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Distriblll~d by

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3-6-272 HimaY3Im1glU", Hydcabad 500 029 (A.P.), lodJ.a


Banplon: I Bbopal/Bhubancshwar I Calcutta I Clumdlgarh Chenn:li I Emakulam I Guwahan I Hyderabad I Jaipur Lucknow I Mumbai I New Delhi I Patna

C Mann and Rusl;ell

F"U"St published in India by

Univellities Press (India) Limiled 2000

ISBN 817371325 1

For sale in India, BlUIgIadesb, Bhuam, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Maldives and die Middle East only. Not for export to other countries.

Printed in Indi(J (J/

Baba Barkha Nath Printers, New Delhi


Universities Press (lndiQ) Limited 3-5-819 HyderglKfa, HydcBbad SOO 029

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a




nu.np ,. GENJl.84'11ON 4ND MP4S1IBBMENT OF .u:..

:L1 Sou_ of allUrWinl e.m.f. .. ..


1.2 A slmple .llatIalar

2..... BItcIrod~f!l&mom.lcr

3 ,

6 ,

, IQ

U Specificr.lian of u, !IIl!!Ilities

24 AC meten

1 «J Mer m_C_lera



l.2 Vectar fCp!' ... Dlaliwt of LCo qu.otltl ..


11 Altern. rprJ jon Vries


3.3.1 Grapllical addition

U.2 TrlBOnomclric, mldi!ion


3.].3 Phase amplitude additian




4-' [ntrodudloD


.. 2 Ph iiK relatinn.


4.) Practical ",1es for Kirchhoff'. :oop law



404.1 Phil.. IUIIPJitude diaa:nun


4 4 1 Pttwc:r in • rcsis10f

4 .. 1 power in 'enns of' r m, wlues


4 .. 4- Drfiu j,ia;n, Of t ftJl YlI!Jc;


4.S Aft idell capacitor in a clrcuil

".5.1 Phil... ampUtude dlamm

4.$,2 Po"",. 1ft " umu:llor

4 , An i'dCrd jndgctor in • cir,,"ult


• , -, POWIT in I n inductor


".7' S~mmary

CH4PTI'.R!; S£l!1E5 CJRClIII'fl

H Ialr'Oductiou

U RLC aerie. elrcttlt

$.2.1 RcactIllCt: .

n.t SWa:r impedance 5~) Equlvalan cin:ail .. ~ $.2.4 Metbodl af IOJutlon

$.1.$ P_;" a ...... muit .,

,.3 1bc dedrodYnlmomelrT ... ttmet«

3.3 33 35 3$ 36 36 'II .. ,

U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes M a\eria




H.i !bud 'Width


S., SumDwy .

rn4P1ER" ".8Um. CIRcum

U Inb:Odu.::tiQg

6.2 K.Ilc:IIho6I laws lorpara!!cl drcu.ill




6.4.2 Responseo curves .... .... .. ..


6,4.3 Impeda!a al ·I:aODIIICIO ...


6.' SWnmary ....



7.1 Introductiop

1.3 Complex Impedu.ce.. .... ....

7 .3.1 An Weal mhtor at • ei!:<:ait """0111 ..



An idAI fndm:tO[ ., • dn:'Iljt lifcmt!DJ



SummM)' .


Bl.C SVMcio:ui!. •


Kirdtbofrl Ia... in compl" IOrm.. . ...



Complu Impedu.=- m papllcl ....











8.1 Inln>dactlou 120

8.2.1 1'l!crnli!I', th..,!'Ml tar d.e. citeoltI 120

8.2.2 '1bena!n', th"""''''. for .. e. .tir!:aI!i li3

8.] Norton·. Ihcomn III

8.3.1 NoJtop'a Iheun;m for d.c, clm!!p m

8.3.2 Nortou'Jtbeomn for Ie. C;rwI!J; In

8.4.1 Maximum pc>We!' trallSferlheorem for d.e. cimliu . ! l4

HAl MnJmwn pawctt tn.Dtkr IIIo:onmI for ...,_ eilC'Diu 135

c::JIAPftR', A..c. IRIDGP.S 144

9.! Introduction 144

9:2 A.c. bride . 14'

9.2.1 Mantell.. btId.., 147

U.2 Dc Santi'" brid.., 141

U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes M a\eria

",,: m
2M 2.1.3 0Wtm'II brill. ..

2.1.. Hay'. bridp .. ,.

mAPliq: _". IQUI. DANP'(IRMD:

10.1 In!mI!udioD

10 I I Srlf!nd'uct!l ....

1011 Mulna) i""""""OM

1I11.3 Sip. o:oaventiDll I .. IIIIItDaI 1Dd_

10,2 Mill!!!! ;,.""..rt,,""" ..

10 1 IdI:II tnmt...,......

1 1lJ.3 Idea! lm!SI'onner .l1li. cin;ujlc:am............ .,

a" ... PfF.NQ..-",,· ... n:: ...... A ... 'L......IDIICBIt....,A~ .. _~J"""'!O~ iiiiijY ~'-".= ~~~----"~

A.2. IbtcIWcm of ~I inI to llUlHteady r..



C I DelIg hlon

C.4 Geometric rnweseDtllIoD

COS Compte>: OOlIjDptes

C 6 AhsQlure· 'Va'ina

C.7 itatlDaalisatiOD Df divWoG Df .;omplu ~lIfIlbeni

C.! Triao........uiW form u


n 2 Ideal tralllfarmer with m!Jtjye had

U rheberrec htl ich gcsc h utztes Materia





Cum:nl$ in genen1 arc arbil.ury function. 01 time. When any circuit Q closed, a transiem current .DoWl for a short time, gradually dea.yiog away 10 lCfO. In addition there ~ a.teady 'late current which floW) for all lime. In olber word .. at lint both the lI"amient and the S!e.acly atate currents now, but after a short lime only the Iteady state eurrem exilu. D.C. circuit theory is concerned wilb steady ltalC currents, which are constant in time.

In many importanl applications the lleady state current. i,. iuelf a fun.ction of ~ime; mil [unction. mayor may not be. a~pelitiv.e !u~on •. to whIch a period T gn be ascribed. All ouch currents Wllh a dellmle penod are properly ailed alternating currenu. two examples being .hown 'nfigun 1.1.


The figure abo illUl1n1et the four chanclCl'illics of analternatiog CUneDl, namely. the wave shape. the amplitude Ol" peak current ._ the period T Ol" iu reciproal the frequency and the instants· at which the peal currenl is attainccl. With the exception of ~uenq each of theIe characteristic:. ill different at different poinu ina ciranl.

Fortunately a. tine wa we will maintain iu sha peas well as i IS (req ueney in any Unnr drcuitand then only two illltead of three. paramet.m nUd. be analysed. In future the term 01.0:. wi11 be rstricted 10 line waves, for example the Instantaneous 0UftZlt may be sivcn. by:

i = I. lin (tall + 0). (I.)


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

.. = peak cum::ol

• = mgulu &equenq = 'll,,/T = 2rrf .1 + a =pbue

a = initialphue.

The initial pbue: and ~ the ~ are ubitrary COllnanQ in ., far • the init1~ phQe de~dt CD th~ arbitnry cboice of the l.a'O of tbPe,. but oace thia dIoiee baa bfta made. the phase delermins the illltanQ of peak cum::ot.


The teslriction of a.e, theon- 10 ,ineWl'o've- iI .Dot as limiting as it would lint appear. for acconIiDg to Fourier', tbeoreIQ. any repetitive: wave form em be ezpnaed, .. a IUID of line wa\lel. Therefore chi line wave theory developal "Jater ia applicab.1e to .my waye abape provided that the theory iI wed Oft each of the Fourier COIDPOnalQ in tum .

. L3. A.c. (,)RCIJJT 11IIOa.Y.

A.c. dJaait theory it CODc:CmCd with the amlyais of linear nelWOI"U fanned from resilloQ, capadlOQ, iDdueton and tramIormen, it it not ~Iy ~ with ~~ur_u 01". with the generation of a.c. However. Intraclucu.y IeCtions have bfta iIIcluded on tbeR lubjects.

The ,wdy of ae, theorr it important in ill own right widt many applic:atioDl in p-acticaI Pb,ua. one Obvious example being in electronia. ID. addition,. circWl theory p-ovide- a good introdUClJon 10 die ~lation of 0ICilla~ 1l1Wltitiel m geoenI, by yteton and '6y complex D~ben, en.blinK .ppliCalJOn of theae ~edtoda 10 lDlUly other mDcha of Phyaia, with Yay little furlher effort. Many problems may be solved by analogy with I.G dJaaiu, .nd exampJet, will be found in acowtica. Huid £low. UKdtankal vfbradolll and the lilt!!.


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a



Generation and measurement of B.C.


Altenlaling e.m.rl. ma.)' be generated in a great variety of _)'I. two of these are of major imporWlCr.. OsciJ.laton are a.e:. sources, which ~ the amplifying propernes of electronic devicm to mnvert d.c. into a.c. An p;.. planation oI tile operalion of osciUaton a not possible at thit ItaF and muSt awa.i! the stuay of e1rclrOni.a...

Alternaton are a.c, machines which convert .mKhamc:al energy into electri.ca1 energy. Rotating muhines of thit type range. from the very pnaU, generating a few watts, to huge lurbine-driven altcrnatotJ supplying • wbole city with power. The design of such machines is a. hilShly developed tech· nology and cannot be maled heu, howevCl", the folloWlllIS treatment of an clcmenUtry altemator ilIustraleS the important principles ,"volved.


U a plane coil of N twnI, each of area A. is rotated in a urlifonn magnetic field (magnelic induction B) with ill axis of rotation in the plane of the coil and perpendicular 10 the magnetic field. then a aimple alternating CUlT'!n! (a.c.) generator is constructed, figure 2.1.

Let the [oil rotate with a uniform angular Velocil~. "". in the ImSe shown and Je I 8 be the angle between the plane of the COil and the vertical direction (i.e., perpendicular 10 the magnetic field) al the installt 01 time. t.





slip fin




U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

The lJIaIDetic Dux linked with the: coil it given by ~ = NI!'~ = NJB eOOI IdA

Iince B ia a CONtaUr.

= NB 001 'IdA = BAN cw ,

If at time. I = O. the coil hal an initial angubr dilp"oemenl, a, from the mlicd direction, dIeD a I lime, I, lata



~ = BAN eOOI (~t + a).

The e.m.f. perated ~twem the slip "illp (output ta.'lDinab) is »yen by Fanday's law of lndueEion:




= - -[BAN cos (QlI + a) 1 dl

,;., BAN l1li lin (011 + a)

The quantity BAN iii i •• COUllllnl and hu the units or volts when the ifill bols are expressed in the S.I. l)'Ilem.

Let BAN QI = - E.. then the ind.uad e.m.f. is giYm by:

e = E,. lin (011 + a) (2.1»

where e is ealIed the illltanlaneous e.m.f.

Equ.tiou U is U10wn graphically in 6gw-e U and it is IeeII that E,.

I 211'

(peak value) ill the muimlllD value of the e.m.f. aDd !hi! period. T = - = -.

f CIt



U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

The ligniJicance of the positive and negalive pans of tile cycle is rhar, i[ one OUIPUI sermlnal of the generator is ta~n as reference with respect to the other, then it haa a poeitive e.m.f. for haH the cycle and a negative e.m.f. for the other half of llie cycle. Compare this with a d.c .. SOUTa of e.lII.f .• fIgUre 2.3a, whe-re, sa1', the positive terminal i. taken asrelerenee with respect 10 the negative termmal. Then th'" e.m.L venus time curve is as shown in figure 2.Sb.


_1_ "r






Calculate the peak e.m.L for the foUowing generator: magnetic; induction 10"-" e""la, area of coil 2·5 X lit"" mi. angular velocity ) 00n- Tad. 1eC""' and 1000 ru ms.


Peak un.f. E,. =: BAN fd

= 10"-" X 2·5 X 10-' X I()I X 100". =: 2·~ = 7·9 volts.


Equation 2.1 complet"'ly Ipedfies th",al!emating e.m.f. in terma of the peak e.mJ .• E,., angular frequency, .... and initial phase, a. all of which are assumed known. Furth..,., e is a lin", function of rlme, Equation. 2.1 is 100 cumbersome for general usc. since in circuit theory we arc primuill' tnterested in the magnilUde aDd frequency of the e.m.t. rather than ils iruCan· la.neous nlue. There arc two waYI' in common use. of exrl'!lSing the magnitude. Ihepcat e.m.f. E... and the root-mean-square e.m.l . Thil r.m..s. e.m.f. i. related [0 E,. by:

E = E./V2 = 0·707 E,.,

as will be .hown hiller in connection with power calculations. wh",re r.m ... values lead to simpler re1atloru. For the sake of conronnity. e.m.f .. are always stated as r.m,s. nlul'!l, unlns there is some note to the con~ry.

Simil.arly~ the r.m ... rurrent ia:

1 = 1./'112 = 0·707 I •. ud again currcnCl are staled as r.m .s. valua.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

In geuenJ. the cwrent in. a ciraait ia DOt In pbue with the c.m.f. ap.p lied to it,. tha. t"- the CUI'RlI .. t hal a different im. ·tial. pbue., ,p, where p + a. lbaefore 10 CODlpletely dacn'be the I;Wr'CDt it is necaAf}' to .tate the .phaM difference betweeu the CWTent and the e.m.t aa wdl as iu llllpitude (I'.DI,.I. value) •


The D'Anonval meter, deIcn'bed in any IeS.t on d.e. drcuill, wed to measure dlreet currenlJ and. voltap eaDJlOl lie URd to IDQIUJe aItemadug cwrenll and voltaga. 'I'hiI meta CODlDti of a moveable coil between the pols of • permanent mapet. II • d.e. current I.,.. BOWl in the coil then the coil expcri_ • torque

(ndial field)

where B is the magnetic induction. at the coil, A b the _ of the coil and N is the number of tW'!ll in the co1L

The angular deBection of the con awed by lIle d.c. current d~ upon the cOlulOlliDj forcs of .prings or lutpendol:l fibre. In either ease, the control device.ppliel a !'StorIng toI'qUe prop<lf'tional to lIle mguIar delplacement of the· coil from the .lCfO position. That "-

!'Storing torque = 1.. = C6 where C is the constant of proportionality.


The coil will take. up an equilibrium poIition .Iuch th.t 11=[.,.

BANr.. ... = CS.

If now an a.c. CUlTent,. i = ... ain CIII. were to lie paaett throudl the coil, then at each revcnal of dinction of lIle current, tli.e coil wou1cl tend to deflect in the oppolite direction, since the magnetic fidd. is CO.DlWlt m magnitude and direction. Even wi.th !O Hz a.c. current. the a1ternatiOlll are to fat that the coil dther remaina at za'I) or vibnts .Iightly.

2..4.1. F.IednMI)_a tftt.

The above problem would be overcome if lIle direction of the magnetic field were to reverse In phuewith. the a.e, current in the moving mil 'Then the con would alwa)'l be deflected .m the same dln!ction and an equilibrium deDection could be obtained correaponding 10 the CWTmt in the ooIl The chariging magnetic field can be accomplished by removing the permanent field magnet and IUbatituting • field coil through "hich DOM the •. e. current Bowing through the moyeable coil; that ii, the field coil and the moveable coil are connected in aeriea, figure 2. ...


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a




Ff&. 1.4: All ~.

The meter mown in figure 2.4 is called an electrOdynamOIneter. The moviDg coil il wound on a IlQrHXInducting (onDer and all components mad" of metal an: reduced to a minimum to avoid eddy currents, Also. the, pointer is at zero on the scale when the plane of the moving coil is parallel to the magnetic field produced by the field coil.

Let T represent the instantaneous torque on the moving coil when the instantaneous a.c:. current, I is applied to the terminall of figwc 2.4. Also, let B represent the instantaneous magnetic induction at the moving coil due 10 the current" i, flowing in the .field coil, Then

T ee Bi

and ,ince there il no ferromagnetic material prumt Boc

T '" il

= Cil

where the constant of proportionaJity, Co is a function of the angular poIilion of the moving coil since th" magndf" field II nOt fad! .. I, ,Abo. c is a function of time except a I the equilibrium defleo:tioll.


For a, c. current, i = I. lin 611.

1" = c(I.) I lin' lilt

and the torque on the moving coil avcragm tWe!" one cycle is


T •• = - ,-de.

T •


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

AI Io~ as l' varies cydiailly with time. the movins wil will de£lea 10 an equilibiium poIition where T •• is equal to the reatonog torque of the Iprinp or luspelUion fibre. Bul, by Hooke's law. the restoring torque is directly proPoX_donal to lhe angula,' r dilpJacement of the coil from the .zero position. Thus. if e. is the angular deflection of lhe poinler on the scale at the equilibrium poIilion.

restoring torque = 1<8"



1<8. = -- lin' 61t dt

T .•

where c hal been placed oullide the integral liJIl lintelt is independent of lime whm the coil I"e.lchea ill equilibrium posillon.



e. = Krl~" f: sin" wi dt]

= K(~"[ C - cr; ~t) dt

= K (I.) "(I _ lin 2w1)T

2T. 2&1 0

= K~"(T _ lin ::~

But T = 'hi/fA thot

K (I..)'

,. = -2- = 11.(1 ...... ) ••

and dna the de£lection. 8. is proportional to the square of the r.m.l. eurrene, the meleJ: Kale will be non-linear. Genenlly the Kaleq calibnted to pvc

the un... cumo I., "

Applying the aame analysiiaboYe .• II (lin be Down thai if • d.e, current, I... .• floWl in the mc:1er then

.. = K(IuJ'

and 10 thC mc:lQ" DU,y be Q!ibr.ued on d.e, CUlTeftt and then DIed 10 measure r.m.1. t'IJl'IeIll for my qclicd _veIonn.

The .~ of ~ e1ectrodynam,ometer as ana.c: currenl ~eter may be extended by uung IUltabJe ,.1111111 resmon ilao. the mput termInals (as for de. meter1~f very hlJh redslOn are illlCfted in unu with the coill.

the tneter , an I.e. voltmeter.


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

2.4.2. Rectlfter lHten.

A low cost a.c, meier with 5% pre<:ls!on and Iligh frequency rcsPOIlSC <an be constructed fot a.c, currenl ;In!! voltage measurement. by employing several rectification element' and a d.c. D'Arsonval meier. The mO'1 commonly used circuh i. the full·wave nxrifler bridge drcuil shown in Ii!!:",,· :U •.



V-og. 1.5: Bridge ftCfiIiu nil meter cin:vit.

The rectifier dements indicated thu. _...__. have, at TatetJ voltages, a negligible resistance in the "forward" direction (or the current --+, ___.._, and a very high resistance in ,he "reverse" direction. TIllis. if terminal I is positive with resp«t. to terminal 2,tha t is. one h31f 01 the a.c: cycle,. men the current How IS Vla I __.. A --+ B --lIo- )) ~ C ~ 2 and If ternuna] ] is negative with r""p«1 to terminal 2. the other half of the 3.C. cycle. then the current flow ;5 .. ia 2 ---+ C --+ B ---+ D ~ A -31- .1. The current wave(onn through the d.e. meter is shown in li!l:urc 2 .. 6 ami the deflection recorded by the meier i! proportional to the average current (lowing through it,

V,I VmiD. (

(applied voltagl'-

-, ,-,

I \ I \

\ I

\ I

\ I

..... .1

\ I

\ I

\ /


FIc. %.6: RedIMoI _wl_

From figure 2,6 it iI ob v iolll thai the neclifier meter i. not a "squarelaw" meter and 10 canno I be calibrated ming direct curren t. Also the meter calibration, which is usually given in r.m.s. Valu~, hold. only for the wave(orm of the a.c. used in ca 1 i bra tion.

The rectiJiu me rer iI normall y used for curren IS in the milli ampere range (olhetwise current IJ'an$formers are used) and for a.e, voltage measuremenu the non-inductive series reslstanee is added. al R, figure 2.5, not in .mea with the d.c. meter.


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

2A.3. oe. .....

It should IIOW be obvious thai any meter whose movemem depends 0IlI the ';q.uaI'e of the current. or volcage can be used [or ac, meuuremenll. The mWutg$ for these: meters, obtaJned. by calibration with direct CUfl"cnt. will give the r:.lIu. value whatever the waveform of the a.c, Such "square-Iaw" me. . Ie. n are the electrodynam. omerer, the moving.iron. meter in which a loftiron el.ement is aUT.l~led or repelled. from a fidd coil (these meten are used for low frequencies and high accuracy) and thermal meten in which the lanperature reached by a resistor through whicll the a.c, current is Oowing is measured in various ways (high frequencies and high accuracy).

The cathode ray eecilloseope, of COUl$C. can be used lor the IPe:uUTemenl of a.e, currenl and voltage.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a


The addition of alternating quantities

J.1, 1N'Ill0DUCTION,

.I.n many a.c. problema it is ~ to add two or more :-Itematillg quaauues, taking DOle of both II1qtUwde and pilate of ea.ch. ThiI pohlesn It not unique: to a.c. theory, but CIOpi'Up in ac:Ollltia, optics, mechanics and indeed ina great IniIny branche. of phyasa. The: obviOtU.· way of addin( twO a.c, quantitia it 10 add the: corresponding trigononll:trigJ~oDl and limp[j(y. However, th.e simplifig,tion becomes very ~Olll.. euept in. the most elementary ~ Another method is to graph each funetion and add the: graphs, but this is both time CODIIIlDing and inaa;urale. A very convcoicnt ~tIiocf is 10 represent each LC. quantity .. a I'OIaUng vector, as mown in the next tc<:tion, and to add the conuponding vectOn.


If a point moves around a circle with comtant angular fmJuency, "', wen the projcetion of the motion on the: "mcal axisdaaibct Ilmp.ic harmonic motion. ThUl, .as Shown in ~ U, for a vector of magnirudc F. rota ling wilh. censtant angular Velocity (If, theprojcction (If the: tip of the vector on the vertical axia will generate the linUliOidal curve:

e = E., aiD (1IIIl + (II).

Hence. if E. u rqankd .. the peak em.!., the projection on the Y--u represent. the instantaDCOUS e.m.f.



f1I;. 3~b ...... ,'th ....... III a-. to 11

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

Similarl". an. a.e. CIlI'fmt. or indeed any altematinc quantity. can be ftp:amted by a rotating radius VttlOr dnwn on a phase amplitude diagram.

The imP'"lmce of thh vector leprtRlllation liea .m. me· u.alhat a veclor ha$ boch magnitude and a direc;tion.al angle. the .nagni tude being identi .• lied with me peak value and the di~io.1la1 angle w.lth the phase aogIe of the a.e. quantity.

The following particular ale illunralel the adYmtagu of .YCaOl" addition on a phase amplilUdc diagram.


The a.e, output c.m.L of one perator may DOt be auHicient for an experiment. It is JMmible 10 obtain a higher a.c. output c.m..L at the same ~uency by jom~ ~ther m _~ two or nlGre pcralOrs of the same frequency and- taking the pha.e of each generator into account:

(i) If the e.nl.rS. of two ~ton In lCriea are m pIlaR. which ia IIOt generally the ease, then the c.m.r .. may be wr.itlen (tel.ecting the initial time. t = 0, appropriately).

e, = IE. dn lilt e, = =E,. tin IiII

and the resultant irutantaneoUl e.ro.L of the teries combination i5 ea = e, + es = (,.E,. + IE.) liD elL

(ii) U the e.m.r .. of two generators m Kriea are out of phue by y (radialIS). then the resultant inHantaneolJl e.m.1 of the la"iea coui'hination ia

ea = el + es = ,E. ,in Glt + ,E. ain (ralt +.,) (5.1)

"here the inltia.l plwc of (I hat beenput equal to zao. Thu is permiaibk bealJlC the ahlolutc uluc of phue, depending on .. the arbiuary e oice o[ the. zero of tintc, luis no pbyaical ugnificaDcc. However. the pha$e difference (y in this cue) between two or m.ore oeciIIaling. quantities il meaningful and merefore )' ill retained as the initial pIlaR of ~ Noll! !bat the maximum V~UI!I of the e.m.r.. cannot be added a1gebraically to give 'he maximum value of fClUltanL

3.3.1. GnIpIIbI ......

One method of tolution Is 10 plot the illllantaneollJ e.tar .. on the same lime IClle with the mrrcct phase rebtion and add the ordinates al euh inatant of time to obtain the resultant. rrgutl! 5.2. which iI an equation of th~ form:

e,. = .E.. an (alt + {1J whue .E. and fl mllll be detcnPiIIed.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

~1' +REm +2Em +1Em

D~~~~~~~--~~~~~~---- ___ ~1Em _2Em -REm

3.:u. T~ HdItioa.

Another melhod of solution is to apply trigonometric fonnulae. £quanon 5.1 can be rewriuen:

ell = I E.. sin CDt + aE.. ,i D &It 001 Y + .E.. cos 611 sin y = (,E.. + ,E.. COl y) sin Ill' + bE.. sin y) COl &It = HE.. ain (Cilt + fJ)


"E.. (OS fJ = IE. + .E.. COl y .E.. ~n fJ = .E.. ain yo


that is,

liE.. = " ('E..) 2 + (.E.) t + 2,E...iC COl y (U)

and the phase angle fJ is given by:

( IE.. sin y )

fJ - tan-I .

- IE.. + .E.. (OS .,


The application of thil b'igonometrical method in more complicated cases be«lmeo 100 cumbenome for pnakal use.


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

3.3.3. Phase IImpliIHe HditiuL

A third method of adding the two e.m.f,. is by vector addition on the phase-amplitude (vector) diagram. It is required to show that the veclot" addit. ion is equivalent to: trigonometrica.l. addi~on. t:igure, 5.5 i!I,Wtrata the vectors IE.. oF.,. and their resultant at all, a.rbltr.ary 1m tam of ume, I.

________ e 'W

_-- ~, \

... ... I \

I \ I I

I \ I~.O


Fill. 3.3: FUse .mpIibIde dJIpaII at .... t.

Both ,F.,. and IE,. rotate at Cd radiam per second and since '1 duet DOt change with time. the whole parallelogram will retain ill shape and rotate with the ':!.me angular frequency, Hence, the projection of aE. on the y.axil reprCSCTIIJ a sine fl1nclion, vil; .... E.. sin (lilt + 13) and from the diagram:

en :=:: .. E.. sin (Cd' + 13) = IE.. sin .... t + zE,.. sin (",I + y).

This equarion is identical with equation 5.1. Also from Iigure 5.3,

13 = tan-" ( IE. sin y )

I.E. + ,E.. COl Y where 13 is the phase diUereoce between e .. and c,.

These last two equatiom are identica1 with equation. 5.2 and 5.3 and therefore vector addition is equlvalent to trigonomelrical adctition. Although ~is t~eorem bas been Ptoved.~ the addition of two a1~tiD( q~~tia, It obViously holds for die addition of any number of alternatmr quanUbct.

Figure 5.5 was drawn at an arbitrary instant of time. r, and each penon will rend to chOOle a different rime for the diagram.. J.n order 10 obtafn diagrams uniformly .orientated, it is conveni.ent to draw all diagnma at time, 1= O. Under thit CQnvmtion, figure U is modified to th., t6cnm in figure U.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"


I tmto t=D )


The results arc: the same :1$ before, but may be exprtAtd in a simpler


.E. = V (It component of resulunt) .1 + (y component Of resulum)'


fJ = tan-l(Y component of resultant) x component of resultant

These el<pre$'iODS IUggest that the vectors could be added, wjthad"",ntage, by the method of eomponents, especially when more than two vec:lDn are involved in the addtion.


The equations of two alternating e.m.fl. are et = ISO sin 577t volts and e, = ISO sin (5771 + 60°) volts. (i) If these e.m.rl. are connected in series, whatia the equation of the resultant? (ii) What iI the phue angle between the resultant and cam of the two e.m.fl? (ill) At the instant wben the resultant c.mJ. Is zero, wha I are me values of e, and e.?


(i) From the Vf:ctlX diagram and the parallelogram law:

.E. = V(I50)I + (156)1 + 2 X Iso X Iso X 001 000 = IsoV! + I + I = 1!i0v'5 volts


ISO lin 60°

fJ= tan- = 50°

ISO + ISO cos 60°


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

(ii) The pbae angle between the resultant e.rn.I, e. and e is 50° and between e. and e, is 30·.

(ill) If Ca = 0, then the Wnel., t, at which this occurs arc gi.yeD. by:

that is.


sin (577t + -) = 0 6


3771 + - = 0, 11', 211', .•• 6

11' 5'1!' I hI'


t = - ---, ---. ---, ... seconds

6 X 377 6 X 377 6 X 577


Taking the time. t "" - --'-- seconds, 6 X 377

el = 150 sin (- ~) = -'75 volts

and el :=; 150 sin (- ;- + i) = +75 vol~.



T.he equations of two alternating e.m.ra. arc e = 100 lin 1000.t valts and e. = 50 lin (lOoot + lSOO) vol 11. If these e.m.f" •. arc connected in serles, what is the cquation of the resultant?

The equalio.ns of two alternating e.m.r •. are el = 100 sin (1501 + 50·) volts and e, = 100 li.n (1501 + 600) volts, (i) H these ·.m.fs. are connected in ..,riel, what is the equauon of the resullant? (ii) What is the phase angle between the resultant and each of the t:wo e.m.r.?

The equations of three alternating e.m.r •. are c. = 24<tV2 sin 5Ht valli, e. = 2fOV2 lin (514t + 60°) vollS and e, = 24OV2 sin (514t + 120°) volts. (i) Jf th.ese e.m.r •.. are connected in series. what is the equation of the resultant? (i.i) What it the phase angle between the resultant and el and ~? (iii) At the instant. when the resultant c.mJ. is zero. what are the values of c,. ~ and e.?

If the equation. of two alternating e.m .. rl. are e,· 100 lin 10001 vol!. and e, • 200 sin (10001 + G) volt., determine the initial phase angle. G, if upon connecting these e.m.Ps, in serie. the fClullani e.m.f. 'is found 10 be e. - 264'6 lin (1000t + 40·9°) volts.

The equations of two alternating e.m.fl. are CI = 100 cos 10001 volts and Co = 200 cos (1000t + 60°) volts. II these e.m.fa. are connected ln series, what is the equal,ion of the resu.ltant?

The equatiom of IWO alternaling e.m.rs. arc e, = 10 COil (1000t + 60°) voln and e= = 5 lin (10001 + 30·) volts. (i) If these e.m.r •. are con· nected in series, what is the equation of the resultant? (ii) What il the phase angle between the resultant and each of the two e.m.fl? (iii) At the instant when the resultant e.m.f. il zero, what are the values of e, and .,.1






U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"



Single element circuits


TIlls chapter u concerned wilh ciuuil. comPGStd of a single ideal eomponent. In this context, an ideal resistor bas 00 inductance and no capacitance; 3D ideal inductor has Inductance only and similarly. an ideaJ. capacitor hu neimer inductance nor resistance, The conntcting wiTts are iISIumed to be ideal also, thaI is, they have no 'Ttsia!antt, no induClana and no capacitaoa. Although it may seem unrealistic to 3uume ideal circuila, it is almost impossible 10 begin circuit tbeory omerwiJe. In Retian 5.S it will be e:pJaiDed how to account for the non-Ideal nature of real circuit componenta.

The theory i. developed from me bask laws pf K.irchhoff; the primary aim is to establish tbe magnitude of the current and iu phase for each of the three circuit dements. Once this is done, it is an euy maner to construct pl"'''c amplitude diagrams for the more difficult cire"iu treated in later chapters,


_ In general, the instantaneous current, i, nowing in a cirOlit i. not in phase with the applied instantancous c.m.f .• e. However, they both vary harmonically with lime and have the same angular frequency, CII.

Sometimes it is con"eniwi 10 take the em,.f. as the reterence phase; 10 do this the arbitrary zero of lime is chosen such thai the initial phue of the e.mJ. is zero:-

e= F.,. lin aoL (4.11)

Then if 4> i. the phase difference, which m,ay be pOIitive or negative, between the ~unent and the c.mJ.,

i = I .. lin ( ... t + .) (4.!b)

and 4> is often called the phase of i with respect to the e.m.f.

On the other hand, Ihe current may be tatm u the referena phase:-

i = I .. lin ... r, (4.2a)

Then the c.m.t. is:

e = F.,.lin ( ... t - 4» .


These trvo sets of equatiON are phyai.cally equlVlllenL 17

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

Not~: (i>

[or !/I pOIIitin, curren t leads e.m..f.; for '" negati Ye, current lap e.m.L;

foc !/I equal to zero, current and e.rit.f. are in pha",.

the sinusoidal quantity in each. of the above equations could equally wen have: beenrepresented by iI ~inc term; the init.ialtime. 1= 0, being appropriately chosen.



ln th.e practical application. of Kirch~ofrs loop law. it i5 import~nt to obey a COItIlSlcnt set of rola and uuerprerauons, for example the followmg:

(1) AJiwnc an intla.ntancous polarity of the altemator.

<ii) AmIm.e an instantaneous direction of the current.


When adding e.m.f.. and potential differenca, assume a direction of ITaveRal of the cin;uit. Count an e.m.f. as positiye if the negative ierminal it encountered fint. Count iI. potential difference at pruitivc if the corTe$ponding component is travened in the same direction as the assumed current,

(iv) Equate the sum of the e.m.fl. to the sum of the potential differences.. (v) If the current tUI1II out to be pOIIitive. then the assumed direction 01 the current is correct andiO is the calculated pbuc.

(vi) If the current turns out negative. for examplc:-

; = -I ... in (GIl + 4». (4.')

th~ negative sign. JIllIy be: interpreted in either of the following ways:-

(iI) The assumed direction nf the current is wrong. therefore reverse the direction of the current arrow and drop the negative sign in the current el<prnsion. thus,_

i = 1. sin (flit + !/I). (4.4)

(b) The iI"umed direction of the current is correct. Interpret the nega· live sign in equation 4.5 a. a phase change of '11":-

i = I .. sin (wt + '" + .".) (4.5)

Each of thClC' ..,IUliolll is COITCCI. (or a current given by equation 4.4.

Dowing 10 the right. say, iI ide.ntical 10 a current given by equation 4.5. bUl flowing to the lef L

In the foUowing examples the reader is encouraged to make different auumpti.om about directions and show thai any sel of ;mumplioru leads 10 the correct reoulL


Consider the circuil shown in figure 4.1 where th~ applied e.m.I .. e = E., sin Idl. and the generator is assumed 10 be: ideal. i.e .• the a,c, potentia) differenm aO"OQ ill terminals is constant and equal to the c.m.f .• reprdlas of the current it l."P.plin. This means thilt the internal iroped. anre Of. the ~nerator .is zero. rrlie tertii. "impedance" has not been defined .. y~l. but In a.c, theory. impedance il anliiagoul 10 resistance in d.c, theorj, Compare I non·ldeal a.c, generuOZ' ha"jng internal impedance with a non·ideal battery having irlttmal reslltance.)

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

"If !.he iNtanWlCOw current in the cittuil is I, then (rom Klrchhoff'1 I«Ond law <see Appendix A) applied at any instant of time, t: e = Ri


e E.

i = - = - ain C111 R R

= J. ,in 6It

(4.6) (4.7)



where I,. = -. Note dult the current and applied e.m.f. are in phase ..

R .

Curves of; and e ;a.I a function o( time are shown graphlcally in figure 4.1.

To understand the positive and negative cycles for the CUJ'Ye of i vmus t. consider what. ha~ns when fint IemLinal A I!Oe:I from .zero to a m.uimum positive e.m.I, (+. and to zero· with res~t to tmninal D. Cwrenl i DoM from A to D throug the remtor R, going from zero to a maximum .I,. and then 10 zero again. Second, if A !hCll goea from :zero to a maxlmu.m negative e.m.L (-,E.) and to zero with respect to D, then the current J flow. [rom D to A throulth the resistor. going [rom zero to a maximum J. and then to u:ro; thai is. the negative cycle indicates a chlI.nge of direction for the current.

From equation 4.7:


J. =-



Dividing Ihrough by ";2 gives:

1!../V2 1 .. /V2 =-_ R


E 1=-.




•• i

,- -. --, 1 I

: . loop I ,dIrection I I





fie. 4.1: A ..... draIt, .................


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

4.4.1 • .,._ ••• I .........

Allhougb the pilate lUD_flltude diagram it tririal in thia aimple cue. it is gi_ here because ofiu IDlporunce in later more complkated cua



• Em


.... 4.21 n.e ............ fw • ftIIIIIlft drmIl.

Since i and e are in phase. it;' il!lDlAlUial which Is tab:a as zero pbue .

..... .2. Power II • raWor.

Tbe imu,nu.1HlOUI power diaipated in. the raisler, R. is given by:

p= ei

= (E. lin flit) (I. lin fill) E..I.. E.I.

= ----- C05 20,,1.

2 2

The power curve il always positive. 6pu U. and the eower if dfai· paled at a lrequency whiCh .u twice the frequency of the. applieCl e.m.t

However. it .is the avenge power convened into heat that iI important in tpecifyiDS the power ratios of a rerittive compunalt. The .v~ poYI'tt dilaipaled in the resislor, It. avenged over oae cycle (one period) • lI:

E,.1. & (1.>-

p •• = --=-- (f. II)

2 2

whiCh is Gn.:-half the ma1timum lllltanlalleO" power.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

ThQ raultis obvious from figure U Of it may be obtained from: p •• = ~fT (E. lin 1>11) (I. lin. IOIt) clI,


as is thown in example ·U.

4.4.3. r_ .. ,._ oIr ...........

Equalion 4.11 may be expl"ClHd Yery g>nveniently in termI of folD ...


p •• = RII = Vi = Vl/R


Here, of CQII.l"IC, I is the r.m.s. current flowing through me reJistor and V me polenlial diffemlcc &OmS II. Eql.lationl 4.l2 arc identical in fann to the corresponding d.c, ca.tc1, it il for thil reason that r.m.s, values wen: introducm. earlier.

4.4A. .,..._ 01 r ..... ..,.,

[. R(I.) ~

Since the I.vuagt power diNipated in a 1'eIiatol", It,p .. = --2--J

IJ in~1 of theo;urrent dlrection in the raUlOf, Ihen the aY(T.I~ power dillipaUd by a linUlOidal cun:eDt aD be compared with that peedueed by a de. CWTmL

An ef/rdilHl or root .... rlllW"'llUlrr (r.m.s.) :i.C. C\lFrcot is defined 10 lillIt II equalJ in magnitude a d.e. CUfreDt producing the ADIe quantity of heal I.,

in the_c ~iltor, R. Now, a d.e.. currenl of ln3gIDl'ude - produca a

dol:" •. ' • of R.(I.)" I th f· . V2 .

,tea r POWCf ....-pauon --- ani. err. ore the ellutlve or r.m.s. value

2 .

of a sinusoidal cunent is defined as:


- = 0·707 I.. = I....,., = I (for smlUOidai CWTeDta only) •

V2 .

Simibrly. sinee the e.m.f. is proportional 10 the currmt in I. IUIslive ciroair. an dfecti.vc e.m.L is deflned as:

E. .

-= 0·707 E.= E. ....... = E v'2

and aD effective potentill differenee acroll I. cirad! component is defioed as:


vz= 0·707 V. = V ...... = V.

Due 10 the bet WI the majority of melCni URd 10 measure a.e, currenta and w11aS8 an= c;a1ibraled to read r.Dl.I. valuCI,then 11/1 ""'gnilllda .,._ 011 rircuit ~, ",,1_ m'ed othnwise, _ &Ullmecf to be rJII.l. wl_.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

In general. if 'I (I) is a periodic (unclion of lime. I. with period. T then the effective value of the (unction is given by,

J- JlfT .

y, ...... = Jf = - ['I {I)]Idt

T 0


A 2400w:'11 room heater operates from the 240 volt maiDl.

Calcula te the r. m.s. current.


Therefore and

Pa• = VI.

I "",p •• /V in general.

1 = 2400/240 = 10 A.


At its operating temperatere a lamp has a resistanoe. of 100 olum when connected 10 240 volt, 50 Hz 5uPl?ly. (a) C!alculate the II,Venge" power. disoipated. (b) Determine the Instantaneous current, taking the suppl y as Ihe reference phase.




PI. = -= 576 Watt.



I = - "'" 2·4 A. (r.m ... ) R.


The peak current is:

I., = 2+/2 = 5.:89 A.

The Instantaneous current Is in pbilSC with the supply. therdore:i = I .. lin GIl = '·59 siD tOOtrt.


Find the average _power diaipated in the mistor. R, if the instantan.eoul power W.lpated is given by:

p = E.I. si~ (1ft.


In gencnl. if Y (t)is any periodic function of lime. I, with period. T. then the average valne of 'I (t) is given by:

y •• = ~JT y(l) dL

T •


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"


p •• == - p(t) dl


== 2.fT r..r. .iot GIl dt T •

(lin' 6IC == _1_-_7_2at_~


p .. = r.I.JT (I - COl P..a.t) dl 2T.


2T 2M 0

= ~r.(T _liD =~

= r..r.r1l' _ S.iD -hr)

_}OI III 2t..




and this .,.._ wirll eq~tion 4.10 obtained by inapectioo.


Find rile dfutivc: value (I. .. ...) of the ilJltaDtaneout (lIlTeD" I = I. .iD !IlL




Z. aloc:e T =-, III

Urhcbcrre<;htlich gcschOtztcs Maleria


Conoider ihe circuit shown in figure f.f. where the instanWleou& a.pplied e.m.L, e = E.. sin WI. and the genCl"lllor is ideal (no internal impedance). 'Then, since the "barge on the plates of the capacitor is continuously changing

lign. an a.c, current, i. IlOWl in the drcu.it. , ~


The inSlantancow ch~. q. on !be plaIa, of me apocilaf a, ... y i nsUDt of time, t, is:

q '= c-,

wlu:re v. is !be instantancolll potentia! difference acroq die capacitor. Now, by Kircbhofr. loop law:


q = Oe == CE" lin 011.

The instantancoUi I:IJl1'ent in the circuit is:

~ ( #)

i = - = ...cE. COl Cilt = ...cE..lin l1li1 + -

dt 2


The CURCllt is .inusoidal. It bas a rnaxhuum value of 6ICE,.. Thus:

I. = CIIICE" or I = eoCE


E.. I -==-=x. r. c..c


where (~) is called me ClJpad'ilM rat''''''" (X.) and.1I measured in. ohms if QI is meuured in rad. tee." and C it meuured in Farad.

It follo_ from equation f.lf thaI!

Ell = X.


The ratio FJI is equal to x.. which is a circuil conSlanl. However, !be ratio eli i. not equal to a circuit constant; in fact rrom Eq. ".13:


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

eli. = -----


= -- tan ~I


Ind therefore Duclualel from pllll iI!1inil}' 10 minlll infiDily.

~~ to. equation 4.1.'. the. currem .leadI the Ipplied c.m.f. by goo. wh.d! It flnt lI~hlleelllS 10 Imply thll the curren.1 fIow.licfore the e.m.f. II connected.. Thil II not the caR of OOIll'R;, for wben the circuit is doted. a uansient currenl DoWi II well II the lteadYllatc CUTI'I'IlI. During Ihe abort time of the lransien~ the total CWTmt· gradually eltabli.1!ea ilSt'lf goo ahead of the "-In.!. and me finll lteady nale a.c, currenl 1$ then r1l;~nlcd by

equation US. .


Figure 4.5 lito," the magnitude and phax relation.hipt of the capacitor

current with reapect to lhe e.m.f., taun as reference phase.



4.5.l. Pewef la • apdMr.

The irutantantOlII power delivered to me ca~tor is given by: p = ei = (E,. sin 1iI1) (1. 001 IUt)


= -. -.- ,in 2 1111. l?

and alternates with a frequency twice· that. 01 the source. Its average value i, zero, since the average: value of a pure line function is zero. Energy i. supplied by the generator to charge the tapacitm:. the eneru being ,toeed in the electric field, for balfthe power cycle and then TffUrncd 10 the getI.erator for the other half of the power cycle. Therefore on the avuage the allemator or generator supplia no eneru to an ideal capacitof.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

Figw'e 4.6 abows the curves foe ilUtaDtaD.COUS current, e.m.f. and power.


FlaA-'I GrapIII 01 I, e ad p for • ~ cftd.


A IO,u' capacitor il ronnecled .. laosa a 50 Hz, 100V (r.DU.)


(i) What is the r.DU. value of the capacitor chargd (ii) What u the r.m ... currentl

(iii) What u the maximum currenll

l00VIr.m.S~: 1

5O"'z y .... .. _>-- __ ...JT 1D".F

(i) The r.DU. value of the capacitor charge it given by:

Q == eve = CE = 10 X tl)-' X 101 = IQ-l coulomb.

(ii) The r.m.s. current it given by::


I == - = weE = 2" X 50 X 10 X II)-' X 101 X.

= 0·!14 llIIIpc:re.

(iii) The maximum cwrent is pen by:

1., = v'21 = 1·414 X 0·~14 = 0·.44 ampere.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a


Comida- Ih.e ,*cuit ahoWb in figure 4~? ,!here the i,ns~taneous applied e.m.f., e = Eo. An ... 1, and the generator II Ideal. Abo, It II assumed thai the inductor is ideal, thai is, it has DO resistance and it i. not coupled magnetiQ)Jy It> any other nearby circniL


A bad. e.m.l. is developed acrtlll an inductor whenever there is a changing C1IJTCDt in the inductor. Stated analytically,


e" = -L- (4.16)


From Kirchhoff. law;


Eo. lin Glt - L- = O. dl

Now, in circuit theory it hal beomt,e the CUllOm It> treat the vol~ KrOiS the .inductor as a potentia.1 d iUcrence rather than a back e.mJ. If thll ia done and the rules set 01,11 in t«lion 4.S applied. the following equation

is obtained: .


Eo. lin CIIt = L-. (4.18)


whkh ia idenuc;al with C1iuaUon •• 17. In fulUTe 'hll 1IOl14glt II.t:I'OU 401 indlldor lIIi/I IIllUlrfl bll Rp"'d 411 II 1'OIIIfIlitlI diffeTIIII«.

Integra tion of equation 4.18 yields:



i = - - eOl CIII + a1l1l1. (K)

CIIl. .

Alaume K = O. u il relaleS 10 the possible existence 01 a d.c. current added to the alternating CUJ1'enL

Thus. the instantaneous ClUTCPt is given by:

i = - ~ ms.t = ~ ain (GIl - ~) (U9)


and varies ainwoidally at the WIle frequency all the applied e.m.I. but flip

behind the applied e.ml. by 90·. .


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

Just as in the C1lM' of the capacitor cireult, the ratio eli i. not equal 10 • cireuil conlUllt. bul the nuioElJ ill equal 10 "-t: •• circuil o;onllanl ... hown below,

If the inductiYC radmcc is dWlled u:

X" = _t.. (4.21)

then eqlfalions 4.19 and 4020 give:


1= -. (425)


The indUCliYe reaaance. XL> is Uleamz-cd in ohDII if ",it meuurcd in nd. 1«,-1 andL it DIUS\It1d in ~,

4.6.L ............ ..._.

Figun: 4.8, <ltawa with the unJ. » the rdeftnc:e lihue, sbOWI the mapitude and plwe reb.tion of the C\UTCIlt tbrougb 'an inductor':

__ r- ~Em

1 ~ Em



........ : 'hl ........ _ ........ ckaIL

4.6.2. ,_ III _ .

Figure 4.9 abo .. cunei foe the inltantaDeoUl curreftt. e.m.£. md power.

•. ~OLIt

•• ~p. of inductor


P.OWff into inductor

Jilt. 4.9: ~ of I. ... ,,_ _ .......... '


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

The maWltaneolU power it p = ei. DIU,


p= d = (E. siD Glt) (-I. COl lilt) = -- lin. 2t»t.


ne p:!wer lilCmatei with a ~Uenq twlee iliac of the F.DIOI'. lu avenge value u. .reI:O.. Enetn iI IUpplied the generator to the mduaor, hein& cran. formed intomagncric; -'1D' for . aU the power .r;yde . and il thea returned to the generator for the other ball of the .powa" qde.


Table U liIlS the chief charatterilt.ia for a.e. current flow In eac:b of the billie circuit components.

Com~"mt Properly I = PIt4u
biuor ResistaDCe,R VIR 0
Capacitor Cap. reactance, X. = I/QIC V1Xc +90·
Inductor Ind. reactance, Xr. = IIIL V/X~ -90° Dewar in which remtaDc:e and reactanuvary with frequency iI graphed in figure UO.


o w

fII. "10: • ...._ ... ~ •• ._.. Gf ~.

The avenge power lupplied by the alternator and m.up-ted III heat in aresinor it !!ivenby RI", VOIR or VI. In the cue of an Inductor or a capacitor there .. an i.nterchange of energy be~ .. een the component .nd the altenllllor. but on the lIY~ra~ the alternator supplies no POWCT,


U . When. a radiator element it con aected to a iupply I ine of 500 roll, 100 Hz, .iu rC1utance U. 1000 oluns at iu operating temperature. (i). Calculate the a.YCTagepowcr dissipated in the radiator element. (ii) Dct~ne the instan.1a.lIWus current Dowing in the radiator element .• ta.k.ing the IUppl. y a. the reference phaae.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

4.2. Fiod the instantaneous potential difference aCI'Oa an ideal capacitor of capacitance 10 pF if an ia.tantaneous current of i = 100 ain lOO!rt ampere floM through iL

4.5. Find the Instantaneous potential difference aaoa an ideal capacitor of capacitance 50 pF if an inllantaneOUJ current of i = 100 lin (100... + SOO) ampere flO1n through iL

4.4. Find the ia.t:antaneous current flowing through an ideal capacitor 01 eapadtance 100 pF if an inatantaneoUi potential difler.ena: of v. = 10 all (100trt - 45°) volts exiots aaoa iL


A 10 pF capacitOl" is connected across a 1000 Hz ~upply line. If the maxi· mwn value of Ihe capadtoT clwge is 100 IJ-C. determine (i> the r.m ... current and <it) the: maximum CIltteDI in the circuil.


Find the instantaneous potentia! difference acroa an idea) Inductor of ioductana: 10 H if an instantaneous current of i = 50 un lOO!rt ampere flows through il.


FiAd the instantaneous potential difference acrON an ideal ind.uctor of inductance 10 mH if an innantam:ow currnu of i = 10 COl (100tr1 + 60°) ampere floWl through iL


When the ia.tantaneout potential differena acrou an idea) inductor of inductance 100 mH is Vr. == 10 all (100... - 50°) volts, determine the instantaneous currene flowing through iL


Find the average v.llue of the e.1i1.f. shown in

1 I

Use y •• = - yet) dL)

T 0

thc: figure bdow. (Hint:

Thil average nluc: will be the de. value

of the e.m.f •• wat is. if on thc: average a constant e.m.L is found 10 be auodated with a lime varying e.m.f .• then thiJ constant e.m.f. ia we de. component of the: lime varying e.m.t,


Urheberrcchtllch gcschutztcs ~Ialeri"

uo. (i) ~i.od the -YenI! ~uc (de. nllle) of the ~ ._ Ua ~ 6pre below. flb.It.. _ balf.-ft retdfied IUMi _we IUI.d. II

poI"wu Ua power supply cin:ui1L)


(h) DeterPlIDe me equation of the "pureM LC, COCDponenc of the e.m.f. •. 11. YIDd the -"erase nille (de. nlne) of the e.m.L Ihown ia the figure below. ~. _ faIl.wal'C rectified eitIe wave and iii important ia power

lUpp1y dmdlL) ..

U2. Find the eUective value {E • ....J. c of me inltantaneoUi e.m.f.. eo shoWII diagnmatiaUly ia the Ugun-6elow.

(HiDt: U. Y ....... = J :"'f'b (t) r dt.)

T •


•• 15. find me effectil'e nlue of me inltaDlaDeoUi e.m.f.. to mown diqnmmatialIy ·in Problem UO.


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"

~.14. Find the drecti~e value of the inslantaneous e.m.l. e. shown diagrammatlrally in Problem 4.11.

4.15. If a O·Arsonval ammeter (d.c. meIer) and an electrodynamometer ammeter (calibrated 10 read I ... .., in a sinusoidal a.c, cirOlit) are CODnected In series in a circuit where the iostanta!leoul current flowing i'gi"en ,by i=,2 + sin,' 100000, amp"re~ determine the reading of eadi meter. (The meters arc assumed to be Ideal,)

4,11). 11 the D'Arsonva] ammeter' and the cl,ectrodynamometer ammeter of Problem 4.1:' are connected in Jeries in a circuit where the instantaneous current flowing i. shown di~gramatitally in the figure below. dClennine the reading of each meier,


o ..!L l.!t .l!!. .m

100lT 100ft 100tT lDOlt

• t (seoi::)

4.17. H the D'Arsonval ammeter and, the eleccrodynam,omeler ammeter of Problem 4.15 aTC connected in series in a circuit where the instantaneous current flowing is gi,..,n by ;= lin loom. + cos l007Tt ampere, determin,e the reading of each meter,


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a



Series circuits


In this chapter the phase amplitude diagrams introduced .in the previous chapter an: developed to aolve aens drcuiu in gmeral. Although scahr impedance and equivalent circuiu an: dUcuSied with special referenee to series circuits, the concepts an: immed.i:ltely a .. ppiicable to any circuit. Power f.ac.·tor is defined and with ilS aid ~ner:dpowC1" forundae an: derived. Series resonance ;1 treated as aspecial case olRries circuits.


Consider the circuit shown in figure 5.1, where the geneumf is asumed 10 be ·ideal (no intemal impedance).



F'iI. !i.11 RLC __ draIIL

Appli .... tion of Kirchhoff's loop law gives for the steady llate,

E.. = LV. + eV .. + .V.. (5.1)

... here the· """ U G welor oddition on II ,hou G""lilude diGgT""'. Since the same current&WI through each COIIIpoaeDt in turn, it is very eonvenient, but nOI _nual., to take· the curran as !he reference phue as shown. on figure 5.2.

The magnilUde of the polenlial differenc .... an:

.. V .... I".R, LV .. M I"XL' cV .... ImXc.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

The polenl;al differen" a(lOU the Rliator iI in plwe with the curtml II Ihown on ~ ~2a. It wall shown in the Iut cha1.ta' Wt the eurrent through a capa~lor leads the potential differenc:e by 90: .In oWr 'WOI'dI, the polen~l dl((e~ce: ... th~ (!linn! by ?OG and. t!t~.cV •. is drawn in the mmw y duecllon. SlDulariy. "V. 1$ In the JIO',bve y dlll:cllOn.





(a) (b)

fit. S.%z .................... lor PfI. S.L

Jt will be.p~aled th .. ! fiJlU"c 5.2a 'colkcla the indiYidual diagrams. figurs U. 4.S and. 4.8. into a liDgIe dia~ the only differeDce being thai here !he CW'I'm.I. ia talcn al the ICt'O 01 pilate iDllead of the c.m.l

The acrual. addition 01 thac thne YC(IOQ is bell done by fint adding "V. and c V. dYing the vector I. {XL - X(,). The direcrloD. mown 00. the diagram for llib aCldition. is blIKCI on the lIIIttmPlion that XL ilgnaler thaD x;

The resultant of the three Vedon iI. by equation .5.1. equal 10 E.,.

The ~ amplitude diagram having been completed. tbe magnitude and phuc of the unknown citcuil CUfftJlI can he found from:

E., = 1.v'R1 + (XL - XJi.

That ia,

I. = --;;;::;:::::;;;::::=;;:;:; .JRI + (X., - XJ I

and in terms of un ... values.



I = :-:;;::::;:::::;;=::::;:;;

.JRI + (XL Xc> •

From Ihe diagram the phase difference between lhe current and the em.£. is:

XL- x, • = lao-.' --_




Equation 5,2 and. 5.~. fully .rpecify the ClIITmI and arc all that are usually nquired in pncticaJ {ll"Oblcrila. but lOmet.imc. the Inllantancoul t1IJ'. rent II also of Inlerc.l. Thil II easily obtained.


i = I. lin toll = -;;;;:;::;::;;=::;;;::;:; sin lilt.

AI + (XL - XC) I

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

where the initial phue has been set to zero. to conform with figure 5.2 which hal been drawn with the current as the reference phase. On tbia basil the insWltaneOUi e.m.f. iI.

e = E. lin (tit + til).

where 41 iI given by equation U. These eq~lions for i and e cxJll:U' the physicaf fact that the e.m.l leula the current for a positive value of of; iUdf.

Now. haYing iIOlved the circuit with the culnnt as the reference phuc. it II quite: 1egitimue to tHe the e.m.f. It the reference phase. giving the equations:


e =E. sin lilt

i = I. sin(wt - </I).

5.1.1. R..-a.

The quandty. XL - Xc,. appean &equenlJy in the solution of aeries circuill and Is defiDed at the reactance of the wbole cin:uiL

X = XL- x; (U)

EquatiOl1l 5.2 and 5.; become:

1. = :-;;:;;=;:::;; v1(i + Xi


.,. = tan-> -


In the _present circuil XL wU auumed to be greater than Xc and conaequendy X md • are both positive. The circuit iI said to be inductively reactive. alnce the reactana: of the lnductor pcedominalrJI. giving :I lasging CIllTenL




If Xc iI gtea.ler dian x... the circuit Is capacitalively reatti\le and both X and til are negative. The dividing line between these extreme cues is when XL = Xc and bOth X and </I are zero, This is the o;ondicion for lCries resonance and is treated later in this chapter.

5.1.2. ScaIIr Isq II_ce

Equation ~.5 can be limplified by defining the scalar impedance. Z. u:

Z = yR, + Xi (aeries circuit only) (5.7)

Z if call.eeI the KaIa:r impecbnce 10 diltinguiah it &om the complex ~pedance treated later. In ItnnI of Z. equation 5.5 becomes:


r. = - (5.8a)


E 1=Z


These generaliud equations enable the magnitude of the current to be calculated; or course, the auxiliary equation (5.6) is still needed for the phase angle.

J rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztcs ~ I ateri a

5.2.3. Erpih'IIIIIIt dmIII.

In many circuit problans it iI desinble 10 rcplao;c :I gJOIpJic:ated circuit by a simpler eqt!ivalenl circuit. in wbich tbt: ume CIIJ'lCIII [[oWl as in tile original o;ir<;UiL FOI" example. figure. 5.1 may be replaeed by its ~wvalent circait, figure 5.3, where Z is given by equation 5.7 •

As will be Ief.:II. I. ter, most circ:uits can be reduced 10 figure 5.S, how· ever Z will be different in each c:aae. equation 5.7 holding for serie. circuits only.

5.Z.4. Medlods 01 soIDtIoa.

The fundam.ental merhod is the direct a.pplication of llin:hhoU'. loop Jaw aided by vector addition on the phase amplitude diagram. An alternative method is 10 calculate th.e equivalent impedanCe from. equation .U and lOIn Ohm', Jaw for the current magnitude. For the simple dtcuiD of thU chapter the equivalent o;ir<;Uit method iI usually the beller one.

The ranlta obtained 10 fv apply 10 any number of components in Rrio:s. For example, if a circuit conilitl of an inductor and IUlItor alone in leJ'iea then Xc. is deleted from an the expnsaiOlll.

On. the othef hand, if a leries cin:ui t CODIiIta 01 mon: than three <DDlpooentl, figure S.I an .tiIl rcputenl the circuit, provided that R, Land C of that. figure are given by:

R = IUW of Rrie. rcaUtanca; L = mm of leJ'ie. inducunca;

I/C = lum of reciproa:J of Itritl apacitmces.


An a.c, e.m.f. ot 200 yollI (r.m ... ) bequmq 50 Hz iI applied


<I) a ralltance of 100 ohms;

<ii) a mistance of 100 aha aDd an inductance of 0·5 henry In ICritl;

(iii) it ruistance of 100 ohnu, an indUCtilJl(.f.: of 0.5 henry and a capacitor of 14·2pF in aeries.

Calculate the magnitude and lihue of the current in each casesnd J!ve the r.m.I. potential difluence acrou each component III case fW).

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

E 200

(i) The r.IIU. C\1ITUIt, I = - = - = 2A. in phase with the

R 100

applied e.mL


(il) The r.IIU. current.


I = ~ = -:v1(;:I;:+::;:::(;::<AIL;:;):;;:.


-= --;:;;::;::::;;;:::;;::;;;:::;::;::::;:;; "Ii)" + (2. X 50 X 0.5) I


--;.;;::::;:::::::;;::;;:::;::;::::;;; "lOt + j!.g X JOt


t!PVf.5 = 1·0'1 A.

Th.e phase angle,

(ilL <h. = I_n-'R

507T = laD"'1- 100

= ran""' I·J7 _ 57·5°.

Thus, the current 1.dgr the applied e.m.l by 57·Jo. 111

Urhcberrechtlich qeschutztes Malerial

2OOV(r.m.l 501-2


(ill) The un... CIIJ'l'mI,

l!. l!.

1 = - =, -;=:==;::::::=:::;:;;

Z JR.' + ( .. _ ~i


= -=:::::;:::::;:::::;;:;;:::: v1liJi + (=toii') I)



loav'r.'i = 1.7A.

I .x.-.c

+ = taJr4 -- .. --

= taJr4 (~~

= tarr' (-0.628) = -52·t-.

ThUl, the tulTmt Iftb the .pplled e.m.f. by l2·ze.

The pwaciaJ: difference acrou

R = PJ = 100 X 1·7 = nov.

The pocmtial cUffermce aaoII

L = .u = & X 50 X 0·5 X 1·7 = 260V.

The potmtial differma: aaoII

I '1·7

C = - =. = S7OV.

OJC 2. X 50 X 14·2 X lO"-


,j rhebcrrec htllch gcsc h utztes ~ I ater; a

ne ~ of the poleDtial diUa-CIKe aallA eacb circuit. ClOIJIo ponell! iI as follOWl:-

fm" R; poIentiaI difference is in plwe with the tunent. lIIat Q, 32· 2" ahead of !be applied c.m.f.: .

for L; poleDlial diffumce leads the cunetlt by goo, that is. 122.2° ahead of the applied e.Dil.:

for C; ~tentiaI difference lap the currmt by goo, that ii, n·8 behind the applied e.m.f.

In crier to illUltnte the ~ amplitude diagtam method, part (iii) will be IOInd by tbiI technique.

Since thl: same (1,,; re -nr flows in each component, lakl:l", IU the

reference phase. Thepotenrial dirrl:l"<'nces arc:

.V. = Rl. = 1001.

oV. = Xol. = 70..I.. "V. = Jl:r.I. = .5OIr1.

ne figure IhOWI the ~ vecton plotted with their COI'ftd. pbue rdationa. The ._ulWlI of th_ thrft veclOn. .it a veecor

L Vm =50Tr1m



of mapirude 118t.. laging the c:urrml by the angle: 20w

+ = rarrl - = 52'~. 100

no. raultml YedOr ill ac:eordilllJ tollirdlboff. loop Jaw, eqtUIl to r...


liSt. = r.. = 2OOv'2. 2OOV'2

1. = -- = 1·7V! A- 118

G' I =.1·7 A-

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"


J[ the current in a series RC circui t is given by i = 2 COl (I.OOOt + 10") ampere a.nd the applied e.m.l i.l.giv.en by e = 100 Jin (IOOOt + 55 ) valli, what a~ the values of R and C?


p ~ liD sin 1.000t + 55') yoll$

i ;: 2co,nOOOt.1O') ampPr.

Since COl 8 = lin (8 + goO). the current beeoms: i. = 2 lin (10001 + 100·) ampere.

and the eurrenr letuls lbe applied e.m.l by 45".

Now, I. = 2 ampere and E., = 100 vollJl, III that,

~ = Z = J RI + (~r = I~ = 50 obmL


Z = Rv'2 = 50 and R = - = 25v'2 ohma . ..",2


C = - = = 28 ~F.

QlR 25v'2 X loa


H the currenl in a series RL circu.it is given by i = 10 sin (Iooot - 25°) ampeR and the applied e.m.1. by e = 400 !lin (1000t + 20°) voir., wfu:t arc the valUe! of Rand. L?


The e.m.f. klJQ the current by 45°. The phue lOgic.

6 = 45° a.od

IIIIL tan (1=-


III thai

QlL tan 45° = I =R


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

But I. "'" 10 ampere and E,. = 400 vol ... 10 that: r... 400

Z =vR' + (QIL). "'" - ""'- "'" 40 olum.

I. 10


Z = &v'l! = 40 and & = - = 28·S olum.



R 28·S

L = - = - = 28·5 mHo

A! 101

5.2.5. 'OWei' I!a ..... dmdt.

Jt wu mown in the lut chllpt.er lh,at neither ilD inductor nor a capa:dtor absorbe power on the ave~ Therdore, all the power supplied by the alternator in figure 5.1 appean u heat ill the rnistor and is given by eqlllttlon 4.12, namely:

p •• = 1"R = .""/& = .VI


where.. • V ill the r.m ... JIOttntial lIaoIi & and I the r.m .... current thro.UJ(h iL With the .aid of the p!IUe amplitude di.:lgram. figure 5.4, eqllltDOn 4. I l!"" may be put iDto a new fllnIL

ImX Em-1m2




IlmR "--"-----t.._ - - - .. 1m

JIIc. SAl .... ..,.,.... .................. cImIII.

Fro.m the diagram.

COl .,. = R/I


and lubltitutillg E/I for one of th.e I in the fint of equatiODi 4.12 gives:


p •• =-



= EI eoI • = lIZ IXII: • = - eoI + (s.n)


'lbeIe tbrce expailoiD (Ul) IIoJcl for oy cin:uit wha~ lince my drtuit QD. beRdllced to ill equinleat. 6pre U ..

~ dn:uit p-er fUWr • defined • COl +.


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

EquatioD 5.11 may be derived by .. IDOJe smenl b"alDlftu .. fol101n:U the lQlUft_ .. ,pli~ e.m.f. u gil'eD by e = £.. sin IItt and the .resulting inllaDWIeOUI, circuit eurtefli d gil'eD by i = I. lin. (litt + +) men the instantaneoua power ddivcreti to the cimlil iJ:

p == ei == £.. lin GIl I. lin (flit + 4o) •

The avenp power dialpated in the circuit it given by:

p •• == ~fT P (I) dt = ~fT E,.,.I... lin IItt ,in (_ + +) dr

T • T •

= F..I·fT ,in 611 (sin IItI ~ • + em _ lin 4o) dt T •

= '-'·fT <lin' filt em • + an 11ft em IItt lin ell) dt

T • .

1 - em2Gtt

Bill linl IItI = ----

E.I.[' .

p.. =""'T" • em. (i - i IXII 2Gtt + i lID 2GIt laD +) dt

= E,.I.. em +[t _ lin 211ft. _ em. 211ft laD +]1'

fi bI Z. •






and aiDa: Z = -.



p •• = EI em • == ZJ1I em +== - !XII 4o. z


A Cllpadl« of 10 p.F iI CCIIlIlCCted in lICriet with .. 20 ohm 1000

raill« MrOII .. general« of 240 V. (un ... ). -- Hl.

(i) What cutTmt pgeI lhr'oup the cin:uit? (n") How much power iI dissipated?


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

240V (r.m.s.) 1000 Hz TT

(i) The Impedanee of die cin:uit it:

Z = JR' + (~r

= j 400 + (2,.. X (Iooo}.) X 10 X 10-0) = ';401) + 2&00 = 5'·9 ohms.

The r.m.a. ClUTCDt,

E 240

1 = - = - = 4·45 ampere.

Z "·9

(ii) Power diai~tcd in the circuit,

p •• = RJI = 20 X (f· 45)1 = S98 "att.

or p.. := EI 001 4>0-

"hue 001 .ft.c, u obtained from the figure below. TIUll

IU R 20

001 .ft.c, = - = - = - = 0·571.

B Z "·9

I m----'m



p •• = !fO X .. '.5 X 0·371 = S98 1D.tt.


It u required to I'UQ a 120 volt, 40 wan lamp fromtbe HO volt, 50 HI uWm. Show bow IhD may be done wiih tbe aid of a capac. ·tor.. an. d Rfw: the capKiwloe of the capKitor. W!Aot ill the powu baa.- of !he circuit)


U rhcbcrrec h II ich gOS" h u Illes ~ I ~lcri a

The power dUsipated iD. the cil"arit = EI COl ..,. Rut the power is dWipated only ill the. lamp (railtance R) 10 that p •• == RII = VI w6erc V ~ the ~tiaI diUermc:r aaoII the lamp and is iD. phue with the CUlTeIU throup the drroiL


p.. 40

1 = - = - = i A (r.m.a.)

V 1%C)

and the curran in the circuit IDUII. be I A.

The potential diUerence au ... the lam., II in pb.ue with the curral! and lhe_ potential diffettnce acroa the capacitor iagI the current by 900• The resultant e.ID.r. IDUII. be 24.0V.

Therefore. from the diagram. potential diHermc:e aaoa the I

capacitor = v(NO)i - (120)1 = 120v'3 V. and - = 12Ov'!I • ...c


C = = S X I.,.. F.

12Ov'!I X 100


The pnm' faclOl' .• COl ~ = - = 0·5 .. 240

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"


The elecuodynamometa described in. l«Iioa. 2.4.1 may be acbpted for the mUiurement of the power supplied to a load and is then o;:alICd a wattmeter. To male power mealUJeDlCnta the $t!:ucture of the m e ter doe. not need modificati.on, only the circuit conn«lions arc changed,

Figure 5.5 shoW$ the cir ...... it diagram of the wattmeter and the neees. .uy conn.«tions tbat must, be made 10 measure the power thai an a,c, line lupplies to a load. In measuring tbe power the waltmeteT takes into aceoUQt the phase angle between the line cerrent and the potential difference' acrou the load.

input a.c.volt~

,.. 5.5: Wau-ter,

. F.rom ~. 5.5 it is seen ~t the field coil .is connected in series Ill. the mput lin~ and may. be eo~ldered as ~he al1!'"clCT of: the waltmet~. The movmg coil has a hIgh fHlItmCe, It. 10 ICtlCS and IS connected In parallel with the load so that it may be comidered as the voltmeter of the _lImeter.

Let . the instantaneous CUrrnlU in the field coil and the "loving coil be i, and it> respectively. If l' is the inltantanCOIQ torque on the moving coil, then (rom equation 2.2:


The moving coil will dc£iect 1.0 an equilibrium position lucb that the torque on the moving coil averaRCd over one cycle equals the restoring torque of the Iptings or IUlpension libre. Thus. from equation 2.5 the angular del1ectiori of the po.i1ltt:r on the IOlIe i. givcn by:

8.= ~U: ~dlJ

where X is a conatanL

If ir = I.... lin lilt is the line current to !he load, thm io = Ie. lin (611; - fl) dna: the tWO corrmll wm. not neceIIUily be in phase. Thus,


.. = -_- rin I'll' lin (.1 - f1J dt

T •

=KlrIo COl fJ. 45

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

Howc:ver, .iDee the toW relutance, Ilc. of the moviDg coil and lCries resistor. R. is n:ry large: compared to the inductive rc:actaD'CC of the moving coil, the CIllTeJlI. Ie. will be in phase wilb the polCnUaI diflermce I,CI'CIII the load, VI;- ThuS, fJ = ." where q, is the phuc: angle betweeQ I. and VI;Therdore.

and since

6.= (;) p ••

and me waluneler ream power direclJy.

It can be shown that the lut equation also applies if the wattmetel' it wed 10 meuUJ"C: the power consumed by a load in a d.e. ei.rc:uit. 'Ibm, the wa llale ter maybe calibrated on a doe. cireui t and then uted for power measurements on alternating current circuill.


So far il has been assumed thai aU circuit componenll are ideal. All praetical components faU short of the ideal to lOme extent. The defects of a praclical eomponent may be aUowed for by deriving an equivalent dreW! composed of ideal components. In general il is possible to rcpmcnt a given praclical component by more than ODe equivalent circuit, Table 5.1 luts the mOIl frequently uted eq ui valenl eireuiu.


.Praetical Componm, E'lw.wimt Cm:ui, olldelll ComJHmm~
Wire Conductor in feries with a resistor.
Resistor Resistor in .mea with a II!lalI inductor.
Inductor JDdU(1Ol> in series with a rdativdy I;ugc: relDrot".
Capacitor Capacitor in panolld with a ~ raUtot ..
Alternator Jdeal allel'na tOr in series with. ill .in lemal impedanee. All the theory developed fIJI' ideU componenu holdl for practical COID.ponenlS, provided they arc replaeed by their equivalenl circuiu. It &houId be noted thai. fo.r m.OIII practital .pwposes. connecting wira.raiIton and capacitors can be trealed as ideal. but indueton arc far from ideal Tbe inlernal impedances of ailernaton vary greatly. The internal Impedance of the DUlins ;, 10 low that the mains can be: regudm u an. ideal constant voltage lOuree. On the olber h.nd. the inlernal impedance of an dectnmie osclll2tor DUly well be RVenl thouaand ohms.


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a


A choke coil baving a resistance of 1000 ohma and an inductance of , henry il in aeries with " 600 ohm nailtOl' .. Thia circuit is connected to a generator of negligible internal impedance and 200

Uequency - Hz.


(i) What is the impedance of the circuit?

(ii) l( the generator furnishes 200 volt (r.Jll.s.) wbat is the r.m.s.

cwrmt in the circuW

(iii) What is the impedance of the choke coil alom~

(Iv) What is the polentia) difference act'OII the choke coil?

(v) Whal is the potential differeD« aCfQII the 600 ohm reailtor? (n) Show that the amwm to question (iv) and (v) add to give

.E = 200 volt.

(viI) What iJ the value of the power disaipated in the circuil?


r----- --:-1

200 Hz ,..


(i) Impedance of the circuit,

Z = -.IRa + (GilL).

= j(16OO)' + r1l' ~ '1.00 sf

=losv'DO = 2000 ohms.

(iI) The r.ID.L ClU'l'ml,

E...... 200

I ...... = -- ==-- == 0·1 ampere.

Z 2000

(iii) Im~ of the choke coil.

z..a = '" (ROOa)' + (tIL) I = "'fOi + 1·44 X 101 = )·57 X 101 ohm.

(iY) Potential diUennce aera. mil, _V ...... = z_I.' .....

= )·57 X 101 X 0.) == 157 voI.a.


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

(v) Potential difference acroa the 60() ohm lcsWor • .. Vo.".,., = RI~ .....

= 60() X 0·1 = 60 volts.

<vi) Tbe I"'tentiaJ differences must be added ve<;tOriaJJy.For the coil, Ihephase angle between the potential differmce and the CIIJTeDt is:


= lan-l __ 1000

= wr-t 1·2 = 50'2°.

For the 600 ohm raistor, the potentia] difference and current are in phase. to addinf!: the potential difference. vectoriaUy the rcsullant it shown In lbe figure.

158I2VM_- / Em"200.{f V

9:).2·' It I

____ ..... Im



E. = V;,(60,.,...+-:-TlI5""7r-cos,.".,....."SO><"."ft2,;,O)".r-+-:--",(1"'5',.-"ai""n...,SO"".l!I<l!·;n:) IV!

= ';(60 + 101)1 + (121)42

= 2OOV2 Le., E = 200 voili.

(vii) EiIMr,

p .. = £I COl", R

1600 •

where COl ... = = - = -

v'Rs + <(lit) I 2000 5

and p •• = 200 X 0-1 X 0-8 = 16 watts.


p .. = R.l1 = 1600 X 1(1-1 = 1.6 .watll.


The Rrics circuit shown in figure 5.1 iI Aid to be in raonance when the C\UTeDt it inphue with the applied e.lJ).L In olber wtmh, the circuit

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

and atrescnance;

aclJ as an ideal raillor alone. In penl. the impedance is; Z= y'R. + (faiL - I/r.oCJ a


by definition of resonance, the mblaipt ° meaniDg the value at the resonilnt condition. Therefore:


till. - - = o.


Hence the resonant condition. can be obtained by varying &I. C or 1.. However, it i. convenient to regard faI as the variable and the particular value of &I which gives the resonant condition it called the resonant angular frequency






Calculate the potential d.iHerence across the inductor at resonance.

lOV Ir.m.s.)

ThcreIOnant angular frequency b thit circuit:

I w.=--


= :-;.:;;::;;::;::::;;; v'IiFi X iO'-f

= 10" rad. Iec.-'.

At resonance. the current in the circu i e,

E 10


R 10

Therefore, the potential difference acrou the inductor,

V" == XliI = w_Ll

= 10" X lo-a X I = 100 volu.

b thil amwer correct; 10 volta applied. to the circuit yet 100 vol tI a~n aaolt the ituluClOr?


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

5.5.1. ae.,-.--

If !he fnqul:J!.C] of I~ applied e.m.f.i&· varied !hrougb. a. rUIJe illcludmg the resonsm mquency, keeping E IXJnJtant, the gnpb 0( 1 911111 GI is mown as a raponse carve, fipre 5.6. The shape 01 me raporue curve depcndl OIl !he rdlative values of It.. L aDd C.

I mall. I

When the rabtaJlce of !he circuit 1& low. the eurreur at exact resonance is iaflt, but tails off rapidly on each. side as the frequency varies (~ raonance) .. Wbm !he l'ellltance is higher, the CUl1'ent atresonana: is smaller but faU. off Itss rapidly as the frequenq is varied (Oat resonance).

At the resonant .freqllmcy, fifo, Ihe impedance of !he cirmit is purely rai$cive and CCJ,uab 11., but [or &equendes "below .w. the impedance is eqUIvalent 10 a rautancep.lus a capaClti~ reactance and the current leads ih.e appUed e.m.f. For ~ueDdes alxwc .w. the rea«ance is inductive and the current lags the applied e.m.f. NonnaUy A is small and the phue anJIe. 4;, for the currem willi raee« to the applied c.m.[. changes rapidly In the vicinity of the resonance lrecJUency, figure 5.7.

4l .

rr 2"


I'll- 5.7: .... ~ GI ..... draIt. 50

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

Inspecticn 01 !he response curves shows that a cerlai,n band of fm:(uencies passes through the circuit ",ilb little auenuaricn, me remainder being rejected or attenuated greatly. However. there u no ohvioUi line of dcman:ation beIween which frequencies are passed and which are rejected and hence an arbilrary ailerion musl be seleered.

5.5.2. Bud widIIL

The band widlh is ddincd .... : !wJ=~-'WI


where ~ and WI are the IWO frequencies at which the power in the circuit bib to one-half of itll maximum .value. This hall power point definition hat been chosen .alely on the ruu,nds of mathematical convenience, for it leada to particularly simple' relations.

elear!y the ma><imum power is d~oped w~en me current is amaxi· mum. th.at IS. at resonance. SlDce power' IS proJ;KIrtion~ 10 I'. the half power frequencies cornspolIII to 3. current or 1/-12 of IlS maximum value. Therefore, the band width can be read 0(£ the :raponse curve as shown _ on figure 5.6. This method of finding the band width. although simple and direct, is 100 ~io~1 for general use -. ConsequentlJi'. an analytk expression, inyolving Ihe g)"CUIl parameters only. II now devcloped.

The cUITCnl al exan resonance,


1 .. 11:=:--=

R z",.

that if. at resonance, the circuit behaves as a pure resistance.

For a current 1""",/v2, Z=v'2Z.Ia:=v2R

and iI6I1 are the two angular frequencies for which the current is given by I.../v'2, Ibm:

2R' = R" + (w'L _ ._1_)lII'e


R = ±(6IIL __ I ) lIII'e

Lei tal, ~d fils be rhe two values of 611, the" 4at = fils - 611 and, I

R = "",L - - (5. If)


R - - ("',L - _1_) (5.15)


Simplifying equations 5. If and 5.15 :and using eqwllion 5.12:

fiIo = VIIII,lIIt- (5.16)

Thus. fiIo 11 the gcomClric mea.n between III, and 610- F« low resialaDCe circuill. III,. and Ills are 10 dOle together Ihlt the Hi thmclic mean is a good approximation rot the ~melric mem.


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"

From equatiOill S.li and S.IS:

~I I)

21l = (l1li - 61.) L - - - -

l1li ai,


With the help of equationa 5.12 and .5.16. this reduces to: 40» = l1li - 61, = R/L.


Hence. the band width of the circuit •• easily calculated. and gives a good idea of the sclectivit.y of a series circuit.

5.5..3. Q Iador.

If it is desired to compare the telective ability of two circuits with quite different resonant frequencies. then the band width alone does not form a reuooable comparilon. For example.lupp!Me Wt two circuiu have resonant frequencies of 20 Hz and 2000 Hz respectively and each ruu a band width of 10 HL C1euly Ihe 2000 HI circuit hal a superior sel.ectivitycharac· teristic, al can be seen readily. if the: response curves are plotted, Thia suggests wt a better crilCrion of selet:tivit.y would be the ratio, o../luJ>. The qualIty factor, or Q factor, is defined as:

Q = ~'461 (5.19)

and wing equations 5.18. 5.12:


Q = tIIJ-/R = I/ .... RC = - - R C


The lingle parameter. Q. fuUy describes the selectivity of a cittuit and proves very useful in comparing one circuit with another.

The Q factoz- il aomclimes called the magnification factor, because. at resonance. die potential diJference acroa the inductor or capacitor is Q timea as great lIS the applied un.f.. as will now be shown.

_ 'iR (r.m.sJ_


Vc (r.m.sJ

-\ (r.m.s.! -

.... S.I; ,...... ... _ ........... drnIt.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

The r.Qu. curt'l!nt in the circuit at RIIOIW1ce, It

1 ... = -


V. = RI... = E: (5.21)

1 It

Vo = XoIIOU = - - = QE: (522)

o..C- R


VL = XLl... = ~ - = QE. (5.25)


Thus the r:tential diffamas aaou L and C have magaitwlet Q times the magnitude 0 the applied e.m.L, the inductive potential difference JeadiJII aDd the capadtive potential difference laggins the applied e.n1.f. (or curreDt) by ,,/2.


A generator whOle intemal mlItancc b 1 ohm furniahel an 10.000

e.m.£. of 10 volts at a frequency of -- Hz.. Design • tcriel RLC

'If _

circuit 10 that a potmtial difference of 1000 volts Q1ay be ~ l.mlM lite capacitor.


A poslible circuit is ahowD in the flgUl'e where C and L mUlt 10.000

be delel"Dlincd and the raoaam frequency .iI -- Hz. 'II"

tOV 1qOOO Hz: -;;=-


The Q or the circuit iI -- = lOCI (higb Q). Now, Q =

I 10 - )0,000

-- where 0.. is the resonant frequeDl:)' and equab -- -- Ih.




C = -- = -------


u.RQ 2 .. X - X I X 10'



U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

1 =--= 0·1I,u. 2 X HI'





L = -- = ---------

( 10')'

2., X -;- X 0·5 X



5.5.4. AppIIcatJou of -..

Rao~nt cireuiu. bolh leritl and parallel U'eillCd Iakr. are used ex· tensively to selm a delil:ed &equmq fiom a number o.f othen. Obvious examples are the tuning of a radio and tdev.is.ion receiver, the value of Lore being ad jus led 10 5elect the differen t Il'ansmi Iter fRquenciet. The actual way in which a resonant dreui! is used, de~ds very markedly on the impedance to which II il connected, For me sake of clarily h will be assumed mat the resonant circuit is connected 10 a very high impedance amplifier. Figure. 5.9 Ihows one possible configuration.

cVm. output "to amp

... !I.9z Seledhe dmdf lor lUI ...,user.

This circuit nOI only hal the deslrcdsclm.ivily dlaractcristic. but also provides a magnification or gain. of Q aoomling to eqlU.tion 5.22. S.imiJuly. rhe voltsge output could be taken from ac:rau the coil. but the analysis is more complicaled. ,inO! the coil has significant rcsiounce as well a. inductance.

50mctimes it b necessary. due 10 other circuit requirements, 10 take the output voltage from aa-au thereliJtor; of course this means a sacrili.ce of me gain of the resonant cireui! iurlf, for die potential difleunce aaou the resistor cannOi be grcakr thl.n Ihal applied 10 the circuit. Figure 5.1 0 iIIustr:ues Ibis applinliun.

Let the inotanuncous input voltage be V,. = ,.V_ lin 1iI1.


C;,,,,,, ;'rm l C I_ ~m C,",put)

FJc. !.It: SeIecIm drcaIt for .. 1UIIpIIier. 54

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

where 4» it a variable angular frequtnq.

The c:aarmt in the cin:uJr.

Theref.-, tN: ratio, .. V.

- = -:=:::::::;==:;:::::;.

IaV. j I + (GIL _ ~)i

R ""RC


ThiI ratio II plotted u a fundian of frequency in figure 5.11. This circuit ia frequenq ideaivc, u only a band of frequencies are allowed 10 pm without appreciable aueutuatlon.

U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes Materia


iUrcbhofrs loop bw .. i<Jed by a ph1QC amplitude diagram enables the current to be GI.lculated. An alternative approach is to use the concept of the equivalent circuit and ilS impedance.

Z = y'''''k·.-:+,.......,xr.:a

ihe phase of Ihe fUrreD! with, respect 10 the e.m.f. being <fl = laO-' X/R.

All the power in a circuit is dissipated in the rC$QIOr and for a series c:irtuit.

p •• = )JR = (Vll "/R = V.I

p •• = I"Z eo. <fl E"

- cos <fl z

= EI COl <fl, where cos ." is the power (actor.

Real circuit component! may be replaced by. their equivalent circu.ill and the corresponding circuit of Ideal componenu solved in the mua! way.

Series resonance is a .pedal ease of series circuiu, the resonant frequency heing

w. = Ij../fl:..

The band width and Q faclor arc uoeful paramelen de.crihing the ",Ie(';"ily of the {ircui I .•


5.1. For the ,Re seria circuit shown below. where the generator is idea.l. determine (i) the peak and r.ms. current flowi.ng in the circuit; (ii.) the peak and un.s. voltage drop acros1 R and aCl'05l C; and (iii) the power [actor of the circuit.

10V{(m. 1000Hz

5.2. For the RC series circuit shown below. detamine the frequency of the idea.1 generator. if the current £lowing In Ihe circuli is I mA (r.m.s.).

tOOV{r. f


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri a

5.5. A capacitor of reactance 100 ohms at 50 Hz ;$ in series with a resistor of resistance 400 ohms, and the combi!lation is connected 10 a 240 V. (r.m .s, ), 50 HI slIppl)' line. Determine <il the power £.aclOr of this ~rruit: (ii) the ayerage power inp-"1 from the supply line to the circuIt; and (iii) the r.m.s, potential dIfferences across ilie capacltor and aaou the resistor.

5.4. For the RC series circuit shown In the figure below. the innamaneoua voltage drop across the capacilOr. iI given by Yo = 10 cos (10001 + S(lg) volts, Determine <i) the i.nstantan.eous current nowi.ng in the circuit, <iil the instantaneous applied e.m.f. of the ideal generalOr; and (iii) I he a ver age power rl issi pa led in the cireu i t.


A capacitor of capacitance 100 ,u is in series with a rcsistorof raillance 3tl ohms, ami the combination is connected to an a.c, supply line. The peak. value of the. line. voltage is 539 V .• and tbe frequency ~f ~e line IS 50 Hz. Determine (I) the peak value of the current .oowlDg III the circuli: and (ii) the Instantaneous potential differences Ve and "" for the capacitor and resistor, respecdvelj, uking the current in the circuit ... the re r erence phase.


When an RCsenes circuit is connected to a 400 HI supply line, the r.m.s, voltage across the capacitor iI found to be fi\'e limes as I"rge as the r.nl.S. voltage acrOIS the resistor. If the resistor has a reshtanceof 1000 ohms, determine the capacitance of the capacitor.


The maximum .\,oltage rating of a loopF capacitor is 15 V. If this capacitor is connected in series with a resistor of 50 KO and the series combinaucn Is placed across " 20 KHz supply li~e. detennin~ the maxi· mum allowable r.m.s, voltage of the supply line If the capacuor voltage rating i, nOI to be exceeded.


For the RI. series circuit shown below, where the generator is ideal, determine (i) the peak and t.ffi..l. current nowiDJ in the circuit. (ii) tile peak and r.m.'. voltage drop a(TOM Rand L; (tU) the power bctor of the circuit: and (iv) the average power supplied 10 the dnu!l bylbe generator.

lOOVCr:m5) 'OOHz



U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

5.9. For the RL series circuit shown below. determine. the frequency oI the ideal generator if the eurrent no~illg in the circuit is 5 rnA (t.m .•. ).

1OVCr.m.sl f

5.10. An ideal inductor of inductance O· 01 hcrrry is in series with a r.esillot of resistance 5 ohms, and the eombination iI connected to . a 500 V. (r.m.s.), 400 Hl,lUpply line. Determine (i) the pcalvalue of the current flowing in the circuit; (iil me instantaneous potential differences VL and VI! lor the inductor and resisror, respectively; taking the curreat in the circuit as reference; (iii) the power (actor of ami circut; and (iv) the avera:ge power input from Ihe IUpply line to the circuit.

5.11. When an RL $Cries circult is connected to a 50 Hz supply line, the r.m.s, vohageacroathe inductor is found 10 be twice 3.1 luge a. the r.m. .. voltage across the resistor, If the resistor has a resistance of 10 ohms •. determine the inductance of the inductor.

5.12. For the RL series circuil ahown in the figure below, the irutantaneoua voltage drop aCl'l)$J the resistor is given by va "" 15 lin. (IOIIOt + 60°) volts. Determine <i) the instantaneous current flowing 111 the circuit; (ii) the imtantaneous. applied c.mJ. of the ideal generator: (i.ii) the insta.ntaneous "ollage drop across the inductor; and. (iv) the average pow"," dissipat~ in the circuit.

5,13. A series circuit consisting o( a choke coil, which hal a reactance of 40 ohms at 50 Hz and a resistance of 20 ohms. and a to ohm resistor u connected to i. generaror o( negligible inlernal impedance and frequency 50 H1:. (i) What is the impedance of the circuit~ <ii> u the generator supplies I volt. (r.,m",). whal is the r.ms, current in the circuit? (iii.) What is the impedance of the choke ooil alone? (it» What u the r.m.S. potential diUcrence across the choke coil and acrOSl the 10 ohm resistor) (v) What is Ihe value of the average power dillipaled in the circuit,

5.14. If an ideal generator of e.m.f. e = 400 sin 10001 volts is applied to a series circuit consisting of a pure inductor. inducance 100 niH. and a capacitor •. capacitanceS I£F, determine Ihe instantaneous current flow· ing In the circuit.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

5.15. A 52 volt, 1000 Hz supply voltage is applied acron a 100 ohm cemtOl". 400 mH inductor, and 20 # capacitor COIlDected in KJ;ia. (i) What is the: r.m ... CUlttDt in the:. circuit? (ii) What is .. the peak vol. 8(:I'0Il each component] (iii) What is the phue 8lIItie between E and 11 (iv) What;1 the power diuipated in the circuit~

5.16.. The current in the aeries R.I,.C circuit, shown In the figure below, u given by i = 5 lin (10001 + 15°) ampere and the applied em.r. is .p. 'ven by e = 5SO sin (Iooot + 600) volu. Determine the values of Rand. C given thai the value of the inductance is I .henry:


5.17. A series circuit consUling ofa choke coil, having a ·resulance of 100

ohms and an inductance of 0·) henry, a capacitor, -capaicitance 10 ~, and a res.istor, rni5lance 1000 ohms, iJ eonneeted to a generator of


negligible internal impedance and frequency -- HL (i) What iI


the impedance of !he circuit] (0) If the generator lupplies 10 volts (r .m.s.), what is the r.m.s. CUl'Ien1 In .the circuit? (ui) What is the impW;mce of the choke coil alone? (ivl What is the r.m.5. potential dil'I'erence aaoll the clloke coil? (v) What u the r.m.ll. potential dif· ference across. the capacitor? (vi) What is the value of die pa!I'ef dislipated in the drcuil}

5.18. For the series clienit shown belmo.·, where the generator is ideal. deter,,!!ne (i) the r.m ... current flowing i? t!!e circuit; (il) the potential differences, V", V, .. Vu, V ... V",. V •• (ui) the phue angles bttwcen the currmt and. the potential differenca V, .. V, .. V~I; (iv) the phase angle between the. current and the applied e.m.f.; (v) the value or the avenge power dissipated in the circuli.

10IJF 5.n ~"'I/VW---'1'Imlm"--42H ~



nov (r:rns1





U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

5.19. If :l variable fre:Juency c.m.£. it al'plim to a series RLC cirmil CODsisting of.R = 5 ohms; L = :200 raH and C = 0·05 p,F. delermine the valu.es of '" foe which the current (i) will lead the appllm c.m.£. by soo; (ii) be in phase: and (iii) lag by SOo .

. 5.20. If an e.m.£. of 10 vol~ (f.DLL) and variable angular freQueoq. fII. iI applied to a lCries RLe cin:uit eunsuliogof R= 10 ohms, 'L= 10 mH and C = 100 p,F. p.lot, u a function of (1;1 (n,nge O·a.. 10 1·2M. where "'- is the series aDguiat resonant fRquenq) (i) the IDapitude of the circuit impedance: (ii) the magnilUcfe of the I".m... cum:nt flowing in me circuit: and (iii) the ph;uc angle. 4>. between the current aod the applied e.m.f.

5.21. A 100 volt, I (II Hz e. m.l is applied to the 5Uies circu.i I dlown in the figure below. Determine the .f.DLL voltage drop acroll each component and explain the answen obtained.

'IOOV(r.rnsj 106Hz



5.22. Filter ,irnlils. Filter d1'CUi~ an 00Dl~ of resistive and. reacti"" components. The functi.on of these circuit. it to ~. or to reject. a band of frequencies. This pro~rty iI very imPOUllIIl in electromc circuill •

. Since a filter circuit lias reactive componenlJ, the OUtput voltage of ",ch a circuit dependa upoo the !!!iIgJIilUde of the input voltage and the ~uency of the input voltage. There .is also a phue ahifl. introduced ben..een input Ind OUlput voltage&.

(i) Re high.p.w /ilkT. For the circuli Ihown in the figure below. the inllantaneow input voltage is Vlo = IoV .. lin WI. where (1;1 is I variable angular frequency.



(input) inVrn



R VrnCoutputl 10KQ I

Since it is. the lied; 01" r.m.6. input and output vOitap that are found to be .lmportanl in circuit appIicatioru. ahow that the ratio.


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"


<a) Given .. V_ = J voll and "*_ing the circuit values given above, plot the ratio u a funclion of fn;qucncy (range 1 to IQl HI). It Ihould be found from thia plot that the output voltage exilu al aU hequend~ bUI ~at at low ,freqL!endr;s the outpL!~volu'lJe is anenuaied whale at high hequenor;sihe output vohage IS matlvely unaffCClcd.

(b) For practical purJIOIC$ a cut-off frequency (fJ u introduced IUch that aU frequencies attc:ntuatcd less than f" are considered to be paiicd whil.e all frequencies attenuated more than r. are eon.idered to be rejected. The de6uition of .£. is quite arbitrary and hence the followil\g definition bas been chosen because it leads

to simple resultl. .

The definition for the cut-off frequency is liuch Ibat the output power ia reduced to one-balf iu nuilimum valLIC at r.. that ii,

... p .. (f.) = i .. ,p •• (max..) Hence, lihow that for the RC high-pail filler.

I f,,=-. t'll'R.C

(c) U.ing the cut-oH hequr:ncy, f" •• how that the ratio,

.V. I

,.V. ~G1)i

and lhat the pbue lhift between input and output voltap il. taking the in put voltage .. reftffilce •

.. = tan-I (~)

(ii) RC lo~ filler. For the circuit .bown in the figure beloW, the imtantanCOUl input voltage ia v,. = .. V. ain ",I. where '" is a .,,.riablc angular frequency.


U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

S.U (i)

(a) Show that the wklff frequency for this £lite!: II given by:

I E.=- 2t1'RC

where the half-power definition given. above iSllIed (b) Show that the ratio.,

c~ ..

- .= --;;::::::::;::::::;:::;:;;::;-toV.. vl + (;;;Cl)'


= --;;::::;::::;;;;:;:;-vi + (fJIJI

and that the phue wit between input and output voltage-it. caldng the input voltage u teEeren«.

8, = tlIn-l (-RmC) = tan-I (-f/IJ.

(e) Plot me peak output voltllge ill a function of the input frequency (range I - lOS Hz) if the peak. input voltage is I volt and the circuit value. are al dlown On the Qren;t above. Abo

flot the pha.te shih, 8" as a function of the input frequency (range -10'1 Hi) ..

RL hi&h.pMI til'eT. For the drcuii mown in the figure below, the instantancoUi input voltage is Vloo = toV. ,in C<)t, where iii is a variable angular frequency.



C;""") ;n1 R

(a) Show that the cut-off frequency for this filter it given by:

R f.=- 2t1'L

where the hall-power definhion given in Problem 5.22 if used. (b) Show that the ratiO,

l,v ..

- = -;::;:::::;:;:;:;::::;;::;::;

t.V. vi + (R{wL) J


= :-;::;::::;;::;;:; 'III + (1.1f)·

and that the phase shUt between input and outpulvol!ageo ii, taking the input voltage at reference,

8. = tan-I (R/",L) = lao-1 (f.,/f).


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

(c) Piol me peak output voltage at a function. of the input fre. quency (nnge 1·10" Hz) if Ihe peak Input 'Yohage is I 'Yoll and the circuit values are as shown on me cil"(uit above. Also plot dte phuc. slUft, 81, aI a funaion of the input itequency (n.n.ge I. 10" Hz).

(ii) RL l~ filter. For the circuit shown in the figure below. the innantaneoUl input voltage is v,. = t.V. 1.;0 ",t, where '" u a wriable angular frequency.

r 'DooMS' J.

(;nput{.: v_m L R__.' __ ....... Rim (output)

(a) Show that the CUI~(f frequ.ency for thi, filler is given by, R



where the halt-power definition given in Pniblem 5.22 is 1IICd. (b) Show that the ratio:


= -:;:::;:::;;::;;::;:; vI +_(ljt;;)t

anti Ihal lhe phase shift between inpul and output voltages is, laking the in pu t voltage as reference.

(9,) I = lan-' (--fAlLIR) = tan-' (-f/f.).

5.24. A hlgh·pass RC filler consists of a 100 Kn raislOT and a 50 pF capacitor. <il Wltat is the cut-off &equcncy of. the filler? <ii) What U the ratio of. the peak output voltage. and peak mput voltage al a freque.rn:y 0·1 £) (ui) At what frequency IS the peak output voltage one-fialf me peak

input \'ollage? -

5.25 .. A low·p:ua RL £iller con,ilta of a I . KO resistor and • 10 H inductor. (i> What iJ the Cllt-olf frequency of the filter? . <ii) What 11 the ratio of the peal:. output voltage a!!~ peak input voltagciltfrequmcies of 0·1 ~ 0·5 r_. 2 r. and 10 f,,) <u'l At what frequency iJ the peak output voltage one-half the peal:. input volugc~


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a


Parallel circuits


The so.lution 01 parallel circuits is more dilIicult than lCTics circuiD and only the limpleu Q5eS are amenable to solut;on by the phase amplitude diagram. The reader who inl.emb. to study complex methods, should F.'y only .ant attention to this chapter. smee mOlt of it. is treated law wllh more poWmUIIOO ....

Simple parallel circuits are treated to musuate the general principle of adding currents on the phase amplitude diagram. Equivalent circuits are mentioned. but not much use is made of them, because of the difficuJty of dirHI ca.lcuJalion of the corresponding impedanc~.

Parallel resonance is neared in a semi-qualitative way a. a lpeclfic

example 01 parallel circuiU. .


The pracuc:l1 rules for the application of the loop law as set out in _tion 4.'. areimmediatcJy aPl'licabfe to parallel circuits without modilication. In addition •. Kirchhoffs junction law it required for parallel circuil3. This law stat.n that the sum of the curren~lflowing illlQ a. circuit junction is equal 10 the sum 01 the currents flowmg out. In praeuee, one usually has to assume the dlrectiona of the currents .• and if the calculated current turns out negative, the rules under aection 1., should be consulted.

In the solution of parallel circuits then: are a number ofunlmOWD current. s, for' e".mple. in a IWo branch circuit then: are three uo.k.OOWDS, the u?lal current 3!,d the IWO branch cu~ren!". !herefore three inMi'en~1 equanons are required, The equauons W1U De mdepende.ntautomattcally .f ~t least one junction and at least one loop equation are used.

The application of these rules wi.l\ be iIlwtrated with a seleeticn of simple circuJu.


U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

6.3.1. A ~istOt .... capacitor .iIl paralleL

Consider the circuit shown in £igure 6.1 where the generator is ideal and e= .F.,. sin wi.

111. __ -. iC I looP, C

2 I

___ J

Fig. 6.1; .ParaIlel resiSCor aM capKilor.

The circuit has been marked wilh the assumed inuamancous polarily signs arul directions of the three curTC.uts. Two loup,:,nd one i'!ncliu!l equation will ensure that. the equauons arc independem. Note thai m tillS example three loop equation. could be written down, but they are not independent of one another.

For loop I, E.. = "I,.R

and for loop 2, E.. = Ill .. "",

and for the branch point A.,

,.I .. = al .. + elM (Vector addition)

(6.1) (6.2)


Since the same e.m.I, is applied 10 both components, take E.. as ref-

F,. E,.

erenee, then HI .. = __: and i s . in phase with E".; <:1 ... = - and is goo ahead

R Xe

of E"., figure 6.2. The vector sum of. RI .. and "I. equal .• the 10lal curren I, ,.J •• and the phase angle, q., for the currem with respect to the applied e.m.f, is determined.

1lOI;........L....L.. ...a. .. Em

.... 6.:21 Phue _pUtade diIIpItm (or Fie- 6.1.

from figure 6.2 it .follows thu,-

..,I .. = ..; ( .. I .. ) i + (01 .. )'

= J (Em)" T (E..)I


= E.J(ir + (~r


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a


cI. un-'-' .1.


= lan-1- Xc


The scalar impedance of .. ny circuit iI.




and then:fon: the impedance of ,hil circuit i. from equation 6.4,

Z = J(if + (~r

The equinlm.t circuit, figure 5.'. equally will represenl this present circuit, provided Z is calcu.laled from equation 6Aa.nd the phase of the currem from equation 6.5.

The power in lhe cireuil may be oo.lculaled from elther equations 5.9 Of 5.11.

EXAMPlE 6.1:

An a.c, e.m.f. of 240 volts (r.m ... ) and 50 IU is impressed on a .circuit containing a resitlaocc of 120 ohms and a capacitor 0,1 10 p.F in ~Iel.

(i) What are the turrents in the capacilor and resistor branches? (ii) Draw a veeter diagram to illustrate (i) and determine the source ctUTeIlt (tolal curreri!).

(iii) Whal are !.he phase dif£erences between the three currents and the source voltage?

_(iv) Whalil the power factor of Ihe ci«uil?

(1) For the capacilor branch the current is:


cI. = - = ...,cE"


= 100!r X 10-- X 240 X "\1'2 = 0·75V2 A.

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri"

For the resistor branch the current is:

E.. .... =-




120 =2v'2A.

(ii) From the ligure tbe total lOurce current is:

T1. = " (.1.). + (01.)' =~

= 2·14'1/2 A.

The current through 'II: is in phue with the ooura: voltage. The currea; through C IS 90" ahead of thesoarce voltage. The tota I source current is ~ ahead of the lOur« voltage, where


~ = tan-I,a1

0·15 =' ~-I ~,~


= tan-I 0·575 .. 20·5·.

(iv) Power factor, COl " = (I)S 20.50 = 0·94.


6.3.1. A ,resbtor ... r..Iactor ill ,..&eL

Consider the circuit shown,;n figure 6.5 where the generator is ideal and e = E" sin "'I.


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

Kin:hhoff'I loop law applied 10 loop I and 2 gIyes, .1. = E../R. and iI in phue with r.: r.J.. = E../xL and. iI 9(10 behind E.,. figure U. The vector sum of al .. and J. equals the toW current, ~ .. and the phase ,mgle .• ' for the aUTenl with teSpect to the applied e.m.f .. iI determined.

~--::I~-----~-.r- ,.Em

,R m

l~ I



From figun 6.4 il follow. that:

,..J.. = ,,(&1;)' + (I"P

=E..J(~r + (~J


The ayen~ power. diaipated in the circuit is:

EI p •• = E(~) COl ~ = -.



A coil having a ren.tance of 500 obUIII and an inductance of I henry it in parallel with a 1000 ohm resistor, and the network


is connected to a 100 volt (r.m.s.), -- Hz generator. Find the 11"

current in ncb branch, the cumnt from the generator and Ihe circuit POWCf factor angle.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"




The inductive reactance, XL = wL = 2'11' X - X I = 'II'

2000 ohnu, and the phue angle, 6, between ,J and E is:

XL 2000

8 = tan-' - = uur' - = Ian-' .. = 76°.


The impedince of the coil:

z.... = .,;"(R ... ,')·I"""'+,......CX""·'w ... i

= ";(8 X lOi + 4 X lOij

= 2062 ohlDl




= 0·049V2 A. 100.;2

aI .. =--


= 0·10 ";2 A.

~ -_Em

0-76· • \

Llm·O-~9 -----\ ,f",

The lOut CUTrent:

,.I .. = ,,;2V(O.049 sin 163)1 + (0.10 + O·IH§ c~ 76°P] = 0·12'2\12 A.


~ = 0·122 A.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

Power factor angle, 4> == tan-l -----.1 + J cos 76°

0·049 un 76°

= un-I __

0·]0 + 0·049 COlI 76" 0·0475

== tan-'--


= un-I 0·4250


A coil having a reatslance of 400 ohms and an Inductance o( 0·]5 henry is in pualIel with • capacitor 0( capacitance 5 p.F. and 1000

(r.m.ll.). -- Hz gen..

the network is connected acrou a 200 volt erator, Fi.nd:-

<I> the current in each branch;

(it) the curr6l1 &om the generator: and (iii) the power diuipated in the circuit.


200V (r.m.l)

'~ Hz

<i> For the capacitor branch:

I .]

Xc, = - == --------- == 100 ohms . .,c 2 .. X !~ X 5 X l~




Eo. 2OOv'2


x, 100

For Ihe iDdocti\<e branch:


XL = GIL = 2". X -- X 0·15 == !OO ohms . ..


z.... = V<RJi + (XJi

== ..;16 X 104 + 9 X 104 = SOO·ohms.


Urheberrechtlich gcsGhutztes Material


E,. 200

tJ .. = - = - = 0·4"'2 A.

ZI, 500

Th~ ph....., ~ngle:· 8, between 1.1 and E is;

. XL

9 = lan-'R"


= tan-I-


= lan-I 0·75 ... 57'.

(ii) The vector diagram [or (hr branch curren IS i, shown below and the RCneralor current, TI .. , i5 found tT,igonometrically.

c'm= 2J2A

Tl. = ,j (tJ cos 57') ~ + (<:1 - 1.1 lin 57') ~ X v'2

= V(o·" X 0.7986)' + (2 - 0-4 X 0.6018)2 X "'2. = 1·7M A or -r = 1·79 A.


~ = lan-'

"I - 1.1 lin 57' 1.1 COl 57' 1·7595

= tan-'--


_ lan-' 5·505 .. 79·".

(iii) The average power dissipated is: p .. = E(TI) cos t/J

= 200 X 1·79 X cos 79·" = 64 wailS;


p •• = Rdt.l2) =400XO·16 = 64 walts.


U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"


There is ;l muhhude of pa ra 1Ie1 circuilS wh ich rna y be resona nt. However, o.nly aile dr.:uil will be analysed in detail, as Ihe analysis. of om er parallel circuits i. very similar. The chosen exam!;'le is the most important one from the practical point or vinv. Usually In resonant circuils it is desirable 10 keep the lot~1 resistance as ~all as possible. and in figure 6 .. 5, R may well represent therni'lance of Ihe (oil.

Consi,.ler tJ1C" parallel circuil shown in figure 6.5, where Ihe applied e.rn.L, e = E.. tin w~. is ronstl1.nt in magnitude but w .is 3. variable angular frequency.

FII. 6,5: ........" .-at dmaIt.

The cum:nts lor the branches are:

aI;. = ~ and le;uk E by 90°, and Xc

and it 8 behind E


X,. ,= I"n-'-.


The vector sum of el .. and ,) .. equals me total current .• ~ .• , figure 6 .. 6.

C\n= Em . Xc

Llm.~ .JRl+Xf

FJc. 6.6: .... 1 dmdt .. IdP ~.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

The dia4lram h;u been drawn for a rather high fr!'qucncy, which meaDS thai the capadtor current is relatively large and therdore ~i~ positive and the total cutTen,. le.l<b l.he e.m.I, On the other hand,. if the fn:qucncy is low, figure 6.7 res~lu~ showing that 1/1 is now negative and the rota I (un:cnlla~ I.be e.m.f. Th,s IS " consequence of [he faell Iha! al low frequent.n ,.1 I.' red need, ... increased and 9 dec:reaIed.

tIm ......


................ ~---Em


Fla. 6.7: Panllel draUt .. low' ,,,,.,,

Clearly there is a frequency, between. these elltrtmn, for which ~ = 0 and the current is in ph~ with the e . .m.f. Thil i. taken as the defmilioll uf para lie! resonance,

'.4.1 •. ~~.

At resonance the vector rcp.roenting the total cutTen I. has no component in they direction and therefore:

y component of "I .. + y component of 1.1 .. = 0 .•

Thai ii,

.,I .. = ,.1 .. sin 9.

Using the data on figure 6.7,

E. E".


-= -;;;:::;:::::;;.:-:;:; lin 9 x, vR' + (XJI



= -----

R' + (xr.ll





and the resonant angular frequency,

0J0 = J=J=-_-"'R"".'




U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

In contrast to seriea reaoo .. nee, Uu: parallel. JaO.nant [~uenq depends 00. the resistance. the higher the value of R the lower the resonant frequency.

6A.1. ..,_~

The \l2riation o( impedance and current u a functioa of fnqumcy is shown in figure 6.B. Howl:Yer, the EOaXi.:n1UD impecb.noe and mlnimlUD current do not occur at the RIOnant frequency, a... bur at a .(reljuency, tJI. which can be round by a tediolll differentiation or the impedance with respect to Qt.


I.) (b)

fi&. 6.1: ..,_ a.TafDr • pnIIeI cImdt.

6.4,3. .. •• _£. It .--...

SiDce the dn:u.it is oftm o~ted at the raonant frequency it is 01 _ iJIlportaDce CO know wlaat iDipedana it pramu to the soUtte oI e.mJ.

At raouance, the impedance of the cirarit is given by:

E z.=tl



rJ COl "

.ince '" = 0 on figure 6.6 at resonance. Suhltituting for J givea:

v1l1 + (Xu'

z. = (6.10)


,.-.......:.,N.,.,owT,. IUbltltUtJna: the value 01 tin B. fl'Olll equation 6.7. into coa B= vI - lin' B gI_:

COl' =JI _ R' + (xJi (XcP

J(XJi - (Ill + Xu

cos, =



U rhcberrec htl lch gcsc h (jutes M ateri a

Combininlt this with cquarion 6.10 yields:

x.,..J""R ..... -:+ ........ X,..."

z. == ~:;:;::::;;;::;:::;;;:::;:;;

"(Xc) • (R2 + (X,.,) ij

J xox"


(X,o) • - ","X,.

XcX.. L

:= -- = - == Q2R (6.11)



wher<: equation 6.8 l10u been used and Q = - - by definition for parallel

resonance. II C

The f.int of equatiOlu 6.11 .hows thaI the impedance at laOnlO.llte iI \lcry high for low resistance, higb Q. ciKUits.

6.4.4. c.n-t mapiflClldoll .. rao_

II rI-. it the lotal r.m.s. current delivered by the generator at the resonant frequency, COl .. and ,,1 ... and Ll .... are .the r.ln.s. branch currents, then:





r.lwfI = -,:;;::;::::;:::;:::;::;;; v'R' + (DIJ iO

,.1 .... = Ew"c.


Using the approximate value for CkIo = -- .".lid for high Q.


L,.1.... at.L

,.J .... = _.C = --,.1 .... = Q:rI.."

ell R



= TI .... QI _


QTJ.... for high Q.


Urheberrcchtllch gcschutztcs ~tateri"

Theretere, the c .. rrent at resonance in the branchell has a .magnitude Q times the currem dehvered fromlhe generator.

6.5. SUMMARY •

. In conrran Ie;' series circuiu phase amplilude diagranu forparalle1 drew" are. drawn wnh the e.m.f. II reference pnase and CIlI'RDII rather than e.m.fl. are added. The. IOlu.llon 0.£ even sim .. p.lepara. Uel clrcuits pr. c:'Ves 10 be rather cumbenomand the extension of thll method 10 general series-paraflel circuiu II impoasible.

The general expressio,,", Ior power. embodied in equations !i.9 and .5.11. hold for parallel cireuibl as well.

In contrast to series resonant cireuiu. parallel resonant eircuiu exhibit a high impedance al resonance, reject a band of frequencies centred al the resonant frequency, give current magnUication instead o( voltage magnifica. tion. However, al resonance the CU~I i. in phase with the e;m.f. for both series and pandl el resonant circu i Is.



A.n ideal generalOl' IU. pplring 52 volts lUlU.) at 400 Ih is 'placed aCIUI a parallel RC circuit. where R = 16 ohms and C = 100 jU-. Determine <i) the r.m.s, and peal brand!. ~nlS; (ii) the r.ms, and peal total circllil current; anil (iii) the phase angle between the tot~1 circuit current and applied e.ml.

For the RC parallel circuit shown below. where the generator ia ideal and has an irutanlaneous e.m.I, e = 100 I.in (IOOOt - !00) volu. Rtermine (i) the irulanlancoUi branch currents; and (ii) the 10111 bt· stantaneous drOlit current.



A. Il ideal. gen.eralOJ luppl~ing 10 yolts (r.m.s.) at 10,000 Hz b placed acrosa a parallel RL drcull. where R= 50 ohtns and L = IG-I henty. Delermine (I) d_le r.m.l. and peak .. branch currents; (ii) th~ ~.ul.S. ~ peak total crrcurt current: and (ui) the average power dlilipated m the drcuil.

For the RLF",JleI circuit shoWl) below, where the generator iaideaJ and hIlS an UlIUnl.lneous e.m.f., e = 500 COl (10001: + 4Jjol voill. determlne (i) tile insUntanCOIII branch currents; and {ill die lotal inslanlaneous ,'ircuil current,

6.4 ..


U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri a

6.5. For the puaJleI circuit .hown bel.ow, where the genera.tor is ideal, deter. mine (iJ. the r.m.s. branch currents: (ii) the total T.m.s.. circuil CIIrrmt; and (in) the average power d.issipatcd .in the circuit.

"O~J~~~L. i-,--100_30_:_F _ _" 30mH


Two branches are eennected in parallel and tbe. combination is connr:cted across a 500 V. (r.m.s.). ~OO Hz supply Iine, Branch I has a resill.nee of SO ohms and an inductive reactance of 10 ohlDl at 400 H~ Branch 2 has II Tes.istancc of 120 ohms and a ninductive reactance of 50 Dbms at 400 H~ (il What are the r.m.s, b.ranch currerus) (iil What q the tOtal .... n.s, circuit currcnti' (iii) What is the phase ~ ngle belween the total circuit current and thclupply Hne YOltap

6;7. Two branches arc connected in parallel and the combination i. con- 1000

nected to • 100 V. (r.m.s.). -- Hz supply line. Branch I has II resist·



ance of 50 ohms and a a.pacitive uauancc of 40 ohms ~I Hl.


Branch 2 hili a resistance of 12 ohms and an inductive reactance of S


oham at -- Hz. Find (i) the peak branch. ctlTrmll; (ii) the pc3k total 'II"

circuit current; and (iii) the average power diSlip.ted in the circuit.

6.B. For the circuil m.own below. tbe generator Is id.e~l and h:u an instan. ~neoits c.m.f. given by c = 150 .in (!OOOI + 600), vol II. Find (i~ !h.e II!II.ant:anfflU~ branch ell I'Tt'Jl ts: and (Ii) [he 10fal mstanraneous nrcull current.


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a


For the circuit mown below, where the generator is ideal. detumine (i) the T.m,s. branch cUfl'tnll; (ii)the rol~1 r.m.s, eircuh current: and (iii); the ~veragl: power dissipaaed in the drcuit.

10DV (ems) 1000 Hz 1T




6.10. The three bunch parallel circuit shown below is placed across. a. 240 volt, 50 Hz supply line. Find (i) the r.w..a. branch currents; (it) the ictal r .. m.s, circuit current: and (iii ) the a\lerage power dissipated in the cireui I..


6.11. Delel1Dine the resonant frequency ann the impedllnceat ~nance for the circuit mown below.



U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri"



Complex method


The me of a complex-number method will greatly .implify the analym of sinu.soidal .a.c. c.ircuit problems and allow complicat~ a.c, networks. to be solved very stmply. The complex-number method combines the graphic features of die vector method, which was employed elltensiveiy in the previoUi chapters. with the simplicity of algebra.ic calculations. AU calcu.lalioos can be made with ordinary algebra if the vectors are represented as complex numben.

It is assumed that studenll studying this chapter and those 10 follow have a working Imowlcdge of complex-Dumber theory. If this is dPt the cue, then Appendix C. which contains a summary of the theory of complexnumben su£{iciem for the cIreu.it analysis that (olioWl, Should be studied and problems 7.1 and 7.2 worked before· continuing this chapter. For a more i"letaHed theory of complex numbers advanced I.all Ihould be consulted.

There are a number of ways of representing a complex number and the one chosen usually depends on the oprrations w"hicb are to be perfonned. In this work the following forms of complex numbers will be used;-

rectangular form: !. = x + jy

trigonometric form: exponential form:

!. = r (COl 6 + j sin 6) 1 = rei,

where j = v=r. r = +v' Xl + yi (called the modulOl) and 8 = !.an":' Y/~ (called the argumenl).

The exponent angle should be exprast'd in radians bUI in the solution of sinu50j~1 a.c. circuil problems it is customary 10 find the exponent. angle expressed In degrees, or even as the sum of two angles. one expressed in radians and the other .in. degrees.

... When us.ing the mmplex.number method 10 tolve iI.C,. circuit probltlU& I~ IS .mathematically CO~t 10, express the magnitudes of the applied. e.m.f., C!lCUII currents and polenlJal d.lffete. n. ces as peak V3.IUcs. In fact. in. the pttVI.. ·001 0aplers the phase-amplitude diagrams have been ploned luchthat each vector IS equal to the peat. (atnplitude) of I_h~ a.e. quanlity. However, v~ equal 10 the r.m.s, values of the a.c .. quannnes could have been used.ThIl is nOI


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri"

matbematically jusnfiable, but leads to correct resultl because the phaseamplitude ,Iiagram$ are 'simply sailed by a factor of l/v2. Again. wuhout mathematical justification. Iher.m.s. values of the a.c, quantitit'$ can be used when the complex-number method is employed.

It should be noted that the solutions of the a.c, ciT(uit examples that follow will he done using the r.DU. values 01 all quantities unleu othetwUe 'pecified.

Exam!,l'" i.l. 7.2 ami 7.3 should now be. studial and mastered aJ preparation for rhe wor.k ,hat follows.


Simplify the following expressions. giving the final lUult in

trigonometric fonn and representing them on an A.-gand diapam.

(i) (5 - j) + (I + 4j).

(ii) (4 - 2;) (I + 'j).

(iii). (4 - 2j) / (I + 'j).

(I.V) j.


(i) (3 :... j) .. (1 .. 4j) - 4 .. 3j - r (cos, .. j sin I) wbere r - + ~ - 5 and (J - tan-' j - 37°.

Thul. (' - j) + (I X4j) = 5 (COl 57° + j UD. 57°).

JY 5


(ii) (4 - l!j) ~ + 3j) = 10 + jlO = r(cos "+ j.lin 6) where r = +vl + UIO =10Vl! and 6 = tar 1 = 45°.

Thul .• (4 - j2) (I +j5) = lov'f(COI 45° + j sin 45°) .

10. j10 )
5 10
80 U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

" - j2 (4 - j2) (I - jS) ~2 - I4j

(iii) --- = = =

1 + j3 (I + m (I - j5) 10

= r (cos 9 + j sin 9)

-1- j7 5

where r - .. ";50 _ ";2 and (J _ tan-'..:2 _ 8) °52' .. 180°

!i -1

since it i .• in the third quadrant,

4 - j2

Thus, -- ::: \12 (cos 261 °52' + j SiD 261 es2') . t + j5


(iv) j = r (cos 9 + j lin 9)

'IT where r = I and 9 = tan-' 00 = -. 2

Thus, j = +05 ~ + j lin ~),


(a) Express the following compl"x quantities in exponential form: (i) j.

(i.i) I - j.

(iii) -2v'5 + j2.

(b) Expnss the following quanlities in the rectangular form:

(i) 4eJ(r!2l, (ii) 2e11s.-II).


J rheberrec htl ich gesc h OIZles ~ I almi a

SoIIdIo.: (a)

(i) j = ~ ell ....... C1/OI

= ell.12). (learn)

(ii) I - j = Vii + !p eJ r_ I-III) = V2eK .... /A)

= '-'2 ejC1 .. '.I.

(iii) -2-./, + j2 = ./ (2\13) I + 2' ei , ..... ' IV -20'3) = ~ el , ...... (1I-~31

= 4 eJ1Sw/61.


(i) fell./2l = 4(COI ~ + j ain ~) = 4(0 + j)

= 4j.

(il) 2 e115wt3J = 2( (01: + j 'in ~) = 2 (COl 500" + j lin !(JO")

= 2(1- j ~i

= 1- jv'5.


Urheberrechtlich gcschutztcs ~laleria



(i) aeIf- bel"

(ii) (x + jy) ae". ae¥


x + jy



(v) aeklo + (" + jy),


(il aeklo be;, = ab til. + ,I.

i.e., ae""opttating on" bei, stretches. it by a factor, a, and

rotates it through an anglc (+40), .

(ii) (" + jy) ael1l = ",;", + yz em..,.. .,.) ae" = av'x' + y' ell- ./. + .1,.

(iii) ae'- = (':) "il. _ ,I. beif b

1 1

i.e .. _- operating on aeklo ahrinQ it by a. factor, -, and rotates.

beif b

it through an angle (-6).

(iv) --- - ell. - .an-' "'l,

K + jy Vx. + y2

(v) aei• + (x + jy) a (cos • + j ain 40) + (x + jy)

= (a cos 40 + x) + j (3 lin 40 + y),


. As an example, consider an e.m.f .• e = .E,. li.n (cut + a). It h~1 already been shown that this e.m.f. can be represented by a vector o( magnlrude, E,., rot:lling on the real (x - y) plane" Equally well it can be represented by. rhe same vector .rotating on the complex plane, figure 7.1.


FJc. 7.1: IIoa.tIll& YedoI' OR tile co.pIn. pIue. "

U rhcberrec htlich ge5c h utztes Mater; a

It is very impoz'laDt to remember that an e.m.L is aIwaya a ,hpkal quanrir, and in the dJagrazn. iI ~tcd by the projection on the ~ w.. Thil projection it to be rePrdcd uE.. sin (Colt + el), NOT jf. sin (lilt + el).

Now the v«tor, E.. can be ~nlCd by lhc: complex quantity:

E..{cm (Colt + el) + j lin (cut + co) 1.

I.. rin (Cdt + (I) =< 1mag. (!.o).

That ii, an. a.c. e.m.f. can. be represented by lite l~ary pan of a complex quanrir,. Since the moduJUi o( this complex qUlIltity Q equal to the maximum Value of the e.m.f., it iI convenient to refer to thil comple!( quantity .. a complex e.m.f.

~ == I..[cot (Colt + (I) + j sin (Glt + II) J == E,. ell'" + .).

that it, e == Itnag. (I.. ell'" + &11 = E., sin (atl + (I).

Similarly, al_ting potentiall and eurrenu can be represented aI: y = lmag. [V. eM'" + ~JJ = V_ lin (Olt + f1>.

i = lmag. [I. eM..t+..,lj == I..in (all + ,).

Sin,(e eo v and i expnssed in thil way are the familiar sine (unclion., it is obvious that Kirchhofr. laws will hold.


Since e.m.P •. , ~dal diflerencn and curren .. can be expr_cd in (emil of complex quantities, it il reasonable to suppose lItat impedance is aha complex.

7.3.1. M'" I'I!Iiitc. II • dIeuIt ....

Consider the circuit sbown in figure 7.2 where the ~neralor is ideal.

eo = E,y.sin wt . = Im~.rEm~ = 1m-90S fit. 7.l~ A resIItiYe mail.


Kirchhofr. loop law for ilUlanlilnCO\ll values lI:ives: iR == e == E. sin GIl,

that is,

i.== ----


(E., doo') = ImlR" ._.--R

= Imq. (;).


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri"

Therefore. complex impedance 0.£ a raislor = resistance, and ill wbolly real.

lhat is: .


where the symbol. ~, is used to denote a complex impedance.

7.J.l. All icIaI ~ as a cirmil ....

Consider the circuit ahown in figure 7.3 where the ge.nerator ill ideal.

e ::;Emsinwt . ::; Imag'(EmeJ ::;lmag.~ Fig. 7.3: Capadfoc' dIaII.


From the raulu of Section 4.5, elil.uation 4.1 ,:

Eo. sin. (Colt + fr If)

i = ---------------


[E,. ell'" + wl2lj = Imag. -----

Xo (elo-12 E. eIoot)

= Imag. ------


(iF.. eJtot)

_ l.mag. ---


(E. eJtot)

= Imag. --.-.-


= Imag. (_~)


Therefore. the complex impedance of an ideal capacitor is wholly imaginary and equal to (-jx.;) , that i$,

.;: = -jXc,

·In. the above ,""a!,,!,l~ the imllJtinary p;on has been ..... illen In '""l'licitil' (e.g., e = Imag. IE .. e .... J) , but in order 10 simplify the notation, Ihll will not be done in future, on the understanding that only the imaginary pari of i.e. complex quanlities ~r~· iIl~nlved. For enmpk, equation 7.1 would be writ~n as:

E,.eIoot 1=--·


NOTE: A number of authors use insu::ad of the line function the COline function. The above anal)'llis stiU holds. bUI th~ m# parr of the com· plex quantit.ies must then be taken.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a

7.3.3. Aa idal idudor ... ciradl etaar.I.

Consider the circuit shown in figure 7.1 where the generator is ideal.

,e ='Emsin ~t ; lmag.[~t'jCoJ = lmag.g Fla. 7.4= bdKtor cirnlt.


From the results of Section 4.6, equation 4.19, Eo.

i = - un (t&lt -.,,/2), XL

or in complex form,




Therefore, the complex impedance of an inductor is wholly imaginary and equal 10 +jXr.o that is,

.b. = jXI~

7.3.4. ~.

Collecting the resulu of the three cases and pu lting -them all in simplified notation:

V (i) Resistance, R: ~R - R and h,-


~R R (ii) Capacirance, C: ~c - - jXc and lc - y - ~c

v -iXc

(iii) Inductance, L: ~L - jXL andll - y - y

~L jXL

where ~' ill the complex potential difference acroa the circuil element.

U rhcberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes M ateri"

The complex impedance, !. of all a, c.. network or of put of an LC. network is defined by:

E !=f or




",here E is the e,m.( applied to the lIelwOJ"k.:,! the potential diUerenee aaou the nctwork, and !. is the IOUI current flowing.

(iv) III eqlU.tion 7.2 the moduli of _!. y and .! are uric:tly peak or

E.,eIoot E.

maximum values; thus E = E.cJtot and 1 = -_ 10 thill I. = ......:....

- . - Z I!!

I n practice. curren III and voltages are almolt ahn)'l expressed ill r.rn.l. values and it hu become the CUltom 10 expRSl the moduli of currenu and voltages ill r.m.l.mues. This II permissible .inee the impedance is a ralio.

Thus. equ.alion 7.! hold. lor r.m ... moduli; for example. if ! = E e,,",

E Eeloot E

lhen! = ! = ! and the r.m.l. current is then I = I!I and 1. = V'l. 1.

7.3.5. RLC terIeI cIred.

The complex method of circuit amJysii ahOWI 10 best advantage .in complicated circuits. it combines the graphical features of the vector method with the limplicity of algebraic c:alculation. To appreciate the last concept co.nsider the following Theorem.


Algebraic additi.on of complex quantities is equivalent to vector .ddilion of the coneaponding vectors.

This theorem will be JllVYed for the addition of two vectoa but 0bviously holds for the addition of Iny number. Figure 7.5 shoWi the addition of veet"" : and b dra.WD. on the real (x - y) plane.


U rhcberrec htl lch gC5C h utztes M ateri a



b sin~

If now the complex plane is superimposed. then the vectors ; and b can be represented as:

~ = a (cos a + j sin a) .~ = b (cos fJ + j ,in f1),


~ + £ = (a cOS a + b cos fJ) + j (a sin a + b lin If!.

From the diagram,

~ + ~=!::

Therefore the theorem is proved.

As an example of the use of the above theorem which .hows !he ease 01 circuit analyai. wing complex numben, consider the RLC series circuit. shown in figure 7.6.


e=Ems~(Ut = EmfJWt :E




FJc. 7.6J RLC .... dmdt.


Urheberrechtllch qeschutztes ~Iaterial

IllichhoIr. loop law gives:

E = V. + VL + VO' (vector addition) m' in compltlt fonn:

~ = y. + ~L +'yo (algebraic addition).

Substituting the raulu fOl" the Kpan.I~ circuit elements,

! =13. + !!L +!.?:!::

that is,


1- -

_- .!t+!L+!o


= R + jX

wh~e X is the reactance of the whole circuit,






I = --;;;;:::::::=;;:-::::-~ v'R2 + X' cl ....... XlA

E ell .. 1 - 1--' XlII;I

= ----:;;;::::::;;;;-

viti + Xi

Hence, the~litlldt (r.rn .•. ) EfVRs + X' and the phase of the current - tan-' X/R IS contain.~ in thIS lingle expression. Compare Ihls wilh the tWO separate tltpreuions required in the "ector method.

In general, the circuit problem Q cxnwdered wived once the com pIe .. current is obtained. To see This, the complex current fo.r the RLC. series circuit ii, as above:

E ell ... - __. XI • .!


The r.m.s, current, I = -:-;;;:;::;::~ V'R" + X'

and the ;nstantanwus current is: ; = I •• in (Olt - taW" X/R).

the maximum current, I. = v2 I = ---;;V2;:;::;:E:::;;; (or =. E. . .)

\IRa + X. ..,IRI + X'

From equation 7.5 it is dear that the equivalent complex impedance of the series circuit is,


where X = XL - x,.. and mar be either positive or negative.

The equivalent impedance of a", circuit can be put into the form R +iX which i. generally RpRlCmed by the circuit· symbol shown in fiRWc 7.7.

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri"

leq = R+ jx

.... 7.7: ,.,I' .• ce ~

There an: two basic methodS of solving circuit problems:

<.) By lil"$t calculating the equivalent impedance and using the complex rel.lion:

! = !;IJ:-.


1. = Y._I!:--

(b) By the dirut applic.uion 01 Kirdthofr. laws. Both methods are equally URfvl.

vtAMPLE 7.4:

Find the complex impedance,~, of the following serie. circuits:

(i) R:'.a. XL: 3.n.
• YV\NtI' 'hnl' •
(ii) R=12a. XC SA
~I • R=3n. XL-4.Q. Xc=an

(lji)~1 •


(i) ! = II. + jXL = t + jS = 5ct37••

(ii) ! = II. - j~ = 12 - j5 = 1!elI-la'l.

(iii) ! = II. + j (X,. - Xc) = S - j4 = 5cl1-$3·I·I.


UJlII I. At a.ny junction in an impedan~e nelwod. the a.lgebraic sum of the complex currema is zero,

UJQI II. For any closcd loop 01 an impctlancc networl:. the algebraic sum of the complex C.m.rl. is equal 10 the: algebraic lUrn of tho:- comple .. potential di £fcrences (or all the elemen 10 01 llIo:- loop.

The practical ru 16 for die we of K.irchho(r. law. as Jet out in S«tiOI14 4.S anti 6.2 are valid without modiricalion for complex circuit analysis.

7.4.1. c..pIn 1.,I_rn .. terits.

Consider the circuit shown in figure 7.8 where a number of complex impnbncc:s are eenneeted in ~e..


Urbeberrechtllch geschutztes Materia



Kird!hoff, loop law gives:

! = .!!, + .!b + 1;; + ... + .!~

and therefore the equivalent impedance of the network ;.:

l12 = !I!.=~. +b +;; + ... +.;.

= i z,


7.4.2. Complex ~ iII,..aeL

Consider !he circuit shown in figure 7 .9 where a number of complex impedan= are connected hi parallel. YOI' the arbitrary directiolll chosen and consider.ing either junction A or B. Law 1 gives: .

.!=.!!.+!.~+.!.a+ .... +.!. •.



~ ~n


2 B

Fi&- 7.91 Co.pIa "~iIa£es III .......

Since ! appears directly lCI'IlN each of the bmKtr. impedanca, .! = b!' = .!Ib = ... =,!..,; =!!u

where Z" i. the equivalent impedance of the network.


I I I I ~.I

-=-+-+"'+-=L,;. ;.; ,; h.1 .b


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"


Sometimes I,:, IOlviag ~lId circuits it. b ~WId CIOIIYmi~1U 10 use !he coacept of admittance. which " defined as !he reaproca1 of the lDIpc:dance.

Thus, the lallar admittance

1 y=Z

and in complex form

J y=.z

The admiuance corresponding 10 the general impedance ~ - R + J X .b R - jX

y -

R + jX

R' + X'

Y R .X

- - - 1-. Z' Z'

which is ulually wrinen as

Y - G - JR.

where G - .!: is the conductan.ce and Z'

B X. h

- _ IS I e susceptance.


II i. imponanl 10 note that the conductance G is not equal to the d.c. conductance, IIR except in the special case wh~ the susceptance is zero.

The unit of admutance, conduesanee and susceptance is dearly ohm", which in earlier times was often IpClt backward. 10 give mh.o. The modem S.l. unit is siemens abbreviated as S.

The susceptance hal the same sign as the cOITesponding react~cc. but of course the angle of the admittance is the negative of that of the impedance, hence if

Z - Ze~ • Y - ve»

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

7.5.1. Adw"_".,...ueL

Consider the circuit ahown in figu.re 7.10 whue me paralid admiuancn ! l.y ..... !. are aslumcd 10 be known.



II is caJ)' 10 show tha t the ~ui valent admitb nee is: ! .. =.!I + !I + ... + ! ..

Hence, if the individual adrnittancn are known it il much easiu to alcu· late the ~ui,..lent admiuance than the ~uivalent impedance.


The (;Onocpl of a resonant circuit (either a RZ'ies or parallel cireWt) hal been dealt withprcviously. However, at this ltag(. linee compleJt.nwnbcr "obdon hal be.!n introduced. an alternative definition for resonance may be sbted. which II ~uivalmt to the one made p-eviously. A circuit is Aid to be in reso~nee if the compte", imJXdanee. !- of the circuit ia real, that ii, the circuit is equivalenl to II resistance and the applied e.m.f.,!- and multing circuit currenl._!.. are therefore in phase. Thi1 il another_}' of saying the power factor of a rrsonanl rir(Uil is unity.

This de[inilion of resonance is 10 a cenain extent arbitrary. but the two main advantages of ",ing such a simple definition' are thai 1,1 is unique and extremel y eonvenien t 10 use.

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a

7.6.1. SaieI __ ce,

Thls topic Iw all9dy been dealt with in Chapter 5, but the rrsonant condition for the seriea circuit shown in figure 7.11 wiU be obtained again ming the definition given above.



"'" 7.1111tLC __ ctn.It willi, _ or ~ ph', E...

.. ....., ~.CII.

The COlIIp1ex Impedance of the ICria circuit, figure 1.11. b giveD by:

Z = R + i(6IL ,- 2.)

- cue

and if the oompJex imp!daDce it to be ruI,


cd.- - = o . ..c

Hence. the mouane oonditiOil caD be obtained by varrinI Of, C or I.. Howner, it is coavmime to rqud • as lhc variable ud the particWaf wlue of • which pva the ~t Conditioo. ill called the mona.,t UplU" &equenq,





NOTE: (i) NAhmU fnqvmq of transient In .chea lUC circuit is equal to I

-- (d. ~tUraI frcquea,q of an otpD pipe). v1i!

~(ii). The generator freq~ ia regarded as the fot'cing frequency (d. tumDi lock Deal' mpll. pipe) ..

(iii) IlaonaDce oc:tUn when the forcing &cqucncy = the Datunl &cqueQCJ'.

The ~ntinutiOri of. tblI anaIpis of the .mea resonant circuit to include lUch topia II response curvCl" band width, Q factor and applicatiON of Kria rClOlll.llce wiU not be carric,f out III that topia bave beaJ trated (Ully ill SectiOlll 5.5.1, 5.5.2, S.U and S.U of Chapter 5 and the complanumber method addl notbillf flll1her to the analYIII.

7.6.Z. e

This topic Iwalteady. been dealt with in Ch2pter 6, but hen the COlllpJex-number method will be wed to obtain the condi lion for i'eIOIIanee of a puallcl circuit.

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes Iv! ateri"

There an: a multitude oC panJld circuiu which may be raoDaPt.

HoweY~. only one circuit will be analysed in dail, .u theanalpea 01 oth~ puaJie1 circuits is very lilDiJaf. The chosen example is the one analysed previollll)' in C!u.plCr 6 and the circ;u.il i.a reproduced in .flgun! 7.12. The applied e.m.£.. ! = E cWt. i.a constant in magnitude but III .is ,. variable apCUlar UaJ.ucoCJ. The tolAl cin:uit currem, ~. hal component QUTCIlU. <! and




that if,

The complex impedance presented to the gen~lOr ia found as folloWl:


-=-+-= +jt»C

Z .;. ~ R+jwL



I - wlLC + jwCR


(R + je»L) (I - wiLe - jGlCR)

(I - .... LC) t + WORt

R + j[wL(1 - ot'LC) - ..cR."] (I - .... LC) t + WORt

. This cirtuit Is in resonance when the complex impedance is real, Ibal

Ill. when

- 61L(1 - .. 1Le) - wClll = O.



The angu,lar fncJuencia foe rc-aonaoncc arc: r.,,= 0

,.. = J.!_ _ Ri.




Equation 7.4 is a triv:ial iOlution correspondinr to a d.e, g4:nUatoT connected lathe resistor, R. The current ID1Qt be in. plwe with the applied e.m.],

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri"

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