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by Anthony J. Alessi
A Graduate Research Literature Review Submitted for INSS 890 in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Masters of Science in Management Information Systems
Bowie State University Maryland in Europe June 2007
2 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 3 LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................. 4 DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................. 9 THE FUTURE ..............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined. ARCHITECTURE .......................................................................................................... 12 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 25
Traditional television businesses and television broadcast companies have already joined the IPTV frenzy. IPTV promises to be a major force around the World. In fact. Television series are offering there programs on the Web for free. The likes of You Tube and My Space are giving ordinary people the chance to publish their video creations directly to the Internet. IPTV is a logical progression from the invention of the Internet. True commercial quality IPTV will not become a reality until the quality is equal to or better than current digital satellite. cable. or they are scrambling to get into the IPTV marketplace. With the trend to put everything onto IP based systems. how does it work. IPTV promises to be a major paradigm shift for the television industry. its subsequent proliferation. There are literally thousands of new Internet television sites springing up from everywhere. terrestrial television systems. and now the trend to put all telecommunications and information systems over IP. How hard is it for a company to enter into the IPTV marketplace? How will IPTV affect the television and motion pictures industries? IPTV related businesses and companies are literally sprouting up everywhere. How far off are we from making IPTV a true competitor in the marketplace? . and where it is going? Will IPTV replace our normal satellite.3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION What is IPTV. that its importance can’t be overstated. IPTV is the missing component of the IT industry’s much anticipated triple and quadruple plays. IPTV is such a big development. cable. and terrestrial television and how will High Definition Television (HDTV) play in their futures? IPTV is a fairly recent IT development that seems to be exploding onto the scene. Everything over IP (EOIP).
how does it work. Traditional television businesses and companies have already joined the IPTV frenzy. How hard is it to enter into the IPTV marketplace. and telecommunications industries? Where is IPTV going? Preliminary Thesis IPTV related businesses and companies are literally sprouting up everywhere. and how will affect the television and motion picture industries? Research Questions • • • • • What exactly is IPTV? What standards and regulations govern and control IPTV? What does it take to start-up an IPTV business? How will IPTV affect the television. and learn what standards and regulations govern the industry. attempt to identify where it is going. and where it is going. . Will IPTV replace legacy television and will it be capable of broadcasting High Definition Television (HDTV) in the future. With the trend to put everything onto IP based systems. Boundaries The purpose of the research is gain a technical understanding of IPTV.4 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Purpose of the Research What is IPTV. motion picture. IPTV is a fairly recent IT development that appears to be growing in momentum at an unbelievable rate. or they are scrambling to get into the IPTV marketplace. IPTV promises to be a major paradigm shift for the television industry.
The author tries hard to explain the pros and cons of different IP transport technologies. real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). The main topics of discussion explained are ways to counter packet loss problems.5 Outline of the Research Sub-topics • • • • • • • Introduction Explanations The Future What is required to start an IPTV based business What are the effects of IPTV on the television. Due to the relatively new concept of IPTV. Literature Description Video Over IP: A Practical Guide to Technology and Applications. and streaming. motion picture. Wikipedia explains . The article also explains a critical video over IP phenomenon of time reconstruction. Simpson. explaining integral technologies like Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG). there is limited availability of IPTV literature in libraries outside of periodicals. The contributors to this topic are a conglomeration of excerpts and professional opinions from multiple sources. professionally in the Video over IP business. and file transfer. He explains the technologies required to make an informed decision as to how to employ VOIP and which architectures to implement. methods to avoid a variety of network delay issues. Professional Video Over IP. This book covers a wide variety of topics. (2007) is a discussion topic detailed in Wikipedia. Simpson also explains technologies like streaming. multicasting. professional quality videos over IP systems are required to reconstruct the video in its original timing sequence. The research media will primarily come via computer Internet-based resources and IT Trade periodicals. This article is a must read for anybody wishing to get started. and telecommunications industries What is the future of IPTV Conclusion Research Methodology Used Academic and professional literature from leading telecommunications publications and standards organizations were reviewed to identify issues and support this paper. The reader will learn the basics of video and IP network technologies. (2006) is a book written by Wes D. This book explains in easy to understand terms the information we need to choose from the many ways of transferring video over a telecommunications network. Unlike data over IP. a free on-line encyclopedia. download and play. The author believes one of the best ways to understand is to study successful examples of VOIP systems that already exist successfully in the marketplace. This book gets to the heart of VOIP system deployment.
The book is designed for IT professionals already in or wanting to be in the interactive television business. services. and submit news.iptv-industry. distributes. software. cable television operators. iTV Handbook’ author. IPTV Industry.net glossary to be of help in providing one authoritative source for the immense amount of new terms exploding form the IPTV industry. and IPTV jobs. Prentice Hall states that this book is essential for book that brings it all together for iTV technical managers. Edward M.net is located on the Internet at Uniform Resource Locator (URL) http://www. iTV details key interactive issues of iTV like content providers. IPTV Industry covers both IPTV and Internet television technologies. and companies. and even consumers. books. (2003) is a book written by Edward M. IPTV News is devoted to professional commentary critiquing the latest IPTV products. services. and developments. Schwalb. The book is designed to encompass the huge task of providing interactive television services into one book. hardware. IPTV Industry’s Highlights section contains links to white papers. iTV Handbook – Technologies and Standards. IPTV News. IPTV Press Releases are company advertisements detailing new IPTV technology releases. future trends. The IPTV Services channel is a place to locate IPTV companies. (2007) is another major on-line professional trade journal dedicated to the IPTV industry.net. engineers. They also explain how the security industry is employing video over IP in the security industry.net. and standards. .com/. glossary. trade shows. IPTV News. it is a little more commercial than IPTV New. news. Schwalb is a internationally recognized expert in interactive television. an IPTV blog site. This trade journal is another major source of IPTV news. technologies. software. Although this is one of the IPTV industry’s main trade journals.6 how more bandwidth is required to accommodate the enormous amount of data required to furnish a video over IP network.net/. company lists.iptvnews. The channel names are press releases. Schwalb writes about iTV hardware. It is one of the first books published designed to explain interactive television. The IPTV News. equipment manufacturers. IPTV Industry is located on the Internet at Uniform Resource Locator (URL) http://www. (2007) is one of the major on-line professional trade journals dedicated to the IPTV industry. like closed circuit television (CCTV) systems.net journal separates its articles into channels. protocols. producers. I found the IPTV News. and service providers. and source information. This is another must read reference source for professionals in the IPTV business. executives. and even the viewers. businesses.
html Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). an analysis of the big picture. (2007).” Although Wikipedia is an outstanding source of encyclopedia type information. IPTV Crash Course is not as technical as other IPTV references. However. (2007). Wikipedia was used to get general background information and to find additional resource references. the validity and authenticity of the information is not fully accredited. Although old in the IPTV World is only a couple years. This article provided a great deal of insight into the future of the IPTV industry. IP Telephony Basics explains the processes required to transform legacy businesses into an IP television organization. The IPTV Network diagram was downloaded from Legasys’ Company’s Web site. The search criteria was “IPTV. This book is the two author’s second book. Flood. I like the fact that this book is recent. Weber and Tom Newberry. This book makes no pretense of the importance of learning IPTV for television system providers and broadcasters. As the name hints. and latest foray into IPTV. and therefore was able to explain where IPTV is going better than some of the older books. 2007. I used Wikipedia to garner an understanding of the current IPTV references and developments.7 IP Telephony Basics (2005) is a book written by Lawrence Harte and Robert T.com/n/solutions/broadband/images/interactiveIPTV_diagram. Legasys is a leading provider of Data Storage and telecommunications products and solutions. The authors of IP Telephony Basics designed the book with data network and television providers in mind. The book is about IPTV and Internet television technologies. this book was designed to give readers a fast paced understanding of IPTV. (2006). IPTV Crash Course is a fairly easy reading overview of one of the hottest and fastest growing breakthrough technologies. (2007). Mr Dawson wrote this article for XCHANGE Online. Fred Dawson . The URL for the article is http://www.legasys.gif. The Free Encyclopedia. it is an excellent resource to quickly learn the about the industry. IPTV Projects on All Things Supercom. The authors lay out a convincing prediction of where IPTV service providers are now. and where television broadcasters are and how they will be changing.com/articles/539/539_571supercomm1. The URL of the diagram is http://www. This article was written by Fred Dawson. Legasys International. This article keyed in to the . Topics discussed in this book are: • • • • • • Basic explanation of IPTV terms and definitions Explanation of the components in an IPTV systems New services that can be implemented with IPTV Upgrading Data networks to IPTV networks Management of IP television systems The future evolution of IP television IPTV Crash Course (2007) is a book recently written by Joseph M. Wikipedia.xchangemag. a Web based IT professional trade journal. This article was Retrieved from the International Engineering Consortium Web Site on 12 May 2007.
This grphic from Cable 360 was retrieved using Google Image search for “DWDM. The MiView information was retrieved from the Alcatel-Lucent Company Web site. I retrieved the information from the following URL. (2007) is an Intellon Company white paper. and xDSL modems. VDSL. Intellon’s white paper explained current and future high data rate modems that will make IPTV a viable competitor in the satellite and cable television market. This article was retrieved from the Microsoft Corporation’s Web Site. (2005) is an article written by Peter Burrows for the weekly periodical. Microsoft TV IP Edition is a software suite that is advertised on their Web site. (2006). BCM6358. http://www. This corporate white paper explains the characteristics and limitations of ADSL. The author explains how Cisco. The MiView software suite is a competitor of Microsoft in the IPTV enterprise management software market. . Microsoft TV IP Edition is their IPTV industry Headend operation and business enterprise software system.html of the article is Micrsoft TV IPTV Edition. The article appeared in the monthly periodical. They’re Here: Microsoft TV-Enabled Set-TopBoxes.” This was the best graphic that could be found describing Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and Converged IP network architecture. DWDM Network Graphic from Cable 360 Company’s Web Site. Broadcom is the leading maker of semiconductors for high speed modems. The IPTV white paper was downloaded the Intellon Corporate Web site. ADSL2. Most of the material from Broadcom’s Web site dealt with their sate of the art high speed modem chip. and heavyweight in the cable. ADSL2+. (2006). Two graphs from the white paper were included in order to compare the different high speed modem architectures. Cisco's Bold New TV Bet.microsoft.org/online/tutorials/iptv/topic06. satellite and IPTV Headend equipment make industry. PC World Magazine. with this purchase is planning to put its mark on about 75 percent of the IPTV industry’s equipment.mspx. The URL http://www. (2005) is an article written by John Blau. This article takes a close look the first set top boxes that were fully functional with Microsoft’s early IPTV and digital television operating system. The paper also explained the requirements of high speed data modems that will enable High Definition IPTV to the home. Broadcom Corporate Web Site. 2005 article talks about Cisco’s purchase of Scientific Atlanta. the number one home television set top box maker. MiView is the IPTV operations platform from the newly merged Alcatel and Lucent companies.com/tv/IPTVEdition. IPTV-Distribution in Home Networks. MiView TV.8 advantages of IPTV. (2007). Business Week. The 13 November. Their Web site was critical to forecasting when viable IPTV to the home can become a reality.iec. (2007).
This is in most cases likely to be a form of digital television or IPTV system. this type of media is much more than a weekly one hour broadcast. this paper will do the same. Technically. The Heroes web site also provides fans with cast or character profiles. For an example of Internet television. go to NBC’s Heroes web site. this paper will not pay homage to whether the service is what has evolved into two very gray areas. except on reruns. Most hotels in America offer a pay-per-view television viewing experience. novels. games. There you can watch any episode of Heroes. .com/Heroes/. In other words. which is one of NBC’s current and most popular weekly television shows. If a featured company or technology refers to their product or offering as IPTV. Everybody knows that the Internet uses an IP based median. interviews. Internet television is a free service provided over the Internet by television studios or the likes.9 CHAPTER THREE EXPLANATION When talking about Internet Television and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) the lines of separation between the two start to get blurry. or VCR recording type television series. http://www. recaps. IPTV is a pay per view or subscription based television format. galleries. One can easily envision the day when all Internet and IP based television will end up with the short and easy name. For as long NBC chooses to keep the Heroes Web site up. eventually those lines of difference will become blurry. and downloads. Likewise. Technically. This paper will not make a concerted approach of sticking with the traditional delineation between IPTV and Internet television. Notice the word technically when describing Internet television and IPTV because. fans can learn all about the series and view any episode that pleases them.nbc. What is actually the difference in IPTV and Internet television? The addition or deletion of the reference to “protocol” is the only difference. IPTV. So. this paper will do the same. never to be repeated. if a company or trade journal refers to their product as Internet television. Internet television is the public broadcast of television over the Internet.
Why are we discussing the United States Department of Defense’s plan to converge everything over IP? To add credibility to the logical progression from legacy television systems to IP based television systems. unclassified and classified Internet and email systems. Not until 2006. tactical radio nets. They are normally fenced off and contain 100 plus feet high microwave antenna. the requirement to provide references in this area of expertise becomes less obligatory. What does IP convergence mean? IP convergence is the combining of telecommunication and Information system technologies into one median. DISA announced a rather ambitious plan for that time in history. which all have the same meaning. satellite dishes. and a host of other unclassified and classified telecommunication and information systems. Terms like everything over IP. military unique Public Key Infrastructures (PKI). or Everything Over IP (EOIP). We in the world of DoD technical control facilities have been conditioned over the last basically two years to a term known as convergence. DISA started feasibility studies for IP convergence in 2004. It should not take a future prognosticating gift to know that the converged infrastructure will be Internet Protocol. and Voice over IP are becoming everyday words. spacebased satellite constellations. normally fiber and copper wire. IP convergence. After all. The first operational Internet became the DARPANET until it grew into the Defense Data Network (DDN). A US Military technical control facility is the windowless building on a military base where all of the external telecommunications systems are interfaced with the base internal telecommunication infrastructure. and based on personal experience. Therefore. military telephone systems. did DISA make their plans public knowledge. and they include video teleconference systems. The United States DoD carries a lot of clout throughout the telecommunications and information systems industry. In another angle. systems. Much of the information provided is from personal account of three decades of working with telecommunications and information systems architecture. when DISA announces a major paradigm shift in its way of running the DoD’s Global telecommunications networks IT corporations will listen and take heed. Actually. IPTV. tactical and fixed station satellite Earth stations. or IP based. circa 1990. DISA wants to convert every telecommunications and information system architecture to an IP format.10 CHAPTER FOUR THE FUTURE With twenty-three plus years of military experience based in and around US Military technical control facilities. military red switch secure telephone systems. In early 2006. assured messaging systems. These systems are all Global networks. The Department of Defense’s long arm of the law in telecommunications and information systems is the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). who actually started the Internet? The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the first Global IP network. if the largest and most modern military in the World and many forward thinking civilian companies . and of course highly restrictive entry.
This is not saying jump into a lake because everybody else appears to be jumping in the lake. and go with or in front of the flow because IPTV is happening with or without us. mankind has slowly evolved and modernized. It is for this reason that a significant business opportunity exists that may entice traditional television providers to merge or team up with Internet Service Providers (ISP) to provide economies of scale services to IPTV and Internet television users. like Google. understand this major technological paradigm shift as it evolves in front of us. IPTV. saving it to a computer. This how easy and available it is to broadcast an IPTV video. then we must come to the logical conclusion that the World appears to be heading towards EOIP. and wireless access onto one network is a daunting task that will ultimately result in a win/win situation for service providers and consumers alike. they learn that this video makes it into the most viewed area of the chosen public video Web site. Why would anyone want to switch to IPTV over are beloved cable or satellite television systems? Understanding IPTV has other advantages besides staying abreast of current and future technologies. The International Engineering Consortium Web Site reports through an article titled InternetProtocolTelevision (IPTV) that there are several advantages of deploying an IPTV network vice a legacy television network. They go home and download the tornado video onto their home PC. You Tube. They log into My Space. IPTV is about three of the countless hundred pound gorilla architectures that will evolve into EOIP technologies. interactive channel guides. The ability to bundle different services into one IP platform is an awesome advantage. We should definitely get to know both. and the current trend of major telecommunication and information system providers putting everything over IP all produce wonderful catalysts for IPTV. However. For those reasons. This is the season for tornados. For several few million years. At the IPTV provider’s Headend complex. like video on demand. This allows the IPTV provider the ability to provide many more services. it is possible to encode virtually every channel available throughout the world into IP. for the skeptical. myspace. learn it at least enough to use it. This is to say. or countless lesser known web sites.11 are heading towards EOIP. Later in the day. IPTV can be as easy as recording a home video. you are not yet convinced as to the power and future of IPTV. in most cases this IPTV arena will not help the video producer earn a living. IP is a two way interactive system. Combining Internet access. VoIP telephone. IPTV and EOIP. Only the channel or channels that the user wants to view are present in their home. One windy and blustering day somebody ventures out of the house with a video camera. or Yahoo and upload a copy of the video. Okay. at least understand it. At least not is this home user configuration. and publishing it to a personal or public web site. However. You Tube. This is due to the fact that all channels aren’t present on the signal in the subscriber’s home. or end up watching the related technologies pass us by. As luck would have it. Why would we think that television. you should get the point of how easy it is . they encounter a tornado and capture some amazing footage on their video camera. IPTV takes up less bandwidth than legacy television networks. and surveys are a few results of increased user interactivity. This concept of user interactivity is another huge benefit of IPTV. and transmit it to many or one individual subscriber. a phenomenal twentieth century invention would or could buck that kind of a trend.com. The IPTV provider can provide many more channels than traditional television providers can.
12 for one person to create. and broadcast using IPTV technology. . produce. even in its infancy stage. Legacy television production and broadcasting was never this easy.
13 CHAPTER FIVE ARCHITECTURE Now. It could be a cable television provider. Legasys International. The graphic below is an excellent depiction of a commercial IPTV network from provider end to customer end. IPTV Network Diagram. like COMCAST or a satellite television provider like DSS or Skynet. Legasys is well entrenched in the IPTV marketplace and a major supplier of data storage and telecommunications products and solutions. This graphic is from Legasys International’s Web site. cable. combined. The service provider is receiving multiple video formats and packetizing or encoding them into their IPTV architecture. or it could be both. and formatted for the eventual transmission over the IPTV. (2006) The television broadcast system location where all television stations and feeds are received. Let’s start at the Headend area of the IPTV network graphic. or satellite television system is known as the Headend. The Live Media feed is actually a legacy television broadcasting system. The ability to select a wide range of video multimedia inputs. inherent in IPTV systems is a huge benefit over legacy broadcast television systems. let’s look at the current real world scenario of commercial quality IPTV systems. .
They also serve as a verification agent which positively identifies which services the subscriber used. The Operations Support System (OSS) server is also located in the Headend domain.000 subscribers. Video compression formats are a separate dimension of IPTV networks. and fault management. and Kerberos.14 The Authentication servers act as the authorized subscriber gateway and the unauthorized user’s blocker. and ensure integrity of the data to each other over an unsecured network. Kerberos. only to the point where they can authenticate each other during the encryption process. The content engine is where all video signals are encoded and converted into video compression formats. Combined systems are available and under development that can handle both OSS and BSS functions. and between 32 Kbps to more than up to 3 Mbps upstream. The terms BSS/OSS or B/OSS application servers are other names for similar systems. Public Key Encryption. Also notice in the IPTV Network Diagram that the customer premise connects directly to the regional providers or end office networks via Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) known as xDSL. xDSL is a new class of DSL service that offers data rates up to 32 Mbps downstream. and payment collection systems. This is a relatively new term for the IT world. prevent third party access. Authentication servers will check and validate the authenticity of usernames and passwords in order to validate the user is actually a paying customer. The OSS News Review is an Internet-based telecommunications trade journal or magazine. xDSL utilizes copper wire . Kerberos is a trusted third party scheme that requires a separate server to runs the Kerberos application. There are several video compression formats that are available to the IPTV industry. The OSS News Review further explains that Business Support Systems (BSS) is a newer term that is coming in with the growing popularity of IPTV. Cisco is one of the leading manufacturers of IP Next generation Network (NGN) platforms which perform content engine duty. Video compression is a large and important component of IPTV. The OSS News Review refers to the OSS server as a system that supports telecommunications service provider applications related service provisioning. The Regional and End Office IPTV locations also use central media switches to support streaming and storage of real-time IPTV signals. network configurations. The central media switch (streaming/storage) is a cluster-based architecture of servers that support Real-Time and Real-Time Streaming Protocols. The content engine performs encoding and transcending functions. which is very important in pay per view network systems. The Digital Rights Management (DRM) server also acts as an authentication server. They ensure the real time streaming of audio and video IPTV signals. BSS servers support customer orders. the lesser known of the three received its name from Greek mythology after the monstrous three-headed guard dog that protected Hades. The servers in this headend system can handle up to 100. It was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) as free software so two parties can prove their identity. Kerberos uses Symmetric Key Encryption in which both tokens contain enough similar data so that they are vaguely recognizable to each other. The Authentication server uses current verification algorithms like passwords. This helps puts the video storage and streaming equipment out closer to the user locations to lessen the burden for the headend domain. bill processing. OSS and BSS are both essentially the same thing in the IPTV world.
15 architecture which most high speed internet providers use. a term which is much more familiar. Voice over IP (VoIP) telephone service. There are several broadcasting formats for IPTV. Okay. The differences between Multicast and Anycast are minute and not worth the time. The xDSL modem connects directly to the central office cable pairs. also. cable TV company. Notice. Broadcast IPTV is similar in the IP world as it is in the legacy television world. and Internet access from one service provider. There are however. The current TELCO dream. and for longer than most people care to remember. and Internet service provider (ISP) is making plans to employ or compete within an IPTV world. that Multicast is a processes intensive format because the IPTV provider must deliver a multitude of different IPTV channels at different times. it takes to learn them. This particular customer is getting what the industry calls. IPTV broadcasting is when everybody in the IP network can receive the IPTV channel. Also. notice the media console. IPTV Multicast is normally live television broadcasting system similar to all. Let’s move onto understanding the critical components of IPTV networks. or most cable and satellite television systems. which can also be termed pay per view. The customer premise equipment is the xDSL modem. Format is the name of one of the formats. The media console ensure the real-time quality IPTV video though storage. Unicast is a video on demand (VOD) format. and buffering techniques. The term has transcended over to IPTV. if it is not cable television media. quadruple play is the combination of the triple play service with mobile phone access. or the video it can be streamed in real-time to the customer. What will if take to make IPTV television systems a reality? . there is no complete IPTV service provider. Unicast is when one subscriber can receive a specified IPTV show or movie. a triple play service. Everybody and everybody’s brothers are jumping on the IPTV train. IPTV systems will have live multicast and VOD unicast-type capabilities. The video can be stored on the customer device and viewed. Unicast is the delivery method used when a subscriber wants to watch a particular movie at a particular time. The triple play consists of IPTV. Another form of Multicast is Anycast. Commercial IPTV systems will be able to deploy all IPTV broadcast formats to their customers. This piece of equipment interfaces the IPTV signals with the television. the big picture is getting clear now. The graphic on the following depicts Multicast verses Unicast IPTV video streams. Therefore. like when a family decides they would like to watch a movie that out of the time with normal television scheduling. Legacy television production and transmission is still known as broadcasting. VOD is a pay per view type IPTV channel. store and forward. At this immediate time. several companies within rock throwing distance. It is very important to note that almost every television company.
An alternative to xDSL could be fiber to the premises (FTTP). and HDTV broadcast uses MPEG-2 video compression. One is the current telephone cable systems in place. This two for one trade off is just as true IPTV. Another IPTV issue is the acceptance of a national or international standard for video compression. Note that all HDTV channel offerings come at a price of less overall channels. the telecommunications industry is not falling in love with Microsoft’s Windows Media 9 video compression format. The current standard for digital television systems is MPEG 2. Practically every current digital television system. People are not going to pay for something that will be of less quality. So. cable and terrestrial. MPEG is a true international standard. satellite. DVD player. (2007) One major hurdle is the current telephone or DSL infrastructure currently in place can not handle the data rates required of a commercial quality television system. Current telephone lines to the home will get upgrades. . cable television systems. Current DSL service does not offer high enough data rates in order to accommodate high quality IPTV channels. Higher data rates to the home are a reality today. how far off are we from watching high quality commercial IPTV in our homes the same as we can now watch cable television? There are several obstacles to overcome before high quality IPTV will be available in our homes. and terrestrial television systems. satellite. It is also important to remember that the software compression techniques. An HDTV channel will use about as much bandwidth as two standard channels. satellite television. So far. as it is in digital. We can get HDTV over cable television.16 Unicast Verses Multicast. All require significant upgrades to infrastructure before they can handle the bandwidth required for commercial IPTV. This is where the xDSL wire infrastructure discussed earlier comes into play. like the MPEGs are a compressor/decompressor or coder/decoder (CODEC). The International Standards Organization (ISO) governs the MPEG compression specifications. We are just at the beginning of the upgrade process. or IPTV over cable. MPEG-2 provides very good quality video and is comparable to analog cable and satellite television systems.
This also means that Microsoft will have to alter their IPTV Products and applications. Improvised MPEG-2 is capable of compressing HDTV’s required billion bits per second. an advanced program surfing application and video demand. they are pitching this product to consumers and IPTV network providers. The IPTV and digital television providers seem to be embracing MPEG-4 as their video compression standard of choice. which also means taking out the encryption. H. However. or Advanced Video Coding (AVC). interactive video. integrated TV services over broadband networks. It is also important to note that MPEG-3 was originally designed to handle HDTV signals. The list of companies and countries adopting MPEG-4 Part 10 is huge and vastly greater than rival compression formats.264. All newer MPEG versions are backward compatible with earlier versions. Microsoft many features for the user. Let’s look at some of the commercial IPTV software systems available. . Southwest Bell Corporation (SBC) has already announced its IPTV network will employ MPEP-4 Part 10 compression. IP Video. not the individual customer. Whatever the reason. IPTV Edition software. MPEG-4 provides more compression tools as well as multimedia. the big TELCOs are leaning toward MPEG-4. not the consumer. In reality. they will have to separate the two in order to accommodate MPEG-4 compression. It is an enterprise type management software product designed for use by the consumer and IPTV provider. IPTV systems will use encryption. also known as MPEG-4.com and look for the TV section to investigate their IPTV software solutions. Although Microsoft is selling their software to IPTV service providers. Microsoft seems to be doing a very good job of selling their IPTV system to both consumers and IPTV Network providers alike. the purchasing is up to the IPTV provider. and HDTV. That is why it is rare to here about MPEG-3. For a view of Microsoft’s TV IP Edition navigate to microsoft. Since Microsoft seamlessly integrates encryption and Windows Media 9 compression into their IPTV software. Perhaps they are afraid of a single commercial entity like Microsoft controlling the IPTV industry’s video compression format.17 MPEG is a lossy format that compresses by removing redundant color and luminescence bits from successive frames. IPTV and Internet television software and hardware products are becoming a huge part of the information technology (IT) world. The IPTV network providers purchase Microsoft TV. to include digital video recording. but it was abandoned because they determined MPEG-2 with addendums can handle HDTV. Microsoft states that their Microsoft TV IPTV Edition is an integrated and comprehensive software platform developed specifically to deliver broadcast-quality video and new. There offering a multiple picture in picture (PIP) capability to include channel guides. pay per view. Don’t worry about an unsecured IPTV system in your home.
MiView TV is an IPTV enterprise software product from the newly merged Alcatel and Lucent companies. The major makers of IPTV set-top boxes are Scientific Atlanta. This sounds like a pitch to businessmen. Alcatel-Lucent seems to prefer marketing this product primarily to IPTV service providers. This leads one to suspect that this product might be been rushed to the market. as they are heavy into the telecommunications hardware side of the business. In a deal worth about 400 million dollars over 10 years. There were no MiView TV diagrams on the Internet. without a personal touch. This product is new. On the left is the video on demand screen. and instantly notify users of schedule changes as they occur. In the center is an advanced program guide. Deutsche Telekom and Verizon telecommunications. (2007) Microsoft advertises that their product provides a comprehensive set of integrated tools for the management and maintenance for the provider edge. and Windows Media Player 9 . and Lynksys-KiSS which is a Cisco company. SBC has already agreed to use Microsoft’s software to run their IPTV network. MPEG-4 (AVC). The only piece of IPTV equipment that a consumer sees will be an IPTV set-top box and the ISP’s modem. Telecom Italia. Broadcom. United States goliath commercial television provider. Biz-talk server. instant messaging. They also give the IPTV provider the opportunity to include caller ID. greater market differentiation. ignoring consumers. enhance revenues. SMS messages. and Operations Management software. Microsoft IPTV. The newer boxes are Microsoft IPTV enabled and support MPEG-2.18 Here are some actual user views of an IPTV system using their IPTV product. BellSouth. Alcatel-Lucent claim MiView TV will provide seamless scalability. Thomson-Intel. This is enough to peak most television viewers interest. Alcatel-Lucent is probably not losing too much sleep. and create greater cost-effectiveness. and on the right is an advanced PIP channel surfing mode. PCWorld. system management server. This list of IT heavyweights speaks volumes for the acceptance level of Microsoft’s IPTV software. Although MiView TV is an end-to-end IPTV Enterprise management software system like Microsoft’s. in their article. The IPTV hardware is mainly the interest of the IPTV providers. Microsoft has also signed deals with British Telecom (BT). Microsoft TV IPTV Edition seems to be the clear favorite and most popular IPTV provider software platform. They’re Here: Microsoft TV-Enabled Set-Top Boxes talks about the major IPTV SetTop box providers. It is too early to tell if MiView TV is too late to make a dent into Microsoft’s IPTV enterprise software solution. Motorola. These Headend services include SQL Server.
Some of these companies have made cable. Although this technology layout can and probably will change. or xDSL modem chip inside. satellite. part 10 allows both DVD and HDTV quality video at substantially reduced data rates to the home. DSL. VoIP systems. MPEG-4 part 10 (H. . and should sound familiar to those who use the services. titled IPTV-Distribution in Home Networks. phone. Notice that the user premise equipment consists of a television. They are one of the World’s leading modem integrated chip maker. This chart also came from the Intellon white paper.264/AVC) can obtain HDTV quality data rates at under 10 Mbps. Wireless IPTV connectivity within the home can happen with current home wireless PC systems. and Intel are new names in the television set-top box industry. or with a wireless enabled IPTV set top box. you may not know their name. Broadcom. This chart explains the expected data rates required for IPTV to the home. A good analogy would be Broadcom is to modems. and HDTV quality on 20 Mbps or higher data rate lines. Refer back to the IPTV network diagram drawing in the beginning of this paper. While. The next chart reconstructed from the same Intellon company white paper explains how well the primary video compression modes reduce the bandwidth required to the home. Indeed most of the home network IPTV diagrams show wireless IPTV within the home. For instance. Intellon Company published an excellent white paper. Broadcom makes the chips that are the heart of DSL and xDSL modems. cell phones. ADSL is Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line and VDSL is Very-High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line.5 Mbps 2 to 6 Mbps 20 Mbps 16 Mbps 10 Mbps Intellon Corporation. HDTV & More Data Rate 1. Compression Mode MPEG-1 MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-4 MPEG-4 part 10 (HVC) Video Quality VHS DVD HDTV DVD & HDTV DVD. and decryption set top boxes. Broadcom currently does not directly market set top boxes. MPEG-1 can offer VCR quality IPTV service on a 1. Notice that MPEG-4. they are a force in telecommunications electronics. and LAN communications. a Scientific Atlanta IPTV set top box will probably have a Broadcom VoIP. PC. and at lower data rates. MPEG-4 offers DVD or HDTV quality that can be adjustable. The media console is the IPTV set top box. MPEG-2 can offer DVD quality IPTV service on a 2 to 6 Mbps subscriber access line. (2006) The next chart explains the maximum data rates for each type of connection to the customer’s premise equipment.5 Mbps subscriber access line.19 formats. cable modems. what Intel is to computers. Linksys. and customer premise equipment (CPE). media console. the CPE is the xDSL modem of FDDI fiber modem interface. satellite modems. The white paper explains the type of data rates consumers can expect to get in their home.
000 feet G 992.20 ADSL Downstream Data Rate.413 issue 2 Up to 18. Which companies are running the DSL and successor modem industries? There is a very good chance that the Netgear. but because it offers a significantly greater distance from the customer’s premise equipment to the service provider equipment. G.1 device connections. satellite.0 or USB 1. This being a relatively new technology. or other DSL brand name modem in our home is using a Broadcom modem chip. The difference in the two is a trade off between higher upstream and downstream data rates. and interface with various types of LAN architectures. and the optimum IPTV data rates could be as high as 50 Mbps and greater. the BCM6348 and the BCM6358 that enable downstream DSL data rates at 30 Mbps and 29 Mbps respectively. Central Office or ISP remote management of customer premise equipment. Lynksys. and High Definition television market.(2006) The xDSL column pictured on the right side of the chart is not there not because it offers higher data rates than VDSL. Throughout the IPTV industry.3.5 Up to 1. Broadcom manufactures two slightly different ADSL2+ CPE router chips.000 feet T1. The BCM6358 goes up to 3 Mbps upstream to the central office whereas. These are the data rates to the customer premise equipment the IPTV industry feels they require to compete within the current digital.000 feet G 992. . VDSL’s maximum distance of 1000 feet is a very big deal to IPTV service providers and the local central office because they have to deploy more reconditioning and broadcasting equipment closer to the customer premises.619 Intellon Corporation .000 feet G 992. Broadcom’s current IPTV DSL modem chips also offer enhanced quality of service for IPTV. G 992. which is termed Central Office (CO) is this graphic. cable. there is a little consensus that the minimum IPTV data rate could be about 10 Mbps.000 feet H.610 – H. It is on this portion of the network that current advancements must be implemented and future advancements developed.1. This means more expenses and more equipment out in the field that requires maintenance.994 Up to 9. dual USB 2. The central office to the customer premise equipment is probably the most significant piece of the VoIP puzzle. one can imagine the number of small companies trying to get into the action. Central Office (CO) to Customer Upstream Data Rate Customer to CO Distance CO to Customer Standards (ITU) ANSI Up to 8 Mbps 640 Kbps ADSL2 Up to 12 Mbps I Mbps ADSL2+ Up to 24 Mbps 2 Mbps VDSL Up to 53Mbps 6 Mbps xDSL Up to 32 Mbps 32 Kbps to > 1Mbps 19. the BCM6348 has less upstream but higher downstream data rates. D-Link. We will not discuss the minor IPTV hardware companies. Take for example an ADSL2+ router. The higher the downstream data rate the lower the upstream data rate.2 Up to 12. Broadcom’s BCM6358 specification sheet states the ADSL2+ modem chips offer dual 10/100 Ethernet connections. Deutsche Telekom. dual path error correction. as well as 16 or 32 bit parallel expansion bus support.
The top of the diagram shows the different services that are provided to include Analog. DWDM Network Diagram. DWDM is the very heart of these initiatives which leads us to one conclusion. Cable 360. In deed global telecommunications systems providers would like to see IP convergence take place also. IP. encapsulated and transported over the DWDM transport network represented at the bottom of the diagram. VoIP Telephone. (2006) The graphic above is a good example of how IP Convergence is happening now. they will take up a whole DWDM data path which is not efficient use of an OC-192. Digital. future networks. 10 Gbps data path. Legacy Telephone. everything is moving towards IP. and Ciena. IP over everything. It is also important to know that the GbE is Global Bandwidth Expansion. and Global telecommunications transport systems. The larger big equipment companies in this sector are Cisco. Juniper. . The third row shows the transport network topology. Before riding the Switched DWDM network Legacy SONET frames and ATM cells must be encapsulated into IP transport packets. Remember. business networks. This would allow them to concentrate on one type of data traffic over their networks. and Video on Demand television. The brown SONET and red ATM traffic is not native to the DWDM IP network. . the DoD an DISA’s plan to put everything over IP? The US DoD already employs DWDM systems in a world-wide network. The second row explains whether they are currently IP based or something else. Often. This does happen often in current long haul telecommunication systems because these two can handle very high data rates in gigabits per second range.21 The IP telecommunications backbones are already in place and advancing at the typical IT world frenzied pace. Alcatel. Siemens. Nortel. The overall idea is that all of the IT services on the top row end up converted into IP packets. The important point to glean out of the next graphic is how dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is at the center of IP convergence. which is a DWDM initiative.
Ciena is widely accepted as one of the DWDM multiplexer leaders. These separate wavelengths are also known as a Lambdas or light frequencies. national. line amplifier. all out leader. The line amplifier sites are set up so as to enable remote management of the locations. and fiber optic cable. The DoD uses Ciena’s LightWave DWDM multiplexers. Deutsche Telekom. Maintaining fiber optic cable line amplifiers at appropriate intervals is very important to telecommunications systems providers. a transmit and a receive fiber strand. each wavelength can carry up to 10 Gbps of data. (2007) These amplifiers are spaced at maximum lengths that depend on the quality of the DWDM multiplexer. If you see a strange looking hardened and secured cement shack in the middle of nowhere.6 terabits per second. The following diagram came from CESNET’s corporate Web site. MCI and the likes are most likely using Ciena DWDM multiplexing equipment. along the highway. AT&T. like Ciena’s LightWave products can extend light signals up to 270 kilometers before line amplification is required. Global Crossing. Starting on the left. This diagram helps explain DWDM architecture and some of its most obvious aspects. That is an overall bandwidth of about 1. which equates to around 1. or 10 Gbps data rates. The Czech Department of Defense may be using Tx1.22 Current DWDM transport architectures can multiplex up to 160 separate OC-192. These can be and probably are OC-192. 10 Gbps signals onto one fiber optic cable pair. global telecom providers like Sprint. British Telecom. Currently. there are developments underway to increase the payload or data rate of each Lambda also. Good telecommunications transport quality DWDM systems. Again. Of course. CESNET is a Czech national telecommunications provider. or railroad . Fiber optic line amplifiers are required on the path to amplify and recondition the light signals. IP convergence should start making more sense. The DWDM multiplexer puts each transmitted input into a separate wavelength. like AT&T to us. or global DWDM telecommunications systems. or they may be subdividing OC-48. and an IPTV service provider may be using Tx2. or Deutsche Telekom to Germany. In other words. Now. that comes with a caveat. the Tx1 through Tx4 are the inputs into the DWDM multiplexer. which is one each. CESNET DWDM Transmission Diagram.6 trillion bits per second on one fiber pair. Nippon Telecom. There are plenty of DWDM multiplexer companies for LAN and WANs. international. A terabit is about one billion bits squared. or OC-3 customers within an OC-192 path. The EDFA 1 CLA PB01 is a line amplifier. Ciena is an industry leader in. if not the clear.
DWDM technology started blossoming in the early 2000s when increased capacity. or light wavelengths. the legacy cable television systems require an upgraded. and other legacy systems when we can convert everything into IP? That is another of the leading ideas behind all IT technologies converting to IP architecture. VOIP service was terrible in its infancy. they must be amplified and reconditioned at specific intervals also. and prepared for transmission to the consumers. However. We should be getting a clearer picture of why everything is converting to IP. When an undersea cable or line amplifier becomes damaged or inoperable. FDDI. There are hundreds of small scale IPTV equipment providers. but the big mergers and business partnerships are already in the works. or already complete. Therefore. cable television networks. They also must repair damaged undersea cables. It might be helpful to mention that fiber optic cables can carry thousands of separate fibers. most likely MPEG-2 or MPEG-4. We have discussed the IPTV network from the consumer’s home to the carrier. DWDM technology has increased fiber optic cable capacities from four to up to 160 lambdas. The IPTV network Headend is where the different television stations or channels are gathered. The bulk of fiber optic cable expense. SONET. probably more as they must accommodate VOIP telephone and Internet access services to the consumer’s home. in the early dial-up Internet days around 1998. A converged IP network would make telecommunications and information systems easier to establish and maintain. and cellular telephone networks. and greater distances between amplifiers came about. and the IPTV network operations and business enterprise system. This can take weeks to months depending on sea conditions and cable depth. cheaper equipment. increase data rates. satellite television networks. the cable must be hoisted up to the repair ship where the cable is re-spliced or the line amplifier is replaced. IPTV television networks. encoded into an IP digital format. Look how far voice has come. There is also the possibility of doing this over a coaxial cable television network. Now we can make a free Yahoo Messenger VOIP directly from our PC that is actually better than a POTS telephone call. terrestrial television networks. Which companies will team up with other’s. the IPTV telecommunications network. This is the interesting dilemma. This particular network diagram shows that CESNET’s DWDM equipment supports fiber cable lengths up 250 kilometers between line amplifiers. Companies like Sprint and Global Crossing operate fleets of ships that lay fiber optic submarine cables around the World. . future success or future extinction. VOIP telephone networks. They have to be able to allow at least at least 1 Mbps of upstream traffic. Yahoo and Vonage offer VOIP subscription plans that give better long distance and monthly fee rates than legacy telephone systems. These entities all have a huge stake in converging IP networks. and add more customer and service provider features. The key to this end in a converged IP network is a close working relationship with the ISP and local telephone system. The voice quality is not noticeably better or worse. just like copper cables is in the initial laying of the cable.23 track it could very well be a fiber optic line amplifier site. VOIP providers had to give their service away in order to get anybody to try their network. The ability to add video and live chat to the VOIP call is the advancement. telecommunications companies normally lay cables with a large number of pairs. why keep ATM. Undersea or submarine fiber optic cables are no different. So. From the mid 1990s to early 2000s. It is the ultimate stake. It is time to discuss the IPTV Headend. POTS telephone networks. lower prices. There is no greater risk for a business.
Below is a Cisco diagram of a converged IP network with an emphasis on the IPTV portion of the system. The television and video production businesses are still a viable and important part of converged IP services. There may be room for both. These businesses are the telephone companies and Internet service providers. like Scientific Atlanta and Linksys they can supply about 75 percent of the equipment displayed in this diagram. Therefore. Cisco wants to offer IPTV network providers a one stop shop to buy their equipment. except for the actual coaxial cable.24 On 18 November 2005 Cisco. cable and wire converged IP services to the home. One that can convert analog and digital television signals into an IP based IPTV network. Last mile is the telecommunication industry’s term for the network portion extending from the telephone switch to the home. With Cisco’s key acquisitions. Scientific Atlanta has been in the television Headend market for 55 years. The most important reason is the fact that the ISPs and telephone companies have already developed high speed IP based national and international IP networks. Fiber to the home for the legacy cable television providers is a complete 100 percent architecture makeover. the smart money might go to businesses that are or can easily convert to IP. to make that happen. (2006) Although cable television providers are trying to offer converged network services to the customer premise. . If the ultimate solution ends up fiber to the home then that only requires a last mile change for telephone and ISP companies. they must completely start over. Wire service to the home is already there. Don’t rely on legacy cable television system providers to pull this off. Cisco IPTV Network. and they also make up about 50 percent of the television set top box market. The business sense is excellent. the largest IP equipment company in the world bought Scientific Atlanta.
it is not up to current commercial broadcast television quality yet. as well as local. every facet of television production and broadcasting is involved in IP convergence. If anybody out there is working for a company that has anything to do with television. We can already watch IP Television for free on our PC or laptop without paying anybody. Companies like Yahoo. there are the economies of scale that IP Convergence will bring. almost anything is possible for those who understand and embrace the new technology. what would happen to the television carrier companies and television stations? Would we really need them? If the world was an unregulated Internet anarchy. terrestrial. The point of this is that the Internet and IP has made every high tech company squeamish about being complacent. and therefore IPTV. if we ignore them. and IPTV are not going to go away. IP convergence. national and international television broadcast stations are without plans to convert to IPTV. In deed. If a connection to an IAP were all we needed. Skype. and eBay started out as just ideas from techies entranced by the new possibilities of the Internet. The future. Don’t think that the big cable. America embraced the Internet immediately. Consumers could log into the show’s Web site when they are ready to view an episode and that would be that. Amazon. Granted. Here is another reason that deserves its own space. they will pass by without us! . Let’s look at the advent of the Internet. Google.25 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION Why is practically every IT company interested in IPTV and IP Convergence? Of course. and without resentment. they may want to start looking for a new job. When large technology paradigm shifts are happening.com. and fiber television providers. Instead. and they are not working on IP conversion. Many of them literally started multi billion dollar industries from their bedrooms and garages. every television production studio could just host all of their programs on the Web themselves.
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