Monday, July 2, 2007

Training Report oF BSNL
Acknowledgement I acknowledge my gratitude and thank to all the well knowledge persons for giving me opportunity to avail all the best facilities available at this telecom centre through which I have gained knowledge thinking so as too just in the environment suitable for harmonic adjustment. I am grateful to the following persons for various help rendered by them during the training period.

Mr. A.K. Shukla JTO Finally, a deep thanks to

Mr. B.N. Singh SDE Last but not the least; I thank my teacher, friends and my family members for their constant encouragement.

PREFACE

Since time immemorial, a man has tried hard to bring the world as close to himself as possible. His thirst for information is hard to quench so he has continuously tried to develop new technologies, which have helped to reach the objective. The world we see today is a result of the continuous research in the field of communication, which started with the invention of telephone by Grahm Bell to the current avtar as we see in the form INTERNET and mobile phones. All these technologies have come to existence because man continued its endeavor towards the objective. This project report of mine, STUDY OF TRENDS TECHNOLOGIES IN COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING has been a small effort in reviewing the trends technologies prevailing. For this purpose, no organization other than BAHRAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED could have been a better choice.

Table of contents 1. Acknowledgement 2. Preface 3. Table of contents 4. Introduction 5. making a telephone call 6. About the exchange a. computer unit b. power plant c. central air conditioner d. main distribution frame 7. V-SAT network a. Design aspects b. Operational factors 8. Types of access V-SAT networks a. fixed assignment time division multiple access (F-TDMA) b. Random access c. Code division multiple access (CDMA) 9. The Internet a. Introduction b. Internet connectivity c.OSI model d. Communication b\w the layers e. File transfer the internet f. National internet backbone 10. Wireless in local loop a. Technical aspects b. Advantages 11. Global system for mobile communication (GSM)

BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (BSNL) An Introduction:Today, BSNL is the No. 1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers.

and much beyond . GSM and WLL (WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP) services etc. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from global leaders. especial emphasis has given for introducing latest technologies and new services like I-NET. Now BSNL has also entered in mobile communication. If the called party is in different exchange from the caller. The switching equipment from the exchange removes the dial tone from the line after the first digit is received and after receiving the last digit. IN (INTELLIGENT NETWORK). BSNL has all the new services send technological advantages. steady start to flow in the called party¶s line and is detected by the exchange. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of the leader. . Full credit for all above achievement goes to the officers and staff of the BSNL. one or both parties hang up by replacing their handset on the base. BSNL Services:When it comes connecting the four corners of the country . ISDN (INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK).BSNL.Apart from vast network expansions. If the called is in the same exchange. and notifying the calling and billing machinery when the call is completed. Each telephone contains a ringer that responds to specific electric frequency. the caller exchange set up the connection over the telephone network to the called party¶s exchange. burst of ringing current is applied to the called party¶s line. Accordingly the Department of Telecom has been formulating developmental policies for the accelerated growth of the telecommunication services in various cities. The exchange when initiates the process of taking down the connection. to enable you to step in to tomorrow. Once the dial tone is heard. When the called party answers the telephone by pocking up the handset. the telephone number of called party. The administration is fully aware of the challenges lying ahead and quite committed to provide the latest and best telecom services by their continued support and active co-operation. It is working round the clock to take India in to the future by providing excellent telecom services for people of India. the caller uses a rotary or a push button dial mounted either on the handset or on the base to enter a sequence of digits. which are available with any well. detecting an answer. it connects each inch of India to the infinite corners of the globe. INTERNET. The telecom services have been recognized the world over as an important tool for socioeconomic development for a nation and hence telecom infrastructure is treated a crucial factor to realize the socio-economic objectives in India. MAKING A TELEPHONE CALL A telephone call starts when the caller lifts the handsets of the base. stopping the flow of current. developed Telecom network anywhere else in the country. one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle. determines the called party is in the same exchange or a different ones. The exchange than stops applying ringing and sets up the connection between the caller and the called party. The department is also responsible for frequency management in the field of radio connection in close coordination with the international bodies. including notifying billing equipment of the duration of the call if appropriate. When conversation is over. The called party then handles the process of ringing.

it is the interface between subscribers and exchange. switching network (CX) 3. control unit 4. which in turns operates the switching to complete the call or routes it a higher level switch for further processing.ABOUT THE EXCHANGE All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges. ready to take over in a few seconds in the event of equipment failure. which are: 1.to connect switch (exchange) with the external environment (subscriber) i.to maintain the continuous temperature + or ± 2 degree Celsius to the digital switch (exchange). The number being dialed is stored and then passed to the exchange¶s central computer. OMC For smooth working of an exchange following unit are very important:1. MDF: . one running the program that provides services and the second monitoring the operation of the first. AC Plant: . Various exchanges present in BSNL are: E-10B OCB283 EWSD All exchange has some purposes and some basic structural units. Power Plant:.e. Computer unit .it deals with additional services of the exchange to the customers with the help of computers. 4. subscribers connection unit 2. Computer Unit: . 2. Today¶s automatic exchanges uses a pair of computers.to feed proper power supply to exchange 3. which perform the functions the human operator.

As soon as the AC power supply is on. LOCAL DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is another services provided by the exchange. In this type of service makes it enquiry using the internet. However. The main servers of this room are:IVRS is used for the change number services provided by the exchange.the UPS must give supply to the computer. It also provides the updated data to all other part of the exchange. But . Charging. The customers are using the services of the exchange by using the internet also gets connected to the main server present this room via an internet room. but there are also some instruments which cannot withstand with this type of power supply. Thus there must be adjustment source of power. The main parts of the power room are: Batteries: . The server present in the main computer room provides this service. As we know there is some equipment which can withstand any type of power supply. It mainly consists of the servers that are providing the different services. we make use of the charging unit present in the power room.Discharging Unit: . Even if the power supply gone off.the batteries we are using in the power room need timely charging. as soon as the power supply is gone off. In this system when the user enters it¶s complained it gets directly entered to the server and user is allotted with an id number. That is the first requirement of any organization is the input. The main source of this exchange is AC supply. POWERPLANT As we know that. UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply):.these are the instant sources of the power as soon as power is gone off. CERS are provided by the exchange to avoid the problems that the users are facing the repairing of telephone. even a microsecond delay will cause the loss of data. It is the case of E-10B exchange. INTERNET DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is the latest service by the exchange. The slowly charging of the batteries is known as the trickle charging. then what is source? No one think on this that the telephone is always plays its role in the human life. subscribers calls the particular number and gets the directory enquiry.As the name specified it is the main part of the exchange that deals with the all services provided by the exchange to the customers with the help of computer. the power is the main source or any organization. which gets connected to the main server at the internet room in the exchange and further to the main server in the computer room. by using this.

Thus. Group testing. The most widely used is simple reciprocal type a cylinder and piston arrangement. cooling system is basic requirement. The basic unit of measurement used in the industry is known as ³ton of refrigeration´ (TR) which is equivalent to the heat extracted in 24 hours for converting thousands kg of liquid to ice at zero degree. The main work of the discharging unit is to control the discharging of the batteries. They are of 885 KVA.T. CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONER For the function of electrical equipment. printer and computer test . The condenser liquefies the refrigerant gas by a heat exchange process. or the live tester. we use the testing These testing are T. thus for this. For capacity more than 120 TR.sometimes we need the BOOSTER charging. testing. Engine Room:-we know that the batteries are the instant source of supply but we cannot use it for much larger time. etc. It increases the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant gas coming from the evaporator coils by compressing it. The basic advantages of cooling systems are followingIt provides the thermal stability so that the temperature does not reach the tolerance limit of electronic equipment It saves equipment from dust so to avoid malfunction of equipment¶s.Y. we have an engine to generate the power supply. For removing the fault of telephone number. centrifugal compressors are used. The capillary tube or the expansion valve pressurizes liquid refrigerant and meters it flows to the evaporator. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME The primary function of MDF is: The fault of telephone number is removed in the MDF. The compressor is the heart of the AC system and the costliest. which extract heat out of the ambience. Compressor comes in various types. The refrigerant then passes trough the evaporator coils. It protects equipment from excess humidity which can caused rusting of equipment. this room controls the supply of the engine. Inverter and Converter Unit: . it is called as Fault Remove Section. For any type of testing firstly we need the vertical no. until it gets fully charged. In this type of charging awe take of the batteries from the load and charge separately.the main use of this system is to change AC mains to DC and vice versa as required by the parts of exchange.

Vertical side is again subdivided in two parts: One part is connected with the horizontal side and another with the subscriber line by using 100 . number of that particular telephone number.E. The courting is done from up (0) to down (7). the tags are situated.N.On the rack. The telephone numbers are also disconnected in the MDF because of some specific reason. These pair is distributed when we allot the telephone number to the subscriber. 1 tag = 4 core 1 core = 4 bunch 1 bunch = 2 line N.Each rack consists of eight tags. WEDGE:-If we want to disconnect any two numbers then we insert a wedge between subscriber side and exchange side.E. It is a 128 pair cable. TAG: .:. Here wedge works as insulator made of plastic. ORGANISATION OF THE MDF PARTS OF THE MDF Horizontal side Vertical side HORIZONTAL SIDE: It is again subdivided in to two parts Exchange side Line side Description of the horizontal side:RACK: . One rack is having eight tags. The EWSD and MDF connected by NE.The word NE stands for the µNUMBER OF EQUIPMENT¶. VERTICAL SIDE: The vertical aside connected to the underground cable. This cable is having 100 pairs.

the WLL (wireless in local loop) and the GSM mobile. This is how the present day telephone system works.pair underground cable. Broadcast feature on satellite communication. Internet. V-SAT NETWORK What is V-SAT? It can be defined as a class of very small aperture Intelligent Satellite Earth Station suitable for easy on-premise installation. Reliable communication. usually operating in conjugation with a large size HUB earth station. Communication to different areas. Now let us see how BSNL has kept up with the changing world and provided the subscribers with the latest facilities technologies. which include the V-SAT network. Low cost. Capable of supporting a wide range of two ways integrated Telecom Services. Quick implementation time. Superior quality satellite based data services. REASON FOR V-SAT EVOLUTION The main reason for V-SAT evolution is due to advances in following areas: . Service in distance insensitive. Different exchanges have different architectures of switching call routing and other features. Flexibility for network and changes. It has the following components: Micro Earth Station Mini Earth Station Personal Earth Station Roof Top Terminal Customer Premises Terminal ADVANTAGES OF V-SAT Can be located in the user premises on roof top or backyard and hence eliminate last mile problem.

Modulation type 2. V-SATs transmit/receive data without the help of hub station. This type of network is called a mesh network. V-SATs can communicate both on star as well as mesh topology. Program quality audio. Data c. 2. 3. .Packet transmission and switching. Protocol standardization and implementation. Voice b. In this mode of operation V-SATs transmit/receive data through a centralized HUB. Powerful microprocessor. Antennae miniaturization Spread spectrum techniques. CLASSIFICATION OF V-SATs V-SAT can be classified as following: 1. LSI based FEC codec has and modems. Efficient multiple access protocol. Broadcast/ point to multipoint Types of services a. Two way interactive Types of services a. Image In this configuration. 4. c. Voice b. Higher power satellites. Packetised data. Cost. KU and RF electronics. Point to point Types of services a. Transmission rate. CATEGORIES OF V-SATs 1. Application used for. This type of network is called star network. Broadcast video b. Data c. 3. Image In this mode of operation.

VI. III. IV. Explicit 3. Information encoding and modulation. These are: Bandwidth allocation Multiplexing Network management Protocol handling Transmission TYPE OF ACCESS FOR V-SAT DATA NETWORK There are three types access available for V-SAT data networks. Satellite characteristics II. V. Random access a. few of more important attributes are Operational aspects Frequency bands Satellite access methods OPERATIONAL ASPECTS Considering a V-SAT system from its operational aspects. Pure aloha b. Transmission link properties. Reservation i. Geographical and environmental factors. However. When evaluating V-SAT system each of the above attributes should be given attention.DESIGN FACTORS FOR V-SAT SYSTEMS The capabilities of V-SAT system depend upon the following factors. there are five broad functions that determines how the system works. Implicit ii. code division multiple access (CDMA) . Earth station characteristics. Slotted aloha c. Fixed assignment time division multiple access (F-TDMA) 2. Total system operation. I. They are: 1.

Packets are sent asynchronously. this type of access is called time random multiple access. signals are transmitted by earth stations in a burst mode. FEATURES No inter modulation problems.low . If no scheduling is provided b/w the transmitting station. Throughput is 70% to 80% Delay ± medium is too high. each frame is divided in to slots of fixed time durations among stations of network. In this form of access stations transmit packets\bursts randomly. Station transmits the packet until they are received correctly. Transport utilization is better. The assignment of stations to slots is permanent similar to TDMA system carrying digitalized voice except FTDMA does not have synchronization. with no frame sync signals. thereby destroying information content. also called unslotted aloha is the simplest form of random access schema. This simplest method for the stations to transmit burst without regard for other station. Random access id of two types: Pure aloha Slotted aloha PURE ALOHA Pure aloha. The aloha channel throughout can be analyzed in terms of traffic offered through the following relationship: S=Ge-2g Maximum throughput is 13% to 18%. Complexity-medium. Delay.FIXED ASSIGNMENT TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (F-TDMA) In a fixed assignment TDMA. RANDOM ACCESS With TDMA schemes. Packet from different stations may collide. Burst from different stations must arrive at satellite exactly in allocated slots.

The explicit reservation is a distinct and unique assignment of slots to a user by the network scheduler. This scheme has a higher throughput than either S. The implicit reservation method involves reservation by use.medium. Only if the retransmit packet queue is empty. a. This ensures that no collision takes place. All reservation methods use some form of framing approach and the reservation scheme can be either implicit or explicit. Delay. This is done whenever a station successfully transmit in a slot. Retransmit packet queue. In S-Aloha. Reservation The low bandwidth utilization of pure aloha and the slotted aloha has led to many proposals for increasing utilization by means of slot reservation schemes.very low SLOTTED ALOHA The maximum throughput of an unslotted aloha channel is limited to 18% due to collision. a new packet queue is sent. The object of slot reservation schemes is to receive a particular time slot for a given station. all the stations internally assign that slot in sub-segment frames for exclusive use by the successful station. The above network discipline reduces the rate of collision by half and hence increases the maximum throughput efficiency of the channel. This increase in channel utilization efficiency is obtained at some overhead either in terms of allocation of bandwidth for reservation purposes and\or increased complexity of the control mechanism in transmitting stations. New packet queue b.low. . This is called R-Aloha.Aloha or F-TDMA depending on traffic.Complexity. In this there is no way to prevent a station capturing most or all of the slots in a frame for an indefinite time. The analysis of slotted aloha channel shows that S = Ge2g Maximum channel throughput is 36%.low. To reduce probability of each collision time slots are introduced so that the transmission could only at the start of the slots. Complexity. each station has 2 queues.

and are for this reason principally used in military systems. they are useful in combating jamming. It has 3 main components:A large master earth station (hub) A satellite transponder located in geo stationary orbit .CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA) With CDMA transmission from earth station are spread over the time frequency plane by a code transformation. Limitations of CDMA Require large transponder ratio. It yields same capacity as FDMA. Provide for a graceful degradation of network performance as the number of simultaneous users increases. Requires a highly central earth station called HUB using star configuration. Network needs no time for frequency coordination. In addition to their multiple access capabilities. VSAT technology using SSMA is presently available only for low bit rate application. This service envisages installation of very small aperture terminals (VSAT) to work with satellite based pocket switched network. Due to imperfect code orthogonalities. expected simultaneous users may be limited. Provide anti jam capabilities or protection against interference. Features All stations operate on the same transponder frequency using a large bandwidth than needed for the data rate. VSAT NETWORK IN DOT Department of telecommunication entered the VSAT era in 1991 by commissioning its first satellite based low bit rate network known as REMOTE AREA BUSINESS MESSAGE NETWORK (RABMN). This has been engineered for users located in remote areas for stable and reliable data communication. Low spectral density compared to conventional emissions. These techniques are referred to as Spread Spectrum Systems.

000 per terminal annually Satellite access charges Rs. Tariff and billing:A RABMN customer availabling VSAT has to pay the following charges:Registration charge Rs.2 lakhs Cost of each installation Rs. 25. Access to Public Telex Network Access to international data network through VSNL gateway. 100 per terminal Maintenance charges Rs. 5000 per terminal Cost of each VSAT Rs. 50 per kilo segment of data Network users: Some of the probable users are Banking network Civil aviation Airlines\railways Public\private sector industries Meteorological department Police department RABMN NETWORK Introduction . 5.000 per terminal License fees Rs. 15. 5000 per month per terminal Traffic charges Rs.A small micro earth station located at user¶s premises SERVICES OFFERED BY RABM NETWORK:- Data communication up to 1200 bps Fax services.

This time slot is usually a fraction of a second. Frequency division multiple access (FDMA):- Bandwidth is split in to narrow frequency bands with multiple users each allocated a frequency range within the larger bandwidth. Satellite network provides point to point and point to multipoint communication needs. Dynamic assignment of channels between geographically dispersed users. Code division multiple access (CDMA) Each terminal is allotted a unique encryption code. Time division multiple access (TDMA):- Each terminal is allotted a short time slot in which to transmit on a sequential basis. Provides two way communications. can decode it. The transmitted signals are encoded and only the terminal intended to receive it. time slots are allotted to the multiplexed lines even if they have no data transmit. Satellite communication is of distance and cost effective.Satellite communication plays a vital role in long distance communication. In STDM. This is also known as Spread Spectrum Multiple Access. Multi access nature of satellites. The multiplexed circuit is used more efficiently. . Satellite medium offers high bandwidth making it suitable for data communication and computer networking. a time slot is allotted to the multiplexed line only if there is data to be sent. Statistical time division multiplexing (STDM):In TDM.

000 Maintenance cost : Rs. No last mile problems of cable pair\overhead lines. Connection to international gateway packet switch.VSAT (very small aperture terminal) It is also called Micro Earth Station or Personal Earth Station. Its main features are as follows:Independent of terrain can be installed in hilly regions. 7. 15. Flexible service carrying data. islands and remote places. The different technologies used in VSAT areSatellite based Spread spectrum Packet switching Tariffs:- Cost of VSAT : about Rs. Telex.000 Installation cost : Rs.00. 50 per kilo segment of data . Interference immunity. 25.000 per month Charges for using VSAT are as follows: Ø National : Rs.000 Satellite access charge : Rs. Data security The main services offered by VSAT are as follows:Interactive data communication. Connection to Packet Switched Data Network ± INET. Connection to public telex network. 5.

6 Kbps demand based STDM data stream Data stream contains variable length packets of data addressed to various VSAT¶s . Dialing codes for VSAT are as follows: Within RABMN: o 12 digit code o 4041xxxxxxxx to other data networks: o I-NET o 4043xxxxxxxx o international networks o DNICxxxxxxxx To telex networks NATIONAL Q008/area code/telex number INTERNATIONAL 0009/country code/telex number TELEX TO RABMIN 09841xxxxx (last 5 digits of telex number) Specifications for master earth station: There are two types of master earth stations: Outbound Inbound Outbound: Each VSAT and host computer is allotted an HCL port NPG polls HCL ports and generates a 153.200 per Kilo segment of data : Rs. 240 per hour duration. of telex Ø International : Rs.: Rs. 10 per min in addition to vol.

300 watts Ø Oper. Ø Wind speed : operating 100 kmph Controller module Ø Size : 15 cm(h) x 43 cm(w) x 55 cm (d) Ø Weight : 15 kgs Ø Power supply : 220V\60Hz.2M X 1. Cel. : -5 to 50 deg. Ø Humidity : up to 95% . Cel.6KBps STDM/BPSK/SS carriers NPG provides FEC encoding for outbound data Inbound: Inbound signals originates from VSAT¶s VSAT has a unique PN code Data spread by its PN code and transmitted to satellite in 6 GHz band MES resolves the signal in 4 GHz band. Temp : -40 to +50 deg. When the correct pattern is detected.8M Ø Weight : 60 KGs Ø Tracking : fixed Ø Amb.Outmux chips the data @1:16 resulting in 2. the original signal is extracted from the IF signal and transmitted to INMUX NPG polls INMUX for I\C data packets and transmits the packets to HCL VSAT specifications Antennae module Ø Reflector : 1.4576 MB stream. converts to 70 MHz IF and sends to Demod section Demod cards compare the pattern of the to other PN code for its associated VSAT. BPSK modulator produced 5 MHz of spectrum Upconvertor converts to 5GHz RF Mes transmits 153. Temp.

2KBps\9.6KBps BPSK/CDMA carrier¶s bursts in absolutely random access mode in the same frequency. INTERNET Introduction: The Internet is not a program. Micro earth station transmits 1. not hardware or a big system. It is a group of various . RECIEVER SIDE: · checks BFEC & FCS · ACK¶s the packets and requests retransmission of missing packets Ø SPACE PROCESSOR TRANS SIDE · Encodes the packets with PN sequence to 2.45MBps · Dispreads to 153.45MBps stream · BPSK modulation of IF RECIEVER SIDE · Demodulates IF signal to 2.6KBps stream · Checks destination link address in the header · Discards packets addressed to other links. not software.Controller module : Ø INPUT\OUTPUT PROCESOR · Converts raw data to packets · Customer protocol to network protocol Ø NETWORK PROCESSOR TRANS SIDE: · generates BFEC & FCS · Retains packets in buffer until ACK¶s receives and transmits if required.

These are based on TCP/IP communications protocol. INTERNET CONNECTIVITY INTERNET TECHNOLOGY The basic function of Internet can be summarized as underInterconnecting of computers to form a network. Transfer of a file through Internet:- Suppose a file is to be transmitted on Internet from one computer to other ones Break the file in to small packets Attached destination and source address in o packets Multiplexed and transmit these packets At destination de-multiplex the packets Remove address bits from the packets and assemble the data in to the original file Make source bits as destination address and send the acknowledgement in to the source Therefore. People use it to get information over a standard communication link. even if one network is not working.co-operating computers worldwide interconnected by computer based on TCP\IP communication protocols. it is clear that network hardware sends the packets to specified destination and network software reassembles of communications. GIAS: BSNL launched the Gateway Internet Access Service (GAIS) through dial up/leased/ISDN network. Internet is a series of interconnected networks providing global link to information. Interconnecting of computers to form a network of networks. Users can access GAIS from 99 cities in India by this means. To provide alternate communication link among the networks. The hundreds or thousands or millions of computer network are connected to each other for exchanging the information which is based on the unique identity and set of procedures. To establish a communication link between two computers within as network. the computer network performs the following functionsAddressing and routing Fragmentation and error correction .

The OSI model separates the methods and protocols needed for a network connection in to seven different layers. Each higher layer relies on services provided by a lower level layer. The OSI model is sometimes called ³the seven layer model´. OSI NETWORKING MODEL: The open systems interconnection model defines all the methods and protocols needed to connect one computer to any other over a network.Data error checking Connectivity control Multiplexing and de-multiplexing Data flow control End users interface etc. the bits can be transmitted either in series or in parallel (most network use a serial stream of bits. One that adopted as a standard is an open system interconnection (OSI) model. but the standard allows for both serial and parallel transmission). It was developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1983 and is documented as standard 7498. The data handling A single module cannot handle the entire process. Layers are: Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer PHYSICAL LAYER: The physical layer defines the properties of the physical medium used to make a network connection. The specification for the physical layer also defines the cable used. and so on. a NIC network interface network) is part of the physical layer. . and it can consist of either half duplex (one direction at a time) or full duplex (both directions simultaneously) transmissions. It includes a network cable that can transmit a stream of bits between nodes on the physical network. For example. The physical connection can be either point to point or multipoint. the distance that can be run. Moreover. the timing of the electrical signals. the voltages carried on the cable.

such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Internet Protocol Exchange (IPX).x includes both Ethernet and Token Ring networks). It establishes a reliable protocol through the physical layer.12 100 Base VBG. The network layer defines how data packets get from one point to another on network. defines standard that assign meaning to the bits carried by the physical layer. and 802. These virtual connections are referred to as sessions. it defines different packet protocols. Presentation Layer: The presentation layer. The data elements carried by the data link layer are called frames. controls how the operating system and its .x (802. layer 7. or peer and peer. or from a peer on a network to another peer. 802. on matters of flow and control.Each is used in concert with IP and IPX respectively. manages the flow of information from one network node to another. error detection and correction. The data link layer typically includes error detection and correction to ensure a reliable data stream. takes the data supplied by the lower level layer and transform so it can be presented to the system. and authentication to the network. It identifies each computer or node on a network uniquely. transaction.7 Broadband.DATA LINK LAYER: the data link layer. layer 2. Transport Layer: The Transport Layer. The routing information in each packet tells the network where to send the packets to reach its destination and tells the receiving computer from where the packet originated. Transport layer protocols include Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX). Layer-3. is where a lot of action goes on for most networks. They include negotiation between the client and the host. defines the connection from a user to a network server. layer-4. Application Layer: The Application layer.25 and 802. transfer of user information. The Network layer is also known as packet layer. The two most common MAC protocols are 802. and addressing. It ensures that the packets are decoded in the proper sequence and that all packets are received. The Presentation layer can include data compression and decompression as well as data encryption and decryption. The MAC sub layer handles frame assembly and disassembly. Examples of frame types include x.processing.3 Ethernet and 802. Session layer: The session layer. called the Logical link control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC) sub layers. Network Layer: The network layer. These packet protocols include source and destination routing information.11 Wireless. The data link layer is usually subdivided in to two sub layers. The LLC sub layer performs tasks such as call set up and termination and data transfer. layer-5.Other MAC protocols include 802. layer-6.5 Token ring . so the network layer (layer 3) can transmit its data.

ISP: Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an agency that provides Internet access and other net related services. ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is a digital phone connection technology that provides both voice and data services over the same connection. The computer at the receiving end reverses this process. This control information is different for each layer. . link graphics and link media. HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a system of marking or tagging the various parts of web documents to tell the browser software how to display the document text. COMMON TERMINOLOGY USED IN INTERNET: WWW: World Wide Web (WWW) is a wide area hypermedia information retrieval aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents. Next. As mentioned earlier.application interact with network. where a session header is wrapped around all the data. until it reaches the physical layer. data flows from an application program or the operating system. trailers pre-ambles. and then goes through the protocols and devices that make up the seven layers of the OSI model one by one until the data arrives at the physical layer and is transmitted over the network connection. a presentation header is wrapped around the data and it is passed to the session layer. and so on. HTTP: Hyper text transmission Protocol (HTTP) is the communication protocol used to transfer documents from the server to client over the WWW (http:// www). and post-ambles. At the receiving computer this process is reversed. at the presentation layer. Therefore. when the data goes into the networking software and components making up the OSI model. for example. it starts at the application layer and includes an application header and application data. but it includes headers. the data is ³wrapped´ with new control information related to the work done at the particular layer. At each stage of the OSI model.

a number of national and international air interface standards for digital cellular mobile telephone system are available. TECHNICAL ASPECTS: WLL is based on CDMA technique and is entirely different from GSM. The local loop is access part of telecommunication network i. In LG 1 BSC can have 48 BTS? In BSNL we have two types of BSC:- .It provides links between BTS & BSM. it consists of different processors. There is no standard for this so far. the part between PSTN switch and subscribers. consists of a set of equipments as given below. WLL network application involves uses of radio to replace of the wire link between PSTN switch and subscriber. Help desk WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP (WLL) MOBILE WLL is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as substitutes of conventional wires for all part of connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. console & power supply Network management agent. The radio technology is able to provide same quality of services as that provided by the wires line. Application of wireless loop technology has just been started in the worldwide. The networking equipments like access servers. in BSNL it is of SUN Polaris of LG Company.e. It works on CDMA technique. Access server Router Modem bank LAN (Local Area Network) components Security server Rack. An ISP node where subscribers enter internet. However. The system for WLL services can be divided in to following parts:BSC (Base Switching Centre):.NATIONAL INTERNET BACKBONE (NIB) Networking is a key component of any Internet Services Provider (ISP) operations. routers and modems are critical to the successful functioning of ISP.

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access):. See other cellular technology in the world. Multiple access radio has similarity to the LAN in which the common channel is available to all users. We now have CDMA2000 and its variant like 1X EV. CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA): CONCEPT OF MULTIPLE ACCESSES: . with 55 million of these in the USA. There are now different variations. In BSNL BSM are two UNIX based computer system. BTS (Base Transreceiver System):. it works as an amplifier (router) to overcome the loss in signal in transmission. there were 120 millions users worldwide. a cellular technology originally known as IS-95.e.It controls and manages the WLL services. competes with GSM technology for dominance in the cellular world. assigned on demand first-cum-first-served basis. it is complete in itself. 1XEV-DO and MC 3X. which manages the whole process of WLL service. like sharing of trunked radio facility.V-5. BSNL uses this type of BSC for rural areas. The refer of . Latest CDMA global subscriber & operators numbers As of December 2002. WHAT IS CDMA? CDMA.2:. It can troubleshoot the problem. BSNL uses this type of BSC for urban areas. add new users as well as capable to block service given to user. CCS-7 / R2:. The circuits are demands assigned i.These types of BSC are totally automatic it doesn¶t depend on local exchange for its functions.This type of BSC cannot switch by itself so it is dependent on local exchange / PSTN for switching and keeping records of billing etc. BSM (Base Station Management):.Where individual transmission separated by each other by the time.Where large number of transmission are combined on the same channel at the same time and separated by the codes. The provision of access to the radio circuits methods of multiple accesses are: CDMA: .Multiple access system allows a large number of users to share a common pool of radio telephone circuits.As it is clear from its name it transmits as well as receive signal. It is basically a computer system. but the original CDMA is known as CdmaOne.

May 2001 there were 35 million subscribers on cdmaOne system worldwide. The Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA) in 1993 adopted CDMA. 3X uses a 5 MHz channel. developed originally by Qualcomm. with the small mobile phone we can send not only the messages but also the secret document. some 153. it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. Enhancing today¶s data capabilities is the 1XRTT CDMA standard this next evolutionary step for cdmaOne operators will provide data rates up to 300 kbps.25 MHz channel. including multi-carrier (cdmaOne2000 1xMC and HDR in 1. ADVANTAGES OF WLL: Country wide induction of WLL underway of areas than are non-feasible for the normal network Helping relieves congestion of connections in the normal cable / wire based network in urban areas Limited the mobility without any airtime charges It has improved signal and reducing the interference Greater capacity than mobile Provides ease of operation. high capacity and small cell radius.25 MHz bandwidth and 3xMC in 5 MHz bandwidth) and direct spread (WCDMA in 5 MHz bandwidth).6 kbps on both the forward and reverse links. employing spread-spectrum technology and special coding scheme characterized by CDMA. Over 35 countries have either commercial or trial activity ongoing. 3G1X or just plain 1X is designed to double current voce capacity and support always on data transmission speed 10 times faster than typically available today. administration & maintenance at lower cost.variant of usage of a 1. immoral and sinful. Currently there are more than 45 million subscribers in worldwide and nearly . They infringe the norms of society and their behavior is condemned as antisocial. Where use any invention for the welfare of society but some uses for the satisfaction their disturbed mentality and to earn more and more money whether it may be harmful for the society. This first phase of cdmaOne2000 variously called 1XRTT. The telecommunication is the biggest factor in influencing the speed of life in the modern age. There were already 43 WLL systems in 22 countries using cdmaOne technology. significant capacity increases as well as extended batteries life for handsets. CELLULAR MOBILE SERVICES: Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunication applications. Today. Wide band CDMA forms that the basis of UMTS 3G networks. As we know that there is positive view behind any mention that it should be helpful in the development of society. But humans have diverted mentality some of them of positive view and some of them of negative view. Worldwide resources are being devoted to roll out third generation CDMA technology. Today we can get connection with any corner of world through the push button of computer.

It is forecasted that cellular system using a digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunications. offering a full range of business and technical services to its members. especially with the development of digital radio technology. By the year 2005. world of wireless communication. Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. It is estimated that many country outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. Posted by Ashish Puri at 6:29 PM 52 comments Home Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) Blog Archive y 2007 (1) o July (1)  Training Report oF BSNL About Me Ashish Puri View my complete profile . This presented many problems directly related to compatibility. various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. with a truly global reach. Now as the wireless family unfolds the association is deriving forward its vision of seamless. Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulae the specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. forecasters predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide. GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION (GSM) The GSM Association is a unique organization. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems.50% of those subscribers are located in USA. limitless.

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