Ministry of Medical Services

Republic of Kenya.

Basic Paediatric Protocols - Revised

September 2010 Edition

Table of Contents.
Topic Acknowledgements / Principles Clinical Audit and Hand hygiene Drugs Basic Formulary Emergency drugs – dose charts • Diazepam and Glucose • Phenobarbitone and Phenytoin Intravenous antibiotics (age > 7 days) Oral antibiotics Maintenance Fluid / Feed Volumes – not malnourished Triage Paediatric Management guidelines Infant / Child resuscitation Emergency care – Signs of Life Intra-osseous lines and Oxygen Convulsions Diarrhoea / dehydration • Fluids for severe and some dehydration Malaria • Malaria drug doses Malnutrition • Emergency fluids & feed recipes • Feeding Meningitis Respiratory disorders • Pneumonia • Asthma HIV – PITC and influence on acute treatment Newborn Care Management Guidelines • Newborn resuscitation • Neonatal Sepsis / Prematurity / VLBW • Neonatal Jaundice • Newborn care notes – treatment, and early nutrition • Newborn feeds / fluids (ages 1 – 7 days) • Newborn drugs (ages 1 – 6 days) Weight for Age and Weight for Height Charts Weight for Age estimation Page Number 3-5 6-7 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 31 32 34 36 37 39 40 42 43 47

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Foreward.
This pocket book is mainly aimed at doctors, clinical officers, senior nurses and other senior health workers who are responsible for the care of sick newborns and young children. We hope it helps people at all levels although its main target is Levels 4 to 6 of the health system where basic laboratory facilities and essential drugs are available. The guidelines consider facilities should have:- (1) capacity to do certain essential investigations such as blood smear for malaria parasites, estimation of haemoglobin or packed cell volume, blood glucose, blood grouping and cross matching, basic microscopy of CSF and urine, bilirubin determination for neonates, and chest X-rays and (2) essential drugs available for the care of seriously sick children. These guidelines focus on the classification of illness severity, criteria for admission, and inpatient management of the major causes of childhood mortality such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, severe malnutrition, meningitis, HIV, neonatal and related conditions. The guidelines focus on management of the seriously ill newborn or child in the first 48 hours of arrival at hospital. The guidelines reflect international best practice advice as found in the WHO IMCI Book, “A Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children” with guidance updated after the second Kenyan Child Health Evidence Week held in June 2010. This workshop drew together senior ministry staff and experienced paediatricians, nurses, pharmacists and researchers from Kenyatta National Hospital, Level 4 and 5 hospitals, KEMRI, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Reserch Programme, the University of Nairobi, Moi University and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital amongst others. This handy pocket sized booklet will also be useful to students in medical schools and other training institutions. The simplified algorithms in this book can be enlarged and used as job aides in casualty, outpatients, paediatric wards, delivery rooms and newborn units. Guidelines of this nature will require periodic revision to keep abreast with new developments and hence continue to deliver quality care to the children of this nation.

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Principles of good care: 1) 2) Facilities must have basic equipment and drugs in stock at all times Sick children coming to hospital must be immediately assessed (triage) and if necessary provided with emergency treatment as soon as possible. Assessment of diagnosis and illness severity must be thorough and treatment must be carefully planned. All stages should be accurately documented. The protocols provide a minimum, standard and safe approach to most, but not all, common problems. Care needs to be taken to identify and treat children with less common problems rather than just applying the protocols without thinking. All treatments should be clearly and carefully prescribed on patient treatment sheets with doses checked by nurses before administration. (Please write dose frequency as 6hrly, 8hrly, 12hrly etc rather than qid, tid etc) The parents / caretakers need to understand what the illness and its treatment are. They can often then provide invaluable assistance caring for the child. Being polite to parents considerably improves communication. The response to treatment needs to be assessed. For very severely ill children this may mean regular review in the first 6 – 12 hours of admission – such review needs to be planned between medical and nursing staff. Correct supportive care – particularly adequate feeding, use of oxygen and fluids - is as important as disease specific care. Laboratory tests should be used appropriately and use of unnecessary drugs needs to be avoided. An appropriate discharge and follow up plan needs to be made when the child leaves hospital. Good hand washing practices and good ward hygiene improve outcomes for admitted newborns and children.

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8) 9) 10) 11)

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eg turns head to mother’s call. Admission should ideally be recorded using a standardized paediatric or newborn admission record Medical records are a legal document and entries should be clear. in these children if they bend the arms towards the pain and make a vigorous. appropriate cry they respond to pain = ‘P’. Routine immunization status should be checked and missed vaccines given before discharge. Children with AVPU < A should have their blood glucose checked. (Malnourished children with eye signs receive repeated doses).Specific policies: All children admitted to hospital and all newborns requiring medical treatment – even if born in hospital – should have their own inpatient number and set of medical records. cannot push a hand causing pain away or fail to make a response at all. These children may still be lethargic or unable to drink / breastfeed (prostrate). Conscious level should be assessed on all children admitted using the AVPU scale where: o A = Alert and responsive o V = responds to Voice or Verbal instructions. Length / Height should be measured with weight for height (WHZ) used to establish nutritional status Respiratory rates must be counted for 1 minute. o P = responds to Pain appropriately. o U = Unconscious. 5 . The sickest newborns / children on the ward should be near the nursing station and prioritized for re-assessment / observations. All admissions aged >6m should receive Vitamin A unless they have received a dose within the last 1 month. Children in this category must be lethargic or unable to sit up or drink / breastfeed (prostrate). If this is not possible treatment for hypoglycaemia should be given. In a child older than 9 months a painful stimulus such as rubbing your knuckles on the child’s sternum should result in the child pushing the hand causing the pain away. accurate and signed with a date and time of the entry recorded All paediatric admissions should be offered HIV testing using PITC All newborn admissions aged < 14 days should receive Vitamin K unless it has already been given. In a child 9 months and younger they do not reliably locate a painful stimulus. Admission and Assessment: All admitted children must have weight recorded and used for calculation of fluids / feeds and drug doses.

on admission to a ward. Hospitals should have an audit team comprising 4 to 8 members. Use an audit tool to compare care given with recommendations in these GoK protocols and other guidelines (eg for TB. 2. treatments and whether what was planned was done and recorded.Clinical audit and use of the protocols 1.it is essential that identifying problems is linked to suggesting who needs to act. how and by when to implement solutions. 6. Was care reasonable? Look for where improvements could be made in the system of care before the child comes to hospital (referral). Then record the summaries for reporting. Look at several cases for each meeting and summarize the findings looking for the major things that are common and need improving. diagnoses. nutrition etc. HIV/AIDS) and the most up to date textbooks for less common conditions. admin. on arrival in hospital (care in the OPD / MCH etc). led by a senior clinician and including nurses. 1-2 people. Check doses and whether drugs / fluids / feeds are correct and actually given and if clinical review and nursing observations were adequate – if it is not written down it was not done! 7. 5. lab. Deaths and surviving cases can be audited. Clinical audit is aimed at self improvement and is not about finding who to blame. Then follow up on whether progress is being achieved with new audits. . Audit  Notes Identify  Problems Team  Acts Action  Plan 3. Identify new problems and plan new actions etc. or follow up on the ward. The aims are for hospitals to diagnose key problems in providing care . Records of all deaths should be audited within 24 hours of death 4. investigations. usually MO or CO interns and nurses should be selected on a rotating basis to perform the audit and report back to the audit team and department staff. Look at assessments.

stethoscopes) • Patients and caregivers should wash hands carefully after visits to the bathrooms or contact with body fluids Use of Alcohol Hand rub / gel 7 . cot sides.Hand Hygiene • Good hand hygiene saves lives • Gloves can easily become contaminated too – they do not protect patients • Alcohol hand-rubs are more effective than soap and water and are recommended o If hands are visibly dirty they must be cleaned first with soap and water before drying and using alcohol hand-rub o The alcohol hand-rub must be allowed to dry off to be effective o If alcohol hand-rub is not available then hands should be washed with simple soaps and water and air-dried or dried with disposable paper towels • Hand hygiene should be performed: o After contact with any body fluids o Before and after touching a patient and most importantly before and after handling cannulae. Suction) o Before and after touching potentially contaminated surfaces (eg. dirty mattresses. giving drugs or performing a procedure (eg.

Appropriate hand-washing with soap and water 8 .

000 Albendazole Aminophylline.6mg/kg stat Flucloxacillin Neonate Page 42. Age ≥ 2yrs.10 mg/kg 8 hourly 200mg tabs Weight 200mg Ferrous sulphate tabs Twice daily 140mg /5mls Ferrous 3-6 kg fumarate syrup 7-9 kg 1/4 10-14 kg 1/2 15-20 kg 1/2 . other Page 13 Syrup 140mg/5mls Twice daily 2.20 kg 10mls 1 Diazepam . Asthma: 6mg/kg iv first dose over 30 mins Amoxicillin Neonate Page 42.5 mls 5 mls 10 mls 15 mls 9 5 .5 to1mg/kg up to 6 hrly Neonate Page 42.rectal Digoxin Frusemide Gentamicin Ibuprofen Iron tabs / syrup 0. other Page 13 Chloramphenicol Page 13 and 14 Ciprofloxacin .15 kg 7. Age < 2yrs.10kg 5mls 1/2 sulphamethoxazole) 11 . other Page 13 Ceftriaxone Neonate Page 42.oral Dysentery dosing: Page 14 Clotrimazole 1% Apply paint / cream daily Dexamethasone For severe croup 0. other Page 14 240mg/5ml syrup 480mg tabs Co-trimoxazole– Weight pneumonia dosing 12hrly 12hrly (4mg/kg Trimethoprim & 2 . 200mg stat.iv 0. 400mg stat Newborn Loading dose 6mg/kg iv over 1 hour or rectal.Lumefantrine Page 24 Artemisinin-Piperaquine Page 24 Beclomethasone Age < 2yrs 50-100 micrograms 12hrly.1ml/kg in resuscitation.3kg 2.Essential Drugs Adrenaline 1 in 10. Give 0.5mls 1/4 20mg/kg 4 . ≥ 2yrs 100-200 micrograms 12hrly Benzyl Penicillin (X-pen) Neonate Page 42. Age 7-28 days 4mg/kg 12hrly.iv ONLY used in hospital inpatients! Doses To make this strength dilute 1 ml of 1 in 1000 adrenaline in 9 mls water for injection to make 10mls. Maintenance (or oral): Age 0-7 days 2.5ls 1/2 16 .5mg/kg 12hrly.3mg/kg (=300 mcg/kg) & See separate chart Diazepam . other Page 14 Artemether.5mg/kg (=500 mcg/kg) & See separate chart 15 mics/kg loading dose then 5 mics/kg 12 hrly 0.

5 mg Stat for first week of treatment. ≤ 6mths 10mg od.oral Prednisolone .500 stat.5mg/dose as req’d (see ‘Page 31) be given slowly as directed Oral salbutamol should Inhaled (100 microgram per puff) 2 puffs via ONLY be used if inhaled spacer repeated as req’d acutely – see page 31 therapy is not possible and for emergency use . 14 days 100mg bd for 3 days or 500mg stat Neonate Page 42.3mg/kg stat. 1 .oral Morphine Multivitamins Nystatin (100. ideally with a monitor. regimen Vitamin D – Maintenance < 6 months 200 .000 u stat day 14 Vitamin D – Rickets < 6 months 3.400 u (5 – 10 μg) After treatment course > 6 months 400 .5yrs 2. 1-11 months 200mcg/kg.4 mmol/kg/day Asthma 1mg / kg daily (usually for 3 days) Page 24 IV in hospital only over 5 mins – <2yrs 5 microgram/kg. 6 – 12 months 100. 0.000 u stat For malnutrition with eye disease repeat on day 2 and > 12 months 200. and MUST Nebulised 2.5 .5mls daily. 6 – 12 yrs 5 – 10 mg <6 months 2.5mg im stat) For liver disease: 0.800 u (10 – 20 μg) Vitamin K Newborns: 1mg stat im (<1500g. ≥ 2yrs up to 15 microgram/kg max dose 250 micrograms 10 .5 mg.5 to 1mg / kg every 4. not to < 6 months 50. week.or 2 puffs up to 4-6 hrly for for a maximum duration of 1 short-term maintenance or outpatient treatment.tabs Quinine Salbutamol IV therapy should only be used on an HDU.Mebendazole (age > 1yr) Metronidazole .000 u = 7.000 iu/ml) Paracetamol Pethidine. im Phenobarbitone Potassium . max 10mg Zinc Sulphate > 6 mths 20mg. for persistent asthma 2mg/dose 6-8hrly aged 1 .6 hours Page 13 1 . Calcium 50mg/kg/day > 6 months stat micrograms or 7.000 u stat be repeated within 1 month.000 u = 150 micrograms 8 – 12 wks or high dose 300. 150mcg/kg. >6months 5mls 12 hrly 1ml 6hrly (2 weeks in HIV positive children) 10-15mg / kg 6 to 8 hrly 0. Use inhaled steroid Oral 1mg/dose 6-8hrly aged 2-11 months. other Page 13 <1 month.4 yrs (1 week only) Vitamin A Age Once on admission.000 u = 75 micrograms Low dose regimens daily for > 6 months 6.

5cm) Glucose.00 17.70 0.5 2.00 12.3 1.5 4.8 2.2 1.5 6.8 5.4 1.0 4.5 7.Emergency drugs – Diazepam and Glucose (NB Diazepam is not used in neonates).60 0.5 1.30 0.1 2.2 1.65 0.5 1.40 0.5 8.00 16.20 0.00 19.8 0.55 0.1 5.5 3.0 1.9 4.35 0.2 4. Diazepam Weight.6 0.0 pr mls of 10mg/2ml Total Volume of 10% solution Glucose 0.4 5.25 0.7 3.00 7.00 18.00 9.5 5.0 6.7 6.85 0.15 1.6 3.0 3. 5mls/kg of 10% glucose over 5 .6 1. 4 .0 3.7 1.00 4.00 11.0 5.3 0.00 20.95 1.00 13.0 7.80 0.0 1.5 10.00 1.90 0.4 0. 0.50 0.1 1.7 0.5 0.0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 .20 pr Dose.0 3.00 iv mls of 10mg/2ml solution 0.8 1.3mg/kg 1.5mg/kg 1. 0.00 8.3 3.5 9.0 2.9 2.9 1.00 15.10 minutes iv To make 10% glucose 50% Glucose and water for injection: 10 mls syringe: 2 mls 50% Glucose 8 mls Water 20 mls syringe: 4 mls 50% Glucose 16 mls Water 50% Glucose and 5% Glucose: 10 mls syringe: 1 mls 50% Glucose 9 mls 5% Glucose 20 mls syringe: 2 mls 50% Glucose 18 mls 5% Glucose 11 iv Dose.5 4.0 9.4 2. (kg) (The whole syringe barrel of a 1ml or 2ml syringe should be inserted gently so that pr DZ is given at a depth of approx.0 8.00 6.00 10.10 1.00 5.00 14.

tabs 5 6.0 7.25 7.0 6. 5mg/kg daily (high dose – chronic therapy) im – mg 2. Weight (kg) Phenobarb.5 30 32.5 45 3 tabs 47. loading dose. Loading dose.0 10 12.5 2 tabs 35 37.5 1½ tab 25 1 tab 27. 15mg/kg Phenytoin.0 8. maintenance 5mg/kg daily iv / oral / ng iv / oral / ng Tablets may be crushed and put down ngt if required. 15mg/kg (use 20mg/kg for neonates) im / oral 30 37. 45 15 60 20 75 25 90 30 105 35 120 40 135 45 150 50 165 55 180 60 195 65 210 70 225 75 240 80 255 85 270 90 285 95 300 100 12 .5 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 Phenobarb.5 ½ tab 10 12.0 11.0 2.0 15.0 4.5 15 ½ tab 1 tab 17.0 14.5 2 tabs 50 Phenytoin.0 12.5 3.5mg/kg daily (starting dose – fits in acute febrile illness) im / oral oral .Anticonvulsant drug doses and administration – For neonatal doses see Page 42.0 10.5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Phenobarb maintenance 2.5 1½ tab 2½ tab 40 42.0 16.0 13.0 9. maintenance.0 17.0 18.5 20 22.0 19.0 5.0 20.

000 900.000 800. Double Pen doses if treating Meningitis and age > 1 month .0 17.000 200.0 9.0 12.0 4.0 16.000 700.000 400.000iu/kg) iv / im 6 hrly 150.5mg/kg) (50mg/kg) im or iv over for neonates** 3-5 mins Meningitis / V Sev iv / im iv / im iv Sepsis.000 750.000 600.000 950.0 13.0 11.000 1.000 Ampicillin or Chloramphenicol Gentamicin Ceftriaxone iv/im Metronidazole Flucloxacillin (25mg/kg) (7.0 7. 8 hrly 6hrly .000 850.Intravenous / intramuscular antibiotic doses – AGES 7 DAYS AND OLDER (NN doses see Page 42).000 650.000 300.0 14.0 *NB.0 8.5mg/kg) Max 50mg/kg 24hrly (7.000 500. Weight (kg) Penicillin* (50.0 5.meningitis 24 hrly 50mg/kg ≥ 1m 8 hrly 150 75 20 150 20 200 100 30 200 30 250 125 35 250 35 300 150 45 300 45 350 175 50 350 50 400 200 60 400 60 450 225 65 450 65 500 250 75 500 75 550 275 80 550 80 600 300 90 600 90 650 325 95 650 95 700 350 105 700 105 750 375 110 750 110 800 400 120 800 120 850 425 125 850 125 900 450 135 900 135 950 475 140 950 140 1000 500 150 1000 150 ** Not recommended if jaundiced 13 3.000 550.0 10.000 250. 50mg/kg BD 12 hrly < 1m.000 350.0 18.0 20.0 15.000.0 6.0 19.000 450.

0 6.0 7.0 14.0 8.0 10. Amoxicillin.0 20.0 12.0 12 hrly 5 5 5 5 7.0 18.5 2.0 17.0 4.5 7. 25mg/kg/dose mls susp 125mg/5ml Weight kg 3.Oral antibiotic doses .0 13.0 16.5 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 250mg caps 12 hrly 1/2* 1/2* 1/2* 1/2* 1/2* 1/2* 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Cloxacillin / Flucloxacillin 15mg/kg/dose Chloramphenicol 25mg/kg/dose Ciprofloxacin Metronidazole 15mg/kg/dose 7. oral.5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 hrly 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 hrly 4 4 6 6 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 6 hrly n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1/4 1/4 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 *Amoxicillin syrup should be used and capsules divided ONLY if syrup is not available .5 7.0 19.0 15.0 11.For neonatal doses see Page 42.0 5.5mg/kg/dose 250mg tabs 12 hrly (for 3 days) 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 200mg tabs 8 hrly mls susp 250mg caps mls susp 250mg 125mg/5ml or tabs 125mg/5ml caps 8 hrly 2.0 9.

Note: • Children should receive 1-2 mmol / kg / day of potassium • Feeding should start as soon as safe and infants may rapidly increase to 150mls/kg/day of feeds as tolerated (50% more than in the chart). • Drip rates are in drops per minute Drip rate Drip rate 3hrly bolus Weight.Initial Maintenance Fluids / Feeds – Normal Renal Function. Volume in Rate in adult iv set. paediatric burette feed 24hrs mls / hr kg 20 drops = 1ml 60 drops = 1ml volume 40 3 300 13 4 13 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1525 1550 1575 1600 1625 17 21 25 29 33 38 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 63 64 65 66 67 68 6 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 22 23 17 21 25 29 33 38 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 63 64 65 66 67 68 50 60 75 90 100 110 125 130 140 140 150 150 160 160 175 175 185 185 185 185 200 200 15 . • Add 50mls 50% dextrose to 450mls Half Strength Darrow’s to make HSD/5% dextrose a useful maintenance fluid.

Emergency Signs: If history of trauma ensure cervical spine is protected.50C Trauma – major trauma Pain – child in severe pain Poisoning – mother reports poisoning Pallor – severe palmar pallor Restless / Irritable / Floppy Respiratory distress Referral – has an urgent referral letter Malnutrition . Airway & Breathing Obstructed breathing Central Cyanosis Severe respiratory distress Weak / absent breathing Cold Hands with any of: Capillary refill > 3seconds Weak + fast pulse Slow (<60bpm) or absent pulse Circulation Immediate transfer to emergency area: Start Life support procedures Give oxygen Weigh if possible Coma / convulsing / confusion : AVPU = ‘P or U’ or Convulsions Diarrhoea with sunken eyes → assessment / treatment for severe dehydration Priority Signs Tiny .Triage of sick children.Sick infant aged < 2 months Temperature – very high > 39.Visible severe wasting Oedema of both feet Burns – severe burns Front of the Queue Clinical review as soon as possible: Weigh Baseline observations Non-urgent – Children with none of the above signs. 16 .

Safe. Improvement 1) Consider iv 0. 17 .Infant / Child Basic Life Support – Cardio-respiratory collapse. After at least 2 good breaths Check the pulse for 10 seconds No or weak. Stimulate. 2) Look for signs of dehydration / poor circulation and give emergency fluids as necessary. slow pulse Give 15 chest compressions then continue giving 15 chest compressions for each 2 breaths for 1 minute. listen. Re-assess ABC No change 1) Continue 15 chest compressions : 2 breaths for 2 minutes.000 Adrenaline if 3 people in team.1ml/kg 1 in 10. Shout for Help! . 3) Consider treating hypoglycaemia. 2) Position head / neck to open Assess breathing – look. feel for 5 seconds No breathing Give 5 rescue breaths with bag and mask – if chest doesn’t move check airway open and mask fit and repeat.3 minutes after any intervention 3) Reassess every 2 – 3 minutes. 2) Reassess ABC No change Improvement Improvement Pulse palpable and >60bpm Adequate breathing Support airway Continue oxygen 1) Continue airway / breathing support & oxygen.Rapidly move child to emergency area 1) Assess and clear airway. 4) Continue full examination to establish cause of illness and treat appropriately. consider fluid bolus if shock likely and treatment of hypoglycaemia 2) Continue CPR in cycles of 2 .

Management of the infant / child without trauma WITH SIGNS OF LIFE – Assessment prior to a full history and examination. on couch Look in the mouth if not alert Suction (to where you can see) if Position – if not Alert (appropriate indicated (not in alert child). for age) Guedel airway only if minimal response to stimulation Decide: B Assess adequacy of breathing • Is there a need for oxygen? • Cyanosis? • Is there a need for immediate • Grunting? bronchodilators? • Head nodding? • Rapid or very slow breathing? • Indrawing? • Deep / Acidotic breathing If signs of respiratory distress listen for wheeze Decide: C Assess adequacy of circulation • Does this child need fluids for • Large pulse – very fast or shock? (You do not need to very slow? check for dehydration in a • Coldness of hands and line of shocked child) demarcation? • If shock treatment is required • Capillary refill? does the child have severe • Peripheral pulse – weak or malnutrition? not palpable? • Does this child need • (Note initial response to immediate blood transfusion? stimulation / alertness) • If there is circulatory • Check for severe pallor compromise but no shock If signs of very poor circulation does the child need Step 1 • Check for severe malnutrition fluids for severe dehydration? If not shock but significant (If no severe malnutrition) circulatory compromise • Check for severe dehydration D Assess AVPU Decide: (If a bolus of fluid is being given • Does this child need 10% for shock assess AVPU and dextrose? prepare glucose to follow bolus) 18 . Obs Safe Eye contact / movements Stimulate – if not Alert Shout unless obviously alert Shout for Help – if not Alert If not Alert place on resus couch Setting for further evaluation If alert it may be most appropriate to continue evaluation while child is with parent A Assess for obstruction by listening Position only if not alert and placed for stridor / airway noises.

Use of intra-osseous lines Use IO or bone marrow needle 15-18G if available or 16-21G hypodermic needle if not available Clean after identifying landmarks then use sterile gloves and sterilize site Site – Middle of the antero-medial (flat) surface of tibia at junction of upper and middle thirds – bevel to toes and introduce vertically (900).6 L/min (check mask instructions for mask) O2 concentration – approx 40 .5 L/min Infant / Child – 1 – 2 L/min O2 concentration – approx 30-35% Naso-pharyngeal (long) catheter Neonate – not recommended Infant / Child – 1 – 2 L/min O2 concentration – approx 45% Plain.advance slowly with rotating movement Stop advancing when there is a ‘sudden give’ – then aspirate with 5mls needle Slowly inject 3mls N/Saline looking for any leakage under the skin – if OK attach iv fluid giving set and apply dressings and strap down Give fluids as needed – a 20mls / 50mls syringe will be needed for boluses Watch for leg / calf muscle swelling Replace IO access with iv within 8 hours Prescribing Oxygen Oxygen Administration Device Flow rate and inspired O2 concentration Nasal prong or short nasal catheter Neonate – 0.90% . good fitting oxygen face Neonate / Infant / Child – 5 .15 L/min bag O2 concentration – approx 80 .60% Oxygen face mask with reservoir Neonate / Infant / Child – 10 .

Y Convulsion stops by 15 minutes? N * If children have up to 2 fits lasting <5 mins they do not require emergency drug treatment. observe and investigate cause. 10) Continue oxygen during active seizure. 7) Check airway is clear when fit stopped. 9) Maintenance therapy should be initially with phenobarbitone 2.Treatment of convulsions.5mg/kg. Check ABC. Treatment: 8) Give im phenobarbitone 15mg/kg – DO NOT give more than 2 doses of diazepam in 24 hours once phenobarbitone used. 11) Check ABC when fit stopped.3mg/kg slowly over 1 minute.* N Check ABC. Check glucose / give 5mls/kg 10% Dext 4) Check ABC when fit stopped.5mg/kg. a further 5-10mg/kg can be given within 24 hours of the loading dose with maintenance doses of 5mg/kg daily. Age > 1 month. 6) Continue oxygen. OR rectal diazepam 0. Do not give a phenobarbitone loading dose to an epileptic on maintenance phenobarbitone 20 . OR rectal diazepam 0. 3) Treat both fit and hypoglycaemia: Give iv diazepam 0. Y Convulsion stops by 10 minutes? N Treatment: 5) Give iv diazepam 0.5mg/kg OD x 48 hrs. Y Y 1) Ensure safe and check ABC. observe and investigate cause. Child convulsing for more than 5 minutes N Child having 3rd convulsion lasting <5mins in < 2 hours.3mg/kg slowly over 1 minute. Convulsions in the first 1 month of life should be treated with Phenobarbitone 20mg/kg stat. 12) Investigate cause. 2) Start oxygen.

Continue breast feeding and encourage feeding if > 6 months 21 . ORS by mouth at 75mls/kg over 4 hours. NO DEHYRATION Diarrhoea / GE with fewer than 2 of the above signs of dehydration. iv Step 2 .6 hours re-classify as severe. N Y N/Saline 20mls/kg over 15 minutes. History of diarrhoea / vomiting. 20mls/kg. over 60 mins if age < 12m. SEVERE Dehydration.5 hrs age ≥ 12m. Cold hands plus pulse weak / absent and either: i) • Capillary refill > 3 secs • AVPU < A NB if Hb<5g/dl transfuse urgently. Y Plan A 10mls/kg ORS after each loose stool. plus. Antibiotics are NOT indicated unless there is dysentery or persistent diarrhoea and proven amoebiasis or giardiasis. some or no dehydration and treat accordingly. (Plan C) Unable to drink or AVPU < A plus: sunken eyes return of skin pinch ≥2 secs Y OR iv Step 1 . after 3 . over 5 hrs age <12m. treat according to classification. age > 2 months CHECK for SHOCK. ngt rehydration – 100mls/kg ORS over 6 hours N Re-assess at least hourly. boluses may be given up to 4 times or until improvement (return of pulse). Treat for hypoglycaemia.30mls/kg Ringer’s over 30 mins if age ≥ 12m. All cases to receive Zinc. SOME DEHYDRATION Able to drink adequately but 2 or more of: Sunken eyes Return of skin pinch 1-2 secs Restlessness / irritability N Y 1) Plan B.Diarrhoea / GE protocol (excluding severe malnutrition). 2) Continue breast feeding as tolerated Reassess at 4 hours. Diarrhoea > 14 days may be complicated by intolerance of ORS – worsening diarrhoea – if seen change to iv regimens.70mls/kg Ringer’s over 2.

00 280 15.00 260 14.00 240 13.00 40 2.00 140 8. 20mls/kg Ringer’s or Saline Weight kg Immediately 2.00 300 16.00 220 12.00 80 5.75mls/kg Oral / ng ORS Over 4 hours 150 150 200 300 350 450 500 600 650 750 800 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1300 1400 1500 Volume 150 200 200 300 400 400 500 500 600 700 800 800 900 1000 1000 1100 1200 1200 1300 1400 Age ≥ 1yr.* Shock.00 380 20. ½ hour 50 75 100 100 150 150 200 250 250 300 300 350 400 400 450 500 500 550 550 600 Plan C – Step 2 70mls/kg Ringer’s or ng ORS Age <12m.00 160 9.00 400 Plan C – Step 1 30mls/kg Ringer’s Age <12m.00 180 10.00 120 7.00 320 17.00 60 4.50 50 3. 1 hour Age ≥1yr.00 200 11. over 5 hrs = drops/min** 10 13 13 20 27 27 33 33 40 50 55 55 60 66 66 75 80 80 90 95 Plan B .00 340 18. over 2½ hrs = drops/min** ** Assumes ‘adult’ iv giving sets where 20drops=1ml 55 55 66 66 80 100 110 110 120 135 135 150 160 160 180 190 *Consider Immediate blood transfusion if severe pallor or Hb <5g/dl on admission 22 .00 100 6.Urgent Fluid management – Child WITHOUT severe malnutrition.00 360 19.

8 hrly doses 10mg/kg (im or iv over 2hrs).2mmols/l) No Yes Treat with iv or im Quinine: 1. 3. No Yes Fever. or. Severe anaemia. If weak pulse AND capillary refill >3secs give 20mls/kg Ringer’s until pulse restored (use blood for resuscitation if Hb<5g/dl). 2. P. alert (AVPU= ‘A’). 6. If a high quality blood slide is negative then only children with severe disease or those with severe anaemia should get presumptive treatment. or. AVPU = ‘A’ then follow reliable malaria test result (BS or RDT): Test Positive Treat with recommended 1 line oral antimalarial. able to drink / feed. Loading. 3) If a child on oral antimalarials has fever and a positive blood slide after 3 days (72 hours) then check compliance with therapy and if treatment failure proceed to second line treatment 23 . 3. none of the severe signs above. Repeat test if concern remains.U’. AVPU = ‘V. Give AL (or oral second line if not available) and iron. or. able to drink and breathing comfortable. 4. Severe = Fever + any of: 1. Respiratory distress with severe anaemia or acidotic breathing. AVPU=U or P and / or respiratory distress) at any stage should be changed to iv quinine. look for another cause of illness. 2. If Respiratory distress & Hb < 5 g/dl transfuse 20 mls/kg whole blood urgently. If respiratory distress develops and Hb < 5g/dl transfuse urgently. 4. transfuse 20 mls/kg whole blood over 4hrs urgently Test Negative Antimalarial not required. or 2nd line if 1st line treatment has failed. if Hb < 4g/dl. 20mg/kg (im or iv over 4hrs) then. st If Hb < 9g/dl treat with oral iron for 14 days initially. Unable to drink. Hb<5g/dl. Hypoglycaemia (glucose ≤ 2. Maintenance fluids / feeds. Treat hypoglycaemia. Treatment failure: 1) Consider other causes of illness / co-morbidity 2) A child on oral antimalarials who develops signs of severe malaria (Unable to sit or drink. give over 4 hrs.Malaria Treatment in malaria endemic areas. 5.

11 yrs Dose 1 paed tab 2 paed tabs 1 adult tab 24 .0 120 60 1/2 7.0 220 110 3/4 12. 10mg/kg 200mg QN sulphate** iv infusion / im Weight iv infusion / im 8 hourly Once only 8 hrly kg 3. The table below is ONLY correct for a 200mg Quinine Sulphate tablet.0 140 70 1/2 8.0 80 40 1/4 5.0 240 120 3/4 13.0 100 50 1/4 6. +8hrs.0 280 140 3/4 15.0 160 80 1/2 9.0 400 200 1 1/4 Artemether (20mg) + Lumefantrine (120mg) .0 260 130 3/4 14.Give with food Stat. BD on Day 2 and Day 3 Weight Age Dose <5kg 1/2 tablet 5 – 15 kg 3 – 35mth 1 tablet 15 – 24 kg 3 .0 360 180 1 19.7 yrs 2 tablets 25 – 34 kg 9 .0 300 150 1 16. 10mg/kg Quinine.0 60 30 1/4 4.5 yrs 6 .11 yrs 3 tablets Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Quinine.0 200 100 3/4 11. 20mg/kg maintenance.0 340 170 1 18.Anti-malarial drug doses . Do not give more than 3mls per injection site. OD for 3 days Age 3 – 35mth 3 . tabs.** Please check the tablets. For im Quinine take 1ml of the 2mls in a 600mg Quinine suphate iv vial and add 5mls water for injection – this makes a 50mg/ml solution.0 380 190 1 1/4 20.0 320 160 1 17. 200 mg Quinine Sulphate = 200mg Quinine Hydrochloride or Dihydrochloride 200 mg Quinine Sulphate = 300mg Quinine Bisuphate.0 180 90 1/2 10. (See nursing chart for more detail) Quinine loading.

10mls/kg whole blood in 3hrs + frusemide 1mg/kg . If glucose test unavailable treat for hypoglycaemia if not alert. (Transfuse if Hb < 4g/dl. Check glucose and treat if <3mmol/l (5mls/kg 10% dextrose). If present warm with blankets. Add: Nystatin / Clotrimazole for oral thrush Mebendazole after 7 days treatment. 25 . Use commercial F75. Multivits for at least 2 weeks if no RTU Food or F75/F100 Folic acid 2.Never use Frusemide for oedema! Treat infection. warm bags of fluid or a heater. If not available mineral mix OR 4mmol/kg/day of oral potassium may need to be added to feeds. 9 & 10: Ensure appetite and weight are monitored and start catch-up feeding with RTUF (usually day 3 – 7). Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Steps 8. Prescribe feeding needed (see chart) and place ngt. All ill children with severe malnutrition should get iv Penicillin (or Ampicillin) AND Gentamicin AND oral Metronidazole .) Check for hypothermia. Admit to hospital if there is a history of illness and either of: Visible severe wasting (buttocks) (WHZ < -3) Oedema or other signs of Kwashiorkor (flaky paint skin / hair changes).) Electrolyte imbalance. Provide a caring and stimulating environment for the child and start educating the family so they help in the acute treatment and are ready for discharge. Oral / ngt glucose or feeds should as soon as possible (not >30 mins after admission. axillary temperature <350C. Check for dehydration – use Diarrhoea / Dehydration flowchart to classify then USE fluid plans for severe malnutrition. Give: Vitamin A on admission (and days 2 and 14 if eye signs).for shock see next page.Symptomatic severe malnutrition.5mg alt days if no RTU Food or F75/F100 Start iron ONLY when the child is gaining weight. TEO (+ atropine drops) for pus / ulceration in the eye Correct micronutrient deficiencies.

00 14.00 7.00 Shock = over 1 hour 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 200 220 240 Oral / ngt Resomal 10mls/kg/hr Resomal Oral / ngt Emergency Maintenance 4mls/kg/hr HSD in 5% Dextrose iv Hourly until transfusion 15 20 25 30 30 35 40 44 46 48 50 52 Drops/min if 10mls/kg/hr for 20drops/ml up to 10 hours giving set 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Dried Skimmed Milk Vegetable Oil Sugar Water F 75* 25g 27g 100g Make up to 1000mls F 100* 80g 60g 50g Make up to 1000mls * Ideally add electrolyte / mineral solution and at least add potassium 26 . 15 mls/kg in 1 hr of Half Strength Darrow’s in 5% dextrose.00 6.00 11.00 10. slow (<60 bpm) or weak pulse.00 12. If improves • Repeat this bolus over another 1 hour.00 5. If HSD in 5% Dextrose not available it can be made by adding 50mls 50% dextrose to 450mls HSD. If does not improve • Give maintenance iv fluid at 4mls/kg/hr • Transfuse 10mls/kg whole blood over 3 hours as soon as it is available • Introduce F75 after transfusion complete.Emergency Fluid management in Severe Malnutrition Shock: Reduced consciousness. Shock 15mls/kg Half-Strength Darrows in 5% Dextrose iv Weight kg 4. • Then switch to oral of ng fluids using Resomal at 10mls/kg/hour for up to 10 hours. • As soon as conscious introduce F75 and appropriately reduce amount of Resomal given.00 8.00 9. absent.00 13.00 15.

the child can drink liberally and additional solid foods can be introduced slowly in the first days and RTUF can be mixed into uji or other foods F75 – acute feeding No or moderate oedema Severe oedema.5 1235 155 950 120 10.0 520 65 400 50 4. 1) If respiratory distress or oedema get worse or the jugular veins are engorged reduce feed volumes.5 585 75 450 60 5.0 1040 130 800 100 8. 2) When appetite returns (and oedema much improved) change from F75 to RTUF.0 910 115 700 90 7.5 845 105 650 85 7. even face (130mls/kg/day) (100mls/kg/day) 3 hourly feed Total Feeds 3 hourly feed Weight Total Feeds / 24 hrs volume / 24 hrs volume (kg) 4.5 715 90 550 70 6.0 780 100 600 75 6.0 1560 195 1200 150 RTUF (if on solids) F100 if no RTUF F100 @ 150mls/kg/day Total Feeds 3 hourly 20g/kg/day / 24 hrs feed volume 600 75 675 85 100 750 95 110 825 105 120 900 115 130 975 125 140 1050 135 150 1125 140 160 1200 150 170 1275 160 180 1350 170 190 1425 180 200 1500 190 210 1575 200 220 1650 210 230 1725 215 240 1800 225 27 .0 1430 180 1100 140 11.5 1105 140 850 110 9. if RTUF not available change to F100 for the first 2 days use 130-150mls/kg of F100.Feeding children with severe malnutrition – use EBM & / or infant formula if aged < 6 months.5 1365 170 1050 135 11.5 975 120 750 95 8.0 650 80 500 65 5.0 1300 160 1000 125 10.5 1495 185 1150 145 12. 3) When using RTUF allow the child to nibble very frequently.0 1170 145 900 115 9.

PLUS. Steroids are not indicated. No to all Yes to one One of: Coma. inability to drink / feed. Bulging fontanelle. Age ≥ 60 days and history of fever LP must be done if there’s one of: One of: Coma. Classify probable meningitis: 1) Chloramphenicol.Meningitis – investigation and treatment. Steroids are not indicated. + LP looks clear None of these signs Classify as definite meningitis: 1) Chloramphenicol.laboratory examination even if malaria slide positive unless: Child requires CPR. Skin infection at LP site Agitation / irritability. 2) Penicillin – double dose if age >1m. Interpretation of LP and treatment definitions: Either Bedside examination: Looks cloudy in bottle (turbid) and not a blood stained tap. Stiff neck. Pupils respond poorly to light. Meningitis unlikely. Any seizures No Yes Do an LP unless completely normal mental state after febrile convulsion. Review within 8 hours and LP if doubt persists. investigate other causes of fever. Fits if age <6 months or > 6 years. AVPU = ‘P or U’. Minimum 10 days of treatment iv / im. Stiff neck. PLUS. Bulging fontanelle. 28 Yes CSF Wbc + Gram stain result All normal Tests not done No meningitis . Penicillin – double dose if age >1m Minimum 10 days of treatment iv / im. If meningitis considered possible –iv / im Chloramphenicol & Penicllin and senior review. Evidence of partial seizures No Yes Immediate LP to view by eye +/. And / or Laboratory examination with one or more of (if possible): White cell count > 10 x 106/L Gram positive diplococci or Gram negative cocco-bacilli.

AVPU=’A’ N Age 2 – 11 months: Respiratory rate ≥ 50. Age ≥12 months: Respiratory rate ≥ 40 N No pneumonia. Y Wheeze Y Severe Pneumonia – Benzyl Penicillin ALONE Y Wheeze Very Severe Pneumonia Oxygen. Inability to drink / breast feed AVPU = ‘V. Possible Asthma – Treat according to separate protocol p31 and  REVISE classification after initial treatment with bronchodilators  29 . probable URTI. P or U’. age > 60 days. Pneumonia – Cotrimoxazole or if previously had cotrimoxazole for this illness give Amoxicillin. Y Cyanosis.59 months. For HIV exposed / infected children see page 33 History of cough or difficult breathing. or Grunting N Wheeze Lower chest wall indrawing. Penicillin AND Gentamicin.Pneumonia protocol for children aged 2 .

Eating / drinking.treat for Pneumocystis if HIV positive. c) Suspect PCP. See HIV page for indications for PCP treatment. temp >380C Respiratory rate >60 bpm Still cyanosed or saturation <90% and no better than admission Chest indrawing persistent Worsening CXR After 1 week. Treatment failure definition Any time. At least 3 of: Fever. Aureus or Gram negative pneumonia. an HIV test must be done . Persistent fever and respiratory distress. Change treatment from Penicillin alone and add gentamicin. Severity of indrawing. 30 . re-assess thoroughly.Pneumonia treatment failure definitions. get chest X ray if not already done (looking for empyema / effusion. Suspect PCP especially if <12m. Progression of severe pneumonia to very severe peumonia (development of cyanosis or inability to drink in a child with pneumonia without these signs on admission) Obvious cavitation on CXR 48 hours Very severe pneumonia child getting worse. HIV infection may underlie treatment failure – testing helps the child. Action required Change treatment from Penicillin alone and add gentamicin. cavitation etc).treat for Pneumocystis if HIV positive Severe pneumonia without improvement in at least one of: Respiratory rate. flucloxacillin and gent. a) If only on penicillin change to Penicillin / Gentamicin b) If on Pen & Gent change to ceftriaxone. Consider TB. Fever. an HIV test must be done . Switch to Ceftriaxone unless suspect Staphylococcal pneumonia when use pen. Day 5. Treat with Cloxacillin and gentamicin iv for Staph. perform mantoux and check TB treatment guidelines.

1-4 hourly salbutamol. Start oral (prednisolone) or iv steroids if cannot drink Y Salbutamol by inhaler.5mg salbutamol every 20 minutes for 3 doses if needed. N Mild: Wheeze and fast breathing Age 2 – 11 months: Respiratory rate ≥ 50. spacer + mask Reassess respiratory rate after 20-30 minutes.4 hourly salbutamol. AVPU < A. if persistently elevated consider oral antibiotic Give education on use of inhaler. Wheeze + history of cough or difficult breathing – likelihood of asthma much higher if age > 12m and recurrent wheeze Y Very severe: Wheeze.Possible asthma – admission management of the wheezy child. Salbutamol by nebulizer or inhaler + spacer + mask repeated up to 10 puffs in 30min (see box below)*. antibiotics as for severe pneumonia Mild . oral antibiotics aim for discharge in 24 hrs Immediate Management Oxygen – measure saturation Nebulise 2. early review. antibiotics as for very severe pneumonia Severe – 4 hourly salbutamol. Age ≥12 months: Respiratory rate ≥ 40 Y Y Immediate Management: Oxygen if obvious use of accessory muscles . spacer + mask and danger signs and discharge on salbutamol 4-6 hrly for no more than 5 days plus if recurrent asthma consider inhaled steroid prophylaxis * If a nebuliser is not available then 1 puff of salbutamol into a spacer followed by 5-6 breaths can be repeated up to 10 times in 20-30 mins (shake inhaler every 2 puffs) 31 .measure sat’n. Cyanosis. Start oral prednisolone Reassess after 30-60 mins and reclassify severity – if now: Very severe – continue oxygen. Inability to drink / breast feed or inability to talk N Severe: Wheeze + Lower chest wall indrawing.

The person asking permission for HIV testing should then write in the medical record that permission was given / refused. tests and treatment plans After careful history / examination plan all investigations and then inform caretaker what tests are needed and that HIV is common in Kenya Explain GoK guidance that ALL sick children with unknown status should have an HIV test – so their child not being ‘picked out’ That in this situation it is normal to do an HIV test on a child because: o You came to hospital wanting to know what the problem was and find the best treatment for it.HIV – Provider Initiated Testing and Counselling (PITC). Any child < 18 months with a positive rapid test is HIV exposed and is treated as though infected until definitive testing rules out HIV infection. 1) If breast fed encourage exclusive breast feeding until 6 months. 4) All HIV exposed / infected infants should start CTX prophylaxis from age 6 wks 32 . safe and sustainable (AFASS) discuss this option before delivery. Give the parent / guardian the opportunity to ask questions. All clinicians should be able to perform PITC and discuss a positive / negative result Below is quick guide to PITC: As much as possible find a quiet place to discuss the child’s admission diagnosis. If an alternative to breast feeding is affordable. It is government policy that ALL SICK CHILDREN presenting to facilities with unknown status should be offered HIV testing using PITC PITC is best done on admission when other investigations are ordered. feasible. Treatment and Feeding. just add complementary feeds and continue nevirapine until 1 week after breast feeding stops 3) Refer child and carers to an HIV support clinic – HAART should start in all HIV infected children age < 18 months as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed. Ongoing Treatment / Feeding. 2) Do not abruptly stop breast feeding at 6m. accessible. o Knowing the HIV test result gives doctors the best understanding of the illness and how to treat it o The treatment that is given to the child will change if the child has HIV o If the child has HIV s/he will need additional treatment for a long time and the earlier this is started the better That the HIV test will be done with their approval and not secretly That the result will be given to them and that telling other family / friends is their decision That the result will be known only by doctors / nurses caring for the child as they need this knowledge to provide the most appropriate care.

High dose cotrimoxazole if aged <5yrs (see below) . HAART – See national guidelines for latest regimens TB – See national guidelines for TB treatment in an HIV exposed / positive child 33 .5 mls 5 mls 10 mls CTX Tabs CTX Tabs 120mg/tab 480mg/tab 1 tab 1/4 2 tabs 1/2 1 2 Frequency 24hrly for prophylaxis.Managing the HIV exposed / infected infant – Please check for updates – ARV doses change fast! PMTCT Nevirapine Prophylaxis: • If formula fed from birth give nevirapine for first 6 weeks only • If breastfeeding – continue and stop 1 week after breast feeding stopped Age 0 .5ml) once daily (Birth weight >2.steroids are not recommended as additional treatment for Pneumocystis pneumonia Treat and prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia with Co-trimoxazole (CTZ) Weight 1-4 kg 5-8 kg 9-16 kg 17-50 kg CTX syrup 240mg/5mls 2.All HIV exposed / infected children admitted with signs of severe / very severe pneumonia are treated with: 1. 6 hrly for 3wks for PCP treatment Diarrhoea .500 grams) (If formula feeding only from birth give for 6 wks) 20 mg (2mls) once daily 30 mg (3mls) once daily 40 mg (4mls) once daily Pneumonia .All HIV exposed / infected children admitted with acute diarrhoea are treated in the same way as HIV uninfected children with fluids and zinc. Penicillin and gentamicin first line. Ceftriaxone reserved as second line therapy 2.500 grams) 15 mg (1. For persistent diarrhea (≥14days) low-lactose or lactose free milks are recommended if the child is ≥ 6 months of age Meningitis – Request CSF examination for cryptococcus as well as traditional microscopy and culture for bacteria.6 weeks 6 w to 6 months 6 – 9 months 9 – 12 months Nevirapine Dosing 10 mg (1ml) once daily (Birth weight <2.

Newborn Resuscitation – for SINGLE Health Worker – Be Prepared! .

Newborn Resuscitation – for TWO trained Health Workers – Be Prepared! .

5) Keep warm. A Newborn with weight <2kg & premature delivery or small size for gestational age with reduced ability to suck as the only problem may only require warmth.Neonatal Sepsis / Jaundice – see Page 42 for NN Antibiotic Doses Age < 60 days One or more of: Change in level of activity Bulging fontanelle History of convulsions Feeding difficulty Temperature ≥37. None of the above Yes Where appropriate: 1) Treat for neonatal ophthalmia 2) Treat with oral antibiotic – one that covers Staph aureus if large. 2) Start gentamicin and penicillin (see chart). 6) Maintain feeding by mouth or ngt. pus-filled blisters / septic spots. pus-filled septic spots 3) Give mother advice and arrange review. feeds (Page 40/41) or blood? No signs of serious illness Is there: Pus from eye Pus from ear Pus from umbilicus and redness of abdominal skin Multiple.50C or <35. No sign of severe illness.50C Fast breathing / respiratory rate ≥ 60 bpm Severe chest indrawing Grunting Cyanosis Also check Yes Do LP unless severe respiratory distress 1) Check for hypoglycaemia. 36 . review if situation changes. treat if unable to measure glucose. 4) Give Vitamin K if born at home or not given on maternity. NB. Yes Jaundice (see page 37 & 38) Capillary refill Severe Pallor PROM >18hrs if aged < Yes 7d Weight loss Use information to decide does baby need fluids. feeding support and a clean environment. 3) Give oxygen if cyanosed / RR > 60 bpm. use iv fluids only if respiratory distress or severe abdominal distension (see chart). large.

Make sure that each light source is working and emitting light. Visual testing for jaundice or transcutaneous bilirubin is unreliable. 7.Checklist 1. supplements or intravenous fluids are unnecessary. Periodically change position supine to prone . Do not place anything on the phototherapy devices – lights and baby need to keep cool so do not block air vents / flow or light. Phototherapy use can be interrupted for feeds. may reposition after each feed. Tube ends have blackened c.Remove periodically such as during feeds Keep the baby naked Place the baby close to the light source – 45 cm distance is often recommended but the more light power the baby receives the better the effect so closer distances are OK if the baby is not overheating especially if need rapid effect. . . 9. 37 4. 3. natural light if possible. Monitor temperature every 4 hrs and weight every 24 hrs Periodic (12 to 24 hrs) plasma/serum bilirubin test.Expose the maximum surface area of baby to phototherapy. check the eyes. allow maternal bonding.Any jaundice if aged <24hrs needs further investigation and treatment Refer early if jaundice in those aged <24hrs and facility cannot provide phototherapy and exchange transfusion See next page for guidance on bilirubin levels If bilirubin measure unavailable start phototherapy: o In a well baby with jaundice easily visible on the sole of the foot o In a preterm baby with ANY visible jaundice o In a baby with easily visible jaundice and inability to feed or other signs of neurological impairment and consider immediate exchange transfusion Stop phototherapy – when bilrubin 50 micromol/L lower than phototherapy threshold (see next page) for the baby’s age on day of testing Phototherapy and Supportive Care . 8. 2. More than 6 months in use (or usage time >2000 hrs) b. blanched skin on nose and the sole of the foot Always measure serum bilirubin if age < 24 hours and if clinically moderate or severe . May use white cloth to reflect light back onto the baby making sure these do not cause overheating. Unless dehydrated. Shield the eyes with eye patches. 6. Also keep device clean – dust can carry bacteria and reduce light Promote frequent breastfeeding. 5.Neonatal Jaundice Assess for jaundice in bright. Fluorescent tube lights should be replaced if: a. Lights flicker.

and up to repeat in 6 nearest hours threshold given) 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96+ > 100 > 100 > 100 > 100 > 112 > 125 > 137 > 150 > 162 > 175 > 187 > 200 > 112 > 125 > 137 > 150 > 162 > 175 > 187 > 200 > 212 > 225 > 237 > 250 > 262 > 275 > 287 > 300 >100 > 125 > 150 > 175 > 200 > 212 > 225 > 237 > 250 > 262 > 275 > 287 > 300 > 312 > 325 > 337 > 350 Perform an exchange transfusion unless the bilirubin level falls below threshold while the treatment is being prepared >100 > 150 > 200 > 250 > 300 > 350 > 400 > 450 > 450 > 450 > 450 > 450 > 450 > 450 > 450 > 450 > 450 38 .measurement phototerapy .Treatment of Jaundice if Gestational Age < 37 wks Initiate phototherapy earlier than for full term neonates – ideally consult a gestational age specific chart Exchange transfusion if baby has gestational age < 37 wks AND age is 72 hours or more if: Bilirubin in micromol/litre ≥ gestational age × 10 Treatment if 37 weeks or more gestational age Bilirubin measurement in micromol/L Age Consider Initiate Repeat (in hours .phototherapy especially if risk round age in 6 hours factors .

5 mls of multivitamin syrup daily once they are on full milk feeding at the age of about 2 wks plus folate 2. • Oral antibiotics should be continued for a further 5 days. Severe Neonatal Sepsis Days of treatment • Antibiotics could be stopped after 48 hours if all the signs of possible sepsis have resolved and the child is feeding well and LP.5mg weekly • 2. Growth. • Give oral treatment to complete 5 days in total. is normal. 0. • For positive LP see below. 39 . • IV / IM antibiotics should be continued for a minimum of 7 days or until completely well if the LP is clear Neonatal meningitis • IV / IM antibiotics should be continued for a minimum of or severe sepsis and 14 days.5mg im if weight <1. is normal. Problem Signs of Young Infant Infection in a baby breast feeding well. • IV / IM antibiotics could be stopped after 72 hours if the child is feeding well without fever and has no other problem and LP. Fluids. • IV / IM antibiotics should be continued for a minimum of 5 days or until completely well for 24 hrs. Vitamin K • All babies born in hospital should receive Vitamin K soon after birth • If born at home and admitted aged <14d give Vitamin K unless already given • 1mg Vitamin K im if weight > 1. If they are not check that the right amount of feed is being given.Duration of Treatment for Neonatal / Young Infant Sepsis.5kg. Vitamins and Minerals in the Newborn: Babies should gain about 10g / kg of body weight every day after the first 7 days of life. • The child should have had an LP. if done. Skin infection with signs of generalised illness such as poor feeding Clinical or radiological pneumonia.5mls of ferrous fumarate suspension daily starting at 4-6 weeks of age for 12 wks.5kg All premature infants (< 36 weeks or < 2kg) should receive: • 2. no LP performed • If Gram negative meningitis is suspected treatment should be iv for 3 weeks. if done. Advise the mother to return with the child if problems recur. All infants aged < 14 days should receive Vitamin K on admission if not already given.

Newborn Feeding / Fluid requirements.9 to 3.6 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 3. Age Total Daily Fluid / Milk Vol. Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 60 mls/kg/day 80 mls/kg/day 100 mls/kg/day 120 mls/kg/day 140 mls/kg/day 160 mls/kg/day 180 mls/kg/day A.Table A.9 to 2.7 to 3.5 to 2. Nasogastric 3 hrly feed amounts for well babies on full volume feeds on Day 1 and afterwards Weight (kg) Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 1. 7.2 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 3.0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 40 .7 to 2.5kg.1 to 3. 200mls 10% D + 100mls HSD) if not able to calculate or give added Na+ (2-3mmol/kg/day) and K+ (1-2mmol/kg/day) to glucose solution.1 to 2. step-up or step-down daily fluids.5 to 3.5 to 1.5kg <2kg. For first feed give 7. Please ensure sterility of iv fluids when mixing / adding Always use EBM for NGT feeds unless contra-indicated If signs of poor perfusion or fluid overload please ask for senior opinion on whether to give a bolus.3 to 2.0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 2.4 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 2. and 10mls 3hrly if ≥ 2kg.8 29 38 48 57 67 76 86 3.Begin with 5mls each 3hrly feed if <1.7 to 1.4 26 34 43 51 60 68 77 3.9 to 4.5mls 3hrly if ≥1.3 to 3.5mls and increase by this amount each feed until full daily volume reached Day 1 . Increase feed by the same amount every day and reduce iv fluids to keep within the total daily volume until IVF stopped – Table C For IVF from Day 2 use 2 parts 10% dextrose to 1 part HS Darrow’s (eg.8 14 18 23 27 32 36 41 1.5kg start with 24hrs iv 10%D – Table B From Day 2 unless baby very unwell start NGT feeds . Well baby .0 23 30 38 45 53 60 68 3.immediate milk feeding .Sick baby or Weight <1.8 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 2.6 12 15 19 24 28 32 36 1.6 20 26 33 39 46 52 59 2.2 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 2.

9 10 13 16 20 23 26 29 C.3 IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed 1.1.8 2.0 2.2 1.2.2.4 1.6 .1.3 8 11 14 17 19 22 25 3.3 6 8 10 12 13 15 17 2.8 .7 7 9 11 14 16 18 20 2.7 9 12 15 19 22 25 28 3. Standard regimen for introducing NGT feeds in a VLBW or sick newborn after 24hrs IV fluids Weight 1.4 .1 IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed 2.0 (kg) 1.5 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 2.6 1.2 2.6 2.6 3.5 IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7+ 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 10 15 18 21 24 3 3 2 2 1 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 4 3 3 3 2 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 33 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 0 8 15 22 30 34 38 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 8 15 22 30 38 42 5 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 36 42 48 6 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 39 45 51 6 5 4 3 1 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 56 41 .2 .1.5 9 12 15 18 20 23 26 3.0 3.9 7 10 12 15 17 19 22 3.1.8 1.3 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 1.2 3.0 .1 (kg) IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed 1.1 5 7 9 11 12 14 16 2.7 4 6 7 9 10 11 13 1.5 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 1.1 8 10 13 16 18 21 23 3.B.2 .1 Day 1 3 Day 2 4 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7+ 5 6 6 7 8 1.2.0 . IV fluid rates in mls / hr for sick newborns who cannot be fed on FULL volume iv fluids.4 .4 2.7 IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed 1.8 3.9 5 6 8 10 11 13 14 2.4 3.3 IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed 2. Weight 1.1.5 IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed 1.9 IVF NGT mls per hr 3hrly feed 2.

5 75 75 100 125 150 200 iv 12 hrly 7.00 iv / im 12 hrly 50 60 75 85 100 125 150 200 iv / im 24 hrly 3 4 5 6 10 12.5 30 125mg/5mls 125mg/5mls 12 hrly 2 3 3 4 12 hrly 2 3 3 4 Ophthalmia Neonatorum: Swollen red eyelids with pus should be treated with a single dose of: Kanamycin or Spectinomycin 25mg/kg (max 75mg) im.00 4.000iu/kg) (50mg/kg) (7.5 12. Penicillin dosing is twice daily in babies aged < 7 days Chloramphenicol should not be used in babies aged < 7 days.50 3. If a baby is not obviously passing urine after more than 24 hours consider stopping gentamicin.5 10 12.00 2.000 150.50 3.Intravenous / intramuscular antibiotics aged < 7 days Ampicillin / Gentamicin Ceftriaxone Metronidazole Cloxacillin (3mg/kg <2kg.50 1. Ceftriaxone 50mg/kg im Warning: Gentamicin – Please check the dose is correct for weight and age in DAYS Gentamicin used OD should be given im or as a slow iv push – over 2-3 mins.000 (50mg/kg) Oral antibiotics aged < 7 days Ampicillin / Cloxacillin 25mg/kg Amoxycillin.00 2.75 2.5 15 20 iv / im 24 hrly 50 62.000 100.000 150.000 75.00 12 hrly 50.000 200.5mg/kg) 5mg/kg ≥ 2kg) Penicillin iv / im Weight kg 1.25 1. (50.00 1.5 15 20 22. 25mg/kg Weight kg 2.000 75. Ceftriaxone is not recommended in obviously jaundiced newborns – Cefotaxime is a safer cephalosporin in the first 7 days of life 42 . or.000 100.00 4.

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0 use the weight appropriate for this 4. 47 .3 months 4 . use the weight for a 4-6 month 9. All other children should have weight measured. All babies and children admitted to hospital should be weighed and the weight recorded in the medial record and in the Maternal Child Health Booklet.0 Eg.0 17.0 10 months.6 months 7 to 9 months 10 to 12 months 1 to 2 yrs 2 to 3 yrs 3 to 4 yrs 4 to 5 yrs Child looks obviously underweight – find age Estimated but step back 2 age Weight (kg) /weight categories and 3.7 weeks 2 . 5.0 11. Estimate the weight from the age only if immediate life support is required or the patient is in shock – then check weight as soon as stabilised.Emergency estimation of child’s weight from their age. average size for age Age 1 – 3 weeks 4 .0 well nourished child.0 15.0 13. Child looks well nourished.0 younger age-group. Child thin and age 7. 10.0 If there is severe malnutrition this chart will be inaccurate.

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