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BSPS ZGDZD F\B KP


Q\GE NKKB

G\JKPC LVFR[ FNKD OKVGZJ \GPGNIP EIB ZYGC B@ SP^#S ZfDZ&^D ZZGT\F[M
\B FBZ G[BZ \B \XY OKZF[MG ,QGKZ[M F[YF GCD NT FKF NJGP .KYRT WZr &N
,FKPGZPC[ FMKP[FG ,\G\[GYP \fKe[Y\FC \YNGIP ,FPeIF ,FZGPYF GRJC
Q\GYKYEC \GCGNTF ,\GCZF GKNDZ .K[GYC FC \HIBR ,FNGM [GND\ TDZ EGT[
.GKRKT NGP T[K \GZSI GEXKZ ,GK\GEKP ZB[N \KSIK
1
(101 'PT) .OGNI FKF BN FH .GCNC ZPB "?KN FZY FP"

GCN \PG[\ \BG ZFP UNGI WZ[N LVF[ FNKD F\T FH[ KP N[ QG[BZF FPFE\F TDZ
BGF FKNB[ ,FEGCTN \MNN KEM FJKPFP OGYN EXKM :\GK[TP \GDBE \GSVG\ ZGDZD N[
GN \GXGIR GKF UYEHFN KEM"[ BNB ?G\GZETKFN \\N NMGK WGZK\ FHKB ?ZIBP ZCM
UZF KNC GTTGR\F[ ,\GCGZPF \GZKTHF OKKNDZF YZ GN GKF QPGYPC NCB ;OKKEKG \GTGZH

'PT ,2000 CKCB-N\ ,ECGT OT ,QPZPF FRNKB OGDZ\ ,KZVM BVGZ ,"NGDNDF" ,BYVY WRZV .1
.OKNY OKKGRK[C ,FH OGDZ\P GIYNR ZGVKSF LG\P \GBCGPF NM .165=99

123 Q\GE NKKB


.(105 'PT) "QFKNT FJKN[ NM GN F\KF BN UBG \GRG[PG \GRG[ \GTGR\
LVF QMB BGF ,GKBGZ NMG G\IV[P \GCGD\ KVN \GIVN ?ZGDZDN FZY \PBC FP
FDBEC \TEN FIV[PF KRC G[YKC FNGTRF \NEN ETCP .\GXNV ZZGTPG FIGE GF[PN
UB ,ZYGCC T[\ FT[C ,OKK\T[ ZIBN .OY BN QKKET LM NM QYKKEFG ZGSPF ECGTF TGEP
YZ GBXK GRGZDP LB NXR\FN FSKR ZGDZD .G\GBZN [ZEG ZISPF \KC NFRP QDS O\KCN TKDF
I\V ZGDZD[MG ;(113 'PT) NFRPF QDS ZPB "OKKI-NTC N[ NGY FKF FH" .OKFGCD OKXGKX
GJNV ,FVXZF NB UJRG OGI NHGR GKVP ZDKR LM LG\CG ,GK\G\SN \ZHTC \NEF \B UGSCN
ZGDZD \B SKRF CBFG OGYPF QP IZC NFRPF QDS .NTGDG FPFE\ \GBKZY OKIMGRF NM
.ONGTN \BXN EGT F[ZGK BN GRPP ,GZEIN FZHIC
ZDG = FZKTXF G\GIBG GPB ,GKCB = G\IV[P KRC \B NMN] M[ TSGR QMGS FKF ZGDZD
GK\GCGI \B TGZVNG \GBNPDN [GZVN NGMK FNGIF GKCB ,G\GMHC .FTGRX FZKEC OPT ]
Q\KR[ KVM ,FIV[PF N[ FKKI IZGB .QGKZGJCZSRGYC EGPNN FEK\T FZKTXF \GIBFG
.FTZN YZ IZMFC BN KM OB ,ZGDZD N[ FHGVZGPBJPF \GCYTC EGBP FR\[F ,\GVXN
GN[KC OBFG \GIBF ,FZJV\F \KICJF .QCGPM ,GYSV JTPM FZCIF KKI ,EIB EXP
KBR\C OKZEI OFN ZKM[FN FNIF FIV[PF[ FR[P-KZKKE F[GN[NG QFN ,QPXTC F\TP
FMVF FJZD \GIBF ,KR[ EXP .KBYRC ESGPC ZTG[M EGCTN WNBR CBFG ,QGKSRV KXI
ET F\GB GC[I[ ,FKZGF N[ O\MZTF \BG ORGPB \B F\RY LMCG ZGDZD OT Z[YF \[BN
KEPC FBD LNF\F ,FTGXVF G\GKZCD \B OYK[ CBFG ,OGNMN INX\ BN[ \KRYKZ FZTRN HB
.NGVM ZJRS I\KV UBG GN[ OKXXGRF EZ[F
GKF KYRT WZ[M GKKI .\K[GRBF G\ZGXN ZGDZD ZHI BN NNPGB ZYGC G\GB HBP
BGVB DFR BGF .GCXPC NGMK BN BGF \G[TN FCZF .F[GCG \GP[B KBNP ,OKCBGM ,OKZXY
QKHBFN GB ,FXGIF UKY[FNG QGNIF EKN EGPTN ,FZY\F NT NKKJN GB FVXZF NT WGCZN
\GZXC CGZ KV NT GYST[ ,FIV[PF KRC QKC \GIK[F .FNGTRF \NEF LZE \KCC [IZ\PN
LZGXF YZVF NT FNT[ OTV NMC" :ZKE\ G\GB GZS]K ,ZGDZD N[ GKJTC OFKNT GNVR[
,\NEF EK NT[ FZKZYF ZGTF \VS NT GPXT NKJPG \NEFP Y\R\P ZGDZD FKF ,ZM\[FN
N[ \GCGYZ \GKZB[ NNM GJKZV\ .(131 'PT) "EGBP OI GN FKFR ZTXFG F[GCF NEGDP KM
G MI
]N GCZT BYGGE FNBG ,ZEIF K\BVC QG\KT NT GIRGF[ OKKZFXFG ZYGCF \GIGZB
ZJPC CBF G\GB SKRF = G\P[BC BN \BH ODG = QGNSF NB GZEIP \BXN HTF[M .KYZIF
.\P[ ET ,[EGIM L[PC ZGDZD NCS GRPP[ OGFKH OZDG GCDC TY\R OFP EIB .OKIGV\
FIV[PF .NCHF IVN F\GB FMKN[F JG[V BKF ZYGCC G\VGD \B FYRPF FBXP[M
.IXF ZKGGBC NKKJN FBXKG OKFGNBN F\EGF

FP" ,ZZGT\F[M GPXT \B NB[ ZGDZD[ FNB[F ,1915-C ZGVKSF OGSZV HBP[ FPGE
\B CCGSP ,T\T\P GPXT JSYJF .ZGVKSF N[ BZGY NM NXB FNGTG \ZHGI ,"?KN FZY
ZMKF KGG\ GRPP WNIN Z[VB KBG ,\KRYPI FYKZGJZ N[ \C[IP \MBNPC [IMC GKBZGY
,\PBC FBZR ZGDZD EXKM QKKPEN QGKSKR NM KM FPGE .OKKJRZFGYG OKCKXK ,OKJNGCG OKM\GI
\GKGSIKK\F K\[ [K GPXT JSYJC .QGN[KMN QGEKR ,"KYRT WZ[" N[ YKGEPF [GZKVF FP
FRGMP ZGDZD ,QG[BZF JV[PC ZVSPF OTJP \ZPBR[ ,\IBC .GTCJN \G[ZGVP

?BSPS ZGDZD F\B KP 124


2
GCXPN FKKR[F \GSIKK\FF \B .WZ[ QMB BGF \KZCTC F[GZKV[ FNKP =B Ungeziefer
\K[GVKI =B MistkaÈ ferG\GB FRMP BKF Z[BM ZGVKSF TXPBC FPGZDF FYRPF FTKP[P
3
NDZF GN F[T" ZCM ZGDZD FZGXF KGRK[ ZIBN OKPK [EGIM KM JSYJF ZVSP EGT .NCH
FKF FH ;FZY\F NT \GN\KFN CFB EGIKKCG .OCIGZNG OMZGBN FZY\FG \GZKYF NT NGIHN
;\GNY ERER\F UGDF ,Z\GK \K[VGI F\KF FPK[RF ;FVXZF NT FCKM[FP EGBP FRG[
\B OKPTVN FVZP FKF ,Z[GBC JTPM FNTPN GC KGZ[ FKF[ FHF \TEF-ISKF LG\PG
FCZF GVGDC JGN[N QCGPM CKJKF GK[MT ONGBG .FXZB JCIRG ,GN[ G\T\VFN UB ,G\HKIB
.(134 'PT) "NNM YGHKR BN CZF FCGDF UB NTG OEGY GC JN[[P Z\GK
OEBM ZGDZD \B ZKKXN OKR[ZVN OKPZGD GNB QKTP \GZG[G ZGDZD N[ GKKGRKM KR[
GC[ ,CKJZRF LZE ,ZGZC OKBZGYN ?KYRT YZI YZ BNG ,OEB TGEP .YZI N[ UGDC BGNMF
KMG GKNT OKZPGB[ FP NM QKCPG TPG[ ZGDZD KM ,ZGDZD N[ \KVX\F \EGYR \JNG[
N[ FZGXC NDND\F ,FBZR LM ,UGDF YZ .\K[GRB JTPM GB ,KZPDN \K[GRB FZ\GR G\TEG\
:OKYZI KRKP QGKNKPM [K ,TGEKM ,KZF[ ?YGKEC YZI N[ DGS FHKB ,YZI BGF OB LB .YZI
GMZGB[ OKTEGK GRIRB .OKCGCHG OKZXZXG OKZVZVG OKZGCEG OKNPRG \GK[GVKIG OKYYP [K
;OGI OEG OGI FTCX[ FVKNY ,FNGDT QJC ,OKKNDZ FCZF GN [K[ ,ZJP BGF ZTG[PF
.G\GB NKTDP KZJ QGHP GNKBG GMI ]N CZT CKYZP QGHP[ ;\GZKY NT NKKJN NGMK BGF[
BN[ ZPGB ,"NGDNDF" NT GN[ FMGZBF FSPC OKEGPT JTP BN FKDGSN [KEYF[ ,CGYGCR
NMP NDGTP ZGDZD GNKBG \GMGZB GKNDZG IGJ[ BGF YYP KZF[ ,YYP BGF ZGDZD[ QM\KK
TCXF :ECNC \IB \V\G[P FRGM\ [K YYPNG ZGDZDN ,F[TPN .\GRJY GKNDZG GKEEX
\GKZGIBF FKNDZ DGHG \GYHI FK\G\SN[ NCH \K[GVKIN NGMC FPGE BGF LMN JZV ;OGIF
``This 4
:UKSGPG ,LMC QKICF BN BGF LB ,OKKVRM GKF ZGDZDN KM QTGJ UB CGYGCR .\GR\KB
is a very nice observation on my part to be treasured all your lives. Some Gregors,
some Joes and Janes, do not know that they have wings''.5
NT \ZCEPF YZI-OEB N[ LM NM \KSYKPGYF FSZDC \GKTC JTP BN [K[ BNB
.KYZIF QY\N \KKXN \CZSP ZGDZD N[ FKPGJRBF ,QM[ ,\K[GRB FTEG\G \KYZI FKPGJRB
\B IVGR BGF[M .NT\[P GNKVBG O[GR BGF ,UGYH EGPTN NDGSP ZGDZD ,N[PN ,LM
\BHG = (160 'PT) "FRGZIBF G\PK[R FVZ FBXK GKZKIRP" KM ZPGB ZVSPF ,G\P[R
QKB OKYZIN .\GBKZN YGYH GRKBG ZGTC FPK[R KRY LZE QXPI DVGSF ,KSGVKJ YZI \PGTN
GCMG[C GRJC \B \GBZN ,ZGVKSF \NKI\C \GIVN ,NGMK ZGDZD LB ,O[BZ \KHIC OKKRKT
\B QKMZFN LKZX BGF ,\RDRP G\GIB \B TPG[ BGF[M ,LM ZIB [EGI ,\BH OT .GCD NT

OGDZ\ ,OKZGVKS ,BYVY WRZV GBZG ,FNKPF \B QPZPF FRNKBG NPZM OFZCB GPDZ\ QMB LM .2
.1 FZTF NKTN ,QPZPF ;1993 CKCB-N\G OKN[GZK ,QYG[ ,NPZM OFZCB
"QYH \G\V[B YYP"N FNKPF \B ODZ\ NPZM ;(149 'PT ,1 FZTF NKTN) QPZPF OGDZ\C LM .3
.(83 'PT ,2 FZTF NKTN ,BYVY)
Vladimir Nabokov, ``The Metamorphosis'', Lectures on Literature, Harcourt, New .4
York 1980, pp. 258-259
.259 'PT ,O[ .5

125 Q\GE NKKB


GVGS \BZYN .\PTPT\P G\KKBZ QPHF ZCGT[ NMM ,NNMC .FJCP \B [GDVN KEM G[BZ
QKPBFN F[Y ,\BHP FZ\K .CGIZN ZCTP[ OKNGIF \KCC QKICFN NGMK GRKB ZCM BGF
NT SVJNG FZY\F NT \GN\KFN NDGSP ,LM NM \GZKTH GKNDZ[ ,FHM[ NEGDC YZI[
KRGKEC ,KNBGHKG JYKKCGB N[ KRG[N DGXKK NM KRVN \GEPGT[ \GKTCN ZCTP ,LMG .\GZKYF
,\GIVN ,GB ,GPXT JYKKCGBC FPGNDF \GZKFCF-KB \KKTC KRVN OKCXKR OKBZGYF ,K[PP GB
,\KJPGJGB JTPMF ,\KRG[BZF FKKJRF[ UGSCN FZGY LM .JSYJF KEK NT \BHMM \ZXGKP
N[ SYKPGYF KZVSC NCGYPF ISGRC ,\K[GVKI-OEB N[ GF[NM DGSM ZGDZD \B QKKPEN
ZGDZDC \GNI[ \GZGP\F Z[BM ,ZGVKSC FBKZYF LNFPC FPXT [[BN F[Y\P ,OGKF
.TDZN TDZP LKPS F[TR Q\GB UVGBF K\ECGTF NVZTFG OKK\KPBF QFKEPP \B \GNDP
GB \KJGMKSV ,FKHF NTM ZGDZD N[ NGDNDF NT CG[IN LZEF \I\VR ,QCGPM ,LMC
Q\KR[ ,KEP NY QGZ\VC ZCGEP QKB OBF LB .NNMG[P OK\GTKC OGNI NTM GB ,\KJGZKGR
N[ QKMGPKS NM GN QKB[ OD FP ,UGZXF OHKNBKZF QP FJGS[ FNKNT NM NT F[TPN GP[KKN
N[ DGS NTM ZGDZD NT CG[IN BKF Z\GK UB \KZNGVGVG \INXGP \GZ[VB ?JSYJC [PP
\C\GM GB C\GM NM GPM ,BYVY[ BNB .ZIB GB FHM KZGDNB DGXKK UB GB ,NPS ,FZGVBJP
KGPKE OG[N \Z[VBP FRKB[ \GTP[PG QCGP N[ FZTS ZGVKSF KVE QKC NNGIP ,OKNGED
6
FZVPG \RKKRTP .K[PPC QDGT LKN[FN FZGVBJP OG[N ,CXKK\FN ZRB'H OG[N ,TCY\FN
-JSGV \GRGZYT NT \RT[RF GH GNKVB = ZGDZD N[ FKXHKZGDNB NM ,FKF\[ NMM
\BH .GN[ \GKZNGDRKSF \B [KNIFN GB OTPTN ZCE N[ GVGSC WNBK\ = OKKJSKNZGJYGZJS
FXGTR ZGDZD ZCT[ NGDNDN \KDGNGMKSVF GB \KZGDNBF ,\KZGVBJPF F[KDC FKTCF :EGTG
OFKR[C FFH ZB[R[ FP NTG OKEEXF QKC UNIGF[ FP NT TKCXFN ,NGMKCM ,Z[VB[ LMC
.NGMG NGMP ,ZGPBM ,NNG[ BYVY N[ JSYJF[ \GZ[VB = OKJGCKZJB N[ FZGXC

7
.BSPS ZGDZD N[ G\GFH \NB[N OKGSP QGZ\V KZJBGDG HNE OKTKXP BYVY NT OZVSC
.OKZG[KP FPMG FPMC ZGDZD N[ DGXKKF \PDKRB OT EEGP\FN IKNXP FH QGZ\V ,KPTJN
\G[TKF F\GB ,\KNPKSYP WZ[-\G[TKFC FKF ZGDZD ,O\SZDN[ ZPGB WZPR ZGXKYC
.NKNM F\GB FZXT UGSCNG FC OINKFN EIB [KBM FSKKD\F GHG G\IV[P NT EGBP FPKKB
IGMF FE[ N[G \BHF \KZNGDRKSF \G[TKFF N[ OKZXYF FKKI N[ ZGBK\ BKF FNCGRF
\KZGDNB \GPE GRRKB BGF ,KJGMKSV GRRKB ZGDZD .\[C[P BKF G\GBG \NTGV BKF GMG\C[
8
LVF BN ZGDZD ,BN .CPBZY JZCGZG CGYGCR N[ OKZGKBC DXGP[ FPN FPGE GRRKB[ KBEGGCG

Smadar Shiffman, ``Someone :"EEGR\PF KJSJRVF" NT QPVK[ ZEPS N[ FRGKE GBZG .6


Else's Dream? An Approach to Twentieth Century Fantastic Fiction'', Journal of
the Fantastic in the Arts, 13:4, 2003, pp. 352-367
,QGZ OZGKG KNZGB-KZGDH NBVZ OGDZ\ ,\KZGRKP \GZVS \BZYN :BYVY ,KZJBGD SYKNVG HNE NK'H .7
.2005 CKCB-N\ ,DRKNSZ
QGKTF ZVSC ZGDZD \B ZKKXPG \KJSKNPKRKPF \GZ[VBC ZIGC CPBZYM Z[MGP ZKKBP OD .8
David Mairowitz and Introducing Kafka
:GBZG ,FNGED NCH \K[GVKIM KZNGVGVF
Robert Crumb, Introducing Kafka, Icon Books, Cambridge 1993

?BSPS ZGDZD F\B KP 126


:GRKPC KEGIKK ,DKZI ,[EI GF[P BGF .YZI GRKBG OEB GRKB ,OKZPGB OF ,ZGDZD .YZI-OEBN
"\G[TKF" D[GPF EXKM \GBZFN [YCP KRB FH ZPBPC .ZGDZD N[ WZ[-\G[TKF BGF
ZZGVP GRKB ,ZGDZD N[ \KJBGVFG \KPGJRBF \GZKFCF-KBN QPBR \GKFN IKNXP ( devenir)
F[EIF G\GFHN Z[BC GR\RCF \B CKIZP BGF EXKMG ,ZIB GF[PC F\GB ZKPP GRKBG F\GB
.F\ZGXN Z[BC \KJZYRGY FCG[\ NCYN ,YEXCG ,GR\BP TRGP LB ZGDZD N[
\EGYRP .\GFEHF = KCKJPZGRG ZMGP LKNFN Q\GB OKGG[P OB \GKG[TKF QKCFN NY
\SV\R \G[TKF = KZJBGDG HNE N[ JCPF \EGYR FRKB[ = \KJZERJSF \KRKNYF JCPF
EGYF ,FN[ KZGVBJPF EGYF \B FECKB[ ,FJKN[ NNMP FBXK[ ,F[C\[F[ \GFEHFM
UGSBN) OKYZI OT \GFEHFN BGF EIB ZCE .GPXT ZCEN ,\KNBZJKNN FMVFG ,GNKBMF N[
\GKIN ,NV[ ,NKTDP \GKFN ,OKZGVC OKYZIN [VI\FN ,OKYZI NT BGZYN ,OKYZI
N[ ,KRCP QGKPE N[ SKSC NT BKF \GFEHF .YZI-\G[TKFN BGF KZPDN ZIB ZCEG ,(OKCKCC
KRB ,BGF BN KRB :\GFEHFF B[GPP YIZPF ZP[R \KJGZKGR ET \KRY\ BKF OB .FKDGNRB
FBKZYC .QKJGNIN \KNBZJKNG \KCKJYGEZ ,FBNP FKF\ BKF ,\KJGMKSV BKF OB .GFGPM
BGF ,WZ[ BGF[ QKPBP BGF :GN[ \GFEHFC \MN YKIZF ZGDZD ZGVKSF N[ \KDGNGMKSVF
.GHKMS BGF ZGDZD .WZ[ [KDZP BGF ,WZ[M DFR\P
KRBG OKXZ[N GB \GKIN FK\VPKS KN [K OB[ OD FIKRP \NCGYPF \GFEHFF \SKV\
NIGH GB ,CBH GPM NKNF \GXIC IZKF NGP NNKKP IKRR = OFN[ OKGSP QPSP OT FFEHP
NGP FNNK GH FP [KDZFN "KN BC"[ NNDC BN \BH F[GT KRB = [IR GPM OKJKFZN \I\P
\GK\KKIF \GNGTVC FBZ\ \K\ZD[F \KDGNGMKSVF FSKV\F .QGIDF NT FNKIH GB IZKF
,\GKPKRV \GRGM\ KZGCT DXKKN \GZGPB QF ;KZPDN ZIB GF[P N[ OGJVPKS N[ DGS GNNF
.LPXT \B NKV[FN ,IKRR ,G[GZKV NGIHN ;\GMCN ,IKRR ,G[GZKV NNKKN .\GK[GRB ,\GK\GFP
\B YGXKN CKKI FKFB ,N[PN ,FHKNRBGMKSVC ?NNKKN GB KPXT \B NKV[FN FXGZ KRB FPNG
,\KCKJPKJNGBF \EEGYPF FRGMPF ,\KNVKEBF FXKZJPF NB OKKVKXVSF OKZJPZVF
a
\GKGR[ZVC .FHMZPC WGTR JKJV JYKKCGB[ \GENK \PHJRV GHKB ZCE N[ GVGSC JGNV\[
.\KNPSM GB \KZGDNBM QICK\ KN[ \G[TKFF ,FYKJKNGV-\GMZEGP GB \GKSBNY \GK\GZVS
N[ KNNMF SGVKJF BKF \G[TKFF ,\BH \GZPN ,KZJBGDG HNE N[ JCPF \EGYRP
,\GKSYNDF KZKCXN ETG OKKZJRPNBF OKYKYNIFP ,GNGM OGYKF NM .OGYKC \GKG[IZ\FF
OF FNB = FKXNKPKSB ,FZP\F ,FHGKCPKS ,KGRK[ .OKYSGV K\NC \G[TKF KMKNF\C BXPR
OKCKXKM NCDGPF K[GRBF FEKPF FRYC OKBZRF GNB OD ,GRPNGTC OK[KF NM N[ OYNI \RP
\INXGP BNG \IB FRGMP ,\IB FZGX\ YZ BKF \K[GRBF \GFEHFF .KGRK[ KRVP OKRKSIMG
BN F[Y .ECNC K[GRBF QKPN \KRKKVGB[ ,\GKGZIB N[ FKXNKPKSBG OGDZ\ N[ EIGKPC
N[ DGSM \GRGZIBF \GBPC SV\R KCZTPF Z[KF NM[C[ FP .\BHF FEGYRF \B [KDEFN
KZJBGDG HNE N[ FKDGNGJRGBC SV\R ,FFKP\PG FRGDP \KNGCZVKF \GFEHFM ,FHGMKSV
\GFEHFF BYGGE .FKGGFF N[ KNNMF YGIM ,OKZCEF N[ FEKPF FRYM ,NGMF \GHIM
KRVC ,ZGXTP ,NG[MP N[ DGSM \SV\R ,FKNB OKGGN\PF OKKZSGPF OKEGYF NT ,\KRY\F
\B \SVG\ FH QKPP FKDGNGJRGB .F\GB \GRKHPG FCKCS \GDI[ \GKNBGJZKGGF \GKG[TKFF
\GKGFH FCG ,UGSRKB ET ,UZF KNC FR\[PF \GKG[TKF N[G OKTGZKB N[ FZKHM ONGTF
FKXYKV N[ DGS ,Z\GKC NKHR ZCE QF = ZGZI[F \PINP ,BSKM ,CNM ,OEB = \GTGCY

127 Q\GE NKKB


FKN[B BNB ORKB[ ,OXTF \GP[ NT ZG\KGGF .ECNC \KCKJJRJ FZGXC \NTGV[ \KRG[N
DXKKN OFKRKTC \NDGSP BKF YZ ;NTGVF N[ ZGYPF \ZGXC FZKICN NKCGP ,\KHKVBJP
OD LMG ,WZ\[FN = WZ[-\G[TKFN :\G[TKFF N[ FNKHRF FKGGFF \B SD CGZKYC
.EVZT\FN ,YZKK\FN ,[RB\FN ,CNM\FN
\G[TKF EGTC ,FZYKTP \KRZSGP ,\NCDGP ,\PXPXP ,\K[GRB FTVG\ BKF \GFEHF
N[ OPNGTC ODG OEBF KRC N[ ONGTC OD \PKKY\P \G[TKFF .NGM-\YCGI FTVG\ BKF
FRRKB \G[TKF ."FHGKCPKS" O[C Z\GK \ZMGP BKF O[ ,OKIPXF N[G OKKIF-KNTC
:BGF[ ZCE NM \GKFN OKKG[T[ OKEEX KR[ QKC \KPRKE \GV\G[ BNB \KJGMKSV FZGEXGZV
GB ,CNM\P GB ,EVZT\P GF[KP[M .CNISG FTZX ,SGSG LGHBP ZMBH ,Q\KKGGNFG CBIB
,GC[ K[GRBN ZGZE BZGY BGF :LVFN BNB ,GC[ K\KKIN ZGZE BZGY GRRKB BGF ,YZI\P
OGXTF NBKXRJGVF \NTC ,Z\GKC F[KPDF \G[TKFN \NGMKF BGF GRC[ K[GRBF[ OG[P
Z\GK KNNM NBKXRJGV BNB IZMFC KDGNGKC GB KRDZGB NBKXRJGV FH QKB .TCJC Z\GKC
OKNDGSP GRKKF BN OB .FKGGFF N[ ZG[KP NMC ,GN NDGSP K[GRBF[ FP NM \B UKYPF
GPM ZFP TGRN GB ZGVKX GPM UGTN ,DE GPM OKPN \I\P OG[RN = F[KPD FM \G[TKFN
KEM FKDGNGRMJN YGYH [GRB QC .ZCE OKI\VP GRKKF BNG OK[VIP GRKKF BN = FVGNKJRB
FC[ \KZYKTF FZKHF BGF QGKECF .QGKECN YGYH OD BGF LB ,GN[ \GKG[TKFF \B OK[DFN
NB \GBXGK QF[ KRVN \GRICR ("\GHGVZGPBJP" O[C \GZVSC Z\GK \GTGEKF) \GKG[TKF
,ONGTF \GKGCZ\ .BGCN EK\TN K[GRBF NBKXRJGVF N[ FECTPF BGF QGKECF .NTGVF
-KNTC-\GKG[TKF :OKRG[ OKRKPP \GKG[TKFC UZF BNC \GYSGT ,\GKBNKTG \GKCKJKPKZV
-\G[TKF ,IPX-\G[TKF ,FENK-\G[TKF ,F[KB-\G[TKF OD LB ,FRG[BZCG [BZC OKKI
Q\KR ,KR[ EXP YRBVZCKKSG SYKPGY KZVSCG ,EIB EXP \GKPPT \GEDBCG OKSG\KPC .FRGMP
K\NC JTPM \GKGZIB OT TDPC OKBCG K[GRBF \GNGCD \B OKXGI[ OKZGCKD BGXPN
\XNVPFG Q\KKGGN-\G[TKFC QG\RF CBIB ,SGS-\G[TKFC QG\RF ZCKNGDC NIF :\GSV\R
,GN[ OKKRGPEF OKZGXKFG JVZYCBN LZE ZGCT ,[GRB-\G[TKFC FRG\RF QKKJ[RYRZV N[
9
.\KPGKYF O\KKGGF N[ FKXJKDKE OKZCGT OEB KRC GC[ ,YRBVZCKKSF ETG
,JSKNRBGMKSVF ZPBK LM ,Z\BN OKNGMK GRIRB OKKI-NTC-OEB-\G[TKF N[ FZYP NMC
:OKKIF-NTC OT \KJGMKSV FZGXC \GFEHFN OKGSP JYKKCGSN GPZD[ \GCKSF LZTP \B
FE[C LNGF NGMF[ FBZR ?KJGKPSC \GKTC ?\KNBV OB + ?\YIEGP \GKNBGSYSGPGF
F\RV GKNB[ KVKXVSF QGGKMF ,\BH \PGTN ,KZJBGDG HNE KRKTC .GRKPK N[ FHKNRBGMKSVF
Z[VB KB ?WZ[N ZGDZD GNKBG EVZTN LVF FNGYZE BYGGE TGEP .FYPRFN Q\KR GRKB \G[TKFF
\G[TKFF \B .FZKIC N[ QKKRT YGKEC FRRKB \G[TKF[ OD FP ,\BHF FNB[F NT \GRTN
BN \[YT\P[ ,OKCK\M\ NCYN \CZSP[ YGI \TZGV \KNRGSZVPKB FYG[\ FIRP

Kai Mikkonen, ``Theories of GBZ \GZVSC FHGVZGPBJPF DGXKK \GKZGBK\ N[ FZKYSN .9


Metamorphosis: From Metatrope to Textual Revision - Rhetoric and Poetics'',
UNB" N[ KZK[TF YZVC FCIZFC \BCGP \G[TKFF \KKZGBK\ .Style, 30:2, 1996, pp. 1-29
Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, ``Becoming-Intense'', A Thousand GBZG ,"OKZG[KP
Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. and foreword by Brian Massumi,
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 1987, pp. 232-253

?BSPS ZGDZD F\B KP 128


.FKXJRPKZVSYBP ,\GRZYSP \ZTGC BNB ZSI-\RGGMGP FRRKB[ FYG[\ GH .IRTV\FN
KEKN FBC ,KZPDN \ZIB OKKI \ZGXC GNKVB ,[EI GF[PC \GSR\FN GH FYG[\
QKC EIF NECFF \B \GBZN Z[VBG ,\GDKDICG OKNCRZYC ESGPP QVGBC KGJKC
QGVNJN K\[VI\F .\G[GVI\N \GSIKK\P QF GC[ QVGBC FHKNRBGMKSVN FHKNRBGHKMSF
TCGMC K\BCIF[ VKKJP SGV\ NKNX K\TP[F ,KVGD NT OKKYRT OKEKNY K\YCEF .EKKR
KRB[ OKCZC ZKFXFN BP[ GB ?FZHTN BGZYN OXTC F\KKF K\RGGM OBF .KN[ FRJRBF
K\[VI\F ?OGJVPKSM ,QVXGP ZSPM \BHF \G[VI\FF \B BGZYN GRKNT OBF ?YGST
KN [K OBF .QPZVGSN K\[VI\F ?FKHJRVC KPDKNGV \GKFN [YCP KRB OBF .KBGEC 'IKK[N
\TCFM F\GB FBZK BNB \[GVI\ EEGYK BN JSKNRBGHKMS ?KPXTF KNBVF KGPKEC \GKTC
OKKI \ZGXN ,\KVKXVS \G[TKFN = \HJRGVP YZ BNB \[PGPP BN CGZ KV NT = FYG[\
QVGBF NT HJRVN OKRKKRGTP OF[ OG[P QPZEKKVSN G[VI\K[ GNBM [K .\KZNGDRKS
OKRKKRCF QKC UGTPM ,\XZV\P FKDZRBM QPZEKKVS :GKKI \B QPZEKKVS KI GC[ KEGIKKF
.\GEKECM ,YGIN WGIP OKKIM ,\GZKY NT SGVKJM ,FNKNC
.FIKZC BNB EZP BN .FPGSI FYG[\ N[ ( ligne de fuite ) JGNKPF GY BKF \G[TKF
BN .KNVKEBF YI[PF \B YI[N YKSVFN ZCEF [GZKV ,KZNGDRKS JGNKP GY Z\BN ,\f[TKFN
BN ,OKRVCP KNGCPKSF ZESF \B CKZIFN OKKRBKGZJ OKSGS IGN[N BN ,\GPGI NT ZT\SFN
NXB OKZ\BP KZJBGDG HNE[ FKDJZJSBF .UYTP N[ DGSM KF[GHKB FKXPKNCGSC ZGICN
BGFG GC LNF BN [KB[ \G[TKF CK\R ,JGNKP GY \BKXP BKF OKZIB OKZVGS NXBG BYVY
N[G OKJRJGPF N[ ZCEPF NB \GPGIFP FXGIF = K[GRBFP FXGIF ,QBMP FXGIF NKCGP
,YKE KCGP N[ SGRKKYGBF NB ,F'DRKRF KCX N[ CGKCF NB ,QHZJ N[ NDRG'DF NB ,EGNGI 'IKK[
GVGS ETG FHGVZGPBJPF TDZP G\ZKEP BXK BN[ ,BSPS ZGDZD .JVZYCBN N[ GRZVRKBF NB
BN ZGDZD .TGEKG ZMGP KNGCPKS ZESP GPXT BKXGF[ KPM ,YZT[ KPM BGF OD C[IR ,ZPF
BN BGF .FBZP OFKRVC CKXFN KEM ,\KNKVJF ,\KRNXRF G\IV[PC EGZPN KEM WZ[ F[TR
.GNGM KNVKEBF KNGCPKSF ZESFP BNB G\IV[PP YZ BNG ,IGZCN [YKC BNB EGZPN [YKC
GB FZGIB \MNN \NGMK ZSGI EIB EXP :\GZKTHF GKNDZC KCKSRJRKBF YGSKTF KNGB QBMP
.FPGXT \GZKFPC FPKEY \MNN \NGMK KR[ EXP ,\GNYC CCG\SFN
B X GP B GX PN K E M B YG GE B N B , G KC B P JN P KF N K E M YZ B N QYK \ F [T R Z GD Z D"
TK D F N KE M , O K JZ YGZ K CF PG YS TF P , N F RP F P J N PK F N KE M , B G XP N F KF N GM K B N GKC B [
10
FXGZ FKF ZGDZD OB ."|...~ OHPHN ECNP ZCE F[GT GRKB ZCM NGYF GC[ OGI\ G\GBN
B N O B , \ R \ KR F KI N M . Y Z I N B N , K F [G HK B F KI N LV GF F K F B G F , EG Z P N , E DR \ F N
: GF [ NM KJ K NG V NP S N F \ M K VF N Z PG NM , F KX HK NV KE B N HB , F K Z B GB CN M G P M , UG NK B N
OKR\KR ORKB OKYZI LB .KJSKNJKVYF ZKHIF ,\KRKSF FERVF ,OS EGEF N[ Z[RF
OKRCPF .FKBP FZGCEF GPM ,FKXHKNKJRVRKBN OKR\KR OF Z\GKF NMN .FKXHKNVKEBN
K\NC \eZIBM GRKNT OKPKKBP = OKZGCE \ZGGM GB ,OKNPR QY BPDGEN = OFN[ OKK\ZCIF
= FZGI[F FRPNBF N[ GB FPN[ NPD N[ GH GPM = OFN[ \GKRKPF .ZG[KDN \R\KR
.Z\GKC OKNGEDF OKJGSF KRKTC GNKVB KEP FTGZV ,EKZIFN \KZBHKC

.42 'PT ,7 FZTF NKTN ,KZJBGDG HNE .10

129 Q\GE NKKB


OF OKZYPF CGZC[ OKPKGSP OKNNM KVN OKRKPF \B OKYNIP OKDGNGBGHF ,NNMM
OKXCYP KZJBGDG HNE .\GZIB QGKP \GJK[ NT CG[IN ,QCGPM ,Q\KR ONGB ,FZGX KI^RGP
B[P SGS ,O\JK[N .OFN[ \GZKFPF KVN N[PN ,OKGfI OF[ OKKIF DGS KVN OKKI-KNTC
EIKC ,KZPDN \ZIB FXGCYC FKFK WGZKP SGS GNKBG F[KZI ZG[ OT \IB FXGCYC FKFK
KI OKKI GNKB BGF QICPF ;KDGNGVZGP BNG KJRD GRRKB QICPF .FVGNKJRB GB ZPR OT
11
BGVB FP .YNI OFC NJGR BGF[ ( percepts
) OKSV\RFG ( affect
) OK[DZGPF OFP ,GF[KP
ONGSC OKEZGK GRIRB[ NMM .NCDGP ZGXK BGF ,TGEKM ,YZI ?YZI-\G[TKFC LM NM EIGKP
N[ OKKIF \ZGX .\GPXGT NT ,\GKG[KDZ NT ,OK[GI NT OKZ\GGP GRIRB FKXGNGCBF
UIE F[KDZP BKF ZGB FC TDGR[M :OKJY& VB
@ F[GN[ KEK NT \JN[R ,N[PN ,FKXZYF
\GCYTC \Z\RP BKF YRGK N[ IKZ FVBN TKDP[M ;ZGBF KVNM TGRN ,FNTP KVNM SVJN
BKF ,FMZEC \GEPGTF \GZT[C ,FZGT N[ OKCXTF \MZTP LZE ,F[KDZP BKF[M ;GKNTC
LMN JZV .OIF OEF \B \G\[NG ZGTN \I\P FNKIP GC ZGVIN ZKT[ BN OGYP \[VIP
12
KEM .KRGZKTF OD ,NDRG'DC EGZ[N KEM FN OKYKVSP FNB \[GN[ LB ,\[ZKIG \ZGGKT BKF
\B FBZK[ EIB ZJPZV \GIVN GPXTN NDSN GKNT ,YZI-\G[TKFC BXPKK GF[KP[
NT Z\KG BGF :FZ\K \GRPBR IKMGF ZGDZD ,\BHF FRKICFP .\BHF OKKIF \ZGXN G\GRPBR
F[Y\FG FZGIB \MNN \NGMKF \B ECKB BGF ;ECNC OKXGKX YKVF F\TG K[GRBF GNGY
UBG \GZKY NT SVJN ,FPKEY ZFP TGRN \NGMKF \B NCKY LB \GKZGIBF GKNDZ NT EGPTN
;OKBNV FR\[F KZRKNGYF GPTJ ;FEEI\F G\TKP[ LB F[NIR G\KKBZ ;FZY\F NT
.\GRCN \GEGYRC \EYGRP FPGI QJCG \GZKTH OKKNDZ FCZF FBZ GPXTC JKCF[MG
TDGRC \ZIB FSKV\ NM KRV NT \G[TKFF \SKV\ N[ Z\GKC NGEDF QGZ\KF
\G[TKF[ BKF = \KZGDNB GB \KJPKP ,\K\GFEHF ,\KZGVBJP = BYVY N[ "NGDND"N
.F\GPM \G[TKF EGT QKB .\KZNGDRKS EKP\ BKF \G[TKF .\GKZNGDRKS N[ FYK\B \CKKIP
GF[KP OB OD .QKJGNIN KEGIKK BGF .WZ[-OEB OG[N ,ZIB ZCE OG[N FPGE GRRKB ZGDZD
NTGV[ KP .KZPDN FRG[ O\SF QP FKF\ GN[ \G[TKFF ,WZ[-\G[TKFC GPXT BXPK ZIB
\G[TKFF KCKMZP ZIB \GRYEYECG \GZKFHC \GYI\FN CKKI \G[TKF N[ FYK\B \ZDSPC
,UNGG JZGY ,BYVY N[ N"GPF .OKV\\[PF QP EIB NM FN OZG\ FP \GBZNG \KVKXVSF
YZ" :\GXZPR LMN EDR\F BYVY LB ,\K[GVKI-OEB N[ ZGKX ZVSF \VKJT NT OK[N C[I
13
,QMBG ."YGIZP OD FBZKK[ ZGSB .FBZKK[ ZGSB GPXT YZIF .FH BN YZ ,NGMF .FH BN
OG[P FZGX FN QKB .FCKXK FZGX QKB QRTN GB KZJPGZC TY[N[ O[M FZGX QKB \G[TKFN
OKJYVB N[ NGNMP BKF[ OG[PG ,FTGR\C ,FZGX KGRK[C QPHF NM \BXPR BKF[

,FKVGSGNKV KFP ,KZJBGD SYKNVG HNE NK'H NXB GBZ SV\RFG [DZGPF N[ \KJYVPGY FDXF .11
.217=181 'PT ,2008 CKCB-N\ ,DRKNSZ ,CFN ZRCB OGDZ\
Gilles Deleuze and Claire Parnet, ``On the Superiority of Anglo-American .12
Literature'' (1977), Dialogues, trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam,
Columbia University Press, New York 1987, pp. 36-76
Michel Carrouges, Kafka versus Kafka, trans. Emmett Parker, University of .13
Alabama Press, Alabama 1968, p. 12

?BSPS ZGDZD F\B KP 130


,JNBJ[DM ,ON[ KGPKEM F\GB \GBZFN Z[VB KB .KCKJKRDGY JNBJ[D BNG OKJ^ o&SZ^&
oG
OKKNDZF :\G[TKF N[ \GKPKRGJP YZ [K ,NNMM .\KPKRGJP ,\KEBZGVS FZGXC YZ BNB
.FZY\F NT FXKCZF ,QGKZ[F ,NYNGYPF QGHPF ,OGIF TCXF ,\GCGZPF \GRJYF
.EIB CKXK [K KEMN \GVZJXP QRKB ONGTN GNNF \GKPKRGJPF
FRG[ \GKFN FMKZX FRRKB ,KZJBGDG HNE OKSZGD ,\GK\GZVS \GKG[TKF KVNM F[KDF
OEGY \BZGY ZVS KVE QKC \G[TKF N[ F\GBXPKF .\GK[PP \GKG[TKF KVNM F[KDF QP
FNGTVF CIZP ZIB ,FK\GTGR\ NM ZIB \KVGYSGZYKP \GYI\FN ,\K\KKGGI \GRRGC\FN NGM
\GKGTP[PC .OFC \VDKR BKF[ OKTNSFG \I\GV BKF[ OKVYTPF ,GRKRVC \sZGV BKF[
ORKB KZJBGDG HNE ,NGMKCM ,\ZXKKP \KNBGJSYJ \G[TKF[ \GKNGCPKSFG \GKZGDNBF
BGF[ OKZGCS OF[ OG[P OKZIBN OKZK\GP OF[ KCKSZGYSKE YI[P GFH .OKRKKRT\P
N[ GCGZKS OD BGF[ = KZJBGDG HNE N[ OCGZKSC KM [KDEFN CG[I .OG\S KGCPN NKCGP
,\KRC\ KF[GHKBC F\GB \YXN ,ZGDZD N[ \G[TKFN \ZEDGP FZGX YKRTFN = GPXT ZCIPF
\ZCEPF GRK\GHGIPC LM NM \KZNGVGVFG FYKZF FGGIPF NT FZHI OG[P QKB ,FKZGDJY GB
.FNBC BXGKMG "K[PPF" NT ,OKNKPN ZCTP[ FP NT ,CD[RF NT ,DGXKKN-\GR\RKF-KB NT
N[ \GKPKRGJPF NM \B ,OKKZ[VBF OKZGBK\F NM \B UGSBN G[YT\K KZJBGDG HNE
BGNP \B QKCFN KEM \GKIZMF QNGM[ = "\GNGYNGPF" ,ORG[NC ,GB = \G[TKFF
Q\KR K[PPF ,O\RKICP .ZIB GB FH QPGZ N[ GKVE LG\C \I\V\PF \KEGIKKF \G[TKFF
,KJZYRGY TEK GRPP WNIN Z[VB .ZKCT K\NC NGCD \GKFNP YGIZ BGFG ZGBK\N QKJGNIN
K[PPF N[ KJKNRBGMKSVF YI[PF \B OKYI[P QKB EGT NM ,GC \GSR\FN OD Z[VB
GR\GB FZKHIP \G[TKF N[ FYK\B .DGXKKN-\GR\RKFF-KB N[ F[YF QKTZDM ,FPGBZJM
OKKRGKECF \GPNGTF NB ,K\GZVSF JSYJF NB ,FEGPXF FBKZYF ZG[KP NB BGVB
14
.GRKPKC ZKER Z\GKG Z\GK F[TR KM FPGE[ LNFP = GMNFPC OKZXGR[ OKKEGIKKF

\GRGZIBF OKR[C YZ ZZC\FN FNKI\P \GZVSF ZYIN KZJBGDG HNE N[ O\PGZ\ .14
\GKZNGDRKSF D[GPC QGKE .FZD[C[ ZCE QRKB QKKET OKK\GZVS OKJSYJ N[ \GHKNRBGHKMSG
Gregg Lambert, ,N[PN ,GBZ (FH ZPBPC LNFPF OD ZHDR GRPP[) \GZVS \GZKXKC GPGYPG
``The Deleuzian Critique of Pure Fiction'', SubStance, 84, 1997, pp. 128-152; Alan
Bourassa, ``Literature, Language, and the Non-Human'', in: Brian Massumi (ed.), A
N[ OKKRKT \ZKBP FZKYS .Shock to Thought, Routledge, London 2002, pp. 60-76
Daniel W. Smith, ``A life of Pure Immanence: NXB GBZ KRBKHNEF K\GZVSF JYKGZVF
Deleuze's `Critique et Clinique' Project'', in: Gilles Deleuze, Essays Critical and
Clinical, trans. Daniel W. Smith and Michael A. Greco, University of Minnesota
HNE N[ O\[ZGP OT EEGP\FN QKKRTPG UKYP QGKSKR .Press, Minnesota 1997, pp. xi-liii
QKC HNE NK'H :KDGN QPGZ ,KCFH EFB NXB GBZ ,FV[F \PHKZV LZE ZYKTC ,\GZVSF ZYIC KZJBGDG
.2005 CKCB-N\ ,DRKNSZ ,\GZVSG FKVGSGNKV

131 Q\GE NKKB


.(OKN[GZK ,DZCRKZD KCX KZGB \[ZGP \KC \GCKEBC) 1923 \R[C \NXCIG FYCZ GK\GKIBG GPB OT D"XB