• What blood test is not required in diagnosis of hemolytic anemia? • What neutrophil count means danger?

100 is immediate and 1000 uwaga • Lowest amount of platelet for surgery – 50.g/l • How big is the plasma bag in ml 300 • What increases apt T , Dic, Lupus, fdp, heamopillia a an b , von willenbrand and prekalikren or kinogen • Know the numbers for macrocytic (>98), microcytic (<78), and normocytic (78-98) anemia • What do you do if your patient is a postmenopausal women with irondeficiency? Give iron supplement or check for blood disorder etc • Bortezomib = proteoze inhibitor • What is the function of adhesion molecules? Inflammatory cell recruitment requires the concerted action of at least five major sets of adhesion molecules: integrins, immunoglobulin-like molecules, selectins, carbohydrate structures serving as selectin ligands, and certain ectoenzymes. • What is cryoathesis(?) • What causes increase in D-dimer? DIC. DVT, PE • Treatment of DIC – Treat underlying disease Restoration of anticoagulant pathways =AT concentrate – 2500-3000 IU/day for 72-96 h =Protein C concentrate – 245 mg/kg/day for 96 h Anticoagulants Heparin (300-500 j./h) or LMW heparin (Fraxiparin 15000-30000 j./day; Clexan 2040 mg/day) Recombinant TFPI Inactivated VIIa Recombinant NAPc2 (complex between TF/VIIa and the factor derived from nematode anticoagulant protein-NAP) Substitution therapy Quite safe substitution RBC transfusions PLT transfusions Fresh frozen plasma (10-15 ml/kg/day) “Can add fuel to the fire” Cryoprecipitate 1 pack from 400 ml of plasma/10 kg of body weight/day • Know the anemias well i.e. B12 deficiency vs iron deficiency etc • Coombs test

The two Coombs tests are:
• •

Direct Coombs test (also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT). Indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT).

B-cell lymphomas Stem cell marker . prednisone ( CHOP) -/+ asparaginase CNS prophylaxis – intrathecal MTX -/+ either cranial irradiation or systemic MTX Post-remission therapy options: Consolidation/intensification chemo followed by maintenance chemo High dose chemo w/ allo or auto HSCT. 2 cells. AML. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient's serum. • • • • • What type of biopsy needed fom lymphomas = whole lymph node Hodgkins = ABVD therapy Rituximab = monoclonal antubodies. Allogeneic or autogenic HSCT Emergency therapy : Imatinib for ph+ ALL. CML. Ans: A A or B: the absence of constitutional (B-type) symptoms is denoted by adding an "A" to the stage. CLL. Monoclonal Abs against lymphoid antigens AML Treatment: Induction chemo— “3+7” : Idarubicin/daunorubicin x 3d and cytarabine x 7d CR ( complete remission ) – Consolidation therapy: chemo or allo or auto M3 subtype – . what level 1 cell. It detects antibodies bound to the surface of red blood cells in vivo. Multiple myeloma. The red blood cells (RBCs) are washed (removing the patient's own plasma) and then incubated with antihuman globulin (also known as "Coombs reagent"). If this produces agglutination of the RBCs. 100 cells etc How many cells are produced in the body per day? I trillion What classification equals “no symptons” in Ann Arbor. the indirect Coombs test is positive. The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women. If relapse > chemo vs. allogeneic stem cell transplant When does a neoplasm start. daunorubicin. and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion. and the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity. the presence is denoted by adding a "B" to the stage. vincristine. In this case. IgG autoantibody. If agglutination occurs.The direct Coombs test is used to detect red blood cells sensitized with igG alloantibody.is cd 34 in acute leukaemia Know the treatment of ALL. and complement proteins. serum is extracted from the blood.[ • • • • Type of transplant in CML. Hodgkin’s on Non-Hodgkins – drugs ALL treatment : Induction chemo – cyclophosphamide. the direct Coombs test is positive.

ATRA added to induction chemo.fludarabine or chlorambucil =/. AIHA or ITP refractory to steroids.2 cycles of ABVD with radiation for bulky disease +/or incomplete regression.4-6 cycles of ABVD ( doxorubicin) then field radiation Stage III and IV . Relapsed disease – chemo or high dose chemo plus auto HSCT Non Hodgkin Treatment: Treatment ( not like Hodgkin) determined by histo classification Indolet : symptom management.3 x 10 e9/l RBC. Initial trt. progressive disease.. If allo is considered avoide alkylating agents High dose chemo and auto HSCT Local radiation for solitary or extramedullary plasmacytoma Hodgkin Treatment: Stage I and II.. Relapse – high dose chemo + auto HSCT • Type O blood can be given to what blood type? Universal donor Anemia of iron deficiency is: Normocytic and Normochromic Microcytic and hypochromic Key element of formation of blood cells is: A) Messenchymal stem cell B) progenitor stem cell C) Hematopoetic cells D) myeloblast E) precursor cells Complete bloodcount WBC 0. 88fl ..2 Gran 0. Options include radiation. Binet stage C. 1.93 x 10e 12/l mcv. doxorubicin CNS prophylaxis + MTX...leukopheresis for rapid drop of WBC count and palliation of symptoms Accelerated blast phase > allo HSCT Multiple Myeloma Treatment: Treatment not indicated for smoldering or asymptomatic stage Idisease Systemic chemo: alkaline agents ( melphalan) + prednisone. Imatinib ( bcr-abl tyrosine kinase) is first line medical therapy Hydroxyurea +/. ( ATRA = all trance retinoic acid) Supportive care CLL Treatment: Palliative – early stage disease followed without therapy Treatment is indicated starting Rai Stages III/IV.6 x 10 e 9/l LYM 0. IVIg for recurrent major infections CML Treatment: Allogeneic HSCT is the only known curative. single agent chemo..monoclonal Ab against CD20 ( rituximab) or CD52 ( alemtuzumab) Radiation for compression symptoms due to bulky lymphoid masses Splenectomy for marked splenomegaly and refractory cytopenia Supportive care : cortico for AIHA or ITP.. combination chemo and rituximiab Aggressive: goal is cure Combination chemo with radiation for localized or bulkly disease CHOP ( cyclophosphamide. recurrent infections.

billion cells B. adhere Proteinurea in asymptomatic person maybe caused by.Diagnosis of: A]Iron def B]Aplastic anaemia C]Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia D]Acute myeloblastic leukaemia E] Injury to hematopoiesis by chemotherapy of cancer Number of red cells produced and utilissed during one day is 2 billion 1 trillion 0.2 trillion cells C. Amyloidosis . light chain disease C. thrombocytopaenia Which blood disorder is frequently discorvered by accisdentally performed CBC A. survive B. 0. to be more active E. 1 cell Most important info provided to cells by an adhesion molecule A. mature C. A. proliferate D. lymphoma D. CLM B.2 trillion 1 quintillion 0. cmv B. 100 million D. Mantle cell lymphoma E. 1 million E.1 trillion Molecules on the surface of lymphocytes frequently used as a target for the treatment of lymphomas CD3 CD4 CD34 CD8 CD20 Neoplasm disorders start at A. ALL D. megaloblastic Anaemia E. Multiple myeloma C.

or segs.0-10% 1. polys. Cells are larger in neonates.52 Haematocrit (Hct) 0. No longer used D. mephlan D.8 5.5 x1012/L 3. ESR increases with age.8 .38 0. PMNs. irinokenan 0r sumit like that Phlebotomy used in trt of A. 4.5 6. Also known as x109/L granulocytes (grans). though smaller in other children.5 mm/hr Females tend to have a higher ESR.2 0. Sex difference negligible until adulthood. lower in children. 45-74%.3 4 0. Osteomyelofibrosis C. x109/L 16-45% x109/L 4.47 (female) Mean cell volume (MCV) 80 Mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) Red cell count (male) Red cell count (female) Reticulocytes erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) The Total white blood cells Neutrophil granulocytes Lymphocytes Monocytes 26 98 34 fL pg Comments Higher in neonates. Polycytheamia vera E.Normal granulocyte count? No of blood cells a day Drugs used in second line treatment of CLL A. cytosine arabinoside B.8 x1012/L 10 100 x109/L n/a 20 4 2 11 7.35 0. CML B. fludarabine C. White blood cells x109/L Higher in neonates and infants. cisplatin E. Secondary Polycythemia vera Hematology Category Red blood cells Test Low High Unit Haemoglobin (Hb) (male) 140 180 g/L Haemoglobin (Hb) 115 160 g/L (female) Haematocrit (Hct) (male) 0.

9 1.2 patients PT to normal 0.1 29 11 41 18 s s g/L minutes 1.4 0.8 4 2 9 .INR is standardised The INR is a corrected ratio of a 0.01 0.5 s laboratory kits .0-7.0% x109/L 0.Eosinophil granulocytes Basophil granulocytes Coagulation Platelets Prothrombin time (PT)[11] INR Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) Thrombin clotting time (TCT) Fibrinogen Bleeding time x109/L 0.0-2.04 0.0% Platelets are part of the 150 400 x109/L formation of blood clots PT reference varies between 11 13.

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