Învaţă şi foloseşte corect limba engleză

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................FUTURE CONTINUOUS ...............................FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS ..............................PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS ............................................................................................... 22 VERB – PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS ..............................................................................PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE ............... TIMP................................... 29 ARTICOLUL ŞI ALŢI DETERMINANŢI .......................................................... 4 PARTEA I......................................................................................................................................................................................................................FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE ........................... 24 VERB ............................................................... 11 VERB – PRESENT PERFECT ...........76 TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE ............................................................................................................................................... 21 VERB – PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS ...............91 Verbul TO WORK -model............................... 9 VERB ................................................................18 VERB .................................................................. 18 MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL ..... 45 COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANŢIALE DE LOC....... 25 PERSOANA ŞI NUMĂRUL ............................................................................................................................................PAST TENSE SIMPLE ......................................................................................... 67 TEST FINAL ............................................................................................................ 16 PARTEA I..................................... 6 VERB ..... 13 VERB – PAST PERFECT SIMPLE .................................... 6 VERB ....... 70 Cheia exerciţiilor ......................................................................................................... 19 VERB..........................................................................................................................................fişă exemplu ........................................................................................ 94 4 ................................................................................. 6 MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL ...................................................................................... MOD .................................ASPECTUL ................................................................Cuprins Prefaţă....TIMPUL ...... 93 Bibliografie:...................................................................................................PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS ...... 18 VERB ..............................................

Se continuă cu exemple. Citind această lucrare. veţi fi confruntat cu probleme de gramatică şi de vocabular. negativ şi interogativ.Prefaţă Gramatica de faţă îşi propune să ofere mai mult decât un simplu set de reguli gramaticale ale limbii engleze. Atenţie! Nimic nu se pierde! Fiecare aspect gramatical este însoţit de cel puţin un exerciţiu astfel încât punerea în practică să conducă la o finalitate pe termen lung a stăpânirii acelui aspect gramatical. Atingerea obiectivului dumneavoastră este scopul principal al acestei cărţi care vă pune la dispoziţie într-o formă concisă şi accesibilă. Cel care studiază are de asemenea cheia exerciţiului la sfârşit. Realitatea. De asemenea aveţi şi o fişă cu regulile de formare a timpurilor. Conştiinciozitatea 5 . informaţiile necesare pentru a putea folosi limba engleză corect din punct de vedere gramatical şi pentru a asigura acurateţea şi nuanţarea atât de necesare în comunicare prin intermediul oricărei limbi. situaţiile reale de exprimare de la care se porneşte conferă originalitate. vă va fi răsplătită printr-un rezultat excelent la testul final propus la sfârşitul cărţii care oferă 150 întrebări asupra cunoştinţelor de gramatică şi de vocabular. probabil din şcoală. Scurte prezentări teoretice şi o serie de exemple însoţesc aceste seturi de exerciţii. Multitudinea de exerciţii comparative variate sunt menite să sprijine înţelegerea elementelor teoretice prin aplicaţii practice. Acestea vin să ilustreze tiparele structurale de bază ale limbii engleze. La sfârşitul cărţii aveţi un model de verb conjugat la timpurile modului indicativ. iar prin metoda originală de prezentare să ajute în crearea unui sentiment de siguranţă în ceea ce priveşte corectitudinea gramaticală în exprimare. Deoarece va trebui să folosiţi din când în când dicţionarul. Rezolvarea testului vă va da cu siguranţă o imagine satisfăcătoare asupra stadiului la care aţi ajuns în însuşirea limbii engleze. modele şi explicaţii gramaticale menite să conducă la stăpânirea unui aspect gramatical al limbii engleze. vă puteţi exprima corect şi coerent în limba engleză şi veţi afla care sunt aspectele care vă creează dificultăţi. Modelul vă va însoţi la tot pasul. Numai în acest fel adulţii pot scăpa de un sentiment de inhibiţie cu care au rămas. Nu vă ia mai mult de 10 minute să parcurgeţi un aspect gramatical. la afirmativ. Timpul pe care sunteţi dispus să îl alocaţi este bine distribuit pe probleme gramaticale. veţi avea ocazia să vă îmbogăţiti substanţial cunoştinţele de vocabular. Intuiţia dumneavostră va funcţiona foarte bine în stăpânirea corectă a gramaticii. Autenticitatea exerciţiilor propuse oferă o structurare a cunoştinţelor în seturi grupate pe probleme gramaticale. veţi descoperi în ce măsură puteţi formula idei.

Morfologia cuprinde regulile privitoare la forma cuvintelor şi la modificările formale ale cuvintelor studiate pe părţi de vorbire. Am două fiice: Morfologia şi Sintaxa. comparaţia adjectivelor.INTRODUCERE Mă numesc Gramatica limbii engleze şi scopul meu principal este să vă informez asupra regulilor referitoare la forma cuvintelor. O să faceţi cunoştinţă mai ales cu prima dintre ele. numeralul. Ea este deosebit de importantă deoarece primul lucru care se învaţă în gramatica unei limbi străine este cum se formează categoriile gramaticale de bază: timpurile verbului. pluralul substantivelor. etc. sintaxa cuprinde regulile privitoare la îmbinarea cuvintelor în propoziţii şi fraze. pronumele. 6 .

She teaches English. My friend. they sunt pronume personale. on Tuesday. she. My father. then we will see the verbs. I have many friends in the village. She goes to school in the afternoon.PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL – TIMPUL PREZENT SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : I live with my husband and my children at the countryside. apoi vom analiza verbele. I like/enjoy living in nature. on Thursday and on Friday. Zilele săptămânii (Days of the week): Monday . I am a doctor. too. she is a teacher.Miercuri Thursday .Mar ţi Wednesday .TIMPUL VERB . animale) We – noi You – voi They – ei.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . She does not go to school in the week end.Luni Tuesday . Iată pronumele personale ale limbii engleze: I – eu You – tu He – el She – ea It – el/ea (pentru obiecte. Haideţi să observăm câteva din cuvintele din text. Louise. every day of the week: on Monday.Vineri Saturday . Let’s have a look at some words from the text. They are farmers.Joi Friday . my brother and my sister live here. ele b. I usually go to work in the morning.Sâmbătă Sunday – Duminică 7 . on Wednesday. my mother. a. Pronumele: (Pronouns) Cuvintele: I.

. My father. They are farmers. She goes.fiică brother . on Thursday and on Friday.Ea merge la şcoală după-amiaza. Louise. They live. I am a doctor. . They are.mătuşă cousin – verişor.bunic grandmother / grandma / granny .In the evening – seara d.Îmi place să trăiesc în natură. my mother. – Citesc zilnic.In the morning – dimineaţa .exemplu: I read daily. she is. Verbele accentuate sunt la Present Tense Simple.fiu daughter. 8 .Eu merg de obicei la lucru dimineaţa.soră grandfather / granddad / grandpa . She does not go.nepoată uncle.frate sister . She does not go to school in the week end. my brother and my sister live here. copii son .nepoată e. Verbele la Prezent Simplu (Verbs at Present Tense Simple) : I live. She teaches. I go.Ea nu merge la şcoală în week-end. fratele meu şi sora mea locuiesc aici. .c. joi şi vineri. My friend. . de asemenea. marţi.Ea predă limba engleză. I have many friends in the village. repetabilă: .unchi aunt .bunică grandson . I am . ♥Adevăruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. mama mea. în fiecare zi a săptămânii: luni. I like I live with my husband and my children at the countryside. . miercuri. Louise. on Tuesday. every day of the week: on Monday. Momente ale zilei (Moments of the day) .In the afternoon – după-amiaza . Locuiesc cu soţul şi copiii mei la ţară. She teaches English. She goes to school in the afternoon. I like/enjoy living in nature.Ei sunt fermieri (agricultori).. Folosim acest timp verbal pentru a exprima: ♥ O acţiune generală. Membrii familiei (Family members) father /dad / daddy – tată mother / mum / mummy / mom .Am mulţi prieteni în sat.Prietena mea.nepot granddaughter .Sunt doctor. .nepot niece .mamă parent / parents – părinte. I usually go to work in the morning. este profesor.-Tatăl meu. too. she is a teacher. părinţi child / children – copil. verişoară nephew . I have. . on Wednesday.. – Pământul se învârte.

rarely.. (în fiecare zi) 3. a munci Afirmativ I work You work He/she/it works We work You work They work Negativ I do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work? Cu Present Simple Tense folosim adverbe cum ar fi: always. but my friend gets up late 9 . every day. etc. I go to school every day. usually. des) 7. I usually sleep late on Sunday morning. 4.♥ O acţiune regulată. obişnuită. Examples: 1. He always forgets his keys. (în fiecare zi) 6. în perioada prezentă. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student.Avionul decolează/va decola la ora 7:35. never. What time do you usually have breakfast? . –Sunt elev. Conjugarea unui verb la Present Tense Simple: To work = a lucra. often. She sometimes goes out on Friday night (vineri noaptea). My children often watch TV in the afternoon.La ce oră iei de obicei micul dejun? ♥ Acţiuni viitoare planificate în prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial. on Saturdays. Peter works for 8 hours every day. (adesea. (întotdeauna) Exerciţii – Practice Situation: My friend and I don’t do things in the same way: Example: Affirmative get up early/late I get up early. sometimes. seldom.(în fiecare dimineaţă) 2. Philip gets up at 6 o'clock every morning.(de obicei) 5. The plane takes off at 7:35.

Se traduce. terminată. I liked /enjoyed living in nature.Interrogative get up early/late Do you get up early? Does he get up late? Negative get up early/late I don’t get up early.au locuit They were . Este timpul naraţiunii. They were farmers.PAST TENSE SIMPLE TIMPUL TRECUT SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT : Last year I lived with my husband and my children at the countryside. My friend. cu perfectul compus din limba română. I had many friends in the village. too. leave home at 12 o’clock/1 o’clock go to work by car/by train speak English well/badly get home at six/seven have two kids/three ACUM LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! VERB . 5. 2. . She went to school in the afternoon every week day. Ex. she was a good teacher in the village. Yesterday I went for a walk. Last year I traveled to England. 10 . She did not go to school in the week end. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul trecut simplu: I lived . terminată. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută. I used to go to work in the morning. My friend doesn’t get up late 1. my mother. my brother and my sister lived here. de obicei. My father. She taught English.Ieri am mers la plimbare. 3. I was a doctor.au fost/erau I liked – mi-a plăcut ♥ Verbele la Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută.a predat They lived .am locuit I was – eram/am fost I used to go – obişnuiam să mă duc/mă duceam I had – am avut She was – a fost She went – se ducea/mergea She did not go – ea nu mergea She taught . Louise. 4. Anul trecut am călătorit în Anglia.

you. Ex.skated (a patina) Verbe neregulate: a) meet leave say read send spend {e} met left said read sent spent {e} met (a întâlni) left (a pleca) said (a spune) read (a citi) sent (a trimite) spent (a petrece) 11 b) have sit {æ} had sat {æ} had (a avea) sat (a sta jos) . to speak – spoke – spoken Iată o listă cu formele de Past Tense pentru verbe regulate şi neregulate: Verbe regulate: I. he. Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate. Verbele limbii engleze pot fi regulate sau neregulate. Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. it. Ex.Paste Tense.To work (a lucra. a munci) la Past Tense Simple Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not work Interogativ Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). forma II. to work – worked Dacă verbul este neregulat. you. forma III – participiul trecut. they + verb +-ed Atenţie le pronunţie! Pay attention to the pronounciation! {t} a) wash – washed – washed (a se spăla) cook – cooked – cooked (a găti) {d} b) play – played – played (a se juca) listen – listened – listened (a asculta) {id} b) need – needed – needed (a avea nevoie) skate – skated . she. we.

. on. He went on holiday in August. (two days ago. Daniel (get up) early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. in. a primi) got up (a se trezi) found (a găsi) did went ate forgot done (a face) gone (a merge) eaten (a mânca) forgotten(a uita) Examples: Last year I bought a car and went to Boston. Cele mai folosite adverbe pentru Past Tense Simple sunt: yesterday. – Am văzut un film ieri. 2 months ago.(on Monday.. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Daniel went on holiday in July (last month).. Example: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. I spent my holiday there. last (month. in 1987 ) Examples: I saw a movie yesterday. – Nu am văzut piesa anul trecut. I traveled to Japan two years ago. 2. Am călătorit în Japonia acum doi ani....) ago.. year. A mers în vacanţă în august.c) write speak break d) run begin drink sing swim e) be see was/were saw {i:n} been (a fi) seen (a vedea) {æ} ran began drank sang swam {۸} run (a alerga) begun (a începe) drunk (a bea) sung (a cânta) swum (a înota) {ә} wrote spoke broke written (a scrie) spoken (a vorbi) broken (a sparge) f) do go eat forget g) get get up find h) make lay come give {ei} made laid came gave made (a face) laid (a pune) come (a veni) given (a da) got got up found got (a obţine. I didn't see the play last year. Tell how he spent his holiday (Use Past Tense Simple). 1. He (spend) three days in the Danube Delta last month. two years ago). 12 . Daniel went on holiday in July.

He (come back) home in September to go to school. Did Daniel go on holiday in July? VERB . Daniel did not go on holiday in July. 8. too. She will not go to school in the week end. Examples: Negative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. I will go to work in the morning. He (swim) in the Danube in the evening. She will go to school in the afternoon every week day. I will enjoy living in nature. my brother and my sister will live there. Daniel (make) a lot of friends there. My father. 4. She will teach English. she will be a teacher in the village. They will be farmers. After that he (go fishing) with his friends Irina and Larry. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul viitor simplu: I will live – eu voi locui I will be – eu voi fi I will go – eu voi merge I will have – eu voi avea She will be – ea va fi She will go – ea va merge She will not go – ea nu va merge She will teach – ea va preda They will live – ei vor locui They will be – ei vor fi I will enjoy . 5. My friend. The weather (be) fine all the time. my mother. I will have many friends in the village.îmi va face plăcere 13 .3. Louise. Then he (wash) and (eat/have) breakfast with his parents. I will be a doctor. 7. 6.FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE VERBUL – TIMPUL VIITOR SIMPLU CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS: READ THE TEXT: Next year I will live with my husband and my children at the countryside. Interrogative form: Daniel (go) on holiday in July. Put the sentences into the negative and interrogative forms.

I’ll work in the lab tomorrow.Voi veţi petrece vacanţa la munte.Vei lucra aici? Will she sing beautifully? . o acţiune care are loc într-un moment viitor. .Săptămâna viitoare voi pleca la mare... Cea mai des folosită în Engleza vorbită şi scrisă este forma prescurtată 'll.Nu voi bea vin..? What. apropiat de momentul vorbirii. a munci) la Future Tense Simple: Afirmativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will work Negativ I/you/he/she/it/we/they will not work Interogativ Will I/you/he/she/it/we/they work? Adverbele cele mai utilizate pentru a exprima o acţiune viitoare cu Future Tense Simple sunt: tomorrow..Va veni el săptămâna viitoare? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation 1: Grandpa does not hear very well what Daniel is saying.... .Ea nu va juca fotbal. You'll spend the holiday in the mountains. next (month. Complete his questions and Daniel’s answers. I will not (won't) drink wine. year) I'll finish this report tomorrow. Example: Daniel: I’ll go to the Physics lab tomorrow.? ..O să-l vizitez mâine.. I’ll do an interesting experiment tomorrow.♥ Future Tense Simple (Viitorul simplu) exprimă un eveniment.. Forma interogativă se formează prin inversiunea dintre auxiliarul will şi subiect. 3.? What .. (Îl voi vizita mâine. I'll go to the seaside next week.Vom învinge.. ... I’ll obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson. ..... .. Will you work here? . She will not (won't) play football. 14 Grandpa: Where. Example: I will visit him tomorrow. Will he come next week? .Va cânta ea frumos? To work ( a lucra.. 2. Forma negativă se formează cu will not sau forma won't în faţa verbului principal la prezent.... .. Grandpa: Where will you go tomorow? Daniel: To the Physics lab grandpa! Daniel: 1.Voi termina acest raport mâine. În engleza modernă forma shall este foarte puţin utilizată. .) We shall overcome.

... my mother..? Who .4. 5. My friend.. too.. When ..? Situation 2.. He’ll wash the car on Sunday morning.. 7....exprimă o stare care a început în trecut şi care încă se continuă. 4.Suntem prieteni de mult timp... She has taught English. 2. I have had many friends in the village. He’ll have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect: I have lived – eu am locuit I have been – eu am fost I have gone – eu am mers I have had – eu am avut She has been – ea a fost She has gone – ea a mers She has not gone/hasn’t gone – ea nu a mers She has taught – ea a predat They have lived – ei au locuit They have been – ei au fost I have enjoyed – mi-a plăcut ♥ Present Perfect . Larry will read his lesson later. I have enjoyed living in nature. Louise. He’ll help you tomorrow evening. 1. my brother and my sister have lived there... Daniel contradicts everything Irina says about her friend Larry. I have gone to work in the morning. 5. I’ll ask the teacher a lot of questions. . 6. Larry will go to the cinema next Sunday.. Example: Irina: Larry will go fishing tomorrow Daniel: Larry won’t go fishing tomrrow. I’ll study hydrogen next week.. He’ll go shopping tomorrow morning. They have been farmers.. We’ve been friends for a long time. She has not gone/hasn’t gone to school in the week end. He’ll buy a new car next year. My father. I’ll learn interesting things next week..? What ... He’ll take a new project next month. 6. She has gone to school in the afternoon every week day. 15 .. VERB – PRESENT PERFECT CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time. 3. I have been a doctor. she has been a teacher in the village.. 8.

Have you ever read this news? – Ai citit vreodată ştirea aceasta? 3. just.A terminat deja orele. . .N-am fost niciodată în China. so far. ever and before Exemplu: Have you ever heard this song before? – Ai mai auzit vreodată cântecul acesta? for and since Exemple: 1.Nu am mai auzit niciodată un astfel de lucru. Until now. 3. Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary. They haven't written the exercise yet. 3. until now. I've had my own car for four years. I haven't heard about this English singer. 2. He has already finished his classes.-Tom tocmai a vorbit la telefon cu Maria. I have never heard such a thing. ♥ . a munci) la Present Perfect Afirmativ I/you/we/they have worked he/she/it has worked Negativ I/you/we/they have not worked (haven’t worked) he/she/it has not worked (hasn’t worked) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they worked? Has he/she/it worked? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu: already. 2. – Până acum nu am auzit de acest cântăreţ englez. – Este bolnavă de ieri. 2. ever. – Nu am mai avut probleme la matematică până acum. Exerciţii – Practice 16 . To work (a lucra. I have often traveled by car to the countryside. – Până acum nu s-a pl âns de salariul său. often Exemple: 1. pentru care momentul când a avut loc nu prezintă interes. yet Exemple: 1. 2.♥ . So far. – Am călătorit adesea cu maşina la ţară. – Am avut propria mea maşină timp de patru ani.. Ei nu au scris exerciţiul încă. up to now Exemple: 1. I haven't had any Math problems up to now. never. . he hasn't complained about his wage.Şi-a rupt braţul.exprimă o acţiune trecută al cărei rezultat este vizibil în prezent He’s broken his arm.exprimă o stare terminată în trecut. accentul este pus pe experienţa în sine trăită prin acţiunea respectivă I’ve never been to China. She has been ill since yesterday.

ca în exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: Tom ..... Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect. Father ..... Those are the most wonderful monuments they .. 3. (see) VERB – PAST PERFECT SIMPLE CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had lived with my husband and my children at the countryside for a long time before I moved in Piteşti..... 5. She had gone to school in the afternoon every week day.. 4.. (fix) . Completează următoarele propoziţii ca în exemplul de mai jos... she had been a teacher in the village. Louise.. II. This is the biggest mall they . Now everything is over. Tom has just written his homework........ 1.. folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: Exemplu: This is the most beautiful girl I ...... (begin) .... 1. too. They ............ (buy) 5....... (read) 3............. our Math teacher... (see) 2..... 2.... They had been farmers... We .. my brother and my sister had lived there... I .. These are the most attractive souvenirs they . (visit) 4.. She had not gone/hadn’t gone to school in the week end. This is the best book she . corespondentul timpului mai mult ca perfect din limba română: I had lived – eu locuisem I had been – eu fusesem I had gone – eu mersesem I had had – eu avusesem She had been – ea fusese She had gone – ea mersese She had not gone/hadn’t gone – ea nu mersese 17 ........ to cry. home.......... I had gone to work in the morning.......... my mother. (see) This is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen....... My friend...... I have moved in town. My father.. (write) .......... my car............ (see) .. I had enjoyed living in nature.. his homework... She had taught English..LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! I.. (arrive) ....... (leave) ..... to the theatre..... I had been a doctor. Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Simplu... He .. That is the most interesting movie he ... I had had many friends in the village..

– Studiasei engleza înainte să te muţi în NY. never. – Băieţelul vorbea de parcă văzuse o zână. Daniel had been there before.exprimă o acţiune anterioară unei acţiuni Tom said that he would go to France after he had learned French a little bit. Had Irina been to the beach before? No.exprimă o acţiune anterioară altei acţiuni din trecut sau anterioară unui moment din trecut The little boy said that he had seen a fairy in the garden.She has taught – ea predase They had lived – ei locuiseră They had been – ei fuseseră I had enjoyed – îmi plăcuse ♥ Past Perfect . ♥ .Tom a spus că se va duce în Franţa după ce va fi învăţat puţină franceză. – Băieţelul a spus că văzuse o zână în grădină. ♥ . she hadn’t. 18 . Îmi doresc să nu fi pierdut avionul. Ask and answer questions about them: Example: be to the beach Had Daniel been to the beach before? Yes.exprimă o dorinţă nerealizată I wish/ wished I hadn't missed the flight. The little spoke as if he had seen a fairy. ever You had studied English before you moved to New York. Had Susan ever studied Chinese before she moved to China? – Studiase Susan vreodată chineza până să se mute în China? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Daniel and Irina spent their last summer holiday at the seaside. Verbul to work (a lucra. a munci ) la Past Perfect: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had worked Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadn’t worked Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they worked? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Past Perfect Simplu: Before. Irina went there for the first time. he had.. I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Crete. – Nu văzusem niciodată o plajă aşa de frumoasă până nu am mers în Creta.

make the tour of Constanţa 8. see the Black Sea swim in the sea sunbathe on the beach go fishing in the sea 5. visit Eforie Nord 19 . 3. 2. stay at a hotel 7. 4. walk down the beach 6.1.

She is teaching English.ASPECTUL VERB . Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Continuous I am living – eu locuiesc She is teaching . I am studying English now. she is at school now. ♥ o acţiune obişnuită care enervează. my mother. Example: She is always telling lies.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . My father. Example: I am writing now. They are woking in this moment. Louise.ea predă They are woking – ei lucrează ♥ Present Tense Continuous exprimă o acţiune desfăşurată ce are loc în momentul vorbirii. Verbul to work (a lucra. Example: I usually wake up early but today I am waking up late. My friend.in this moment ♥ o acţiune temporară ce are loc în prezent ca o excepţie de la regulă. a munci) la Present Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I am working You/we/you/they are working he/she/it is working Negativ I am not working You/we/you/they are not working he/she/it is not working Interogativ Am I working? Are you/we/you/they working? Is he/she/it working? 20 .PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: In this moment I am living with my husband and my children at the countryside. my brother and my sister are in the field now.

Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII Situation: Today is Monday. Louise was going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister was going in the afternoon. Nu lucrăm în acest moment. in various rooms of the building. Larry is in his office (work) Daniel is in the secretariate (type a letter) Ioana is in the conference room (present a project) Maria is in the hall (speak on the phone) Matei is in the guests room (meet some clients) VERB . always. – Ea trimite emailuri acum tuturor prietenilor săi. We are not working in this moment. My friend. we are on strike. my mother. Louise was teaching English while my sister was teaching History. Example: Irina is in the director’s office. 3. 1. I was going to work in the morning. Întotdeauna trebuie să intre în cameră fix când vorbim noi lucruri importante. Suntem în grevă.PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I was living with my husband and my children at the countryside while my father. (give information) She is giving information at this moment/now. They were not going to school in the week end. Say what they are doing at the moment. in this moment. I was having many friends in the village. She's always coming in when we talk something important.Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu prezentul continuu: now. It is nine o’clock in the morning. She is sending emails right now to all her friends. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Tense Continuous (echivalentul imperfectului din limba română): I was living – eu locuiam They were living – ei locuiau I was going – eu mergeam I was having – eu aveam 21 . 5. 2. 4. my brother and my sister were living in town. All the employees are at work.

– La ora şapte ieri dimineaţă. This time last week you were reading the magazine. a munci) la Past Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I was working You/we/you/they were working he/she/it was working Negativ I was not working You/we/you/they were not working he/she/it was not working Interogativ was I working? were you/we/you/they working? was he/she/it working? Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu past continuous: At this time yesterday. I was washing my face.Louise was going – Louise mergea My sister was going – sora mea mergea They were not going – ei nu mergeau Louise was teaching – Louise preda My sister was teaching – sora mea preda ♥ Past Tense Continuous se foloseşte pentru a exprima o acţiune care se desfăşura într-un moment bine definit în trecut. Examples: At seven o’clock yesterday morning. Verbul to work (a lucra. Say what they were doing when Mr Smith. îmi spălam faţa. 22 . Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Situation: Yesterday afternoon all the employees were at work. While she was watching TV yesterday. I was in the bathroom. came in. eram în baie. her friend came to see her. Example: Larry and Irina/discuss about a marketing project Larry and Irina were discussing about a marketing project when Mr Smith came in. – Pe vremea asta săptămâna trecută tu citeai revista. the boss. this time last week.

my mother. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Continuous: I will be living – voi locui They will be living – vor locui I will be working – voi lucra Louise will be going – Louise va merge They will not be going .ei nu vor merge Louise will be teaching – Louise va preda My sister will be teaching – sora mea va preda Verbul to work (a lucra. a munci) la Future Tense Continuous: Afirmativ I /we shall/will be working You he/she/it /they will be working Negativ I /we shall/will not be working You he/she/it /they will not be working Interogativ Shall/will I /we be working? Will you he/she/it /they be working? ♥ Future Tense Continuous exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. They will not be going to school in the week end. 6.1. Louise will be going to school in the afternoon every week day but my sister will be going in the evening. at this time next week.FUTURE CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I will be living with my husband and my children at the countryside at this time next year when my father. 2. 23 . my friend. my brother and my sister will be living in town. 7. posterior momentului vorbirii. Exemplu: I shall/will be walking at two o’clock tomorrow. 3. 4. I will be working in the morning. Louise will be teaching English while my sister will be teaching History. Daniel and John / work in the office Matei and Maria / speak on the phone Ioana /write a report Martha / water the flowers Victor / talk to his colleague Angela/open the windows Mark and Chris /look at some pictures Fiona/read the newspapers VERB. 5. 8.

She has been teaching English for 5 years at the same village school and she is 24 . (to rain. (to meet) 2) We ______________ in Piteşti just about now. (to eat) 8) This time next week he ______________ to Africa. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Puneţi verbele din paranteză la Future Continuous. etc Examples: You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. Exemplu: She will be walking while I am sleeping.Mă voi plimba mâine la ora două. Exemplu: When he comes. 1) She ______________ him next week. de asemenea în viitor. at his time next week. Example: Mark ______________ on the computer when his mother arrives home. – Când va veni.exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare în viitor în paralel cu o altă acţiune în desfăşurare. (to sing) 4) He ______________when you call her. while. săptămâna viitoare la ora asta. (to sleep) 5) It ______________ when I reach Madrid. (to play) Answer: Mark will be playing on the computer when his mother arrives home. eu voi fi în mijlocul mesei. ♥ . I will be eating. (to write) VERB – PRESENT PERFECT COTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I have been living with my husband and my children at the countryside for 5 years. Louise. year. I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. I have been going to work in the morning but my friend. (to arrive) 3) At 8 o'clock on Tuesday they ______________ the new song. (to watch) 7) You ______________ spaghetti soon. probably) 6) Mary ______________ a video when I arrive tonight. month.. (to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I ______________a test paper. – Tu o vei aştepta când soseşte avionul diseară.Ea se va plimba în timp ce eu voi dormi. Adverbele cele mai des utilizate cu Future Continuous: when. has been going to school in the afternoon every week day. ♥ . eu voi fi la televizor. –Când ea va sosi diseară.exprimă o acţiune în desfăşurare întreruptă de o acţiune momentană. (to fly) 9) Mary ______________to the party on Sunday.

25 . my brother and my sister have been living there.. My father.exprimă o acţiune care s-a desfăşurat până acum şi va continua probabil şi în viitor. so far Exemplu: So far. I have been working in the garden all day long. They are farmers. – Se uită la televizor de 3 ore. a munci) la Present Perfect Continuous Afirmativ I/you/we/they have been working he/she/it has been working Negativ I/you/we/they have not been working (haven’t been working) he/she/it has not been working (hasn’t been working) Interogativ Have I/you/we/they been working? Has he/she/it been working? Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Present Perfect Continuous: since Exemplu: You have been living in Paris since 1996. my mother. – Am muncit în grădină toată ziua. To work (a lucra.exprimă o acţiune repetată frecvent. Până acum au sosit 10 pasageri din Londra. there have been arriving 10 passengers from London.exprimă o acţiune trecută. They have been playing tennis for half an hour – Joacă tenis de jumătate de oră. too. ♥ .Scrie poezii de când era copil. încheiată recent. care este cauza unui efect simţit în prezent A: Why are your hands dirty? B: I’ve been repairing my bike. ♥ . Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Present Perfect Continuous: I have been living – eu locuiesc I have been going – eu merg Louise has been going – Louise merge She has been teaching – ea predă They have been living – ei locuiesc ♥ Present Perfect Continuous . We like living in nature. for Exemplu: They have been watching TV for 3 hours. într-o perioadă de timp care se întinde din trecut până în prezent He has been writing poems since he was a child. – Locuieşti în Paris din 1996.still enjoying this.

5. 4.. 1 hour.. too. I had been going to work in the morning. 1..... VERB – PAST PERFECT COTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: I had been living with my husband and my children at the countryside before I came in town...ever Exemplu: Have you ever been listening to the radio? – Ai ascultat vreodată la radio? never Exemplu: I have never been travelling to France until now. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completează spaţiile goale cu "FOR"( de) şi "SINCE"(din.. June 1998. my brother and my sister had been living there. my mother... last summer...... 26 . It (rain) ..... morning.... My father. Louise.. Helen has been studying English since last summer. Now everything is over. 2..... We (talk) about that horrible accident .exprimă o acţiune în curs până la un moment dat trecut când a fost oprit de o altă acţiune a cărei urmări continuă şi azi.. the last five minutes...... de la).. She had been teaching English. Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Past Perfect Contionuous: I had been living – eu locuisem I had been going – eu mersesem She had been going – ea mersese She had been teaching – ea predase They had been living – ei locuiseră ♥ Past Perfect Continuous .... They (phone) the manager . I have moved in town.... half an hour. She (cook) a chicken soup ... she had been going to school in the afternoon every week day before leaving the countryside... too... My friend. 3. Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Continuu: Exemplu: Helen (study) English .. Mary (live) in Manhattan ..Nu am călătorit în Franţa până acum.......

Until next year. How long (learn / she) English before she went to London? She (drive) less than an hour when he ran out of gas. etc You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. They were very tired in the evening because they (help) on the farm all day. I will have already been working for a couple of years as a doctor.They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it. 27 . Ai aşteptat-o cel mult două ore când în final a sosit. when it suddenly began to rain. Louise will have been teaching English in the afternoon for 5 years. we will have been staying there for 6 years. too. I (not / walk) for a long time. They (cycle) all day so their legs were sore in the evening. We (wait) at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect continuous). so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. They (look for) her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom. VERB . a munci ) la Past Perfect Continuous: Afirmativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they had been working Negativ I/you he/she/it /we/you/they hadn’t been working Interogativ Had I/you/ he/she/it /we/you/they been working Expresii cu care se foloseşte adesea Past Perfect Continuous: For five minutes" . She (sleep) for 10 hours when he woke us up. I (not / work) all day.FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS CITIŢI TEXTUL DE MAI JOS : READ THE TEXT: When my friends will come to live at the countryside I will have been living with my husband and my children there for 5 years. "for two weeks". (Ei) lucrau la casa cea nouă înainte să fie distrusă de foc. Verbul to work (a lucra.

Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Puneţi verbele din paranteză la Future Perfect Continuous sau la Future Perfect Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long. a munci) la Future Perfect Continuous : Afirmativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will have been working Negativ I / you he/she/it /we /they will not have been working Interogativ Will I / you/ he/she/it /we /they have been working? ♥ Future Perfect Continuous . Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party. 28 . Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand. Exemplu: By 2010 he will have been working for 40 years.În 2010 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani Adverbul cel mai des utilizat cu Future Perfect Continuous: for Example: By six o’clock p...m. she will have been selling blouses for eight hours. Hopefully. Mike: She (cook) for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner.. şi ca toate formele de timpuri continue implică o acţiune în derulare. she (finish) everything by then.acest timp se foloseşte rar în vorbire.Până la ora 18 ea va fi vândut bluze timp de opt ore.Verbele accentuate sunt la timpul Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been living – voi fi locuit I will have been working – eu voi fi lucrat Louise will have been teaching – Louise va fi predat We will have been staying – noi vom fi stat Verbul to work (a lucra. fiind o formă caracteristică limbii scrise şi pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lungă de timp decât Future Continuous Se traduce tot prin "voi fi lucrat".

29 .

II Verbul este la diateza pasivă când subiectul gramatical suferă acţiunea săvârşită de obiect. I shall have been seen. I was seen.complementul de agent introdus de prepoziţia by exemplu: She was met at the station by my brother.PARTEA I MORFOLOGIA – VERBUL . transformând complementul persoanei în subiect. – Această scrisoare a fost scrisă de Lucia. We will be seen. The school was being cleaned when we wanted to visit it. He will have been seen. I am seen. We are seen. I have been seen. He has been seen I had been seen. He is seen. care se răsfrânge asupra subiectului (în cazul verbelor tranzitive). – Ea a fost aşteptată la gară de fratele meu.Lucia a scris o scrisoare. The classrooms are being cleaned now. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă. 30 . We were seen.DIATEZA I DIATEZA ACTIVĂ II DIATEZA PASIVĂ I Verbul este la diateza activă când subiectul gramatical săvârşeşte acţiunea. Conjugarea unui verb la diateza pasivă: Aspectul simplu: Present simple: Past Simple: Present Perfect Past Perfect: Future Future Perfect Aspectul continuu: Present Continuous: Past Continuous: Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. Exemplu: This letter has been written by Lucy. I shall be seen. Diateza pasivă se remarcă prin: .. Exemplu: Lucy has written a letter.utilizarea verbului be sau get .

she plays. we wash. (the blackboard) 3) ___are on the wall. I play. (my mother and I) 6) ___are in the garden. (Lisa) She often reads books.Exemplu: The guide is showing them the museum. (the flowers) 7) ___is riding his horse. He promised them new bicycles. (Diana) 10) Have ___ got a computer. I wash. (Victoria) 9) ___has got a sister. they wash. Copiii au fost bine îngrijiţi. (Marc) 8) ___is from Bucharest. Nu s-a dormit în acest pat. he washes. Traduceţi următoarele propoziţii în limba engleză. you play. They are being shown the museum. (the cat) 5) ___are watching TV. Tom? 31 . This matter must be looked into. verbul englez are puţini indici formali care să marcheze persoana şi numărul. you wash. 1) ___is dreaming. we play. Singura desinenţă specifică este –s/es pentru persoana a III-a singular. (George) 2) ___is green. you play. they play. Câinele a fost călcat de un autobuz. 2. Vor râde de tine dacă vei purta rochia asta. (the posters) 4) ___is running. They have appointed him president. I’ll pay the carpenter for his work. PERSOANA ŞI NUMĂRUL Spre deosebire de verbul românesc. she washes. Exemplu: ___ often reads books. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Folosiţi pronumele personal corect. They will tell you what time the bus leaves. folosind verbe la diateza pasivă: Exemplu: Această problemă trebuie analizată. you wash. indicativ prezent. She has given me a good dictionary. he plays.

Este necesar ca el să fie aici. I have read it. starea. will be dressed C. Observaţie: Verbul be are formă unică pentru toate persoanele: were Exemplu: I wish he/they were here. . SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC ♥ exprimă o acţiune posibilă. O va fi citit până atunci.A înapoiat cartea la bibliotecă după ce a citit-o. presupusă. MODUL INDICATIV (The Indicative Mood) I.. sau ireală. It is very important that all employees _______________ in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a. Am citit-o. etc. (indicativ) Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. .. A.. Exemplu: I wish he/they told the truth.să vină la timp.. He will have read it by then. pentru a sublinia ideea de acţiune şi nu acţiunea propriu-zisă sau îndeplinirea ei. Exemplu: The idea is that sport facilities should be improved. (subjonctiv) The fact is that sport facilities will be improved. care sunt redate cu indicativul. – Pot să înapoiez cartea la bibliotecă acum.He returned the book to the library after he had read it. deci nu contrară realităţii. Exemplu: It is necessary that he be here. come in time. Modul indicativ prezintă acţiunea. exprimată de verb ca reală . îndeplinită chiar.MODUL – THE MOOD I.Aş dori să spună adevărul. SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT ♥ exprimă o acţiune considerată posibilă. A. are dressed B. II MODUL SUBJONCTIV (The Subjunctive Mood) Modul subjonctiv prezintă acţiunea ca posibilă când acţiunea este proiectată în viitor . be dressed 2.. când acţiunea trebuia să aibă loc în trecut.I can return the book now. Exemplu: . I wish my sister _________ here. were B. was 32 .He will return the book to the library next Monday.m. SUBJONCTIVUL TRECUT ♥ coincide ca formă cu Past Tense Simple.Va înapoia cartea la bibliotecă lunea viitoare.

caracteristici substantivale: Exemplu: The sound of a loud knocking at the door interrupted us. If Mrs. Perfect Gerund He denies having taken the books. be adjourned 5. A.THE INFINITIVE to + verb = infinitive Infinitivul are doua forme: infinitivul lung (The Long Infinitive). even though he's much too short for that position.are categoriile gramaticale de timp şi diateză: . My mother would know what to do. adesea cunoscut sub denumirea de formă în –ing reprezintă un substantiv format dintr.un verb la care se adaugă terminaţia –ing.Nu suportă să fie întrerupt.THE GERUND Gerunziul. play 4. Mary hoped that the meeting _______________. I made her work harder. was 6. -Diateza pasivă: Gerund: He can’t stand being interrupted. were B. Perfect Gerund He denies having been invited.. Smith ________ ill that night. a baby’s crying interrupted us. I wish I _________ better today. I detest going to supermarkets. Exemplu: I adore reading your books. sau după have. were 9. A. marcat de particula to şi infinitivul scurt (The Short Infinitive) fără particula to. – A greşi este omenesc. were B. felt INFINITIVUL . was adjourned B. A. The coach insisted that Mario _______ the center position. Oh. Her employees treated Mrs.3. I quit smoking. her coming in interrupted us. ♥ . – Neagă că a luat cărţile. was B. Smith as though she _______ a queen. was B.Diateza activă: Gerund: I enjoy learning English. A.Îmi place să învăţ engleza. feel B. see. perceive.. GERUNZIUL . make. watch. I can’t remember doing/having done this exercise before. Exemplu: To err is human. – Neagă că a fost invitat. let.. were 7. notice. had been 8. the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema. ♥ . plays B. A. observe. would that she _______ here with us now! A. – Am făcut-o să muncească mai mult. Acesta se foloseşte de obicei după verbe de percepţie : hear. If only Mark ______ a little more responsible in his choice of courses! A. 33 .

He is a learned man – Este un om învăţat. 4) The man asked me how (get) to the railway station. – Este un om în vârstă. 9) She doesn't mind (work) the night shift. 1) I can't imagine Peter (go) by bike. Completaţi corect formele de participiu trecut. 6) Are you thinking of (visit) Paris? 7) We decided (run) through the dark forest. – Un om beat este neplăcut la vedere.PAST PARTICIPLE Este forma nepersonală a verbului care denumeşte acţiunea ca rezultat. They go on reading the book. the (lose) son an (interest) audience a (break) leg an (empty) bottle a (close) door a (decorate) room two (pack) bags the (write) letters the (sell) car the (buy) apples - 34 . 5) I look forward to (see) you at the weekend. A drunken man is unpleasant to look at. Exemple: He is an aged man. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. şi forma a III-a în cazul verbelor neregulate. 8) The teacher expected Sarah (study) hard. Se formează de la infinitiv la care se adaugă terminaţia – ed (în cazul verbelor regulate). 3) The question is easy (answer). 2) He agreed (buy) a new washing machine. PARTICIPIUL TRECUT .Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Pune verbul din paranteze la gerunziu sau la infinitivul lung (to-). 10) I learned (ride) the bike at the age of 3. Exemplu: They go on _______ (read) the book.

AUXILIARY VERBS Au următoarele caracteristici: ♥ sunt golite de sens lexical: I shall leave after he comes. I haven’t got a book. Hurry up..He is here. He has written a good composition. have/had/had 3.. shall/should 4.. He’s come.I have got a book.Locuieşti în acest oraş? 35 . may/might 6.Grăbeşte-te ca să ajungem la timp. be/was/were/been 2. hasn’t he? ♥ apar adesea sub forme reduse: I’ve got a book. 6. let 7.S-au grăbit ca să ajungem la timp.. Future: I shall give Future Perfect:I shall have given Conditional: I should give Conditional Perfect: I should have given 4.Voi pleca după ce vine el. Perfect Infinitive: have read Perfect Gerund: having read Present Perfect: He has read Past Perfect: He had read Future Perfect: He will have read Conditional Perfect: He would have read 3.VERBELE AUXILIARE . ♥ înlociuesc verbele noţionale în răspunsuri scurte şi întrebări disjunctive: Do you like this book? Yes. They hurried so that we might arrive in time. Future: I will give Future Perfect: I will have given Conditional: I would give Conditional Perfect: I would have given 5. Verbele auxiliare: 1.. I do. Let me think! – Lasă-mă să mă gândesc. do/does Exemple: 1..He has come He’s here. will/would 5. so that we may arrive in time. – I have not got a book. Do you live in this town?. Infinitive: be reading Present: He is reading Past: He was reading Future: He will be reading Conditional: He would be reading Infinitive Perfect: have been reading Present Perfect: He has been reading Past Perfect: He had been reading Future Perfect: He will have been reading Conditional Perfect: He would have been reading 2. 7.

shall. We ________ not seen you for a long time.a trebui. Aceste verbe nu formează infinitivul cu particula 'to'. cu întelesul de a avea voie. cu înţelesul de a avea nevoie dare . My friend ________sent me some photos. must .a putea. will şi parţial need şi dare formează grupul de verbe modale. cu înţelesul de a fi în stare.a trebui. de exemplu poate fi tradus prin 'fie' . – Nu-mi place.este o întărire a unui ordin dacă este spus apăsat. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Alegeţi auxiliarul potrivit: What ________ you done? I ________ not like this song.MODAL VERBS ♥ Verbele: can. ________anybody rung up for me? She ________ not play the piano.Does he work here? – Lucrează aici? Did he attend this school? – A urmat această şcoală? I don’t like it. I will come = Voi veni.a îndrazni. a fi necesar (înseamnă şi must. How ________ we get there? Where ________ he live? VERBELE MODALE . They ________ not want to play outside. The train ________ just arrived. (înseamnă şi „testament” şi „voinţă”). În plus se foloseşte în urări. Altfel formează viitorul persoanei întâi.suc de struguri). ar fi cazul shall . În acest ultim caz de obicei se înlocuieşte cu 'will'.ar trebui. (înseamnă şi luna mai). ________ she know that you are here? The lesson ________not started yet. will . particula 'voi' din româneşte. can .formează viitorul. ________you drink milk? Who ________ eaten my biscuits? It ________ not matter. ________ you understand? They ________been learning English for two years. ought to. need . I ________ not live here. a provoca pe cineva 36 . must. Se foloseşte şi la formarea viitorului. ________ you heard that? My uncle ________ not eat fish. poate fi tradus uneori şi prin probabil (sau 'trebuie ca') ought to. may. În vorbirea curentă mai ales în întrebări se foloseşte în locul lui 'may' (înseamnă şi conservă şi 'to can' = a face conservă) may .a putea.

♥ Aceste verbe se pot contracta cu particula not din propoziţii negative..Pot să mă duc. – Ar fi cazul/ar trebui/îţi recomand să nu mai fumezi. I must be dreaming .Mănânc carne.Va merge. Adică.Poţi să mănânci carne? Must you eat meat? . I do not eat meat . You ought to stop smoking. trebuie. Adică în cazul celorlalte verbe se pune un do not sau does not pentru negaţie. I can not eat meat . You shall not kill = Nu vei omorî (să nu omori).Trebuie să mănânci carne? ♥ Aceste verbe nu se schimbă după persoană: I can. Irina putea să alerge mai repede decât tine anul trecut.Exemple: I know I can. Irina could run faster than you last year.Nu mănânc carne. can't I? . 37 . I eat meat . May I have this dance? (Pot să am acest dans) . Din exemplele de mai sus vedem că această regulă a verbelor modale e respectată: I know I can (fără 'to'). you must . nu-i aşa? CAN/COULD exprimă ♥ capacitatea fizică sau intelectuală Daniel can speak three foreign languages. Need I go on? . mustn't = must not. Foarte important: Verbul care urmează unui verb modal nu are to în faţă. Adică persoana a treia singular nu primeşte 's'. Atenţie: I need to eat . Din această cauză multe timpuri lipsesc acestor verbe. Condiţional: Would you be able to manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Could you manage by yourself if it was necessary ? Te-ai putea descurca singur dacă ar fi nevoie ? Observaţie ! Diferenţa de sens între could şi was/were able to se pierde la negativ sau cu verbe de percepţie: I couldn’t swim yesterday as the weather was very bad.Ştiu că pot. May I have this dance? (fără 'to') etc.Îmi acordaţi acest dans? May the force be with you! .Nu pot să mănânc carne. won't = will not sunt verbele modale care folosesc cel mai mult această regulă. în limba română se spune: Trebuie să mănânc.Fie ca forţa să te însoţească! din filmul StarWars. ♥ Pentru formarea celebrului 'nu-i aşa' din engleză e necesar folosirea acestor verbe. Do you eat meat? .E nevoie să continui? How dare you talk like this! .Mănânci carne? Can you eat meat? . (particula do cade) ♥ Forma interogativă nu cere do. I can go. Viitor: I’ll be able to skate next year. Daniel ştie trei limbi străine. can't = can not. În limba engleză se spune: I must eat. nu au participiu şi nici forma cu -ing. ♥ Forma negativă nu cere do.need aici nu e verb modal).Trebuie că visez (probabil că visez). I will survive = Voi supravieţui. If you must.Dacă trebuie.Cum îndrăzneşti să vorbeşti aşa! ♥ Caracteristicile generale ale verbelor modale ♥ Nu acceptă particula to pentru infinitiv. Forma 'nu-i aşa' depinde de verbul modal folosit în prima parte a întrebării. adică să ai noroc. he/she can etc. nu-i aşa? sau He will go. you can. won't he? .

Have to exprimă o obligaţie obişnuită. Viitor: You must stay home tomorrow if you don’t feel better. I begin work at seven. o rugăminte politicoasă (may este mai politicos şi oficial decât can/could): May I use your phone ? Îmi daţi voie să dau telefon ? ♥ exprimă o posibilitate prezentă sau viitoare He may come today. I couldn’t see him in the dark. pe când have to exprimă o obligaţie impusă din exterior: I must go. (The shop is closing). You’ll have to stay home when you feel feverish again. repetată (habitual obligation): I have to be at the hospital at seven o’clock every morning. Past Tense: He had to stay home last week.I wasn’t able to swim yesterday as the weather was very bad. You’ve got flu. ♥ might este folosit în cereri insistente sau atunci când vorbitorul este iritat de neîndeplinirea unei acţiuni You might give me an answer. Must exprimând obligaţia poate fi înlocuit de have to sau ‘ve got to. HAVE TO. ♥ exprimă o cerere. I wasn’t able to see him in the dark. deducţia logică: She must be at home. 2. urgentă: I must be at the hospital at two. ♥ permisiunea în trecut On Sundays we could stay in bed until ten o’clock.Duminică aveam voie să stăm în pat până la ora 10. We have to go. ♥ permisiunea A: Can I borrow your pen ? B: Of course you can.Se poate să vină azi. It’s most important. (nu era nevoie) SHALL/SHOULD. Prezent: You must stay home for a few days. iar have se contrage obţinându-se I’ve got/I haven’t got to phone her. se adaugă got la have to. NEED/NEEDN’T ♥ folosit pentru a exprima lipsa obligativităţii You needn’t come early to work= You don’t have to come early. În acest sens. 38 . She left two hours ago. b) Must exprimă o obligaţie importantă. be permitted to: On Sundays we were allowed to stay in bed until ten o’clock. He was quite ill. (Please. Între must şi have to există următoarele diferenţe de sens: a) Must exprimă o obligaţie impusă de către vorbitor. You have to stay home when you have flu.. Poţi să pleci. (It’s my decision). can/could poate fi înlocuit de be allowed to. give me an answer) MUST / HAVE TO / NEED MUST Must se foloseşte pentru a exprima: 1) obligaţia: They must stop because the traffic light is red now. HAVE GOT TO În vorbirea familiară. MAY/MIGHT ♥ folosit pentru a cere (a) sau a acorda (b) permisiunea (mai oficial decât can): a) May I go ? Pot să plec ? b) You may go.

a avea curajul. nu mai fac asta acum. o rugăminte: Will you sign the papers. Ar trebui să-l citeşti. Trebuie/va sta /urmează să stea în clădire pînă la miezul nopţii. la persoana I singular sau plural: a). Obişnuiam să îl sun când erma student.♥ Shall este folosit: pentru a exprima obligaţie.pentru a face o ofertă: Shall I help you ? Să te ajut ? ♥ Should este folosit pentru a exprima: a) obligaţia. hotărârea de a efectua ceva în trecut: He would continue writing for hours. I don’t do this anymore. mergem la cinema diseară ? What shall we do ? Ce trebuie să facem ? b). b) o presupunere: He should be there by now.. ♥ Shall este folosit în propoziţii interogative.. un obicei trecut care nu mai este repetat în prezent: I used to call him when I was a student. o sugestie. de obicei sub formă de sfat de către vorbitor: The novel is very interesting. Obişnuiau să se ducă acolo în fiecare an şi e posibil să îi găseşti acolo. Romanul este foarte interesant. etc.Probabil că acela este stiloul lui. de obicei sub forma unui sfat dat de către vorbitor: You ought to start packing before 12 o’clock to make the check out. ♥ o acţiune planificată: The meeting is to start at 7:30. în stil oficial (acte.pentru a cere un sfat. WILL/WOULD ♥ exprimă o comandă:You will do that immediately! ♥ exprimă insistenţa: He will work as a doctor no matter what! ♥ o invitaţie:Will you have another slice of pizza? ♥ o cerere. necesitatea logică de înfăptuire a unei acţiuni. ought to exprimă obligaţia sau datoria. Angajatorul va furniza documentele necesare în timp util.Întâlnirea urmează să înceapă la 7:30. la persoana a II-a şi a III-a) The employer shall supply the necessary documents in due time. ♥ probabilitatea: That would be his pen. BE TO folosit pentru a exprima ♥ o comandă sau instrucţiuni într-un mod impersonal: He is to stay in the building till midnight. OUGHT TO ♥ La fel ca şi should. please? ♥ o rugăminte foarte politicoasă. ♥ o acţiune repetată. N-ar trebui să mintă. Ar trebui să fi ajuns acolo deja. too. regulamente. USED TO exprimă ♥ o acţiune repetată. un obicei trecut care încă mai este repetat în prezent: They used to go there every year and it is likely to find them there. mai ales în propoziţii interogative: How dare you say that? – Cum îndrăzneşti să spui asta? Exerciţii – Practice 39 . DARE ♥ este folosit cu sensul de a îndrăzni. You should read it. un ordin: Where shall we put the flowers ? Unde să punem florile ? Shall we go to the cinema tonight ? (Ce spui). He shouldn’t tell lies.cu would: Would you do me a favor? ♥ insistenţa. no matter what I said.

But we _________read them if we don't want to. 5. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It _______David. Alegeţi între must şi have to: 1. 5. EX 3. Alegeţi verbul modal potrivit situaţiilor de mai jos: 1.LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. The books are optional. 40 . You _________be rich to be famous. 4.2. A 'm not able to B can't C fish 4. He _________ quite exhausted after such a long flight. Daniel _________ hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. The refrigerator isn't working. The weather was too bad. you know. 4. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. You _______forget to pay the rent. We're going to a wedding. Sorry. I ____________ do it yet. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time. My teacher said we _________ read them if we needed extra credit. 1. A can B will be able to C would be able to 3. It _________damaged during the move. A won't be able to B will can't C couldn't D want be able to 2. A weren't able to B can't C couldn't 5. _________. You _______submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Teacher. 1. They ____________ go. You _______be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. A wasn't able to B couldn't C haven't been able to EX.they're beautiful! But. I _______be at the meeting by 10:00. Tina: Look at these flowers . If the form is not complete. I __________ remember his name. there's no card. Alegeţi varianta corectă de răspuns. 6. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. 2.We ______________ go to the party. you will be rejected and you _______reapply at a later date. 3. He __________ pass the exam if he studied harder. 3. Mike: _________you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No. He's the only one who would send you flowers. 2.

9. You _________ leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. 12. So. It doesn't do you any good. 14. _________ you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. You had better take along some cash. 10. I _________participated in their English immersion program. the answer in the book _________wrong! 8. 41 . 11. I've redone this math problem at least ten times. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It _________cost a fortune.I don ’t understand their priciples. so you get rid of them! 16. 18. I _________stand these people .7. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work. The lamp _________be broken. You _________do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. You _________worry so much. or you don't. Either you get the promotion. but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. so they _________be here by 5:00. 13. If I had gone to an University in England. The shop _________accept credit cards. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. 20. 15. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something. If you don't. _________we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. You _________ no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19. just apply for another job. The machine _________start moving by pressing the left button.

PARTEA I

MORFOLOGIA - SUBSTANTIVUL
Definiţie: Substantivul: a) denumeşte obiecte în sens foarte larg, adică fiinţe, lucruri, fenomene (woman, desk, rain, go, happiness); b) are categorii gramaticale de gen, număr şi caz; c) poate îndeplini în propoziţie funcţiile de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut, apoziţie, complement, element predicativ suplimentar, sau poate fi echivalentul unei propoziţii sau fraze. Clasificare: a) substantive simple: boy, meal, day; b) substantive formate din derivare cu sufixe sau prefixe: childhood, disgust, unhappiness; c) substantive formate prin compunere (substantivele compuse): schoolboy d) substantive formate prin conversiune, din alte părţi de vorbire: - adjective: the good, the evil, the rich, the poor; - verbe la infinitiv: cook, fall; - verbe la Gerund: reading, boxing; - verbe la participiul trecut: the injured; e) substantive formate prin contragere: ad (advertisement), fridge (refrigerator), gym (gymnasium), lab (laboratory), liv (livingroom), poly (polytechnic), pub (public house); f) abrevieri: MP (Member of Parliament), Dr (doctor), Mr Brown (Dl. Brown), Mrs Brown (dna Brown), Miss Brown (dra Brown), Ms Brown (apelativ pentru femei, căsătorite sau necăsătorite) g) substantive comune şi substantive proprii - Substantivele comune pot fi: - substantive colective, care denumesc obiecte constând din mai multe elemente de acelaşi fel: family, people; - substantive concrete, care denumesc obiecte sau substanţa constitutivă a unor obiecte: table, wood, steel; - substantive abstracte, care denumesc abstracţiuni: difficulty, worry, peace Substantivele (numele) proprii au capacitatea de a individualiza un obiect dintr-o categorie de obiecte de acelaşi fel, denumind în principiu un singur element dintr-o categorie. În limba engleză, substantivele proprii denumesc: - nume de persoane: John, Larry, Daniel; - denumiri geografice - nume de localităţi: London, Paris - nume de ţări şi continente: Romania, France, Europe - nume de ape şi munţi: London River, Carpathians - diviziuni temporale - lunile anului: January, February, March, April, June, July, August, September, October, November, December - zilele săptămânii: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday - sărbători: Halloween d) nume de cărţi, ziare, reviste: The English Magazine, Nine o ’Clock e) nume de instituţii 42

Numărul substantivelor : I. Substantive numărabile (Count nouns) II. Substantive nenumărabile (Mass nouns). I. Substantivele numărabile denumesc noţiunile ca unităţi separate, care pot fi numărate: a boy, two boys, a few boys, etc. Au următoarele caracteristici: a) sunt variabile ca formă, având atât numărul singular, cât şi numărul plural: museum - museums, child - children; b) pot fi precedate de numerale cardinale sau cuantificatori: one book, three books, several apples, a lot of brushes; c) la numărul singular se acordă cu verbe la singular: The book is on the table. /The apples are in the basket. Formarea pluralului substantivelor numărabile: Formele de plural sunt de două feluri: A. regulate, când pluralul se formează prin adăugarea desinenţei -s la forma de singular: book - books. B. Neregulate, când pluralul se formează în alte moduri: - Substantivele terminate în -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh adaugă es: bus - buses; glass - glasses; buzz buzzes; box - boxes; watch - watches; brush – brushes - când -o e precedat de o vocală: cuckoos; kangaroos; radios; scenarios; studios, zoos; - adaugă -es la substantive ca: echoes, heroes, mosquitoes, Negroes, potatoes, tomatoes - Substantivele terminate în -y precedat de o consoană transformă pe y în i şi adaugă -es: city cities; factory - factories. Transformarea nu are loc după vocale: boy - boys, play - plays; 1) -th→ ths: bath - baths; mouth - mouths; path - paths; 2) -f(e) [f]→ ves [vz]: calf - calves; elf - elves; half - halves; knife - knives; leaf - leaves; life lives; loaf - loaves; self - selves; shelf - shelves; 3) -se [s]→ ses [ziz]: house - houses II. Substantivele nenumărabile - denumesc noţiuni văzute ca un întreg. - pot fi concrete: sugar, coal, steel sau abstracte: beauty, kindness. Substantivele nenumărabile au următoarele caracteristici: a) sunt invariabile ca formă: tea, information, cattle. b) neavând contrastul singular - plural, ele nu pot fi numărate cu ajutorul numeralelor sau al altor cuantificatori: I need (some) tea. I need (some) information. I need (some) scissors. c) Se acordă cu verbul singular: Chinese tea is very good. Ceaiul chinezesc este foarte bun, sau la plural: The scissors are on the table. Foarfeca este pe masă. d) Unele substantive englezeşti fac parte atât din clasa substantivelor numărabile, cât şi din a celor nenumărabile, cu diferenţe de sens: She is a beauty. (Ea) este o frumuseţe. Beauty is to be admired. Frumuseţea trebuie admirată. She has got a new iron. Are un nou fier de călcat. This tool is made of iron. Această unealtă este din fier. În limba engleză fac parte din clasa substantivelor invariabile la singular unele substantive care sunt numărabile sau invariabile la plural în limba română: - advice, business, furniture, homework, income, information, knowledge, luggage, merchandise, money etc He always gives me good advice. Totdeauna îmi dă sfaturi bune. You must do your homework carefully. Trebuie să-ţi faci cu atenţie lecţiile. 43

I need further information. Am nevoie de informaţii suplimentare. His knowledge of English is poor. Cunoştinţele lui de engleză sunt slabe. Numărul substantivelor invariabile Substantivele invariabile nu au opoziţia singular - plural. Ele au numai singular: gold, sau numai plural the police, cattle etc. Cuantificarea substantivelor invariabile la singular se poate realiza cu ajutorul unor cuvinte ca: a piece of, an item of, a bar of, a bag of etc. Substantive concrete: a piece of bacon a slice of cake a piece of bread a loaf of bread a piece of land a strip of land a piece of furniture an article of furniture a bit of grass a blade of grass a piece of paper a sheet of paper Substantive abstracte: a piece of advice a word of advice a piece of information an item of news an item of business a bit of business a piece of work a bit of work a word of abuse a fit of passion an attack of fever

Genul substantivelor (Gender of Nouns) - genul este marcat formal: boy - girl, lion - lioness, - se poate identifica de obicei cu ajutorul pronumelor care se referă la substantive şi care au forme diferite după gen: The librarian is at his desk. He is writing something. (el) The librarian is at her desk. She is writing something. (ea) Clasificare: A. substantive nume de persoane B. substantive nume de animale C. substantive nume de obiecte A. brother/sister earl/countess father/mother king/queen lord/lady man/woman uncle/aunt - ess: actor/actress count/countess god/goddess master/mistress waiter/waitress -ine: hero/heroine; -er: widow/widower -groom: bride/bridegroom 44

hope. Cazul nominativ (The Nominative Case) The girl is waiting for her friend. cazul dativ este marcat de prepoziţia to sau for sau prin topică: She gave some sweets to the children. chairman. I lent her (D) a book (Ac). I bought a present for my mother.prepoziţii: I bought it for Mary. sun. quest. fear. categoria gramaticală a cazului este marcată prin: . justice. afectuos. nature. Substantivul în cazul genitiv exprimă în principal ideea de posesiune: Marc’s car is new. doctor.. liberty. 45 . peace. d) nume de munţi: the Carpathians. jealousy. revenge. the Cheviot.Fata îşi aşteaptă prietenul. cook. faith. musician. vanity. . mercy. c) substantive abstracte ca: fortune. the pupil’s question – rochia fetei. Ele aparţin genului comun: artist.Am mâncat o pizza acum o oră. un caracter blând. – Le-a dat nişte dulciuri copiilor. cousin.cartea copilului . parent.- alte substantive nume de persoane au o singură formă atât pentru masculin cât şi pentru feminin. for convenience’ sake – pentru numele lui Dumnezeu. devotion. B: horse: stallion/mare ox: bull/cow sheep: ram/ewe pig: boar/sow deer: stag/hind lion/lioness tiger/tigress cock/hen dog/bitch drake/duck cock sparrow/hen sparrow he goat/she goat Tom cat/she cat C: Sunt masculine substantivele care denumesc: a) pasiuni intense şi acţiuni violente: anger. Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case). de dragul comodităţii Observaţie: Apostroful nu este obligatoriu în acest caz. cele care indică fertilitatea: affection.topică: The man (N) opened the window (Ac). Cazul acuzativ (The Acusative Case) I ate a pizza an hour ago.. Sunt feminine: a) substantivele care sugerează o caracteristică feminină. writer. Cazul dativ (The Dative Case) În limba engleză.. b) fenomene naturale puternice: ocean. foreigner. Apartenenţa la genul masculin sau feminin se precizează în context. the girl’s dress.Bărbatul a deschis fereastra.Am cumpărat un cadou pentru fratele meu. întrebarea elevului for goodness’ sake.I-am împrumutat o carte. c) nume de fluvii: the Danube.Maşina lui Marc este nouă. teacher.Am cumpărat-o pentru Mary.desinenţă: the child’s book. b) substantivele care denumesc trăsături negative de caracter: ambition. the Thames.... river. murder. science Cazul substantivelor: În limba engleză. folly. friend..

Apostroful singur. Charles’ books (cărţile lui Charles). (Smiths) 3) The room is upstairs. chocolate. the drivers’ attention (atenţia şoferilor) .la forma de plural a substantivelor regulate: the boys’ bicycles (bicicletele băieţilor). rice. Puneţi forma de plural corespunzătoare substantivelor: Put in the correct form of the plural of the given nouns. Obs: 1. meat.7) penny .10) fish – EX.6) sheep .Steve) 6) _______ shoes are on the second floor. tea.9) day .la substantivele nume de persoane terminate în -s: Dickens’ life (viaţa lui Dickens). (boy) 10) These are the _______ pencils. (Peter) 2) Let's go to the _______. tennis Example: a cube of _____ Answer: a cube of sugar 1) a piece of _____2) a packet of _____3) a bar of _____4) a glass of _____ 5) a cup of _____6) a bottle of _____7) a slice of _____8) a barrel of _____ 9) a game of _____10) a jar of _____ EX 4. Creaţi substantive nenumărabile din literele de mai jos. Example: car . Scrie forma de genitiv în spaţiile libere: Example: I met _______ sister yesterday. oil. fără desinenţa -s se adaugă: . (children) 4) _______sister is twelve years old.8) bus . (Charles) 9) This is the _______ bike. (Mary) Answer: I met Mary's sister yesterday.2) kilo -3) woman .5) foot . (Susan . (John) 5) _______and _______ bags have blue stickers.4) mouth . (parents) 8) _______CD player is new.cars 1) half . Exemplu: ira = air aet ikn ilo fgo eber einw doow acek 46 aclo ahir . 3. La numele proprii terminate în -s se poate întâlni şi genitivul cu ‘s: Dickens’s novels Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX 1.___ Answer: car . lemonade. Completaţi spaţiile cu următoarele cuvinte: advice. (men) 7) My _______ car was not expensive. jam. 1) This is _______ book. (boys) EX 2. milk.

substantivele numărabile la plural şi numele proprii par neînsoţite de articol: She drinks tea every day. that tree. their car. etc The United Kingdom. neither student Articolul nu poate fi o parte de vorbire independentă. an heir. . articolul nehotărât a( n) sau articolul zero pentru substantivele numărabile: The cow gives us milk. the window. There is an orange on the table. those trees Adjectivul posesiv my. (articolul zero = funcţia generică) I like the honey they sell here. substantivele nenumărabile. etc. an orange. (articolul hotărât the) 47 . his. articolul nehotărât a sau an sau prin articolul zero. b) articolul zero pentru substantivele nenumărabile: Milk is good for our health. her. Articolul hotărât (The Definite Article) Articolul hotărât are forma unică the Ex:the door. Articolul nehotărât (The Indefinite Article) Articolul nehotărât are două forme: a şi an Ex: a story. an honest man Articolul zero (The Zero Article) În unele cazuri. absenţa articolului echivalează ca funcţie cu prezenţa unui articol. Cows give us milk. books. your. either side. Clothes do not make the man. În astfel de cazuri. A cow gives us milk. 2) Where are the books I gave you? – Unde sunt cărţile pe care ţi le-am dat? There is a pen on the table. Îmi place mierea. its tail Adjectivul interogativ what/which/whose car do you want? Adjectivul nehotărât each. no idea. an egg. a water-melon. a year an architect. any idea . Acesta este de obicei numit articolul zero. a magazine. person every. person. Aceste articole se folosesc pentru a realiza: 1) referinţa unică (unique reference) şi 2) referinţa individuală (individual reference) 1) The girl was running very fast. Omisiunea articolului (The Elypsis of the Article) Ex: a) I like honey.ARTICOLUL ŞI ALŢI DETERMINANŢI Determinanţii propriu-zişi ai substantivului Articolul hotărât the child Articolul nehotărât a child. an hour. an elephant Articolul zero men. these trees.Fata alerga foarte repede. your. some notebooks. the Art Gallery. There are (some) books on the table Observaţie: a) articolul hotărât the. our. Îmi place mierea care se vinde aici. The Sahara. the table. the United States. schools Adjectivul demonstrativ this tree. Articolul este redat prin articolul hotărât the. el contribuind doar la determinarea unică sau individuală a substantivului pe care îl însoţeşte.

I recommend you eat ___ apple pie at this restaurant. 2. Those are the new ones.. an. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi cu this/that/ these/ those 1. 4.. _______ night the factory went on fire. Would you like to see ___ movie? ___ apple a day keeps ___ doctor away. _______people come from that hotel over there. _______exhibition closed a month ago. 9. acelea This house is more expensive than that one. 48 . acestea ♥ Those – aceia.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! A. Can you tell me how to get to ___ bank from here? ___ city museum is closed today. 3. _______is my cousin. _______beach was quite empty last year. 7. He is one of ___ smartest people I know. _______are the old classrooms. ___ milk is good for you. aceasta ♥ That – acela. His bike is excellent . Pune răspunsul corect: This coat was designed by ___ famous New York artist. Adjectivul posesiv se acordă în gen şi număr cu numele obiectului posedat: Her book . Jessica. What does_______ notice say? 5. 10. aceea ♥ These – aceştia. Do you see _______birds at the top of the tree? 8. – Această casă este mai scumpă decât aceea. Wasn't _______ a horrible thing to say? Adjectivul posesiv (The Posesive Adjective) ♥ înlocuieşte posesorul şi determină numele obiectului posedat: Peter’s bike is excellent for him to keep fit. _______exhibition will be open until the end of May. I can't believe I failed ___ yesterday's test! Do you have ___ dictionary that I can borrow? ALŢI DETERMINANŢI : Adjectivul demonstrativ (The Demonstrative Adjective) ♥ This – acesta. 6. the sau articolul zero.cartea ei. He was dismissed on the 13th.

3 We're brothers. Caz Pronume who what which Nominativ who what which Genitiv whose what which Dativ to whom (formă literară) who . _________________ time is the flight ? 2. 49 . to (vorbire curentă) what which Acuzativ whom (formă literară) who (vorbire curentă) what which Exemplu: What film did you see last night ?. ____ children's names are Lauren and Daniel. 2 They're married. 1. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi propoziţiile cu adjective posesive: 1 He's from Spain. This classroom is ours. _________________ mother is a nurse ? 4. _________________ books are these ? Pronume posesiv This book is mine. 6 You're students.His bike ..jucăriile lor. That is her/his/its food. ____name's Alberto. 5 I'm British. That book is yours. ____ brother's nine. That classroom is theirs.Ce film ai văzut aseară? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi spaţiile cu adjectivul interogativpotrivit. 4 She's eight. This is our classroom. That food is hers/his. ____ parents are French. ____ name's Peter. Their toys . That is their classroom.bicicleta lui. That is your book. _________________ subject do you like ? 5.. which şi what sunt invariabile. Adjectivul interogativ (The Interrogative Adjective) ♥ determină numele obiectului asupra căruia se cer informaţii: who are forme flexionare pentru caz. ____ books are in the classroom. Comparaţi: Adjectiv posesiv This is my book. _________________ girl has a red bag ? 3.

a unei cantităţi restrânse. Oh. orice: Any student in your class could answer the question. se întrebuinţează: . 50 . every child) sau parţial (each pupil. No problem. unele. nici una.Adjectivul nehotărât (The Indefinite Adjective) ♥ determină substantivul într-un mod global (all the pens. "some". there is ______ gas in the car. se întrebuinţează în propoziţii afirmative şi indică existenţa unui număr restrâns de lucruri. there are ______. 4. Do ______ black people work in your company? Yes. nici o. unii. Any = vreun. I want to take a shower. there is ______ hot water. nici un(ul). 3. puţină. "no" or "none": Exemplu: 1. either side) Some = ceva. there are ______. She hasn't ______ clothes to wear to the party. Each = fiecare (se referă la membrii unui grup luaţi individual) Each pupil must bring some plants to school. câţiva. We had better get ______. Mary. there aren't any. 2. Are there ______ good movies this weekend? No. câteva. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi cu "any". no.în propoziţii afirmative cu sensul: oricare. vreo. . fiinţe. is there ______ hot water? I'm sorry.în propoziţii interogative şi negative: There isn’t any milk in the cup. vreo. There are some books on his desk. 5. I can give her ______. Every = fiecare (se referă la membrii unui grup fără a-i individualiza) Every woman in the room has the right to speak. Are there any onions? No. vreun. nişte.

Numeralul ordinal: the first. Numeralul cardinal: 0 zero (nought) 1 one 11 eleven 2 two 12 twelve 3 three 13 thirteen 4 four 14 fourteen 5 five 15 fifteen 6 six 16 sixteen 7 seven 17 seventeen 8 eight 18 eighteen 9 nine 19 nineteen 100 200 … 900 1.000 one hundred two hundred … nine hundred one thousand 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ten twenty thirty forty (no "u") fifty (note "f". b.NUMERALUL –THE NUMERAL ♥ este partea de vorbire care exprimă un număr. several pair(s) of shoes 51 . Numeralul ordinal: 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th zeroth or noughth first 11th eleventh second 12th twelfth third 13th thirteenth fourth 14th fourteenth fifth 15th fifteenth sixth 16th sixteenth seventh17th seventeenth eighth 18th eighteenth ninth 19th nineteenth 10th 20th 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th tenth twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth c. pair. Numeralul fracţionar (The Fractional Numeral) ♥ sunt redate sub forma unor fracţii. a. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral) ♥ arată că obiectele sunt considerate în grup şi nu izolat Numeralele colective sunt: couple. the second etc. team. not "v") sixty seventy eighty (only one "t") ninety (note the "e") b. Numărul fracţiei este exprimat printr-un numeral cardinal. two. score. iar numitorul printr-un numeral ordinal: 1/2 = a/one half = o jumătate. dozen. 1/3/ = a/one third = o treime 1. o doime. yoke Ex: two dozen of eggs. Numeralul cardinal: one. three etc. determinarea numerică a obiectelor (numeralul cardinal) sau ordinea obiectelor prin numărare (numeralul ordinal) a.5 = one point nought five d.

Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1. Elevii au părăsit clasa câte doi. ? a third ? third ? the third ? the third of the 9. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral) ♥ arată: de câte ori are loc o acţiune: once. four times. ♥ are categoriile gramaticale de persoană. ? Hundred ? Hundreds ? Five hundreds ? Five hundred ? 2. etc.Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numeral) once . exemplu: two at a time. ? two dozens ? two dozen ? two a dozen ? two dozens of them? 3. Next week. you) sau desemnează global sau parţial obiecte sau fenomene (all. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) ♥ exprimă gruparea numerică a obiectelor. ________ of people sat quietly in the hall. He's been in the United States for __________. twice. ? thirties ? thirtys ? thirty's ? thirtieths 8. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) f. "C" is _______ letter of the English alphabet. About ________ of the workers are young people. twice as fast etc. They have French twice a week. ? one year and a half ? one year and half ? one year and an half ? one and half years 10. a hundred times. He is here ♥ desemnează direct vorbitorul şi ascultătorul (I. Today is __________ day.de două ori. twice . two by two. The scientist is in his _________. once again. once more. Au franceza de două ori pe săptămână. ten times. two and two. by twos. each). Eggs are cheap. număr şi caz. ? Lesson Nine ? Lesson Ninth ? Lesson Nineth ? the nineth lesson 5.e. g. we are going to study __________. three times (thrice). ? two thousand of ? two thousand ? two thousands ? two thousands of 7.odată. I bought __________. ? third-fifths ? three-fifth ? three-fifths ? third-fifth 6. three times . Clasificarea pronumelor: 52 . in tows (in pairs): The pupils left the classroom two by two/in twos. He wrote a __________ report. five times. About ___________ old people died of the flu last winter. gen. ? five-thousand-words ? five-thousands-word ? five-thousands-words ? five-thousand-word 4. ? the one hundred fourty-ninth ? the one hundred forty-nineth ? one hundred forty ninth ? the one hundred forty-ninth PRONUMELE -THE PRONOUN ♥ poate înlocui substantive: The man is here. The experiment will last for one hundred fifty days.de trei ori.

it’s not ours.. all. negativ: seria no. Pronumele reflexiv ♥ are terminaţia -self la singular şi -selves la plural Persoana Singular Plural I myself ourselves a II-a yourself yourselves a III-a himself (masc. every afirmativ: many. Is it yours. seria some neafirmativ: seria any. Ask Irina if is hers.) herself (fem. few. neither Pronumele personal: Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ I me you you he him she her it it we us they them Exemple: You like me and I like you. Irina? Adjective posesive It's my food It's your food It's his food It's her food It's its food Pronume posesive It's mine It's yours It's his It's hers -Pronume personal It belongs to me It belongs to you It belongs to him It belongs to her It belongs to it 53 . much. little. one. enough.Ţie îţi place de mine şi mie îmi place de tine. several. either.Pronumele personal Pronumele reflexiv Pronumele posesiv Pronumele relativ Pronumele interogativ Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele nehotărât pozitiv universal :each.) themselves itself (neutru) Exemple: He looked at himself in the mirror. Pronumele posesiv ♥ înlocuieşte atât numele obiectului posedat cât şi al posesorului Formele pronumelui posesiv sunt: Persoana I singular mine I plural ours a II-a singular/plural yours a III-a masculin singular his plural theirs feminin singular hers plural theirs Exemplu: Is this his pen? No.

se întrebuinţează în propoziţii afirmative. niciuna se întrebuinţează: în propoziţii afirmative cu sensul: oricare. puţină. nicio. etc Exemple: Who are they waiting for?. Each = fiecare: Each of them .nothing Exemple: I saw somebody in your room. I saw nothing in your room. items. I saw nobody in your room. Oricine vorbeşte trebuie să traducă. orice: Any of you could answer this question. niciun(ul). any şi no: somebody/someone . either) obiecte sau fenomene Some = ceva. O/Îl va lua pe oricare este a/al lui.Nu ştiu a cui este maşina aceasta. vreun. câţiva. interogative (ptr a pune accentul pe ceva) Exemplu: She bought some. etc) Did you visit some of the museums the tourist guide recommended ? Any = vreun.nobody/no one none something . I know people that don’t like this kind of food. Whoever speaks must translate. which şi that Nominativ Dativ/Acuzativ Genitiv Who Who(m) Whose Exemplu: I don’t know whose car is this one.oricare. nişte.Pe cine aşteaptă ei? What did he tell you? – Ce ţi-a spus? What time is it? – Cât este ceasul? Which of these books do you prefer ? – Pe care din aceste cărţi o preferi? From what country does he come from? – Din ce ţară vine? Pronumele relativ ♥ se referă la un substantiv sau înlocuitor al acestuia menţionat anterior şi face legătura între propoziţia în care se află şi cea pe care o însoţeşte: I know people who don’t like this kind of food. câteva.anything . whoever -oricine.Fiecare (dintre ei) Either (forma negativă neither) = fiecare: Have you seen either of them ? L-ai văzut pe vreunul dintre ei (doi) ? 54 . ♥ Compuşii lui some. unii.It's our food It's ours It belongs to us It's your food It's yours It belongs to you It's their food It's theirs It belongs to them Pronumele interogativ who este folosit pentru fiinţe what pentru lucruri which pentru fiinţe şi lucruri how much pentru cantităţi how many pentru număr what kind of pentru calităţi. în propoziţii interogative şi negative: Have you got any ? I haven’t got any.. Whichever. vreo. Pronumele nehotărât ♥ desemnează global (all) sau parţial (each. He will take whichever is his. (vegetables.anybody/anyone . Pronumele relative sunt: who. I saw something in your room. unele. vreo. puţin.

3.. Its name is Cookie. ___ sister is 34 and ___ workplace is very near. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX1. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail____ was very interesting. (the dog) ___are watching TV.I have got a pet. unul. 8) My mother often talks to ___ .Atenţie la cuvintele din paranteză. toţi. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ___is dreaming. Nici unul dintre ei (doi) nu are dreptate. forgot his umbrella.ourselves . Jason and I work in the same office. ___ name is Cookie.herself . neither (nici unul din doi).yourself . ____ father is a professor. Pronumele negativ nobody. EX. 2) Mr John. lives in the neighbourhood.She often reads books. if you want more milk. (the posters) ___is running. There are 150 employees in ___ company. Example: ___ often reads books. One = un. toate: I’ve seen them all. What have you bought ? Nothing.yourselves . 7) The lion can defend ___ . 55 .himself . Hi Daniel. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest ____ is in the south of Romania.Alegeţi pronumele posesiv corect Example: I have got a pet. 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers ___ . 2) Lisa did the homework ___ 3) We helped ___ to some cola at the party. (the blackboard) ___are on the wall. 5) That's Irina. Alegeţi pronumele relativ corect: who.themselves 1) Robert made this T-shirt ___ . Alegeţi pronumele reflexiv corect din lista de mai jos: myself .itself . 7) The man. none (nici unul).4. EX. He's 32. Ce-ai cumpărat ? Nimic. did you take the photo all by ___ ? 5) I wrote this poem ___ . 4) Emma. 4) This is the boy ____ comes from France. nothing (nimic): Exemple: Neither of them is right.Every =fiecare: Every pupil must do his homework. no one (nimeni). (my mother and I) EX. This is ___ friend Jason. All = tot. (George) ___is green. help ___ . Le-am văzut pe toate. the girl ____ has just arrived at the airport. Folosiţi pronumele personale potrivite. ___ name is John.2. 9) Tim and Gerry. which or whose: 1) I talked to the boy ____ car had broken down in front of the building. 6) He cut ___ with the knife while he was doing the dishes. ____ is a taxi driver. (Lisa). una cineva:There were two children in the room: one was good and one was bad. toată.

are not from our school. Answer: Daniel and Irina have known each other since 2000. herself. ourselves.cel mai mare) hot . 9) They often write e-mails to ____ because they're best friends. yourselves.cel mai fericit) angry . itself. 6) I bought ____ a new record player.8) The children. ____ driver is a young man.THE ADJECTIVE ♥ este partea de vorbire care: a) exprimă o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting class.hotter . Comparaţia adjectivelor (The Comparison of Adjectives) 1.mai fierbinte-cel mai fierbinte) fat .mai nervos. himself. .angrier . is from England.the hottest (fierbinte.the best-known (binecunoscut) ill-paid .more intelligent-looking .the smallest ( mic-mai mic-cel mai mic) short . did you do the homework ____? 8) They looked at ____ and smiled. 5) People often give ____ presents at Christmas.the shortest (scurt. 3) Daniel repaired computer car ____. themselves or each other. 2) My friends enjoyed ____ at the party. 1) John and Angela haven't met ____ for a very long time.happier .cel mai nervos) 2. 10) What did you do with the money ____ your parents lent you? EX 5. 10) She only thinks of ____.the thinnest (subţire-mai subţire-cel mai subţire) happy .the most intelligent-looking (privire inteligentă) 56 . Adjectivele formate din două sau mai multe silabe formează comparativul şi superlativul cu ajutorul lui more şi the most: careful . She's a little bit selfish.the fattest (gras-mai gras-cel mai gras) thin .thinner . Adjectvele compuse formează gradele de comparaţie în felul următor: a) când primul element este un adjectiv care îşi păstrează sensul.worse-paid .fatter .mai grijuliu. Example: Daniel and Irina have known __________ since 2007.smaller .the most careful (grijuliu.shorter .mai scurt-cel mai scurt) Observaţie: La ortografiere pot apărea unele modificări: big . yourself.more difficult . a young man) b) are categoria gramaticală a comparaţiei: He is taller than his sister. Adjectivele monosilabice primesc -(e)r la comparativ şi the -(e)st la superlativ: small .more careful .the most difficult (dificil. ____ shouted in the street. 4) We helped ____ with our written task.the worst-paid (prost plătit) intelligent-looking.the happiest (fericit-mai fericit.the angriest (nervos. acesta se schimbă la comparativ şi superlativ: well-known – better-known . Alegeţi pronumele corecte din lista de mai jos: myself.bigger .mai dificil. 9) The car.cel mai dificil) 3. ADJECTIVUL. 7) Katie.cel mai grijuliu) difficult .the biggest (mare-mai mare.

really.more.Adjective neregulate good . Adverbele de mod (Adverbs of manner).the worst (rău. He was ____ student of all. b) poate avea categoria gramaticală a comparaţiei.cel mai depărtat) sau further . 4. This is ____ magazine I have ever read.mai în vârstă.the oldest (bătrân.slowly.worse .the eldest (în vârstă.mai bătrân. by the way = apropo. week. vechi.the furthest Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).cel mai puţin) far . whole – wholly. Which is ____ insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is ____ than a holiday in the mountains. beautifully. utterly: The film was very amusing. It is extremelly difficult to make such a film.de întărire: actually. (mai puţin interesant decât) ♥ superlativul absolut se construieşte cu ajutorul adverbelor very. highly. vechi.truly.older. Adverbele de mod indică modalitatea propriu-zisă: well.cel mai bun) bad . badly. This film is less interesting than the previous one.cel mai în vârstă) little -less .. My house is ____ than yours.the farthest (depărtat – mai depărtat.the most (mult. due .mai mult. ADVERBUL – THE ADVERB ♥ a)arată o caracteristică a unei acţiuni. as a matter-of-fact = de fapt.b) când cele două elemente formează un tot din punct de vedere al sensului comparaţia se realizează cu ajutorul lui more şi the most: heart-broken .cel mai bătrân. a unei stări sau a unei calităţi. at once = imediat..mai bun. This red flower is ____ than that yellow one. Ele mai pot fi adverbe: . mai puţin.more heart-broken .cel mai mult) old. slowly etc. too.cel mai rău) much. to-and fro = încoace şi încolo. extremely.mai rău. etc. Adverbele de mod sau timp se formează prin adăugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului: slow.weekly Excepţii: true . Non-smokers usually live ____ than smokers. quickly. c) îndeplineşte funcţia sintactică de complement circumstanţial Exemplu: Is this idea really good? Locuţiuni adverbiale: as a rule = de obicei.the most heart-broken (inima frântă) ♥ comparativului de egalitate şi inferioritate: My room is as large as hers (la fel de mare ca) My homework is not as easy as yours. It is strange but often a coke is ____ than a beer. 57 .farther . Who is ____ man on earth? The weather is even ____ than last summer. certainly. obviously.better .duly. now and then = din când în când. once in while. vechi) old – elder.the best ( bun.the least (puţin.

My neighbour is a careless driver. He shouts ____. greatly. once in a while.de amplificare: absolutely. formerly.succesiunea în timp: afterwards. today. before. She spoke to____ us . He drives____ . . She dances really ____. eventually. Comparativul de inferioritate: She dances on ice less carefully than her brother.. . usually. foward(s). soon. still. most care preced adverbul respectiv. You ____ have to put one word in each space. three times a day. The boy is loud.more quickly. Adverbele de timp indică: . completely. probally. carefully . Majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a exprima atât locul cât şi direcţia: Loc: He doesn’t live far (Nu locuieşte departe). since. . recently. somewhere. . She speaks English ____. . Direcţie: He didn’t go far (Nu s-a dus departe). righ. The painter is awful. seldom.frecvenţa: definită: weekly. Superlativul absolut: se formează cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very.more carefully Comparativul de egalitate: She dances on ice as quickly as her brother. Superlativul relativ: (the) most intelligently (of all).de afirmaţie sau negaţie: yes. He plays the piano____ . previosly. She smiles____ . no.de probabilitate: maybe. She often sneaks out of the house ____. Jim is a wonderful piano player. Gradul superlativ (the) best (cel mai bine) (the) worst (cel mai rău) (the) most (cel mai mult) 58 . nedefinită: often. This girl is very quiet. barely. quite.faster. This exercise is simple. yet. Altele indică direcţia: aside. Adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time). left. hardly. Adverbele de loc (Adverbs of Place) Unele adverbe de loc indică locul propriu-zis: here. early – earlier quickly .durata: lately. of course. Her English is fluent. backward(s). nowadays. there. Comparaţia adverbelor: Comparativ: fast . (the) least + adverb Comparaţia neregulată a adverbelor: Gradul pozitiv Gradul comparativ well (bine) better (mai bine) badly (rău) worse (mai rău) much (mult) more (mai mult) Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Găsiţi adjectivul din prima propoziţie şi completaţi spaţiile libere cu adverbul corespunzător: Joanne is happy.momentul acţiunii: now. perhaps. Our mum was angry. He paints____ . She is a good dancer. not at all. then.

satisfied.exception. . leave long + for.affectionate. fond. jealous.aim. kind.disappointed. at the station. believe. fit. . . full. c) Verbe: . comment.angry. She is sitting on a chair.anxious. astonished. arrive. . polite. succeed (+-ing). gaze. boast. .bound. aware. reduce. subscribe. typical. rude. deaf. attentive.conceal. dizzy. parallel. care. differ. proud. indifferent.accuse.cause.afraid. .account. swim across the lake drive through the tunnel go to the cinema. . invitation. tired. sell. contrary. concentrate. prevent. adjective. end. threaten. flush. a present from Jane a page of the book. shake.alarmed. + in. the picture of a palace 59 . busy. supply. . on the left. link. report. kindness + to. pale.PREPOSITION ♥ leagă părţi de vorbire diferite: substantive. a path above the lake walk across the bridge. .agree. charmed. b) Adjective: . . blame. in a taxi at the door.complete. progress. at a concert. fire. appropiate. Prepositions In At On by. in London. consistent. at the table. sorry + for. satisfaction + in. amazed. mediate + on. go to London . beside Under Below Over Above Across Through To Into Towards Onto From Of Example in the kitchen. cure. famous. tremble + with. consent. hide. subscribe. die. conform. over 16 years of age. die. I can see a woman who is sitting at a table. on the first floor. fail.go to bed go into the kitchen / the house go 5 steps towards the house jump onto the table a flower from the garden. wet + with. ask. .PREPOZIŢIA . belong. cruel. escape. cling.interest. worthy + of. eager. good + at. characteristic. next to. delighted. glow. clever. . look + at. shiver. side. refer. prefer. congratulate. faint. deprive. enthusiastic + about. on the bus. rich. in the book. verbe sau adverbe de substantive sau substitute ale acestora: In the picture. . Unele cuvinte sunt urmate în mod obligatoriu de anumite prepoziţii: a) Substantive: . sure. listen. adjust. apply. originate. the bag is under the table the fish are below the surface put a jacket over your shirt. glance.abound. thankful + to. opportunity + of. sail. . identical. turn + to. There is another chair next to the woman. remind take care + of.adapt. protect + from.in the car. Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. . at 45 on the table. stiff. ashamed. successful + in. chance. attribute.

after. top of.. across. there are many picture postcards. in. beneath. Who is the person ____ this picture? Come ____ the sitting room. next to. around. I am visiting my grandma ____Saturday.. as for. from. About. How long does the film last? 8. I was ____ the cinema yesterday. from Prepositions of reference: as to. Maybe I'll go to the cinema ____ Saturday. for all.. concerning (formal). underneath. by. down. onto. after¸ from. off. against.By Off Out of By About a book by Mark Twain get off the train get out of the taxi by car. beside.. But I must hurry home ____ the film.That's right.. 10. about. between. in regard to. 6. I have to be home ____ eleven o'clock. through (din cauză de) Prepositions of concession: in spite. Would you like to go ____ the cinema tonight? No. We are going ____ holiday next week. Alege prepoziţia de loc corectă: We live ____ London. during. below. on. for. manner/way Prepositions of direction: to. by bus talking about you Prepositions of place: at. on. The film starts ____ eight o'clock. among Prepositions of time at. The flight ____Bucharest ____ Lecce was ____ Berlin. Alege prepoziţia de timp corectă: 1. 7. What are you doing ____ the weekend? 2. regarding. despite (formal). behind. out of. ____ my wall. before. by. cu toată / toate. in. We could go there together ____ the afternoon. close to. thanks. by. EX. That's okay. above. on account of (formal). over. before. (all) through/throughout. in. That would be great. out of. The town lies 530 meters ____sea level. But I would prefer to go there ____ the evening.2. for. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. through. 60 . up. It lasts ____ two hours and forty-five minutes. 9. within.. 5. into. till/until. I can pick you up ____ half ____ seven. in front of. near. towards. without (fără). past. I don't know yet.1. we want to watch TV. 4. 3. over. That's interesting. under. over Prepositions of manner With (cu). along. ____eight ____ a quarter to eleven. There is a bridge ____ the river. on (despre): Prepositions of cause: because of. with all (familiar) ( în ciuda. I haven't been to the cinema ____ so many years. to.

f) condiţionale: if . 4. i) comparative: as..şi. a... either. wherever . neither..nu numai. _____ she plays it really well.încât. in order that/so (that) (mai formal) . The concert was cancelled. c) de mod: (exactly) as. _____ we went to a disco instead. Irina needed some money..sau.. 7. 61 .as . _____he put on a coat. încât. whether – dacă . although ________ it was snowing...specializate: de loc: where . till/until . because . numai dacă nu.1.nor .CONJUNCTIA . I wasn’t cold. a. g) consecutive: so that .deşi. de parcă. c) adversative: but .precum... chiar dacă. as if/as though . while/as .unde.universale: that . ori. h) concesive: though. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new family who has just moved in . 10.după ce. she can't translate that text. provided (that) / on condition (that) as long as/so longs as . _____ the mark was good. _____ it was too difficult. I bought a bottle of wine. b) disjunctive: or . both. 6. 5.de când. but also . whereas (formal). cât şi. but.în timp ce. EX.oriunde.atât. after . cu toate că. Although b.deoarece. He speaks English as well as German. e) de scop: so that. since. _____ we drank it together. Daniel was cold..dar şi..ca şi cum.(aşa) cum.. a.: conjunctio.când. if.. sau. Julie has a guitar. = Văd un băiat şi o fată.încât.sau.. although (mai formal). not only... _____the shop didn't have it.mai (mult). I went to buy my favorite CD. Because ________ She doesn't speak English.nici.aşa/astfel.afară dacă.. (just) as . = El vorbeşte engleza precum şi germana. 3. exemple: I see a boy and a girl. d) de cauză: as.nici. before înainte ca. so 1. b) de timp: when .. _____ you can go by car. _____ maybe it's just coincidence.THE CONJUNCTION (lat.că.. cu scopul ca. even though b because I don't drink coffee ________ it makes me nervous. so/such. or.. Alegeţi conjuncţia coordonatoare potrivită din următoarele: and. Conjuncţiile subordonatoare . 2. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. 8. decât. fiindcă. while. as b.or . unless .dar.dacă. (that) .2 Alegeţi conjuncţia subordonatoare potrivită: Daniel couldn't buy any presents ________ he didn't have any money.though . _____ she took a part-time job. The teacher was not very nice. con = impreuna.. junctio = legatura) Conjuncţiile coordonatoare : a) copulative: and .. so (familiar) ..(pentru) ca.până când. you can take a bus. To get from Piteşti to Bucharest. ci. 9. and . even if. (exact) cum. as well as .cu condiţia. Maria tried to translate the text. since .

Oh. a.INTERJECTION Clasificare: Cu ajutorul interjecţiilor se exteriorizează: 1) senzaţii şi sentimente: a) bucurie: Ah ! Ooh ! Jippee ! Hurray ! (a. pah. how dirty your hands are ! h) aprobare: Well done ! Congratulations ! (Foarte bine! Felicitări!) Well done. ah. ce ruşine!): Fie upon you ! You ought to be ashamed at what you have done.wow ! Miaow! Baa! Buzz! (Ham . a.a. aoleu!): ouch. what a nice dress ! c) mirare: Oh. Whereas b. Dear me ! What are you doing over there ? d) admiraţie: Whew !(ah. vai de mine. I can’t find my purse. f) dispreţ: Fie ! Pshaw ! What a shame! (Ptiu. linişte!): Hush! The baby’s sleeping! b) o încurajare: Cheer up! Come on! (Curaj! Haide!): Come on. though ________ my wife likes to travel abroad. Peter ! You’ve passed all your exams brilliantly. dear ! Dear me ! Indeed ! (vai dragă. într-adevăr) Oh. that feels good" 2. a. well. Ssh! Hush! Silence! (Sst. ah. Since INTERJECŢIA. allas.ham ! Miau! Beh! Bzzz!): Bang! Click! Crash! Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Alegeţi interjecţia potrivită situaţiilor de mai jos. a. as I will be late today ________ my car has broken down. these gloves are exactly what I was looking for. er. how beautiful she is ! e) înţelegere: Aha ! (a. ura!). " ____. etc. c) o avertizare: Look Out! Fire! (Atenţie! Foc!): Fire ! The house is on fire! 3) se reproduc sunete şi zgomote din mediul înconjurător: Bow . even though b. she's dead now" 3. k) durere: Ouch! Ow! (vai. un îndemn: Oh! Help! (oh! Ajutor!). Since Daniel passed the exam first time ________ his brother had to retake it four times. oh!). hello. while Paula got the job she wanted ________ she had no experience. g) dezgust: Ugh! (îh!): Ugh. " Oh ____ ! Does it hurt ?" 62 . aha!): Aha. I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. hmm. b) surpriză: Oh ! Wow ! (a. oh. Whereas b. oh! ce păcat!): What a pity you couldn’t come! It was a good play. 1. as b. Puteţi folosi interjecţii ca: ah. dear. doamne): Whew. " ____. eh. because b. it hurts! 2) manifestări de voinţă: a) o rugăminte. ah. ouch. i) dezaprobare: Nonsense! What a nuisance! (Prostii ! Ce pacoste!): What a nuisance! Now I’ll have to do it all over again! j) regret: Ah! Oh! What a pity! (a!. dear. don’t be afraid! You’ll be fine. uh-huh.

" 85 divided by 5 is. "Shall we go ? " " ____" 12. ____ ?" 5. " ____... "What do you think of that..4.. " ____ John. ____..17" 11. How are you today ?" 7.. what did he say " 10. " ____.. ____.Peru" 6.. " ____ ! That hurts !" 63 . I'm not so sure" 8. "Lima is the capital of. " ____ .. please say 'yes' !" 9.

64 . A încărunţit. loc. mod. Exemple:He is a really nice guy. o stare sau o însuşire. Este palid. PREDICATUL . remain. verbul be: He is clever. elementul predicativ suplimentar. get. SUBIECTUL – THE SUBJECT ♥ Subiectul este partea principală de propoziţie despre care se spune ceva cu ajutorul predicatului. Îmbătrâneşte.) şi atributul. Verbe copulative: a. verbe ale devenirii: become. cauză etc. Verbe ale continuării în aceeaşi stare : continue.PARTEA A II-A PĂRŢILE DE PROPOZIŢIE (The Parts of the Sentence) ♥ Părţile de propoziţie se clasifică în: 1) părţi principale de propoziţie: subiectul şi predicatul. b) printr-un adjectiv. He kept silent. El este deştept b. David plays the piano The police interviewed all the witnesses. Subiectul simplu: man Subiectul complex: the man who had followed us inside Subiectul compus: The man and the woman walked over to the telephone. prepoziţional. verbe ale aparenţei: appear. Predicatul nominal este alcătuit din: un verb copulativ + un nume predicativ. He looks pale. stay. The man who had followed us inside walked over to the telephone. c) printr-un participiu trecut: The village seemed deserted. grow. 2) părţi secundare de propoziţie: complementul direct. My dog attacked the burglar. complemente circumstanţiale (de timp. turn: Her hair has turned grey. singur sau cu o complinire: She was happy. She is getting old.THE PREDICATE ♥ Predicatul este partea principală de propoziţie care atribuie subiectului o acţiune. Numele predicativ este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia: My nephew has become a doctor. She was eager to come. d. look. Tăcea. Părea bolnavă. indirect. seem: She seemed ill. keep. hold. c.

the lions. Ross and Monica took their children to the zoo. and all of the other animals were outside. Exemplu: 1. 2. este aceea de a transforma fraza respectivă la diateza pasivă. sold used cars. EX. 3. " a rock star " nu este complement direct şi deci nu poate deveni subiectul propoziţiei la diateza pasivă.. baked delicious apple pies. 2. the president of the meeting shook hands with all members of the crowd. They listened quietly. The yellow race car with red stripes finished the first in the race. lived in the attic last winter. Ashley became a rock star. apoi traduceţi propoziţiile. Todd sang a song. Răspund la una din întrebările pe cine?. I drink milk every day. The computer programmer is testing his new software.2. After his speech. The elephants. Un exemplu este făcut pentru a vă ajuta: Subjects The dirty yellow cat We Tom and his brother The taxi driver Anna's elderly mother The green tree snake The detective in the gray raincoat Seven rats Predicates stood outside the hotel all night. 1. Yesterday.Interpretăm un cântec în fiecare zi. Nu l-am văzut de mult. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Identificaţi complementul direct. Complementul direct va trebui sa devină subiectul propoziţiei la diateza pasivă. 1. Mai multe variante sunt posibile. 4.1. Beau lapte în fiecare zi. ce? O altă metodă pentru a afla dacă un cuvânt este sau nu complement direct. We suddenly realized that someone was listening.Încercuiţi subiectele şi subliniaţi predicatele din propoziţiile de mai jos. 6.Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. were late yesterday. Ne-am distrat la cinematograf. The president of the bank looked everywhere for the papers. Did she ask you any questions ? Ţi-a pus vreo întrebare ? Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente directe. was from the Middle East. prowled through the dark alley. COMPLEMENTUL DIRECT -THE DIRECT OBJECT I haven’t seen him for a long tim. => Passive: A song was sung by Todd. We enjoyed ourselves at the cinema. waited patiently for his victim. 65 . We sing a song every day. 2. 5. Potriviţi subiectul cu predicatul.

7. 12. She bought her brother a new shirt. precedat de prepoziţia to sau for: We offered presents to our teacher. I like rain. Have you written many letters this summer? 10. John gave his son the keys to his car. precedată de o prepoziţie: Would they agree to leave at once? Ar fi de acord să plecăm imediat? He boasts of being the best football player in the school.THE PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT ♥ Complementul prepoziţional este exprimat prin: a) un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia precedat de o prepoziţie: He is looking for his suit. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Identificaţi atât complementele directe cât şi indirecte din propoziţiile de mai jos: 1. This exercise involves clicking on the screen. Şi-a vândut maşina celui mai bun prieten. Mr. Am fugit după ea. I ran after her. Traffic controllers in the towers at the airport control air traffic. 4. 3. 11. I owe you some money. 4. COMPLEMENTUL INDIRECT. c) o propoziţie subordonată: He boasts that he is the best football player in the school. 9. She bought a new shirt for her husband. Răspund la întrebarea cui? sau pentru cine? Acestea pot fi precedate sau nu de prepoziţii: Exemplu: Tom sold us his old house. Tell them the news now.3. 6. Will you give Mary the candy? (Hint: change it to a statement) 5. Cuvintele subliniate sunt complemente indirecte. b) o construcţie infinitivală sau gerundială. Se laudă că este cel mai bun jucător de fotbal din şcoală. Mrs. Smith gave us a long speech about science. A cumpărat o cămaşă nouă soţul ei. Îşi caută costumul. The principal excused the boys early last Wednesday. 5. He sold his car to his best friend. Te rog trimite-mi un email. Jones gave the students a difficult homework. Who taught them about the Civil War? 8. 2. send an email to me. The students read English writers in their literature class. We offered flowers to her. She bought books for her children. ♥ Complementul prepoziţional este întrebuinţat după: 66 . COMPLEMENTUL PREPOZIŢIONAL . Amy has decided to go to university.THE INDIRECT OBJECT Please. Mr. Complementul indirect este exprimat de regulă printr-un substantiv sau echivalent al acestuia. They can't read what you've just written.

convince smb. look at.infinitiv . . (un)comfortable. upset + with. with smth. insist on.efficient. mad. delighted. mistake smb. keen. satisfied. overcome. convinced. This new software enables the user _____ get lots of reports for the management.dependent. He agreed with me about the plan. The „must not” message is designed to prevent people _____entering. I don't smoke at home. long for. assure smb of smth.infinitiv . warn of. urmate de o prepoziţie obligatorie: about: He was reasonable about her decision. glad. clever. fortunate. lent. wonder at.COMPLEX CONSTRUCTIONS Acuzativ cu . (in)compatible. The salesman failed to interest me _____ any of his products. of: Romania’s foreign trade is based on co-operation and equal rights. excited.participiu prezent Infinitiv cu for . worry about : The success of the meeting will depend on the speaker ’s inspiration. bored. . You have similar temperaments. pleased worried + about.participiu trecut Nominativ cu . sick. occupied. of smth. in: He is interested in astronomy. The police wouldn't provide the press _____ any details about the crime.to 67 . impatient. c) verbe tranzitive cu prepoziţie obligatorie: acquaint smb with smth. obsessed. . hopeless. annoyed. lucky. glad.a) verbe intranzitive cu prepoziţie obligatorie: care for. pleased + at. disaplointed. for smth. I don't want to encourage the children _____ smoke. (un)successful + in. conscious. annoyed. annoyed. alarmed. fond. certain. b) verbe intranzitive cu două prepoziţii: agree with smb about smth. depend on. exhausted. with: He is angry with your behaviour. persistent. CONSTRUCŢIILE COMPLEXE . happy. insistent. pass for.participiu prezent . furious.angry. uneasy. content. . warn smb about smth: I convinced him about the plan. horrified. hint at. Alte adjective şi participii urmate de aceste prepoziţii sunt: . blame smb for smth. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Completaţi spaţiile libere cu prepoziţia potrivită: He reminds me _____ your brother in some ways.busy. set + on. d) adjective sau participii care îndeplinesc funcţia de nume predicativ într-un predicat nominal. amused. delighted. scared + of. pleased. The judge banned him _____ driving for six months. The team manager wouldn't allow the press _____ interview his players. terrible. advise smb. bother smb. at: She is good at chemistry.angry. concerned.afraid. (un)happy. argue with smb about smth. . entrust smb with smth. about smth. complain of.

They saw him steal the money. Am văzut că a adormit. You consider his thoughts to be very weird. nominativul absolut N + infinitiv He sent the tests first. Exemplu: They knew her to be a good teacher. We expected the manager to speak first. 3. 6. retired to the bar. prezent The investigation being done. 1. prez.participiu trecut a) În construcţiile infinitivale ne interesează acţiunea în sine. 4.Nominativul absolut cu Construcţiile gerundiale -infinitivul . The letter being written. cu nominativul N+ infinitiv Daniel seems to speak English fluently. c) în construcţiile cu participiul trecut. he left to the post office. The manager asked him to explain the semester report. 5. The two women. L-am văzut dansând. cu acuzativul Ac + infinitiv I saw him cross the street. 2. I heard him walk slowly in the dark. 8. Transferaţi construcţiile Acuzativ cu infinitiv în construcţii Nominativ cu infinitiv. 68 . the players left the football ground. N absolut + part.1. They thought him to be gifted in singing. acţiunea este privită ca un rezultat: We found the dog dead. N absolut + part. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! EX. b) în construcţiile cu participiul în -ing. We advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. She could hear her friend laughing.Recunoaşteţi construcţiile folosite în exemplele de mai jos: 1. The day being rainy. 4. 7.participiu prezent . prez He was seen smoking in the living. care este văzut ca încheiat: We saw him sleep (= that he fell asleep). the policemen headed to the station. The Prime Minister happened to be in Greece at the time.trecut: The game finished. acţiunea este văzută în desfăşurare: We saw him dancing (= that he was dancing). 2. Acuzativ cu participiu trecut: I want this homework done immediately. their business concluded. faptul petrecut. Ac + part. I would like him to come. EX. the comments to come later. They told us not to worry. Am găsit căţelul mort. She was known to be a good teacher. we didn’t go out. 3.2. N+ part.

Complementul circumstanţial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner) . TIMP.de afirmaţie sau negaţie: yes. recently.probabilitate: maybe. b) o perifrază adverbială de timp: They visit their relatives from time to time. . modalitatea în care decurge acţiunea sau starea: well. d) o propoziţie circumstanţială de loc: We do our shopping where everybody else does. before. no. Ele mai pot reda şi alte sensuri: . c) o construcţie adverbială: Tom was born in 1965. Complementul circumstanţial de mod comparativ (The Adverbial of Comparison) este exprimat: a) printr-un substantiv sau pronume precedat de prepoziţia like: I slept like a baby. . un verb la infinitiv sau participiu prezent/trecut introduse prin as if. still. formerly. c) durata: lately. yet. previously. ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de timp indică: a) momentul acţiunii: now. d) frecvenţa: weekly.cantitatea: enough.indică felul./ They went home. badly. a little. soon. Complementul circumstanţial de timp (The Adverbial of Time) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb de timp: My parents arrived yesterday. Exemplu: The merchandise was slowly moved into the warehouse. of course. d) nominativul absolut cu participiul trecut: His homework written the boy went out to play. 69 . scarcely. direcţia sau limita unei acţiuni sau stări. completely. certainly. b) succesiunea de timp: afterwards. really. as though: She cried as if in a terrible danger. usually. 3) o propoziţie circumstanţială de timp: He is always air sick when he travels by plane.amplificare: absolutely. not at all. since. today. He was walking to and fro. c) un substantiv în cazul genitiv precedat de o prepoziţie: We buy vegetables at the greengrocer's .. g) un substantiv introdus într-o conjuncţie temporală: While in Romania he learned to manage by himself. eventually. . f) un gerund precedat de o prepoziţie: On leaving the house. once in a while. then. ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de mod indică modul în care se îndeplineşte o acţiune sau apare o însuşire. b) un substantiv cu sau fără prepoziţie: Helen is in town for the moment. nowadays. punctul de plecare. Complementul circumstanţial de loc (The Adverbial of Place) este exprimat prin: a) un adverb sau o perifrază advebială de loc: He is here. highly. un adjectiv. barely.. b) printr-un substantiv cu prepoziţie. e) un participiu prezent sau trecut. three times a day. MOD – ADVERBIALS ♥ Complementul circumstanţial de loc indică locul. greatly. seldom. much. possibly.COMPLEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANŢIALE DE LOC. precedat de o conjuncţie temporală: He doesn’t feel quite well when sailing by their ship. often. she asked me to make certain the lights were off.întărire: actually. perhaps. slowly. quikly. .

(patiently) → My father goes fishing. my youngest brother. not so/as. little/ a little. comfortable/ a comfortable little 6. 70 . We were in London.): They often go out quiet evenings. What could make for _______ Christmas? a merrier/ the merriest/ a merrier 5. They were raised in _______ house in Bucharest. un adjectiv. 2) o parte secundară de prepoziţie: a) complement direct sau indirect: They made an extraordinary attempt. a comfortable. (always) → Your bedroom is. timp etc. Fanciest/ fanciest/ most fanciest 2. a fine German / a German. (last week) → He walks his dog. Rescrieţi propoziţiile şi puneţi adverbul la locul potrivit. Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! Rewrite the sentences and put the adverbs in correctly. (there) → The girl speaks English. German 4.THE ATRIBUTE Atributul modifică sau determină un substntiv sau pronume care îndeplineşte în propoziţie funcţia de: 1) subiect: The tall girl is my sister-in-law. old/ a sweet old 3. She wanted to take a course with _______professor.. Dacia used to be _______ car. b) complement circumstanţial (de loc. (upstairs) → We don't go skiing. Four weddings and a funeral is the _______ movie I've ever seen. Menţionaţi felul adverbelor. than: She is as smart as her parents. (in summer) → Cats can hear. an old sweet/a sweet. Those are probably _______ boys in the school. (fluently) → I have seen that film. d) o propoziţie circumstanţială de mod comparativă: She smiled as if she were extremely happy. Uncle Daniel is really _______ man. (well) → I saw him. Atributul prepus: this exercise.. (rarely) → She waited.. o construcţie infinitivală sau gerundială introduse prin conjuncţiile as. All the family was home for the holidays. but. pronume sau numeral. (never) / (before) → ATRIBUTUL . most excited/most exciting/most exciteable 7.c) un substantiv. fine/ a fine.etc Atributul postpus: Did you find anything new ? Ai găsit ceva nou ? Exerciţii – Practice LUCREAZĂ SINGUR ŞI VERIFICĂ LA SFÂRŞITUL CĂRŢII! 1.

economics 8. worse/ worst/worser 71 . My cold is definitely _______ this morning. new economics that interesting. 9. the less competent/ the least competent/ the competentest.that interesting new Japanese economics / that Japanese interesting.new. Japanese. foggy/more foggier/foggier 10. In the fall. Of all the mechanics in the shop. he is surely _______ . the valleys tend to be _______than the hilltops.

Q: Last winter he ____________ (go) by train from Rome to London. Q: Mary likes visiting relatives. be) at work at the moment. do you do are you doing did you do 2. Q: Next Wednesday my sister ____________ (go) to Paris. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (get up) at 6 o'clock? Do you always get up Are you always getting up Do always you get up 3. did take took taked 10. doesn't like likes isn't liking 23. He isn't at home. Q: She ____________ (watch) a documentay at the moment. goed has gone went 7. Q: When ____________ you ____________ (go) to France last year? you went did you go did you went 13. Q: Last winter she ____________ (drive) to Bulgaria.TEST FINAL 1. got) a good summer job? Do you got Have you got Has you got 21. but he ____________ (love) playing tennis. got) a motorbike? Does John have got Has John got Have John got 4. isn't being isn't doesn't be 8. Q: He ____________ (take) his friend to the theater last week. drove drived did drive 20.Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm working. Q: John doesn't like going to the beach. Q: Where ____________ she ____________ (study) french last year? did she study did she studied has she studied 22. Q: Mary ____________ (not. will be is is going to be 17. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have. got) any brothers or sisters? Has you got Do you have got Have you got 14. Q: At the moment he ____________ (have) dinner. watched watches is watching 24. is having having has 5. but he ____________ (love) going to the mountains. Q: Mary ____________ (not. Q: They ____________ (take) their children to Italy last year. loves doesn't love is loving 15. did teach teached taught 18. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have. Q: She ____________ (teach) her husband cooking last summer. Q: Peter ____________ (be) on holiday now. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (have) breakfast at 7 o'clock? Is he always having Does he always has Does he always have 19. She's at home. isn't won't be isn't being 72 . but she ____________ (like) talking on the telephone. comes is coming will come 16. tooked has taken took 25. is they doing are they doing do they do 12. is loving love loves 6. Q: ____________ you ____________ (have. Q: What time ____________ he ____________ (arrive) home last Thursday? did he arrives did he arrive does he arrive 11. Q: John doesn't like playing basketball. She's at home. Q: Next Sunday John ____________ (come) to visit his family. Q: What ____________ they ____________ (do)? They're studying. went goes is going 9. be) on holiday now.

doesn't like like likes 43. Q: ____________ he always ____________ (play) tennis on Sundays? Do he always play Does he always plays Does he always play 45. Q: She ____________ (fly) to the USA last summer. He's on holiday. I've _______ eaten breakfast. Q: Next Tuesday my sister ____________ (have) dinner at that new restaurant. Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do) this evening? I'm doing my English homework. Q: She _________________ dinner by the time we arrived. Q: ____________ they ____________ (have. Q: Next Saturday my brother ____________ (visit) the new museum. Q: Maria doesn't like working in the office. flied has flown flew 38. listens is listening has listened 44. Q: My father let me ____________ late when I was a child. Few few of a lot much 50. Q: Would you like ___________ chicken? any a some one 49. is you doing do you do are you doing 27. but she ____________ (love) working at home. Q: At the moment she ____________ (listen) to some music. and she ____________ (like) going to the swimming pool. Q: They ____________ (ride) the train to England last spring. will visit visits is going to visit 28. Q: ____________ she often ____________ (telephone) in the evening? Does she often telephone Is she often telephoning Will she often telephones 32. did ride rode have ridden 30. Q: At the moment they ____________ (read) a magazine. Yet still already ever 47. is going to have will have has 37. to stay out stayed out stay out staying out 48. Q: What shall we do tonight? How about ___________ a film? to see see seeing going 73 . isn't going to be won't been isn't 39. Q: ____________ you always ____________ (finish) work at 8 o'clock? Do you always finish Are you always finishing Did you always finished 29. taughted taught have taught 35. had finished finished have finished finishing 51. Q: Alice loves walking in the countryside. Q: What ____________ she ____________ (do) yesterday evening? did she do does she do is she doing 40. Q: Irina ____________ (not. Q: He has _______ friends in London. are going to read reads are reading 34.26. Q: ____________ Daniel ____________ (have. got) a television? Have Daniel got Has Daniel got Does Daniel has got 41. be) at the office tomorrow. loves doesn't love isn't loving 36. Q: I ____________ (teach) my students about the mammals yesterday. will you do do you do are you doing 31. Q: Where ____________ they ____________ (go) on holiday last winter? did they went have they gone did they go 42. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. Q: I __________________ TV when the telephone rang. got) a van? Have they got Do they have got Has they got 33. Q: What ____________ you ____________ (do)? I'm playing the guitar. watched was watching are watching have watched 46.

interested interesting interested to interested in 66. told said me said told to me 61. Q: Where was Dany yesterday? .Well. interested at interesting in interested in interested for 55.. especially Japanese history. needn't couldn't shouldn't mustn't to 65. Q: Why are your hands so dirty? .. Q: If you want to be healthy. are photographed were photoed photographed were photographed 56. musted must had to had 70. I'm so excited.. have worked worked am working have been working 71. as 60. than as . in front ahead in front of behind of 64. we have bought the tickets to the concert and we _______________ next Saturday. might has been might have been couldn't have been mustn't have been 67. 57. you _______ smoke or drink alcohol. Q: Most people like rugby.. Q: Would you like me to ______________ the kids next week? look to look at look after look into 69... Q: He's _____________ politics. as .Daniel? He __________. Q: I think Piteşti is ____ exciting ____ Bucharest. Q: He will meet you _________ the station at 9 o'clock sharp.I don't know.. Q: Yes. Q: How is he? . Q: Jack is really ______________ geography. He ________________ seeing the doctor. Q: Have you read the article _____ Time magazine ____ Google? on – on to – on in – on from – on 77. Q: What's that book _____? 74 .... Q: These images ______________ by an artist named John Smith.. Q: I missed the bus. will go won't go shall be going are going 74. Q: He found his watch ___________ the papers on the table. go Have .. I just couldn't help myself. Of from in with 75.. 's fine s tall with blond hair 's quite a shy person actually 's twenty three 63.. Q: What ______________ at work? do you have to do must you do have you to do do you 62. Q: _______ you ever ________ to Paris? Did . as so . go Have . Q: Are you travelling to Prague ____ business or ____ holiday? For on to in 76.52. Q: He _________ he wanted to come. so I _________ take the next one. that is the woman _________ horse almost trampled her! which whose who that 68. In among between through 58. I __________________ in the garden for the last two hours. Q: Fiestas ______________ in an old city in Germany for many years now. Q: Would you mind ______________ me a hand? to give give giving given 59.. gone Shall . Q: Have you finished your work ______? Yet already still just 54. Q: Let me ___________! I didn't really want to eat all the cakes. than so .. Q: He'll give you a call as soon as he __________. Q: Yes. will arrive arrives is arriving is going to arrive.. but ____ my opinion it's too chaotic. go 53. have been making have made have been made are made 72.. to say you say you explain me explain 73.

Q: Please talk __ the manager and don't shout __ me! to – to at – to to – at with – to 89. Q: Throw the ball ___ Daniel. Q: You can start the computer ___ pressing that button. Q: Be careful! You're going to set the paper ___ fire! to on in with 93. in – on at – in in – at at – on 83. Q: I went ______ church last Sunday. For until still just 84. I made it to the station ___ time to catch the last train. Q: Luckily. Q: That is _____ interesting book. Q: My house is ___ the end of the street ___ the left. from on up over 80. has lived lives lived 100. but I still don't understand its meaning. out out of over through 81. Q: Jack will be out _____ 3. For when since at 98. Q: I haven't seen Larry ___ ages! At in since until 97. Q: I got ____ home late last night. By from to in 95. Since at from until 99. in – to to – while at – while at – during 79. Q: Were you ____ time for your appointment? Or were you late? to on at of 86. in – to on – in in – in in – at 92. Q: He was born ___ Germany ___ April. To at _ in 88.about to from of 78. We're almost completely ____ it. Works worked has worked 101. 1992.30. with to by from 90. At in to on 75 . in for at to 82. in – in in – to in – on to – in 91.m. Q: Are you ___ or ___ the prime minister? pro – con for – against with – against proto – contra 85. Q: We need some sugar. Q: The post office doesn't open _____ 9 a. Q: Jane ____ (work) for H&M before she came to work for us. please. Q: It is years ____ I last played tennis. next beneath to against 87. Q: You must take the medicine _____ the next five minutes. by – on by – to from – by by – by 94. Q: She was born ____ Spain ___ March 16. Q: I looked this word ____ in the dictionary. Since until within at 96. Q: Are there ______ peaches in the kitchen? Much any some a 102. The a an 103. Q: I need to learn these verbs ___ heart ___ tomorrow. Q: I stayed ____ the Ritz Hotel ________ my stay in New York. Q: Daniel _____ (live) in New York for the past 15 years. Q: She'll be finished ____ the end of the week.

has played – was played – was has played . Q: I ________ a new car last month. near of next to next close 121. at in on over 120. Q: What _____ he like? . Q: I would like _____ rice. Q: When Daniel was at school. Q: Daniel is a nice boy. In on at to 110. has learned . last ago time past yet 124.has played learned . Listen listen to listening to to listening to 111.He is very friendly. Q: I drove my car _____ the garage. Does did is has 105. Q: I went to London three years _____. Is there a bank near here? Please Excuse me Pardon Hey 118. he _____ (learn) to play the piano.have begun have worked – began 128. Q: There are ______ magazines on the table. Works work is working is worked 113. In at into onto 117. Q: I'm afraid I'm not hungry. Q: _________.104. Q: How ________ money do you have in your wallet? many few much some 107. Q: I like __________ music. any an some a 122. Q: The bank is at the end of this street _____ the left. work – began have worked . He _____ (play) it ever since.has played learned – played 76 . can't to can want have 115. Q: She came ______ home late last night. I _____ (eat/already). Q: My father _______ in a software company. Q: I would love to visit Prague sometime. have never been was never will never be 125. Q: I _____ (work) in Spain for 5 years. and I like _____. Q: What __________ in your free time? you do do you do are you doing does you do 112. Q: The bank is _______ the post office. I ____ (be/never) there. Q: Daniel _____ (play) tennis for five years when he _____ (be) at school. didn't eat already have already eaten haven't already eaten 129. him his it 109. Q: : Do you like ______ Chinese food? an some the 127. at to in 108. Unfortunately. a one some any 123.has been 126. Q: He likes watching TV ______ evening. Q: I _____ drive a car. italy Italy Italian italian 119. bought have bought buyed did bought 106. in the at during in 116. Q: I live in ______. Q: Would you like _______ coffee? Any an some to 114. I ____ (begin) work as soon as I arrived. Q: I get up ______ eight o'clock every day.

Q: How many magazines ____ (read) this year? did you read do you read have you read 142. records has recorded recorded 140.have been . Q: Could you give me some advice? I _____ (buy) this sweater yesterday. Q: Nat King Cole _____ (record) many albums during his great career. Before she _____ (move) here. Q: Where ____ (you/find) that book? .Have you been 149. Q: ____ (you/smoke) a lot before becoming a non-smoker? Have you smoked Did you smoked Did you smoke 146. has left hasn't left didn't leave 148. Q: Just a moment! I _____ (not think) of a good idea yet! haven't thought didn't think don't think 134. Q: ____ (newspaper/arrive)? Yes. Did the newspaper arrived Does the newspaper arrive Has the newspaper arrived 144.Have you been didn't know . Q: She ____ (not leave) the house yet. Begins has begun began 139.have found did you find – found did you find . have you found . Q: Irina _____ (believe) that for ages! believes has believed was believed 135. Q: I _____ (not know) you ____ (be) here! _____ (you/be) here long? haven't known . Q: He _____ (leave) the shop a few minutes ago. moved .has been went – was has gone – was 133. Q: Peter ____ (go) to Paris last year. was left left has left 147.has lived moved – lived has moved – lived 132.have found 145. has written writes written 137. haven't got didn't get wasn't get 77 . Do you like it? have just had just have had just have 138. Q: She _____ (write) the email but doesn't know how to send it. Q: George lives in New York. Q: I'm tired. Q: I ____ (just/have) something done to my hair. records has recorded recorded 141.Have you been didn't know . Q: Andra _____ (record) many albums and will probably make many more. Q: How many books ____ (read) last year? do you read have you read did you read 143.were . That means that he ____ (be) to Paris 3 times! went . Daniel is reading it at the moment. Do you think I should take it back? Bought have bought buyed 131.I _____(find) it in the library. Q: How long _____ (you/live) there before coming here? have you lived did you live do you live 136.130. she ____ (live) in Seattle for 3 years. Q: _____ (you/see) today's paper? Do you see Have you seen Are you seeing 150. Q: Hurry up! The concert _____ (begin) and we are late.were . I _____ (not get) much sleep last night.

My friend doesn’t leave home at 1 o’clock.Cheia exerciţiilor Present Tense Simple Afirmativ: I leave home at 12 o’clock but my friend leaves home at 1 o’clock. Past Tense Simple Afirmativ He spent three days in the Danube Delta last month. I don’t get home at six. I have two kids but my friend has three. 8. 3. 7. 2. My friend doesn’t have three kids. My friend doesn’t go to work by train. 1. 6. My friend doesn’t speak English badly. 4. After that he went fishing with his friends Irina and Larry. Interogativ: Do you leave home at 12 o’clock? Does he leave home at 1 o’clock? Do you go to work by car? Does he go to work by train? Do you speak English well? Does he speak English badly? Do you get home at six? Does he get home at seven? Do you have two kids? Does he have three kids? Negativ: I don’t leave home at 12 o’clock. He came back home in September to go to school. I go to work by car but my friend goes to work by train. I speak English well but my friend speaks English badly. 3. 2. I get home at six but my friend gets home at seven. 4. Daniel got up early in the morning and (do) morning exercises. Daniel made a lot of friends there. 7. I don’t speak English. 6. 5. The weather was fine all the time. My friend doesn’t get home at seven. Did he spend three days in the Danube Delta last month? Did Daniel get up early in the morning and do morning exercises? Did he wash and eat/have breakfast with his parents? After that did he go fishing with his friends Irina and Larry? Did he swim in the Danube in the evening? Was the weather fine all the time? Did Daniel make a lot of friends there? Did he come back home in September to go to school? 78 . 5. I don’t go to work by car. Then he washed and ate/had breakfast with his parents. I don’t have two kids. Interogativ 1. He swam in the Danube in the evening.

7. 79 . I’ll do an interesting experiment tomorrow. 4. Father has just left home. Had Irina seen the Black Sea before? No. This is the best book she has ever read. They have just arrived to the theatre. 2. 5. 6. I’ll obtain hydrogen in the Chemistry lesson. 3. he had. she hadn’t. 3. He will not /won’t go shopping tomorrow morning. he had. He will not /won’t wash the car on Sunday morning. she hadn’t. 5. I have just fixed my car. Larry will not /won’t go to the cinema next Sunday. That is the most interesting movie he has ever seen. 4. I’ll study hydrogen next week. Had Irina swum in the sea before? No. Those are the most wonderful monuments they have ever seen. 8. Had Daniel seen the Black Sea before? Yes. 2. Had Daniel swum in the sea before? Yes. 2. 6. Grandpa: Where will you work? What will you do? What will you obtain? When will you learn? What will you study? Who will you ask ? Present Perfect I. I’ll work in the lab tomorrow. I’ll learn interesting things next week. He will not /won’t help you tomorrow evening. He will not /won’t take a new project next month. I’ll ask the teacher a lot of questions. He has just begun to cry. 2. 3. 5. We have just seen our Math teacher. He will not /won’t buy a new car next year. 3. Pune verbele din paranteză la Prezentul Perfect Simplu: 1.Future Tense Simple Situation 1 Daniel: 1. This is the biggest mall they have ever visited. Past Perfect 1. Situation 2 1. 4. 5. These are the most attractive souvenirs they have ever bought. He will not /won’t have an experiment in the chemistry lab next week. Completează urmatoarele propoziţii folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: 1. 2. Larry will not /won’t read his lesson later. II. 4.

Ioana is presenting a project in the conference room. he had. Had Irina made the tour of Constanţa before? No. Victor was talking to his coleague when Mr Smith came in. 8. Had Daniel stayed at a hotel before? Yes. Matei and Maria were speaking on the phone when Mr Smith came in. Past Tense Continuous 1. Daniel is typing a letter in the secretariate 3. Had Irina stayed at a hotel before? No. 4. Mark and Chris were looking at some pictures when Mr Smith came in. 4. 6. he had. (to arrive) 80 . she hadn’t. 8. 5. Angela was opening the windows when Mr Smith came in. 4. Had Daniel gone fishing in the sea before? Yes. Martha was watering the flowers when Mr Smith came in. Had Irina gone fishing in the sea before? No. 7. she hadn’t. 6. Matei is meeting some clients in the guests room. he had. 5. Had Irina sunbathed on the beach before? No. Maria is speaking on the phone in the hall now. Had Irina visited Eforie Nord before? No. he had. 5. Future Continuous 1) She will be meeting him next week. 7. Had Daniel walked down the beach before? Yes. 2. Present Continuous 1. Daniel and John were working in the office when Mr Smith came in. she hadn’t. 3.3. he had. she hadn’t. Had Daniel sunbathed on the beach before? Yes. Larry is working in his office now. 2. Had Irina walked down the beach before? No. Had Daniel made the tour of Constanţa before? Yes. (to meet) 2) We will be arriving in Pitesti just about now. Ioana was writing a report when Mr Smith came in. she hadn’t. he had. she hadn’t. Fiona was reading the newspapers when Mr Smith came in. Had Daniel visited Eforie Nord before? Yes.

5. I had not been walking for a long time. The carpender will be paid for his work. she will have finished everything by then. (to sleep) 5) It will probably be raining when I reach Madrid. 3. 2. (to rain) 6) Mary will be watching a video when I arrive tonight. They were very tired in the evening because they had been helping on the farm all day. 2. 81 . They had been looking her ring for three hours and then we found it in the bathroom. (to sing) 4) He will be sleeping when you call her. The children were well looked after. The dog was run over by a bus. Past Perfect Continuous She had been sleeping for 10 hours when he woke us up. This bed has not been slept in. They had been cycling all day so their legs were sore in the evening. Diateza: 1. I have been given a good dictionary. when it suddenly began to rain. We had been waiting at the station for 60 minutes when the train finally arrived. How long had she been learning English before she went to London? She had been driving less than an hour when he ran out of gas. He has been appointed president. Mike: She will have been cooking for over five hours by the time everyone arrives for dinner. You will be laughed at if you wear this dress. (to write) Present Perfect Continuous 1. She has been cooking a chicken soup for 1 hour. We have been talking about that horrible accident for half an hour. (to come) 10) Tomorrow at nine I will be writing a test paper. 4. Future Perfect Continuous Mike: Helen has been in the kitchen all day long.Hopefully. They were promised new bicycles. (to eat) 8) This time next week he will be flying to Africa. (to watch) 7) You will be eating spaghetti soon. I had not been working all day. Mary has been living in Manhattan since June 1998. They have been phoning the manager for the last five minutes.3) At 7 o'clock on Monday they will be singing the new song. It has been raining since morning. You will be told what time the bus leaves. Ross: It doesn't sound like she's having a very good birthday party. Ross: Maybe we should give her a helping hand. so I wasn't tired and went to the disco at night. (to fly) 9) Peggy will be coming to the party on Sunday.

the Smiths would not have gone to the cinema. would that she were here with us now! 6. Smith had been ill that night. 3) The question is easy to answer. 5) We are watching TV. It is very important that all employees be dressed in their proper uniforms before 6:30 a. 4) The man asked me how to get to the airport. 3. 5. 4) It is running. 9) She doesn't mind working the night shift. 6) Are you thinking of visiting London? 7) We decided to run through the forest. 8) The teacher expected Sarah to study hard. 9) She has got a brother. Smith as though she were a queen. 8. 7) He is riding his bike. 3) They are on the wall.Persoana şi numărul 1) He is dreaming.. My mother would know what to do. 2) He agreed to buy a new car. 2) It is green. If Mrs. Infinitivul şi gerunziul 1) I can't imagine Peter going by bike. 10) I learned to ride the bike at the age of 5. 6) They are in the garden. The coach insisted that Mario play the center position. 8) She is from Bristol. If only Mark were a little more responsible in his choice of courses! 7. 2. I wish I felt better today.m. I wish my sister were here. even though he's much too short for that position. 10) Have you got a computer. Her employees treated Mrs. 5) I look forward to seeing you at the weekend. Participiul trecut: the lost son an interested audience a broken leg an emptied bottle a closed door a decorated room two packed bags the written letters the sold car the bought apples 82 . 4. Mandy? Subjonctivul 1. Oh. Mary hoped that the meeting be adjourned. 9.

You mustn't forget to pay the rent. I haven't been able to do it yet. The weather was too bad. Has anybody rung up for me? She does not play the piano. My teacher said we could read them if we needed extra credit. Does she know that you are here? The lesson has not started yet. He would be able to pass the exam if he studied harder. Who could have sent them? Stephanie: It must have been David. Ex 3. I do not live here. 1. You mustn't submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Ex. 1. Mike's flight from Paris took more than 7 hours. 3. 2. I can't remember his name. We have not seen you for a long time. 5. They weren't able to go. The refrigerator isn't working. 3. 2. You don't have to be like this! Why don't you try saying "please" once in a while. But we don't have to read them if we don't want to. I will probably have to take a taxi if I want to be on time. 5. Tina: Look at these flowers . The train has just arrived. you know. How do we get there? Where does he live? Verbele modale Ex. 2 1. Teacher. 4. My friend has sent me some photos. It must have been damaged during the move. I can't. 4. Mike: Can you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jack: No.they're beautiful! But. 83 .We couldn't go to the party. He's the only one who would send you flowers. you will be rejected and you will have to reapply at a later date. They do not want to play outside. The books are optional. Sorry. Daniel couldn't hear a word because the crowd was cheering so loudly. Do you understand? They have been learning English for two years. Have you heard that? My uncle does not eat fish. I must be at the meeting by 10:00. 5. If the form is not complete. there's no card. Mr Daniel is very strict about paying on time. He must be quite exhausted after such a long flight. 3. 4. 2.Verbele auxiliare What have you done? I do not like this song. We're going to a wedding. Do you drink milk? Who has eaten my biscuits? It does not matter.1.

You had better take along some cash. It doesn't do you any good. 9. 2. 3) The children's room is upstairs. 9) This is the boy's bike. You don't have to be rich to be famous. Some of the most successful people I know haven't got a penny. 1) half – halves 2) kilo – kilos 3) woman – women 4) mouth – mouths 5) foot – feet 6) sheep – sheep 7) penny – pence 8) bus – buses 9) day – days10) fish – fish Ex 3. Substantivul: Ex 1. just apply for another job. 12. but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. 4) John's sister is twelve years old. 20. 10. 1) This is Peter's book. Ex. Shall we move into the living room? There's a beautiful view of the forest from there. Either you get the promotion. The lamp might not be broken. If you don't. I've redone this math problem at least ten times. 6) Men's shoes are on the second floor. So. 7) My parents' car was not expensive. Do you always have to say the first thing that pops into your head. 5) Susan and Steve's bags have blue stickers. The machine can start moving by pressing the left button. 1) a piece of advice 4) a glass of milk 7) a slice of meat 10) a jar of jam Ex. The shop may not accept credit cards. so they should be here by 5:00. 18. so you get rid of them! 16. You shall no longer suffer this injustice! Freedom shall be yours! 19. 2) Let's go to the Smiths'. Jenny's engagement ring is speechless! It must have cost a fortune. 7. Can't you think once in a while before you open your mouth? 17. the answer in the book must be wrong! 8. I could have participated in their English immersion program. You couldn't do the job if you didn't speak three languages fluently. 15. or you don't. Maybe the light bulb just burned out or something.6. Daniel and Mathew said they would come over right after work. ira = air eber = beer 2) a packet of rice 5) a cup of tea 8) a barrel of oil 3) a bar of chocolate 6) a bottle of lemonade 9) a game of tennis aet = tea einw = wine ikn = ink ilo = oil doow = wood acek = cake fgo = fog aclo = coal ahir = hair 84 . 8) Charles's CD player is new.I don’t understand their priciples. You may leave the table once you have finished your dinner and politely excused yourself. You shouldn't worry so much. 10) These are the boys' pencils. I can't stand these people . If I had gone to an University in England.4. 14. 11. 13.

there is no gas in the car. Would you like to see the/a movie? An apple a day keeps the doctor away.Articolul This coat was designed by a famous New York artist. He is one of the smartest people I know. ___ milk is good for you. Their children's names are Lauren and Daniel. Whose books are these ? Adjectivul nehotărât 1. THAT night the factory went on fire. Do any black people work in your company? Yes. 4. We had better get some. She hasn't any clothes to wear to the party. 6. Can you tell me how to get to a bank from here? The city museum is closed today. 10. Which girl has a red bag ? 3. 85 . THAT exhibition closed a month ago. Are there any good movies this weekend? No. What does thatnotice say? 5. THIS exhibition will be open until the end of May. 3. 5 I'm British. there are none. no. Mary. Whose mother is a nurse ? 4. I recommend you eat the apple pie at this restaurant. Our parents are French. My name's Peter. Your books are in the classroom. 4 She's eight. 3 We're brothers. THIS is my cousin. 9. 3. Adjectivul interogativ 1. Jessica. I can't believe I failed the yesterday's test! Do you have a dictionary that I can borrow? Adjectivul demonstrativ 1. Wasn't THAT a horrible thing to say? Adjectivul posesiv 1 He's from Spain. THIS beach was quite empty last year. 6 You're students. Oh. 2. 4. I can give her some. Do you see THOSE birds at the top of the tree? 8. He was dismissed on the 13th. 2. What subject do you like ? 5. What time is the flight ? 2. there are some.Those are the new ones. THESE people come from that hotel over there. 2 They're married. No problem. THESE are the old classrooms. Her brother's nine. His name's Alberto. 7.

8) The children. 2) Mr John. 2) Lisa did the homework herself 3) We helped ourselves to some cola at the party. thirties 8. did you take the photo all by yourself? 5) I wrote this poem myself. if you want more milk. 10) Alice and Doris collected the stickers themselves. 7) The man. 4) It is running. 86 6. Lesson Nine 5. 6) Thank you very much for your e-mail which was very interesting. who shouted in the street.5. 1) John and Angela haven't met each other for a very long time. 4) Emma. is from England. lives in the neighbourhood.3. there is no hot water. 3) Daniel repaired computer car himself. 8) My mother often talks to herself. help yourselves. whose driver is a young man. forgot his umbrella. who is a taxi driver. two thousand 7. one year and a half 10 the one hundred forty-ninth . five-thousand-word 4. There are 150 employees in our company.5. 2) My friends enjoyed themselves at the party. the girl who has just arrived at the airport. 1. 5) We are watching TV. 4) This is the boy who comes from France. hundreds 2. is there any hot water? I'm sorry. 10) What did you do with the money which your parents lent you? EX. 9) Tim and Gerry. 3) We often visit our aunt in Bucharest which is in the south of Romania. whose father is a professor. Jason and I work in the same office. 3) They are on the wall. Numeralul 1. My name is John. EX. EX. 5) That's Irina. two dozen 3. This is my friend Jason. are not from our school. 2) It is green. EX. His sister is 34 and her workplace is very near. the third 9. 1) Robert made this T-shirt himself. 1) I talked to the boy whose car had broken down in front of the building. 1) He is dreaming. 4. 6) He cut himself with the knife while he was doing the dishes. 4) We helped each other with our written task. I want to take a shower. He's 32.2. 7) The lion can defend itself. three-fifths Pronumele EX. 9) The car.

5) People often give each other presents at Christmas. I don't know yet. we want to watch TV. This red flower is more beautiful than that yellow one. Her English is fluent. You simply have to put one word in each space. 1. I was at the cinema yesterday. This girl is very quiet. 4. 87 . 7) Katie. We could go there together in the afternoon. Jim is a wonderful piano player. We live in London. What are you doing at the weekend? 2. did you do the homework yourself? 8) They looked at each other and smiled. Maybe I'll go to the cinema on Saturday. I haven't been to the cinema for so many years. Which is the most dangerous insect in the world? A holiday by the sea is better than a holiday in the mountains. She speaks English fluently. Adjectivul My house is bigger than yours. We are going on holiday next week. 10) She only thinks of herself. She's a little bit selfish. Prepoziţia EX. She often sneaks out of the house quietly. She is a good dancer. He plays the piano wonderfully. The town lies 530 meters above sea level. My neighbour is a careless driver. 1. He shouts loudly. Who is the person in this picture? Come into the sitting room. Who is the richest man on earth? The weather is even worse than last summer. The flight from Bucharest to Lecce was via Berlin. He paints awfully. The painter is awful. 3. He drives carelessly. She smiles happily . She spoke to us angrily . Our mum was angry.2. thanks. On my wall. 6) I bought myself a new record player. He was the cleverest student of all. Non-smokers usually live longer than smokers. That's interesting. 9) They often write e-mails to each other because they're best friends. Would you like to go to the cinema tonight? No. there are many picture postcards. She dances really well. Adverbul Joanne is happy. There is a bridge across the river. It is strange but often a coke is more expensive than a beer. This exercise is simple. This is the most interesting magazine I have ever read. The boy is loud. EX.

5. That would be great. But I would prefer to go there in the evening. I am visiting my grandma on Saturday. 6. That's okay. The film starts at eight o'clock. 7. I can pick you up at half past seven. How long does the film last? 8. It lasts for two hours and forty-five minutes. 9. From eight till a quarter to eleven. 10.That's right. But I must hurry home after the film. I have to be home by eleven o'clock. Conjuncţia EX.1. 1. Daniel was cold, so he put on a coat. 2. Maria tried to translate the text, but it was too difficult. 3. To get from Piteşti to Bucharest, you can take a bus, or you can go by car. 4. I bought a bottle of wine, and we drank it together. 5. The teacher was not very nice, but the mark was good. 6. I went to buy my favorite CD, but the shop didn't have it. 7. Irina needed some money, so she took a part-time job. 8. There's so much noise in the building lately! Maybe it's because of the new familz who has just moved in ,or maybe it's just coincidence. 9. Julie has a guitar, and she plays it really well. 10. The concert was cancelled, so we went to a disco instead. EX.2. Daniel couldn't buy any presents because he didn't have any money. I don't drink coffee as it makes me nervous. Although it was snowing, I wasn’t cold. Since she doesn't speak English, she can't translate that text. Daniel passed the exam first time while his brother had to retake it four times. Paula got the job she wanted even though she had no experience. I will be late today because my car has broken down. Whereas my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at the countryside for my vacations. Interjecţia 1. " AH , that feels good" 2. " ALAS, she's dead now" 3. " Oh DEAR ! Does it hurt ?" 4. "What do you think of that, EH ?" 5. "Lima is the capital of.... ER....Peru" 6. " HELLO John, How are you today ?" 7. " HMM, I'm not so sure" 8. " OH , please say 'yes' !" 9. " WELL, what did he say " 10. " 85 divided by 5 is... UM...17" 11. "Shall we go ? " " UH-HUH " 12. " OUCH ! That hurts !" Subiectul şi predicatul EX.1. 1. Yesterday, (Ross and Monica )took their children to the zoo. 2. (The elephants, the lions, and all of the other animals) were outside. 88

3. (The president of the bank )looked everywhere for the papers . 4. (They) listened quietly. 5. (The yellow race car with red stripes) finished the first in the race. 6. After his speech,( the president of the meeting) shook hands with all members of the crowd . EX.2. 1. The dirty yellow cat prowled through the dark alley/ lived in the attic last winter. 2. We stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday. 3. Tom and his brother stood outside the hotel all night./ baked delicious apple pies./ were late yesterday./ sold used cars. 4. The taxi driver stood outside the hotel all night./ was from the Middle East. 5. Anna's elderly mother baked delicious apple pies./ was from the Middle East. 6. The green tree snake was from the Middle East. 7. The detective in the gray raincoat stood outside the hotel all night./ waited patiently for his victim. 8. Seven rats lived in the attic last winter. Complementul direct 1. The computer programmer is testing his new software. Programatorul îşi testează noul soft. 2. We suddenly realized that someone was listening. Deodată ne-am dat seama că cineva asculta. 3. Amy has decided to go to university. Amy s-a hotărât să meargă la facultate. 4. They can't read what you've just written. Ei nu pot citi ceea ce tocmai ai scris. 5.This exercise involves clicking on the screen. Acest exerciţiu implică a da click pe ecran. Complementul indirect 1. Indirect object: you. Direct object: some money 2. Direct object: English writers (no indirect object) 3. Indirect object: them. Direct object: news 4. Indirect object: Mary. Direct object: candy 5. Indirect object: students. Direct object: homework 6. Direct object: boys (no indirect object) 7. Direct object: them (no indirect object) 8. Indirect object: us. Direct object: speech 9. Direct object: letters (no indirect object) 10. Indirect object: son. Direct object: keys 11. Direct object: rain (no indirect object) 12. Direct object: traffic (or air traffic)

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Complementul prepoziţional He reminds me of your brother in some ways. You have similar temperaments. The „must not” message is designed to prevent people from entering. The judge banned him from driving for six months. This new software enables the user to get lots of reports for the management. I don't smoke at home; I don't want to encourage the children to smoke. The team manager wouldn't allow the press to interview his players. The police wouldn't provide the press with any details about the crime. The salesman failed to interest me in any of his products. Construcţii complexe: EX.1. a. nominativul absolut b. nominativul absolut 3- N+ infinitiv 4- Ac + infinitive 5- N absolut + part. prezent EX.2. 1. The manager was expected to speak first. 2. He was thought to be gifted in singing. 3. He was heard walking slowly in the dark. 4. He was advised him to go to the hospital as soon as possible 5. We were told not to worry. 6. He was asked him by the manager to explain the semester report. 7. He was seen stealing the money. 8. His thoughts are considered to be very weird. Complementul circumstanţial de loc,timp, mod They were in Paris. (last week) → They were in Paris last week.- adverbial of time She walks his dog. (rarely) → She rarely walks his dog. - adverbial of manner She waited. (patiently) → She waited patiently. - adverbial of manner My father goes fishing. (always) → My father always goes fishing. - adverbial of time Your bedroom is. (upstairs) → Your bedroom is upstairs. - adverbial of place We don't go skiing. (in summer) → We don't go skiing in summer. - adverbial of time Cats can hear. (well) → Cats can hear well. - adverbial of manner I saw him. (there) → I saw him there.- adverbial of place The boy speaks English. (fluently) → The boy speaks English fluently. - adverbial of manner I have seen that movie. (never) / (before) → I have never seen that movie before. - adverbial of time Atributul 1. Those are probably the fanciest boys in the school. 2. Uncle Daniel is really a sweet old man. 3. Dacia used to be a fine Romanian car. 4. All the family was home for the holidays. What could make for a merrier Christmas? 5. They were raised in a comfortable little house in Bucharest. 6. Four weddings and a funeral is the most exciting movie I've ever seen. 7. She wanted to take a course with that interesting new Japanese economics professor. 8. Of all the mechanics in the shop, he is surely the least competent . 9. In the fall, the valleys tend to be foggier than the hilltops. 10. My cold is definitely worse this morning. 90

as . among 58. Does he always play 45. did you go 13.. took 25. giving 59. stay out 48. had finished 51. said 61. Has John got 4. were photographed 56. some 49. loves 15. do you have to do 62. likes 43. in front of 64. gone 53. explain 73. Has Thomas got 41. shouldn't 65. are you doing 27.TEST FINAL 1. is coming 16. Have they got 33. isn't 8. Have . interested in 66. in – on 77. loves 6. in 75. Have you got 21. flew 38. already 47.. interested in 55. Yet 54. are you doing 2. did they go 42. is 17. Few 50. Do you always finish 29. taught 35. taught 18. had to 70. have been made 72. about 78. Does he always have 19. is watching 24. arrives 57. at – during 79. is going 9. did she do 40. whose 68. did he arrive 11. are going 74. look after 69. Do you always get up 3. have been working 71. Does she often telephone 32. is listening 44. seeing 52. doesn't like 23. isn't 26. drove 20. went 7. is going to have 37. took 10. as 60. did she study 22. rode 30. isn't going to be 39. might have been 67. up 80. 's fine 63. are reading 34. is going to visit 28. out of 91 .. loves 36. are you doing 31. on 76. was watching 46.. are they doing 12. is having 5. Have you got 14.

an 103. on 86. for – against 85. recorded 141. at 110. has begun 139.has been 133. didn't get 92 . left 147. to 104. on 120. learned . some 123. have already eaten 129. until 99. did you read 143.81. Did you smoke 146. by – by 94. in the 116. to – at 89. Italy 119. did you live 136. to 87. moved – lived 132. since 98. some 114. until 84. Excuse me 118. _ 88. went . any 102. haven't thought 134. have you read 142. into 117. played – was 126.have found 145. by 90. in 97. Have you seen 150. 127. has written 137. have never been 125. on 93. next to 121. has lived 100. ago 124. listening to 111. in – in 92. have just had 138. has believed 135. do you do 112. hasn't left 148.didn't know . within 96. at – on 83. has worked 101. bought 131. can 115.has played 130. some 122. in – on 91. by 95. Has the newspaper arrived 144. works 113. has recorded 140. 108. have you found .were . in 82. him 109. is 105. have worked – began 128. much 107. bought 106.Have you been 149.

Acţiuni viitoare planificate în prezent ca urmare a unui program oficial PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Have/Has (IIIrd person sg) + V3 I have met Mr.TIMPURILE LIMBII ENGLEZE . Brown.Acţiune terminată în perioada de timp neterminată : I have already read the newspaper today. She hasn’t left already.Acţiune viitoare planificată în prezent (neoficial): We are spending the week end in the country.Acţiune începută în trecut care se continuă şi în prezent: DIFERENŢA DINTRE PRESENT CONTINUOUS ŞI PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS: 1. Interrogative: Have you been waiting here for two hours? Negative: S + Have/Has + not + Been + Ving You have not been waiting here for two hours. She drinks milk everyday.Acţiune temporară: This week.Adevăruri general valabile: The Earth spins round. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Have/Has + Been + Ving You have been waiting here for two hours. (neprecizat timpul): I have eaten. . He doesn’t read this novel everyday. Interrogative: Be (present) + S + V ing: Am I eating now? Negative: S + Be (present) + Not + V ing: I am not eating now . . Interrogative: Be (past) + S + V ing 93 . . Interrogative: Do/Does + S +V Do I go to school everyday? Does she go to school everyday? Negative: S + Do/Does + Not + V I do not go to school everyday. She has met Mrs. Plouă de mult / de…= It has been rainig for… PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS (imperfect) Affirmative: S + Be (past) + V ing I was watching TV when she came. (am mâncat) . Brown.Acţiune începută în trecut care se continuă şi în prezent: I have met her. She has been waiting here for two hours. . Plouă= It is raining 2. . repetabilă: I read daily. I am doing the homework.fişă exemplu PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V (s/es for IIIrd person sg): He goes to school everyday. you are doing the cleaning and he is going shopping.Acţiune generală.Acţiune care se petrece în momentul vorbirii: I am reading. . terminată în trecut. .Acţiune începută în trecut. . Interrogative: Did + S + V PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Be (present) + V ing: I am eating now. Interrogative: Have/Has + S + V3 Have you met my girlfriend? Has he met his cousin? Negative: S + Have/Has + Not + V3 I haven’t read his last novel. PAST TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + V2 You went to your friend yesterday.

Interrogative: Had + S + Been + V ing Had she been living in that house since 1993? Negative: S + Had + Not + Been + V ing She had not been living in that house since 1993. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + shall/will + have been + Ving They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + Be + V ing Shall we be reading this novel tomorrow? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + Be + V ing You will not be reading this poem. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Had + Been + V ing She had been living in that house since 1993. FUTURE CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + Be + V ing They will be going to the mountains.m. I was watching TV.Did you go to work yesterday? Negative: S + Did + Not + V They didn’t go to work yesterday? Acţiune trecută terminată în moment precizat: (ago. Interrogative: Will/Shall + S + V Shall we go to the mountains next week? Negative: S + Will/Shall + Not + V They will not read this novel tomorrow. in 2004): I met her in 1981. FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE Affirmative: S + Will/Shall + V They will go to the seaside tomorrow.p. 94 . Interrogative shall/will + S + have been + Ving Will they have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas? Negative: S + shall/will + not + have been + V-ing They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas.) Affirmative: S + Had + V3 They had watched TV for half an hour. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + shall/will + have + V3 They will have gone by now. Exprimă faptul că o acţiune se va afla înca în desfăşurare la un anumit moment în viitor. last. Acţiune trecută terminată înaintea altei acţiuni trecute:ex: I had already eaten for long when you came. Acţiune trecută începută înaintea altei acţiuni trecute şi continuându-se şi în momentul începerii celei de-a doua: I had been watching TV for 2 hours when you came. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (m. Were you reading when I entered the room? Negative: S + Be (past) + Not + V ing He wasn’t eating when she phoned. Interrogative: Had + S + V3 Had they watched TV for half an hour? Negative: S + Had + Not + V3 They hadn’t watched TV for half an hour. Acţiune trecută în desfăşurare în prezent: When you entered my room. Interrogative: Shall/will + S + have + V3 Will you have gone by now? Negative: S + shall/will+ Not + have + V3 They will not have gone by now. yesterday.c.

Verbul TO WORK -model Indicative Present I work you work he/she/it works we work you work they work Present continuous I am working you are working he/she/it is working we are working you are working they are working Past perfect continuous I had been working you had been working he/she/it had been working we had been working you had been working they had been working Past perfect I had worked you had worked he/she/it had worked we had worked you had worked they had worked Future perfect I will have worked you will have worked he/she/it will have worked we will have worked you will have worked they will have worked Future perfect continuous I will have been working you will have been working he/she/it will have been working we will have been working you will have been working they will have been working Infinitive to work Past Tense I worked you worked he/she/it worked we worked you worked they worked Past continuous I was working you were working he/she/it was working we were working you were working they were working Present perfect I have worked you have worked he/she/it has worked we have worked you have worked they have worked Future I will work you will work he/she/it will work we will work you will work they will work Future continuous I will be working you will be working he/she/it will be working we will be working you will be working they will be working Present perfect continuous I have been working you have been working he/she/it has been working we have been working you have been working they have been working Participle Present Past working worked 95 .

Univ. Ioana Ştefănescu . pentru uz şcolar. Universitatea din Bucureşti . din Buc. Georgiana Gălăţeanu. Ed. Ştiinţifică. Editura didactică şi pedagogică – Bucureşti.Gramatica limbii engleze.Gramatica limbii engleze. Ed.. 96 . Ştiinţifică 1967. Ecaterina Comişel.Lectures in English Morphology.1982 Catedra de limbă şi literatură engleză. Ioan Preda .Gramatica limbii engleze.Ştiinţifică.Bibliografie: Leon Leviţchi. 1978. Alice Bădescu .Gramatica limbii engleze. Ed. 1962. 1963. .

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