This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Borbon June 21, 2010

The dean has announced that If the Mathematics Department gets an additional Php 1M, then it will hire one new faculty member. This proposition is called a conditional proposition.

Definition 1

If p and q are propositions, the compound proposition If p and q is called a conditional proposition and is denoted p q The proposition p is called hypothesis (or antecedent) and the proposition q is called the conclusion (or consequent)

q: The Mathematics Department hires one new faculty member.Example 1 If we define p: If the Mathematics Department gets an additional Php 1M. . p is the hypothesis statement . q is the conclusion statement.

then she will be a good student. c) When you sing. or senior standing.Example 2 Restate each proposition in the form of a conditional proposition. or senior standing. . my eyes hurt. a) Mary will be a good student if she studies hard. b) John may take calculus only if he has sophomore. Ans: If you sing. then my eyes hurt. Ans: If John takes calculus. then he has sophomore. Ans: If Mary studies hard. junior. junior.

d) A necessary condition for the Cubs to win the World Series is that they sign a right-handed relief pitcher. e) A sufficient condition for Ralph to visit California is that he goes to Disneyland. then he visits California. then they sign a right-handed relief pitcher. Ans: If Ralph goes to Disneyland. . Ans: If the Cubs win the World Series.

then it will hire one new faculty member. .Definition 2 The truth table for the conditional proposition p q: If the Mathematics Department gets an additional Php 1M.

Therefore. q p is false . q: 4 < 8 then p is false and q is true. p q is true.Example 2 Let p: 1 > 2.

and r is true. find the truth value of each proposition.Example 3 Assuming that p is true. q is false. a) (p Λ q) r b) (p Ѵ q) r’ c) p Λ (q r) d) p (q r) .

q. and r by its truth value to obtain the truth value of the proposition: a) (T Λ F) T = F T = true b) (T Ѵ F) T’ = T F = false c) T Λ (F T) = T Λ T = true d) T (F T) = T T = true .solution We replace each symbol p.Example 3 .

The proposition p q can be true while the proposition q p is false. q p is the converse of p q. a conditional proposition can be true while its converse is false. . Thus.Logic is concerned with the form of propositions and the relation of propositions to each other and not with the subject matter itself.

Write the converse of each statement symbolically and in words. find the truth value of each conditional proposition and its converse. . then 3 < 6. a) If 1 < 2. b) If 1 > 2. then 3 < 6. Also.Example 4 Write each conditional proposition symbolically.

Converse: symbolically. then 1 < 2. . the converse q p is true.solution a) Let - p: 1 < 2. Since p and q are both true. p q Since p and q are both true. q: 3 < 6.Example 4 . Symbolically. this statement is true. q p In words: if 3 < 6.

p q Since p is false and q is true.Example 4 . the converse q p is false. q p In words: if 3 < 6. Since q is true and p is false. q: 3 < 6. Converse: symbolically.solution b) Let - p: 1 > 2. . Symbolically. then 1 > 2. this statement is true.

the compound proposition p if and only if q is called a biconditional proposition and is denoted p q .Definition 3 If p and q are propositions.

” “ p if and only if q” “p iff q” .The truth table of the proposition p q: “ p if and only if q” “p is a necessary and sufficient condition for q.

q: 2 < 8 Since both p and q are true. Alternative statement: A necessary and sufficient condition for 1 < 5 is that 2 < 8. p q is true.Example 5 The statement 1 < 5 if and only if 2 < 8 Symbolically: p If we define q p: 1 < 5. .

two different compound propositions have the same truth values no matter what the truth values their constituent propositions have. .In some cases. This propositions are said to be logically equivalent.

We say that P and Q are logically equivalent and write P ≡ Q.. . either P and Q are both true or P and Q are both false.Definition 4 Suppose that the compound propositions P and Q are made up of the propositions p1. provided that given any truth values of p1.. . . . pn.. pn. ..

.De Morgan’s Laws for Logic (p Ѵ q)’ ≡ p’ Λ q’ (p Λ q)’ ≡ p’ Ѵ q’ Truth table: Thus P and Q are logically equivalent.

(p q)’ ≡ p Λ q’ Truth table: Thru this Truth Table.Example 6 Show that the negation of p q is logically equivalent p Λ q’. we can verify that given any truth values of p and q. . either P and Q are both true or P and Q are both false.

Example 7 p q ≡ (p Truth table: q) Λ (q p) .

The contrapositive (or transposition) of the conditional proposition p q is the proposition q’ p’ . logically equivalent form of the conditional proposition.Definition 5 Contrapositive – is an alternative. .

. Find the truth table of each proposition.Example 8 Write the proposition If 1 < 4. then 5 > 8 symbolically. Write the converse and contrapositive both symbolically and in words.

solution If we define p: 1 < 4. . then 1 is not less than 4. q: 5 > 8 Proposition: p q Converse: q p In words: If 5 > 8.Example 8 . Contrapositive: q’ p’ In words: if 5 is not greater than 8. then 1 < 4.

Example 8 . q p is true q p is false.solution p q is false. An important fact is that a conditional proposition and its contrapositive are logically equivalent. Truth Table: .

restate each proposition in the form of a conditional proposition: Joey will pass the discrete mathematics exam if he studies hard. Rosa may graduate is she has 160 quarter-hours of credits. 3. A sufficient condition for Katrina to take the algorithms course is that she pass discrete mathematics. The program is readable only if it is well structured. .Assignment (1 whole) In exercises 1-4. 1. 4. 2.

p (p (p (s q q)’ q ) Λ (q r) (p Λ r’)) Λ((p (r Ѵ q)) Λ s) .Assignment In exercises 5-8. 6. 7. find the truth value of each proposition: 5. assuming that p and r are false and that q and s are true. 8.

then 9 > 12. Write the converse and contrapositive of each statement symbolically and in words. . |4| < 3 if -3 < 4 < 3. 9. Also. then 9 > 12. 10.Assignment In exercises 9 -11. its converse. and its contrapositive If 4 < 6. 11. find the truth value of each conditional proposition. If 4 > 6. write each conditional proposition symbolically.

P = p Λ (q’ Ѵ r).Assignment In exercises 12-15. P = p Λ q. P = p q. Q = p’ Ѵ q’ 14. P = p. . Q = p q 12. Q = p Ѵ (q Λ r’) 15. for each pair of propositions P and Q. Q = p Ѵ q 13. state whether or not P ≡ Q.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd