. participle a . pl. drunkenness. fraud. acc. KD cpd..~ . hypocrisy. lust attended by. purposes. wre~ sm-~: II they proceed (with) unclean purposes. voracious. asuci (m. rules. . notions. accepting. '!. unclean. Having accepted false notions through delusion. having grasped. arrogance. p. arrogance..).Ji). anvitas (m. from delusion. nom. false notions. They work with unclean resolves. they proceed. TP cpd. grahan (m.) pravartante (3rd pI. insatiable.

pl.). dissolution and death. noun from pra .:rf~: II etiivad iti niscitiil} so much. sg. care. iti.Jli +antam). gratification. adhering to. nom. 620 .).rt 'if cintam (f.RIT: I pralayantiim upiisritiil} in death ending clinging. paramas (m. immeasurable. thus convinced." stanza 9]. clinging. BV cpd. so much. sg.). and. upabhoga (m. Clinging to immeasurable Anxiety.. desire. pralayantam (f. With gratification of desire as their highest aim.). holding gratification of desire as highest aim [pI. enjoyment. lust. cintiim aparimeyiiriz ca and of anxiety immeasurable $I04h11't.Jsri). nom. acc.f. pI. having no doubt. pI. m. pass. participle upa a . Convinced that this is all. holding as highest object. ending in death. thought. sg. convinced. ~?. dissolution and end. ending only in death. pl.) etavat. refers to "those of lost selves. CfiTl1)q-"l1~ kiimopabhogaparamii desire gratification highest aim. ca. anxiety. ~ rl'a.XVI 11 f~ ~qf<:W. nom.). aparimeyam (f. thus. (kiimopabhogaparamas. beyond measure. acc. upasritas (m. niscitas (m. acc. kama (m.). p. nom. highest aim.

. desire. BV cpd. pI. quantities. wrath. hoards.). or.). TPcpd. (ktimakrodhaparayalJds. They seek to obtain. kama (m. nom. by unjust means. object. m. desire-gratifIcation-aim. accumulations. sg.XVI 12 tll~llq 1~1~ld ':. desire-gratification goal. salncayan (m.). Hoards of wealth for the gratification of their desires. krodha (m. devoted to desire and anger. ~CfiPn1Tm~ ihante kiimabhogiirtlzam they seek. ktimabhogartham (m. hope-snare. TP cpd. instr. they wish for. holding as highest aim. indic. method. sg. wealth.) rhante (3rd pI. by unjust.) baddhtis (m.). aim. pass. pl.). acc. by other than proper. ~~~II Bound by a hundred snares of hope.ziil.. fettered. p. by a hundred.) iisiipiisasatiiir baddhiilT by hope-snare a hundred bound ~Ttlq.(llIOII: I kama krodhapariiym. by erroneous. lust. inst. hoards (of wealth). pI.). (asapasa-satais. ifc. pI. nom. m. Jrh). anyayena (m.. pI. acc. devoted to. artha (m. acc. satais (m. Devoted to desire and anger. pl. (artha-salncayan. a hundred (of) hope-snares. desire and anger devoted to. hoards of wealth. 621 . participle Jbandh). anyiiyeniirthas~rhcayiin by unjust means. pI.). bound. means. mid.). trap of hope. nom. anger. parayalJas (m. they seek.).lIT: asapasa (m. inst. pr. m. aim of the gratification of desire.

imam (m. nom. I shall attain. I shall obtain. . even.). wealth. sg.). nom. this also mine <1fOf&if(f ~ ~ II bhavifyati punar dhanam it shall be. p. labdham (n. nom. sg. acc. prapsye (1st sg. participle . maya (inst. also. this.JbhU). mine. this. idam (n. pr. lit. wealth.).). pass. by me.Jlabh). and this wealth also Shall be mine. dhanam (n. it shall become. my.). sg. adya. api. sg." wish. bhavi~ati (3rd sg. 622 . this. idam (n. sg. desire. .Jap). This has been obtained by me today. acc. indic . manomtham (m. again. today.). ~ 'J.XVI 13 ~~l1lIT~ idam adya maya labdham "this today by me obtained. punar. me (gen. "chariot of the mind. sg. also. this. idam (n. sg. This desire I shall attain. it is. fut. nom. nom. mid. again. sg.Jas). of me. ~>rm~~~1 idam prapsye manoratham this I shall attain wish. it shall be.).). obtained.ffif~ m'1lf idam asttdam api me this it is. This is mine. act. pm . property. sg. asti (3rd sg. booty. acquired. fut. I shall get.

sg. sg. nom.). aham (nom. I shall kill. happy. 623 . eneIIl. sg. api. bhogf (m.). I am the enjoyer. I shall slay. fsvaras (m. "That enemy has been slain by me.). powerful. also. even.). eater. and happy. siddhas (m. participle . foe. And I shall slay others too. I am successful.).Y. sg. p. pass. pl. I. f~T~~~TII siddho 'ham balavan sukhi plished. others. nom. mighty.). that.). aparan (m. nom. I am a lord. enjoyer. nom. God. accom- the Lord I. slain. nom. aham (nom. and. successful.).). sg. lord.XVI 14 mrr t:p:IT~: ~ asau maya hatalJ satrur "that by me slain enemy if~~mirl asiiu (m.). nom. hatas (m. powerful. aham (nom. vhan). I. acc. hani~e (Ist sg. maya (m. by me. balavan (m. sg. ~~~'1T<rT isvaro 'ham aham bhogi hani~ye ca. sg. killed. mid. sg.). successful I. I the enjoyer. nom. yonder. nom. suhkf (m. sg. I. inst. sg. fut. powerful. satrus (m. fulfilled. sg. sg.). caparan api and I shall slay others also.Jhan). happy. blissful.

what? who? anyas (m. like. those who are deluded by ignorance. ajfiana (n. nom. pr. abhijanavan (m. I shall reJOlce. fut.). high-born I am. --Ias). indic. aris- tocratic. ram. nom.). high born. I shall give. vimohitas (m. pI." Thus. those who are deluded.) sad~sas dasyami modi~ya I shall sacrifice. I shall sacrifice. there is. m. me. ". asti (3rd sg. r shall worship. wealthy. p. atjhyo ' bhljanavan asmi "wealthy. sg. fut. act. thus (often used to close a quotation). yak~e (1St. indic. r shall give. sg. ignorance. such as.:1:fT sf«f ~T +r1IT I ko 'nyo 'sti sadrso maya what other there is such as me? l:f~if ~lf lfTf~ yak~ye it is. he is.. fut. I shall rejoice. by me. (ajfitinavimohitas. resembling. the deluded. asmi (1st sg. --Imud).). other. Who else is equal to me? I shall sacrifice. participle vi --Imuh). nom. sg. nom. 624 . TPcpd. sg. dasyami (1st sg. r shall be merry.Jyaj). maya (m. r shall be charitable. --Ida). nom. 1st sg. 'fiT s." ~~CflfTf~: II ity ajnanavimohita/:z thus those who are deluded by ignorance. nom. r shall rejoice.). (m.XVI 15 ~~l:fT sf~R" ~f~ . modi~a (saindhi for modi~e. opulent. sg. .).). iti. they are deluded by ignorance. pass.). iUfhyas (m. kas (m. mid. inst. sg. --las). "I am wealthy and high born. I shall glve. pr. pI. sg. nom. mid.

pass. impure.) prasaktiis (m. Attached to the gratification of desires. trap of delu- sion.JvJ. nom. 625 . indic. pr. nom. participle sam ii . TP cpd. TP cpd. led astray. mohajalasamavrta/:t delusion net enveloped.).). unclean.:rfef. loc. sg. pI. srmnr: 'fil11~ prasakta~l kamabhoge~ enveloped in a net of delusion.Jbhram). (mohajiilasamiivJ. led astray by many imaginings. p. p. pI.). sg. into hell. narake (m. participle vi . enveloped.. thought. net of delusion. samiivJ. imagining. Led astray by many imaginings. pass. nom.). asuciiu (m.e. pI. '" patanti narake 'sucau they fall into hell. citta (n. kiimabhoge!iu (m. pass. to the gratification of desire. They fall into a foul hell. nom. participle pra . pl. carried away. %'9111 cations. attached. i. covered. act. cmf"d" .. they fall. vibhriintiis (m. loc. clinging. patanti (3rd sg. nom.).tiis (m.tiis. m.XVI 16 ~M"fflfqm.). unclean. loc. m. (anekacittavibhriintiis.m anekacittavibhranta not one imagining led astray ill~"1IM~liI1dl: I aneka. wandering away.) mohajiila (n. in desire-gratifi- attached to desire gratifications. not one. many. pI. Enveloped in a net of delusion. p.Jpat).Jsaflj). . pI.

self conceited.). stubborn.Ji). they sacrifice. te (m. niimayajfu'iis (m. participle anu . not according to (Vedic) injunction. they. ~qf~11 atmasambhavitas (m. p. pI.XVI 17 ~qm:~ atmasmitbhavita' stabdM self conceited. lust. participle . nom. accompanied by. immovable. they. nom.). n.Jstambh). avidhipiirvakam (adv.. st Ibborn.Jyaj). with hypocrisy.). p. " . m.). With hypocrisy. stabdhiis (m. pl. stubborn. pl. mada (m. obstinate. Filled with the pride and arrogance of wealth. inst. mid . self-centered. pI.). dambhenavidhipurvakam with hypocrisy. with sacrifices only in name. pI. and not according to Vedic injunction. ~<1T~ff yajante namayajiiais te they sacrifice with only-in-name sacrifice. nom. with fraud. p. pI. pr. conceit. participle atma sam . dhana (n.). with nominal sacrifices.Jbhii) . inst. pride. Self-conceited. attended by. pass. . TP cpd. indic. nom. anvitas (m. intoxication. (dhanamanamadanvitas. booty. not according to Vedic injunction. nom.) yajante (3rd pI. pass. they worship. not according to rule. pass. '6I"'JiI"'Ji'=I~ernT: I dhanamanamadanvita/:t wealth-pride-arrogance accompanied by. mana (m. 626 . arrogance. wealth. sg. accompanied by the pride and arrogance of wealth. They perform sacrifices only in name. dambhena (m.).

haughtiness. 627 . pass.XVI 18 ~~~ ahamkaram balam dfl-rpam egotism. and. '" mam atmaparadehe~u me in (their) own and others' bodies >rf~~:11 pradv~anto +rTlf '>I1~'lq (~~tI 'bhyasuyaka/:t hating. participle act.). wrath. insolence. the envious ones. the indignant.). loco pl. darpam (m.). miim (acc. hating.). ca. and anger. force. pl./n." balam (n. egotism "I making. might.). sg. lust. sg. those who grumble. acc. acc. ahamkiiram (m. force. Desire. attached to. participle sam Jsri) clinging to. arrogance. nom. force. atmaparadehe~u (m. CfiTli" ~ 'if ml!«fT: I ktimam krodham ca samsrita/:t desire and anger clinging to . Clinging to egotism. those who are envious. samsritas (m. pr. desire. the envious. kiimam (m. pra ~dvi~). sg. insolence. p. sg. loathing.). abhyasuyakiis (m.). nom. krodham (m. acc. sg. anger. nom. pI. pI. Those malicious people hate Me In their own and others' bodies. me. acc. pradvi~antas (m. insolence.). sg. in own and others' bodies. acc.

). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). pl.~l:fTf~11 iisuri~v eva yoni~ into demonic wombs. asubhan (m. wretches. aham (nom. acc. the unpurified.). I hurl.. the cruel.) 628 . ~~. acc. eva. . samsare~u (m. perpetually. the unclean. pI. 1. loco pl. into demonic wombs. k~ipami (rst. Those cruel haters. into the wombs of demons. loc. those who hate.Jk~ip). kruran (m. in wombs. acc. asurf~u (f. I constantly hurl Into the wombs of demons In the cycles of rebirth. pl. dvi~atas (m. men vile. kruriin them I the hating.). them.XVI 19 ffi'1: ~ f~: ~ tiin aham dvifatal.). pl. loco pl. tan (m. sg. those who are cruel. The worst of men.). the vicious. in the cycles of rebirth. into wombs. yoni~u (f.).). act. pl. f~~~~ k#piimy ajasram asubhiin I hurl constantly. the ferocious. vile men. (asuri~u yoni~u. into demonic.). pro participle act. always.Jdvi~). indic. smnsiiresu nariidhamiin in the ~ycles of rebirth. the vicious. acc. the hating. pl.). pr. f. . loco pI. into the cycles of reincarnation. I throw. nartidhaman(m. ajasram (adv. ace. sg.

). indic.Jap). pass.). nom. From there go to a condition still lower than that. sg. participle a . Arjuna. kaunteya (m. sg. pass. not reaching to. sg. loco sg. gatim (f. acc. acc.Jya). p. mudhas (m. nom. voc. womb. mu¢ha janmani janmani the deluded in birth in birth lff+!:. pI.Jmuh). worst. not attaining Me In birth after birth. yanti (3rd pI. yonim (f. adhamam (f. the deluded. acc. entering.). 629 . those who are deluded. in birth after birth. approaching. not attaining. . participle . Those who are deluded.Jpad). indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). ~~ 'fl'Rt<r miim aprapyaiva kaunteya me not attaining. pI. then. apanntis (m.). path.XVI 20 ~r<ilf~~ asuririt yonim apanna demonic womb entering asurfm (f. janmani janmani (n. sg. sg. lowest. mam (acc. goal. epithet of Arjuna. eva. aprapya (gerund a pra .). tatas.). they go. i:l\iT ll""R<{ ~or+rt mer+( II tato yiinty adhamarit gatim from there they go to the lowest goal. super!. demonic pertaining to demons. Son of Kunfi. act. Son of Kuntl. me. pr.). p. Having entered the wombs of demons. sg. from there. acc.

630 . sg. sg. etad (n. niisanam (n.). Therefore one should abandon these three. this.rn. acc.). and greed. atmanas (m. nom. greed. sg. opt. love.til ~ trividham narakasyedam threefold of hell this rn~~:1 dvaram nasanam atmana/. nom. anger and also greed. Destructive of the self: Desire. idam (n. tathii.). anger. triad.XVI 21 f. kamas (m. kama/. sg.. destroying. sg. krodhas tatha lobhas desire. dvaram (n. tyajet (3rd sg. acc. destructive of the self.). covetousness. trividham (n. krodhas (m. therefore. sg. of the self. lobhas (m. this. sg.). sg. ~~~~II tasmad etat trayam tyajet therefore this triad one should abandon. of three kinds. nom. the gate. from this. destructive. nom. nom. tasmat (m. cupidity. act. anger.rfcret '1 <". thus.). door. trayam (n. Jtyaj) . narakasya (m. gen. sg. he should renounce.). nom. m. desire.). CfiT+r: ~Tern Q~r . sg. gen. threefold. also.). group of three.). one should abandon. This is the threefold gate of hell. of hell. sg.).). greed. abl. sg. nom. gate. wrath.

by these. nom. pl.Jyii) .). gatim (f. sg. kiiunteya (m.). by doors of tamas.Jmuc). acc. pariim (f. Released from these three gates to darkness. Then he goes to the highest goal. he does. tamodviiriiis (n. ii . tribhis (n. 631 . sreyas does for the self best ffifT lITf~ q-ti 'lfC'll\ II tato yiiti pariim gatim then he goes to the highest goal. kiiunteya by these released. he moves. act. tamodviiriiis tribhir naral. superl. . A man does what is best for himself. liberated. thereup. yiiti (3rd sg.Jcar). iicarati (3rd sg. pro indie. ~Tii~ f~<f\ <f'<:: I etiiis (m. sg. sg. highest. Son of KuntI. then. by three. inst. pl. a man.on. sg. Arjuna. pl. he proceeds. sg. by tamas gates three. man. path. by tamas gates. supreme. for the self. pr. participle vi . inst. he behaves.XVI 22 ~ f~: 'fiRl<1 etiiir vimuktal.). acc.). goal. gen. nom. sg. a man ~'{~:~ iicaraty iitmanal. nom.).). pass. voc. from there. indic. SOIl of KuntI. p. vimuktas (m. inst. he goes. iitmanas (m. best. act. sg. released. naras (m.). sreyas (m.). epithet of Atjuna. tatas.). of the self.

). 632 .XVI 23 <1: ~crfl:l+!: ~ yalJ siistravidhim utsrjya who. siddhim (f. ~ fm~ 'l. sg. nor the highest goal. letting go. Jv~t). he reaches . Does not attain perfection. to perfection.). sastravidhim (m. vartate (3rd sg. scripture injunction. he attains. this one. to happiness. pr. yas (m. sg. he turns. "from desire-making. crffififll14ifll<d: I vartate kiimakiiratalJ he follows (his own) inclinations . he. avapnoti (3rd sg. acc. not. sas (m. nom. Nor happiness. indic. bliss. nor.). acc. acc. highest. sukham (n. casting aside.). sg. sg. according to inclination. utsJ:jya (gerund ud Js~j).fcrr~cr na sa siddhim aviipnoti not he to perfection attains . sg. kamakaratas (m. param (f. II na sukharh na pariirh gatim nor to happiness nor to the highest goal. indic. He who acts IDlder the impulse of desire. not. sg.). who. gatim (f. pr.. 00. sg. sg." according to own desire. 00. ignoring. acc. goal. not. to success.. nom. nor.). happiness.). scripture knowledge. path.~. scripture injunction casting aside. abl. act. supreme. Casting aside the injIDlctions of the scriptures. 00.wm~. mid. acc. perfection. he follows..). ava Jap).

Jarh).). dual. <t>cflJ: ~f~ II karma kartum ihiirhasi action to perform here in this world thou shouldst. participle vi ava . measure.). work. p. to perform. established. TP cpd. sg. the 2 determinations of what is to be done and what is not to be done. You should perform action here in this world. scripture. nom. sacred writing. ~. kiirya (gerundive . sg. therefore scripture standard of thee <fl141<fl14~~~T I kiiryiikiiryavyavasthitiiu the to-be-done and the not-to-be-done determining. Knowing the scriptural injunction prescribed. prescribed. acc. here in the world. sg. to do. acc. scripture injunction. scripture knowledge. adhering to. here. of thee. dual p. As to what is and what is not to be done. having known. uktam (n.Jsthii). declared. detennining your standard by the scriptures. vyavasthitau (m. .. sg. sastram (n. sg.) jnatva (gerund . TP cpd.. sg.k~)..).) karma (n. action.). Therefore.Jk~)r to be done. sg. (kiirya-akiirya-vyavasthitau. acc. sastravidhana (n. thou shouldst. participle .. thou deservest. m.). said. settled. nom. act. duty. acc.XVI 24~~>rmuf~ tasmiic chiistram pramiir. acc. (sastra-vidhiina-uktam. akiirya (gerundive a . declared by scriptural injunction.Jjna). End of Book XVI The Yoga of the Distinction between the Divine and the Demonic Destinies 633 . pramaIJam (n. therefore. pr. from this. iha.zam te tasmat (m. thou art obliged.k~). indic. to make. establishing. thou art able. n. pass. kartum (infinitive :'. pass. te (gen. determining. standard.Jvac).). ~ ~qen<l)n:i jiiiitvii siistravidhiinoktam knowing the scripture injunction prescribed. knowing. not to be done. abl.. arhasi (2nd sg.

accompanied by faith. sg. sloth. he said. which? rajas. te~am (m. sg.. yajante (3rd pI. darkness. nom sg. sattvam iiha rajas tamal.vac) . sraddhayanvitas (m. interrog. they who. faith filled with. nom.). gen. What is their condition. sg. what Krishna? ~~T~~:II te~iim ni~!hii ye (m. pr. throwing away. scripture injunction. virtue. Krishna? Is it sattva.). but. who. they sacrifice. arjuna uviica Arjuna spoke: ye siistravidhim utsrjya who. nom.). :'. Krishna.). sg. nom. pl. voc. pl. ~~CRIT:I yajante sraddhayiinvitiil. rajas. standing. of these.t sattva.BOOK XVII ~i'f~1 arjunas (m.fyaj) . nom. pl. sattva. sastravidhim (m. sg. . sg.). AIjuna. casting aside. indeed. of them. tamas (n. sattvam (n. but filled with faith.). tamas.. particle). ni~!ha (f. is it so? rajas (n. uvaca (3rd sg.fSlj) . nom. position.). utsljya (gerund ud . aho (interrog. scripture injunction casting aside.). rule of Vedic scripture. truth.). emotion. kG (f. nom. sg. what? k~~lJil (m. they worship. mid . indeed. nom. perf. indic.). ~f~~CfiT~ tu kii krp}a of them the standing.). rajas. acc. tamas? Arjuna spoke: Those who sacrifice Casting the injunctions aside. full of faith. or tamas? 634 . tu.t they sacrifice. act. passion. he spoke.

bhavati (3rd sg. of embodied ones. he spoke. it is. nom.). sg. sg. sraddhii (f.a of tamas.~ trividha (f. uvaca (3rd sg. pertaining to the gUl).). born of own nature.). tamasf (f. nom.). The Blessed Lord. tam (f. this. Now hear of this. pl. nom. acc. eva. triple. (of) this hear! ffilmT :i:tfa. ca. sg. hear! trividha bhavati iraddhii three kinds is faith ~~m~1 dehinam sa svabhavaja of the embodied.a of rajas. pertaining to the gUl. nom. perf. of three kinds. ca.lU and tamasic thus. pertaining to the gUl).). Born of their innate nature. nom. the Blessed One. gen. sa (f. nom. is. rajasic. pro indic. thus. sattvic. faith. and. dehinam (m. sr:IJU (2nd sg. nom. rajasic. sg. sg. so. tamasic. it. she.XVII ~~~I sribhagavan uvaea the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. of embodied beings. sg. act.). iti. It is sattvic.la of sattva. sattvikf (f. imperative -ISTU). sg. innate-nature-born. and. nom. mf~<tiflT~~T~ sattviki rajasi eaiva sattvic and rajasic ~ '" tamasi eeti tam Srf.at ~ur II The Blessed Lord spoke: The faith of embodied beings is of three kinds. And tamasic.). born of innate nature. he said. sg. of this. 2 f~<NT <l<Ifa.). of the embodied. rajasf (f. this. 635 . svabhiivaja (f. indeed (used as a rhythmic fiBer). -Ivac).).). it. -Ibhii). sg.

.). following the form. sraddOOmayas (m. thus he. nom. in accordance with.). he. sg. thus he is. faith.). epithet of Arjuna. Faith is in accordance With the truth (nature) of each. f. sg. sg. essential nature. Whatever faith he has. nom. TP cpd. which. sg. sg. eva. ~~a-~I sattva (n. sraddhti (f. (sattva-anurupti. like. corresponding.). fol- lowing truth. Descendant of Bharata. sg. nom. he. sg. filler). nom. thus. this one. .)." sraddhiimayo 'yam puru~o made of faith this man <rT~: UlJ!fU: II made of faith.). this.Jbhu). sg. sg. gen. sg.XVII 3 ~~~ sattviinurupii sarvasya the truth in accordance with of each.). spirit.). this. anurupti (f. it is. of all. indic . sg. Man is made of faith. yad (n. pr. Arjuna. man. sraddhas (m. sas (m.) sraddhii bhavati bhiirata faith it is. nom. truth. ayam (m. of each. "faith-made. nom. faith. sg. Descendant of Bharata. bOOrata (m. yas (m. nom. 636 . nom. voc. nom. sas (m.). sg.). indeed (often used as a rhythmic yo yacchraddha~ sa eva sa~ who which faith he. bhavati (3rd sg. puru'!as (m.). nom. nom. who.).). ~Ts<:t~T sarvasya (m.

to the departed. to the gods <r~mf~ 'U"Im: I yak~arak~iirhsi riijasii/:l to the spirits and demons the rajasic ~'ict'loli~"'I~~ pretiin bhiitagm}iiflSciinye to the departed and the hordes of ghosts. others. pl. they worship. devan (m. the others. to the multitudes of spirits. those who are characterized by sattva. anye (m. they sacrifice.). the tamasic. participle pra . they worship. "/yaj). pl. indic. the tamasic men. nom.). p. yajante (3rd pI. the gods. they sacrifice. indic. tamasas (m. . to the spirits and demons. men. nom. the sattvic. to the dead.). those characterized by the gUQa of tamas.). ca. the sattvic. rajasas (m. acc. yajante (3rd pI./i). sattvikiis (m. pass. nom. those who are characterized by the gUlJa of rajas. pI. mid.). The sattvic worship the gods. the tamasic men. ~ ctT+1m~: II yajante tiimasii janiib they sacrifice.). janiis (m. to the hordes of ghosts. spirits and demons. pr.). pl. pr. pl. The rajasic worship the Yakshas and demons. and. nom. acc. acc. bhataga'!an (m. the rajasic. The others. pl. worship The ghosts and the hordes of nature spirits.XVII 4 ~mf~~ yajante siittvikii deviin they sacrifice. to the yak~as.. to the gods. acc. pretan (m.. yak~arak~amsi (n. pl. nom. pl. pl. 637 . mid . and rak~as.)./yaj).

m. anger. pass.:r. ye (m. pl. salhyuktas (m. tapas (n. sg. TP cpd. p. deceit. sg. desire. terrible. pI. austerities men Gl="+! I~ <fil «(j'1m I: dambhiihamkiirasamyuktii/:z hypocrisy and egotism joined with. nom.) kama (m. pl. ahalhkara (m. who. nom. pI. might. sg. "I making. fraud. heat. acc. pI. participle anu Ji).). dambha (m. men. participle sam Jyuj). terrible.)." egotism. nom. yoked to hypocrisy and egotism. joined with hypocrisy and egotism.).). they undergo. they suffer. austerity.) 638 . (kamaragabalanvitas. along with.). asastravihitam (n. ghoram (n. joined with. ~ <l ~. anger and force. passion. hypocrisy. Jtap).jdha). tapyante (3rd pI. m. nom. passion and force along with. p. accompanied by.. pass. <fill'l (l l l<l{'5If. (dambhahalhkarasalhyuktas. Men who undergo terrible austerities Not enjoined by the scriptures. acc. accompanied by desire.). who.. p. bala (n. pI. participle a sastra vi . not ordained by scripture. anvitas (m. they who.). janiis (m..). pass. not prescribed by scripture. Accompanied by hypocrisy and egotism. awful.XVII 5 ~qf~'m asiistravihitam ghoram not scripture enjoined.rr: I tapyante ye tapo janii/:z they undergo. love. nom. acc. strength. lust. force. rage. Along with desire and passion. raga (m.). TP cpd. pr. united with."'GRfT: II kiimariigabaliinvitii/:z desire. nom. mid..

m. eva. multitude of elements. sg.). mtim (acc. 639 . Know them to be of demoniacal resolves. . The unthinking. determined. within. acc. or mortifications of the flesh. demonic.Jvid).. causing to plow up. pl. acc.). nom. torturing within the body The aggregate of elements. those who are demonic-resolved. and. antar. pI. acetasas (m. sarfrastham (m. sg. causing to injure. m~:mm~ miim ciiivantal} sarirastham and me thus within the body crrf. (asuraniscayan. kar~ayantal.). viddhi (2nd sg. acc. the aggregate of elements. BV cpd. unthinking. .. within the body. inside. within the body.).). resolved. torturing. nom. demonic resolved. And also torturing Me thus within the body.Jkr/i) . thus. ca. causative pro participle act. sg.).) sarirastham torturing in the body ~~:I c-. me. pl. sarfrastham (m. pl.. • This and the preceding stanzas constitute one of several injunctions in the Bhagavad Gitil against exaggerated austerities. existing in the body. unthinking. existing within the body. fixed in intention. aggregate of elements. them. sg. indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler).~l(~~ II tan viddhy asuraniscayan them know. imperative act .). acc. bhiitagramam (m. mindless. . These injunctions are interesting because they show that such abuses were common enough to arouse denunciation. know! learn! asura. acc.. bhiitagriimam acetasal. tan (m. pI. niscayan (m. acc.XVII 6 ~:mm~ kar/iayantas (m.

dear. thus. sg. nom.). even. 0 '" bhedam imam S!1}u. preferred. but. sg. gift. yajiias (m. api. pr. te~iim iiharas (m. also. sg. nom. acc. ~bha). difference. nom. sarvasya (m. sg. acc. it comes to be. sg. ~sru). tu. diinam (n. As are their sacrifices. heat. of all. priyas (m. of them. gen.). this hear. triple. sg.).). nom. sg.). this. austerities. imperative act. tatha. and gifts. indic.XVII 7 ~~m'1~ iihiiras tv api sarvasya food but also of all f~q>l) ~a f5l'r I trividho bhavati priyal. gen. nom. also.). nom. tapas (n. of them the distinction. te~iim (m. sacrifice. distinction. sg. worship. "splitting. charity. sg.z three kinds it is preferred ~~~am~ yajiias tapas tathii diinmit sacrifice austerity also gift ~tm~~11 . austerity. trividhas (m. food. it is.). 640 . S~IJU (2nd sg. " imam (m.). pl. bhedam (m. bhavati (3rd sg. of three kinds. Hear now the distinction between them.).). hear! But also the food preferred by all Is of three kinds.

iiyul:zsattvabaliirogya- life. sticky.). u:<n: fwm: fpru ~ rasyiil} snigdhiil} sthirii hrdyii savory. happiness and satisfaction. preferred by those characterized by the gUl. nom. smooth. firm.). nom pI.JV1:dh).11WU: ~nf~w:rr: II iihiiriil} siittvikapriyiil} foods the sattvic dear to. pl. dear to the sattvic. Happiness.). satisfaction promoting.). pleasant tasting. m. arogya (n. pl. nom. smooth. sthiras (m. pleasant to the stomach. pr. ~lffficr<f'el'1T: I sukhapritivivardhaniil} happiness. promoting.). health. nom. (ayulJsattvabalarogyasukhaprftivivardhanas. prfti (f. dainty. Promoting life. pl. 641 . health. increasing. force.). moving life. vivardhaniis (m.). nom. firm. virtue. nom. savory. pl. satisfaction. pl. happiness. "hearty. and satisfaction. truth. flavorful. nom. duration of life. virtue.).). freedom from disease. aharas (m. might. firm. strength.). good fortune. strength. and pleasant to the stomach.. sattva (n. pleasure. augmenting.XVII 8 ~: *1. health." pleasant. pl. smooth. TP cpd. promoting life. living.). pleasant to the stomach. snigdhas (m. h~dyas (m. foods. joy. virtue. health."1 "l0 ! <lTIrayus (n. pr. Such foods are dear to the sattvic. solid. sattvikapriyas (m. sukha (n. Which are savory. participle vi . bala (m. virtue.) rasyas (m. strength.la of sattva. pI. glutinous.). strength. nom. >.

fiery. pass.ljMt- ka!U. (dulJkhasokiimayapradiis. of him who is characterized by the gUl)a of rajas. pI. atyu~lJa. disease. harsh. acid. participle "'. pain. sour. ~:~~5r<n: II du/:zkhasokamayaprada/:z pain. excessively hot.).). Bitter. nom. sour. causing pain. amla. astringent and scorching. salty. sorrow and sickness. sg. desired. foods. salty.). sour. nom. vinegary. nom. .). pl. excessively hot. m. wished for. excessively hot. <:fT~~enomf~: I tikf7Jaruk~avidahina/:z <R:"I¥O<?5<?5"1 utt. pl.. scorching ~ (1\l1*1fiitSCl (the plural serves for all the preceding adjectives). gen. dulJkha (n. harsh. TP cpd. vidiihinas (m. p. Causing pain. briny. ruk~a.). astringent. pl. iimaya (m. astringent. pI..XVII 9 '" katvamlalava1Jatyuf7Japungent. causing. and sickness. Such foods are desired by the rajasic. misery. pradiis (m.) 642 . and burning.) iihiiriis (m. nom. misery. of the rajasic. sickness. pungent. Pungent. nom. dvandva cpd. grief. salty. burning. (ka!VamlalavalJiityu~lJatfk~lJaruk~avidiihinas • ahara rajasasye~ta foods by the rajasic desired. saline. dry. acrid.Jilf). nom. ilf!iis (m. dry. sorrow. pI. soka (m. sour. sharp. salty. rough. m.). scorching harsh. yielding. misery.). excessively hot. acid. sickness causing. riijasasya (m. tfklflJa. lavalJa. pungent.

sg. pass. participle pari Jvas). putrid. 643 . sg. amedhyam (n. feeding. yad (n. nom. food. sg. nom. Is the food which Is dear to the tamasic. And refuse as well as the impure. nom. participle ud Jsi~). used. ca.XVII 10 ~~ yiitayiimam (n. puti (n. along with some other interpolations of a moral or religious character. nom. sg.). ca.).).).). though the Mahabharata is primarily an epic of the /qatriya. even. impure. also. api. tasteless 'ffa ~~ 'if ~ I puti pary~itam ca yat putrid and left-over which \3f~J. fetid. p. insisting on its superiority to an extent that is almost comic. preferred by those characterized by the gUl~a of tamas. tiimasapriyam (n. Stale. sg. and. foul. not fit for sacrifice. • I t is not difficult to detect in this and the preceding two stanzas the hand of the brahman caste.ifq. rotten. the Bhagavad Glta. sg. or warrior. sg. nom. putrid. which. ucchi~{am (n. and. tasteless. gatarasam (n. spoiled. stale.). pass. It has been pointed out by historians that.). caste. nom. nom. nom. sg. bhojanam (n. rejected. stale. paryu~itam (n. flavorless. nom. was probably inserted into the poem later by the priestly caste of brahmans. stinking. p. left over. dear to the tamasic. yiitayiimam gatarasam stale. sg. left remaining. tasteless.~ ucch#tam api ciimedhyam rejected and also foul ~m crr+rnf~ II bhojanam tiimasapriyam food the tamasic dear to.

indeed (often used as a rhythmic filler). nom. concentrating. yajfias (m. p.). which. scripture observing. he. nom.). pr. By those who do not desire the fruit. nom. ~ D. by the nonfruit-desiring (as TP cpd. sg.Jyaj). sg. pertaining to him who is characterized by the gUl~a of sattva. nom. sg.Jyaj). <rn"r aphaliikiifik#bhir yajiio by the non-fruit-desiring. fixing.). (m. sacrifice. inst. composing. sg. manas (n. pl. iti. passive . vidhid~~!as (m. That sacrifice is sattvic. nom. thus. worship. gerundive . pass. sg. who.~fG +1'1: ya~tavyam vidhid!~to eveti manalJ "to be sacrificed" only thus the mind ~t1Tlf ~ mf~: II samiidhiiya sa siittvikalJ concentrating.XVII 11 'J.Jdhii). that sattvic. sas (m. sacrifice. it is offered. this. which it is offered. it is sacrificed. fqf~1SCr If ~ I ya ijyate scripture observing. nom.. mind.p. sg. 644 . sg.!"'CfmT'filf~~. aphaliikiiiik~ibhis Sacrifice which is offered.) by those who do not desire fruit. eva. to be offered.). participle vidhi :jd~s). ya~!avyam (n. samiidhiiya (gerund sam ii . Concentrating the mind only on the thought "this is to be sacrificed". acc. sattvic.). only. siittvikas (m. to be sacrificed. observing the scriptures. ijyate (3rd sg.). yas (m.

. acc.a of rajas. yajfzam (m. dambhiirtham (m. Arjuna.). fruit. bharatasre~{ha (m. ijyate (3rd sg. acc. offering. it is offered. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). know! learn! riijasam (m.). the fruit. epithet of Arjuna. sg. even.) for the purpose of hypocrisy.Jyaj). Know that to be rajasic. it is sacrificed. sg.). nom. sg. ~~'{ mIT ~ mJ.). And also for the purpose of ostentation. eva.). (as TP cpd. fraudulent aim. but. viddhi (2nd imperative act. seeking. tu.:1 dambhiirtham api ciiiva yat and hypocritical purpose also which ~"lfm~ ijyate bharatasre~tha it is offered. ~<rnfqf.). sacrifice. having in mind. with hypocritical aim. rajasic.[~ II tam yajiiam viddhi riijasam this sacrifice know to be rajasic. phalam (n. abhisamdhiiya tu phalam having in view. ca. 645 . api also. voc. sg.Jvid). but. indic. Best of the Bharatas. pertaining to him who is characterized by the gUl).Jdhii). him. and. sg. acc.XVII 12 m~~<!~ abhisa1iu1hiiya (gerund abhi sam . Best of the Bharatas. acc. which. having in view. pr. But sacrifice which is offered With a view to the fruit. sg. yad (n. this. acc. passive . tam (m.). sg.

acc. Sacrifice devoid of faith.XVII 13 fqf~f. n. sg. acc. unoffered food. grain.). pari . pass. sacred formula discarded. they see as. Contrary to scriptural ordinances. adak~ifJam (n. fee not being paid.\'l!: ~ vidhihfnam (n. '1"<i~'1'L ~~ I mantrahinam adak#1J. tiimasam (m. acc. sg. devoid of faith. participle a . not offered. aSf~!a (p.a oftamas. without fee. sg. food. sg.). scripture discarded.) mantrahfnam (n. acc. worship. pass. pertaining to him who is characterized by the gUl). not offered food. sg. acc. Without mantras and without gifts (to the presiding priest).. sacrifice. p. mid. sg. tamasic. sacred formula lacking.). paricak~ate (3rd pI. vidhihinam asr#annam scripture discarded./Sfj). faith deserted. ~lfCfU~ lllI' sraddhavirahitam yajfiam faith-devoid sacrifice ~qf~11 tamasam paricak~ate tamasic they regard as.). sg. not let go. acc. acc. sg. participle sraddhii vi . without fee. nom. they regard as.). with no food offered. annam (n./rah).. KD cpd.. yajfiam (m.. acc./cak~). (asf~!a-iinnam. scripture lacking.am sacred text discarded. They regard as tamasic. sraddhiivirahitam (n. 646 .).

nom.). 'if~~m~:q brahmacaryam ahimsii ca continence non-violence m-:1i aq. purity. from . priijna (m. These are called austerities of the body. it is called. rectitude. guru (m. virtue.~ II siiriram tapa ucyate bodily austerity.) siiucam (n. keeping the vow of the brahmacarin. teacher.Jpuj). brahmacaryam (n. nom. sarfram (adv. reverencing.). heat. sg. ucyate (3rd sg. chastity. the twice born. ahimsii (f. twice-born. pro indic.).. iirjavam (n. sg. the teacher and the man of wisdom. (devadvijagurupriijfiapujanam. member of one of the three highest castes.). wise man. TP cpd. sg. ca. bodily. And wise men.). rectitude.). austerity.Jvac). the twice-born. sg. elder. of the body. cleanliness of mind and body. dvija (m. Celibacy. the twice-born. it is said to be.). man of wisdom. sg. revering.). purity. nom. nom. n. pujanam (n. sg.$II#1- devadvijagurupriijiiagods. sg. 647 .). and non-violence. nom. purity. it is called. Worship of the gods. revering the gods. teachers. passive . master. and. teachers and WIse men ~~~~rt<ql pujanm1z siiucam iirjavam reverencing. tapas (n.). non-violence. rectitude. deva (m. continence. nom. god. harmlessness.XVII MN<l'-. nom.

sg. indic. nom. which ~T'e. satyam (n. sg. sg. speaking sacred texts to oneself. nom.). it is called. 648 .). sg.)./dhii). it is said to be. reciting sacred texts. sg. sg. abhyasanam (n. agreeable. p. participle . yad (n. DV cpd. agreeable. hitam (n. (svadhyaya-abhyasanam. speech.. recitation and practice. which. (priya-hitam.). tapas (n. salutary.). word.. not causing apprehension. practice. pleasant. vaiimayam (vac mayam. DV cpd. exercise.. sg. true. not causing distress. priya (m.). And practice in the recitation of sacred texts. heat. These are called austerities of speech. agreeable and salutary. sg. nom. ucyate (3rd sg. nom. vakyam (n. beneficial. sg. sg. nom. austerity. pass. svadhyaya (m. n. not overawing. Words that do not cause distress. speechformed. nom. nom. Truthful./vac).). nom. nom. n.~<rn"f ~q svadhyayabhyasanam caiva and recitation-of-sacred-texts practice ~a-'1~11 vafimayam tapa ucyate speech formed austerity it is called.).) ca. agreeable and salutary. passive . and beneficial. nom. anudvegakaram vakyam not-causing-distress speech ~ fw:rf~ :q «<'! I satyam priyahitam ca yat truthful. and.). eva. speech-made.XVII 15 ~~~<rrCflt anudvegakaram (n. and.. wholesome. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). pr. truthful.) ca. n.

silence. thus. nom.). austerity. sg. nom..). it is Cfqr +rr<ffi'1: . self-restraint. this. cleanliness of being. self restraint. sg. kindness. austerity mental it is called.j~ II tapa miinasam ucyate called. gentleness. Silence. 649 .XVII 16 11<f:5ffiT~: ~1~ manas (n.. silence. atmavinigrahas (m. nom. it is said to be.. tapas (n. sg... etad (n. bhtivasamsuddhis (f. ~~Tf~ ~~ traer '0 . taciturnity. peace. nom. saumyatvam (n. clarity. this iti.Jvac). Purity of being.).). miiunam iitmavinigrahaf:z mi'iunam (n. ucyate (3rd sg. sg. sg.. 11~ ~w:rfqf~: I calmness. sg. mi'inasam (n.). self-restraint. Peace of mind. nom. be- nevolence. of the mind.). nom.). manaf:zprasiidaf:z siiumyatvam mind-peace. mental. '" self-control. prasadas (m. . nom. heat. pr. sg. sg. mind. indic. sg. gentleness. bhiivasamsuddhir ity etat being-purity thus.. purity of being.). these Are called austerities of the mind.. passive . nom. nom. mildness. gentleness.).

). ~rf~ qf'0feffl II aphaliikiiiik~ibhir . sattvic. sg. paricak~ate (3rd pI. of three kinds. sg.). aphaliikiiiik~ibhis (m. parayii (f. pass. pr. they regard as. inst.). by those who do not desire fruit.). this. siittvikam (m.z by the non-fruit-desiring. sraddhayii (f. nom. '" siittvikam paricak~ate sattvic they regard as. austerity.). heat. mid. nom. sg. acc. pari -fcak~). by the disciplined. by the steadfast. by the steadfast. undergone. pl. nariiis (m. yuktiiis (m. pertaining to him who is characterized by the gu~a of satLa.). sg. practiced. tapas (n. inst. nom. threefold.XVII 17 ~~(fg sraddhayii parayii taptam with faith the highest undergone ~ m( f?ffCfe[ "Ii: I tapas tat trividham nariiil. nom. inst. participle -ftap). by those who are disciplined in Yoga. sg.). 650 . tad (n. sg. that. by men. sg. p. inst. with the highest. by faith. trividham (n. indic. taptam (n. they see as. by the nondesirous of fruit.). They regard as sattvic. pl. by the highest. This threefold austerity Practiced with the highest faith by men Who are not desirous of fruits and are steadfast.z austerity this threefold by men. wh<i5 I Cfll f~m~ lfffi: yuktiiil. pl. inst. triple.). with faith. acc.

reverence. sg.) tapas (n. iha. ca. sg.). Austerity which is practiced with hypocrisy For the sake of honor. nom. yad (n. acc.. unsteady. nom. acc. kriyate (3rd sg. calam (m. proktam (m. respect and reverence. and reverence. for the sake of. impermanent. p. rajasic.). artha (n. pass. sg. (satkiiramanapujiirtham. inst. impermanent. unsteady. sg. sg.).). '" . it is done. with hypocrisy.). nom. pujii (f. declared. aim. (n. sg. and. pro passive . acc. 651 . and impennanent. dambhena (m. respect. lit. participle pra . respect.). here.XVII 18 ~("Cf\i (>1 i"l1. it is performed. which. for the sake of honor. with fraud. respect. by fraud.Jvac)." mana (m. that here m the world declared to be ~:qmr~~11 . pertaining to one who is characterized by the gUl}a of rajas.). TP cpd. reverence for the sake of rn~~~1 tapa dambhena caiva yat and austerity with hypocrisy which fm~~~ kriyate tad iha proktam it is performed. unfixed. here in the world. honor. tad (n. here on earth.). heat. infirm. is declared to be Rajasic. hospitality. wavering. adhruvam (m. unsteady. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). said to be. this. favor. sg. acc. That. reverence. honor. that. sg.).Jk1:). rajasam calam adhruvam rajasic.). austerity.rN satkiira (n.. sg.). acc. eva. "good-doing. it is made. riijasam (m. satkaramanapujartham honor.

with notion. II tat tiimasam udiihrtam that tamasic declared to be.'} . sg.it lffi . . which.Jk1:).a of tamas. with deluded notion. participle ut . sg. said to be. sg. it is performed.+I . pass. tapas (n. sg.. acc. declared to be. artham (n. of the self.Jmuh). q'('t<tlffil~'1I~ .).. q-'Js<:rr fm ~q-: I pifjayii kriyate tapalJ with torture. Austerity which is performed With deluded notions and with self-torture. which.. 652 .. it is done.iitmano yat with deluded notion of the self. pass . kriyate (3rd sg. confused. nom. with the purpose of destroying another. indic. inst. paqaya (f. sg.) atmanas (m.). (parasyotsadanartham.. sg. Is declared to be tamasic. sg. tad. by grasp. with torment. I~ . destroying. by notion. sg. p. '3 ~ I ~<'1 +t. inst. with torture. tamasam (n. overturning. mufjhagriiher. pr. (muqhagrahelJa.). sg. tamasic. sg. nom. austerity. it is performed.). gen. (n. parasya (m.XVII 19 +! ii'A . participle ud Ii . yad (n. nom. pass.011 . TP cpd. .). nom. utstidana (pr. grahelJa (m. heat. austerity. pertaining to the gUl).).Jhf). acc.). that. Or with the aim of destroying another. selfdenial. inst. deluded. purpose.) va. of another. err parasyotsiidaniirtham vii of another destroying aim or aq: ~fPl~+!. this.). or. muqha (p.Jsad). it is made. aim. sg. participle . gen. m. udahrtam (n.

kale (m. p.). indic.Jdii) .).Jdd). which.). passive .). and. at a proper time. and. tad (n. in time. sg. loco sg. in a proper place. to a worthy person. pertaining to the gUI}a of sattva.). nom. iti. sg. recorded as.sm~). sg. ddnam (n. nom. nom. sg. to him who has performed no prior favor. not done a friendly service. thus (often used to close a quotation). The gift which is given only with the thought "it is to be given. nom. sg. sattvic. gift." To a worthy person who has done no prior favor. ca. At the proper place and time.). sg. pr. That gift is held to be sattvic. sg.). to datavyam iti yad danam "to be given" thus which gift ~"l<:fcr s1'1'fi1f~ I be given. held to be.. participle . remembered as. diinam (n. gift. dat. gerundive . that. pass. ~~ 'fiB '<f rn:l 'q given. piitre (n.e is given to one who has done no prior favor. sdttvikam (n. to him who has dese kale ca patre ca in (proper) place and time and to a worthy person tad danam sattvikam smrtam that gift sattvic remembered as. in a place. ca. nom. nom.XVII 20 ~~<:Tl1<\m diitavyam (n. it is diyate 'nupakari1. diyate (3rd sg. loco sg. 653 . it is bestowed. known as. nom. anupakdri1]e (m. sm~tam (n. this.). yad (n. loco sg. dde (m.). sg. to a competent person.

tad (n. sg. va. pass. charity. sg. passive .). nom. With the aim of recompense Or gain. or. remembered as. smr:tam (n. and. parikli~(am (n.J00). rajasam (n.). with regard to fruit. ~"'t<rn "f qf"<f~ diyate ca parikli#am and is given grudgingly.).). it is given. fruit. this. rajasic. yad (n. ca. pass. again. pratyupakariirtham (m. result. with the aim of recompense. indic. sg. ~<wi~'~11 . nom. sg. grudgingly. pertaining to the gu~a of rajas. recorded as. which. sg. phalam (n. acc. p. . nom. but.Jdis). Is considered rajasic.Jsmr:).). punar. or again. pointing to. pr. participle . nom. :b '" yat tu pratyupakiiriirtham which but with recompense aim ~73f~ <IT Tf: I phalam uddisya vii puna!} fruit with regard to.XVII 21 «<f M lOI<:llQCflI <I~ . participle pari '. dfyate (3rd sg.). But that gift which is given grudgingly. diinam (n. tu. with regard to. sg. uddiSya (gerund ud . nom. 654 .Jklis). gift. with the purpose of gaining reward. acc. thought to be. nom. that. sg. it is bestowed. sg. ~ tad diinam riijasam smrtam that gift rajasic recorded as. unwillingly. p.

with contempt. dlinam (n. pass. pro indic. tad (n. avajiiiitam (n. is given.Jjiiii).XVII 22 ~{~ICflI0lf<\~ adesakiile yad danam at wrong place and time which gift. gift. adesakiile (m.). declared. with contempt. nom. sg. participle ud Ii . sg. to unworthy persons. without wisdom. to the unworthy.Jda). or with contempt. pass. asatkftam (adv.). tamasic. udahrtam (n. participle ava . loco sg. p. in wrong place and time.). diyate (3rd sg. which. ~~~rml apatrebhyasca diyate and to the unworthy. Without paying respect. it is given. ~q: ffilrnlf 'd ~ I t[d 'lll tat tamasam udahrtam that tamasic declared to be.). aplitrebhyas (n. charity. sg. ca.). acc. sg. this. pertaining to the gUJ:la of tamas. 655 . passive . That gift which is given at the wrong place and time To the unworthy. yad (n. and. ~~~ asatkrtam avajiiatam without paying respect. that.Jhf). tlimasam (n. p.). with disrespect. sg. nom. dat.). without paying respect. nom. pl. acc. sg. said to be. Is declared to be tamasic. nom.

" om tat sat (" om that [is] real ") is a common mantra. with this. the three principal deities (Brahma. The rest of the mantra is an affirmation of the existence of Brahman. p. good. earth). vedas (m. Vishnu and Siva) and the beginning. sg. pl. iti. t1f1: I brahma1Jas trividhal.). nom. but see commentary on "tat sat" in stanzas 2S and 26. u. arranged. thus. nirddas (m. yajiu'is (m. pass. It begins with the sacred syllable "oriz" which is made up of three sounds . brahmalJds (m.). apportioned. pura (adv. sg. so. this. pI. tena (m.Jdhii).XVII 23 ~T~~~af~) om tat sad iti nirdeso "om tat sat" .). and.). vihitas (nom. nom. real. and.). sacrifices. the sacred syllable or one-syllable mantra. ca. known. in olden times.Jsm~). of three kinds. sg.). sg. of Brahman. atmosphere. ancient. that. 'lI1~UlHl~~ briihmatJiis tena vediisca the Brahmans by this and the Vedas ~fcrf~:~TII yajiiiisca vihitiil.z of Brahman threefold remembered. anciently. nom. called to mind. true. pl.).).).a. participle vi . ordained. threefold. p. by this.thus the designation ~ f?Jfcrer: om. instruction. religious ceremonies. And the sacrifices were created in ancient times. m . pass. command. the Vedas. ca.). participle . sg. trividhas (m. "Sat" in Sanskrit has the meanings of "real" or "true" and that of "good. order. sm~tas (m. sg. determined. nom.z smrtal. designation. for which "om" is a designation. nom.z purii and the sacrifices ordained anciently. the "three worlds" (heaven. nom. among Hindus. the Brahmans. sat (n. middle and ending of all things. the Vedas. nom." 656 . sg. "Om tat sat" this has been taught as The threefold designation of Brahman. or sacred utterance. brahma1Jlls (n. nom. pl. remembered. inst. g. By this the brahmins.representing the three Vedas. tad (n. prior.

Jdhii). giving. perpetually. therefore. p. from this.) therefore" om" thus uttering.). in this way. participle . sg. and austerity Are always begun uttering the syllable "Om" By the students of Brahman.). nom. acts of sacrifice.. sacrifice. kriyas (m. pl. tapas (n. 657 . they are begun.r: pravartante vidhiinoktiil:z they are begun prescribed in the (Vedic) scriptures. acts. (vidhiina-uktas.. of the expounders of Brahman.). m. precept. pass. pI.). mm~~11 satatam brahmaviidiniim always by the expounders of Brahman. they begin. dana (n. TP cpd. pr. thus.Jvac). they commence. uttering. heat. gen. austerity. gift.Jv~t).XVII 24 ~~~ tasmiid om ity udiihrtya tasmat (m. TP cpd. so. bringing forward. self-denial. of the expounders. gen.). 1l#l~I'1dq:f. they are commenced. illustrating. viidinam (m. proclaimed.p<IT: I yajiiadiinatapal:zkriyiil:z sacrifice. Brahman. nom. (brahma-viidiniim. Therefore. prescription. always. uktas (m.. As prescribed in the Vedic injunctions. iti. religious acts. nom. pI. m. nom. mid. vidhiina (from vi . (yajnadanatapal]kriyas. charity. proclaimed in the precepts.Jh~). worship. indic. the sacred syllable or one-syllable mantra. gift and austerity acts ~ fcrtTRTn. pl. brahma (n.).) pravartante (3rd pI. of the explainers.. abl. of the speakers. pra . gifts and austerities. acts of sacrifice. said. pI. yajna (m.).) satatam (adv.). m. pI. om. udah~tya (gerund ud a .

release. indic. and giving acts of various sorts f~+rT~s.).). TP cpd. religious actions.).XVII 25 ~~wrfmT<f tad ity anabhisatndhiiya "tat" thus without aiming at ~ lI'WrT:f~: I tad (n. m. they are performed. Uttering "tat" and without aiming at Fruits.Jdhii) . they are performed by the desirous of release. acts. self-denial. nom. varied. nom.).' yajiiatapal. sg. result. TP cpd. phalam (n. pl. they are done. fruit. by those who desire release.) diinakriyiis (m. fruit.. nom. sg. pI. anabhisarhdhiiya (gerund an abhi sam . m. thus. and. pI. (mok~akiifik~ibhis. worship. iti. acts of sacrifice and austerity. they are made. mok~a (m. (yajnatapal]kriyiis. austerity. pl. so. of various kinds. pr. by those who are desirous. nom.).). kriyante (3rd pI. kriyiis (m. acts of giving. liberation. passive . acc. actions. sacrifice austerity acts ~~ferfqm: diinakriyiisca vividhiil.kriyiil. inst. nom.)." phalam. kiifik~ibhis (inst. without interest in. by those who desire liberation from the cycles of rebirth. ca. not aiming at. here simply Htat. acts of sacrifice and austerity And acts of giving of various sorts Are performed by those who desire liberation.).) 658 .). acts of charity. pl.m+r: II kriyante molqakiifik#bhil. of many sorts. this. vividhiis (m. tapas (n. pl. by the desirous.JkI:). yajna (m. sacrifice.. that.

meaning of "goodness. "Sat" is used In its meaning of "reality" and in its meaning of "goodness. it is used. nom.).li tathii for a praiseworthy act also ~:qN~11 sacchabdaJ. sabdas (m. yujyate (3rd sg. thus. prasaste (n.). indic. reality. sg. in the mean- ing of "reality. even. it is used. thus." Also the word "sat" is used For an auspicious act.). loco sg. vOC. pr. passive pra ". (sat-sabdas. goodness (here simply "sat"). sg. Son of Prtha. straight. in praiseworthy. good. pass. this is used. in this way. iti. passive "/yuj).). m. prayujyate (3rd sg. sg. piirtha yujyate the" sat" sound. also. karmalJi (n. pr. (siidhu bhiive. ~Cfi4fura~ prasaste karma1. m.). loco sg. in meaning. reality. so. truth. in action. goodness.). nom. truth. goodness. in laudable. word. epithet of Atjuna. in act. in intention. this. right. reality. nom. sat (n. sound of "sat"). sound. it is employed. TP cpd. Arjuna.). loco sg. that. piirtha (m. bOOve (m. loco sg. 659 . p. and. it is pronounced. truth. sat (n. loco sg. TP cpd.yuj). sg. TP cpd. Son of Prthii.). loco sg. sg. indic. bOOve (m. in the "sat" thus.") siidhu (n. tatoo. participle pra "/sams). m.. it is employed. ~W{~~I sad ity etat prayujyate in meaning. goodness (here simply "sat"). is used. etad (n.XVII 26 ~~:q sadbhiive siidhubhiive ca in "reality" meaning and in "goodness" meaning.). (sat-bOOve. in being.") ca.. in intention..). nom. sat (n.

nom. pr. sat (n. nom. in sacrifice. loco sg. karma (n. reality. sg. in charity. 'lilt ~ CR~1<i karma caiva tadarthiyam and action relating to this purpose.). likewise (often used as a rhythmic filler). sg. sg. it is said to be.). and. iti. nom. nom. and. serving the purpose of that. in this way (often used to close a quotation). it is designated. loco sg.). sg. and. it is called." And action relating to these Is likewise designated as "sat. action. ~ ~ r.rn. passive -/vac). sthitis (f. in worship. truth. it is proclaimed. austerity. dane (n. in austerity.).).).). nom. eva. tadarthfyam (n. steadfastness.II sad ity evabhidhiyate "sat" thus likewise it is designated. ucyate (3rd sg. 660 . and Giving is also called "sat. in this way (often used to close a quotation). ca. ca. indeed. adhidhlyate (3rd sg. indic. goodness (here simply "sat"). goodness (here simply "sat"). in giving. reality. passive abhi -/dhii)." yajfie (m. thus. in selfdenial. tapasi (n.). eva. dependability. Steadfastness in sacrifice. sat (n. loco sg. in austerity and in giving f~~<1: ~ ~<1 "f~ I sthiti~ sad iti cocyate steadfastness "sat" thus also it is called. relating to that. truth.XVII 27 ~crn~~"f yajiie tapasi dane ca in sacrifice. pr. sg. likewise (often used as a rhythmic filler). ca. indeed.crrf"ll'=1P. thus. indic. iti.

participle .). p. p. austerity. here. made. it is said. thus. not. epithet of Arjuna. heat. after death. nom. rr"fmr~~rrT~ II na ca tat pretya no iha and not that (is anything) to us hereafter. ca. sg. asraddhaya (f.). iti.). An oblation offered or an austerity practiced Without faith Is called "asat. iha. sg. nom. a + pr. untruth. hereafter. inst. and. End of Book XVII The Yoga of the Distinction of the Three Kinds of Faith 661 . not good. sg. it is said to be. sg. practiced. having died. pass. sg. i). nom.Jtap). here in the world. pass. in this way (often used to close a quotation.Jda). pass.Jvac). it is called.XVII 28 . done. oblation. sg. participle .). undergone. sg. asad ity ucyate piirtha "asat" thus it is called. participle . pro passive . ~dg~"f~1 tapas tap tam krtam ca yat austerity performance done. nor here in the world. sg. which . of us. given. partha (m. nom. dattam (n. nom. tad (n. and. which. with absence of faith. yad (n.Jk~). pouring into the sacrificial fire.q. sg. nom.~~~ asraddhayii hutam dattam with lack of faith oblation offered.Jas). nom. p. sg.. sg.). hutam (n. by lack of faith. having gone. presented. this. pretya (gerund pra . tapas (n. asat (n. voc. lacking in virtue (here simply "asat"). nom. nas (dat. . taptam (n. kI:tam (n. to us. ca." Arjuna.. unreality. Son of Prtha.). na.). ) ucyate (3rd sg. performed. participle . offered.q-~~~qr~ . Son of Prthii. that. And is nothing in the hereafter or here in the world.

gen. sg. ." usually an epithet of Arjuna. perf. sg. I desire. And of renunciation. epithet of Krishna.). uvaca (3rd sg. nom.Ji~). he said." mahabaho (m. Arjuna. :Jvac). sg.). ca. (See chapter on "The Setting of the Bhagaviid Gltii". epithet of Krishna. one by one. sg.).) 662 . and.q~ II ~. tattvam (n. tyagasya (m. 0 Mighty Armed One.). "thatness. veditum (infinitive . q-~ ififm<. Slayer of Kesin." icchami (rst sg. he spoke. act. Bristling Haired One. act . Bristling Haired '" p~thak kesini~iidana separately. is here applied to Krishna. h~sfkeSa (m. Arjuna spoke: I wish to know the truth Of sannyasa.). singly. to learn. keSini~udana (m. to know. t The iisura Kdin was slain by Vishnu (Krishna) in another part of the Mahiibhiirata. voc. 0 mighty Armed One. of abandonment. separately. indic. acc. sg.BOOK XVIII ~~I arjuna uvaca arjunas (m. here applied to Krishna. of leaving behind. Arjuna spoke: 1 *"lI*lBl~~ satimyiisasya mahiibiiho salnnyasasya (m. It is a general epithet of distinguished warriors. • mahiibiiho. truth. voe. pr. Krishna. of renunciation. voc. p~thak (adv.). of renunciation. "of throwing aside. One. gen. sg.). I wish. And the difference between them. of relinquishment. epithet of various warriors. "0 Mighty Armed One. Slayer of Kesin.). lit.Jvid). sg. ~~11~~1 tattvam icchiimi veditum the truth I wish to know ~"f~~ tyiigasya ca h~~lkesa and of abandonment.

all. nom. they declare. abandonment (tyiiga) is the relinquishment of the results of action. sg. to avoid any misunderstanding. ~~ sarvakarmaphalatyiigam all action-fruit abandonment ~~f'f9~:11 priihus tyiigam vicak~a1}iil} they declare (to be) abandonment. they understand. vicaklfalJiis (m. karma (n. from sam ni. sg. lit. what is said is that renunciation (samnyiisa) is the relinquishment of all action which is aimed at a desired result. of actions.). he spoke. perf." kavayas (m. smnnyasam (m.). pl. tyagam (m..). gen. ~~Tf~:1 samnyiisam kavayo vidul} renunciation the poets understand. throwing down. TP cpd. vidus (3rd pI. the poets.). desertion. nyasam (m. gen.J2 as). fruit. sg.). . The relinquislunent of the fruit of all action The wise declare to be renunciation. relinquishment. kiimyiiniim karma1}iim nyiisam of rites undertaken to achieve desires. 663 . perf. act. pl. acc. acc. uvaca (3rd sg..Jvac). and thus does not imply nonaction as renunciation does.). the clear-sighted. The Blessed Lord spoke: The relinquislunent of actions prompted by desire The sages understand as sannyasa. the Blessed Lord the Blessed one. they know. tyagam (m. perf. nom. m. of acts. The words are clear enough. nom. they say. the clear-eyed. karmalJam (n. the clear sighted. . sg. pl. renunciation. 2 ~~~ kamyanam (n. action. the seers. acc.XVIII l!1'hl~~1 sribhagaviin uviica the Blessed Lord spoke: srfbhagavan (m. of springing from desire. (sarvakarmaphalatyagam. of desiderative. the relinquishment.) prahus (3rd pI. pra . he said. result. sg.J2 as). pl. abandonment desertion. sarva. act.).). relinquishment. giving up. "throwing down.Jvid with present meaning). acc. abandonment. act.Jah with present meaning). abandonment of all fruit of action. renunciation. the sagacious. but. . acc. leaving behind. sg. from ni . phala (n. the chroniclers.).

Jah with present meaning).. action by sacrifice. thus. work. nom. they declare. iti. and. tyajyam (n. acc. men of wisdom.). TPcpd. heat. and austerity Are not to be abandoned. giving. acc. tapas (n. of eka. iti. pra . acc. acc. ~~q:'filt yajiiadiinatapal. <filf ~ lA"lf~: I karma priihur mani§i1Jal. they declare. apare (m. to be relinquished.). worship.XVIII 3 ~~~W{~ tyiijyam do~avad ity eke to be abandoned. so. "one"). sg. work. pI. nom. gifts and austerity.Jtyaj) . n. action. gerundive . (yajiiadanatapaIJkarma. Some men of wisdom declare That action is to be abandoned and is full of evil. manf~ilJGs (m. sg. pl. to be deserted. dana (n. yajiia (m. to be abandoned. perf. sg.). do~avat (n.). wrong. nom. charity. thus. pl. to be abandoned. the men of wisdom. action. to be given up. act. sg. nom.). gerundive . others. giving. karma (n. the wise ones. sacrifice. some. full of evil.).). full of evil thus some tyajyam (n. evil. acc. karma (n. prahus (3rd pI. sg.Jtyaj). the thoughtful. in this way.). austerity. action. eke (m. not. sg. 664 .) na.karma and sacrifice-giving-austerity action "~l1:~f<:i~11 na tyiijyam iti ciipare not to be abandoned thus others. in this way. And others say that acts of sacrifice. they say. ca.

tyiige (m. Arjuna. Man-Tiger. sg. threefold designated. Best of the Bharatas. epithet of Arjuna. sg. nom. hi. sg. ascertainment. niscayam (m. sg. sg. bharatasattama (m. my. acc. voc. puru~avyiighra (m.). "/sru).). epithet of Arjuna.XVIII f~~lt~ G . enumerated. of me. tatra.).~ niscayam Sr1}U me tatra the conclusion hear of me there 0fTit"+t {d*1'dlO( I tyiige bharatasattama concerning abandonment. of three kinds. pass. nom. loco sg. there. in this case. abandonment. samprak[rtitas (m.). voc. Renunciation is declared To be of three kinds: 665 .p. f"ffGfCf: ~nd"d": II trividhal. hear! learn! me (gen. truly.). threefold. participle sam pra "/klrt). in abandonment. ~Tf~~~ tyiigo hi purtqavyiighra abandonment indeed. trividhas (m. desertion. sg. giving up.). Hear My conclusion in this matter Concerning renunciation. conclusion. designated. indeed. nom. sg. Tiger among Men. sr:lJu (2nd sg. imperative act. tyiigas (m. Man-Tiger. concerning abandonment.). 0 Best of the Bharatas. conviction. samprakirtital.

). yajfia (m. pl.). karma (n. ~TGR~ yajiio diinam tapasciiiva sacrifice. to be abandoned.). nom. sg. ca. to be left behind. sg. rather (often used as a rhythmic filler). nom. na.XVIII 5 lhl ~ I"H'1 q :Cfi1t yajiiadiinatapa/. danam (n.).. ll""flfl'f1Jl1lt. giving. nom. giving and austerity qjCA1f.Jtyaj). eva. but rather to be perfonned. to be performed. charity.). giving and austerity. pavantini (n. giving. indeed. of those who are wise. to be made. actions of sacrifice.). pl. nom. action.). worship. 666 . nom.. nom. giving. and austerity Are purifiers of those who are wise. sacrifice. nom.). this. Acts of sacrifice. yajfias (m. that. II piivaniini mani#1Jiim purifiers of those who are wise. (yajfiadanatapalJkarma. ktiryam (n. TP cpd.Jkr). sacrifice. sg. indeed (used as a rhythmic filler). austerity. sg. to be done.. sg. sg. austerity. nom. tad (n. heat. tapas (n. sacrifice-giving-austerity-action). Sacrifice. gen. n. of the thoughtful. nom. heat. gerundive .). not. cleansers. sg. giving. of the wise. tyajyam (n. sg.). acc. manf~irJiim (m. charity. worship. dana (n. eva. and. tapas (n. to be performed rather that. gerundive .lkarma sacrifice-giving-austerity action "'~~~~I na tyiijyam kiiryam eva tat not to be abandoned. purifiers. and austerity Are not to be abandoned.

). nom. surely. ca. however. These actions.XVIII 6 ~ mq. nom. of me. . thus of me. abandoning. pl. highest. / kartavyiini (n. acc.fm lRrl{ ~~ II niscitam matam uttamam without doubt belief highest. coming sangam tyaktva phalani ca attachment and abandoning fruits. tu. indeed. niicitam (adv. pl. f. voc. results. supreme.). indeed. This is My definite And highest belief. without doubt. sg. however. Son of Prthii. thought. acc. epithet of Arjuna. actions. phaZiini (n.). piirtha (m.). ~1fa-lTqr~ kartavyaniti me piirtha to be performed. in this way. nom. nom. to be made.). attachment. my. pl.. but.).~ I etiini (n. are to be perfonned Abandoning attachment to the fruits. iti.. actions ~~tfm1f. thus. Son of Prthli. these. sg. belief. Arjuna. definite. sg. me (gen. sg. sg. api.~ Cfilhf"T etiiny api tu karmii1]i these. however.). tyaktvii (gerund together. uttamam (n. to be done. fruits. having left behind. nom. matam (n. gerundive v kt:). saiigam (m. deeds. 667 . karmiifJi (n. to be performed. having abandoned.Jtyaj) .).). and. pI.

parikirtita!. it happens. renunciation mT<f~1 karmat}o nopapadyate of action not it is proper. proclaimed. nom. of obligatory. from pari .W<mr: niyatasya (n. niyatasya tu samnyasal.la of tamas. tamasas (n. The abandonment of it through delusion Is proclaimed to be tamasic. of action. sg. indeed.z of obligatory. declared. of prescribed. sg. throwing aside. abl. of mandatory. sg. indic. moMt (m. it takes place. but. said. from delusion.). gen. p. karmalJas (n. pr.).Jtyaj).). upa . gen. na. abandonment mmr: qf<:<fi'Tfffif: II tamasa!.). tamasic proclaimed to be. it is proper. parikfrtitas (m. but. from confusion.Jkfrt).). upapadyate (3rd sg. But renunciation of obligatory action Is not proper. nom. tamasic. renunciation. of it. participle pari . parityagas (m. 668 . of this. sg. pass. not. tu. sg.). tasya (n. it is fitting. mid. sg. abandonme