Table of Contents

Chapter No. Topic Preface Acknowledgement Executive Summary Research Methodology 1.1 Research Objectives 1.2 Scope of study 1.3 Type of Research Design 1.4 Quantitative Research 1.5 Data Sources 1.6 Methodology 1.7 Research Tool 1.8 Questionnaire and Sample Design Entertainment Industry in India Introduction to Radio Industry 3.1 History 3.2 Radio Characteristics 3.3 How Radio works? 3.4 Radio in comparison with other media vehicles 3.5 Evolution of private players 3.6 Future Scenario 3.7 Porter¶s Five Force Model Key Private Players in Radio Industry My FM Company Overview 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Departmental Analysis 5.3 Management Control System 5.4 Marketing Plan ± 7 P¶s of marketing Data Analysis & Interpretation Perceptual Maps and Performance Matrix Hypothesis Testing Conclusion Recommendations Bibliography Annexure Page No. I III IV 2 3 3 5 5 5 5 6 6 8 15 16 19 21 25 30 47 48 50 57 58 62 66 70 79 107 113 118 122 124 126






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1. To analyze the existing players in the market and their positioning strategies 2. To compare the existing players with My FM in terms of different attributes 3. To design perceptual maps displaying all the players in terms of different attributes 4. To draw a performance matrix for My FM in order to help them make amendments in the existing strategy in order to become the leader


The study of the consumer behavior has been done to understand the listening pattern of the consumers for all the players and accordingly promote My FM. Research for the consumers was carried out randomly from various places within Ahmedabad city. Consumers who were focused for the survey were a homogeneous mixture of men and women again of different age groups. The respondents comprises of working men and women, businessmen, housewives, students, college goers (youth). Educational Background of the target audience would be classified into the following categories. School students, Graduates, Post graduates, service, Business, Homemakers.


y Music Preference The old hindi movie songs. trance. language etc. regional. soft instrumentals etc. English songs. defines the popularity of radio station. latest movie songs. y Shows Morning shows. road shows. awareness campaigns. better homemaking informations y Sparklers Pranks played by different RJ s 4 . y Games and Activities Telephonic movie quizzes. mall activities live. campus activities live. afternoon shows. communication (ability to connect with the audience). evening shows and night shows. gazals. remixes. traffic updates. y Information News.Attributes of Perceptual Mapping for all the players of the industry: y Radio Jockey The radio jockey s famousness. peppy numbers. voice.

5 . METHODOLOGY The method used for survey is structured questionnaire. y Secondary Data Secondary data was collected from company s catalogue. SOURCES OF DATA y Primary Data Primary data is collected through survey of listener s. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH A survey of listener s in Ahmedabad is done. internet.TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGN Descriptive research is used for the project. The survey is done by questionnaire which comprises of open ended as well as close ended questions. and magazines.

6 .24 Homemakers .20 Graduates .49 Business .RESEARCH TOOL Questionnaire QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN The questionnaire comprise of open ended and closed ended questions.52 Service .23 PILOT STUDY A pilot survey of 10 consumers was done to ensure that the questionnaire is correct and relevant of research objectives.32 Post Graduates . SAMPLE DESIGN SAMPLE SIZE: 200 SAMPLING TYPE: Convenience Sampling y Age group of 18 to 35 y Occupation Distribution: School .

Accordingly the charts and perceptual maps were generated from the tables. DATA ANALYSIS Result of the study was put in tables and graphs along with interpretation for easy understanding of the findings of the research. actual survey was conducted.SURVEY Once pilot study was over. 7 .

Entertainment and media industry 8 .

The media and entertainment sector consists of the creation. Its various segments film. news and information.R. 9 . print media and music. Ever evolving technologies. advertising. products and services. Television According to the study by FICCI and KPMG. according to experts. extensive use of media by corporate provide both opportunities and challenges to the media and entertainment industry.Entertainment and media industry The Indian media and entertainment (M&E) industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the country. Indian Entertainment Industry Post reforms the media and entertainment industry in India has made tremendous strides. The media and entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. television. prints media and music among others have witnessed tremendous growth in the last few years. aggregation and distribution of content. which is currently valued at about US$ 4.Rahman and Resul Pokutty won the Oscars for their work in Slum dog Millionaire. The M&E industry can be further classified into film.09 billion by 2013. the media and entertainment industry in India is likely to grow 12. Mobile TV where content will stream in on mobile phones which is currently at a nascent stage is poised to grow big with the advent of 3G. the television industry. radio. The Indian entertainment industry came off age and gained global recognition when A. advertising. According to a report jointly published by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and KPMG. advertising and entertainment through various channels and platforms.5 per cent between 2009 and 2013.5 per cent per annum over the next five years and touch US$ 20. Digital distribution platforms such as direct-to-home (DTH) and Mobile TV are transforming the industry. television.63 billion will expand by 14.

people can live without food but not without TV. respectively. Television channels such as Cartoon Network. But these guys have to be more cautious while treating their young and influential audience . Leading television channels. Turner and Warner Bros Entertainment.Office . according to a report by Media Partners Asia (MPA). MTV and Star Plus are expanding their product range to tap India's growing US$ 125. Further. Even with poor service from cable operators or DTH.convert into a regional show and you have the local audience glued to the TV.Viewership across various segments is increasing and marketers are launching new channels to meet this growing demand.9 million licensing and merchandise market. Pogo.Home life and that wouldn t change much hence Television is something that would not stop growing and there is sort of mimicing localization effect which seems to work very well. Disney. BT's Media and Broadcast Sector has entered into two new agreements with New Delhi Television (NDTV) to be its global network supplier. 10 . a new Warner-branded channel in India that will showcase blockbuster motion pictures and acclaimed television series. One successful show in Hindi or English . in the Asia-Pacific pay broadcaster ranks for the second year in a row. Hollywood's leading studio have launched WB. Most of the Indians have a Home . The more you dumb down the more you would loose the creamy audience for which the advertizers pays these people are now spending more time on social networks and social media. have maintained their number one and two positions. an independent international research agency. Sun Network and Zee Entertainment.

22 million in 2012. According to a PwC study. Sun TV Network has decided to allow South Asia Multimedia Technologies Ltd. According to the PwC study. Radio The cheapest and oldest form of entertainment. While cassettes and compact discs (cds) have traditionally accounted for most of the sales.Music Industry experts estimate that the current size of the music industry is about US$ 149 million. notching up an average 30 per cent growth in advertising revenues. reaching 99 per cent of the population. the industry is likely to grow by 2 per cent over the next five years and will be a US$ 164. this segment is likely to see many dynamic changes.56 million industry by 2012. Digital music sales are expected to account for 88 per cent of the total music industry revenue in India by 2009. Recently. 11 . Private FM radio has emerged as the fastest growing segment in the media. according to ACNielsen's Radio Audience Measurement (RAM) service. an investment arm of Malaysia-based Astro Group.52 million. to 20 per cent from the current 6. FM radio broadcasting has expanded at a rapid pace and India today has over 300 FM radio stations. compared to the industry's average of 18 per cent. to increase its stake in its FM subsidiary.49 million over the next two years from the current US$ 133. among others. South Asia FM.98 per cent. future growth will come from non-physical formats such as digital downloads and ringtones. it is expected to increase to US$ 218. revenues from radio are likely to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 24 per cent over the next five years and the industry will grow from US$ 150.52 million in 2007 to US$ 370. Moreover.

03 million in 2011 from the current US$ 57. Print and TV account for the majority of the ad spend. mobile and digital signage) is expected to emerge as the medium of choice for advertisers. Of the overall advertising spend. the 30-second in-theatre advertising accounts for 95 per cent of cinema advertising. The FICCI-KPMG study values the Indian film industry at US$ 2. internet and cinema have been the traditional mediums of advertising and according to a survey by Adlabs Cinemas and research firm IMRB. Cinema The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of number of films produced per year. a division of Tam Media Research.83 million. digital media advertising (internet. currently only around 0. online advertising it is expected to touch US$ 212.Advertising Advertising trends showed a healthy growth in the last five years as marketers sought to woo customers for a wide range of products.4 per cent (around US$ 15. 12 . According to a FICCI-PwC report. according to a survey by AdEx India. leading to many global production units entering the country.1 per cent till 2013. Radio. etc. Going forward. Of the available media. The number of brands advertised on television witnessed an 82 per cent increase during 2008 compared to 1999. in cinema. it was the fastest growing segment in 2008. The opening of the film industry to foreign investment coupled with the granting of industry status to this segment has had a favourable impact.42 million) is spent on cinema. The remaining 5 per cent comprises activities in the lobby area such as new car or bike displays.11 billion and projects its growth at 9.

to produce films with an initial funding of US$ 825 million for the first three years. The cinema-viewing experience is also undergoing major changes. The company is spending US$ 41.6 million in film production this year. has entered into a multiple-film deal with producer Vipul Amrutlal Shah. Anil Ambani's Reliance ADA Group has entered into a production deal with DreamWorks Studios promoted by Hollywood director.13 million to expand the two businesses. Viacom has a joint venture with the TV 18 group to form Viacom-18. which meets consumer demand for quality entertainment and has also helped boost production of niche films targeted at niche audiences. R-ADAG-owned Adlabs Films is betting on its integrated film service business and movie exhibitions to drive its growth. One perceptible change has been the rapid growth of multiplexes. a joint venture between Twentieth Century Fox and Star. the number of 13 . Buoyed by the success of its maiden production in India Chandni Chowk to China (which garnered US$ 8. marking its foray into the Indian film industry. Steven Spielberg. the Warner Group is funding the Sippys' film projects. According to an estimate. Fox Star Studios.Recently. Walt Disney has partnered with Yash Raj Films to make animated movies. The nation's multiplex industry is all set for an unprecedented boom buoyed by positive regulatory changes and booming consumerism. and Sony Pictures Entertainment has co-produced Saawariya with SLB Films (Sanjay Leela Bansali Films).67 million globally in the first three days of its release) Warner Brothers Pictures India is set to invest US$ 38.

Further.51 per cent in the five year period. the gaming segment.9 per cent.163 million by 2012 according to a report titled Indian Animation and Gaming 2008'. animation and gaming are also likely to see interesting growth rates.51 million Internet is seen growing at 27.8 per cent over the previous 5 years.multiplex screens in India is expected to touch 5. The country's growing literacy and new technologies have resulted in India emerging as the second largest newspaper market in the world. Multiplexes /megaplexes have been instrumental in contributing 28 per cent of the total theatrical sales for the film industry according to a report by Systematix Institutional Research. which is currently estimated at US$ 125. Newspaper advertising revenues in India were up 64. is expected to grow at 33. The Indian animation industry.30 per cent till 2013.29 million.2 million in the next 18 months to expand its exhibition. According to the FICCI. Mexican global multiplex operator. according to latest research by the World Association of Newspapers (WAN). Others Segments like print media. constituting around 40 per cent of the total cinema screens. currently estimated at US$ 460 million. the multiplex major plans to invest about US$ 52. plans to invest US$ 360 million in India for its film exhibition business over the next seven years. while the US$ 119. movie production and bowling businesses. PVR.000 by 2012. is expected to grow at a CAGR of 27 per cent to touch US$ 1. Buoyed by the growth in the sector.KPMG study. 14 . Indian newspaper sales increased 11. jointly prepared by NASSCOM and Ernst & young.2 per cent in 2007 and 35. Cinepolis.


The phenomenal reach of radio in India. In June 1998 the Government. the government in its wisdom. book commercials from advertisers and broadcast the whole lot. the advertising revenue fell 50% with in a year. when the first radio program was broadcasted by the Radio Club of Bombay. allowed private FM operators to buy blocks on All India Radio. through its electronic media regulatory body Prasar Bharti. more than any other medium of entertainment or information. Within 4 years (1997-98). All India Radio (AIR) established and operated by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB). Then history changed its course. makes it hard to ignore. For more than 4 decades. decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators. was the only player till the FM radio privatization process was initiated an the year 1999. It is one of the oldest and the most accessible segments of the entertainment industry. In 1993. the FM radio advertising and sponsorship business grew to Rs 93 corers with Times of India s Times FM & Mid-day group s Radio Mid-day becoming the main players. Not surprisingly. The history of radio broadcasting in India dates back to 1923.HISTORY OF RADIO INDUSTRY Radio broadcast commenced in India in the early 1920 s. 16 . History was destined to change course once again. the government of India did not permit private radio station to broadcast in India. prepares programming content.

The government s tenth plan stipulates that private operations are to be encouraged to provide FM radio service in metros and small cities. history changed course once again.As destiny would have it. The highest bidder wins was the order of the day. And the focus on metros was evident in the bidding. July 6. which resulted in huge growth not only in FM radio industry but also in employment opportunity and has also created a demand for FM radio in other cities The government has recently also announced Phase 3 of privatization of FM radio which is expected in April 2010. the government gave the green light to privatize radio in India. At present the industry is seeing the upward trend 17 . FM Policy Phase-II has been well accepted by all stakeholders. A handful of serious bidders choose to remain. In 2001. which was an initiative in line with the road map laid out in the tenth plan. This time. And in 2000. A total of 338 channels in 91 cities across the country were made available for bidding by Indian private companies. 1999 was the history day when the government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed across 40 cities. some of these players have started launching their channel. the government had to actually face mass withdrawal of the bidders of the huge license fee. They announced Phase 2 of the privatization of FM radio. Expecting to collect Rs 800 million from auctioning 108 licenses. the government auctioned licenses for private FM channels to bolster the revenue.

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Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL) and Indian Performing Rights Society (IPRS) and certain music companies.RADIO CHARACTERISTICS y Radio is a cost effective medium to advertiser. while television viewership reaches its peak during the night slot. Radio speaks to its audience in a highly personal manner. y Excellent complementary medium. focus the delivery. 19 . Radio advertising rates are low on cost per thousand (CPT) basis as compared to other media.e. requires a royalty which is payable to the relevant societies viz. Listeners build a relationship with their local radio personalities-a rich resource into which the community can tap. y Prime time differs from television The prime time for radio listenership differs from prime time television viewing. radio does not require any commissioned original content. The biggest content i. y Interactive medium. It offers reach. frequency. music. and enhance or reinforce a message. Most of the content n radio is live. afternoon and late night time slots. impact and economical advertising solution for the advertisers. Radio listenership peaks in the morning. It can extend the reach of a campaign. y Low content costs Unlike television. Radio forms an excellent complementary medium to television and print.

y Reminder Media People generally tend to forget things. you don t have to make an extra effort to entertain yourself Encircles the audience y A Good Partner It travels with the audience. It begins where the print ends. Very Low Spill-over. Provides a good platform for area-specific campaigns. Last medium consumed before purchase. y Ambient Medium Easy to consume. Can generate quick response of any campaign. y Local Radio is a local medium. 20 . Here radio helps the ad-messages by reminding the people at the right time & place y Clutter Breaking Radio helps in breaking the clutter for any advertiser as ad-avoidance is very low in this medium y Innovative We can execute n-number of innovative ideas. wherever they go all the time.y Delivers relevant audience Listenership of radio as indicated by the Indian Listener ship Track (ILT) survey is the highest as a percentage among the younger audience.

Since the signals of station tend to be limited in their range.AM radio waves are of a lower frequency than either FM radio or TV waves. This means that there are a total of 117 different channels available for AM radio station.HOW RADIO WORKS ? Radio waves" transmit music. 21 . the nature f the transmitting antenna. a thing called ionospheric refraction. AM radio ranges from 535 to 1705 kHz. Stations can theoretically be placed every 10 happens every day in thousands of different ways! Even though radio waves are invisible and completely undetectable to humans. often over millions of miles -. They will interfere with each other. How far an AM station s signal ravels depends on such things as the station s frequency. the power of the transmitter in watts. the frequency can be used many times. AM radio technology is simpler than FM radio. AM was the dominant method of broadcasting during the first eighty years of the 20th century and remains widely used into the long as the stations are far enough apart geographically. One cannot put stations on the same frequency that are too close together in geographic area. how conductive the soil is around the antenna. along the AM band. conversations. Therefore there is a limitation in the number of radio station in an area. These are the numbers you see on your AM radio dial. they have totally changed society AM Waves AM stands for amplitude modulation. pictures and data invisibly through the air. and.

since AM radio waves can end up hundreds and even thousands of miles away. which mean that there s room for 200 FM stations on the FM band. But unlike. AM 22 . FM radio stations must be 200 kHz apart at these frequencies. or even in other countries. This means numerous stations can be put on the same frequency without interfering with each other. That s why at sunset most AM radio stations:y y y Reduce power Directionalize their signals (send it more in some dorection than others). and in the process interface with all other stations on the same frequency. AM radio stations the ground wave doesn t go very far. The ionospheric is much more effective in reflecting these radio waves at night.or becomes much harder to hear FM and TV Waves: FM stands for Frequency modulation. The FM radio band goes from 88 to 108 MHz. which can end up in other states and provinces. FM are on a higher frequency. or Go off the air This may explain why your favorite AM radio station goes off the air at sunset.Ionospheric refraction is a very big issue. FM and TV waves don t act in the same way as AM radio waves. The problem arises-if you want to see it as a problem-with the sky wave.

then the farther away from the FM or TV station you are. You may have noticed that FM stations don t reduce power or sign off the air at sunset. Although this means that FM stations don t interfere with each other. Again it means that no matter what the station power. this characteristic creates a couple of other problems. these signals will literally leave the earth after 50 miles or so. AM radio doesn t need that kind of advantage. They quickly disappear into space-which may be fine if you are sitting on mars trying to listen to your FM radio If not. 23 . Note that the earth is round-we hope this does not come as a shock to anyone-and. as we ve station. In the case of solid objects like buildings. For the most part FM and TV signals are line of sight. therefore. AM radio waves don t behave in the same way. an FM station may be at 88. or placed on top of the mountains. they can be stopped or reflected by things like mountains and buildings. since. these waves go in a straight line and don t bend around the earth as AM ground waves do. the higher you have to have an antenna to receive the FM or TV signal. its signal at some point leave the earth. That s because ionospheric refraction doesn t appreciably affect FM or TV signals.7 on the dial. FM station don t end up being assigned frequencies with nice round number like 820 or 1240. Note also from the drawing above the FM signals tend to go through the ionosphere rather than refracted form it. First. Thus. reflections create swishing sound when you listen to FM while driving around tall structures The higher the FM transmitter antennas are the greater area they will cover-which explains why these antennas are commonly very tall. Since FM signals are line of sight.

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Radio in comparison with other media vehicles Medium Newspaper Start Date 17th Century Current Reach 32 Cr Readers TV Radio Internet Mobile 1960 1975 2000 1996 45 Cr Viewers 17 Cr Listeners 5 Cr. Jan . Visitors monthly 44 Cr users connections Source: Roy Morgan Research single source data (People 14+).Dec 2008 25 .

Radio delivers 15% lift in Brand Awareness. UK ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Dramatic increase in frequency of message exposures Message reaching out to light TV viewers also. when 10% of TV Budget is re deployed on Radio -Millward Brown Study. Radio works during the hours in the day when TV audience is lower Radio works when product relevance is higher (like Pizza advertising in evening band on radio coinciding with snacking time) Radio adds Rs 5crore exclusive listeners to a TV plan 54 52 Population reached in crores That s an incremental reach of 11% to a TV plan 53 51 48 50 48 46 46 44 42 TV Source: IRS 20009 R1 TV + Print TV + Radio All media 26 .RADIO + TELEVISION ‡ ‡ Radio boosts the effect of TV Advertising when used together The Multiplier Effect.

complements TV plans RADIO DOMINATES TV DOMINATES Radio is a reach builder in the morning And a frequency builder in evening 27 .Radio is a Reach Builder in Mornings & Frequency Builder in Evenings.

Great medium to support / boost any print campaign 30 Population reached in crores 28 25 20 15 10 5 0 Press Press + Radio 28 17 . Source: A Study by US Radio Advertising Effectiveness Lab (RAEL) Radio adds an exclusive audience of 11 crores to print.RADIO + PRINT Brand Awareness Increases Dramatically For Print + Radio Campaigns The audience exposed to radio generated almost three times the brand recall compared to the audience exposed to newspapers only.

For Print + Radio Campaign Radio Offers Effective Targeting ‡ ‡ Brands can focus their activity around Key Target Groups on Radio Audience Profile Varies Across the Day.The Audience Are Able To Provide Much Better Message Playback. thereby allowing Day Part Targeting 29 .

By the end of 1996 nearly 50 million households had television sets. has swept across the country because of the rapid proliferation of small scale cable systems. setting the stage for India to develop into one of the world's largest and most competitive television environments. When India became independent in 1947. the Indian Supreme Court held that the government's monopoly over broadcasting was unconstitutional. the Congress government under Jawaharlal Nehru had three major goals: to achieve political integration. In 1936. In 1995. In the same year. Terrestrial broadcasting. introduced in 1991. AIR was made a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The early history of radio broadcasting in independent India is important because it set the parameters for the subsequent role of television in the country. to open Radio stations in Bombay and Calcutta. At Independence. Indians could view dozens of foreign and local channels and the competition for audiences and advertising revenues was one of the hottest in the world. economic development and social modernization. 30 . the Indian Broadcasting Company. By the end of 1996. The company went bankrupt in 1930 but the colonial government took over the two transmitters and the Department of Labor and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation. which has been the sole preserve of the government. the British colonial government granted a license to a private company. Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras in 1924. International satellite broadcasting.Evolution of private players The Indian television system is one of the most extensive systems in the world. provides television coverage to over 90% of India's 900 million people. Broadcasting was expected to play an important role in all three areas. the Corporation was renamed All India Radio (AIR) and placed under the Department of Communications.

which was considered an important pre-requisite of economic development. Broadcasting was harnessed for the task of political nation building. The dominant development philosophy of the time identified the problems of development as primarily internal to developing countries. religious. some quite reluctantly. Broadcasting was organized as the sole preserve of the chief architect of this process of political integration--the State.The most important challenge the government faced at independence was that of forging a nation out of the diverse political. the problem was one of old ideas hindering the process of social change and modernization and the role of broadcasting was to provide an inlet for the flow of modern ideas. to which communication solutions were thought to exist. In addition to the territories ruled directly by the British. The Indian Constitution. 31 . over 500 hundred "independent" princely states had joined the new nation. The trauma of the partition of the country into India and Pakistan and the violence between Hindus and Muslims had further weekend the political stability of the country. The country immediately found itself at war with Pakistan over one of those states--Kashmir. adopted in 1950. mandated a strong role for the Indian State in the economic development of the country. was especially expected to contribute to the process of social modernization. These endogenous causes. lack of innovation. Broadcasting was also charged with the task of aiding in the process of economic development. In short. Broadcasting. lack of entrepreneurial ability and lack of a national consciousness. included traditional value systems. The task of broadcasting was to help in overcoming the immediate crisis of political instability that followed Independence and to foster the long-term process of political modernization and nation building that was the dominant ideology of the newly formed state. National integration and the development of a "national consciousness" were among the early objectives of All India Radio. The use of broadcasting to further the development process was a natural corollary to this state-led developmental philosophy. geographic and lingual entities that composed independent India.

Madras and Lucknow in 1975. SITE (Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) was designed to test whether satellite based television services could play a role in socio-economic development. ATS-6 satellite and uplink centers at Ahmedabad and Delhi. the government carried out the first test of the possibilities of satellite based television through the SITE program.S. and British shows were also telecast sporadically. Relay stations were also set up in a number of cities to extend the coverage of the regional stations. In 1961 the broadcasts were expanded to include a school educational television project. Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on such topics as community health. television programs were beamed down for about 4 hours a day to about 2. since the 32 .and out-ofschool education. A limited number of old U.S. Television had to prove its role in the development process before it could gain a foot-hold in the country. In these early years television. citizens duties and rights. planning and national integration. The first major expansion of television in India began in 1972. The government had been reluctant to invest in television until then because it was felt that a poor country like India could not afford the medium. like radio. was considered a facilitator of the development process and its introduction was justified by the role it was asked to play in social and economic development. This was followed by stations in Srinagar and Amritsar (1973). and traffic and road sense. agricultural issues. and Calcutta. Using a U. launched in 1982.It was in the context of this dominant thinking about the role of broadcasting in India that television was introduced in 1959. Television was institutionalized as an arm of the government. when a second television station was opened in Bombay. The program was fairly successful in demonstrating the effectiveness of satellite based television in India and the lessons learnt from SITE were used by the government in designing and utilizing its own domestic satellite service INSAT. The programs dealt mainly with in. In 1975. Television broadcasts started from Delhi in September 1959 as part of All India Radio's services. Indian films and programs consisting of compilation of musicals from Indian films joined the program line-up as the first entertainment programs.400 villages in 6 states. In time.

however. The Ministry itself and sometimes the office of the Director General as well. the government launched a crash program to set up low and high power transmitters that would pick-up the satellite distributed signals and re-transmit them to surrounding areas. Doordarshan was set up as an attached office under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting--a half-way house between a public corporation and a government department.000 square kilometers. Faced with the difficulty of administering such an extensive television system television as part of All India Radio. Two events triggered the rapid growth of television that year. 33 . By 1976. In 1983 television signals were available to just 28% of the population. economic and social development in the country.government was the chief architect of political. the government found itself running a television network of eight television stations covering a population of 45 million spread over 75. the national television network. the country hosted the Asian Games and the government introduced color broadcasts for the coverage of the games. To increase television's reach. the first of the country's domestic communications satellites became operational and made possible the networking of all of Doordarshan's regional stations. In November 1982. was and continues to be. For the first time Doordarshan originated a nation-wide feed dubbed the "National Programme" which was fed from Delhi to the other stations. INSAT-1A. In practice. as a separate Department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. staffed by members of India's civil services. In 1982 television began to attain national coverage and develop as the government's preeminent media organization. Doordarshan was headed by a Director General appointed by the I and B Ministry. this had doubled by the end of 1985 and by 1990 over 90% of the population had access to television signals. the government constituted Doordarshan. Doordarshan operated much like a government department. at least as far as critical issues of policy planning and financial decision-making were concerned.

In turn. Until that time television had been funded through a combination of television licenses and allocations from the annual budget (licenses were later abolished as advertising revenues began to increase substantially). television in India was still a modest enterprise with most parts of the country getting just one channel except for the major cities which received two channels. musical programs. However.000 or so small scale cable system operators who 34 . The commercialization of Doordarshan saw the development of soap operas. A year later the figure was close to 2 million and by the end of 1994.1976 witnessed a significant event in the history of Indian television. an estimated 12 million households (a little less than one-fourth of all television households) were receiving satellite channels. situation comedies. the advent of advertising on Doordarshan. dramas. Doordarshan's earlier mandate to aid in the process of social and economic development had clearly been diluted. quiz shows and the like. By early 1992. International satellite television was introduced in India by CNN through its coverage of the Gulf War in 1991. nearly half a million Indian households were receiving StarTV telecasts. But the possibility of reaching a nation wide audience made television look increasingly attractive to advertisers after the introduction of the "National Programme" in 1982. Three months later Hong Kong based StarTV (now owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corp. accounting for about 70% of its annual expenditure.) started broadcasting five channels into India using the ASIASAT-1 satellite. Doordarshan began to shift the balance of its programming from educational and informational programs to entertainment programs. By 1990 Doordarshan's revenues from advertising were about $300 million. By 1991. This increase in viewership was made possible by the 60. Entertainment and commercial programs had begun to take center stage in the organization's programming strategies and advertising had come to be Doordarshan's main source of funding. But 1991 saw the beginnings of international satellite broadcasting in India and the government launched a major economic liberalization program. Both these events combined to change the country's television environment dramatically. Advertising began in a very small way with under 1% of Doordarshan's budget coming from advertising revenues in 1976-77.

the first Hindi satellite channel. hence the continuing reliance on film based programming. These systems have redistributed the satellite channels to their customers at rates as low as $5 a month. Hindi films are the staple of most national channels and regional channels rely heavily on a mix of Hindi and regional language films to attract audiences. The proliferation of channels has put great pressure on the Indian television programming industry. all of them using a handful of different satellites. Already the largest producer of motion pictures. show some variation of Chitrahaar. With Indian audiences clearly preferring locally produced program over foreign programs. A number of game shows are also based on movie themes. Taking advantage of the growth of the satellite television audience. talk shows and situation comedies are also gaining in popularity. Other genres like soap operas. India is poised to become a sizable producer of television programs as well.have mushroomed across the country. ESPN. is a compilation of old film songs and all the private channels. The number of hours of television programming produced in India has increased 500% from 1991 to 1996 and is expected to grow at an ever faster rate until the year 2000. 35 . seriously considering the introduction of new satellite television services for India. One of Doordarshan's most popular programs. but the production of these programs has been unable to keep up with demand. This number was expected to double by the end of 1996. Almost all Indian films are musicals and this allows for the development of inexpensive derivative programs. prominent among them ZeeTV. By the end of 1994 there were 12 satellite based channels available in India. including ZeeTV and music video channels like MTV Asia and Channel V. Chitrahaar. Despite the rapid growth of television channels from 1991 to 1996. a number of Indian satellite based television services were launched between 1991 and 1994. with a number of Indian programmers and international media companies like Turner Broadcasting. the new television services are spending heavily on the development of indigenous programs. Time-Warner. television programming continues to be dominated by the Indian film industry. CANAL 5 and Pearsons PLC.

However. Most of its programs are syndicated U. In principle. In 1994. phrases and whole sentences in English. This new commercial mandate has gradually begun to change Doordarshan's perception of who are its primary constituents--from politicians to advertisers.S. ESPN and the Discovery Channel. Only StarTV's STAR Plus channel offers broad-based English language entertainment programs. shows. The government's monopoly over television over the years has resulted in Doordarshan being tightly controlled by successive governments. But the 36 . Parliament lays down the guidelines that Doordarshan is expected to adhere to in its programming and Doordarshan's budget is debated and approved by Parliament. for example soap operas like The Bold and the Beautiful and Santa Barbara and talk shows like Donahue and Oprah.International satellite programming has opened up competition in news and public affairs programming with BBC and CNN International challenging Doordarshan's long standing monopoly. for example. that use both languages within a single telecast. are focusing on special interest programming. the government ordered Doordarshan to raise its own revenues for future expansion. co-opting private programmers to recapture viewers and advertising rupees lost to ZeeTV and StarTV. A peculiar development in television programming in India has been the use of hybrid EnglishHindi program formats. popularly called "Hinglish" formats. Commercial competition has transformed Doordarshan as well and it is scrambling to cope with the changed competitive environment. Doordarshan is answerable only to Parliament. which offer programs in Hindi and English on the same channel and even have programs. Most of the other foreign broadcasters. This takes advantage of the of the audience for television (especially the audience for satellite television) which is largely composed of middle class Indians who have some knowledge of English along with Hindi and colloquially speak a language that is primarily Hindi intermixed with words. Satellite broadcasting has threatened Doordarshan's audiences and self-preservation has spawned a new ideology in the network which is in the process of reinventing itself. including news shows. STAR Plus has a very small share of the audience in India and even this is threatened by the launch of new channels.

The government drew its right to operate the country's broadcasting services as a monopoly from the Indian Telegraph Act of 1885 which empowers the government with the exclusive right to "establish. Doordarshan continues to struggle to maintain its mandate of public service programming. Within the ambit of these provision it was assumed that media autonomy or liberalization in any form was the prerogative of the government to grant. maintain and work" wireless services. It is evident that over time the State's control over television will continue to diminish. There have been periodic attempts to reconstitute Doordarshan into a BBC-like public corporation. The Court directed the government to establish an independent public authority for "controlling and regulating" the use of airwaves. In addition. In the meantime. the Constitution forbids monopoly control over any medium by either individuals or the government. caught between the government and the market. weakening its credibility as an neutral participant in the political process. As its revenue structure begins to change and Doordarshan begins to respond to increasing commercial pressures. But the government's monopoly was challenged in the Indian Supreme Court in 1995. But the Supreme Court's recent decision ordering the government to establish 37 . Successive governments and ruling political parties have used Doordarshan to further their political agendas. the character of its programming will begin to increasingly reflect the demands and pressures of the market place. The Court held that the government monopoly over broadcasting was unconstitutional and while the government has the right to regulate broadcasting in the public interest. effectively shutting out the states from making any laws with regard to television.guidelines established by Parliament to ensure Doordarshan's political neutrality are largely ignored in the face of the majority that ruling parties have held in Parliament. The Court's decision holds out the promise of significant structural changes in Indian broadcasting and the possibility that terrestrial television may finally free itself from governmental control. but governments have been reluctant to relinquish their hold on such a powerful medium. the Constitution lists broadcasting as the sole domain of Parliament. Doordarshan has been subject more to the will of the government than the oversight of Parliament.

non-governmental organizations and social service agencies who can participate in a liberalized broadcast system. increasing advertising by small local brands and introduction of new performance measurement tool.India. The drivers and challenges explain the factors influencing growth of the industry including increasing radio listener base. 38 . The key challenges identified include royalty. India's private radio broadcasting industry exhibits a strong growth potential FM Radio Broadcasting Industry .an independent broadcasting authority to regulate television in the public interest holds the promise of allowing Indian television to escape both the stifling political control of the state and the commercial pressures of the market. community radio. political advertising and introduction of new performance measurement tool. lack of content differentiation. educational institutions. political advertising. Growth in this sector is being propelled by increasing radio listener base. There are a number of other constituencies like state governments.India FM Radio Broadcasting Industry . favourable demographics. increasing advertising by small local brands. government regulations and bargaining tactics used by advertisers. The report also highlights the current market trends namely emergence of visual radio. Radio broadcasting revenues are growing at 29% per annum. opportunities in Phase III expansion. The Supreme Court has provided an opportunity to develop a broad based television system. The report begins with privatization of radio. internet radio. favourable demographics. The market overview section gives a quick overview of the market with estimated advertising revenues and share. and profile of advertisers on radio. How the country responds to this opportunity in the next few years will determine the future of broadcasting in India in the next century. satellite radio. sales alliances and players going niche. opportunities in phase iii expansion.

Mumbai listeners can tune in to any of the seven FM stations (five from private broadcasters and two from AIR). community radio. many players have realized that high license cost is making the business unviable. The report also provides the key developments in this sector. 600 crore. five private FM radio stations have been launched. While growth of the radio broadcast industry looks exciting. In most markets.2 Billion out of US$60 Billion spent on mass media. currently radio is able to garner less than 1% of the total ad pie of Rs. number of FM stations and FM frequencies of each player. there are numerous issues facing the radio broadcasters. American radio commanded US$3. satellite radio. Is this a case of one too many? Can Indian market sustain so many radio stations? Going by the International benchmark. even 150 stations across India is a sustainable proposition. The report also provides details key developments in this sector. Government has liberalized radio broadcast and this has resulted in most media houses diversifying to offer radio services. Chief of them being the license costs and licensing policy. Government has indicated that its long-term plan is to have 150 FM stations across 40 cities. internet radio. This will constitute around 4 % of the enlarged ad pie. In Mumbai.The report identifies the current market trends including emergence of visual radio.8. radio accounts for 20% of ad spend. There are more than 6000 radio stations in US and even a developing country like Nigeria has 18 FM stations. for instance. It is estimated that in 2001. The competitive landscape profiles the major players in this sector including their business description. advertisers will spend around Rs. In some countries like Sri Lanka. number of FM stations and FM frequencies of each player. Madison media estimates that by 2004. radio manages to garner around 4-5% of the mass media spend. The competitive landscape profiles the major players in this sector in terms of business description. In India. After bidding aggressively. sales alliances and players going niche. 39 . 500 crore on radio.

This study attempts to provide better insight by exploring other markets where radio is a more established medium and then extrapolate the same to Indian markets. Radio stations that are part of established media houses would do well. consolidation is inevitable and stations groups are formed that controls most of the revenues. radio stations have grown by attracting niche audiences (like a Hispanic channel in US or a Malayalam channel in gulf) and local advertisers. media planners are quite at loss as there is inadequate information on this medium. As of today. there is a surge of activity when the media is liberalized but over a horizon of five to six years. radio should feature in the media planner's radar as a serious medium. Today.2 crores as license fee per station. We will examine three aspects relevant to media planners: 1) International trends in Radio Business 2) Radio Measurement 3) Best practices that have evolved in using the medium International trends International experiences show two distinct trends in evolution of radio business Consolidation . if one 40 .Typically. However.4. Publications having strong city edition will do have an advantage as they already have infrastructure to marshal local advertisers and also keep a tab on the pulse of the city citizens.Internationally. the industry feels that these are mere start-up issues. We expect similar consolidation exercise in India. in UK four media groups control nearly 60% of ad revenue. The broadcasters now want the government to scrap fixed license fee and move to a revenue sharing regime.As per reports. Specialization . bidders license for 37 stations. For instance. This translates to around Rs.

The popular rating system for radio that is used in US is the Arbitron's RADAR (Radio's All Dimension Audience Research) audience report. Radio Audience Measurement The question haunting most advertisers and media planners is regarding the audience measurement that will be adoptedfor Radio. Madison Media expects that the evolutionary pressures will prevail in India and radio stations will increasingly find their own niche.goes by Mumbai experience. these are many years away from being put to commercial use. as they will have access to well defined captive audience. However. the next round of RADAR plans to shift reliance from telephone survey to diary-based panel for data collection.000-person telephone survey. For instance. It measures National radio audiences and the audience size of radio commercials aired on 31 radio networks operated by large radio networks. There has been some academic discussion on use of "meters" in radio sets to determine listnership. radio audience research has not matured to the extent of television audience measurement. Even Internationally. The prime reason for inadequate advancement in radio audience measurement technique has been the small share of ad pie that radio commands and also the vast geographic spread. the concept of niche programming has not yet caught the imagination of the broadcaster and audiences find it almost impossible to distinguish one from another. We expect the trend to continue for some more time till significant advertising monies are committed on radio. Such specialist channels will be ideal medium for advertisers. station owners and advertising agencies on ad hoc basis are conducting research. However. As it is early days in India. we expect that by year 2004. emergence of stations that address only specialist audience groups . Till recently. RADAR report was based on a 12. 41 .like a special radio station dedicated to south Indians residing in Mumbai or a station that caters exclusively to college going population.

Madison Media routinely undertakes studies on radio usage. users of radio as an advertising medium can benefit from extensive work carried out in area of media effectiveness. Best Practices that have evolved in using the medium While the audience measurement is still in infancy. 42 . y Almost 51% of the people listen to FM for an average time of one hour and another 39% listen to FM for a longer period of 1-3 hours. Indicative surveys are being conducted and published periodically by research agencies. In the mean time. remixes (37%) and English pop (33%). audience measurement technique for radio will improve and a currency will be established for buying commercial time and selection of alternatives. The most impressive in this genre of research has been the Radio Recall Research (RRR). weekdays where the number of tune-ins is as high as 94%. y Sunday listenership is dramatically low with only 10% of the people tuning in to FM vs. Advertising agencies also conduct periodic dipstick surveys. Radio Mirchi is the most popular station and is tuned by people in SEC A and B. Most of these studies have been conducted in developed markets like UK and USA. Key Findings from Madison Media Research y y Radio has a reach of 56% and there is a distinct skew towards males. we suggest that advertisers should not ignore the media owing to nonavailability of any established audience measurement data. which tested 1200 commercials with 200 respondents per commercial. while driving (32%). y Majority of the people listen to Hindi film songs (63%). at public places (9%) and at the office (7%). · People listen to FM at home (70%). followed by Hindi pop (40%).We expect that over a period of time.

This exhaustive study was conducted in early 1980s and subsequent research added to the body of available knowledge. we do not expect car owners to be the largest audience for radio. given the low penetration of ownership of personal cars in India. A study by Voice of British Advertisers shows that radio is the most effective medium to target businessmen. UK indicates. Exploit Drive Time Audiences . It is more important to understand that radio will be the best medium to target upwardly mobile high spending executives and businessmen. that nearly 85% of in-car audience do not shift stations frequently. International experience suggests that music oriented properties targeted at youth last long and provide immense benefit to advertisers. adapted to Indian context and arrived at set of best practices for radio advertising. "Binaca Geet Mala" on radio was as one of the best media properties. However. they are invaluable in providing directions and we at Madison Media have distilled these findings. There are mixed reports with regard to station switching behavior among in car listeners. advertisers should be willing to enter early and commit long term investment. It will be incorrect to directly transplant those learning's in Indian context. Create Unique Properties . To create such high decibel properties. However. other studies indicate there is extremely low loyalty among in car 43 . contrary to popular myth. A research by Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB). Studies have demonstrated that in-car listeners are light consumers of other media like television. However. Closer home. It is not important whether in-car listeners will form the bulk of listnership base. It might take some time before the properties start to reward the advertisers and advertisers should be willing to fork out the extra premium now before the medium gets established.studies clearly demonstrate that properties created on radio are cost effective and have advantage of high recall. making radio a very effective medium.the traditional bastion of radio has been the "In car" listening.

Though airing multiple variants is recommended.studies have clearly established that length of the commercial had a positive impact on the ad. radio can be advantageously used in creating sonic elements of a brand. In other markets. In general. RRR studies also indicate that more brand mentions in the commercial were good for ad recall and was more effective when the brand was mentioned early in the ad. as one need not air the complete commercial to register recall. Another series of studies called "distraction study" tried to simulate the fact that radio listening is always secondary activity. which state 44 . spots of 45 seconds or more were effective. shows that three out of four consumers who watch a television spot will "replay" the visual image mentally when they hear a radio commercial for the same brand. These tests also indicated that listeners were able to create and keep images fresh and top-of-mind even when engaged in other task. Creation of sonic branding reduces long term cost of advertising. Exploit Imagery Transfer . The ads that were repeated too often were disliked. Effective Radio Copy Management .a study by Statistical research Inc. In any case. where aural brand elements are used is very effective in sustaining brand's recall (tring tring of Britannia). Copy variation can offset this fatigue and it is suggested to have three variants of the same theme. This is called Imagery Transfer. it is undeniable that for brands that target at affluent section of the society need to be actively associated with radio.listeners. As can be fathomed. Moreover. It is through imagery transfer that radio creates a synergy with television. Recent studies shown that Sonic branding. there is evidence. fatigue factor is high with radio commercials. many successful service brands especially those in office supplies and financial services have benefited tremendously by judicious use of radio.

that simultaneous airing of more than 5 executions leads to decay in effectiveness. on an average. Millward Brown conducted the study across October 1999 to April to find out how effective radio advertising can be relative to television. The broad findings of the study proved that radio was.apart from RRR. another monumental study is the Millward Brown study on radio multiplier effect. This study involved nearly 5500 interviews in continuous research to track awareness and attitudes to 17 brands. three-fifths as efficient as television at driving advertising awareness amongst radio listeners. Radio Multiplier Effect . The media tested were Commercial Radio and television in the Central Region of UK. and in general. if 10% of a given television budget is re-deployed onto radio. ads that were liked had higher impact. As in any other media. used in conjunction with a television campaign. the efficiency of the campaign in building awareness increases on average by 15% as shown in table below: 45 . it proved to be an effective medium.

46 . Of course. the study makes a strong case for advertisers to divert a small portion of their TV budget to radio. broadcasters need to develop the market by being more responsive to the advertiser's needs.(Source: The study highlighted that radio effectiveness result was achieved at one-seventh of the cost.K and other markets. this cannot be taken as a thumb rule as there will be wide variance between rates in However. Conclusion Radio offers tremendous opportunities for advertisers and media planners need to explore various options by which they can effectively use radio in their media mix. Conversely. This will provide an opportunity for the market to arrive at the final verdict on the effectiveness of the medium.

740 crore by 2010.18% Print Media .12% The forecasted size of the various segments of the Media and Entertainment industry in India till 2010 is: y y y y y Radio .Rs 1.32% Music .700 crore Film Industry . The forecasted CAGR of various segments of the Media and Entertainment industry in India till 2010 is: y y y y y Radio . At present the industry is seeing the upward trend.24% Film Industry . 47 .Rs 42.1% Television . across the country is expected to grow.Rs 740 crore Television .500 crore The government has announced Phase 3 of privatization of FM radio which is expected in April 2010.Rs 15.200 crore Music .Rs 19.FUTURE SCENARIO The Indian Media and Entertainment industry is forecasted to grow at an annual growth rate of 19 per cent to reach Rs 83. Therefore large number of radio stations.300 crore Print Media .

providing little loyalty to any particular radio station.Porter s Five Forces Model Bargaining power of Buyers High y Buyers (listeners as well as advertisers) do not face significant switching costs Advertisers are extremely price sensitive. Advertising buyers dictate radio programming choices Since most suppliers to Broadcasters have either been acquired/ have a tie-up with the broadcasters. Listenership tastes frequently change. New entrant has some problems finding skilled professionals.Medium y Threat of New Entrants Low y y y 48 . Long-lasting economies of learning and scale also demotivate the potential new entrant y y Bargaining Power of the Suppliers Low . the bargaining power of suppliers is low. Serviceable used equipment is expensive. High start-up capital is a big demotivator.

Also. Also.Threat of Substitutes Medium y y Customers incur no switching costs. Intensity of Rivalry among Competitors High y y y Larger firms have created a critical mass. adequate substitutes are available. Competition is fierce. and also acquisitions/mergers are Note on Porter s 5 forces As we see. There are significant brand identities and product differences. One Broadcasting medium substitute for the other(CD s as a replacement For Radio). capacity to induce users to subsidiaries Companies and products. 49 . Ethics are often questionable. content providers who don t have any contractual arrangements with broadcasters can leverage the online revenue models directly. Possibly. created size by consolidating complementing firms. We note that the buyers are primarily listeners and also advertisers. the Industry could be classified as relatively unattractive since the power of the forces is high. Exit barriers are low.

Key Private Players in Radio Industry 50 .

3 Radio Mirchi Times of India Group 51 .0 Brand Name Radio City Red Fm My Fm Radio One Owner Star India Pvt Ltd South Asia FM Ltd Bhaskar group Mid-Day Multimedia Limited 98.1 93.4 94. ALL PRIVATE RADIO CHANNELS IN AHMEDABAD Frequency 91.3 95.INTRODUCTION Private FM radio has emerged as the fastest growing segment in the media.

humour and gossip delivered by a hugely popular team of radio jockeys have revived and revolutionised radio-listening habits across all our markets. Radio City 91. The programming is backed by extensive research and we deliver content that is tinged with the local flavour. Akola. Sholapur. Sangli. This combined with its music expertise and creativity provides for compelling content Since its inception. Vizag. Coimbatore. Remix Raja. Radio City's range of innovative and popular shows cut across audiences. Radio City has its content tailored to fit the wants and needs of the local audiences and speaks the language of the people. the simulcast of Sonys Indian Idol 2. 52 . Delhi. friendly radio jockeys and fresh music uniquely position Radio City to cater to the mass premium audience across India's most important cities. It now brings a unique and uniform brand experience. Ahmednagar. Radio City has used every opportunity to innovate with the category and build stronger involvement and listenership.1FM's differentiated music offers listeners melodious Adult Contemporary (AC) music along with a vibrant outlook. Playing truly popular music. Hottest chart busters.91. A history of innovative programming. events. in the language of the people. Chennai. The programming at Radio City is strategically planned to uplift the mood of its listeners. 'Whatte Fun'. talk shows. Shaam-e-Ghazal with Roop Kumar Rathod and Maan Na Maan Superstar Tera Mehmaan. Pune. Jaipur. Radio City is characterized by exciting shows that give it unmatched popular appeal. They have always catered to our audience's demands. The medley of songs. Nagpur. Ahmedabad. the private FM network has captured the hearts of millions of listeners across 20 FM stations in Mumbai.1FM is promoted by Music Broadcast Private Limited (MBPL). Nanded and Jalgaon. Radio City has given radio a new dimension with the concept of 'Celebrity RJ' starting with Life Ki Dhun with Sonu Nigaam. Life Ki Dhun with Sonu Niigaam. Bangalore. Vadodara. RC Live. Lucknow.1 RADIO CITY Radio City 91. contests. in line with the vision of creating a national brand. Radio City programming has also had the distinction of successfully pioneering many path breaking programmes on radio like Musical-e-Azam. Hyderabad. Surat.

As solution providers to advertisers. Planet Radio City is India's first all-inclusive Music Portal that offers users information. The website offers unique applications and features hitherto missing from the music websites of Indian origin.experts and amateurs. Radio City invests in understanding the advertiser's imperatives and product propositions. In short.1FM is committed to growing the market and creating superlative content quality audiences nationwide. allows Radio City to deliver a unique listening experience and be an integral part of the lives of listeners. entertainment and interactivity. MBPL has recently forayed into the domain of the Internet with PlaneRadiocity. Aggressively looking at spreading the Radio City experience across the country. Radio City has always been abreast with the latest in technology. Radio City broadcasts round-the-clock using state of the art digital stereo FM for unmatched quality in signal strength. clarity and brilliance. Radio City 91. serious music lover. The idea is to design a highly customized offering to optimally convey the USP of the advertiser's product offering to the FM brand's discerning listeners while presenting to them choicest infotainment. gripping fiction.planetradiocity. 53 .com is a one-stop shop for music lovers and musicians. children's programming and the best of Bollywood celebrity interviews.humorous Babbar Sher. professional counselling. you hear it first and better only on Radio City!. In an endeavour to harness new technologies to connect through music with its chosen audience. rip-roaring (www. The site is targeted not just at the passionate. Radio City has world class studio facilities across markets A sustained focus on understanding listeners and leveraging the synergies of music expertise and innovative programming. PlanetRadiocity. interactive game keen on information and discovering new music but also musicians and music enthusiasts .

In quick succession it launched Bangalore. 2001. In the space of 24 months. No cost was spared in ensuring that Radio Mirchi set the standards for quality of broadcast and coverage in each of its local markets. Resources were poured into shipping the highest quality studio and transmission equipment. along the way it also became the only private FM brand in all the four metros. The latest in transmitters. mixers and coders were sourced from globally renowned suppliers based in the United States and Canada. Hyderabad and Jaipur in early 2006 and completed the final rollout of the remaining 22 stations recently.98. 170 crore (US$ 42.Today. 162. ENIL launched its first station in Indore on October 4. With revenue exceeding Rs. 2007 the company s revenue was Rs. Radio Mirchi has gone from strength to strength.6% in the financial year 2006/07.50 crore (US$ 40.5% over the previous year. Since launching its first station in Indore in 2001.63 million) up 32. 54 . it is one of the largest private FM radio networks in India with licences in 32 cities. After successfully bidding for licenses in the Phase I auction in 2000. As on date all 32 stations are on air. had an estimated 45% market share (Source: internal data).The company grew 43. in its space. In the first nine months ended December 31. This makes the channel the most valuable network for advertisers. Radio Mirchi made its presence felt in seven cities. Radio Mirchi was also the first off the mark to launch a station from the lot of cities included in Phase II. Radio Mirchi has the distinction of being the only private radio broadcaster to have licences in all of India s fourteen cities with a population of over 2 million.5 million) Radio Mirchi.3 RADIO MIRCHI Radio Mirchi s holding company Entertainment Network (India) Limited (ENIL) was incorporated in 1999.

3 million (RAM week 02. Delhi and Bangalore by logging a combined weekly listenership of approximately 11. In the new Radio Audience Measurement (RAM) launched by the TV ratings company TAM. In 2006 Radio Mirchi was conferred the status of Superbrands in India. It won four of the six RAPA awards received by radio broadcasters from the Radio and Television Advertising Practitioners Association of India in 2004.The channel s strength can also be gauged from the fact that Radio Mirchi s total daily reach in the metropolitan cities of Mumbai. This is the highest of any station in these three cities combined. Delhi and Kolkata was 7. This is higher than the all India reach of the leading satellite TV channel. 55 . 2008). Across its 32 cities this perky entertainment brand reaches out to an estimated 22 million listeners every day. Radio Mirchi dominated Mumbai.7 million listeners (Source: Indian Listenership Track Wave 4 2007). Radio Mirchi is also the only media brand to have won a Gold for Best Activity Generating Brand Loyalty and a bronze for Best Activity Generating Brand Awareness and Trial at the 2004 Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia. It also won two Golds at the Ad Club Kolkata and a Gold at the Ad Club Bangalore Awards function. and seven out of eight in 2005. It has received due recognition from several quarters. In 2007 Radio Mirchi won four RAPA Awards. But it s not just in the metros that Radio Mirchi scores. Not surprisingly Radio Mirchi is also a favourite with advertisers.

With it's team of dedicated professionals. efficiency and dedicated service. The deals. that are made. it offers the best follow up service. wholesome entertainment-oriented package and there is a substantial localization of content to retain the regional flavour. round-the-clock.The top slot is a result of a carefully planned thoroughly enjoyable. it is today one of the highly appreciated professional marketing unit among radio stations. It has become our nature to occupy the first slot in whatever we do. are mutually beneficial and uniform. Two Daily Newspapers and Four Magazines in several Indian languages. India's largest television network has powerpacked Twenty TV channels. Apart from offering the available advertisement time in the most effective way. Fourty Six FM Radio Stations. 56 . Sun TV Network Limited's foray into FM radio is no exception either. It functions with the motto professionalism. Delhi : Mumbai : Kolkata : Vishakapatinam : Bangalore : Gulbarga : Hyderabad : Warangal : Jaipur : Bhubaneshwar : Pune : Aurangabad : Nashik : Nagpur : Tirupati : Lucknow : Bhopal : Vadodara : Rajkot : Ahmedabad : Kozhikode : Indore : Vijayawada : Varanasi : Gangtok : Siliguri : Guwahati : Shillong : Aizwal : Asansol : Jamshedpur : Rajahmundry : Kanpur : Thiruvananthapuram : Kochi : Thrissur : Mangalore : Mysore : Kannur : Allahabad : Jabalpur The marketing department is wholly responsible for the advertisement sales of Red FM stations.4 Red FM Sun TV Network.93.

94.3 MY FM-Jiyo Dil Se Company Overview 57 .

M Block market Greater Kailash-2 New Delhi Ahmedabad Office: 94. 72.55 crore readers My Fm is owned by Synergy Media Entertainment Limited which is wholly owned company of the Bhaskar group. Bhaskar house Nr YMCA Club Sarkhej-Gandhinagar highway Ahmedabad 58 .94.3 My FM Synergy Media Entertainment 2nd floor.3 MY FM The D B Corp Ltd.3 My FM Synergy Media Entertainment 208. is one of the largest media groups of the country and is the largest read newspaper group in the country with over Rs 1. Company Profile: Synergy Media Entertainment Limited Brand Name: My Fm Corporate Office: 94.

making them most widely read newspaper group in India.3 My Fm in Ahmedabad on July 21. 2007. launched 94. My Fm Vision To be among the top three FM radio networks in India by the year 2012 and to positively impact and enrich the lives of its employees. Synergy Media Entertainment limited has also filed eligibility bid with the government of India to operate an additional 4 FM radio station in Mumbai. Bangalore. Synergy Media Entertainment limited has a significant presence in the radio business under the brand name My Fm. a Bhaskar group company. have a combined readership of more than 25. New Delhi and Hyderabad. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. DNA Money and DNA (in Gujarat). Harayana. Dainik bhaskar is the most widely read newspaper in Chandigarh. Through Synergy Media Entertainment limited they have acquired license to operate in 17 cties in 7 different states.B Corp is one of the leading print companies in India.They are one of the fastest growing major newspaper group in India. They have the license to operate 17 stations. D.33 million readers. My Fm Mission 94. on franchisee basis. listeners and business associates by following its five guiding principles of management philosophy. Dainik bhaskar and Divya bhaskar. refreshing and informative content which will not only entertain them but will also take care of their emotional needs. Divya bhaskar is a Gujarati daily newspaper. listeners and business associates by offering them relaxing.3 My Fm will strive to become an indispensible part of the lives of its employees. publishing 31 newspaper editions and 125 sub editions in three languages (Hindi. Chattisgarh. Their flagship newspapers.Synergy Media Entertainment limited. Gujarati and English). y Empowerment y Fearlessness y Innovation y Openness y Creativity 59 . Their other news papers are Saurashtra Samachar and .

Chhattisgarh :. Bilaspur 3.Jaipur.Ahmedabad.Indore.Currently in 7 states and 17 cities 1. Kota.Raipur. 60 . Bhopal. 2006. Amritsar 6. Gujrat :. Haryana :. Udaipur. Jodhpur. Gwalior 2. Jabalpur. Punjab :. Surat 5.Nagpur Jaipur was the first station launched on 28th May.Chandigarh 7. Maharashtra :. Ajmer 4.Jalandhar. Rajasthan :. Madhya Pradesh :.

responsive to listeners aspirations and ever eager to serve them better. The brand operates at he single frequency i. jiyo dil se . My Fm has designed its shows according to the preference of the consumers with the help of extensive research and survey. The freshness in the branding will ensure that My Fm stays young. 94. suno dil ke. and other hot spots. The type of music to be played in a particular time band is also derived based on research. naa dene kaa. The campaign is supported by extensive advertising in print and on air.colleges.e. Harish Bhatia coo. the Fm brand from Synergy Media Entertainment limited has embarked on a new campaign to better connect with its listeners and seeking to reach out to them in various touch points. My Fm has come up with various campaigns like Tention naa lene ka. My Fm is calling for its listeners to Jiyo dil se . my fm said the campaign jiyo dil se s an extenton of my fm s commitment and its understanding of the evolving audience preferences. malls.The brand was decided as My Fm as it is a right reflection of the one to one relationship with an emotional ownership of the medium with the listeners. 61 .jiyo dil se -these are set to become a lifestyle statement of the youth. Dimag to dimag hai.3 over all 17 stations.

DEPARTMENTAL ANALYSIS Overview of the departmental structure of My Fm 62 .

At certain level of rate sales executive of the other company has to say no while My Fm sales team can close the deal. y y The station head plans the sales in the meeting with his sales executives. ad agencies and close the deal with them. y The station director cluster head gives the revenue target to each station that are responsible for the target achievement. For that they need to move in he field. They are responsible for the collection. Their task is to sell the inventory in the form of seconds and generating revenues for the station. 63 . The performance is reviewed monthly. Strength y My Fm sales team can easily compete with other players with negotiated rate to attract prize sensitive customer and get an edge over competitors. Sales Planning y Sales planning is very important and responsible work because sales department is the revenue generating department and performance of the company depends on the sales growth.Sales Department Sales department in My Fm consists of Sales executives. approach clients. Each of them have their individual target and to achieve their target they can offer activities like on ground activity and on air selling. y y Ales executives are also responsible for collection from companies and dealers. Every sales executive is given the target based on area or sector. Responsibilities y y The station head is responsible for sales target Sales executives are responsible for sales as well as reporting to the station head for the sales.

y y My Fm enjoys synergy of both print and radio medium. Marketing executive makes plan with station head according to the budget given by regional marketing head. Some times the advantage of print synergy results in the lower revenue earning for it. y My Fm has an advantage in terms of print synergy but its when the sales people of Divya Bhaskar close deal of My Fm they often have to provide the very low rate. Weakness y My Fm has strategy if volume sales. Marketing executive s main job is to find out innovative ways for promotion and branding. regional corporate retail. But so formally this procedure is not followed by the sale team. national corporate retail. Marketing Department My Fm has marketing executive who are responsible for all the marketing activities like branding. And this task is to come with ideas for gaining brand and frequency recall. advertising and promotion. 64 . y Sales team is having benefit of Divya Bhaskar brand equity which is a recognized brand in the city. Sales team in doing business for volume with negotiated lower rates which can generate higher revenue y The volume ales strategy wit lower rate may have perception of lower quality in mind of customers. In the complex deal to compete with the competitors. This large data base provides sales team great potential customer.y With help of Divya Bhaskar data base My Fm sales team can access the retail client of the city. y My fm has segmented its clients in categories like. sales team can offer combo pack of print + radio. and retail and government division.

They are responsible to meet all the legal aspects of programming like which can be produced on radio or not? Programming head is also responsible to make his team work and complete their work in time and with all legal aspect. Programming Department In My FM programming department is headed by programming head that is responsible for programming activity of the station.Strength y y My Fm has good presence through aggressive advertising and branding. Weakness My Fm has most of the barter deals Now in hat it becomes media partner and gets a free brand promotion in the event. which can increase the value of its brand. It has good visibility in the city by on ground activities as well as aggressive branding strategy. In exchange My Fm would freely promote the event on radio. 65 . Department also makes programming which have involvement from listeners also. So here money or margin is not involved in whole transaction. Their task is to make more creative programming which can attract listeners. y My Fm always takes participation in any event organized at spot places.

My Fm has a volume based strategy to reach their target. It generally covers a period of one year. Budgeting Budgets are an important tool for effective short term planning and control in organizations planning. the unit has an objective of achieving its annual sales target. Organizational objectives Every organization has typical objectives. Financial objectives. Strategy Strategies are plans to achieve organizational goals. In My Fm sales team 66 . It is a management commitment in that managers agree to accept responsibility for attaining the budgeted objectives. Strategies differ between organization and control should be tailored to the requirements of specific strategies. Strategy planning and budgeting are simultaneous process.MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM Management control system is meant for effective implementations of chosen strategy. Again these objectives can be divided into two parts. It tries to ensure that each and every member of the organization direct their efforts to implement the organizational strategies.% increase in market share Customer satisfaction Here in case of My Fm. In case of My Fm station head allocates the task to its sales team and make sure that they will give their maximum to implement the strategy objective of the firm. Their strategy is to sell most of its inventory in the form of seconds even below the average selling price to gain volume business.Double digit growth in sales Return on investment Non financial objectives.

members are responsible for their own categories. 67 . Vadilal. Nirma. The above figure shows that how the categories are made and the clients are divided. My Fm has a huge data base of clients. Paras etc. National corporate client people look after those whose head quarters are located locally within Gujarat and they deal with My Fm for national advertisement i. The retail people look after the local advertisers who are based only in a particular city. Now this database is divided into segments. There is also one specific executive who looks after government clients.e.

Incentive is generally 20% of gross salary. incentives are linked with the target achievement.Performance measures A performance measure system is simply a mechanism that improves the likelihood of the organization that will implement the strategies successfully. sales team is evaluated on the basis of their targets. Compensation The key to motivating people to behave in a manner that further an organization s goals lies in the way the organization s incentives relate to the individual s goals. Incentive is paid monthly to the sales team. 68 . In My Fm. They have monthly tracker of their target versus achievement which it self is a motivational factor for them. It provides for the effective implementation of the strategy. A sales executive achieving at least 80% of his/her target will get 100% of incentive. In My Fm.

pricing. Strategy Expansion of the network of out of home media sites managed by My Fm Explore opportunities to lease sites on long term bases.Marketing Plan In general. Introduce innovative technology and processes Marketing in My Fm follows the following approach y y y y Association for ground visibility Contest My Fm events Branding 69 . marketing plays an important role in brand building. marketing activities are all those associated with identifying the particular wants and needs of the target market of the competitors. This involves market research on customers. In a place like Ahmedabad with its town like stature. promotion and distribution. analyzing their needs and then taking marketing strategy decision about product design.

3 across the station The brand id 94. Process 7. housewives. The brand operates at the single frequency 94. Physical evidence 6. So programming caters to all strata of society. People PRODUCT MIX y Brand The brand is My Fm. Promotion 5. y Language In Ahmedabad My Fm has made their programs 60% in Hindi. 20% in Gujarati and 20% in English.young. So. while they target the young population.7 P s Of Marketing 1. Product 2. also listeners who are 40 plus. As it is a right reflection of the one to one relationship with an emotional ownership of the medium with the listener s. Price 3.3 My Fm Jiyo Dil Se y Target segment They have a large chunk of listeners who are. 70 . Place 4. they cannot afford to ignore the other large segment of the society.

SHOWS SCHEDULE Monday to Friday: Timings 6 am to 7 am 7 am to 11 am 11 am to 2 pm 2 pm to 5 pm 5 pm to 9 pm 9 pm to 11 pm 11 pm to 1 am Show name Araadhana Salaam Ahmedabad 16 Always Dil Chaahte Hai Happy Evenings Chandani Raatein My World Hosted Back to Back RJ Ankit & RJ Krupa RJ Payal RJ Ekta RJ Vishal RJ Mamta Back to Back Saturday: Timings 6 am to 7 am 7 am to 11 am 11 am to 2 pm 2 pm to 5 pm 5 pm to 9 pm 9 pm to 12 pm Show name Araadhana Salaam Ahmedabad 16 Always Dil Chaahte Hai Happy Evenings Rock the party Hosted Back to Back RJ Ankit & RJ Krupa RJ Payal RJ Ekta RJ Vishal DJ Akhil 71 .

E .Sunday: Timings 6 am to 7 am 7 am to 9 am 9 am to 12 pm 12 pm to 2 pm 2 pm to 3 pm 7 pm to 9 pm 9 pm to 12 am Show name Araadhana Lazy Lahme My Fm top 30 Numerology Home Shanti Home Icons Shaam .Ghazal Hosted Back to Back Back to Back RJ Abhi Sanjay Jumaani RJ Vishal RJ Krupa RJ Ayaz y y y y y y y Family (7:00 am to 11:00 am) Housewife (11:00 pm to 2:00 pm) Youth (2:00 pm to 5:00 pm) Evening drive time (5:00 pm to 9:00 pm) Late evening(9:00 pm to 11:00 pm) Night (11:00 pm to 1:00 am) Late night (1:00 pm to 7 am) 72 .

PRICE MIX As far as advertisement rates are concerned. 73 . It provides advertisement n print also if the customer hives an ad in the radio. rates are based on negotiation for My Fm.

74 .

75 .

Bhopal. Contests My Fm does on air activity and asks question to listener and one who gives answers to question will get a prize like movie tickets. While in theme advertising just a poster of joy with tag line of My Fm is highlighted. raiur.3 FM Brand visibility: Corporate cricket Celebrating hoil Sponsored IIM-A chaos Organizing movie screenings Blood donation Camp Contest on air and on website Promotion Advertisements: My Fm does two types of advertisements.Place Station: 17 cities and 7 states Frequency: 94. Also MY FM MY SINGAPORE contests are played for 6 cities like Indore. Chandigarh. water park tickets and gift vouchers. jaipur and ahmedabad. In mode advertising frequency of My Fm is highlighted to target the customer so that they can recall station with frequency. 76 . One is theme advertising and other is mode advertising.

Promotions help to create brand awareness and thus support the physical evidence. Gifts help to create peripheral evidence. Anyone can set the frequency and avail the service anywhere. Event organization-they also have been organizing or sponsoring several programs which again help to create awareness and visibility which helps to attract more listeners to tune into. My Fm has a colorful and interactive website which is useful for not just listeners but also helps to get ad revenue by quoting charges for ads per second. 77 . which listeners take away with them and motivates them to tune into in help in more interaction.MY HAAR MY JEET contest was played in Ahmedabad in association with AB Jewels. My Fm organized cricket Maha Sangram where all the corporate of Gujarat were invited to play cricket. It also has interesting contest and music download which attract the music lovers. Thus it also helps to get an idea of how to approach My Fm for campaigns. Physical Evidence Being a service provider and also available anywhere at anytime in physical evidence depends on the customers.

culture and ethos.Process A radio wave is an electromagnetic wave propagated by an antenna. Radio waves have different frequencies. the programming teams are trained for nothing less than three to six months. Here Radio jocks plat an important part in creating a special relationship with the listeners and thus helps to create the differentiation. The listeners can tune the radio receiver to a specific frequency to catch a specific radio signal. There is a lot of research before the launch of any station. Mirchi has much better technology as all of its equipments are imported from USA and Canada for better quality broadcast and coverage. They ensure that they are in touch with the localities. The size of the antenna depends on the frequency of the signal to be transmitted or received. They can develop a special liking whereby the listeners will prefer listen to their shows due to the preference of RJ s 78 . People They are hiring only local talents and there s no dearth of talent in this country. They don t import radio jocks from the metros and impose them on an alien city.


How often do you listen to radio? (In a week)

Listenership (In a week)
13% 26% 48% 1% 10% 2%
2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times 6 times 7 times

From the sample of 200 respondents, only 1% (3) listen to radio twice a week and can be considered as hard nuts to crack with negligible preference towards radio while from the graph it can be seen that 48% (96) listen to radio 5 times a week and 26% (51) of the respondents listen to radio 6 times a week who are clear prospects and can be easily converted to regular listeners by fulfilling their expectations from private radio stations. The statistics clearly indicate that majority of the respondents who prefer listening to radio, listen on almost regular basis. This would suggest that they would prefer listening to radio almost daily followed by a schedule in which they would like to listen. Furthermore, it can be seen that with the constant growth in the radio industry, the preference towards this media is increasing among general public and thus the respondents generally prefer listening to radio in an on and off basis. For those 10% (21) and 2% (5) of respondents who listen to radio 3 and 4 times a week respectively, the preference towards radio although not clearly defined, we can still assume that their preference for radio is not negligible and they can be converted to regular listeners with research on their requirements and filling that gap.


Why do you listen to radio?

Reasons for listening to Radio
For RJ's News Traffic Updates Relaxation Entertainment 0 100 6 9 5 142 112 200 No of Listeners

From the sample of 200 respondents, 112 respondents listen to radio for the purpose of entertainment and so this directly poses a clear requirement of entertaining shows on air rather than shows which are more socially inclined. Again 142 respondents listen to radio for the sole purpose of getting relaxed which indicates that the private radio stations should make sure that the scheduling of shows and songs on air should be such that there are hardly any repetitions which bring a sense of freshness and newness to the listeners. These listeners are those who already tend to have an inclination towards radio. There are only 6 and 5 respondents out of 200 who listen to radio for RJ s and Traffic Updates and so it can be clearly said that the private players cannot position their brand through their RJ s or any other social cause. The only reason for this is that this medium is considered as


solely relaxation and entertaining medium and thus for the reasons like traffic updates or news the respondents rather prefer other medium like television or print media. As far as the RJ s are concerned, only 6 respondents listen to radio for the RJ s and so it indicates that the radio station cannot achieve audience applauds through powerful RJ strength. Although, it being their ad-on benefit the radio stations must focus on music and entertainment part of the shows on air.


From 200 respondents. The preference for this radio station nearing Radio Mirchi and so it might pose as a threat to the leader over a period of time. This shows that the radio station is rapidly gaining popularity since its rebranding which occurred in August 2009.3FM My FM Radio One Radio Mirchi This question is a clear depiction of the listeners preference for all the private radio stations.3FM 95.5FM Radio City Red FM 16 No of listeners 94.0FM 98. 93 prefer listening to Radio Mirchi which is an undisputed leader in the market since its inception 8 years back.Which radio station do you prefer listening to? Preferred Radio Stations 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 91 69 93 9 91. This shows that the image of Radio Mirchi is consistent in the mind of the listeners as a leader and they might have maintained this image due constant differenciation in their shows. 91 respondents have selected Sun TV Network s Red FM which was then S FM. From the graph.1FM 93. 83 .

the radio station is gaining more and more popularity among youngsters since its inception in 2007. Radio City and Radio One are lagging behind in terms of preference of listenership which might be due to their stagnancy and monotonous approach towards shows on air. 84 .While Bhaskar Group s My FM is catching up the ladder with a preference by 69 respondents and their positioning strategy Jiyo Dil Se .

-4. For less than 1 hour of listenership number of males listening to radio is higher than the females.-8. this ratio changes and in the time slot of 2 to 4 hours of listenership the ratio gets reversed wherein female listenership leads over the males.-4. 3 4 7 <8 2 2 4 Total 103 97 200 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 >1 1.-2. <8 Male Female From the above graph we can derive that there is a relation between the number of hours spent on listening to radio and gender.-8.Cross tabulation (time spent on radio with gender) >1 Male Female Total 24 15 39 1. 2. With the increase in number of hours as seen from the graph. As we move ahead with the increase in number of hours of listenership time the ratio gets equalized. 85 . 4.-2. 43 46 89 4. 31 30 61 2.

When do you listen to radio? Time slots of listenership 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 162 72 55 22 0 10 40 No of listeners From the 200 respondents. 86 . 162 respondents listen to radio between 7am to 11am.e. as shown in the graph above. During this time slot. radio stations should position their shows in such a way that it peps up the mood of the listener and the listener moves towards the start of the day with a light and cheerful mood. This clearly indicates that the morning time slot is the prime time slot wherein people are in a relaxed mood to listen to radio as a background score. Again it can also be derived that during this time slot people move to their respective working places and so they listen to radio while driving. majority of them i.

With this positioning. While driving back they would like to hear bollywood latest and upbeat music which would pep up their mood and would help them relieve themselves from all the pressures at workplaces. only 32 respondents prefer this time slot with the bare minimum requirement of absolute entertainment because audience listening to radio during these hours are generally found more demanding then others. The final slots lie between 11am to 5 pm. But this time slot is youth s favourite as well. Thus.Another time slot preferred is from 9pm to 12midnight wherein the respondents have just ended their daily hectic schedule of work and are in a mood to relax. 87 . the stations can directly cater all the types of audiences without any glitches. basically meant for entertaining the homemakers but these days the trend has shifted towards TV wherein the daily soaps have taken charge for that time slot and keeps the homemakers busy. So radio stations must position their shows with a clubbed mixture of English and upbeat. Next favourite time slots are 5pm to 9pm slots together in which again the office goers are returning and are in a mood to cheer up for their personal lives.

From 200 respondents. the more likeability and preference of the respondent would be received. The second preferred location is home which has been preferred by 125 respondents. This directly coincides with the preferred time slots and so we can match both to come to a common strategy.Where do you listen to radio? Place of Listenership 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 125 128 36 0 No of listeners By knowing about the places where the respondents listen to radio. 88 . we can derive their attitude towards radio and their preference over it. The jazzier and happening these hours would be. 128 respondents listen to radio while travelling so from this we can derive the strategy for the shows on air during the peak hours of the city. Obviously these respondents would be listening to radio for entertainment primarily and then for relaxation.

Generally at work people do not prefer listening to radio while only 36 respondents say that they listen to radio to get refreshed in their lunch hours. Thus this segment should be catered with customization i. providing shows which makes them feel treated with great importance thus adding to their listenership.e. 89 .

Which voice do you prefer to listen on radio? Preferred Voice on Radio 25% 29% Male Female Co-Hosted 46% Male voice Male Female Total 29 30 59 Female Voice 47 44 91 Co hosted 27 23 50 Total 103 97 200 90 .

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Male voice Female Voice Co hosted Male Female From 200 respondents. Although RJ s are known through their wit and spontaneity. which is a marginal difference and is solely due to spontaneous attitude and interaction with the audience Co-hosted shows on air have come into existence recently and so. Thus. 59 respondents prefer male voice on radio out of which 29 are males and 30 are females. The notion that females voices are more soothing to hear plays a vital role in this preference. prime time shows should be suggestively hosted by female RJ s to attract audience s attention. 93 respondents have a higher preference towards female voice on radio over other two options out of which 49 are male and 44 are female. these shows are gaining more and more preference over time because the pros of both the voices are assimilated in such shows which enhances interaction. 91 . Again. their voice and the frequency of their voice play a major role in changing audience s preferences.

Hindi Slow & Retro English & Upbeat 92 . Regio nal Slow Upbe at 43 38 162 22 14 10 14 39 30 24 54 - 30 30 25 34 20 45 10 24 30 13 34 44 14 20 10 24 50 36 84 57 42 34 63 28 29 51 12 - 54 30 34 - 48 55 20 30 49 10 111 49 26 18 74 46 12 66 34 56 11 64 19 64 86 Ideal Schedule Time Slot 6 AM 7 AM 7 AM 9 AM 9 AM 11 AM 11 AM 2 PM 2 PM 5 PM 5 PM 9 PM 9 PM 11 PM 11 PM 12 AM 12 AM Onwards Category Bhajans Hindi Latest Upbeat Including Hindi Latest Retro Including Hindi Slow Gazals & Hindi Slow Hindi Latest Remixes Gazal.Preference of type of music in specified time bands Time Slot 6 7 AM 7 9 9 11 11 2 PM 2 5 5 9 9 11 11 12 12 AM + Gazal Bhajan Remix Hindi Latest English Instr.

they tend to zap between the channels. The people like listening to radio for music and entertainment and so when they come across such a clutter of over commercialization. They switch to different radio stations due to the clutter caused due to excessive commercialization and advertisements. Thus radio stations should bring innovative programs which would deal with this problem and make the audience feel fulfilled with their requirements. There are only 4 respondents who are hard core loyal to their preferred radio station.Do you prefer listening to a single radio station? Preference towards single radio station 2% YES 98% NO From 200 respondents. 93 . 196 (98%) do not prefer listening to a single radio station.

This clear indication of disregard for games on radio derives that the radio stations should come up with innovative ways of interaction with the audience rather than the conventional way of interacting with the audiences on radio.Do you like playing games on radio? Preference towards playing games on radio 1% YES 99% NO From the 200 respondents. 197 (99%) do not like playing games on radio. 94 .

Have you ever played a game on any radio station? Played games or not 18% YES 82% NO Along with being a conventional way of interaction. games are also considered to be unreliable and boring. 95 . Playing games is also considered to be time consuming activity and so respondents generally prefer listening to radio jus for entertainment and radio and not for the purpose of interaction. The respondents 82% (164) do not trust the procedure and they find it untrustworthy.

their actual ranks would be as follows: RJ s RANKS # 3 MUSIC 1 INFORMATION 4 ENTERTAINMENT 2 INTERRACTION 5 96 .What all qualities do you look forward to in an ideal radio station? RANKS RADIO MUSIC INFORMATION ENTERTAINMENT INTERRACTION TOTAL JOCKEY # 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 3 64 64 61 8 200 180 6 2 12 0 200 11 45 49 78 17 200 5 80 84 18 13 200 1 5 1 31 162 200 200 200 200 200 200 Applying Mean Averages: Mean Avg.74 Thus.035 MUSIC 1. 3.225 ENTERTAINMENT 2.77 INTERRACTION 4.23 INFORMATION 3. Rank for each attribute would be as follows: RJ s MEAN AVG.

All the radio stations should make sure that their sparklers are more entertaining and interesting which would induce curiosity and ultimately avoid zapping. They are short timed fillers which increases the listenership and preference of a particular brand of radio station. 97 . 94% (184) like listening to sparklers which indicates that the respondents look forward to an entertainment which has got direct element of differentiation and without interaction. From the 200 respondents. All the sparklers have the same purpose of being short timed fillers to entertain the audience and so sparklers are highly appreciated because they are interesting and generate curiosity for something new every time.Do you like listening to sparklers? Sparklers listenership 6% YES NO 94% Sparklers used in conjunction with a programme/show to enhance the brand identity of the programme.

Which are your favourite sparklers?

Favorite Sparkler
Irfan CD Centre Pappudiya Babbarsher Ghantasingh Sud 0 50 15 82 88 100 34 58
No of Respondents

From the 200 respondents, 88 respondents are ardent fans of Sud from Mirchi. Radio Mirchi 98.3
FM presents Hasi Ke Phuvare with Sudarshan Please call me Sud Okay Sud C'mon baby, chill! If you are an avid radio listener, chances are you have heard Sudarshan aka Sud on Radio Mirchi reading out jokes from his book Hasi Ke Phuvare. Sud's (who fuels many chats in college canteens) candid remarks leave listeners in splits, at times amused and sometimes even irritated.

This sparkler is coming on air since 5 years and it has silly jokes which have created Sud a brand in itself. Myself Ghanta Singh. Born 1947, on the eve of Independence. With Graham Bellji s blessings, I make use of telefone. I call people. Ask simple stupid questions. Still people don t know answers. And in disgust they slam fone on my face. Poor they, I pity them.

BEWARE. You could be my next target!

Then comes Ghantasingh by Radio One liked by 82 respondents is a classic example of interaction with absolute fun and entertainment wherein Ghantasingh calls different people and irritates the hell out of them until they disconnect their line. Pappudiya by Red FM is again appreciated by 58 respondents wherein he interviews celebrities and then modifies their interviews to make it utter nonsensical and yet entertaining making fun of them.

Do you listen to radio on weekends?

Listenership on weekends




From 200 respondents, the listenership on weekends is not preferred by 74% (148) because weekends are considered to be times wherein people like to be with family and complete the work which they cannot do in the weekdays.


Do you think there should be different programs on Sunday?
Preference towards different types of programs on Sundays
14% YES 86% NO

Due to schedule change of radio in the weekends, people find it diverting from their regular schedule of programs on air and so from the 200 respondents, 171 do not prefer listening to radio in the weekends. Thus all the players should keenly make sure that the programs on air on Sundays should be in line with the weekday s programs and do not carry a sudden drift of change in the structure or schedule. Also another important thing which should be considered is that the audience do not like to change their schedule of listenership and so all the radio stations should follow the same pattern on Sundays keeping minor changes which keep Sundays more interesting.


At times jingles which are very appealing in terms of its music are highly praised and the radio station gains popularity on the basis of those jingles only. 156 respondents can recall jingle of My FM Jiyo Dil Se which is remarkably ahead of Red FM and Radio Mirchi whose recall is 124 and 121 respectively. From 200 respondents. Red FM says Bajate Raho while Mirchi says Mirchi Sunnewale Always Khush This indicates that the jingle should be appealing and should be consistent. While the jingle of Radio One and Radio City is low because of inconsistency in their jingle which keeps on changing and so their audience gets confused and ultimately fail to recall the jingles.Can you recall the jingles of the following radio stations? Jingle Recall 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 156 124 59 16 No of respondents 121 Jingles of radio stations are one of the strongest techniques for brand recall. The more impactful jingle is. 101 . the more it is remembered.

3FM Radio Mirchi To check the attitude of the radio stations perceived by the respondents. 81 consider Red FM to be enthusiastic and zestful which stays ahead of My FM and Radio One which are having a marginal gap having 41 and 10 respondents in their favour while Mirchi and City are not considered to be enthusiastic. From 200 respondents.5FM Red FM 94. the imagery was given and they had to relate the radio stations to that imagery.Association of radio stations with attitude Attitude Check -"Enthusiastic Imagery" 12% 20% 40% 21% 7% 91.1FM Radio City 93.0FM Radio One 98. 102 .3FM My FM 95.

Attitude Check .Commercialized Imagery" 2% 2% 91.5FM Red FM 94.0FM Radio One 0% 98.3FM My FM 95.1FM Radio City 41% 55% 93.3FM Radio Mirchi Here clear indication of commercialised imagery is shown in My FM with 109 respondents and then by Mirchi with 81 respondents favouring them. This makes a radio station commercial in the eyes of the audience. 103 . This image is forms due to excessive ads and RJ voice ratio over music.

Attitude Check . This imagery is basically reflecting the perception of people for radio stations which do not play a lot of senseless stuff on air.0FM Radio One 98.Sophisticated Imagery" 14% 17% 0% 2% 67% 91. Later 24 and 29 respondents rate Mirchi and Radio One respectively as sophisticated. This imagery is because there are less number of programs and all the programs are pertaining to something that makes sense. 104 .1FM Radio City 93.3FM Radio Mirchi The sophisticated imagery is sweeped down completely by Radio City by having 112 out of 200 respondents in its favour.3FM My FM 95.5FM Red FM 94.

1FM Radio City 93.Perfectionist Imagery" 35% 31% 91.3FM My FM 13% 11% 10% 95.5FM Red FM 94.0FM Radio One 98.Attitude Check . These two stations enjoy this status due to their holistic mixture of both good songs and good interaction.3FM Radio Mirchi The imagery of being a Perfectionist is shared in competition among Radio City and Radio Mirchi with 63 and 70 respondents in favour of them respectively. 105 . They give audience a complete package of entertainment and so they are preferred over other radio stations for this image.

3FM My FM 95.3FM Radio Mirchi 24% Final imagery is confused imagery which may be assigned due to mismanagement of programs and ads and the intention of the station not being clear as in which segment it is targeting or whom does the radio station wants to cater. 106 . So it again bears a confused image.Confused Imagery" 1% 4% 41% 30% 91. And there is My FM having 47 respondents saying that My FM because it clearly targets youth while still playing ghazals on Sundays which do not target youth.0FM Radio One 98. Radio One bears the maximum favour with 81 respondents out of 200 as it positions itself with a strategy of Maximum music fatafat wherein the songs are edited and so its promise fails.1FM Radio City 93. Then with 61 respondents who says that Red FM says Bajate Raho without really having a proper mix of interaction and music.Attitude Check .5FM Red FM 94.


y As there were two variables i. y For the analysis of the data SPSS soft ware is used Analysis of findings derived following result: 108 .e. perceptual map has been generated y The data of 200 radio listeners was collected through the survey.PECEPTUAL MAPPING y For knowing the perceptions of the consumers for various radio stations across ahmedabad on eight dimensions. multiple independent variable and a dependent variable discriminant analysis is used as a statistical tool for the final outcome of perceptual map.

400 Red FM .000 -.500 -.200 .1.800 -1.000 .600 .000 .500 -.000    109 .500 -1.500 MY FM 1.800 Radio Mirchi .000 -2.600 Radio One -.000 -1.400 .000 Series1 1.200 Radio City -.

But it scored low on RJs.y Here on X-axis is Function 1 and on Y-axis is Function 2 y Function 1 comprise of jingle recall. It has a very good jingle recall and music. A quality and entertaining sparklers were demanded from consumers. It has even overtaken radio mirchi in case 110 . It s Programs on air and sparklers add a novelty to its brand image. The jingle recall of the station showed even positive response. y People have a very strong liking of MY FM when it comes to music and Games. y Radio mirchi is perceived to be the best radio station among the listeners as it lies in positive Quadrant for both the functions. y Based on the results of FUNCTIONS AT GROUP CENTROIDS in SPSS the perceptions for listeners for all five brands has been plotted in the above graph y According to the results radio mirchi is on top where as radio city is the last. y The case of Radio one seems to be more critical than MY FM in. games and music y Function 2 comprise of sparklers. More focus on RJs Sparklers and music as per the consumer s choice and preference can surely show completely positive results for MY FM. Jingle recall was fabulous. Jingle recall among the listeners was very poor for radio city. Programs on air and sparklers. games and music. Music and games scored the highest of all. RJ and programs on air. RJ and programs on air. It has the best of RJs. y Radio city shows a positive mark for sparklers. If we compare the 5results of My FM and radio one on function one there is almost a negligible difference between the two. Results show a high negation in terms of jingle recall.

It showed the highest of disliking among consumers for games and quality of music. Radio mirchi and MY FM. 111 . Overall it showed a least preference as none of its attributes were ranked well. RJ and programs on air.e. y Radio city showed the poorest of results on both the functions. Programs on air were found below the mark compared to other four radio stations.y of function. So maintaining its value for all its strong attributes and even working and enhancing it s the attributes that contribute the highest to its downside can help them to outperform the two players i. But at the same time there is a drastic downside in case of sparkles. The jingle recall among the respondents was poor.



06 0.68 8.06 19.26 5.76 6.008 1.26 7.76 5.64 0.47 7.01 22.66 (fo-fe)² 0.12 3.86 0.15 0.48 13.26 25.01 2 0.02 58.89 0.12 0.12 2.35 0.4 0.27 5.28 0.26 3.45 91.64 0.81 17.16 4.91 0.48 0.86 1.22 0.23 34.97 0.11 0.12 0.26 0.11 94.36 0.11 2.02 6.46 0.36 0.24 0.Chi Square(Q 2) Business Gradustion Homemaker Post gradugation Service Row total 2 times 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 times 1 11 1 1 7 21 4 times 0 0 0 0 1 1 5 times 7 6 20 22 43 98 6 times 12 8 0 23 8 51 7 times 4 7 2 6 9 28 Column total 24 32 23 52 69 200 Fo 0 1 0 7 12 4 0 11 0 6 8 7 0 1 0 20 0 2 0 1 0 22 23 6 1 7 1 43 8 9 fe 0.39 1.37 0.36 0.46 0.24 2.24 0.398 114 .7 0.34 7.57 0.04 70.96 0.65 34.16 5.06 12.42 0.48 0.02 93.16 3.12 1.82 0.003 1.41 0.22 0.49 5.11 6.11 11.398 70.31 0.16 17.12 11.34 33.42 84.52 0.014 2.41 0.63 0.22 1.59 9.43 (fo-fe)²/fe = ²cal = (fo-fe)²/fe 0.92 5.16 15.01 76.86 3.

Therefore. y The number of times respondents listen to radio in a week is dependent of the occupation of the respondents 115 .398 ²tab = 37. of rows c = No.652 ²cal > ²tab Thus.1) = 25 From the calculation above: ²cal = 70. of columns df = Degree of freedom (r -1)(c . H0 gets rejected.HYPOTHESIS TESTING H0 : H1 : The number of times respondents listen to radio in a week is independent of the occupation of the respondents The number of times respondents listen to radio in a week is dependent of the occupation of the respondents ²cal = (f0 fe)²/ fe Where: f0 = Observed frequency fe = Expected frequency r = No.

64 4.41 1.77 220.02 0.01 10.15 10.4 20.02 0.34 2.48 6.9 68.38 (fo-fe)² 53.03 0.01 1.11 1.62 (fofe)²/fe = ²cal = (fofe)²/fe 11.58 11.7 2.8 246.78 0.44 1.24 9.081 2.61 1.46 10.102 223. 13.26 0.29 37.14 1.64 4.84 0.04 30.45 21.54 0.14 1.63 3.032 1.02 13.68 0.24 1.32 10.14 3.8 0.48 0.76 14.64 0.8 0.82 1.69 61.49 0.485 7.391 116 .89 9.54 0.04.23 22.48 3.02 33.Chi Square(Q 5) Business Gradustion Homemaker Post gradugation Service Row total < 1 hr 12 11 0 4 12 39 1-2 hrs 4 7 6 8 36 61 2-4hrs 7 13 16 38 15 89 4-8hrs 1 1 0 2 3 7 >8 0 0 1 0 3 4 Column total 24 32 23 52 69 200 fo 12 4 7 1 0 11 7 13 1 0 0 6 16 0 1 4 8 38 2 0 12 36 15 3 3 fe 4.14 15.1 0.12 0.86 23.23 0.29 0.04 0.391 68.805 0.68 7.63 8.63 0.65 7.53 0.01 0.01 0.25 0.71 3.5 1.

y The time spent on listening to radio in a day is dependent on the occupation of the respondents 117 . of columns df = Degree of freedom (r -1)(c .HYPOTHESIS TESTING H0 : H1 : The time spent on listening to radio in a day is independent of the occupation of the respondents The time spent on listening to radio in a day is dependent on the occupation of the respondents ²cal = (f0 fe)²/ fe Where: f0 = Observed frequency fe = Expected frequency r = No.410 ²cal > ²tab Thus.1) = 20 From the calculation above: ²cal = 68. H0 gets rejected.391 ²tab = 31. Therefore. of rows c = No.

Conclusion 118 .

We conducted a survey for understanding and analyzing the consumer preference for 94.3 my fm via visais other competitors in Ahmedabad. We did a survey in Ahmedabad and our target audiences were between the age group of 18-34, which consisted of students, working males and females, businessmen and homemakers. From our survey we come to the following conclusions.


From the sample size of 200 respondents 48% of the population prefers listening to radio 5 times a week and 26% prefers listening to radio 6 times a week. This listenership makes them regular listeners of radio.


From the population 142 respondents listen to radio for the sole purpose of relaxation while 112 respondents listen for entertainment this shows that radio is the medium considered by the people solely for relaxation and entertainment.


The first hand preference of radio stations when not compared on the basis of any attributes we found out that 93 respondents preferred Radio Mirchi and 91 preferred Red Fm where as My Fm get favorability from 69 respondents. In spite of trying out various unique innovations like ek ghante main 13 gane ka challenge and by calling RJ s as MJ s i.e. Music Jockeys, Radio one could not gain high preference over other private players. Radio city has also remained the least preferred radio station.


The number of hours spent on listening to radio is dependent on the gender of the respondents. With more number of males listening to radio for less than 1 hour a day moves to more listenership of females with the increase in the number of hours of listenership till 2 to 4 hours a day. When still the number of hours of listenership increases this gender difference gets equalized.


The favorite time band of listenership is 7 am to 11 am because people at that time enjoy music with their routine work. Even the time band of 9 pm to 12 midnight is preferred as at that time people are free and like to relax them selves.


As radio is used as a background medium, 128 respondents listen to radio while travelling and 125 listen to them at their home while doing their routine work.


The preferred voice on radio also depends on the gender of the respondents since 46% of the respondents prefer female voice on radio wherein majority of them are males. 29% of the population prefers male voice in which majority of them is females .25% of the population prefers co hosted shows where in majority of them are males.


The preference of type of music for a particular time band helps us derive an ideal schedule.


98% of the respondents do not prefer listening to a single radio station because of the clutter due to excessive advertising and commercialization. Thus the respondents zap between different radio stations to fulfill their requirement of entertainment.


When importance of various attributes was compared we conclude that music is the most important attribute followed by entertainment, RJ s, information and interaction in descending order.


94% of the respondents like listening to sparklers. The most favorite preferred sparklers are Sud by Radio Mirchi & Ghantasingh by Radio One.




74% respondents do not prefer listening to radio on weekends. Also 86% of respondents do not prefer different programs on Sundays as they do not like to drift from their regular schedule.


Majority of the respondents i.e. 156 could recall the jingle of My FM which is followed by Red Fm and Radio Mirchi with 124 and 121 respondents respectively.


We could associate the following:-

Enthusiastic attitude to Red Fm Commercialized attitude to My FM Sophisticated attitude to Radio City Perfectionist attitude to Radio Mirchi Confused attitude to Radio One


From the perceptual map we conclude that when it comes to jingle recall, games and music, Radio Mirchi and My Fm are considered to be the best followed by Radio One, Red Fm and Radio City being the last. While for sparklers, RJ s and Programs on air, Radio Mirchi and Red Fm are preferred the most followed by My Fm and Radio city where Radio one is the last.


Recommendations 122 .

y Reduce the frequency of advertisement. Sparklers. we would like to give the following recommendations to MY FM in Ahmedabad. Ads should not be lengthy. 123 . y As it is true that radio players are prone to the threat of switching My FM should continuously try to improve its contents and selection of songs to keep listener s interest intact and there by avoiding switching. Enthusiasm and programs on air and so innovation should be inculcated in all these factors. y Although performing very well in games and weekend shows it does not pay back to My Fm for its brand preference therefore the leverage on these attributes should be reduced/ deemphasized. y According to the generated performance matrix My Fm s performance is low in the important factors like RJ s. y As seen from the first hand preference of the listeners My Fm should concentrate on building the Brand image.Recommendations After the analysis of the survey.

BIBLOGRAPHY 124 . y y y www.slideshare.BIBLOGRAPHY y Philip y y y y www. Zeithaml) 3rd edition y FICCI Pwc Report y Roy Morgan Research (Jan Dec 2008) y IRS 20009 R1 y US Radio Advertising Effectiveness Lab (RAEL) y www. Kevin Lane Keller (12th edition) y Marketing Management (Russel S Winner) y Marketing Research (Rajendra Nargundkar) y Service Marketing (Valarie 125 .


Information in this survey would not be disclosed for any other purpose.0 Radio One > 98.R Institute of Business Management. for grand project.QUESTIONNAIRE This survey is for sole purpose of collecting data for a survey carried out by N.5 Red FM 5. How much time do you spend listening to radio? (In a day) y Less than an hour y 1-2 hours y 2-4 hours y 4-8 hours y More than 8 hours 6. When do you listen to radio? y 6 am 7 am y y y y y y 7am 11 am 11 am 1 pm 1 pm 5 pm 5 pm 7 pm 7pm.3 My FM > 95. How often do you listen to radio? (In a week) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. We are grateful to you for your cooperation and time.3 Radio Mirchi > 93. Do you listen to radio? Yes No 2.1 Radio city > 94.9 pm 9pm 12 midnight 7. 1. Which radio station you prefer? > 91. Why do you listen to radio? y y y y y y Entrainment Relaxation Traffic updates News For a radio jockey Other:_______________________ 4. Where do you listen to radio? > At home > While travelling > While working > Restaurant 127 .

If NO.8. Do you prefer listening to a single radio station? Yes No Gazals Bhajans Remix Bollywood Latest English Instrumentals Regional Slow Upbeat 11. Match your preference of type of music to the respective time bands in which you would like to listen to it (More than one assignment to the same type are allowed) 6am 7am 7am 9am 9am 11am 11am 2pm 2pm 5pm 5pm 9pm 9pm 11pm 11pm 12pm 12pm onwards 10. Which voice do you prefer to listen on a radio? (kindly select any one) Male Female Co hosted 9. Do you find the procedure to be easy? How? 128 . Do you like playing games on radio? Yes No 13. for what reason do you switch to other radio stations? 12. Have you ever played a game on any radio station? Yes No 14.

Can you recall the jingles of the following radio stations? y y y y y 91. Do you like listening to sparklers? Yes No 18.3 My FM 95. what kind of programs you prefer to listen on Sunday s? 22. Do you think there should be different type of programs on Sunday? Yes No 21. If yes. Which is your favorite sparkler? y y y y y y Sud YES: ____ Ghantasingh NO:_____ Babbarsher Papudia Irfan CD Centre Any other (please mention) __________________________________ 19. Do you listen to radio on weekends? 17.3 Radio Mirchi 129 .1 Radio Mirchi 93.15.5 Red FM 94. which is the most favorite station to be heard on weekends? 20.0 Radio One 98. What all qualities you look forward in an ideal radio station? (Rank your preference 1 being the highest and 5 being the lowest) y Radio jockey y Music y Information y Entertainment y Interaction 16. If yes.

Kindly select the Radio Station that you prefer the most for the following characteristics:  Kindly rank them from 1 to 5 where 1 is highest and 5 is the least SR NO YOUR PREFERENCES IN THE FOLLOWING Programs on air Overall Music Radio Jockey Games Sparklers Audience Interaction Information Overall Entertainment Kindly relate the following actors to the radio stations according to the characteristics they possess (kindly mark single station for each attitude) YOUR PREFERENCES IN THE FOLLOWING Ranbir Kapoor Enthusiastic Shahrukh Khan Commercialized Amitabh Bachchan Sophisticated Aamir Khan Perfectionist Govinda Mixed and Confused RADIO CITY 91.1 FM RED FM 93.3 FM RADIO ONE 95 FM RADIO MIRCHI 98. SR NO 1 2 3 4 5 130 .1 FM RED FM 93.25.3 FM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 26.5 FM MY FM 94.3 FM RADIO CITY 91.3 FM RADIO ONE 95 FM RADIO MIRCHI 98.5 FM MY FM 94.

PERSONAL DETAILS: Name: _______________________________________________________________________ Email ID: ______________________________________________________________________ Age: _____________ Gender: Male Occupation: School College Post Graduate Service/Job Business Homemakers Female  131 .

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