Related Terms & Definitions

Why is road drainage so importants ?

Factors Affecting the drainage system in road construction

Sources of Moisture in Pavements


 Permeable base: A free draining layer in the pavement designed to rapidly remove free water from most elements of pavement. generally perpendicular to the roadway alignment. well-graded from coarse to fine (usually unstabilized. designed to drain infiltrated water.  Base crossdrain: A subsurface drain. but sometimes asphalt or cement .  Dense-graded aggregate base (DGA): Mixture of primarily sand and gravel.Related Terms & Definitions  Pavement: All elements from the wearing surface of a roadway to the subgrade.

 Headwall: .  Drainage pipe: Rigid or flexible pipe conduit designed to collect and/or transport water out of the pavement section (usually perforated).  Edgedrain: A subsurface drain usually located at the edge of the pavement.Related Terms & Definitions  Drainage aggregate: Open-graded aggregate with high permeability.

Usually a solid pipe and usually strong to prevent damage. . joints.  Outlet: The point of discharge of an edgedrain.  Outlet pipe: The lateral connection from the edgedrainto the outlet. or permeable paving.Related Terms & Definitions  Infiltration: Free water in the pavement structural elements entering through cracks.

 Separator/filter layer (aggregate or geotextile): A geotextile or aggregate (subbase) layer separating a permeable base layer from an adjacent soil (or aggregate) containing fines to prevent the fines from contaminating the drainage aggregate. It may include drainage aggregate or sand as a part of the installation. thick by 1 to 3 ft high.Related Terms & Definitions  Prefabricated geocomposite edgedrain (PGED): An edgedrain consisting of a drainage core covered with geotextile.  Underdrain: A deep subsurface drain located at a sufficient depth to intercept and lower the ground water to a required design . Usually 1 to 2 in. Must meet the filter criteria for drainage filters. placed in a narrow trench.

Related Terms & Definitions  Capillary action The flow of liquids through porous media & movement of liquids in thin tubes.  Seepage The process by which a liquid leaks through a porous substance. .  Vapor movement The process by which the entire body of fluid moves in responses to differences in hydraulic potentials.

 . aiming the establishment of a platform.WHY IS ROAD DRAINAGE SO IMPORTANTS ?  A road’s infrastructure is an engineering work. and economy. along with heavy traffic. on which vehicle circulation is possible under safety conditions. Water. independently of the region’s climate conditions. proper traffic flow. is one of the greatest causes of road ruin. commodity.

15 MPa to 0. .Subsurface Drainage Importance Soil’s resistance to compression may drop from 0.07 MPa (about half) if its water content increases from 25 to 30%.

lakes      .Factors Affecting the drainage system in road construction Sensitivity of groundwater Importance of road Area (rural or populated) Amount of traffic Sensitivity of streams. rivers.

Sources of Moisture in Pavements .

Sources of Moisture in Pavements .

increase cracks and therefore water infiltration on the pavement     .Sources of Moisture in Pavements  Flow of existing sub-surface water. from higher terrain near the road Elevation or drop of the water table Water infiltration by joints or badly sealed cracks (concrete pavement) or by porous and fissured areas Moisture movement on the soil Successive frost/defrost cycles.

Sources of Moisture .

PCC Pavement Water Infiltration .

Faulting. Transverse cracking. Fatigue (alligator) . Corner cracking.Moisture-Related and Accelerated Distresses      Pumping/erosion.

The basic idea is that water in the pavement drives certain types of distress.     .Purpose of Subsurface Drainage  Subsurface drainage is intended to remove water that infiltrates into a pavement. only some of which can be effectively drained by a subsurface drainage system. Water can enter the pavement in numerous ways. Surface water is primarily removed through proper geometric design.

   . construct. and maintain the drainage system. Other general factors (e.etc. Ability to design.). topography.g.Fac Purpose of Subsurface Drainage  Amount of free water that infiltrates into the pavement structure. soil types.. Potential for moisture-related damage to pavement.

Components of a Pavement Drainage System .

Components of a Pavement Drainage System .

Stress distribution Pattern Stress distribution in dry pavement layer Stress distribution in saturated pavement layer .

PART 2 .


Transversal Drainage .

Transversal Drainage  Slab culverts Pipe culverts Cause ways   .

connection or derivation boxes. namely visit and cleaning chambers. Reception chambers. Galleries.  . collectors and drains. ditches and channels.Longitudinal Drainage    Gutters. Connection and Collecting Accessory organs.

Longitudinal Drainage .

other devices        Drainage layers Draining spurs Draining masks Sub-surface drainage Longitudinal drains in ½ hillsid Christmas tree drain Cutting drain . Transversal drains 8. Longitudinal interception drains 4. Longitudinal water table lowering drains 6.Sub-surface drainage Main types of devices 2.

1. Longitudinal interception drains .

Longitudinal Edgedrains  Runs parallel to the traffic lane  Collect water that infiltrates the pavement surface and drains water away from the pavement through outlets .

Pipe edgedrains with porous concrete (i.Types of edgedrains systems 1. 5.e. and . Pipe edgedrains in an aggregate filled trench. Prefabricated geocomposite edgedrains in a sand backfilled trench. cement treated permeable base) filled trench.. 3.

Typical edgedrains for rehabilitation Longitudinal Edgedrains Typical AC pavement with pipe edgedrains Typical PCC pavement with geocomposite edgedrains .Figure 7-6.

Typical edgedrains for rehabilitation projects .

Longitudinal water table lowering drains .2.

Transversal drains .3.

Drainage layers .

Longitudinal drains in ½ hillside .

Cutting drain .

Christmas tree drain .

Draining Spurs A small ridge that projects sharply from the side of a larger hill or mountain .

Draining masks .

Horizontal Geocomposite Drainage Layers .

Drainage in PCC Pavement System Pre-pave installatio n Post-pave installatio n .

Comprehensive Drainage System Components .



AASHTO Drainage Definitions *Based on time to drain AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures .

Either the gradation of requirements for a graded aggregate separation layer or the opening size. endurance. and strength requirements for geotextile filters. or the gradation of the granular filters (to be used in the edgedrain). endurance. The opening size.  . and strength requirements for geotextile separators. The edgedrain pipe size and outlet spacing requirements. permeability.Design of Pavement Drainage    The hydraulic requirements for the permeable layer to achieve the required time-to-drain. permeability.

L QL .Sub-surface drainage Hydraulic calculation for drains (QL) QL = q .sect ion's length [m] B .surface run-off water flow (m3/s/m) L .width calculation's [m] . B .water flow through the pipe (m3/s) q .

In order to simplify dimensioning. .20×Qp  QL– water flow to de pipe (m3/s). QT – surface run-off water in slopes (m3/s).e. dimensioning should consider specific calculations for the underground flow in to the drain. some authors consider that the in-flow to the drain amounts to about 35% of the total flow generated in banks added by 20% for flow originated in the road platform. i.35×QT + 0.: QL = 0.Sub-surface drainage Hydraulic calculation for drains (QL)  In cases where the drainage is used not only as interception drainage but also to lower the water level. In this situation the projected flow should be the sum of the aforementioned value and the estimate through the application of Darcys’ Law.

5 D – drain depht (m) d – depth that groundwater level should stabilize(m) b – distance between drains(m) i – infiltration soil rate (m/s) K – soil permeability (m/s) .5  As to the depth of installation of the drains.Sub-surface drainage Hydraulic calculation for drains (QL) 0. one can estimate. in a first approach. by the formula: 0.

cu ft/day  D = Pipe diameter.01/n) D8/3 S1/2 where.  S = Slope.  Q = Pipe capacity. ft/ft  n = Manning's roughness coefficient .Sub-surface drainage Hydraulic calculation for drains (QL)  The capacity of a circular pipe flowing full can be determined by Manning's equation: Q = (53. in. .php?title=Surface_Drainage www.cfm      http://pavementinteractive.


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