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“On line Railway Reservation System”
In this emerging world of computers all most all manual system automated and computerized but maximum of them are so complex and a common user is unable to operate that software system. We are developing the “Online Railway Reservation System” to model the present system and to remove the drawbacks. This project explores how computer technology can be used to solve the problem of user. We specifically props way to computerize the administration and engineering offices of Indian Railway Online. A high speed communication network needs to be developed for interconnecting the offices of railways. This same communication network can be used to provide high speed internet connection to the public and leas out network capacity to internet service providers.
Railway Reservation System
TABLE OF CONTENTS
a. Current system b. Need of proposed system
2. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE 3. ANALYSIS
a. Requirement analysis b. Requirement Specification
a. System Flow Diagram b. Modules identified c. Database Design i. E-R Diagram
a. Platform Used i. Hardware Platform ii. Software Platform b. Implementation c. Testing i. Testing Technique used
a. Important Features b. Limitations c. Future Work
Railway Reservation System
1.1 Current System India is the 7th largest country in terms of geographical size. Interactive graphical user interface. simple and error free. Bulk of long distance traffic is carried by the Indian Railway as a result Indian railways.2 Need of proposed system To reduce complexity of existing system. To make work easy. . The scope of project define the project feasibility the technology . Effective utilization of available resource.Railway Reservation System 1. finance . This means there is a need for efficient means for long distance transportation. The efficiency of the railway will increase result of computerization due to dramatic reduction in communication time among geographically dispersed offices. The long distance road network is very poorly developed in most parts of India. To enhance the efficiency and diversification of services activities. time and resources best define in technology weather the defects can be reduced in the project and up which level financially. For the reservation of the ticket a person go to ticket counter of the railway reservation office and expend its valuable time in standing queue. weather the overall project cost is affordable. Effective management of time. User friendly. Therefore forms a backbone of public transport in India. Time describe the weather the projection finishing point will be achieve on time or before time resources required should be available at the rate of cost and time. Now to save that time we have a facility of Online Reservation now we can book cancel or search other train information just by click on computer. Introduction 1.
Railway Reservation System System Development Life Cycle .
the methods and tools to be used and the controls and deliverables that are required. which can help in developing a cost effective project are analyzed and strategies to use them are decided. expensive. 3. A preliminary design is created for the new system. also known as the spiral lifecycle model. prototyping may be used to proceed with the available data and find out possible solution in order to deal with the potential changes in the requirements. This phase is the most important part of "Spiral Model". and . and complicated projects. The spiral model is favored for large. methods and tools layers plus the generic phases namely definition phase. is a systems development lifecycle model used in information technology (IT). development phase and support phase. This is usually a scaled-down system. The system requirements are defined in as much detail as possible. The steps in the spiral model iteration can be generalized as follows: 1. In this phase all possible (and available) alternatives.Railway Reservation System 2. A process model is chosen based on the nature of the project and application. This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. If risks indicate any kind of uncertainty in requirements. 2. It is a software development strategy that encompasses the process. This phase has been added specially in order to identify and resolve all the possible risks in the project development. 2.1 Definition A software process model or a software engineering is an abstract representation of a software process. A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system. System development life cycle 2.2 Spiral Model The spiral model.
4. A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure: 1. Planning and designing the second prototype. 2. 3. weaknesses. Defining the requirements of the second prototype. 4. Evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths.Railway Reservation System represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product. Constructing and testing the second prototype. and risks. Spiral Model:- .
Railway Reservation System Analysis .
Requirement Analysis is a task done under software engineering and software design. It provides the appropriate mechanism for understanding what the customer wants. Analysis 3.1 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS: Requirements are a feature of a system or description of something that is capable of doing in order to fulfill the system‟s purpose. data behavior.Railway Reservation System 3. assessing feasibility. requirements analysis let the software engineer (called analysis) to refine the software allocation and construct models of data. At last. indicates software‟s interface constraints. Moreover. requirements analysis provides software developer with a representation of data.e. specifying the solution unambiguously. Software requirements analysis can be categorized into four areas of effort. function. function and behavior that can be converted to data. once the software has been built. interface and component-level designs. While requirements engineering specifies software‟s operational characteristics i. the developer and the customer. architectural. a means to assess quality. as followsEvaluation and synthesis Modeling Specification Review . analyzing the needs. we can say that the requirement specification makes available. negotiating a solution. validating the specification and managing the requirements as they are translated into an operational system. functional and behavioral domains.
During the evaluation and synthesis activity. input and output).Railway Reservation System The analyst starts with the studies of system specification and the software project plan. The reason behind is to recognize the basic problem elements perceived by customer. so as to ensure problem recognition. the data objects. Once establishing this information. the analyst then considers basic architectures for implementation. Use cases are also known as Functional Requirements. 3. understand software behavior in the context of the system affected events. . The engineer (or analyst) must define all data objects that are extremely observable. After evaluating the current problems and desired information (i. operational behavior and the information content.2 REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION: A Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a complete description of the behavior of the system to be developed. the review of the software scope. Initially. Next. functional processing.e. or design constraints). is necessary. Also. the analyst creates the system model so as to better understand data and control flow. Non-Functional Requirements are requirements which impose constraints on the design or implementation (such as performance requirements. establish the characteristics of system interface. and uncover additional design constraints. used to generate planning estimate. quality standards. processing functions and the system behavior are defined in detail. the engineer and analyst synthesizing one or more solutions. Thus the process of evaluation and synthesis proceeds until both analyst and the customer are sure that software can be adequately specified for subsequent development steps.. communication for analysis must be established. The next major area of effort for analysis is problem evaluation and solution synthesis. He must evaluate the content and flow of information. It includes a set of use case that describes all the interactions that the users will have with the software. he must define and describe all software functions. The model provides a base for software design and the creation of specifications for the software. Also. It is then important to understand the software in a system context.
the behavior and outputs. specific and verifiable. and to track the requirement through the development of the system. This behavior may come from organizational or business rule. This information is used to help the reader understand why the requirement is needed. Typically. . data manipulation and processing and other specific functionality that show how a use case to be fulfilled. The core of the requirement is the description of the required behavior. a brief summary. a requirements analyst generates functional requirements after building use cases. A function is described as a set of inputs. technical details. A typical functional requirement will contain a unique name and number.Railway Reservation System 3. Both artifacts (use cases documents and requirements documents) complement each other in a bidirectional process. Functional requirements may be calculations. and a rationale. a functional requirement defines a function of a software-system or component. this may have exceptions since software development is an iterative process and sometime certain requirements are conceived prior to the definition of the use case. correct unambiguous. stakeholders and other experts within the organization. Software requirements must be clear.2. or it may be discovered through elicitation sessions with users.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: In software engineering. However. which must be a clear and readable description of the required behavior.
range of parameters in the output. Other terms for non-functional requirements are “constraints”. unit measure of the output. Nonfunctional requirements are often called qualities of a system. process for handling error message produced as output 3. such as security and usability. . “quality goals” and “quality of service requirements” . The nonfunctional requirements in our projects are:Time:The project should be completed within the stipulated time period. description and volume of output. are observable at runtime. such as extensibility and scalability.e. Purpose Inputs a description of the functional requirement its reason(s) what are the input. rather than specific behaviors. includes any validity checks on the data.2 NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: In systems engineering and requirements engineering. what are the legal domains of each input Processing Describes the outcome rather than the implementation. shape. in what form will they arrive. embody in the static structure of the software system.Railway Reservation System Detailed Description of Functional Requirements: Template for describing functional requirements. Evolution qualities. exact timing of each operation (if needed). i. ”quality attributes”. process by which the output is stored or destroyed. from what sources can the input come. output timing. how to handle unexpected or abnormal situations Outputs The form. Qualities. non-functional requirements can be divided into 2 main categories: 1. non-functional requirements are requirements which specify criteria that can be used to judge the operation of system. 2.2. Execution qualities.
RELATIONSHIPS: Relationships between actors or between use cases.3. 3. Usability:This requirement is present.3 USECASE ANALYSIS: Use Case Analysis is an object-oriented method for designing information systems by breaking down requirements into user functions. Performance:It should be fast enough to produce the output. Each use case expresses a “complete thought” or end-to-end transaction.3. CONNECTIONS: Connections from actors to use cases. 3. Communicate system behavior in user‟s terms. 3. as this system will interact with user.3. 3. Reliability:This system must be highly robust.1 GOALS OF USE CASE ANALYSIS: Design system from user‟s perspective. but could be other systems or devices as long as long as they are outside the system being specified.Railway Reservation System Cost:The cost involved in marketing the project should be less. typically people. .2 CHARACTEISTICS OF USE-CASE ANALYSIS: USE-CASE: The specific ways in which the system is used. Each case is a transaction or sequence of events performed by user.3 SOME KEY COMPONENTS OF USE CASE ANALYSIS: ACTORS: Entities that use or are used by system. Use cases are studied to determine what objects are required to accomplish them and how they interact with other objects.
3. and that takes part in a sequence of activities in a dialogue with a system. the behavior of the use case is indeterminate.4 PRECONDITIONS: A preconditions section defines all the condition that must be true (i. There is no need for a use case when there is no need for any actor to achieve a goal. other systems.4.the initiator of the interaction. or hardware devices.1 USE CASE NAME: A use case name provides unique identifiers for the use case. describes the state of the system) for the trigger to meaningfully cause the initiation of the use case. represented as a sequence of simple steps. That is. a device.Railway Reservation System 3. Actors are something or someone which exists outside the system under study..4. An actor may be a person.2 GOAL: Without a goal a use case is useless. The use case technique is used in software and system engineering to capture the functional requirements of a system. should describe an achievable goal and should be sufficient for the end user to understand what the use case is about.4 USE CASE DIAGRAM: A use is a description of a system‟s behavior as it responds to a request that originates from outside of that system.e. Actors represent the different roles that something outside has in its relationship with the system whose functional requirements are being specified. Each use case is a complete series of events. A briefly describes what the user intends to achieve with this use case. 3.a primary actor – or is acted on by the system. another system. to achieve some goal: they may be end users. if the state describes in the preconditions.4. .4. or time. Use cases describe the interaction between a primary actor.and the system itself. describes from the point view of the actor.a secondary actor. 3.3 ACTORS: An actor is someone or something outside the system that either acts on the system. It should be written in verb-noun format. 3. An individual in the real world can be represented by several actors if they have different roles and goals in regards to a system.
5 POSTCONDITION: The post conditions section describes what the change in the state of the system will be after the use case completes.Railway Reservation System 3.4. SIMPLE USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR ONLINE RAILWAY RESERVARION SYSTEM: USER REQUEST FOR BOOKING TICKET REQUEST FOR TICKET CANCELATION REQUEST FOR OTHER QUERY SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR VALIDATE USER VIEW TRANSACTION . Post conditions are guaranteed to be true when the use case ends.
let us take the passenger (a user of system).e. i.Railway Reservation System 3. reservation and ticketing system. in turn. A passenger as a user may play one or three roles. counter clerk. would lead us to an identification of use case? Table shows the result of the process of identifying the use case. users are the passenger. Table shows the result of the process of identifying the use case. Which. passenger. which would lead us to identify the roles played. the counter clerk and the reservation and ticketing system (R & T system). Take each user and identify the roles played. .5 USE CASE DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION: In the ticket reservation system.
Railway Reservation System DESIGN .
In order to improve a process. . major components in the system. must be taken. and the flow of the process is indicated with arrows connecting the symbols. where individual steps are more easily seen.1 SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM: A System Flow Diagram (SFD) shows the relationship between the. in a form that is easy to read and communicate. Process becomes more complex when decisions must be made on which. The steps in a process are shown with symbolic shapes. The mapping of „what follows what‟ is shown with arrows between sequential action boxes. The flowchart is a simple mapping tool that shows the sequence of actions within a process. The decision is shown in a flowchart as a diamond shaped box containing a simple question to which the answer is yes or no. as in the illustration. Describing this in text lacks the clarity of a pictorial diagram. It is a systematic representation of an algorithm or a process. This also shows the boxes for process start and end points of which there are normally one each.Railway Reservation System 4. out of an alternative set of action. it is first necessary to understand its operation in detail. DESIGN 4.
Railway Reservation System PASSENGER PROCESS RESERVATON ADMINISTRATOR CHACK DATABASE PROCESS CANCELLATION CANCELATION AUTHORITY DATABSE CHECK STATUS ENQUIRY AUTHORITY DATABSE .
6. 4. when we reach a point at which the flowchart branches into a number of alternatives. Make cross reference to supporting information.Railway Reservation System Here are 6 steps which can be used as a guide for completing flow diagrams: 1. 5. Follow the process through to a useful conclusion (end at a target point). 3. 2. and the resulting complexity threatens to overwhelm the exercise. Describe the process to be charted and to give a chart the title.e. choose the most important alternative to continue flowcharting with. . begins to draw diagram by first describing the event which initiates the process.e. Note each successive action concisely and clearly. Go with the main flow i. Start with a trigger event i.
Railway Reservation System SYSTEM FLOWCHART: START USER NAME & PASSWORD IF VALID GO BACK ENTER LOCATION Respond to Request And Ticket Booked End User Respond to Request and Ticket Cancel CUSTOMER -1 CUSTOMER-2 CUSTOMER-3 .
Source & Destination Logout Stop Is Train Available X . no.Railway Reservation System COMPLEX FLOW CHART FOR ORRS DECISION CONTROL: Start Input User Name Compare it to valid user list Maintained at Server Yes Is User Valid No Want to Logout Yes Deny Login No Enter the Train Name.
Railway Reservation System X Is User Authorized Access Denied Enter the Operation to Be Performed Is Option Reservati on of Ticket Yes No Book Ticket Is Option Cancel of Ticket No Yes Cancel Ticket Y .
Railway Reservation System Y Yes Is Option Other Information No Give Information Ask What You Want .
Railway Reservation System System User Request Server Server Response LEVEL 1 DFD OF ORRS .
Railway Reservation System User and Password System User User Validation File Request Services to User Server Response LEVEL 2 DFD OF ORRS .
DESTINATION Railway Reservation System RUNNING_DAY SOURCE TRAIN TRAIN_ NO TRAIN_NAME 1_AC 2_AC BELONG_TO TRAVEL STATION TRAVEL DATE DISTANCE SECOND _CLASS CHARGE FARE DISTANCE BELONG_TO SLEEPER TRAIN_NO CLASS TIME RESRVATION SEAT FIRST_CLASS STATUS DATE_OF_JRNY PNR_NO. SOURCE PASSENGER_DTL .
Railway Reservation System IMPLEMENTATION .
2 Software Platform: Operating System: .1.1.Railway Reservation System 5.Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Back End: .Sql Server 2005 . IMPLEMENTATION 5.Windows Xp Front End: .1 Platform Used 5.1 Hardware Platform: Client side: Processor: 166 MHz or above RAM: 64 MB Hard Disk Space: 100 MB Server side: Processor: 166 MHz or above RAM: 64 MB Hard Disk Space: 300 MB 5.
Data type Numeric Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Numeric Char Char Numeric Nvarchar Numeric Varchar Numeric Numeric .Railway Reservation System 1.2 Implementation Level Details: Database table being used is: Field name PNR_Number Source Destination Train_name Train_number Departure_from_source Arrival_at_destination Date_of_journy Name_of_passenger Sex Age Address Telephone_number Class Distance Seat_no.
It is one of the most widely used methods. The primary objectives of software testing are as follows: 1. Once source code has been generated. 2. It uses procedural design as a guide to test major control paths and uncover errors within the module boundary. Unit testing is most often done by the programmer himself/herself. UNIT TESTING:Unit testing aims the verification effort on the smallest unit of software design i. Testing emphasizes on a set of methods for the creation of test cases that fulfill overall testing objectives. The goal of Unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. Testing is a process of executing a program to find an error in it. A good test case should have a high probability of finding an asyet-undiscovered error. 5. design and code generation. .. it affords several benefits. A test case will be considered successful if it uncovers an as-yetundiscovered error. written contract that the piece of code must satisfy. software must be tested to uncover and correct maximum possible errors. As a result. not the whole software system. and the coding phase is sometimes called “coding and unit testing phase”. Unit testing is a dynamic method for verification. It is a White box oriented and the step can be conducted in parallel for multiple components.Railway Reservation System 5. The goal of unit testing is to test modules or “units”. before being delivered. 1 TESTING TECHNIQUE USED: 1. A unit test provides a strict. where the program is actually compiled and executed. It indicates the ultimate review of specification.e. a software component or module.3 Testing: Software testing is a critical phase of software quality assurance. 3.3.
VALIDATION TESTING:At the climax of integration testing. This method helps to determine the levels of software development and makes easier to report testing progress in the form of a percentage. may not be magnified to unacceptable levels. procedures or functions are integrated and then tested. Integration testing strategy used is Bottom-Up Integration Testing. a final series of software test May being. One module can have an inadvertent. Validation succeeds when software function in a reasonably expectable manner.e. when combined.Railway Reservation System 2. In it all the bottom or low level modules. Validation attempts to uncover errors. The major objective of integration testing is to tackle the problem of integration i. but the emphasis is on the requirements level i. the things that will be immediately apparent to the customer. It is called validation testing. sub functions. global data structure can cause problems and to truncate this list of problems we use integration testing. At this time. software is developed as a package having all the errors uncovered and corrected.e. INTEGRATION TESTING:Integration testing is a phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. . It follows snit testing and precedes system testing. 3. After the integration testing of lower level integration modules. adverse effect on another. the next level of modules will be formed and can be used for integration testing. putting all the modules together. This approach is helpful only when all or most of the modules of the same development level are ready.
Railway Reservation System CONCLUSION .
3. Enabling the multi user environment and simultaneous usage of files. Use of the computers has solved many problems.2 DIFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED: There were many difficulties that came in our way in the process of development of this real time project some of them are illustrated below. Searching an efficient security package and studying its usage. Extra and user defined security needs can be employed during request and response. which are faced while manual calculation. The most significant limitation of over project is its dependency over the server because of this when is fail then whole work is to be stopped. Real time transfer of the file with minimum time delay. 2.4 CONCLUSION: Rather than designing manually we have made use of computer as once that data‟s are input it performs accurate function.Railway Reservation System 2. 3. 2. There is no chance of fault or miscalculation if the data are feeded correctly. Another enhancement would be to add more modules to cover all information off the system. 1. 2. Another limitation of our project is that in this software and hardware requirement is high comparison of existing system. 6. Response time of the system may vary because of variable network speed. 6. 6. Records of client activities can be maintained.1 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT: 1. This is the one which is . efficient and outsourcing railway reservation system. 3. CONCLUSION 6. This is not the end but beginning of the versatile.3 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT: 1.
. By making this we project we made a small footstep towards the path of progress of platform independent railway reservation system.Railway Reservation System compatible to all operating system.