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ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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Index

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. . This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. Prompting the user for parameters. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

3D). here we specify the loads (point or pressure). Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results.e. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). 2D. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations. This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. axi-symmetric. heat transfer and fluid problems. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. Preprocessing: defining the problem. 1. 3. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Solution: assigning loads. 2. In general. 1D. constraints and solving.

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.. Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen. you should see something labeled X-Win32. If you don't see this minimized program. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. you can may want to reboot the computer. be sure that your local drive has space for it. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5.7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. do this. Windows NT application 2. as it automatically starts this application when booting. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece..

don't select this icon. q select the Run Interactive Now menu item. but rather. type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. . click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil.

selections. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.7.1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window. 1.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. graphic controls and parameters. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. . Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows. such as file controls.

organized by preprocessor.b. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. c. d. while the versions appear different. solution. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. such as listing of data etc. However. e. More push buttons can be added if desired. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. general postprocessor. the menu structure has not changed. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly.0. Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. . This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. design optimizer. 2.

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The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. The second is by means of command files. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. however. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements.

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more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. but for a larger model.. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. In general there are no real firm answers on this. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. For simple models it is of no concern. If the results are nearly similar. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. If the results differ by a large amount however. it is desired to minimize the number of elements. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. When point loads are used. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined.. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. loading and constraints. General Models . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements.e. it will only slow the calculations down.

In general however. the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. In a solid mechanics problem. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence. . for example. In general.

solution. Using the Launcher.. ANSYS Inc. Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job..db.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and select your job from the list that appears. loads.db . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. In that way.. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. To save your model. select Interactive. if you make some mistakes later on. 2. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. r Then when you get ANSYS started. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Your model will be saved in a file called jobname..db. you will at least be able to come back to this point. and specify the previously defined jobname.. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems.. r In the ANSYS Launcher. etc) that you previously saved. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. There are two methods to do this: 1. Or.

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out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). from another ANSYS run.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. the name of all the files created will be FILE. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point.. This file stores the geometry. rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. or move things from the /scratch directory. This file stores the geometry. If you specified a jobname. frame. other files may have been written. boundary conditions and any solutions. If you plan on using ANSYS command files.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. and the jobname has been specified. q If you will always be using the GUI. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. Depending on the operations carried out. etc.db file. then you only require the . Listing of all error and warning messages. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). frame. That file may be rerun as is. frame. These files may contain results. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). Frame again with various extensions: frame. boundary conditions and any solutions.db Database file (binary).err Error file (text). say Frame. then the created files will all have the file prefix.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). etc. starting with an existing log file. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. If you plan to use the command mode of operation. frame.. Once the ANSYS has started.* where the * represents various extensions described below.

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'Reverse Video'. Select 'Elem Table Data'. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. while the second is a scalable vector plot. When the list appears on the screen in its own window.'. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2.' and give a file name to store the results. However. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy .. and choose what you want to list from the menu. choose 'List Results'. In the window that appears. You can pick multiple items.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. 1. Select 'File'/'Save As. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'.0 Better Quality Plots . Any other solutions can be done in the same way. Then enter the file name of your choice. to get displacements. 3. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document.. 1. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'. 2. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 'Monochrome'. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'...

'. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file.g. Either way. Decrease the size of this window. Note that although the file is 'plots.. Load your plot file with the following command: file. This is performed by running a separate program called display.n where n is plot number. Display wants 'plots. Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS. or HPGL for example..pic'.pic if your plot file is 'plots.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen. To do this. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file. then n could be any number from 1 to 5. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. Now that the plots have been read in. To save some plots to a file. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript. remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen.: frame. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt.. you have a couple of options: 1.pic'(with a comma). select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File.. they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. but rather they will be written to the selected file. a large graphics window will appear. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'.frame. Type in a filename (e.pic' (with a period).

Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them.pscr plot. you only require the plot.color. For subsequent plots.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. as above. you set the postscript color option to '3'. starting at 00.color. and then issue the other commands as before pscr.3 /show.1. the postscript image will appear as blank box. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL. The printer information is still present. 3.2 /show. Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx.e. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format.hpgl plot.grph. overheads or even posters! 2. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor. i. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. enter the following commands in display: pscr. The printer information is still present.n where n is the plot number. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. the postscript image will appear as blank box.pscr plot. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file. . To do this. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. where xx is a number. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language.n command as the other options have now been set. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. issue the following commands: /show.

A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete. the HPGL printer files could be given an '.hpgl' extension.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '. exit display by entering finish . This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command).eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. In a similar way.

loads. you will want to leave it. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. mesh control.W. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. Also. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part.. holes. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. if the feature is critical to your design. by suppressing them in Pro/E. chamfers. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. many modeling options for constraints. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Of course. Step 1. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. etc. analysis types will not be covered.

Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. So. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. Model units are inches. Several edges are rounded. A load is applied at the hole in the right end. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. . the plate and the loading hole are removed. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. For this model.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration.

This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. idealizations). loads. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner.Step 2. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. curves. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads. surface regions. This is where we specify modeling information. Basically. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. and so on. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. . check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. We proceed in a topdown manner. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate.

loads. In the final computed model. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. . The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. Y. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. and Function of Coordinates). Since we elected to create a surface constraint. Prescribed. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1). we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). Fixed. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. A dialog window opens as shown above. and a specified material. For beams and shells. and surfaces). For each direction X. only one set can be included. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. and Z. For our solid model.Defining Constraints For our simple model. rotational constraints are active if specified. Select Surface. all we need are constraints. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. edges. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity.

Leave the defaults for the load distribution. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. The load should be . and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. Note these are relative to the WCS. These can be solved at the same time. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. another might contain the support forces. another a temperature load. and select the OK button. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types.For our model. Loads are also organized into named load sets. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. For example. Then select OK. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. Enter the force components at the bottom.

In an assembly. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. material). In the STRC MODEL menu. you will see the properties of the chosen material. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. Step 3.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. If you select the Edit button. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. At this point. loads. You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. you could now assign this material to individual parts. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New .

Specify a name for the analysis. Select the type (Structural or Modal). Enter a short description. Now select OK. Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). Step 4. like "ansystest". . The MEC STRUCT window. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum.

This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. Select Close. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). . Here is an image of the default mesh. shown in wire frame. The results are indicated in columns on the right. by selecting the Check button at the bottom. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. evaluated for the model.

and so on. maximum mesh size.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. For example. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements. you can select the Controls option. edges. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. . Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. This will allow you to select points.

select Run . In the MEC STRUCT menu.Step 5. loads. materials. mesh). Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints.

select ANSYS. The analysis we defined (containing constraints. mesh. We are now finished with Pro/E. In the Analysis list. and material) is listed.ans). select Structural. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. . loads.This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. Select OK and read the message window. Copy the . Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements.

A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values. and select Apply. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model.. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . Select the .ans file you created previously.Step 6. This will read in the entire model. You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. Step 8. Step 7.. Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. you will be informed that the solution is complete.

A = 3250mm2).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. p.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: .123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. reaction forces. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. these keypoints are the ends of each truss. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. For this example. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body.

Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. 0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). Note: When entering the final data point. click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box.y coordinates: 0. and enter the x. If you first press r . Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method.

3. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. areas. volumes. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. thus making any conversions where necessary. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. lines. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. The following window will then appear: . elements.

minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. r r r . Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. click on it). Left click and a permanent line will appear. A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. It will now be marked by a small yellow box.e. When you're done. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure.

This is called 'meshing'. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu. they have most likely NOT been deleted.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. The following window will then appear: . Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. However.

we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window. r 5. The following window will appear: r For this example..r Click on the 'Add. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Select the element shown and click 'OK'. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: ..' button.

. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected).. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box.r In the Preprocessor menu. Click on 'OK'. . enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add.

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

0'. 7.We are going to give the properties of Steel. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now. This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type.

enter '1' and then click 'OK'. enter the desired number of divisions per line. therefore. 8.r In the size 'NDIV' field. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . For this example we want only 1 division per line. we have simply defined the element sizes. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry.

node numbers..Plot Numbering To show the line numbers... q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q .. keypoint numbers.

Select the name and location where you want to save your file. you will at least be able to come back to this point.. so if you make some mistakes later on.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time.. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you.. Define Analysis Type . on the Utility Menu select File > Save as. To do this. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. 1.

these constraints will typically be fixed. r 2.e. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. r In the Solution menu.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. pinned and roller-type connections. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. In mechanical structures. for example. As shown above. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. Click 'OK'. i. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected.

ROT on KPs' window. . select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained.r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. Therefore.

This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Therefore. this is consistent with the previous values input. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. 3. 5. Note that we are using units of N here. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. 210kN.ROT on KPs" window. there are four downward loads of 280kN.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. and 360kN at keypoints 1. 280kN. 3. and 7 respectively. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). r Using the same method. r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. . you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option.

. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).4.

r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description). . Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'.. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up.r The above windows will appear. Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window.

Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu.2. r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .

.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. The following window will appear. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.

409). One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. The following window will appear. . r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7.

Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'. .r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window.

you may want to use more useful intervals... Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.r Looking at the scale. r .

You should obtain the following. .

r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. . General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution.

strains). we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line). For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. therefore.1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add.. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses.. spars. If you wanted to save these results to a file. From Table 1. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE.' r . r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links. beams.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. The Element Table is different for each element.2 in the Help file. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. using the item 'LS. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.

Next.. in the 'Item. This specifies the name of the item you are defining.r As shown above. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. Then enter 1 after LS. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. . in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.'.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. Comp' boxes.

select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .Again. you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu.

. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. A .. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82.. In the dialog box that appears..PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version. Open the . select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit.9MPa as predicted analytically.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification .0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.

etc. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.The first step is to simplify the problem. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. units. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: . you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. scale factors. these keypoints are the ends of the beam. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.

click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window.. Click on the 'Options. Now pick keypoint #2.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. r From the Preprocessor Menu. Click on the 'Add. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure.e.. click on it). It will now be marked by a small yellow box. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. When you're done. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3.' button. r r r 4. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line.. A permanent line will appear. The following window will appear: r r For this example.. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. Pick keypoint #1 (i. The following window will appear: r .

and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected). Click on 'OK'. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu.r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom). r 5. . Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. This gives us extra force and moment output. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add...

r r r 7. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. therefore. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. enter '20' (i.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry.. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. we have simply defined the element sizes. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). r 6. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. For an element length of 2cm. Saving Your Work . However. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. (Alternatively..r Click on 'OK'. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. enter the desired element length. 8.

Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu. select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. ..ROT on KPs' window. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY.. r r 3. r 2. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U.. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu.Utility Menu > File > Save as. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Therefore.

Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6.2mm as shown above.we need to calculate what we should find. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .4. . Hand Calculations Now.

9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). r r . 2. In this menu you will find a variety of options.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64. the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'.

Click 'OK'.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. r . Leave the other selections as the default values.

.. r . we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution .r You may want to have a more useful scale. This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below.

the right end of the rod. Click on 'Add.. If you wanted to save these results to a file. and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'. strains). Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.r Are these results what you expected? Again.' r . r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.... spars. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams.

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX.r As shown above.Comp' boxes in the above window. in the 'Item. ..

First. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. a bending moment diagram can be created. I and J.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically.Again. . as shown in the following image. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64.

Same as above . Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C. Click 'Add.. A. this will give a name to the data B.. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' . Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element.'.' in the 'Element Table Data' window.6 in the second Comp box E... Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' .To obtain the bending moment for this element. First.again. The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J.. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element.this will give a name to the data B. A. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. r Again. Enter SMISC. click 'Add. . the Element Table must be used.. r In the window. we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data.

enter SMISC. and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. Click 'OK'. ...12 in the second Comp box E. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. Same as above D. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res.C. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. For step D.

Table 1. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition . Sequence Numbers. PIPE16 Item. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). r Before the explanation of the above steps. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. you can double check these solutions analytically. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation.Now.

!* MP.25.33 !* LESIZE. y. Young's Modulus. K. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. all of the lines.FY. x. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties.1. Material 1.1.0.0.2.0. Major Poisson's Ratio. L. Material 1. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate.2. . 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . then hit enter.1.ALL FK.2 !* ET.6.0.70000 MP.PIPE16 KEYOPT. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window.1.0 !* DK.0.EX. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.1.1. . 2. Material 1.0.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint.500. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface.0.ALL. z Keypoint.0. x. 0.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ . Wall thickness ! Material Properties. y.the Member moment for node I.1 !* R. 1.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.PRXY.20 LMESH.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. /PREP7 K. Copy the following code into the command line.2.1.1. Outside Diameter.

SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New . therefore use the verification example as a reference as required. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame./STATUS. We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

First. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. Alternatively. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4.2. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. these keypoints are the frame vertices. Notice that by using variables like this. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as .

As with any programming language.1.0 r ! keypoint.y2. NPT. However. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint.for the second keypoint you might type: K. you may need to add comments. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.follows: K. type help k into the command line For example. to enter the first keypoint type: K. y=y2. #.y1. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined. ie .# . Z where.0 into the command line followed by Enter.0. X. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. simply re-enter the code.0. Reference number for the keypoint. Y.2. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. x=0. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE.

Zoom. we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. you have many controls. To define keypoint #1. In this example. You can either leave the 'Pan. y = 325. click on 'Iso' (at the top right).where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint. This was simply used for convenience. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. or close it if your screen is already cluttered.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). To get an isometric view. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: . 5. translating and rotating it on all three axes. z = 0. Try experimenting with them.. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. s 6. for example. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. Zoom.. Rotate.

(This can be obtained from the list of lines). And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r . to obtain the first line.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. P2 Line. Keypoint at the end of line For example. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. we will use the command line to create the lines. Keypoint at the beginning of the line. Again. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below.1. P1. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. I would write: ' L.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L.

LAB. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . MAT. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. 8. define the type of element (pipe16). we will again use the command line. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio.7. As in the verification model. Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. C0 25 2 .if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output.

. other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.1. Lab. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). value. VALUE. KPOI. 1. DK. we will use the command line. KEXPND. K #.PRXY. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. Material Reference Number. type ' MP. Lab5..70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). For example. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. to pin the .Material Property.0.. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.EX. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11.Valid material property label. Lab4. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty. > Static 2. value2. type: ' MP. Lab2. DOF label. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions.. VALUE2. Lab6 Displacement on K. Mesh Size As in the verification model. Apply Constraints Once again.33 ' r 10.1. Expansion key. Lab3.

FY. value2 (if req'd) . note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE.0. KPOI. Again. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. K #.. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5..first keypoint enter: DK. We will use the command line to define these loading conditions.UY.5. K.1. UX is not constrained.UY. the command line code is: DK.UY and UZ). FZ). Force Label directions (FX.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX.1.. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 .UX.. Lab. FK.0. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint. value2 Force loads at keypoints. UZ. UY. value1.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. value.UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0.

If you need to delete one of the forces. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. the code looks like this: 'FKDELE.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.3. the code should look like this: ' FK.FY. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape.3.-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. 4... 'Def + undef edge' . Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. K.

Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Left'. Your screen should look like the plot below: . 'Back'.

Note the node numbers of interest.').. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well.2. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering... so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers.. and turn on 'Node numbers'. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r . Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. so we know what node(s) we're after. Turn everything else off. Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations.

For each element in the model.r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. . Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. 4. 3. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table ... Click on 'OK'. Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution..' from the 'List Results' menu.. Then close the 'List Results' menu.

12) And. Plot Results > Line Elem Res.6 and SMISC. to define the table (remember SMISC. Select Element Table > Define Table.. to plot the data from the Element Table .. the bending moment diagram can be produced... select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously.

HTML version..PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . In the dialog box that appears. A ..'.' and select the file. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. click on 'Save . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer... This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. .

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. and uniform pressure loading. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. plane stress. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). A figure of the plate is shown below. ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.

you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. etc. scale factors. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. units. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: .This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.

Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. however. These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. a. Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. Subtraction will used to create this model.

the command line code for the above command is BLC4. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200.100) b.0.0.0. (Alternatively.s Fill in the window as shown above. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .0.200.100.

your image should resemble the following: . Prior to this operation.100.s Fill in the window as shown above.20 ) c. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. (Alternatively.50.50.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.

The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore. s . select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it.s To perform the Boolean operation. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected.

s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.1. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window.2) . select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively.

we need a plane stress element with thickness. as shown in the above figure. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. four-node element (PLANE42).3. therefore Click on the 'Options.. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. For this example. PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. as shown below. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. r .' button.. Click and hold the K3 button.

PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3) 6.1.3 (Alternatively. Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.1. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas .1. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be. the command line code for the above step is ET. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.EX.(Alternatively. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively.1.3) 4.3.1.0. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.200000 followed by MP.PRXY. the command line code for the above step is MP.20) 5. the command line code for the above step is R.

r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.ALL. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.r Select an element edge length of 25.ALL) You should now have the following: .25.) 7. (Alternatively.

r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U.. the left end of the plate is fixed. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. (Alternatively. Apply Constraints As shown previously. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. r r .Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.ROT on Lines' window. Fill in the window as shown below.. 1.0) 2. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis).

0) 3. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate.. Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears. r r r .4. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints.ALL. (Alternatively. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. therefore the last field is left blank. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. the command line code for the above step is DL. Therefore.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. .

9 MPa. The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude.001 mm . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0. Hand Calculations Now. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. 2.4. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie .we need to calculate what we should find. Convergence using ANSYS .just a flat plate).

Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point.. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. we will check the stress at this point.At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. (as shown below in red) . First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate. Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering..

we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b. Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: .9141 MPa at this point. r Resize Elements a.The equivalent stress was found to be 2. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. To change the element size.

Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied).the element edge length decreases). Click 'OK'.c.5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS.the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node). (note . Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. . The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3. This is a mere 2.8 MPa. d. This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. the values converge towards a final solution. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged.

4. . the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. r Observe the locations of deflection. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. USUM in the window. Therefore. Then select DOF solution.The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0.0012 mm. However. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution.. 3.. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.

obtain these results as a list.. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. r 5. Then select Stress.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate.. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.. . von Mises in the window..r Alternatively.

Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Bracket Example .' and select the file.HTML version. Select Stress.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results..PDF version is also available for printing. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. Open the . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example. a. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Form Geometry Again. Create the main rectangular shape . The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. A figure of the plate is shown below. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket.

(Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. the command line for this circle is CYL4.100 b. XCENTER. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0. Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. radius s Therefore. HEIGHT BLC4. width. WIDTH. Y coord for the center. XCORNER. YCORNER.50. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . Y coord (bottom left). Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d. YCENTER.80.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. height s s Therefore.80.0. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. X coord for the center. RAD1 CYL4. X coord (bottom left). Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles.50 c.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4.0.

the command line code for the above step is AADD. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window..WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.ALL) s ..Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area. Boolean Operations . click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. e. s To perform the Boolean operation.

s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s .You should now have the following model: f. Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.

the command line code for the above step is ET.. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.3) r .' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.1.6..ALL) Now you should have the following: 3. (Alternatively.s Next select the three circles that we just created.1. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.3. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.

200000 followed by MP.0.1. the command line code for the above step is R.1. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0. 4. (Alternatively.EX. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. Again. (Alternatively. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.PRXY.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP.5. we will need to make sure the model has converged.) r 7. the command line code for the above step is AMESH.1. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE.20) r 5.ALL) .r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.ALL. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.3) 6.

the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE.0) 2.. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'. (Alternatively. 1.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Apply Constraints . It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as.

you have the option of creating a box.. Rotate.As illustrated. For this case. Apply Loads . r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.. Zoom.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. polygon.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U.ROT on Nodes' window. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. select 'circle' as shown in the window below. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. r 3. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. Repeat for the second bolt hole.

As shown in the diagram. . Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. 4. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured.

Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria.USUM in the window. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0. 3. The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection. . Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged.1. 2.

. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution....r Alternatively. Then select von Mises Stress in the window. obtain these results as a list.. r 4.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Quitting ANSYS ..HTML version.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Select Stress.PDF version is also available for printing. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. Open the . A .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

. . In the window that appears..To quit ANSYS. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit. select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying. ANSYS Inc. Filleting. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. extrusion/ sweeping. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order.

WIDTH. YCORNER.Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1. XCORNER.

XCENTER.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.YCENTER. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted. 3.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2. Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.RAD .

Enter the y offset as 4.5 Circle 2 8. r . It asks for the x.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK.2 0.6 and then click OK.2 4.5 0.BASE.y and z offset of the copied area. The following window will appear.5 0.SUBTRACT 5. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.

ALL 7. . Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Add the smaller circles to the large area.5 You should obtain the following 6.

Enter 0.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.

.8. Create the fillet areas r As shown below. zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9. Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.ALL .

1.0. Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot .#.Y.X. Plot Areas 3. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley. (K. Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area.5.10.Z) 2.0) and (0.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively. Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. Then select the following two keypoints r r .

Click on OK.r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles. .

r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 . we need to use a different working plane. Create Bolt Holes 1. Change the Working Plane By default. There are several ways to define a working plane. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. one of which is to define it by three keypoints. However.You should now see the following in the graphics screen. for us to define the bolt holes.

The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation. The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. 2. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status .

note the origin of the working plane. By default those values would be 0. 3. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK. Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5.0.5 y=0 r=0.0.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees. 4. . fill in the blanks as shown. The following window will appear. We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space.

.Youi should obtain the following model.

r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes. This will result in the following completed structure: .

.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Open the .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: . Create the Base 1.Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib.

Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.4.6.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.5 into the command line) when prompted.5.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .20 followed by LARC. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4.8.1.5.7. type LARC.

YCENTER=20.DZ) r .DY.Area#. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.DX.4.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).# Copies (include original).7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.1. Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0.6.5.

3. Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.

(Alternatively. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. Therefore. type KWPLAN.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1. we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. Change the working plane As in the previous example. the first keypoint defines the origin. Again.6.100. Note. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base. type VOFFST. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane.101. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back. (Alternatively.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. we need to change the working plane.102 into the command line) .1.

RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD.27. YCENTER=180. Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST. .1.2. WIDTH=102. YCORNER=0.26 4.

DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 3 5. YCENTER=180. RADIUS=32. Area 1.51. . Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. RADIUS=18.5. . DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib .180.r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD. . Area 2.32. YCENTER=180.

type KWPLAN.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. type WPCSYS.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200.202 into the command line) 2.1.-1.201. the first keypoint defines the origin. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.4 3.200. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0. 203. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.1.57735*26) 129-(0. (Alternatively. 204 . while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.

200.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5.203. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. In the dialog box that appears. . select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.204 4. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS...'.

.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . /title.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Modal Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z) 1 2 (0.0) (1000. 7.y.x. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166..y. K. > Add. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes..67 iii. 6. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.ANSYS Inc...2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.0) 4.#.1. enter the following geometric properties: i.. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. and rotation about the Z axis). Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . 3. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

ii. r . Density DENS: 7.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.86e-6 9. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.3 8. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. The following window will appear. enter the following density for steel: i. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity.81m/s2 in the y direction.. 10. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem.0 2.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).9..0. . ACEL.ALL.1. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction. DK. Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case).

4. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.2 ... > Def + undef edge PLDISP. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5.777mm 2.

. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.As observed in the upper left hand corner.' and select the file. . Open the . A ..PDF version is also available for printing. This is in agreement with the theortical value.HTML version. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.777mm. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.Harmonic Dynamic . The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.0. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..0) (1000. /title. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Distributed Loading 3.x. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 .#.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.ANSYS Inc. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L. and rotation about the Z axis)....0) 4. 6..K#. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis... With only 3 degrees of freedom. > Add. 5.y) 1 2 (0. enter the following geometric properties: i.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 7.3 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10.333 iii. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will use an element length of 100mm.. . 9.. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .ii..

over the entire length of the beam.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.0 2. enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). As shown in the following figure. 3. of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. . r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements... select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section. .. Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. 4.2 2. In the window that appears. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings.

In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. 3 for the 'J' nodes. r As shown in the plot below.. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. In the window that appears a. . 6. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. 9... In the second window of the same section. Click 'OK'. For this example.' 3. 8.1. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window). The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. (ie. ' d. click 'Apply' 5. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. For this problem. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2. 7. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element. Click 'Add. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. select 'NMISC. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files.. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window.

. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. Open the .HTML version. . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below. To solve this problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex.Harmonic Dynamic . Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). the load will added incrementally. After each increment. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. contact elements). the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.

Cross-sectional area AREA: 0..125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. and rotation about the Z axis).. > Add. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. 2. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.y) 1 2 (0. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.0) 3.ANSYS Inc. 1. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.03125 ii. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.25 x 0. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.... 5. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. 6.0) (5. 4. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.069e-5 iii. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .125 inches.

If we were considering a block of wood..i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. 7. The following image will appear: . Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). we would have to consider non-linear material properties. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry.0 2.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0.. not non-linear material properties. 8.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. for example. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.

Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. Enter 5 as the number of substeps.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. however. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. this takes time. C. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails.

For more information about these commands. stress stiffening is automatically included. However. D. the previously computed matrix. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . the load is ramped. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. This command controls the solution data written to the database. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. type help followed by the command into the command line. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. By default. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. For some special nonlinear cases. By default. the modified Newton-Raphson. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. E. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. By default. By default. F. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Options include the full Newton-Raphson.Now.

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5. . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 4.

.1 2.. UY PLNSOL.Y.1 . View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu...0. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.U. > DOF solution.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. However. Define Variables . As you recall. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1.> DOF solution.. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. However. this is not realistic for large deflections. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses.3.. Modeling the system non-linearly. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. the load was applied in steps. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.

Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r ... > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction.. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables.r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add..

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HTML version. A . .PDF version is also available for printing.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..' and select the file.

Harmonic Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . . and many other solution control option.Modal Dynamic . An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. For more information regarding setting the time value.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued. see Chapter 8.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file. the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration. In this example.

This is what will be explained next.5 in the help file. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. many iterations will be required. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. If the problem is relatively linear. there are two curves plotted. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value. 2. such as this. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). Once this occurs. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. In simpler terms. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. you can see Chapter 8. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20.001). s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. Again. For each substep. etc) that iterates to find a solution. if the solution is highly non-linear. For ease of explanation. For each parameter. . In the case of a structural analysis. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. which is discussed in the help file. Some analyses use normalized values. we will look at the force curves. 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. Generally. which ever is greater. Thus. as expected. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. the curves may be for temperature. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. or is not converging. For instance. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. The value of TOLER defaults to 0.ANSYS Inc. As can be seen in the graph above.5% for loads. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. this graph relates to forces and moments. In the case of a structural example. for more information about changing iteration settings. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. which this graph is taken from. However.

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Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. in real-life. real-world buckling prediction analysis.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This method is not recommended for accurate. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. 2. However. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. For this type of analysis. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. load perterbations. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. static analysis to predict buckling loads. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. material nonlinearities and gaps. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . .Modal Dynamic . The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections).0 to solve a simple buckling problem. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints.Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. ie. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. large-deflection.Harmonic Dynamic .

Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define Keypoints . rigidly constrained at the bottom..ANSYS Inc. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. /title. The required load to cause buckling.. will be calculated.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. applied at the top-center of the beam.

6. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. enter the following geometric properties: i. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. K.100) 4...X. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes...Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.#. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.1. Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.y) 1 2 (0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii..0) (0.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS ...3 . 7. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.333 iii. > Add. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. and rotation about the Z axis).2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.

change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window.0 2. The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu.. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. prestress effects must be activated. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 9.8. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. If you are looking at the abridged menu. select the unabridged version. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated. r r .

Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). . 4. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load.3.

7. However. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis.1 8. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE. FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . 5.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu.

Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. 9. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible.r Complete the window which appears... however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes .. The 'Subspace' method could also be used. The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver. This time. and ensure that it is on. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. 11. is for an expansion pass. r . however.. Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. as shown below.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. the corresponding loads would be listed here as well. which is in Newtons for this example.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r .123). Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. /POST1 SET. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above.LIST 2. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41.

X.#. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title ..Y .. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K. /TITLE.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

2 5.333 iii.3 8. With only 3 degrees of freedom. > Add.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. 6. 7. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. and rotation about the Z axis). L.y) 1 2 (0.0) (0..1.. Define Mesh Size . Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. enter the following geometric properties: i. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.100) 4. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis..

Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line).1 9. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..0 2. The following image will appear: . Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.. ESIZE.

The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. however. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . B.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. this takes time. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. E. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. C. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. D. F. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B.

. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50. The model should now look like the window shown below. type help followed by the command into the command line. 4. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. For more information about these commands. 3.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2).

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.This shows the convergence of the solution. View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). .

> Def + undeformed PLDISP..1 .r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape..

. > DOF solution.0..r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.Y.U. UY PLNSOL.1 .

you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. . However. you can obtain the results (such as deflection. 1. The following window should open automatically. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.

select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.If it does not open automatically. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. . r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK.

click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. On the Time History Variable window. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. click the add button again. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r .r To add another variable.

2. . so you must change them manually. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.

the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force. A . which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.000 N. Open the ..123 N. Now go to 'File > Read input from. This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41..' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. For instance. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. In such a case. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top. ANSYS Inc.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.Modal Dynamic .

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis.0) (0.y) 1 2 (0.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii. > Add. /title..2 4. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element.. 5. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. L....Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1.X. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. 6..#.1. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. NonLinear Materials 2. enter the following geometric properties for steel: .100) 3. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window.

025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 . Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.002 0. When all the points have been inputed.i.3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined.001 0. Then click OK. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0. When the data for the first point is input. click Graph to see the curve. It should look like the one shown above.003 0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up.005 0. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points. the stress-strain data must be included. click Add Point to add another.004 0.

Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. /REPLOT 7.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line).ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2..150 0. 8. The following image will appear: . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back.200 0.8 9 10 11 12 13 0. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.250 0.060 0.. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot.100 0.

This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Therefore. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. D. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. F. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. data for every load step is written to the database. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. this takes time.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. C. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. however. . This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. you can plot certain parameters over time. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. E. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.

5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. 3.B. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values.000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). For more information about these commands. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 4. type help followed by the command into the command line.

General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). .This shows the convergence of the solution.

. UY PLNSOL. > DOF solution. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.Y.U.1 .2..0.

1. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. The following window should open automatically. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. . However. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.

If it does not open automatically. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. .

. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. so you must change them manually. On the Time History Variable window.r To add another variable. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3.

HTML version. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. as the force increased.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing. Open the . When you verify this example analytically.. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. . However. you will see the solutions are very similar. A .' and select the file. was low (in the linear range). and subsequently the stress.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.Modal Dynamic . If you haven't created the model in ANSYS.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. please use the links below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic .

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.ANSYS Inc..2 2. The following window will appear . Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

It is therefore more exact but. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method.r As shown. The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's. select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. . This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below).

r For this problem. we will use the default options so click on OK. Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. .. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. 4. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS. 3.

54 Percent Error 0.0 0. instead of 10 elements.01 145.1 0.2 0.68 285. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .94 145. Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. Select 'Def + undef edge'.0 0. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .300 52. 2.51 472.22 ANSYS 8.Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51. The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r .69 472. r To view the next mode shape.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set . we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest).e.64 285. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.

3. Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

q

Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

By default. and the following window should pop up.. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. which is node #2. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). In our case it is assigned Frequency. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .3. List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.

. Plot UY vs. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.4. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.

311 and 51.94Hz. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8.3 and 51 Hz.Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. view the log scale of UY. To get a better view of the response. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available. A .100 Hz..' and select the file. .This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 . r For ANSYS version lower than 7. Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version. See the help file for instructions. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.0..

.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. For our case.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact.Harmonic Dynamic . If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. a static analysis may be used instead. for example.

The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f . we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). However. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The smaller the time step. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. After the application of the load.ANSYS Inc. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt.

q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. the calculations are much quicker. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. In ANSYS. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. Select 'Reduced' as shown. In other words. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. It is the quickest of the three methods. r . as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. All types of non-linearities are allowed. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. However. if stresses and forces are of interest than. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. Therefore. However. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. please use the links below.

3. The following window will open.2. . Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis. choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs. Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs).

The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.Initial Conditions i. We can also solve for each load step after we define it. both default to zero. This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. for this example we can skip this step.001 seconds to be used for this load step.. s set [DELTIM] to 0.4. ii. However. s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). two sets of initial conditions are required. Load Step 1 . Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. Note that for the reduced method.001. Therefore. We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps.Time Step . initial displacement and initial velocity. . a constant time step is required throughout the time range. at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. a. This will specify a time step size of 0. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .

Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .iii.

ii. ii. and set a time of 0. Load Step 2 i. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c.. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1.s01 b. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).001 for the end of the load step iii. Load Step 3 i.s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname. Specify Time and Time Step Options . Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .Time Step .

Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. By default. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes.Time Step . 1. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time .. In our case it is assigned Frequency. Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). which is node #2. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). .

. and the following window should pop up.r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear ..

r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .

List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .2.

frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button. . Plot UY vs. 2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window.3.

However. . if stresses and forces are of interest.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. We also see another response at a higher frequency. we would have to expand the reduced solution. We did not specify damping for our system. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. Note that the response does not decay as it should not. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis.

. 1. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. For this case.08 and 0. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below. Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam .11 seconds r r r 2.08 and 0. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0.11 seconds. We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0.Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses..

00000000 ..00000000 .00000000 .00000000 DMPRAT. 0. 0.00000000 .UY . 4 TRNOPT.00000000 . 0. 1. 0.00000000 DCGOMG. 0.00000000 CGOMEGA.000000000E-03. 0 DOMEGA.00000000 ALPHAD. 0.00000000 .00000000 D. 0. Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.00000000 . 0.R5.UX . . 0. 0.. q . /GOPR 1.00000000 .0. D. 0.00000000 TREF.00000000 . 0. 0. 0.ROTZ.00000000 .00000000 BETAD. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New. 5.s01. -1. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files._TINY DELTIM.1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE. 0. 0.. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files. Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE.ANSYS RELEASE 5. 0. 0.00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0. -1. /COM.00000000 . 0.00000000 OMEGA.00000000 .00000000 NCNV. 1.DEFA ACEL.TEMP. 0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 0.000000000E-03 TIME.00000000 .REDU.R5.DAMP BFUNIF. 0.00000000 . 1.0. The file should look like the following.00000000 ERESX.00000000 0. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic.00000000 TINTP. We will now re-run our transient analysis. 0. 0. 0..We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.00000000 CGLOC.00000000 0.01 in all three load step files. .00000000 . We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step.7. 1.00000000 0.500000000 . but now we will consider damping.00000000 . D. 0. 0. 0. 0.00000000 0.00000000 . TINTP. 0.

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. After selecting MDOFs.q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer... and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1.' .HTML version.. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26. After the results have been calculated. Open the . The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

PDF version is also available for printing. . A .and select the file.

The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Harmonic Dynamic .0 to solve a simple conduction problem.

1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.0.0. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP. 5.PLANE55 For this example.1 4. 1. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Give example a Title 2.05 7. Quad 4node 55).0.1.ANSYS Inc. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.1.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Height=1 BLC4. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.ALL.. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.05 AESIZE. Apply Constraints . This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.KXX.10 6. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Width=1. Y=0. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.0 2.

r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.options cannot be selected. Convection. Heat Generation. In this example. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. r r The following window will appear: . Heat Flow. Heat Flux. or Radiation.For thermal problems.

.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . r 3. Temperature TEMP . > DOF solution. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. A . Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first.' and select the file. then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. Now go to 'File > Read input from. however..Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied. . the top corners are held at a temperature of 100.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. followed by the side and bottom constraints. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. Open the ..HTML version.

Modal Dynamic .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .0 to solve simple thermal examples.

Y=0. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.1. Give example a Title 2.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 1. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0.0.1 4.KXX. Apply Conduction Constraints .05 AESIZE.0.PLANE55 As in the conduction example. Width=1. 5..0.05 7. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Quad 4node 55).ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. Height=1 BLC4.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C.ANSYS Inc. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.ALL.1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. 6. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.1. Quad 4Node 55 ET. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP.0 2.

The following window will appear: r .In this example. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method.

Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. r . 4. This is because we have uniform convection across the line. Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius.r Fill in the window as shown.

Temperature TEMP . > DOF solution.r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1... This will eliminate convection through the side. thereby modeling an insulated wall. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5.

.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . A . Open the .PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Modal Dynamic . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.040 kJ/kg*K. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Also.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.Harmonic Dynamic .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.

Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.04 MP. Y=0.C. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.PLANE55 For this example. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. Height=1 BLC4..04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP.ALL At this point. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP..KXX.1.920 6.2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title.. /Title.1..0.05 AESIZE.ALL.0.DENS.ANSYS Inc. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1. Quad 4node 55). Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. 5.0.1 4. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.1.Transient Thermal Conduction 2.05 7. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Width=1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. .4 The window shown below will pop up. We will use the defaults. so click OK.

2. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. .

of substeps to 20. of substeps to 100. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. Max no.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Min no.

2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated. Heat Flow. Convection. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. For a complete description of what these options do.D) Set Line search to ON .options cannot be selected. Heat Flux. Heat Generation. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. 3. In this example. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. r r . Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. or Radiation. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. By writing the data at every step. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Basically. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. refer to the help file.

The following window will appear: .

Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . r 4.. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. Temperature TEMP .r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > DOF solution..

Fill in the window as shown.. user specified. . Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. specify the contour range.Animate Results Over Time r First. with 8 contours. from 100 to 500..

r Then animate the data. 0 . Auto contour scaling OFF.. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames. DOF solution > TEMP) ..300 Time Range. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time.

Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. the curves are practically identical. Also. As can be seen.You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds. . The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected.

Analytical Solution .

The following window should open automatically.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. . Creating the Temperature vs.

node 261. Pick the center node on the mesh. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK.If it does not open automatically. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. .

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted.2. will cause the solution to converge. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above. as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. This is because the solution has not completely converged. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. so you must change them manually. To cause the solution to converge. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. Instead. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis. From experience. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. . which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing..HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the . ..

As a warning. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.Modal Dynamic . so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. In this case.Harmonic Dynamic . point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .

. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .X1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG.Y1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Axisymmetric Tube 2. /title..X2.ANSYS Inc.Y2 .

6. 5. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric. . For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. axisymmetry is not supported..For an axisymmetric problem. Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD.. to create the geometry mentioned above.. button. Triangle 6node) element. Solid. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. we must define a U-shape. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. Therefore. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type. Many elements support axisymmetry. Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. click the Options.

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.7. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. command. at x=0. . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. By using the symmetry B.0 2.C. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. as shown below. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry.

Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below.r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. then click OK. .

these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK. click Sele All to reselect all nodes.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). . Once you've clicked Sele All. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. click on Cancel to close the window. 4. This is required to constrain the model in space. 3. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. Therefore.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: .r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. r 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

2. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.182 MPa. .Max box. as shown below and click OK.. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45..The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0.55 in the Min.

3. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness. we must average the stress over the thickness. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial. . matching the analytical solution. r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube. the stress in the tube is 0. The following window will appear.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators.17866)/2.. to approximate the analytical solution.182 MPa. (0. such as corners..18552 + 0. Thus. The average is used because in the analytical case. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. If this is done. Open the . . A ... with a rectangular hole in the middle. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling.4. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. the model is a flat. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. rectangular plate.' and select the file. as expected due to the change in geometry. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric.HTML version. The rest of the commands remain the same. Thus. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. a wall thickness of 10. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters.

. COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) . /title. and rotation about the X. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.Catapult 3. Y and Z axis.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint). Define Element Types For this problem. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16.Y and Z axis). This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements...

enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. c. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis. b. s Select 'Combination'. UY. a. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. s Select 'Combination'. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. ROTY). s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. ROTX..a. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types.... For this example. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. 4. UY). UZ. there should now be three types of elements defined. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. Click 'OK'. In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete. > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'.

0. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2. N. ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.1000) (1000.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.#. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'. In the window that appears.1000) (1000. there should now be three types of elements defined. Click 'OK'..0. 5.0.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4. Define Element Material Properties 1. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window.x.33 6.y.0. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0) (0. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window.y.0) ..z) (0. c.

1000) (0.. The following window will appear.1000.1000) (0.. Then click 'OK'.0) (700.0. 'Material number' is set to 1.500) (0.-500) 7.1000.0.0.500) (0. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1.500) (400. .700.400.1500) (0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .0.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0.0) (0.0. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16. Create PIPE16 elements a.

6). Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 . Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.b. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'.1. the first entry would be: E. node a.

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. three nodes are required.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Create elements When defining a joint. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Then click 'OK' b. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2.

we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines.node a. node b. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. Then click 'OK' b. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes. we do not need to mesh our model. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. 11. To do this.E. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. 10. Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a. you can list all the elements defined in the model.node a.

0 2. ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 3. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM.. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . we need to include the effects of large deformation.You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering .. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

r

The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

r

Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

r

Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

r

Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. However.. this is not always the case. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file.1). View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. 8. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File..25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. 1. Comp selection box r r r 6. r r 7. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. > Add. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. fill it in as shown previously . name the parameter 'SMaxJ'.. However. Fill this table as done previously. we can now solve the optimization problem. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC.. however. .. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears.. In this case the maximum values for each are the same... This will give you the max stress at the j node.3 (instead of NMISC.r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order.

UX. 20 /PREP7 K. .RATI.1.ans. K.(W*H**3)/12.EX.ORDE. L.txt’ Click ‘OK’. .. . FLST.1. !* ET..1.H.1 !* /GO DK.ORDE.start70.1 FITEM. Design Optimization *SET.1. 20 *SET.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'.LINE.100. . MPTEMP.ALL.1 FITEM. . .....1 /title.0.0 MPDATA..2..3..3.1.2 .1.1..W . 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE. .0 FLST.75.. ..2..2. . 2 !* HPTCREATE. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad.W*H..0. ..200000 MPDATA.. 1. .1..0. .0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize..1.2.P51X. .1.H .0...PRXY. LMESH.... it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.ANSYS RELEASE 7.1000.3 !* LESIZE.. !* !* MPTEMP. ..0. .BEAM3 !* !* R.2.0..1.UY..

0.2.SMax_I. . ETABLE.P51X.1.SMaxI.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE.0.EVolume.SORT. Therefore.!* /GO DK. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 . . !* SSUM !* *GET. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.Volume.optimization. . . .0. .0.0. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered. .SMaxJ.EVOLUME AVPRIN.3. If you created the geometry etc.C:\Temp\. ETABLE.SMax_J. . . using command line code.0. !* *GET.NMISC. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.0.VOLU.UY.0. FLST.1.ITEM. 3 !* ESORT. .1. .SMAX.MAX AVPRIN. .SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN.SORT. ETABLE.0.P51X. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes. Change this to: DK. .2..0. .ETAB..0.ETAB.MAX *SET.SMAX_I.FY.UX.SSUM. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection. .NMISC.UY. ..-2000 ! /STATUS. 1 !* ESORT. .1. .ORDE. !* *GET.0.1 FITEM.SMAX_J. However.UY.UX.3 !* /GO FK.DK.P51X. most of these changes will already be made. .0. .

3. This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. If you are comfortable with command line coding. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. NOTE: As previously stated.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. To define variables.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file. . .0. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. . .0. . Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem.FY. For the width and height. the SV is the maximum stress in the beam. In this example. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam.0. r Click ‘OK’. .UY. . we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. 2.UY.P51X. Change to: DK. the width and height of the beam are the DVs.2. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. In this example. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. In our problem.DK.FY. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.P51X. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. Without this SV.0. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file.-2000 Change to: FK.FK. These variables are necessary to constrain the design. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. 3. . In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam. Now that we have decided our design variables. .

01mm.. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0. This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm).. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. we will select a tolerance of 0. We will set the tolerance to 200mm3. . Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem.on the volume of the beam. Because the volume variable is the objective variable. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam. For the stress variable. we do not need to define an allowable range.. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables.. a.01MPa..... > Add. > Add. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.

. Percent step size SIZE = 100. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations.. Percent forward diff. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient. Defaults to 0. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0... 6.. Click ‘OK’.2 Click ‘OK’. Under Convergence Tolerance. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. Defaults to 10. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. enter 200. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong.2% 7. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum. it is advisable to use different solution methods.. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective. DELTA = 0. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run.001) c. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. confirm that the analysis file. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. .

The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. and the stress is equal to 199. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r . 2. B.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. You will probably see that the width=13. C. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’..16 mm. height=29.24 mm. Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables... View the Results 1.. This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations. For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’.

. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization. ...Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’. In the window.

Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. use whichever variable is necessary to plot. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. . Now go to 'File > Read input from. .HTML version..PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. In addition. displacement. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu. Open the . A . all of the results data (ie stress..' and select the file.. Alternatively.

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For this example. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. however. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.5 MPa. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. substructuring will be used for the wood block.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Apply loads to the super-element . The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. v = 0.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. .. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.2. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.WIDTH. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2. Apply remaining loads to the model. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built.XCORNER..YCORNER. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. 3.. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .

5.1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. This element has 4 nodes. Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown.SUBST 2. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE. 7. r . For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm.29 6.For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid)..

In this case. Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. With the option SEPR. r . 3. the stiffness matrix is to be generated. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired.

r In the window that appears. set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .

4. 5. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE . Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below.

.XCORNER. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3.WIDTH. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model..HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 . Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4.. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .YCORNER. FILNAME. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2.

For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas ..1 10.).. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Select Model Data. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). 9. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Young's modulus EX: 2. Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... The following window will appear. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc. 7.41 8.. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . Therefore. For Selected set as shown.6. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers. . Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.5 (MPa) ii. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11.r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Y coordinates. The following window will appear..SUB File.. . 40 as shown.. Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Select Nodes. By Location..

0 2. In the window that appears.r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Apply super-element load vectors . Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

.0. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector.. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5. r 4.r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. > DOF solution.1 .U. Translation USUM PLNSOL.. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .SUM.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted. .

Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. FILNAME.. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ..Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

3. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem .ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. The following window will appear.. Type 'EXPASS.. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution. r 3. RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. r 2... r . Fill it in as shown to select the super-element. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line.db .. The following window will appear..

1 .0.. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .4. Translation USUM PLNSOL.U.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. > DOF solution.SUM.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below). .Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0).

PDF version is also available for printing. A . Open the .HTML version.. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

However.. A steel link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. For convenience. with no internal stresses. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). Loads will not be applied to the link. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). a thermal conductivity of 60. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.the solutions and . the link will attemp to expand. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. stress is created in the link. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.

For a listing. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. K. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.1.2 .y.. However.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .z) 1 2 (0.0) (1. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. the element types can change. For instance. the analyses are coupled.. It is important to note. where the thermal effects will be applied." Thus. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.x. Thermal Stress Example 2. the geometry is kept constant.. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.#.y. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. and write them to memory.0) 4. Thermal Environment . and using it with any following coupled environments. For our case. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. Although the geometry must remain constant. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.

. KXX: 60. representing a link 1 meter long. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. enter the following geometric properties: i. 7. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. 9.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm.1 meters.5 8. 6.. > Add... This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.. .Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 5. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants..

Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same.Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. which is defining the structural environment.3 .11. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. 1. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. Structural Environment . This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. etc. so it can be used in the next stage. It does not clear the geometry however. such as the element type. see the help file. 2. In this case. For more information on this element. Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii. material properties. In this case it is LINK 8.

enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. . ALPX: 12e-6 3. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.

4. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. 6. to 348 Kelvin. were . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK.rth. 7. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. you will get error messages. as expected. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. 8. This should make it visible. this data can be found as file.rth is the thermal results file. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis.rth. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. the left-most point.rth. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. The thermal solution has now been obtained. . 3. enter the file name File. If this is not done. If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link.If the Physics option is not available under Solution.

10.9. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

LS. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below. Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line.1 ETABLE. the stress can't be listed in the normal way.As shown. an element table must be created first.1 3. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. Instead. 2. List the Stress Data .CompStress. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS.

Note the stress in each element: -0. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.180e9 Pa. .CompStr The following list should appear.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. or 180 MPa in compression as expected.

Open the . .' and select the file.HTML version..PDF version is also available for printing.This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.

A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. rather than increasing mesh density. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. computational time can be kept to a minimum. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. Thus. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.

as shown below ..ON Select p-Method Struct. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. P-Method Meshing 2. /title..

z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.y.52) (80. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4.0) (0.52) (55.#.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x..100) . K.y..100) (45.x.3.100) (20.

7 8 9 10 11 12 (100.4.48) (20.48) (45.2.11.9.10.8.0) 5..3. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.5.. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.7.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below. 6.0) (80.6.1.100) (100.0) (55. .

to open the keyoptions window. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Solid147. For now we will leave them as default. go to the Element Library in the help file. After clicking OK to select the element. > Add. and Plane145. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. For more information on these elements. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes).For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element.... Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . 7.. shown below. 8. Plane146. click Options. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's.. enter the following geometric properties: i. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window.

ii.0 2... For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 10. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.3 9.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Min no. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. of substeps to 100. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3. Max no. of substeps to 20.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. .

Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up.5. Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

The following stress distribution should appear. .

.3. Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.

these orders may go as high as 8. As a comparison. . For more complex geometries. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh.

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the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered. A .PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse.HTML version. and still get reasonable results. Now go to 'File > Read input from.. thus computational time will be low. .' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. However.As one can see from the two plots. Open the .. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This is the benefit of using p-elements.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt".UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Element birth is also possible. Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. For further information. The elements are still technically there. but will not be discussed here. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears.. Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0.03 4.03 BLC4. For this example.0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. 5.03 Height = 0.. Element Death 2.03. enter the following properties: .0. enter the following properties: i. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.0. enter the following properties: i. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.. Quad 4node 55). /title. Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0.

4 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up.. 7. Therefore.. so click OK.i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. ANTYPE. We will use the defaults. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Density DENS: 920 6. you .0005m. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface.

3.must type NROPT. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used.FULL into the commmand line. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep.

4. By writing the data at every step. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . refer to the help file. For a complete description of what these options do. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. Basically.D) Set Line search to ON . E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100.

constraints can be in the form of Temperature. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. . all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K. Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows. Heat Flow. In this example. Heat Generation. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. or Radiation. Heat Flux.5. Convection.

The model should now look as follows: .

Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways. Here. r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements.. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1.. the user can manually kill. . or turn off. For instance. Assume the material melts at 273 K.LAST 2. elements to create the desired effect.

r Click on 'Add.' Fill the window in as shown below. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire.. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K. 3. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK. . thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK..

.Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown.

2. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. this will kill only those elements. and close the warning message. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill. This is much too time consuming in this case. thus it is just warning the user. Click OK to restart the analysis. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart.all into the command line. which this analysis doesn't call for. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. .

With the window still open. select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK. .

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .2.

the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed.' and select the file. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. That way.HTML version..This procedure can be programmed in a loop. using command line code. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end.. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . to more accurately model element death over time.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . more accurately modelling the heating process.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. /title. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. causing it to bend and contact the lower. are 100mm long. The beams. Contact Elements 2. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section.. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. as shown below.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor .

... Quad 4node 42) element. For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid../PREP7 3. 100.WP X. > Add.Width. r While the Element Types window is still open. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X.. 5. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. 0. 15. Width.Height) 1 2 (0. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. click Options. 10) (50. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... 10) 4.WP Y... 100. WP Y. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y).

This is an important step. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. r While the Element Types window is still open. enter the following geometric properties: i.. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. click Options. one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions....3 7.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm.. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. pt-to-surf 48) element. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 8. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. This way. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. 6. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line.

ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. Other contact elements. ii. As the surfaces approach each other. This KN value can greatly affect your solution. This will be covered below. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. require a target element. When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. resulting in convergence difficulties. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window.. such as CONTA175. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. When using contact elements in your own analyses. rather than node to element edge.. given in %.. you should decrease KN. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact. If there is too much penetration. In this situation. to function. . Since this "spring" is so stiff. Thus. > Add. enter the following properties: i. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). such as TARGE169. be sure to understand how the elements work. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants.It is important to note. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user.. A small value of TOLS.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material. 10. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. you should increase KN.

where as target nodes are those that are contacted. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes.. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Select the top beam and click OK.. In this case. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements. 11. . etc.. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. the source nodes will be selected.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. In this simple case. when the geometry is complex. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. However. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. First.. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. tolerances. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner.

. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus..100.

you should only have the following nodes remaining.. .. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.s Now if you list the selected nodes.

Now we can use this component. This can be very useful in other applications as well. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. . Source. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. In this case. and click OK. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. If you have a lot of contact elements.It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below.

This is done by opening the entity select menu... Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. This is done by opening the entity select menu. Using the same procedure as above. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. These values will be the ones you'll use. clicking the Also Select radio button. and click the Sele All button. clicking the Also Select radio button. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. 12. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. and click the Sele All button. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others.Now select the target nodes. . When creating the component this time.. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Utility Menu > Select > Entities.... enter the name Target.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). The rest of the selections remain unchanged. .

At this point. your model should look like the following. If you wish. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . Unfortunately. the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there.

0 2. The following image will appear: . If you zoom in on the contact areas. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements. The preprocessor stage is now complete. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. shown below.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers)..

Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. this takes time. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. however. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. C. B.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. E. This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. D.

These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. If you have too few substeps. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. leave these relatively high at first. Again. type help followed by the command into the command line. 3. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. For more information about these commands. Once everything is working. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time. Also. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened.

Note. 5. this is a point load on a 2D surface. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 .Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam. However. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. thus we will use a point load for simplicity. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

then click ok. This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working.0 (true scale) radio button. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: . Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1.2. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. 3. If you leave the scaling as default. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file. producing a stress distribution in both. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. A .As seen in the figure. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .HTML version... copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.

height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples.How many cross supports even number. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. finish /clear ANSYS Inc. Variables including length. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use.HEIGHT.2 .100 *ask.How tall is the truss. covering things like variable definition and simple looping.How long is the truss. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry.LENGTH. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file.DIVISION. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). using a length of 200 m. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask.20 *ask. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

GT.1.X_COORD.NUM_K.0.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.0 *else k.3 esize.200000 mp.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.THEN L.X_COORD.KEYP.LE.ex.1.link1 r.i.(DIVISION-1)..(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.KEYP.100 mp.i.DIVISION.j.KEYP.OSCILATE.1.THEN k.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.prxy.1 .0.1.1.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.1.(KEYP+1) *if.i.

*do. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable.". *ask. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. INC.9.. in the code above there is a statement: *if.8. For example. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. Thus in later parts of the code. the most intutitive method is to use "=".10). *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers. the *ASK command can be used define a variable. Command File Mode of Solution . Par. 2. determining if a certain case has occured.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. OSCILATE. For example. 4. (ie 1. or a mathematical expression.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. As seen above. is greater than zero.3.0. However.THEN.OSCILATE. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. then. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. This translates to "if the variable. see the help file..lmesh. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop.i. The *SET command can also be used to define variables. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. The syntax for the expression is *DO.GT.1. In this case.. This argument can be a single value. IVAL.10_K.all finish 1.LENGTH. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. For more information on this command. FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach.How long is the truss. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run.2. FVAL. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways.. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command.

. Now go to 'File > Read input from.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. A .

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..) of the following example. etc. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Stress. /title.. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2.

This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static . Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh.Width.Height. Y and Z directions)..Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4. 7.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.3 6. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element. 5. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.0.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize.0.3.

3. we will first outline the steps required to view a slice. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. options 1. q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7).ANTYPE. therefore. Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . For this example we are trying to display a section. 4.0 2. 5.

Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1. let's view deflection of the entire model.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display.

let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First. To illustrate how to take a cross section.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . offset the working plane to the desired position. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI.

you should now have the following: .As desired.

Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.Width/2.This can be repeated for any slice. Equivalent Stress Again. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).-1.SUM.0.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises .0 WPROTA. let's view stresses within the entire model.0. however.1.0.. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0.8 PLNSOL..1 /TYPE.90 /CPLANE. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS. simply use: WPCSYS.0 2.U.

S. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.0.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default). we are going to use command line: WPOFFS.1 /TYPE.0. Because it is much easier. You should now see the following: .1/16*Length /CPLANE.5 PLNSOL.1.EQV.Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane.0.

In the graphics window.. for something a little more impressive. Unfortunately.3. Animation Now. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis.. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node). type help ancut into the command line. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). the sweep direction. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. Finally. r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. For more information on how to modify the animation. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam. and the Y axis. select the node in the back. but please bear with me. r r . the sweep direction is in the Z direction. the origin. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. Next.

HTML version.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .' and select the file. . A .PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial. For example. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. . one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.

The remaining area should look as shown below. r .Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4..WP Y. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title . select the areas to be subtracted (ie. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0. the rectangle) and click OK.WP X.100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. Then. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. select the area to remain (ie.200.0.. /title. the circles) and click OK. 4.

Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window... enter a thickness of 10.. In the 'Element Types' window. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. > Add. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii... click 'Options.6. 8. r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element..3 .. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.

Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. . uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area... Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.9. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.0 2. 3. The model should now look like the figure below. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. 10. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant.

Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. However. 1. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. you could create a normal contour plot. if the stress near the holes are of interest. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen.4. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r .

.r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this.

To keep window 1 visible during replots. shown below. Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. meaning this function off. r r 2.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created. Turn window 1 'off'. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. you must make a couple of changes. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'.

r . you must choose what to map to the path. For this example. equivalent stress is desired. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. or in other words. 3. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined. what results should be available to the path.

since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot.r The warning shown below will probably pop up. This is of little concern though. so disregard the warning. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . 4.

Note. these dots are not shown here. . there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. Due to resolution restrictions.The display should look like the following.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.. . Open the .This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes.PDF version is also available for printing. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version.

Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. rather than using a contour plot... a special type of array. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. finer resolution can be achieved. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Length of the following beam using tables.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. By plotting this data on a curve. /title. Use of Tables for Data Plots . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.

z) 1 2 (0. > Add. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants...1.y. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.y. enter the following geometric properties: i.#.x.0) 4. K. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii. 6. and rotation about the Z axis). For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. 7.2.. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Define Element Material Properties . In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.0) (400. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm..z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x....2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.

9. . Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines.0 2. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. The model should now look like the figure below. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3.. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.3 8..Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.

Tables. a special type of array. 2..4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. This example is a simplified use of tables. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. > OK. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. but they can be used for much more. For this example there are 21 nodes. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. 1. Therefore. Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam.. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. Create the Table . are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run.

r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up. Enter Data into Table First. select Model Data > Nodes r . Note there are 22 rows.1].2. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window.. one more than the number of nodes. 3. In the window shown below. The reason for this will be explained below.

> Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. column 1. and continues down the column. the vertical displacement will be recorded.2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. column 2..2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. r . Next.1)' fills in the table starting in row 1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1.1) > All > Location > X]. and continues down the column.. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data .

r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2). the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. This causes problems during plotting. as it is keypoint 1. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. Thus. to provide room to move this data.4. Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table.

When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. Select File > Apply/Quit 5. press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up. r . and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X).833) is in row two. Fill it in as shown.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400. UY = -0.

r r . To see the changes to the labels. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below..r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes ..

PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. A . Open the . . Now go to 'File > Read input from.HTML version.

changing the background colour.100. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.prxy. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K.1.0.1. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model.0 dk. finish /clear /title.5 lmesh.ex.all finish /solu antype.1.1.833.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.200000 mp.0.333. For instance.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks. etc.1.1.0 K.3 esize.2 et. numbering the nodes.2.1.all.beam3 r.100.10 mp.0 L.

Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.2.fy.. The following window will appear: .-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1.fk..

When you click OK. You should get the following: . sometimes the numbers won't show up. However. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. For instance. select the node numbering and plot the nodes.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. To remedy this problem.

You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing.As shown. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible. These extra symbols may not be necessary. The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. 2. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . the nodes have been numbered.

In our case. . so those sections won't be used. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. Under the Boundary conditions section. there are no Surface or Body Loads. or Initial Conditions.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off.

The result should be as follows: 3. Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .

This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. As shown in the window. the legend or title can be turned off. In this case. Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now. To turn off the triad. it is things associated with the window background. The following output should be the result. etc. . select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu.

4.. .. Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape.

To aid in this process. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements. . Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes.When using line elements. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. thus elements are not going to show up. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. If there is no change in output. don't be alarmed. such as BEAM3. The following should appear. Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window.

the elements are no longer just a line. To get a better 3-D view of the model. . you can change the view orientation.. but they have volume according to the real constants.. View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. 5.As shown.

By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. You can also select predefined views. such as isometric or oblique. translate the view and zoom. it's easy to see the elements in 3D. .This window allows the user to rotate the view. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. Basic rotating. This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis. Using these options.

6. .. they can be changed. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. plot the deformation contour for the beam. those can also be changed. Changing Contours First. Under non-uniform contours. If you don't like the colours of the contour.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours. Under uniform contours.

The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. . and we'll set the background colour to white. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation. but don't want a black background. 7.. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours. Here we are only using Window 1..

. If there is information that needs to be added. Under the File heading. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image.The resulting display is shown below. To save the display. this can be done in other graphic editors. . Notice how all the text disappeared. This is because the text colour is also white. such as contour values. select Save As..

. as is the help file. the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start. these are just a few.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS. If you are looking for a specific option.

This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point. e. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. frame. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File. GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. 2. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. to a text file. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. When it is complete. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI).cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc... Then before you are finished. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. The output window shows the progress of this procedure. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. select Read Input from. or if you'd like to save the whole file. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file.cmd) is stored and select it. see the next item in this list. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others.. You may need to select Plot -> .g.

To rerun the command file... X11c./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. mode). stress. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line.cmd. At this point you could type in /menu. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.frame... If the file was in the directory. make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. type /input. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. Select File -> Clear & Start New. etc. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. you may need to point it to the proper directory. Command Line File Loading Alternatively. .. Save those changes to disk. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. then from the ANSYS input window. Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on.cmd and yes that is a comma (. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS..q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you.on. you would use the following syntax /input.) between frame and cmd.frame. but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example.

.kp2. a10 see online help see online help rectng.z2.kp#..kp1. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k. .x2.x1. l10 v.. . setting up different analysis types and post-processing. kp8 va.rad1.x1..kp2.kp2.rad1.theta1.kp2 larc.theta2 sphere.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus .y2..a2.z1. .kp1.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.y1.l2.y1. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis..kp1. .rad2.zcoord l.kp1.kp3.rad2..z2 cylind..ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry.kp2. .z1.y2 block.theta1. kp6 a.a1..x2. applying loads and constraints.ycoord.l1. kp18 a.kp1..xcoord.

.number esize. .a2. r6 may define as many as required.number.number. .inc or amesh.area1.a1...all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) .a1. current type is set by mat mat.all amesh.a2. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et.number..c1. .number mp.label..inc or lmesh...r2.area2.ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh.a1.type may define as many as required...r1. current type is set by type type.a2.. current type is set by real real.a1.line1.a2 aina. a9 aglue. a9 asba..number r.line2.c0.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.size. c4 may define as many as required. .

ROTX.ROTZ.ROTY.value labels: FX.value labels: UX.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).value labels: UX. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node . ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.UY.node#.vol1.node#.inc or vmesh.MX.value labels: FX.MX.label.label.ROTX.e.UZ.MY.area#.FZ.MY.label.kp#.vol2.label.ALL d.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.MZ f.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.UY.ALL dl.UZ.ROTZ.ROTY.FZ.FY.kp#.FY.line#.

then .5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs". note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .else .ndivs+1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.1 ! do i = 1.x. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.ndivs.i.i.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.0.1.0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.2. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.Enter number of divisions (default 5).1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.0.x1. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language. It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.0 k. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).x2.ndivs.GT.1. if only is entered. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k.0.

! /pnum..all.kp..1 kplot klist.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates .

This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Boolean operations. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . extrusion. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example. This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS. ANSYS 7. Dynamic Analysis .Pure Conduction . The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc.Modal Dynamic Analysis . This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS.Transient Thermal Examples .Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis .0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials.

Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples . Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. Analysis of heat conduction over time.Thermal Examples . Modelling Using Axisymmetry .Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example.

Additionally. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Using element death to model a volume melting. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS 7. a special type of array. The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

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0.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.7.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.5.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0.0.7 emis2=0. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.0.0.1 k.0 k.0.699*10**(-8) k.-1 k.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.8.0 k.6.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.0254 rout=8*0.

6. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR..8.1 STEF.1. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.all csys.1.ALL lsel.s.1..2 lsel.KXX.rin.1 MP.ndiv CIRCLE.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE ..1.TEMP ET.x.1 MAT.ndiv ET.all lsel.7.2 SE.1 csys.rin LMESH.emis1 EMIS.1 TYPE.2.s.0 GEOM.1 ESIZE.2.LINK32.2..rout.stefbolt WRITE.1 MAT.1 R.....1 lsel.VM125 TOFFST..5.offset ! inner cylinder.1.1.all MP.rout LMESH..7.arc..MATRIX50.arc.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder.x.emis2 VTYPE.loc.loc.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.circle.KXX.

TEMP.x. K /POST1 csys.x.1 nsel.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .all csys.loc.all nsel.x.all *GET.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.HEAT *DIM.LABEL.s.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.VALUE.ALL.CHAR.T2 nsel.rout D.0.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.all nsel.rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.s..T1 nsel.s.2 *DIM.ALL.1 nsel. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.loc.3 LABEL(1.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.s.ITEM.loc.loc.rin D.1.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.TEMP.csys.1.FSUM.Q.x.

VALUE(1.2).ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.1.VALUE(1. /COM.3) /COM.*VFILL.3).DATA.1.DATA.1).------------------------------------------------------/COM.LABEL(1.1).VALUE(1.DATA.1).3) (1X.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.VALUE(1.F10. *VWRITE.exact *VFILL.VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.' '.F10.Q *VFILL.2).--------------.1F5.A8.' '. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM. FINISH .' '.

for example. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. so they are always available. but the backspace key does work normally. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. To use pico to edit the file test. one simply types pico test. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. In pico. The first three mentioned below are text based.dat. but have a steep learning curve. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them.dat at the UNIX prompt. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. press this key. nedit .

PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. Applications . Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. multiple file editing. check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. type wabi or win. and then renamed back to its original name. Very nice. Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. undo.3 file format used by DOS. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. and look at the option in the dialog box.nedit is a very simple to use.exe (look under the r: drive). From a UNIX command window. Therefore. and block delimiting with the mouse. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. For this reason.. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. It could then be edited. It features pull-down menus.. yet powerful X Windows editor. saved. when saving files in PFE.

and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. To start the X-Windows portion of the program.x11c /menu.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. Press Enter to continue. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. If you've got some time. From the next dialog box that appears. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. 2. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. it is necessary to select the Interactive . Then choose GUI configuration. check . item.. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. select your desired font size. To start ANSYS. issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared.. over a modem. heat transfer and fluid problems. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. you may enter ANSYS commands. ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Press Enter to continue. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. Once this is done. From this menu. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. two methods are avialable: 1.

If you've got some time. see Dr. see Dr. click on the car figure. Pro/Mechanica. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. For further information on using ANSYS. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures.out the ANSYS Web page. see Dr. check out the Fluent Web page. A companion program. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. and design optimization. Toogood. performs finite element analysis. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. Yokota. For more information about this program. like that shown above. including static analysis. . sensitivity studies. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. Fyfe. For further information on this program.

you now type.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. your file must be named something like test. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output. If your program code consists of many files and libraries. redirecting it). for example. Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i. type the command. execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable.F.out (logical. you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line.f sub2. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.f To run this program. xlf by itself. For example: xlf main. Note that the . ./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '.for or TEST./test. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files.f sub1.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename.e. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test. see Configuration Files). such as error messages. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files. e. For learning about the compiler's many options. the name of the resulting executable will default to a.f sub3.out.cshrc file.f Normally no options are required. To change the executable's output name to test. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test. to a file. This program would be run by entering .f and not test. isn't it?).f and sub1.' is in your path (this is changed in your .f.f >& errorfile will compile main. i./a. and output is the name of the file to which the output .f sub1.

Note that it is only necessary to save the file. So. From the Matlab prompt.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. you simply type: . the prompt will not appear on the screen. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. you can still run your program this way. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. symbolic and plotting functions.will be sent. however.m files. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. and what data to enter. because it too is being sent to the output file. Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. and not actually exit the editor. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows. if you know when to enter data. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. In this way you will have one window to edit your . Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab. The resulting text file may then be edited. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). turn off the diary function with the diary off command. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. If the program normally prompts the user for input. The keyboard will still accept the input. Note that the text . printed and even imported into a word processor.

labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation. For example. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx.labs. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed. but is very slow when running it over a modem. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities.ualberta.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08. you will need to acquire and run an X server program.labs through to mec30. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. by issuing the command. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. For example. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine. . The workstations are named mec01. you must have an X server running on your local machine.labs. Once the job is completed. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. such as the labs in Cameron and CAB.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30). See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application.

telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. The mecxx. Pine is based on the pico editor. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). free of charge.txt. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. type. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU.srv. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. but GPU does.ualberta. To do this. In this command. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. To use it. then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. or by typing pine at the prompt. . Many applications. either through lynx. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). see FTP. for example. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer. To use E-mail then.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. just outside the main part of the lab. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. This file is printed in the small room. newsgroups and WWW.ca. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. If your CNS login id is jblow. You can enter the mail program called pine.

Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer. room B-111).145 (see FTP). If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere. getting started. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print. If you fail to do so. both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. see table of contents. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results.eps scale c where filename.20 per page. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. For further information. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. Prints are $0. . To print from Windows applications in Wabi. issue the command: plotpostscript filename.128.85. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. or appendices. your job (but not your file) will be deleted. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. From a GPU account login. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center.eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. room 240.

Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. E. A.2. y K. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. 3*width/2. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. 0. #. x. and stress for the truss system shown below. reaction forces. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. p.3. width. 0 ! keypoint.1. width/2. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements.123) ! /title. Note that Young's Modulus. height . Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.4. 0 K.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.height K.

1. 2*width.7.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH.4 L.5. 5*width/2.FY.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.1.FY. ! ! define lines ! L.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .LINK1 R.3.3.4.7 L.6 L.5.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.UY.4 L. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE. .K.ALL.5.1.2 L.3 L.ALL. .-280e3 FK.7.U.SUM.F PLDISP.6. 3*width.2.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.1.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.2.5 L.1.FY.3250 MP. spring element ! real constant #1.5 L.0.1. K.EX.4.6. K.-210e3 FK.1. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.5.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.3.1.200e3 ! element type #1.1.7.3 L.2 PLNSOL.6 L.FY.

NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .SAXL PLETAB. 1 PRETAB.LS.SAXL.ETABLE.SAXL.

height K. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.1.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .123) ! /title.7. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. 0 K.2. width. x. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area.mece.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.ualberta.5. E.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L. y K.www.4. 0 ! keypoint. and stress for the truss system shown below. 0 K. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. 2*width. 3*width/2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2. p. height K. 0. 0 ! ! define lines ! L.3 L. 5*width/2. #.height K. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. A.2. Note that Young's Modulus. 3*width.1. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. width/2. reaction forces.3 L.3.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.1.6.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.mece.-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL. .ALL.S.PRES.0 DL.0 SFL.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.www.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .4.

A figure of the plate is shown below. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.60 ! Enter the pre-processor . and uniform pressure loading.50 CYL4. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. plane stress. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.0. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.80.0. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).0.-20. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.20.80.50.20 CYL4.20 BLC4.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.20. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.20. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0.80.100 CYL4.

-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.real set number.force ! Solve the problem .0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.ALL.ALL.0 . DL.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.PRXY.0 .0 .0 .ALL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.all areas. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.ALL CYL4.ALL.keypoint.PLANE82 KEYOPT. 7.1.value ! mp.material number. DL.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .ALL.0. DL.13.ALL.EX.1.30 CYL4.6.AADD. 9.12.5 ! lesize.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.80.. DL.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .3 ! mp.10 CYL4. DL.80.9.0 .ALL.10 ASBA.1.11.FY.200000 MP.14.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.1.20 ! r.direction.ALL. DL.. DL.3. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.20.0 ! amesh.ALL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Poisson's ratio.Young's modulus.material number.50. 8.0. .10.1.0.0 .0 .

05e-3 /FOC.0.EQV.10.1 /GCMD.S.3.0.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.LTOP /WIND.DOF..ALL.0.2 /GCMD.-0.. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions .10.1 /CONT.3. PLDISP.340000.SUM.3.OFF /WIND.U.2.0.ALL.1.1 /GCMD. PLNSOL..RTOP /WIND.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.8 /CONT.0.4.0036 /CONT..0.1. PLNSOL.EQV.EPTO.2..4.10.1 /replot PRNSOL.2.4. PLNSOL.0.0.LBOT /WIND.

and uniform pressure loading.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.0.0.www. 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.80. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.mece. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. A figure of the plate is shown below. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame).ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. plane stress.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

11.9.value ! mp.30 CYL4.0.Young's modulus.10 CYL4.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html CYL4.20. DL.6.80.0 .13.14.1.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.PLANE82 KEYOPT.20 BLC4.20.keypoint.10 ASBA.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.0 ! amesh.5 ! lesize.ALL.12.ualberta.real set number.ALL.80.0 .1.3. DL. .80.0 .0.subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.all areas.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.0. DL.0 .20 CYL4.FY.50.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK. 9.80.1.50 CYL4.0. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.1. 8.PRXY.ALL.. DL.ALL. DL.20.ALL CYL4.60 AADD. DL.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.ALL.ALL.20.200000 MP. 7. DL.ALL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.EX.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.0.20 ! r.10.Poisson's ratio.-20.0 .3 ! mp.50.ALL.material number.www.material number.ALL ! Boolean Addition .-1000 (fk command) !fk.0 .1..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL.0 .direction.mece.

RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.S.SUM.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.ualberta.3..05e-3 /FOC.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.LBOT /WIND.. PLDISP.DOF.10.4.0.EQV.1 /CONT.RTOP /WIND.1 /GCMD. PLNSOL..www.OFF /WIND.U.1.EPTO.3.10.4..2. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .-0.8 /CONT.ALL.3.10.LTOP /WIND.4.0.mece.340000.2.. PLNSOL.0.0.1. PLNSOL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 /replot PRNSOL.0.2 /GCMD.0036 /CONT.1 /GCMD.EQV.2.0.0.ALL.0.

it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. . Filleting.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. copying. extrusion/sweeping. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.

1 BLC4.3.2 ASBA.5 AADD. .5 BLC4.3.2.1002.5.8.3. . .1. AL...6.11) AL.1.0.7.0.0. .1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .0 VROTAT.3.5.2.1 AGEN.1002.22.9 lines 9.1001..7.5.4.0 K.5 CYL4. .5.1.5.2.0.2002.8.2001.6 AGEN.5 AADD.26..2.14 AADD.0..ALL LFILLT.ALL CYL4.0.1001.2.3.1.2.0.11.1.0. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.5. .-0.0.3.ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.0.360.ALL ! Sweep K..0. 1001 and 1002 K.4.0 K.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.5.10..0.10.

0.180. .69 AGEN.1. .6.7.5 CYL4.109.82 K.0.ALL VOFFST.1.25.5 vsbv.100.4. .8.all.2.101.K.02 KWPLAN.0.180 CYL4.8 vsbv. .0.6.all.62 ASBA.6.102 K.20 L.0. .26 VOFFST.2 CYL4.109.8.1.-20.102.0. .82 K.5.5.3.2001.2003 CSYS.sqrt(3)/0.100.-1.5. . .2002.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.2.6.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.2.1.9 vsbv.4.0.3.26 K.102 BLC4.8.0 K. .109.102.20 LARC.2.26 VADD.20 LARC.6 AL.20 K.7 vsbv. .2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes .102.101.2003.51.5.1.1.45.all.4. .7 AADD.27.102.13. .5.1 VGEN.51 AADD.5.7.0.2.-20.20.0.10 vsbv.0.11 vsbv.6 vsbv.all.0 K.5.2.159.10 AGEN.5.1 KWPLAN.

51.26 K.60 VSBV.18.33.2. .34. 129-(0.201.0 K.1. .61.36. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .60 VADD. sqrt(3)/2*76.26 K.0.61.202 CSYS.57735*26).203.129-(0.32.201.20. .204.30 KWPLAN. .37 CYL4.180.7.32.-20.0 system K.204 VOFFST.-1.203.0. VADD.51.-20.200.1 WPCSYS.0 A.61.3 CYL4.200.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.5.202.200. .180.57735*26) + 38.-1. .AADD.38 AADD.

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . copying. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.mece. Filleting. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. extrusion/sweeping.ualberta.www.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.

0.4.0.3.1001.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.2 ASBA.7.22. .1002.5.1 BLC4.0.0.0 K. .2.5.5.8.2.360.5 AADD.5 CYL4.5.10.mece.2.4.26..0 K.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.0 K.ualberta.2002.5 BLC4. AL.ALL CYL4.11..1.1.8.9 AL.1.0.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .3. .14 AADD.ALL ! Sweep K.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.2.3..0.2.0. .ALL LFILLT.2001. LFILLT.0.2...1.-0.1001.0 VROTAT.1 AGEN.5. .0.3.1002.0. K. .3.5 AADD.3.6.2003.6 AGEN.7.www..0.5.5.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.0..3.0.

7.7 vsbv.2.2.-20.www.-20.20.8. .0.36. .7.26 VADD.6.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.82 K.102.5 CYL4.26 VOFFST.0. .all.0.45.2.38 AADD.0 K. .02 KWPLAN. .5 vsbv.5.0.1 VGEN.62 ASBA.82 K. .5.ALL VOFFST.9 vsbv.20 LARC.5.33.102.109.10 AGEN.0.8 vsbv.0. .6.2 AADD.20 LARC.13.11 vsbv.6.109.26 K.180.102 K.100.27.102.5.mece.6. .1.ualberta.34.7 AADD.2 CYL4.1.1.100.html KWPLAN.2001.0.69 AGEN.109. .12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.2.6 vsbv.2.2002.8.5.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .8.1.all.5.0.32.3.10 vsbv.101.180 CYL4.2003 CSYS.1.4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .sqrt(3)/0.-1. .5.4.101. .1.159.51.2. .20 L.51 AADD.4.all.20 K.5.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.102.6 AL.all.0 K.102 BLC4.25.0.

ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . .203. 129-(0.7. .203. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .51.200.-20.204.0 A.1 WPCSYS.-1.20. .202 CSYS.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.0 K.201.60 VSBV.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.61.57735*26) + 38.200.200.-20.3 CYL4.18.60 VADD.html CYL4.61.26 K. VADD. .51.180.0 K. . .204 VOFFST.180.mece.129-(0.201.32.5.61.0.0.2.57735*26).26 K.www.30 KWPLAN.-1.202. sqrt(3)/2*76.

Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1.Length. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.0 K.1.1.Width*Height.Height MP.2.0.EX.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.1.2 ET.1.0 L.Width*(Height**3)/12.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .BEAM3 ! Set element type R. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.

0.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.MP.0.1.Length/10.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .86e-6 LESIZE.7.1. LMESH.ALL.DENS.1.0 DK.9.ALL..1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.PRXY. ACEL.3 MP.

Length/10.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ualberta. LMESH.1.0.Length.7.Width*Height.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.mece.1.2.EX.2 ET.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.www.0.1.1.DENS.Width*(Height**3)/12.1.0 L. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.PRXY.1.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.Height MP.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 K. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1.ALL.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP.

8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP. ACEL.mece.1.ualberta.9.0.html DK.www.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print..ALL.

1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 L.0.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.1.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line . Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.1000. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.0 K.2.

33 ESIZE..0 SFBEAM.1.UX.100.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.UY DK.1.333.UY.PRXY.10 MP.BEAM3 R.SMAXI.SMAXJ.0.833.2 ETABLE.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .I.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.EX.SMAXJ.0 DK. 1 ETABLE..200000 MP.NMISC.NMISC.100 LMESH.0.1.ET. 3 PLLS.area.1.ALL.PRES.SMAXI.1.2.

1. ANSYS Command Listing /title.0 K. Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below.2 ET. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data.1.1000.ualberta.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.0 L.www.0..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ht. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.mece.1.2. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.0.

1.NMISC.33 ESIZE.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2 ETABLE.100..ualberta.www.UY DK.10 MP.area.333.0 ! Real constants .SMAXI. 1 ETABLE.100 LMESH.SMAXI.I.ALL.1.2.SMAXJ.0.1.1.1.SMAXJ.200000 MP.EX.PRXY.PRES.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 SFBEAM. R. 3 PLLS.0 DK.833..ht..UX.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.UY.1.0..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.NMISC.

1. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.3. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block.plane42.0.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG. 1.5. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.0. In this model there are two blocks. one above top of the other. plane stress w/thick.5..7. strs out type.01 ! thickness 0.4 aplot ! define element type ET.2.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.10.2.2 ! element type 1. /title. nodal. with a small separation. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied...1 ! activate element type 1 R.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground. 0.

.35 mat.99.1 r.2D contact elements keyo..1 real.2.source.7.mat.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET. 20e3 MP.s..1 ! defines second element type .r.2. 2.s.contac48.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .3 MP. 0.2.3 ! meshing esize.10 TYPE.loc.2 amesh.2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.20e3. 200e3 MP.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.2.1 amesh.0.2 /pnum.01 ! cm.area.2.1. 0.1.0.005.NUXY.2 ! nsla.5 mat..y.0.! define material properties MP.1 ! nsel.1 esize.EX.EX.NUXY. 1.

r.2.on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .1 nsel.loc.target.-100 allsel time.new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.on pred.on nropt.target.all.all.x.full.1 nsubst.y.4 fk.source.20.4 dk.loc.all.99.all..r.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.2.asel.1.5 ksel.stat.01 cm.y.s.1 nsla.s.y.y.fy.100 autots.7.loc.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.area.5 ksel.3 finish /solution antype.s.loc.r.all..loc. a small tolerance is used d.node gcgen.x.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).s.loc.s.

the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.0 l.1. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.1. To solve this problem. After each increment.1.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .0 k.1 lmesh.5.0.0. izz.3 esize.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.0. the load will added incrementally.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.prxy.1.4.2.069e-5.0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.ex. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).beam3 r.0.125 mp.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.0.1.0e6 mp. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.30.2 et.0.1.03125.

1.1 PRNSOL.static nlgeom./solu antype.1000. min # substeps=1 outres.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.mz.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.U.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.5.2. max # substeps=1000.all fk.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .all ! save results of all iterations dk.all.

0.2.beam3 r.125 mp.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .prxy.03125.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.0.1.1.1 lmesh.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . the load will added incrementally.2 et.069e-5.0. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.0e6 mp.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . After each increment.5.3 esize.0 k.0.mece.www.1.0. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.1. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title. To solve this problem.ualberta.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.1.ex.0.0 l. izz. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.1.0. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).4.30.

static nlgeom.5. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 PRNSOL.www.all.on nsubst.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all dk.all fk.1 outres.U.mz.1000.html /solu antype.ualberta.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.2.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.mece.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.on autots.

For this type of analysis. material nonlinearities and gaps. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. This method is not recommended for accurate. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. largedeflection. However. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. in reallife. static analysis to predict buckling loads. Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. ie. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. 2. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. real-world buckling prediction analysis. load perterbations. . Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie.

10 MP.100 L. ANSYS . The required load to cause buckling. rigidly constrained at the bottom.PRXY.333.10 LMESH.3 K.2 ESIZE.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.100.200000 MP. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.0.0.0.2.1.BEAM3 R.EX. area (mm^2).ALL.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.0 K.833. will be calculated.1.1. I (mm^4).1.1.1. applied at the top-center of the beam.

height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line . one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .1.1.EX.ON MXPAND. since all loads are scaled during the analysis. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. I.0 L.1.LIST SET.100.1.1 LMESH.1.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .subspace.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.0 K.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.333.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .PRXY.100.2 ESIZE.2.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).1.833.200000 MP.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.ON DK.0.10 K.3 R.FY. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.0.BUCKLE BUCOPT.PSTRES.2.LANB.ALL FK. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.0.

3 /AXLAB.ALL.2.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.2.1.FY.NLGEOM.Y NSOL.ON LNSRCH.ON /ESHAPE.1000 AUTOTS.1.2.F.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.20 NEQIT.ON OUTRES.FX.3.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.2 PLVAR.ALL NSUBST.1 DK.Y XVAR.U.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .ALL.0 FK.2.Y.-50000 FK.X.

real-world buckling prediction analysis. static analysis to predict buckling loads.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. material nonlinearities and gaps. in real-life. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. However. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. This method is not recommended for accurate. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . load perterbations. large-deflection.mece.www. ie. 2. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. For this type of analysis.ualberta. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections.

2 ESIZE.100 L.ALL.0.PRXY.1.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.1.10 MP.0. will be calculated. applied at the top-center of the beam.100.200000 MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.10 LMESH. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.1.1.0 K.www.1.833.0.3 K.mece. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . area (mm^2). The required load to cause buckling.ualberta. rigidly constrained at the bottom.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . I (mm^4).EX.333.1.2.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.BEAM3 R.

333.2.ualberta.EX.BUCKLE BUCOPT.200000 MP.0.PRXY.0.10 K.0 L.LANB.100.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.ON DK. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .LIST SET.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.html ANTYPE.mece. I.STATIC NLGEOM.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.2 ESIZE. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info .3 R.1 LMESH.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.2.subspace.STATIC PSTRES. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.0.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.1.ON MXPAND.1.1. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .0 K.ALL FK.1.1.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .1.833.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case). SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.0.ON OUTRES.100.FY.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.www.

DEFLECTION /AXLAB.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.FY.3.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .www.1.0 FK.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .20 NEQIT.F.2.mece.2.Y XVAR.2.-50000 FK.FX.ualberta.html NSUBST.ON /ESHAPE.3 /AXLAB.ALL.2 PLVAR.1 DK.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.Y.1000 AUTOTS.1.ON LNSRCH.Y NSOL.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.U.X.

75000 MP.0.25 MP.EX.2.3 TB. In such a case.1.1.001.1. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.1. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.PRXY.100 l. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.1..LINK1 R. For this analysis. For instance.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).MELA.0.1. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1.12. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.75 .0 k.2 ET.1. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.

.Y NSOL.25.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..15.450 ESIZE.435 TBPT.1000.005.0..3 /AXLAB.FY.Y...LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .Y.002.ON NEQIT..U.1 OUTRES.F.355 TBPT..250 TBPT.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.2.ALL.225 TBPT...ALL AUTOTS.275.all FK.420 TBPT.2.003.Y XVAR.2 PLVAR...ON NSUBST.025.U.1.DEFLECTION /AXLAB...TBPT...X.0 DK.1.150 TBPT...240 TBPT..1..06.3.300 TBPT.20..all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.004.449 TBPT..1000 ANTYPE.2.1 PLNSOL.ON LNSRCH..5 LMESH.2.390 TBPT.

a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.1.1.1.ualberta.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear.2.mece. In such a case. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.0 k. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.2 ET.1. For instance.www..0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material. For this analysis. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".0.100 l. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.LINK1 R.

1 OUTRES. MP.225 TBPT.449 TBPT.003.420 TBPT.Y NSOL.2.1.355 TBPT.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta ..all FK...1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE..1.FY.3.3 /AXLAB.Y.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.1 PLNSOL.2.1.2..X.2...1.240 TBPT.12.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.0.1000.EX.PRXY.ON NSUBST.390 TBPT.ALL..275.0.Y XVAR.005.ALL AUTOTS...U.U..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..450 ESIZE.435 TBPT.001.mece...ON LNSRCH..3 TB.....5 LMESH.20..Y.2 PLVAR..004.15.www.250 TBPT..300 TBPT.1.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.F.1000 ANTYPE.025.150 TBPT..MELA.ON NEQIT.002..1..25.75000 MP. TBPT.1.0 DK.06..75 TBPT.ualberta.

01 MP. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.PRXY.1.EX.0.8.0001.0. /TITLE..2 ET.1.1.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.0 K.BEAM3 R.1.0.Dynamic.2.1.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .1.2..10 LMESH.ALL.33 MP.1.1.0.0 /PREP7 K.7830 LESIZE.33e-10.068e11 MP.DENS.0 L.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.. 1. Open preprocessor menu 2.0) .. Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. Define Lines (0.y) 1 2 5.0) (1.. 3.

and rotation about the Z axis).01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. 8. double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis. ... Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. 9. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.01 m... 10..Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.3 To enter the density of the material.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.01 m x 0.. enter the following geometric properties: i. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.068e11 ii. Young's modulus EX: 2. 7.0001 ii. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.. 6.33e-10 iii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. > Add. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8.

0.1.PRXY.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .2.8.1.01 MP.0.1.0.1.DENS.1.BEAM3 R.1.33 MP.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.0001.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 L.0 K.2.2 ET.068e11 MP.1.1.EX.I. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.33e-10.

5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape ..SUBSP.2 MODOPT.LESIZE..5.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.10.ALL.5 DK.5 EQSLV.10 LMESH.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE. .ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.0.LIST SET.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.FRONT MXPAND.

33e-10.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.8.0.1.mece...ualberta.www.2 ET.PRXY.10 LMESH.2.01 MP.7830 LESIZE.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.1.1.0.I.EX.33 MP.1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL.0.068e11 MP.0001.0 K.0.DENS.0 L.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.BEAM3 R.

5 EQSLV.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.5 DK.FRONT MXPAND.1.2 MODOPT.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SUBSP.www.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.5.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.10.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.ualberta.LIST SET. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

Reduced and Modal Superposition methods.100 Hz. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. . These 3 methods are the Full . The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.

100 HARFRQ.0001.1.2. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.100.1. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option. UY_2 STORE.2.ALL.2.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.2.I.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. KBC.BEAM3 R.8.PRXY. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.EX.2 ET.33e-10.0 K.0.0.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.068e11 MP.Y.1. NSUBST.33 MP.01 MP.DENS.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.FY.0.1.0.0.2..1.U.MERGE PRVAR.7830 LESIZE.2 PLVAR.0 L..ALL FK.1.3 DK.100. However.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .1.10 LMESH.

ualberta. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam.100 Hz. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print. These 3 methods are the Full .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

1.mece. NSUBST.0.EX.ualberta.ALL FK.www.Y.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2 ET.I.1.1.33e-10.2.100. However.0001.7830 LESIZE. KBC.PRXY.2.100 HARFRQ.2 PLVAR.8.DENS.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.FY.0 L.U.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.3 DK.BEAM3 R.01 MP..2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.0. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE. UY_2 STORE.MERGE PRVAR.10 LMESH.2.33 MP.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.0.2.1.2.1.1.ALL.0. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.068e11 MP.0.0 K.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.1.100..

for example. .Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. a static analysis may be used instead. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. For our case.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.

We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. After the application of the load. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Therefore. In other words. All types of non-linearities are allowed. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The smaller the time step. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. . However. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. In ANSYS. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.

8.All.S..7830 LESIZE.1.1.0001. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. M.2.1. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.DENS.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).2.ALL.UY.EX..-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.10 LMESH. NSEL.01 MP. TRANS TRNOPT.1. . if stresses and forces are of interest than.ALL D.1.33e-10.2 ET.0.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.11. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.1. It is the quickest of the three methods.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .068e11 MP. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.REDUC.0.1. .Dynamic. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.0 /PREP7 K.PRXY.0. However.0.. DELTIM.FY.33 MP. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL..ALL F. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. the calculations are much quicker.1. However.2.0 L.2.0 K.BEAM3 R.1. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).

3.Y.' NSOL.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.001 KBC. time !Please note.0.'Dynamic'. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.2.'.U.!At time equals 0.1. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.0 FDELE.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.0 !* LSSOLVE.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs. ! Sets time to 0.MERGE PLVAR. .2. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.1 KBC. UY_2 STORE.2. In this case.2.'rdsp'.001s TIME.

where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time.University of Alberta .http://www. Copyright 2003 .mece. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. for example. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. a static analysis may be used instead. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. For our case. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.

we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. However. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. After the application of the load. In ANSYS. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture.http://www. Therefore. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically.ualberta. In other words. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. Copyright 2003 .mece. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. the higher the mode frequency we will capture. The smaller the time step.University of Alberta .

We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. NSEL. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.33e-10.S.7830 LESIZE.All. It is the quickest of the three methods.UY.01 MP.0.0.33 MP. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE.10 LMESH. DELTIM.Dynamic. M.PRXY.0.BEAM3 R.2.1.1. if stresses and forces are of interest than.1.11.ualberta.068e11 MP.0 /PREP7 K.FY.2. .11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 .mece.. However. All types of non-linearities are allowed. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.ALL D.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 . It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). the calculations are much quicker.0.1.EX.. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.2.ALL.2 ET.8. TRANS TRNOPT.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.ALL F.REDUC.1. However.1.1.0 K..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.http://www..1.0 L.0001.0.1. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.University of Alberta .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).2.DENS. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. .

Y.'.http://www. In this case.2.'rdsp'.' NSOL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.mece. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.'Dynamic'.2. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.0 !* LSSOLVE.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs. Copyright 2003 .U.2. UY_2 STORE.0.html !At time equals 0.MERGE PLVAR.2.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.001 KBC. if you are using a later version of ANSYS.0 FDELE.1 KBC. time !Please note.1. ! Sets time to 0.University of Alberta .3.001s TIME.ualberta.

0 to solve a simple conduction problem.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0.1.0 height=1. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.length.0. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .0 blc4. then width and height .one corner. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.

LOC.ALL NSEL.ALL.1.KXX.X.LOC..ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.Y.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.TEMP.length NSEL.S.Y.X.0 D.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.LOC. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .0.500 NSEL.A.LOC.100 NSEL.10 ESIZE.height D.A.TEMP.length/20 AMESH.S.TEMP.0 NSEL.ALL.MP.

0 height=1..h.1. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.10 ESIZE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .length.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .KXX..length/20 AMESH. ANSYS Command Listing /title. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0.www.0 blc4. PLANE55 MP. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta.0. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0 to solve a simple conduction problem. then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.one corner.

A.500 NSEL.h.TEMP.ALL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ualberta..A.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.www.LOC.. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.X.100 NSEL.Y.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL.Y.mece.LOC.ALL NSEL.0 D.0 NSEL.X.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .S.height D.TEMP.length NSEL.0. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .LOC..TEMP.S.

10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .0 to solve simple thermal examples.one corner.0.0 height=1.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.0. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated. then width and height .KXX. PLANE55 MP.Thermal . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.1.0 blc4.length. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.

LOC.ALL.S..X. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .TEMP.S.0 SF.Y.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.TEMP.0.1 ESIZE.height D.X.100 NSEL.TEMP.CONV.10.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.S.ALL NSEL.LOC.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL.MAT.S.LOC.ALL.1 TYPE.length/20 AMESH.CONV.ALL.length SF.Y.0 D.500 NSEL.100 NSEL.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.0 NSEL.

ualberta.one corner.1.10 MAT.0 to solve simple thermal examples. height ! mesh 2D areas ET. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 blc4.1 ESIZE.length.KXX. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.0.University of Alberta .Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.html Thermal . PLANE55 MP.1 TYPE.http://www.0.0 height=1.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .mece.1. then width and height Copyright 2003 . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.

100 NSEL.Y.ALL.Y.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.CONV.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.LOC.html AMESH.ALL.http://www.TEMP.ALL.100 NSEL.ALL.LOC.0 D.TEMP.S.LOC.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.height D.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.length SF.CONV.0 SF.ALL NSEL.S.500 NSEL.S..ualberta.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.0.TEMP.X.10.mece.0 NSEL.University of Alberta .ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LOC.X.S. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .

Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.040 kJ/kg*K. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Also.

1.full lumpm.0.0.300 nropt.one corner.0..1.20.1.ALL NSEL.c.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.0.off lnsrch.500 PLNSOL.Temp.8.length.4 time.0 height=1.500 ! area . then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.0 nsubst.LOC.0 D.all.s.5.2.kxx.Y.S.LOC.on outres.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.100.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.20 neqit.all kbc.length=1.920 mp.ALL IC. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .5 ESIZE.TEMP.2. PLANE55 MP.1..TEMP ANTIME.100 autots.ALL.0 blc4.040 mp.all.Y.0.100 NSEL. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.Dens.500 NSEL.TEMP.0.height D.ALL.05 AMESH.

mece. height ! area .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.040 kJ/kg*K.length. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.0 blc4.0 height=1. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.ualberta.0.html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Also. then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.one corner.

500 NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.20.05 AMESH.on outres.all.all kbc.Y.0.ualberta..1.off lnsrch.0 nsubst.0 D.0.040 mp.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.c.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.TEMP.LOC.s.ALL.ALL.ALL NSEL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.100.LOC.TEMP.S.0.mece.Y.4 time.20 neqit.1.www.1.500 PLNSOL.all..100 autots.kxx.100 NSEL.1.Temp.5 ESIZE.8.ALL IC.height D.Dens. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .300 nropt.5.0.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.TEMP ANTIME.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.920 mp.full lumpm.2. PLANE55 MP.2.

we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. As a warning. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. . In this case. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.

loc.all.y.200000 mp.fy.uy.-100 fk.0.5 rectng.1.1.45.s.12.symm lsel.all nsel..2 amesh. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.loc.1 mp.0.3.50 d.plane2 keyopt.20.1.55 prnsol.all fk.y.0.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.s.prxy.15.95.20.loc.0.all et.20.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.3 esize.off rectng.0 nsel.x.1.0 lsel.100 rectng.all finish /solu antype.1.s.0.fy.0 dl.100 aadd.s.all.ex.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .

1.all /expand.nsel..27.2.10 /view..axis.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .1.

0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. As a warning.. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. In this case. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.ualberta. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling.mece.. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.www. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

1.prxy.0.www.1.loc.0 nsel.s.2 amesh.all.comp nsel.20.uy.0 dl.10 /view.-100 fk.plane2 keyopt.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.100 rectng.3.ex.45.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..15.s.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .s.5 rectng.1.20.12.mece. /prep7 /triad.20.1.all.fy.all et.fy.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.0 lsel.loc..3 esize..95.55 prnsol..ualberta.y.1.0.200000 mp.1.all finish /solu antype.loc.0.27.all nsel.axis.2.off rectng.1.0.all fk.100 aadd.1 mp.s.x..symm lsel.0..50 d.y.all /expand.

Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. a wall thickness of 10. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. ANSYS Command Listing .1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.7. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.

13. 9.1.1000 N.12.1 REAL. . 0.1. 0. 6. 0. 8. 3.EX. 6 E.COMBIN7 ET.1000. 1.1. 500 N.1000 N.2.1e9. 700.1 E. 1.12.5.1 MAT.200000 MP. 1. 2.1500 N. 500 N. Catapult /PREP7 ET.11. 0. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity .13 E. 5 E. 2. 0. 0. 4 E. 8 E. 8 E.1000 N. 0. 0.PRXY.40.1000. 500 N.10. MP.3.1e9 R.-500 TYPE.1000.1. 0. . 0 N.33 N. 4 E.10. 4. 0 N. 700. 0 N. 0 N. 400. 3. 0. 0. 5. 3 E.13. 7.PIPE16 ET./title.1000 N. 400. 0. 7.1e9. 0. 0. 0. 0.2. 8 E. 2. 6.0.1000.10 R. 0.COMBIN14 R. 0.12. 9.3. 3 E. 5. 6 E. 5 E.

2 E.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.U.4.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3. 11 E. 10.12.3 E.FY.8. 9.TYPE. 2.3.ON NSUBST.2 REAL.7.5.12.13 F.2 *GET.5 D.NODE.13 ! Load node 7 .KP..0 /PNUM.4. 1.6 /PNUM.0.7.VERT7.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 NLGEOM.8 E.ALL. 11 TYPE..3 REAL.ELEM.

COMBIN14 R.7. ANSYS Command Listing /title.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .PIPE16 ET.1.1.3. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm.ualberta.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Catapult /PREP7 ET.www. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5.2. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. a wall thickness of 10.40.COMBIN7 ET. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.mece.1.

1000 N.-500 TYPE. 11 TYPE.13.0 NLGEOM. 5.6 /PNUM. 4 E.1000 N.10.1000. 500 N. 3. 2.13 E. 10.1000. 4 TYPE. 0. MP.1000.1000 N. 0. 0. 7. 3 E. 5. 2. 700. 400. 11 E.0.1 MAT.12. 0. 700. 5 E. 3. 0. 400. 9.0 /PNUM. 0.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.KP. 0 N. 9. 8 E. 0. 6. 0.2 E. 0. 0.ualberta. 0. 4. 0 N.3. 0.1e9 R. 6. 8 E. 5 E.3 REAL.3 E. 3 E. 8.1500 N. 9. 0. 0.1000. 4 E. . 0.1.10.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 E.EX.www. 6 E.2. 0 N. 500 N. 1.1e9.1e9. 0.PRXY. 7.1 REAL. 0. 0. 1.11. 8 E. 500 N.5.1000 N.8 E.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. .5.ELEM.2 REAL. 6 E.33 N.13. 0 N. 1. 1. 2.12.200000 MP.8.1. 2.html R.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .12.

4.3.ALL.12.0.www.mece.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .13 F.NODE.U.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.7.html NSUBST.FY.12.VERT7.5 D..7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.2 *GET.ualberta.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.

The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.0.3 ESIZE. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.RATI.. height MP. However.1.1. deciding which variables to use as design. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.0.2 HPTCREATE.Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.(W*H**3)/12.200000 MP.H.0 K.2. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. not '^').1. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.BEAM3 R.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.1.1000.W..1.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.100 LMESH.20 *set.LINE.1. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0 L.20 K. ET..0. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line . The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.I (note '**'.PRXY.EX. Design Optimization *set.75.H..W*H.

0 DK.DV. min 10 mm.Number of Iterations /AXLAB. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data .EVolume.0.DV.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.MAX *SET.MAX ETABLE.NMISC.1.001 MPa. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.200.EVOLUME ETABLE.SMAX_J.10.3.ITEM.0.H..Volume.SMAXI.SMAX.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.30.SMAX_J.UY.SMAX.SSUM.001mm OPVAR.SV. *GET..001 tolerance 0. *GET..OBJ.1.SMAXJ.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.0 DK.50. min 10 mm.2.optimize.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.SMAX_I..SORT.Y.200 OPTYPE.VOLUME. max 50 mm..NMISC.txt ! Assign optimize.2. tolerance 0. min 195 MPa.0 DK.195.FIRS OPFRST.ETAB.0 FK.FY.'optimize'.UX.W /AXLAB.100. ! Height state variable.0.'txt'. Percent step size.1.0.W.3 node ESORT.txt.0.001 mm. max 200 ! Volume as object variable. max 50 ! Width design variable..SMAX_I.0.10.1..UY.H.X.50.ETAB. SSUM *GET.VOLU. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.001 MPa OPVAR.1 node ESORT.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.ANTYPE.001mm OPVAR.SORT. tolerance 0.

0.2 HPTCREATE.20 K.LINE. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0..3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.W. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.1000. Design Optimization *set.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print..www.H.2.BEAM3 R.1. deciding which variables to use as design. However.1. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. ET.0..ualberta.(W*H**3)/12.75..W*H.0 K.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.H.1.1. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.I (note '**'. MP. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.20 *set.mece. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1..0 L. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.1.RATI..PRXY.200000 MP. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.EX. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. not '^'). The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.

ITEM.UX.MAX *SET.0 DK.0 DK.ETAB.SORT. Percent step size.0.OBJ.EVolume.SMAX.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.0.... Volume as object variable.10.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize. max 50 mm. min 195 MPa.X.0 FK.3 ESORT. max 200 MPa.VOLUME..-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE. OPEXE PLVAROPT. tol Height state variable.0 DK.FY. min 10 mm.EVOLUME ETABLE. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .SV.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.VOLU.DV.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR..200 OPTYPE..0.0.Volume.001 OPVAR.1.NMISC..UY.ETAB.SORT.MAX ETABLE.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL.H.10.3.txt ! Assign optimize.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.0.2.www.1.DV. to Width design variable.001 OPVAR..Number of Iterations /AXLAB.50..100. min 10 mm.SMAX.W /AXLAB. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.30.Y.txt.195.100 LMESH.0.1.SMAX_J.200.2. SSUM *GET. *GET.W.1 ESORT.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SMAXI.50.UY. ESIZE.1.FIRS OPFRST.mece.ualberta.NMISC.'optimize'.SMAXJ.optimize.H.. max 50 mm.SMAX_J.SSUM.SMAX_I.001 OPVAR.'txt'.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SMAX_I. *GET.

Apply loads to the super-element 2. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. 3.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. For this example.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. ANSYS Command Listing . Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element.5 MPa. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. v = 0. however. substructuring will be used for the wood block. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. Apply remaining loads to the model.

2 MP.1.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.1.0.SUBST SEOPT.10.FX.2 NSEL.100.0.Y.1.LOC. START /FILNAME.2.PRXY.EX.R.100.5 MP.S.2.140 NSEL. 2.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.S.1.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .db ! GEN.LOC.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.ALL NSEL.ALL NSEL.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.0.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.0 F.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.EX. amesh.X.0.EXT M.5 NSEL.ALL.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.40.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.2..! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .PLANE42 TYPE.ALL.PRXY.0.GEN.

MaxNode.MATRIX50 TYPE.ALL NSEL.2 real.NUM.S.2 amesh.1 SFE.MAX SETRAN.1.1 *GET.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.STATIC NSEL.1 ESEL..1.GEN2.0 D.! Meshing AESIZE.0.SUM.S.LOC.SELV.MaxNode.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.LOC.Y.GEN... superelement solution written to GEN.1.40 CPINTF.10.ALL.NODE.0.ALL.ON.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL..ALL.0 NSEL. mat.GEN2 SE.1.1 ! Superelement ET.U.TYPE.GEN2 NSEL.U.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.Y.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL ESEL.S.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.SUM.

Apply remaining loads to the model. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.5 MPa. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. Apply loads to the super-element 2..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. however.mece. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. For this example. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. substructuring will be used for the wood block.. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . v = 0. 3. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.ualberta. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.

ALL NSEL.0.S.FX.40.ualberta.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.db ! GEN.1.10.R.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.ALL NSEL.PRXY.EXT M.PLANE42 TYPE.ALL.GEN.LOC.www. START /FILNAME. amesh.LOC.X.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .EX.S.Y. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS ..1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.mece.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.1.100.140 NSEL. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).2. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.100.1.ALL..0.5 NSEL.0.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2 NSEL.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.1. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP..0 F.SUBST SEOPT.

GEN2 NSEL.41 ! Meshing AESIZE.1..ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.SUM.U.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.1 ! Superelement ET.MaxNode.S.0.YES SEEXP.1 SFE.NUM. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL. mat.ALL.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.1 ESEL.Y.ALL.TYPE.USE EXPSOL.Y.ALL.GEN2.STATIC NSEL.LOC.10..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.2 real..2.mece.www.PRXY.0 NSEL.MATRIX50 TYPE.S.S.1 *GET.1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.2 amesh.GEN2 SE..2.U.NODE.SUM.1.ON. MP.ALL NSEL.40 CPINTF.LOC.ALL ESEL.1.. 2. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .SELV.MAX SETRAN.0 D.5 MP.0.EX.MaxNode.ualberta..GEN.1.0.GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.

each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. the link will attemp to expand. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. and using it with any following coupled environments. stress is created in the link. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. A steel link. However. the geometry is kept constant. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. For instance. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). For our case. the analyses are coupled. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.. Loads will not be applied to the link. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. However. the element types can change. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. For a listing. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). where the thermal effects will be applied. For convenience. a thermal conductivity of 60." Thus. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. and write them to memory.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. . see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. with no internal stresses. Although the geometry must remain constant. It is important to note.

0 k.1.2. mp.273 dk.read.1.thermal physics.link33 r.write.1.struct ldread.0.temp.0 dk..all.1.alpx.2 et.4e-4.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .2.0 solve finish /post1 etable.write.0.1.12e-6 physics.1.prxy.read..tts mp.1.0 physics.CompStress.1.UX.0 l.348 solve finish /solu physics.clear finish /solu antype.thermal dk.1.3 mp.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.struct physics.kxx.200e9 mp.LS.analysis. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.ex.rth environment tref.1 lmesh.0.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.1.5 esize.all physics...temp.60.1.

PRETAB.CompStress ! Print the element table .

we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. However. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. stress is created in the link. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.ualberta. For convenience. where the thermal effects will be applied. Loads will not be applied to the link. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. A steel link. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. the analyses are coupled.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. and using it with any following coupled environments. a thermal conductivity of 60. with no internal stresses..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the link will attemp to expand." Thus. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. However. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. For our case.mece. the geometry is kept constant..www. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. . each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.

5 esize. the element types can change.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .write.0.rth tref.html Although the geometry must remain constant.all physics. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment..12e-6 physics.1.clear finish /solu antype.0 dk..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .2.clear etchg. It is important to note.kxx.1. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link.200e9 mp. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.0 k.1 lmesh.1.www.2 et.0 physics.ex.4e-4. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.1..2.ualberta. and write them to memory.tts mp.thermal dk.read. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. mp...temp.1. For instance.read.273 dk.thermal physics.1.all. For a listing.mece. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.struct physics.1.0.1.1.1.link33 r.UX.348 solve finish /solu physics.0 l.3 mp. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.prxy.0.struct ldread.60.write.temp.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.1.alpx.

mece.1 PRETAB.www.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .CompStress.LS.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.html solve finish /post1 etable.ualberta.

Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Thus. computational time can be kept to a minimum. rather than increasing mesh density. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. . A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

1.100 k.100.0.200000 mp.1 lsel.4.9.x.7.1.3 esize.52 k. P-Method Meshing /pmeth..s.0.0.11.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .48 k.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.80.ex.all lsel.10 mp.20.5.45.5.s.3 r.10.all.45.5 amesh.11.20.loc.10.12.9.52 k.20 outres.0 dl.4. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .48 k.3.0 k.100 k.8.12 et.80.plane145 keyopt.55.2.100 k.7.100 k.20.all lsel.all time.0 k.all.6.3.6.1.1.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.100.x.0 k.1.loc.on /prep7 k.100.prxy.8.1.1.all finish /solu antype.3.55.0 a.0 nsubst.2.

all solve finish /post1 set.pres.all.s.last plesol.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .sfl.-100 lsel.

This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.mece.on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. rather than increasing mesh density. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . P-Method Meshing /pmeth. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Thus.www.0.ualberta.

55.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.all finish /solu antype.52 k.10. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1.4.100.2.x.55.20.8.7.20.all lsel.2.ex.1 lsel..0 k.1.100.loc.8.52 k.11.100 k.www.html /prep7 k.20.loc.all solve finish /post1 set.0 a.45.48 k.x.10 mp.45.10.all.9.100 sfl.0 dl.0 k.11.100 k.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .all.0.plane145 keyopt.all lsel.0 k.1.200000 mp.0 nsubst.9.3 r.12 et.6.12.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0.prxy.20 outres.mece.5.3 esize.all.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.s.1.5 amesh.all time.80.1.6.4.100.0.last plesol.3.ualberta.80.3.100 k.48 k.1.pres.s.3.1.-100 lsel.100 k.5.s.7.

2. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.0 k.0.0.1. Thus. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . rather than increasing mesh density.3.0 k.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.03.03. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.0.0. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.

all kbc.1..Dens.1.all esel.1.100 autots.off lnsrch.4 time.2040 mp.60 nropt.1. esel.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.full lumpm.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson . of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.last etable.0.melty.273 finish /solu antype.k.temp.rest ekill.920 mp.3.1.1 IC.kxx.ext sf.s.2. 20 Max no.all.0.368 nsel.all finish /solu antype.conv.temp. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .20 neqit.03 a. not ramped ! Initial conditions.1.0005 amesh.10.melty.s.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.on outres.Plane55 MP.off solve finish /post1 set.all.268 nsel.4.0.0 nsubst.etab.c.8 esize.all.all /gst.

/post1 set.last esel.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements .live plnsol.s.

the p-level can be increased to give a similar result.1.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.03.0. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.03.03 k.2. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0 k.2.0.www.0 k.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.0.0.03 a.ualberta.3. Thus. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.4. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density. computational time can be kept to a minimum. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.3.0.0.0.1.

off lnsrch.www.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.last etable. not ramped ! Initial conditions.268 nsel.rest ekill.20 neqit.all.273 finish /solu antype..ext sf.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.full lumpm.all esel.melty.2040 mp.etab.last esel.Plane55 MP.1.1.all kbc.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all finish /solu antype.c.4 time.temp.920 mp.10. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .temp.Dens.off solve finish /post1 set.conv. esel.1.100 autots.kxx.0005 amesh.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .all.mece.1.0 nsubst.60 nropt.all finish /post1 set.ualberta.1 IC.368 nsel.all /gst.on outres.s.melty. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.s.0.8 esize.live plnsol.s.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.1. 20 Max no.all.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

/SOLU ANTYPE.0.0.1 /TYPE.Z.1/16*Length /CPLANE.LOC.All.5 PLNSOL.0 ASEL.7.LOC.-1.EQV.5.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.U.LOC.Length KSEL.0 WPROTA.SUM.8 WPCSYS.0.14.0.S.Y.1.X.1.0.43.FY.1.0.Width/2.0 WPOFFS.1 /TYPE.-2500 KSEL.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.S.05.1 WPOFFS.Z.S.LOC.0.0.90 /CPLANE.0 DA.1.ALL KSEL.Height KSEL.0.0.R.0.R.All.0 ASEL.2 ! Animate the slices .Width FK.ALL.

www.Height.3 esize.Width.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.SOLID45 MP.20 vmesh.ualberta.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.1.0.FAST ET.1 /REPLOT. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .PRXY.) of the following example.60.1.0.EX.0. Stress.mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.YS. 1 . etc.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.200000 MP.Length /ANGLE.000000.

0 DA.5 PLNSOL.mece.LOC.ualberta.0.LOC.90 /CPLANE.Z.S.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.43.Y.1 WPOFFS.05.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.LOC.0 WPROTA.-2500 KSEL.0.Width/2.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.S.X.0.0.R.ALL KSEL.S.SUM.Z.All.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.8 WPCSYS.0.EQV.Height KSEL.-1.5.1.1.7.0.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 ASEL.LOC.ALL.All.0 ASEL.Length KSEL.FY.0 WPOFFS.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Width FK.U.0.R.www.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.1.14.1 /TYPE.1.0.1 /TYPE.

50.50.100.all .150. For example. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path.10 cyl4. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.0.100 cyl4.1.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.10 cyl4. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. In this tutorial.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.200.50.0. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.10 asba.50.

UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.50 path.y.1.50 ppath.off /noerase /window..plane2.2..1.y.AVG nsel.all.1 /window.all.loc.1..PRES.bot nsel.s.1.ex.200000 mp.200.1.prxy...10 mp.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.SEQV.3 R.0.NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes .-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.s.all PLPAGM.loc.all nsel.cutline.5 amesh.3 esize.1.200.s..S.et.S.0.0 dl..y.1000 ppath.eqv.1.50 PDEF.loc.100 SFL.2.2.2.top /POST1 PLNSOL.eqv.

ualberta.. In this tutorial. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.www.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.200. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.0.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . For example.mece.0. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.

top /POST1 PLNSOL.1.eqv..200.0.2.1.ex.1000 ppath.1.0.loc.AVG nsel..y.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 dl.50.1. cyl4.S.100.10 cyl4.10 asba.2.s.off /noerase /window.mece.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.50.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.ualberta.y..50 PDEF.y.S.1.50.cutline.www.50..50 ppath..prxy.all PLPAGM.150.PRES.10 mp.3 R.200.1.5 amesh..3 esize..all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.s.all et.1.plane2.all nsel.loc.eqv.200000 mp.all..NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .loc.10 cyl4.SEQV.s.1..2.all.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.bot nsel.1 /window.100 SFL.2.50 path.

0 k.0. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry .1.2.40 mp.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.2 esize. Length of the following beam using tables.2400. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1. By plotting this data on a curve.prxy.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.320e3. a special type of array. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.3 k.I.1.beam3 r.ex.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 l.length.1.1.1.200000 mp.0.elementsize lmesh. rather than using a contour plot. finer resolution can be achieved.

y *vplot.graph(rows.u.loc.node.1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.antype.fy. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .2.x *vget.2.1).0 *set.graph(rows.2).Length /axlab.2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.0 400 *vget.y *set.graph(2.graph(1.TABLE.rows. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.2).1).all fk.x *vget.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.loc.all.u.graph.2.1).node.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.graph(2.graph(1.all.y.1).node.graph(1.x.1.2).static dk.node.2.graph(1.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.2) /axlab. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.

0 l.1.www.h.1.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.prxy.2 esize.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.2.beam3 r.1..ex. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.I. a special type of array.2400.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.0.ualberta.length.mece.. rather than using a contour plot. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. By plotting this data on a curve.40 mp. finer resolution can be achieved.0 k.0.1. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.320e3.200000 mp. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.1.3 k. Length of the following beam using tables.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .

graph(rows.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1).1.static dk.u.2).www.all finish /solu antype.loc.2).graph(rows.node.rows.y *vplot.2) /axlab.1).y *set.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.graph(1.graph(2.graph(1.graph(1.y.0 *vget.node.graph(1.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print..x..fy.node.graph(2.1 *vget.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.1).all fk.x *vget.Length /axlab.loc.2.2).graph. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .h. lmesh. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.TABLE.1).mece.2.all.all. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.node.ualberta.u.0 *set.2.x *vget.2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.

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