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ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

**University of Alberta - ANSYS Tutorials
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ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic and electromagnetic problems. Most of these tutorials have been created using ANSYS 7.0, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure if you are using an older or newer version.

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering

**This web site has been organized into the following six sections.
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University of Alberta

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ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS. This includes a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, the use of the windows in ANSYS, convergence testing, saving/restoring jobs, and working with Pro/E.

ANSYS Inc.

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Basic Tutorials

Detailed tutorials outlining basic structural analysis using ANSYS. It is recommended that you complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial builds upon skills taught in previous examples.

**Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta
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Intermediate Tutorials

Complex skills such as dynamic analysis and nonlinearities are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Advanced Tutorials

Advanced skills such as substructuring and optimization are explored in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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Postprocessing Tutorials

Postprocessing tools available in ANSYS such as X-sectional views of the geometry are shown in this section. It is recommended that you have completed the Basic Tutorials prior to attempting these tutorials.

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**Command Line Files
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Example problems solved using command line coding only, in addition to several files to help you to generate your own command line files.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

ANSYS Utilities

An introduction to using ANSYS, including a quick explanation of the stages of analysis, how to start ANSYS, and the use of the windows in ANSYS, and using Pro/ENGINEER with ANSYS.

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Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A brief introduction of the 3 stages involved in finite element analysis. Starting up ANSYS How to start ANSYS using windows NT and Unix X-Windows. ANSYS Environment An introduction to the windows used in ANSYS ANSYS Interface An explanation of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) in comparison to the command file approach. Convergence Testing This file can help you to determine how small your meshing elements need to be before you can trust the solution. Saving/Restoring Jobs Description of how to save your work in ANSYS and how to resume a previously saved job. ANSYS Files Definitions of the different files created by ANSYS. Printing Results Saving data and figures generated in ANSYS. Working with Pro Engineer A description of how to export geometry from Pro/E into ANSYS.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Basic Tutorials

The following documents will lead you through several example problems using ANSYS. ANSYS 7.0 was used to create some of these tutorials while ANSYS 5.7.1 was used to create others, therefore, if you are using a different version of ANSYS make note of changes in the menu structure. Complete these tutorials in order as each tutorial will build on skills taught in the previous example.

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Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a general knowledge of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Bicycle Space Frame Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS. This tutorial should take approximately an hour and a half to complete. Plane Stress Bracket Boolean operations, plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. Solid Modeling This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting, extrusion, copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering
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University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Intermediate Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the intermediate techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials before attempting these.

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**NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient
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Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. Distributed Loading The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial. NonLinear Analysis A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). There is also an associated tutorial for an explanation of the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) plot. Buckling In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem. NonLinear Materials The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. Dynamic Analysis These tutorial explore the dynamic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. Modal, Harmonic, and Transient Analyses are shown in detail. Thermal Examples Analysis of a pure conduction, a mixed convection/conduction/insulated boundary condition example, and a transient heat conduction analysis.

**Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat
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Axisymmetric

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Modelling Using Axisymmetry Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Advanced Tutorials

The majority of these examples are simple verification problems to show you how to use the more advanced techniques in ANSYS. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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**Element Death Contact Elements APDL
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Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally, elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. Design Optimization The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam. Substructuring The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/thermal problem. Using P-Elements The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements. Melting Using Element Death Using element death to model a volume melting. Contact Elements Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

Postprocessing Tutorials

These tutorials were created to show some of the tools available in ANSYS for postprocessing. You may be using a different version of ANSYS than what was used to create these tutorials, therefore, make note of small changes in the menu structure. These tutorials can be completed in any order, however, it is expected that you have completed the Basic Tutorials.

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Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables, a special type of array. Changing Graphical Properties This tutorial outlines some of the basic graphical changes that can be made to the main screen and model.

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**Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta
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ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

This set of command line codes are from the Advanced Tutorial section. ANSYS Command File Programming Features This file shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language). A simple radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders. This set of command line codes are from the Intermediate Tutorial section. Index Basic Tutorials Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta This set of command line codes are from the Basic Tutorial section. Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Analysis ANSYS Inc. Prompting the user for parameters. Basic Tutorials q Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials q Creating Command Files Directions on generating and running command files. This set of command line codes are from the PostProc Tutorial section. performing calculations with paramaters and control structures are illustrated. PostProc Tutorials Radiation The following files include some example problems that have been created using command line coding. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES Command Line Files The following files should help you to generate your own command line files.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

This is a general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). Solution: assigning loads. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: r Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes r Define element type and material/geometric properties r Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i. contraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting set of equations.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. 3D). 1. 3. in this stage one may wish to see: r Lists of nodal displacements r Element forces and moments r Deflection plots r Stress contour diagrams Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. In general. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Introduction ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. constraints and solving. heat transfer and fluid problems. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. Preprocessing: defining the problem. axi-symmetric. 2D. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .e. here we specify the loads (point or pressure). 2. 1D.

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Starting the Unix version of ANSYS involves a few more steps: q Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.. you can may want to reboot the computer. Getting the Program Started In the Mec E 3-3 lab..7 Run Interactive Now Unix X-Windows Start Up ANSYS Inc. be sure that your local drive has space for it. If you don't see this minimized program. . you should see something labeled X-Win32.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. there are two ways that you can start up ANSYS: 1. as it automatically starts this application when booting. right click on this menu and selection Sessions and then select Mece. Windows NT application 2. do this. you will now be prompted to login to GPU. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Starting up ANSYS Starting up ANSYS Large File Sizes ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. Unix X-Windows application Index Windows NT Start Up Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Starting up ANSYS in Windows NT is simple: q q q q Start Menu Programs ANSYS 5.

but rather. you will see an icon at the bottom of the screen that looks like a paper and pencil. don't select this icon. click on the up arrow above it and select Terminal a terminal command window will now start up in that window.q q q q once the Xwindows emulator has started. . type xansys57 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. q select the Run Interactive Now menu item.

such as file controls. selections.7. graphic controls and parameters. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS which made use of 6 different windows. Main Window Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.0 Environment The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Within the Main Window are 5 divisions: a. Utility Menu The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS session. .1 PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS 7. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES ANSYS 5. 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an Output Window.

while the versions appear different. Main Menu The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions. e. solution. general postprocessor. Graphics Window The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can be made. such as listing of data etc. organized by preprocessor. More push buttons can be added if desired. Input Lindow The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in commands directly. 2. Toolbar The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS commands. It is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary. It is from this menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. . Output Window The Output Window shows text output from the program. design optimizer. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis. However. d.b. This is where you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and version 7.0. the menu structure has not changed. c.

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This approach enables easy model modifications and minimal file space requirements. The tutorials in this website are designed to teach both the GUI and the command file approach. This method follows the conventions of popular Windows and X-Windows based programs.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. consult: Index Help > Table of Contents > Commands Manual. The first is by means of the graphical user interface or GUI. however. many of you will find the command file simple and more efficient to use once you have invested a small amount of time into learning the code. but it has the advantage that an entire analysis can be described in a small text file. Command File Coding There are two methods to use ANSYS. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Interface Graphical Interface vs. For information and details on the full ANSYS command language. The second is by means of command files. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . typically in less than 50 lines of commands. The command file approach has a steeper learning curve for many.

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it is desired to minimize the number of elements. General Models . In general there are no real firm answers on this. it will be necessary to try a finer mesh yet. and thus calculation time and still obtain the desired accuracy. Governing equations are written for each element and these elements are assembled into a global matrix. loading and constraints. It will be necessary to conduct convergence tests! By this we mean that you begin with a mesh discretization and then observe and record the solution. Beam Models ANSYS Inc. If the results differ by a large amount however.e.. Loads and constraints are applied and the solution is then determined. then the first mesh is probably good enough for that particular geometry. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION FEM Convergence Testing Introduction A fundamental premise of using the finite element procedure is that the body is sub-divided up into small discrete regions known as finite elements. Now repeat the problem with a finer mesh (i. but for a larger model. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta For beam models. The Problem The question that always arises is: How small do I need to make the elements before I can trust the solution? Index What to do about it. For simple models it is of no concern.. more elements) and then compare the results with the previous test. it will only slow the calculations down. we actually only need to define a single element per line unless we are applying a distributed load on a given frame member. When point loads are used. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The Consequences Finer meshes come with a cost however: more calculational time and large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)! It is desired to find the minimum number of elements that give you a converged solution. If the results are nearly similar. These elements defined by nodes and interpolation functions.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. specifying more that one element per line will not change the solution.

the stresses will converge more slowly than the displacement. In a solid mechanics problem. this would be done by creating several models with different mesh sizes and comparing the resulting deflections and stresses. for example. it is necessary to conduct convergence tests on your finite element model to confirm that a fine enough element discretization has been used. In general. so it is not sufficient to examine the displacement convergence.In general however. .

There are two methods to do this: 1. r Then when you get ANSYS started. r This will restore as much of your database (geometry. and select your job from the list that appears.db. where jobname is the name that you specified in the Launcher when you first started ANSYS. Your model will be saved in a file called jobname... To save your model. select Utility Menu -> File -> Resume Jobname. In that way. you will at least be able to come back to this point..db .. Or. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS: Saving and Restoring Jobs Saving Your Job It is good practice to save your model at various points during its creation. Using the Launcher. and specify the previously defined jobname. ANSYS Inc. if you make some mistakes later on. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work incase of a system crash or other unforseen problems.. r In the ANSYS Launcher. solution.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. select Utility Menu Bar -> File -> Save As Jobname. etc) that you previously saved. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Very often you will get to a point in the modeling where things have gone well and you like to save it at the point. start ANSYS and select Utitily Menu -> File -> Resume from. loads. select Interactive. 2..db. Index Recalling or Resuming a Previously Saved Job Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Frequently you want to start up ANSYS and recall and continue a previous job.

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Depending on the operations carried out. q If you will always be using the GUI. the name of all the files created will be FILE.db file. from another ANSYS run. then the created files will all have the file prefix. frame. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta What to save? When you want to clean up your directory. That file may be rerun as is. frame. These files may contain results.dbb Backup of the database file (binary). then you only require the . rename it first so that it does not get overwritten or added to. Listing of all error and warning messages. This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an ANSYS session.log Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). starting with an existing log file. or edited and rerun as desired (Command File Creation and Execution). etc. Frame again with various extensions: frame. This file contains a complete listing of the ANSYS commands used to get you model to its current point.db Database file (binary). If you plan on using ANSYS command files..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. If you plan to use the command mode of operation. you need only activate the resume command to proceed from where you last left off (see Saving and Restoring Jobs). frame. other files may have been written. or move things from the /scratch directory. If you specified a jobname. frame. This file stores the geometry.err Error file (text). If you started ANSYS without specifying a jobname. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Once the ANSYS has started. and the jobname has been specified. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Files Introduction A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. boundary conditions and any solutions.* where the * represents various extensions described below. Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands used during the current session. then you need only store your command file and/or the log file. say Frame.out Output of all ANSYS operations (text). boundary conditions and any solutions.. This file stores the geometry. what files do you need to save? q ANSYS Inc. etc.

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2. Select 'File'/'Save As. 1. Stresses: instead of using 'Plot Results' to plot the stresses.. 1. When the list appears on the screen in its own window.0 Quick Image Save When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics window'. select: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy . In the window that appears.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Press 'OK' ANSYS Inc. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 2.'. 'Reverse Video'. Then enter the file name of your choice.' and give a file name to store the results. and choose what you want to list from the menu. For example select 'Nodal Solution' from the 'List Results' menu. Any other solutions can be done in the same way. choose 'List Results'. while the second is a scalable vector plot. However. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Printing and Plotting ANSYS Results to a File Printing Text Results to a File ANSYS produces lists and tables of many types of results that are normally displayed on the screen. q q This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document.. Index Plotting of Figures Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta q q There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. you will normally want to select 'Graphics window'. 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'. Save the resulting list in the same way described above. The first is a quick a raster-based screen dump. to get displacements.0 Better Quality Plots ... You can pick multiple items. 'Monochrome'. 3. it is often desired to save the results to a file to be later analyzed or included in a report. Select 'Elem Table Data'. Preprocessing and Solution data can be listed and saved from the 'List' menu in the 'Utility Menu bar'.

You can display your plots to the graphics window by issuing the command like plot. Decrease the size of this window. because it most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. you must first 'redirect' the plots to a file by issuing: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To File.. but rather they will be written to the selected file. redirect plots back to the screen using: 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Redirect Plots'/'To Screen'.pic'. Display wants 'plots. When you are finished plotting what you want to the file. Now that the plots have been read in.pic'(with a comma). Now issue whatever plot commands you want within ANSYS. select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way) 2. Either way. you have a couple of options: 1. Redirection Normally all ANSYS plots are directed to the plot window on the screen. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS. then n could be any number from 1 to 5. Note that although the file is 'plots.. a large graphics window will appear. You can put as many plots as you want into the plot file.'. or HPGL for example.n where n is plot number. but takes a lot more work to set up as you'll see.g.frame.pic) in the 'Selection' Window. Type in a filename (e.The second method of saving a plot is much more flexible. To do this. Display and Conversion The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript..pic' (with a period). they may be saved to printer files of various formats: . remembering that the plots will not be displayed to the screen. Load your plot file with the following command: file.: frame.. To save some plots to a file. shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the Unix prompt.pic if your plot file is 'plots. to be later printed or included in a document or what have you. This is performed by running a separate program called display.

Each image is plotted to a postscript file such as pscrxx.2 /show. The printer information is still present. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. what are you going to do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper. issue the following commands: /show. the postscript image will appear as blank box. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file.n Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file. you can actually see the image in the word processor! To use the HPGL format. To do this.1.hpgl plot. but it can only be viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer. . 3. enter the following commands in display: pscr. as above. you set the postscript color option to '3'. overheads or even posters! 2.e. HPGL: The third commonly used printer format is HPGL.n Final Steps It is wise to rename these plot files as soon as you leave display. The printer information is still present. where xx is a number. for display will overwrite the files the next time it is run. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. A way around this is to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour. Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor. This is a compact vector format that has the advantage that when you import a file of this type into a word processor.3 /show.pscr plot. besides the colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways. the postscript image will appear as blank box. For subsequent plots.n where n is the plot number. starting at 00.color. i. which stands for Hewlett Packard Graphics Language. and then issue the other commands as before pscr.n command as the other options have now been set.color.pscr plot.grph. you only require the plot. You can plot as many images as you want to postscript files in this manner.

hpgl' extension. This renaming is done at the Unix commmand line (the 'mv' command). exit display by entering finish . In a similar way.You may want to rename the postscript files with an '. A list of all available display commands and their options may be obtained by typing: help When complete.eps' extension to indicate that they are encapsulated postscript images. the HPGL printer files could be given an '.

if the feature is critical to your design. holes. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .W. Things to note are: r r r Index be aware of your model units note the orientation of the model (default coordinate system in ANSYS will be the same as in Pro/E) IMPORTANT: remove all unnecessary and/or cosmetic features like rounds. you will want to leave it. Make the part Use Pro/E to make the part. analysis types will not be covered. loads.. chamfers. Too much small geometry will cause the mesh generator to create a very fine mesh with many elements which will greatly increase your solver time. many modeling options for constraints. etc. Step 1. You must compromise between accuracy and available CPU resources. Model idealizations such as shells and beams will not be treated. by suppressing them in Pro/E.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Introduction Starting up ANSYS ANSYS Environment ANSYS Interface Convergence Testing Saving/Restoring Jobs ANSYS Files Printing Results Working with Pro/E ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Finite Element Method using Pro/ENGINEER and ANSYS Notes by R. Toogood The transfer of a model from Pro/ENGINEER to ANSYS will be demonstrated here for a simple solid model. Also. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Of course. These are fairly easy to figure out once you know the general procedures presented here. mesh control.

For this model. The model will be constrained on the left face and a uniform load will be applied to the right face. . Some cosmetic features are located on the top surface and the two sides. Model units are inches. So.The figure above shows the original model for this demonstration. the plate and the loading hole are removed. This is a model of a short cantilevered bracket that bolts to the wall via the thick plate on the left end. as are the cosmetic features and rounds resulting in the "de-featured" geometry shown below. the interest is in the stress distribution around the vertical slot. Several edges are rounded. A load is applied at the hole in the right end.

Basically. Idealizations lets you create special modeling entities like shells and beams. All these commands are also available using the command windows that will open on the right side of the screen or in dialog windows that will open when appropriate.Step 2. The MEC STRUCT menu appears on the right. select Applications > Mechanica An information window opens up to remind you about the units you are using. This is how you will specify the directions of constraints and forces. and so on. idealizations). . Other coordinate systems (eg cylindrical) can be created as required and used for the same purpose. loads. surface regions. We proceed in a topdown manner. This is where we specify modeling information. to define the model we proceed down this menu in a top-down manner. check the box beside FEM Mode and select the command Structure. curves. Press Continue In the MECHANICA menu at the right. The Features command allows you to create additional simulation features like datum points. Model is already selected for you which opens the STRC MODEL menu. Create the FEM model In the pull-down menu at the top of the Pro/E window. A new toolbar appears on the right of the screen that contains icons for creating all the common modeling entities (constraints. Notice that a small green coordinate system WCS has appeared. The Current CSYS command lets you create or select an alternate coordinate system for specifying directions of constraints and loads.

Fixed. rotational constraints are active if specified. Each constraint set has a unique name (default of the first one is ConstraintSet1) and can contain any number of individual constraints of different types. we now select the surface we want constrained (push the Surface selection button in the window and then click on the desired surface of the model). . and Z. For our solid model. A dialog window opens as shown above. all we need are constraints. edges. We are going to fully constrain the left face of the cantilever. In general we specify constraints on translation and rotation for any mesh node that will appear on the selected entity. Select Constraints > New We can specify constraints on four entity types (basically points. Prescribed. In the final computed model. The constraints to be applied are selected using the buttons at the bottom of the window. we can select one of the four buttons (Free. the rotation constraints are irrelevant (since nodes of solid elements do not have this degree of freedom anyway). and a specified material. Here you can give a name to the constraint and identify which constraint set it belongs to. but this can contain numerous individual constraints. and surfaces). loads. Constraints are organized into constraint sets. Y. only one set can be included. For beams and shells. Select Surface.Defining Constraints For our simple model. Since we elected to create a surface constraint. For each direction X. and Function of Coordinates). Each individual constraint also has a unique name (default of the first one is Constraint1).

leave all the translation constraints as FIXED. one load set might contain only the internal pressure. Defining Loads In the STRC MODEL menu select Loads > New > Surface The FORCE/MOMENT window opens as shown above.For our model. You should now see some orange symbols on the left face of the model. Leave the defaults for the load distribution. Then select OK. For example. and select the OK button. Enter the force components at the bottom. along with some text labels that summarize the constraint settings. The load should be . Loads are also organized into named load sets. another a temperature load. These can be solved at the same time. and the principle of superposition used to combine them in numerous ways. in the analysis of a pressurized tank on a support system with a number of nozzle connections to other pipes. and more might contain the forces applied at each nozzle location. Create a load called "end_load" in the default load set (LoadSet1) Click on the Surfaces button. another might contain the support forces. A FEM model can contain any number of different load sets. then select the right face of the model and middle click to return to this dialog. Note these are relative to the WCS. A load set can contain any number of individual loads of different types.

You can select and edit these in the usual way using the right mouse button. our model has the necessary information for solution (constraints. At this point. If you select the Edit button. In an assembly. Assigning Materials Our last job to define the model is to specify the part material. Define the analysis Select Analyses > New . you will see the properties of the chosen material.displayed symbolically as shown in the figure below. Note that constraint and load sets appear in the model tree. you could now assign this material to individual parts. select a material and move it to the right pane using the triple arrow button in the center of the window. Step 3. In the STRC MODEL menu. loads. select Materials > Whole Part In the library dialog window. material).

Enter a short description. Creating the mesh We are going to use defaults for all operations here. . Step 4. Now select OK. like "ansystest". Select the type (Structural or Modal). Now select the Add buttons beside the Constraints and Loads panes to add ConstraintSet1 and LoadSet1 to the analysis. The mesh is created and another dialog window opens (Element Quality Checks). select Mesh > Create > Solid > Start Accept the default for the global minimum. The MEC STRUCT window.Specify a name for the analysis.

The results are indicated in columns on the right.This indicates some aspects of mesh quality that may be specified and then. evaluated for the model. you may want to go back to specify mesh controls (discussed below). Select Close. If the mesh does not pass these quality checks. Here is an image of the default mesh. shown in wire frame. . by selecting the Check button at the bottom.

. Notice the better representation of the curved edges than in the previous figure. Beware that excessively tight mesh controls can result in meshes with many elements.Improving the Mesh In the mesh command. setting a maximum mesh size along the curved ends of the slot results in the following mesh. you can select the Controls option. For example. This is at the expense of more than double the number of elements. maximum mesh size. This will allow you to select points. and surfaces where you want to specify mesh geometry such as hard points. Note that mesh controls are also added to the model tree. edges. and so on.

loads. select Run . materials.Step 5. mesh). Creating the Output file All necessary aspects of the model are now created (constraints. In the MEC STRUCT menu.

loads. You pick either Linear or Parabolic elements.ans). The analysis we defined (containing constraints. mesh. Select OK and read the message window. Select the Output to File radio button at the bottom and specify the output file name (default is the analysis name with extension . and material) is listed. .This opens the Run FEM Analysis dialog window shown here. In the Analysis list. In the Solver pull-down list at the top. We are now finished with Pro/E. select ANSYS. Copy the . select Structural.ans file from your Pro/E working directory to the directory you will use for running ANSYS. Go to the top pull-down menus and select Applications > Standard Save the model file and leave the program.

You can display the model using (in the pull down menus) Plot > Elements. and select Apply.. You should now have a color fringe plot of the Von Mises stress displayed on the model. Importing into ANSYS Launch ANSYS Interactive and select File > Read Input From. This will read in the entire model.ans file you created previously. you will be informed that the solution is complete. Viewing the results There are myriad possibilities for viewing FEM results. Select the . A common one is the following: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu Pick the Von Mises stress values.Step 6. select Solution > Solve > Current LS > OK After a few seconds. Updated: 8 November 2002 using Pro/ENGINEER 2001 RWT Please report errors or omissions to Roger Toogood . Running the ANSYS solver In the ANSYS Main Menu on the left. Step 8.. Step 7.

Index Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. In the Utility menu bar select File > Change Title: . This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. and stress for the truss system shown below (E = 200GPa. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Bridge Truss Tutorial'). (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda. A = 3250mm2).UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem. p.123) Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. reaction forces. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

r We are going to define 7 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1800 3600 5400 7200 9000 10800 0 3118 0 3118 0 3118 0 (these keypoints are depicted by numbers in the above figure) r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . these keypoints are the ends of each truss. This title will appear in the bottom left corner of the 'Graphics' Window once you begin. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 2.The following window will appear: Enter the title and click 'OK'. For this example. Note: to get the title to appear immediately. Enter Keypoints The overall geometry is defined in ANSYS using keypoints which specify various principal coordinates to define the body.

0 in their appropriate boxes (as shown above). Enter the remaining keypoints using the same method. and enter the x. Note: When entering the final data point.The following window will then appear: r To define the first keypoint which has the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0: Enter keypoint number 1 in the appropriate box.y coordinates: 0. Click 'Apply' to accept what you have typed. If you first press r . click on 'OK' to indicate that you are finished entering keypoints.

thus making any conversions where necessary. simply press 'Cancel' to close this dialog box. Fortunately these are easily corrected so that you don't need to begin from scratch every time an error is made! Every 'Create' menu for generating these various entities also has a corresponding 'Delete' menu for fixing things up. areas. r In the main menu select: Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord. elements. you will have defined it twice! If you did press 'Apply' for the final point. lines. Form Lines The keypoints must now be connected We will use the mouse to select the keypoints to form the lines. The following window will then appear: . volumes. 3. Units Note the units of measure (ie mm) were not specified.'Apply' and then 'OK' for the final keypoint. Correcting Mistakes When defining keypoints. constraints and loads you are bound to make mistakes. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that a consistent set of units are used for the problem.

Connect the remaining keypoints using the same method. When you're done.e. Your ANSYS Graphics window should look similar to the following figure. minimize the 'Lines' menu and the 'Create' menu. It will now be marked by a small yellow box.r Use the mouse to pick keypoint #1 (i. click on it). A line will now show on the screen joining these two points. Left click and a permanent line will appear. Now move the mouse toward keypoint #2. r r r . click on 'OK' in the 'Lines in Active Coord' window.

This is called 'meshing'. they have most likely NOT been deleted. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements. However. ANSYS first needs to know what kind of elements to use for our problem: r From the Preprocessor Menu.Disappearing Lines Please note that any lines you have created may 'disappear' throughout your analysis. The following window will then appear: . If this occurs at any time from the Utility Menu select: Plot > Lines 4. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Select the element shown and click 'OK'.' button. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: .r Click on the 'Add. You should see 'Type 1 LINK1' in the 'Element Types' window.. we will use the 2D spar element as selected in the above figure. The following window will appear: r For this example. r 5.

.r In the Preprocessor menu. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. and select 'Type 1 LINK1' (actually it is already selected). select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete r Click Add.. . Click on 'OK'. The following window will appear: r r r As shown in the window above. 'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. enter the cross-sectional area (3250mm): Click on 'OK'.

Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models r Double click on Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic .6.

Note: You may obtain the note 'PRXY will be set to 0. r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines . This is poisson's ratio and is not required for this element type. 7. Mesh Size The last step before meshing is to tell ANSYS what size the elements should be. Close the "Define Material Model Behavior" by clicking on the 'X' box in the upper right hand corner. Click 'OK' on the window to continue. Enter the following field: EX 200000 r Set these properties and click on 'OK'. There are a variety of ways to do this but we will just deal with one method for now.0'.We are going to give the properties of Steel.

For this example we want only 1 division per line. we have simply defined the element sizes. enter '1' and then click 'OK'. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Your model should now appear as shown in the following window . 8. therefore. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.r In the size 'NDIV' field. enter the desired number of divisions per line. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry.

. keypoint numbers.. q From the Utility Menu (top of screen) select PlotCtrls > Numbering... node numbers.Plot Numbering To show the line numbers. Fill in the Window as shown below and click 'OK' q .

. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. It is a good idea to save your job at different times throughout the building and analysis of the model to backup your work in case of a system crash or what have you. Open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). so if you make some mistakes later on. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Define Analysis Type . It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations.. you will at least be able to come back to this point.. To do this.Now you can turn numbering on or off at your discretion Saving Your Work Save the model at this time. 1. on the Utility Menu select File > Save as.

Click 'OK'. pinned and roller-type connections. i. select Analysis Type > New Analysis. for example. the left end of the truss bridge is pinned while the right end has a roller connection. you are going to do a static analysis on the truss as opposed to a dynamic analysis. r 2.First you must tell ANSYS how you want it to solve this problem: r From the Solution Menu. r Ensure that 'Static' is selected. In mechanical structures. these constraints will typically be fixed. Apply Constraints It is necessary to apply constraints to the model otherwise the model is not tied down or grounded and a singular solution will result. As shown above.e. r In the Solution menu. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints .

Therefore. ROT on KPs' window. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. .r Select the left end of the bridge (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. r This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained.

Note that more than one DOF constraint can be selected at a time in the "Apply U. Therefore.ROT on KPs" window. 5. r Select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > on Keypoints. This indicate that we will be applying the load in the 'y' direction Enter a value of -280000 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'. Note that we are using units of N here. Select the first Keypoint (left end of the truss) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M on KPs' window. 280kN. and 7 respectively. there are four downward loads of 280kN. you may need to 'deselect' the 'All DOF' option to select just the 'UY' option. and 360kN at keypoints 1. . 3. apply the roller connection to the right end (UY constrained). r r Select FY in the 'Direction of force/mom'. this is consistent with the previous values input. Apply the remaining loads in the same manner. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. 210kN. r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. 3.You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow. r Using the same method.

4. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r In the 'Solution' menu select Solve > Current LS. . This indicates that we desire the solution under the current Load Step (LS).

Click 'Close' and close the /STATUS Command Window. Once the solution is done the following window will pop up.r The above windows will appear.. r Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. . Ensure that your solution options are the same as shown above and click 'OK'. Hand Calculations We will first calculate the forces and stress in element 1 (as labeled in the problem description).

Results Using ANSYS Reaction Forces A list of the resulting reaction forces can be obtained for this element r from the Main Menu select General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solu. r Select 'All struc forc F' as shown above and click 'OK' .2.

Deformation r In the General Postproc menu. select Plot Results > Deformed Shape. r Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.These values agree with the reaction forces claculated by hand above. . The following window will appear.

409). The following window will appear. One should also observe that the constrained degrees of freedom appear to have a deflection of 0 (as expected!) Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. .r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (DMX=7. r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution.

Leave the other selections as the default values. Click 'OK'. .r Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' as shown in the above window.

r Looking at the scale.. r .. From the Utility Menu select Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours. you may want to use more useful intervals. Fill in the following window as shown and click 'OK'.

.You should obtain the following.

r The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. This means that we want to see a listing of all degrees of freedom from the solution. .

If you wanted to save these results to a file. we can see that SAXL can be obtained through the ETABLE. using the item 'LS.r Are these results what you expected? Note that all the degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1.2 in the Help file.' r . spars. From Table 1.. select 'File' within the results window (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.. For this example we should obtain axial stress to compare with the hand calculations. The Element Table is different for each element. and pipes) you will often need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. therefore. beams. strains). we need to look at the help file for LINK1 (Type help link1 into the Input Line).1' r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table Click on 'Add. while UY was constrained to zero at node 7. r Axial Stress For line elements (ie links.

. Next.. enter 'SAXL' in the 'Lab' box. Then enter 1 after LS. Plot the Stresses by selecting Element Table > Plot Elem Table The following window will appear. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . . in the 'Item.you need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. This specifies the name of the item you are defining.r As shown above. Comp' boxes. select 'By sequence number' and 'LS. in the selection box Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window.'. Ensure that 'SAXL' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r Because you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" .

Again. you may wish to select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SAXL' is highlighted s Click 'OK' .

click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'. Now go to 'File > Read input from....HTML version. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file.. Open the . select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu/File/Exit. .Note that the axial stress in Element 1 is 82. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .9MPa as predicted analytically. In the dialog box that appears. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS..

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Problem Description Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be solved in this example is the analysis of a bicycle frame.0 to solve a simple 3D space frame problem. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Space Frame Example | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bicycle Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Verification . ANSYS Inc. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure.

these keypoints are the ends of the beam. etc. Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. Give the Simplified Version a Title (such as 'Verification Model'). This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. scale factors. Enter Keypoints For this simple example. units. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a cantilever beam shown in the following figure: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type.The first step is to simplify the problem. r We are going to define 2 keypoints for the simplified structure as given in the following table coordinate keypoint x y z 1 2 0 500 0 0 0 0 r From the 'ANSYS Main Menu' select: .

. The following window will appear: r r For this example. Pick keypoint #1 (i..e. r Select: Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line. It will now be marked by a small yellow box. Now pick keypoint #2.. click on 'OK' in the 'Create Straight Line' window. The following window will appear: r . Select the element shown and click 'OK'. r r r 4.' button.. When you're done. Click on the 'Add. A permanent line will appear. You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. select: Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. click on it). Click on the 'Options. Form Lines The two keypoints must now be connected to form a bar using a straight line. r From the Preprocessor Menu.' button in the 'Element Types' dialog box. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to create elements on this line. we will use the 3D elastic straight pipe element as selected in the above figure.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS 3.

. select Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Click Add. Enter the following geometric properties: Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 25 2 r r This defines an outside pipe diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm. and select 'Type 1 PIPE16' (actually it is already selected).r Click and hold the K6 button (second from the bottom).. Define Geometric Properties We now need to specify geometric properties for our elements: r In the Preprocessor menu. Click on 'Close' in the 'Element Types' dialog box and close the 'Element Type' menu. r 5.. Click on 'OK'. and select 'Include Output' and click 'OK'. This gives us extra force and moment output.

'Set 1' now appears in the dialog box. 8. meshing is done in this case so that we can obtain results (ie stress. we have simply defined the element sizes. (Alternatively. NOTE It is not necessary to mesh beam elements to obtain the correct solution. enter '20' (i. For this example we want an element length of 2cm. we would enter 25 [ie 25 divisions]). r r r 7. Enter the following field: EX 70000 PRXY 0. Saving Your Work . However.. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed. We are going to give the properties of Aluminum. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Lines and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window 9. Element Material Properties You then need to specify material properties: r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Material Props > Material Models.e 20mm) and then click 'OK'. Click on 'Close' in the 'Real Constants' window. we could enter the number of divisions we want in the line. Mesh Size r In the Preprocessor menu select Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines r In the size 'SIZE' field. For an element length of 2cm.33 Set these properties and click on 'OK'. displacement) at intermediate positions on the beam. Double click Structural > Linear > Elastic and select 'Isotropic' (double click on it) Close the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. enter the desired element length. therefore.r Click on 'OK'. Note that we have not yet meshed the geometry.. r 6.

select Force/Moment > on Keypoints. Select the name and location where you want to save your file. Select the second Keypoint (right end of bar) and click 'OK' in the 'Apply F/M' window. Define Analysis Type r From the Solution Menu. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Apply Loads As shown in the diagram. Therefore. The force will appear in the graphics window as a red arrow.ROT on KPs' window. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field and click 'OK'. select Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Select the left end of the rod (Keypoint 1) by clicking on it in the Graphics Window and click on 'OK' in the 'Apply U. select 'Analysis Type > New Analysis'. r r r r The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.. .. Click on the 'Direction of force/mom' at the top and select FY. there is a vertically downward load of 100N at the end of the bar r In the Structural menu. r 2..Utility Menu > File > Save as. Apply Constraints r In the Solution menu. This location is fixed which means that all translational and rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) are constrained. r r 3. Ensure that 'Static' is selected and click 'OK'. Enter a value of -100 in the 'Force/moment value' box and click 'OK'.

we need to calculate what we should find. Solving the System We now tell ANSYS to find the solution: r Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.2mm as shown above. . since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results . Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs at the end of the rod and was found to be 6.4. Hand Calculations Now.

the two which we will deal with now are 'Plot Results' and 'List Results' Select Plot Results > Deformed Shape.Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the base of the rod and was found to be 64.9MPa as shown above (pure bending stress). 2. In this menu you will find a variety of options. Results Using ANSYS Deformation r from the Main Menu select General Postproc from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. r r . Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.

Leave the other selections as the default values. Deflection For a more detailed version of the deflection of the beam. Select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM'.r Observe the value of the maximum deflection in the upper left hand corner (shown here surrounded by a blue border for emphasis). This is identical to that obtained via hand calculations. r . r From the 'General Postproc' menu select Plot results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution. Click 'OK'.

This means that we want to see a listing of all translational and rotational degrees of freedom from the solution. select 'DOF Solution' and 'ALL DOFs' from the lists in the 'List Nodal Solution' window and click 'OK'. which can be accomplished by going to the Utility Menu and selecting Plot Controls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours The deflection can also be obtained as a list as shown below. we would have chosen 'ALL Us' instead of 'ALL DOFs'. If we had only wanted to see the displacements for example. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution . r ...r You may want to have a more useful scale.

the right end of the rod. Also note that all the rotational and translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at node 1. spars.. strains). and pipes) you will need to use the Element Table to gain access to derived data (ie stresses. If you wanted to save these results to a file.. the maximum deflection occurs at node 2.. use the mouse to go to the 'File' menu (at the upper left-hand corner of this list window) and select 'Save as'.r Are these results what you expected? Again.. r Stresses For line elements (ie beams. Click on 'Add.' r . r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours . in the 'Item. select 'Stress' and 'von Mises SEQV' Click on 'OK' and close the 'Element Table Data' window. Plot the Stresses by selecting Plot Elem Table in the Element Table Menu The following window will appear.. Ensure that 'SEQV' is selected and click 'OK' r r r r If you changed the contour intervals for the Displacement plot to "User Specified" you may need to switch this back to "Auto calculated" to obtain new values for VMIN/VMAX. ..Comp' boxes in the above window.r As shown above.

First.Again. a bending moment diagram can be created. select more appropriate intervals for the contour plot r List the Stresses s From the 'Element Table' menu. Bending Moment Diagrams To further verify the simplified model. Pipe 16 has 2 nodes. let's look at how ANSYS defines each element. . select 'List Elem Table' s From the 'List Element Table Data' window which appears ensure 'SEQV' is highlighted s Click 'OK' Note that a maximum stress of 64. I and J. as shown in the following image.914 MPa occurs at the fixed end of the beam as predicted analytically.

The Element Table contains most of the data for the element including the bending moment data for each element at Node I and Node J.this will give a name to the data B.. Click 'OK' This will save all of the bending moment data at the left hand side (I side) of each element.... we need to obtain obtain the bending moment data. Enter IMoment as the 'User label for item' .. Enter JMoment as the 'User label for item' . A. Now we need to find the bending moment data at the right hand side (J side) of each element.again. click 'Add. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. Enter SMISC. r In the window. . First.' in the 'Element Table Data' window. Click 'Add.To obtain the bending moment for this element.. the Element Table must be used. Select 'By sequence num' in the Item box C.'. Same as above . this will give a name to the data B. Select 'SMISC' in the first Comp box D. A.6 in the second Comp box E. r Again.

and 'JMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabJ. Click 'OK'.. Click 'OK' r Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window and close the 'Element Table' Menu. Note again that you can modify the intervals for the contour plot. enter SMISC.C. Same as above D. For step D.. select 'IMOMENT' from the pull down menu for LabI. .12 in the second Comp box E. Select Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Elem Res. r From the 'Plot Line-Element Results' window.

r Briefly read the ANSYS documentation which appears. Sequence Numbers. r Before the explanation of the above steps. pay particular attention to the Tables near the end of the document (shown below). you can double check these solutions analytically. Note that the line between the I and J point is a linear interpolation. PIPE16 Item. and Definitions for the ETABLE Commands node I name MFORX MFORY item SMISC SMISC e 1 2 Member forces Definition .Now. enter help pipe16 in the command line as shown below and then hit enter. Table 1.

ALL FK. z Line from keypoint 1 to 2 ! Element Type = pipe 16 ! This is the changed option to give the extra force and moment output ! Real Constant.EX.2.500. z Keypoint.1. L. Note that the text following the "!" are comments.0. !* MP.33 ! ! ! ! ! Element sizes.33 !* LESIZE. all of the lines. Major Poisson's Ratio.1. 70000 MPa ! Material Properties. 1. 2.ALL. Material 1. Outside Diameter. 0.the Member moment for node I.MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 at the node Member moments at the node Note that SMISC 6 (which we used to obtain the values at node I) correspond to MMOMZ .PIPE16 KEYOPT.1. Copy the following code into the command line.70000 MP.25.0.2. To see the benefits of the command line clear your current file: q q q From the Utility menu select: File > Clear and Start New Ensure that 'Read File' is selected then click 'OK' select 'yes' in the following window. This problem can also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface. The value of 'e' varies with different Element Types.2 !* ET.-100 ! ! ! ! Preprocessor Keypoint. therefore you must check the ANSYS Documentation files for each element to determine the appropriate SMISC corresponding to the plot you wish to generate. Young's Modulus.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0.FY. then hit enter.0. Wall thickness ! Material Properties.1.1 !* R. x.0 !* DK. K.PRXY. . Material 1.1.0.0. y.1.20 LMESH.0.1. Material 1.0.2.6.1. 20 mm Mesh the lines Exit preprocessor Solution The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Keypoint 1 to all DOF ! Apply a Force to Keypoint 2 of -100 N in the y direction . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) of ANSYS. x. y. /PREP7 K. .

We will be combining the use of the Graphic User Interface (GUI) with the use of command lines. There are codes to complete the Postprocessing but we will review these later. Bicycle Example Now we will return to the analysis of the bike frame. The steps which you completed in the verification example will not be explained in great detail./STATUS. therefore use the verification example as a reference as required.SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! Solve the problem Note that you have now finished Postprocessing and the Solution Phase with just these few lines of code. Recall the geometry and dimensions of the bicycle frame: Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Clear any old ANSYS files and start a new file Utility Menu > File > Clear and Start New .

Alternatively. x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 4. The command line format required to enter a keypoint is as . These variables represent the various lengths of the bicycle members. Enter Keypoints For this space frame example. it is very easy to set up a parametric description of your model.2. Give the Example a Title Utility menu > File > Change Title 3. Notice that by using variables like this. The quickest way to enter these variables is via the 'ANSYS Input' window which was used above to input the command line codes for the verification model. First. these keypoints are the frame vertices. Defining Some Variables We are going to define the vertices of the frame using variables. open the 'Preprocessor Menu' from the 'ANSYS Main Menu'. you can type /PREP7 into the command line. r We are going to define 6 keypoints for this structure as given in the following table (these keypoints are depicted by the circled numbers in the above figure): coordinate keypoint x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 x1 x1 x2 x2 y y1 y2 y2 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 0 z1 -z1 r Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'. Type in each of the following lines followed by Enter. The preprocessor menu has to be open in order for the preprocessor commands to be recognized. This will enable us to quickly redefine the frame should changes be necessary.

1.y2. ie . As with any programming language.2. coords x/y/z For a more detailed explanation. #. The exclamation mark indicates that anything following it is commented out. if there is one that needs to be deleted simply enter the following code: KDELE.0. type 'KLIST' into the command line) r r If there are any keypoints which need to be re-entered.0.follows: K. X. Y. Z where. A previously defined keypoint of the same number will be redefined.0 r ! keypoint. to enter the first keypoint type: K. each Abbreviation is representative of the following: Keypoint.0 into the command line followed by Enter. However.# . type help k into the command line For example. x=0. simply re-enter the code. z=0 Enter the 4 remaining keypoints (listed in the table above) using the command line Now you may want to check to ensure that you entered all of the keypoints correctly: Utility Menu > List > Keypoints > Coordinates only (Alternatively.y1. y=y2. Reference number for the keypoint. NPT.for the second keypoint you might type: K. you may need to add comments.

we could have alternatively used the coordinates x = 0. Try experimenting with them. In this example.where # corresponds to the number of the keypoint.. you have many controls. or close it if your screen is already cluttered. translating and rotating it on all three axes. To get an isometric view. Zoom. we defined the keypoints by making use of previously defined variables like y1 = 325. click on 'Iso' (at the top right).. This was simply used for convenience. To define keypoint #1. Changing Orientation of the Plot r To get a better view of our view of our model. s 6. By turning on the dynamic mode (click on the checkbox beside 'Dynamic Mode') you can use the mouse to drag the image. z = 0.' r s In the window that appears (shown left). Rotate. You can either leave the 'Pan. y = 325. Zoom. Rotate' window open and move it to an empty area on the screen. 5. for example. we'll view it in an isometric view: Select Utility menu bar > PlotCtrls > Pan. Create Lines We will be joining the following keypoints together: .

Keypoint at the beginning of the line. The command format to create a straight line looks like: L. P2 Line.# ' where # corresponds to the reference number of the line. P1. (This can be obtained from the list of lines). Again.2 ' Note: unlike 'Keypoints'. Keypoint at the end of line For example. And then re-enter the line (note: a new reference number will be assigned) You should obtain the following: r r .1. to obtain the first line.keypoint line 1st 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 1 3 4 3 4 2nd 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 Again. check to ensure that you entered all of the lines correctly: type ' LLIST ' into the command line If there are any lines which need to be changed. delete the line by typing the following code: ' LDELE. I would write: ' L. we will use the command line to create the lines. 'Lines' will automatically assign themselves the next available reference number. r Enter the remaining lines until you get a picture like that shown below.

we will again use the command line.if not open it by clicking Preprocessor in the Main Menu) MP. As in the verification model. (ensure that the preprocessor menu is still open . define the type of element (pipe16). Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add As in the verification model. MAT. 8. LAB. Element Material Properties To set Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio.7. C0 25 2 . Define Geometric Properties Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Now specify geometric properties for the elements Outside diameter OD: Wall thickness TKWALL: 9. don't forget to change Option K6 'Include Output' to obtain extra force and moment output.

Lab4.. Expansion key.33 ' r 10. Apply Constraints Once again. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.Valid material property label. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis. set the element length to 20 mm Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines 11.0. Lab6 Displacement on K. Material Reference Number. Lab3. r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select 'Mesh' > 'Lines' and click 'Pick All' in the 'Mesh Lines' Window Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. VALUE2. DOF label. value r To enter the Elastic Modulus (LAB = EX) of 70000 MPa. therefore when entering the code certain fields will be empty. For example.PRXY. > Static 2. type ' MP. KPOI. VALUE. Lab2. 1.1.EX. Lab5. Lab.70000 ' To set Poisson's ratio (PRXY). to pin the . other DOF labels Not all of the fields are required for this example. The following is the command line format to apply constraints at keypoints. we will use the command line. K #.. DK. We are going to pin (translational DOFs will be fixed) the first keypoint and constrain the keypoints corresponding to the rear wheel attachment locations in both the y and z directions. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving Close the 'Preprocessor' menu and open up the 'Solution' menu (from the same 'ANSYS Main Menu'). Mesh Size As in the verification model.. type: ' MP.. KEXPND. value.1.Material Property. value2.

value1. To apply the contraints to Keypoint 5. UX is not constrained..UZ' would delete the constraint in the 'z' direction for Keypoint 1) 3. These correspond to 'value2' and 'the Expansion key' which are not required for this constraint.1. UZ. Note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty. Apply Loads We will apply vertical downward loads of 600N at the seat post location (keypoint 3) and 200N at the pedal crank location (keypoint 4). the command line code is: DK. The DOFs can only be contrained in 1 command line if the value is the same. value.. r r Apply the constraints to the other rear wheel location (Keypoint 6 . We will use the command line to define these loading conditions. FK. value2 (if req'd) .UY. KPOI.UY.UZ Note that only UY and UZ are contrained to 0. Lab. value2 Force loads at keypoints. Lab' (ie 'DKDELE.UY and UZ). FY. Force Label directions (FX. FZ). Again. Also note that all three of the translational DOFs were constrained to 0. K #.0..5.. K. note that the 5th and 6th fields are empty because they are not required.1.UZ The DOF labels for translation motion are: UX.0.UX. UY.first keypoint enter: DK. Now list the constraints ('DKLIST') and verify them against the following: If you need to delete any of the constraints use the following command: 'DKDELE.

the code looks like this: 'FKDELE. open the 'General Postproc' Menu 1. Lab' (ie 'FKDELE. the code should look like this: ' FK.FY' would delete the force in the 'y' direction for Keypoint 3) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below.3..FY.3. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To begin Postprocessing.To apply a force of 600N downward at keypoint 3. Deformation Plot Results > Deformed Shape. 4. K..-600 ' Apply both the forces and list the forces to ensure they were inputted correctly (FKLIST). If you need to delete one of the forces. 'Def + undef edge' .

etc depend on how the object was first defined). 'Left'. Your screen should look like the plot below: . 'Back'.r r r You may want to try plotting this from different angles to get a better idea what's going on by using the 'Pan-Zoom-Rotate' menu that was earlier outlined. Try the 'Front' view button (Note that the views of 'Front'.

. Of particular interest are those nodes where the constraints were applied to see if their displacements/rotations were indeed fixed to zero. Deflections Now let's take a look at some actual deflections in the frame. so we know what node(s) we're after. Turn everything else off. List the Nodal Deflections (Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution.2. The deflections have been calculated at the nodes of the model. Are the displacements and rotations as you expected? Plot the deflection as well.'). r Go to Utility menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. and turn on 'Node numbers'. so the first thing we'll do is plot out the nodes and node numbers. Note the node numbers of interest... Also note the node numbers of the seat and crank locations. General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution select 'DOF solution' and 'USUM' in the window r r r ..

. . Element Forces We could also take a look at the forces in the elements in much the same way: r r r r r r Select 'Element Solution. Select 'Nodal force data' and 'All forces' from the lists displayed.. Click on 'OK'. the force/moment values at each of the two nodes per element will be displayed. r General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table . 4.. 3. Then close the 'List Results' menu..' from the 'List Results' menu.r Don't forget to use more useful intervals. For each element in the model. Close this list window when you are finished browsing. use the Element Table to gain access to derived stresses. Stresses As shown in the cantilever beam example.

select appropriate intervals for the contour plot 5.. to plot the data from the Element Table . Plot Results > Line Elem Res. Bending Moment Diagrams As shown previously. the bending moment diagram can be produced...12) And. to define the table (remember SMISC..r r r Select 'Add' Select 'Stress' and 'von Mises' Element Table > Plot Elem Table r Again. Select Element Table > Define Table.6 and SMISC.

. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.PDF version is also available for printing. Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from.' and select the file. click on 'Save . A ..HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. Open the . In the dialog box that appears.'.

.Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Plane Stress Bracket | Verification Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | | Bracket Example | | Preprocessing | | Solution | | Postprocessing | | Command Line | Introduction Index This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations. and uniform pressure loading. ANSYS Inc. Contributions Comments Problem Description MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. A figure of the plate is shown below. plane stress.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type. Verification Example The first step is to simplify the problem. scale factors.This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. units. you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. etc. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure: .

These procedures make it easy to combine simple geometric entities to create more complex bodies. a.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. we will create an area (using GUI) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners . Form Geometry Boolean operations provide a means to create complicated solid models. however. many other Boolean operations can be used in ANSYS. Create the main rectangular shape Instead of creating the geometry using keypoints. Subtraction will used to create this model. Give the Simplified Version a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2.

0.0 and the top right corner has the coordinates 200. the command line code for the above command is BLC4.100) b.s Fill in the window as shown above.200. This will create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0. (Alternatively.0.100.0. Create the circle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle .0.

(Alternatively.100. Subtraction Now we want to subtract the circle from the rectangle. This will create a circle where the center has the coordinates 100. the command line code for the above command is CYL4.50.0 (the center of the rectangle) and the radius of the circle is 20 mm.20 ) c.s Fill in the window as shown above.50. Prior to this operation. your image should resemble the following: .

from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas At this point a 'Subtract Areas' window will pop up and the ANSYS Input window will display the following message: [ASBA] Pick or enter base areas from which to subtract (as shown below) s s Therefore.s To perform the Boolean operation. Note: The selected area will turn pink once it is selected. select the base area (the rectangle) by clicking on it. s . The following window may appear because there are 2 areas at the location you clicked.

s Ensure that the entire rectangular area is selected (otherwise click 'Next') and then click 'OK'. select the circle by clicking on it and then click 'OK'.2) .1. Click 'OK' on the 'Subtract Areas' window. Now you will be prompted to select the areas to be subtracted. the command line code for the above step is ASBA. You should now have the following model: s s (Alternatively.

PLANE82 is an eight noded quadrilateral element which is better suited to model curved boundaries. Define the Type of Element It is now necessary to define the type of element to use for our problem: Preprocessor Menu > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete r Add the following type of element: Solid (under the Structural heading) and the Quad 82 element. For this example. we need a plane stress element with thickness. and select 'Plane strs w/thk'. therefore Click on the 'Options. PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional.. four-node element (PLANE42). as shown in the above figure.' button. as shown below.. r . Click and hold the K3 button.3.

the command line code for the above step is ET.200000 followed by MP.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT.PRXY.0.3) 4.1. Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . Define Geometric Properties r As in previous examples Preprocessor menu > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20 as shown in the figure below.EX.(Alternatively. Element Material Properties r As shown in previous examples.1.3 (Alternatively.3) 6.20) 5. the command line code for the above step is R. select Preprocessor > Material Props > Material models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel. the command line code for the above step is MP. Mesh Size To tell ANSYS how big the elements should be.1.1. This defines a plate thickness of 20mm) r (Alternatively. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.1.3.

25.) 7. (Alternatively.ALL) You should now have the following: . r In the 'Preprocessor' menu select Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.r Select an element edge length of 25. Mesh Now the frame can be meshed.ALL. the command line code for the above step is AMESH. the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. We will return later to determine if this was adequate for the problem.

0) 2. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. Fill in the window as shown below. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. 1. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations..Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as..ROT on Lines' window. Define Analysis Type r Ensure that a Static Analysis will be performed (Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis). r In the Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Select the left end of the plate and click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. r r . Apply Constraints As shown previously. (Alternatively. the left end of the plate is fixed.

the command line code for the above step is DL.ALL.4. r r r . You will see some blue triangles in the graphics window indicating the displacement contraints. s The pressure is acting away from the surface of the plate.0) 3. select the line along the right hand edge of the plate and click 'OK' Calculate the pressure on the plate end by dividing the distributed load by the thickness of the plate (1 MPa). Apply Loads r As shown in the diagram. To apply this load: Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines When the window appears.. therefore the last field is left blank.r This location is fixed which means that all DOF's are constrained. NOTE: s The pressure is uniform along the surface of the plate. select 'All DOF' by clicking on it and enter '0' in the Value field as shown above. Fill in the "Apply PRES on lines" window as shown below. Therefore. (Alternatively. there is a load of 20N/mm distributed on the right hand side of the plate. and is therefore defined as a negative pressure.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. .

4. The actual deflection of the plate is therefore expected to be greater but in the same range of magnitude. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Hand Calculations Now.neglecting the effects of the hole in the plate (ie .001 mm . 2. Stress: The maximum stress occurs at the top and bottom of the hole in the plate and was found to be 3. Convergence using ANSYS .just a flat plate). Deflection: The maximum deflection occurs on the right hand side of the plate and was calculated to be 0.9 MPa.we need to calculate what we should find. since the purpose of this exercise was to verify the results .

At this point we need to find whether or not the final result has converged. Since we have an analytical solution for the maximum stress point. Make a note of the node closest to the top of the circle (ie. we will check the stress at this point. r The plot should look similar to the one shown below... (as shown below in red) . Principals SPRIN) and check the SEQV (Equivalent Stress / von Mises Stress) for the node in question. We will do this by looking at the deflection and stress at particular nodes while changing the size of the meshing element. #49) r List the stresses (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress. First plot and number the nodes Utility Menu > Plot > Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. First we need to find the node corresponding to the top of the hole in the plate.

Once you have selected the area and clicked 'OK' the following window will appear: . Now remesh the model (Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free). we need to go back to the Preprocessor Menu Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas now decrease the element edge length (ie 20) b.9141 MPa at this point. We will use smaller elements to try to get a more accurate solution. r Resize Elements a. To change the element size.The equivalent stress was found to be 2.

the number of the node at the top of the hole has most likely changed. Plot the stress/deflection at varying mesh sizes as shown below to confirm that convergence has occured. Click 'OK'. d. As the number of elements in the mesh increases (ie . The von Mises stress at the top of the hole in the plate was found to be approximatly 3.8 MPa. ( Solution Menu > Current LS ) r Repeat steps 'a' through 'd' until the model has converged. Solve the system again (note that the constraints need not be reapplied). (note . This will remesh the model using the new element edge length. the values converge towards a final solution.5% difference between the analytical solution and the solution found using ANSYS. . Note the shapes of both the deflection and stress curves. It is essential that you plot the nodes again to select the appropriate node).the element edge length decreases).c. This is a mere 2.

The approximate maximum displacement was found to be 0. . 3. the results using ANSYS were determined to be appropriate for the verification model.0012 mm. Therefore. 4. the analytical solution does not account for the large hole in the center of the plate which was expected to significantly increase the deflection at the end of the plate. However. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape > Def + undeformd to view both the deformed and the undeformed object.. Then select DOF solution. this is 20% greater than the analytical solution.. Deflection r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution. r Observe the locations of deflection. USUM in the window.

. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution... von Mises in the window. r 5.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the left end of the plate. obtain these results as a list.r Alternatively. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. . Then select Stress..

Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Bracket Example .HTML version. Open the .. Select Stress..' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A .

Boolean operations will be used to create the basic geometry of the Bracket. A figure of the plate is shown below. a. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right. Create the main rectangular shape . This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate. Form Geometry Again. Give the Bracket example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title 2. The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Now we will return to the analysis of the bracket. A combination of GUI and the Command line will be used for this example.

Now I will explain the line required to create a rectangle: BLC4. WIDTH. XCENTER.0. the command line for this rectangle is BLC4. YCORNER.50) and has a radius of 50 mm The following code is used to create a circular area: CYL4. XCORNER. width. X coord for the center. Create the circular end on the right hand side The center of the circle is located at (80. HEIGHT BLC4.50.100 b. radius s Therefore. X coord (bottom left).0. Y coord (bottom left). RAD1 CYL4. Y coord for the center. the command line for this circle is CYL4. a height of 100mm and the bottom left corner is located at coordinates (0.80. height s s Therefore. Create a rectangle on the left hand end to fill the gap between the two small circles. YCENTER.80.0) s Ensure that the Preprocessor menu is open. XCORNER YCORNER -20 20 . Now create a second and third circle for the left hand side using the following dimensions: parameter circle 2 circle 3 0 80 20 XCENTER 0 YCENTER 20 RADIUS 20 d.The main rectangular shape has a width of 80 mm. (Alternatively type /PREP7 into the command line window) Now instead of using the GUI window we are going to enter code into the 'command line'.50 c.

Boolean Operations .Addition We now want to add these five discrete areas together to form one area.WIDTH HEIGHT 20 60 Your screen should now look like the following.ALL) s .. click on 'Pick All' (Alternatively. e.. s To perform the Boolean operation. from the Preprocessor menu select: Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas In the 'Add Areas' window. the command line code for the above step is AADD.

You should now have the following model: f. s Create the three circles with the parameters given below: circle 1 80 50 30 circle 2 0 20 10 circle 3 0 80 10 parameter WP X WP Y radius s Now select Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas Select the base areas from which to subract (the large plate that was created) s . Create the Bolt Holes We now want to remove the bolt holes from this plate.

s Next select the three circles that we just created.3) r . the command line code for the above step is ET. the command line code for the above step is ASBA.ALL) Now you should have the following: 3. (Alternatively.' button to get a plane stress element with thickness (Alternatively.6.. Click on the three circles that you just created and click 'OK'.1.1. Define the Type of Element As in the verification model.3. PLANE82 will be used for this example r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete Use the 'Options.PLANE82 followed by KEYOPT..

the command line code for the above step is AMESH. Again. Enter the following when prompted: EX 200000 PRXY 0.PRXY. 4.3 (The command line code for the above step is MP. (Alternatively. Define Geometric Contants r Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Enter a thickness of 20mm.r Under the Extra Element Output K5 select nodal stress.5. Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas Select an element edge length of 5. the command line code for the above step is R. Mesh r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free and select the area when prompted (Alternatively.1.20) r 5.) r 7.3) 6.1.200000 followed by MP.0. we will need to make sure the model has converged.1.EX.ALL) . the command line code for the above step is AESIZE. Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Library > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic We are going to give the properties of Steel.ALL. (Alternatively.

1.. Define Analysis Type r 'Solution' > 'New Analysis' and select 'Static'.Saving Your Job Utility Menu > File > Save as. the command line code for the above step is ANTYPE. (Alternatively.. It is now time to apply the load(s) and constraint(s) and solve the the resulting system of equations. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving You have now defined your model. Apply Constraints .0) 2.

ROT on Nodes' window. Zoom.ROT on Lines' window and constrain all DOF's in the 'Apply U. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes Instead of selecting one node at a time.. you have the option of creating a box. r 3.. Repeat for the second bolt hole. Rotate. polygon.) Click at the center of the bolt hole and drag the circle out so that it touches all of the nodes on the border of the hole. the plate is fixed at both of the smaller holes on the left hand side. r r Click on 'Apply' in the 'Apply U. select 'circle' as shown in the window below.As illustrated. or circle of which all the nodes in that area will be selected. (You may want to zoom in to select the points Utilty Menu / PlotCtrls / Pan. Apply Loads . For this case.

As shown in the diagram. 4. We will take a look at the deflected shape and the stress contours once we determine convergence has occured. Solving the System Solution > Solve > Current LS Post-Processing: Viewing the Results We are now ready to view the results. there is a single vertical load of 1000N. Apply this force to the respective keypoint ( Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Select a force in the y direction of -1000) The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown below. at the bottom of the large bolt hole. .

Reduce the mesh size until there is no longer a sizeable change in your convergence criteria. 3. Deflection r To plot the nodal deflections use General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution then select DOF Solution . The graphic should be similar to the following r Observe the locations of deflection. 2. Convergence using ANSYS As shown previously.1. it is necessary to prove that the solution has converged.USUM in the window. Deformation r General Postproc > Plot Results > Def + undeformed to view both the deformed and the undeformed object. . Ensure that the deflection at the bolt hole is indeed 0.

.r Alternatively.) Are these results what you expected? Note that all translational degrees of freedom were constrained to zero at the bolt holes.. obtain these results as a list. Stresses r General Postproc > Plot Results > Nodal Solution.. (General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. Then select von Mises Stress in the window... r 4.

' and select the file. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.. Principals SPRIN Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.r You can list the von Mises stresses to verify the results at certain nodes General Postproc > List Results. Open the .. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Quitting ANSYS . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Select Stress.

To quit ANSYS. . In the window that appears. click 'QUIT' on the ANSYS Toolbar or select Utility Menu > File > Exit... select 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click 'OK'.

ANSYS Inc. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. Filleting. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . copying. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. extrusion/ sweeping. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Problem Description A We will be creating a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Two Dimensional Truss Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Modeling Tools Solid Modeling ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

XCORNER. HEIGHT The geometry of the rectangles: . YCORNER.Geometry Generation We will create this model by first tracing out the cross section of the pulley and then sweeping this area about the y axis. WIDTH. Create 3 Rectangles Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Creation of Cross Sectional Area 1.

YCENTER.5 5 You should obtain the following: 2. 3. ALL ANSYS will label the united area as AREA 4 and the previous three areas will be deleted. Create the rounded edges using circles Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Circle > Solid circles CYL4.5 Rectangle 2 3 2 5 1 Rectangle 3 8 0 0.RAD . Add the Areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Boolean-) Add > Areas AADD.XCENTER.Rectangle 1 WP X (XCORNER) WP Y (YCORNER) WIDTH HEIGHT 2 0 1 5.

2 4.SUBTRACT 5. The following window will appear. Subtract the large circle from the base Preprocessor > Operate > Subtract > Areas ASBA.6 and then click OK.5 0.BASE.5 Circle 2 8. It asks for the x. Copy the smaller circle for the rounded edges at the top Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Copy > Areas r Click on the small circle and then on OK.2 0. r .5 0.y and z offset of the copied area. Enter the y offset as 4.The geometry of the circles: Circle 1 WP X (XCENTER) WP Y (YCENTER) RADIUS 3 5.

5 You should obtain the following 6.r Copy this new area now with an x offset of -0. Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD. Fillet the inside edges of the top half of the area Preprocessor > Create > (-Lines-) Line Fillet r Select the two lines shown below and click on OK.ALL 7. . Add the smaller circles to the large area.

Enter 0.1 r Follow the same procedure and create a fillet with the same radius between the following lines .r The following window will appear prompting for the fillet radius.

8. . zoom into the fillet radius and plot and number the lines. Create the fillet areas r As shown below.

ALL . Add all the areas together Preprocessor > Operate > Add > Areas AADD.Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines r Select the lines as shown below r Repeat for the other fillet 9.

Plot the Keypoints (Utility Menu > Plot > Keypoints. Then you will be asked to enter or pick two keypoints defining the axis.Areas) Sweep the Cross Sectional Area Now we need to sweep the area around a y axis at x=0 and z=0 to create the pulley.10.0) and number them 1001 and 1002 respectively.0) and (0.0.5.Z) 2.#. (K. Sweep the area about the y axis Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) About axis r You will first be prompted to select the areas to be swept so click on the area. 1. Then select the following two keypoints r r . Plot the areas (Utility Menu > Plot . Create two keypoints defining the y axis Create keypoints at (0. By default the graphics will now show all keypoints.Y. Plot Areas 3.X.

Click on OK. .r The following window will appear prompting for sweeping angles.

one of which is to define it by three keypoints. There are several ways to define a working plane. However. the working plane in ANSYS is located on the global Cartesian X-Y plane. Change the Working Plane By default. we need to use a different working plane. for us to define the bolt holes. Create Bolt Holes 1. r Create the following Keypoints X #2001 #2002 #2003 0 1 0 Y 3 3 3 Z 0 0 1 .You should now see the following in the graphics screen.

The following warning will appear when selecting the keypoint at the origin as there are more than one in this location. while the third (2003) defines the orientation of the working plane. Just click on 'Next' until the one selected is 2001.r Switch the view to top view and plot only keypoints. Align the Working Plane with the Keypoints Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Keypoints + r Select Keypoints 2001 then 2002 then 2003 IN THAT ORDER. The first keypoint (2001) defines the origin of the working plane coordinate system. Another way to make sure the active WP has moves is: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status . 2. r Once you have selected the 3 keypoints and clicked 'OK' the WP symbol (green) should appear in the Graphics window. the second keypoint (2002) defines the x-axis orientation.

We need to change active CS to cylindrical Y Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Global Cylindrical Y This will allow us to copy radially about the Y axis 5.5 y=0 r=0. . Create a Cylinder (solid cylinder) with x=5.5 depth=1 You should see the following in the graphics screen We will now copy this volume so that we repeat it every 45 degrees.0. fill in the blanks as shown.note the origin of the working plane. The following window will appear. Create 8 bolt Holes Preprocessor > Copy > Volumes r Select the cylinder volume and click on OK. 4. 3. By default those values would be 0.0. Note that you must copy the cylinder before you use boolean operations to subtract it because you cannot copy an empty space.

.Youi should obtain the following model.

This will result in the following completed structure: .r Subtract the cylinders from the pulley hub (Boolean operations) to create the boltholes.

Problem Description B We will be creating a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . Open the .HTML version.

Create the curved edge (using keypoints and lines to create an area) r Create the following keypoints X Keypoint 5 Keypoint 6 Keypoint 7 Keypoint 8 -20 -20 0 0 Y 82 20 82 20 Z 0 0 0 0 You should obtain the following: . Create the base rectangle WP X (XCORNER) 0 WP Y (YCORNER) 0 WIDTH 109 HEIGHT 102 2. Create the Base 1.Geometry Generation We will create this model by creating the base and the back and then the rib.

6. Select Keypoint 7 as the center-of-curvature when prompted.5.8.7.4.5.1. type LARC.20 into the command line) r Create a line from Keypoint 5 to 6 Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Lines > Straight Line L.20 followed by LARC.6 Create an Arbitrary area within the bounds of the lines r .r Create arcs joining the keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Lines-) Arcs > By End KPs & Rad s Select keypoints 4 and 5 (either click on them or type 4. Enter the radius of the arc (20) in the 'Arc by End KPs & Radius' window Repeat to create an arc from keypoints 1 and 6 s s s (Alternatively.5 into the command line) when prompted.

Create the 4 holes in the base We will make use of the 'copy' feature in ANSYS to create all 4 holes r Create the bottom left circle (XCENTER=0. YCENTER=20.1.4.Area2# (if 2 areas to be copied).7 r Combine the 2 areas into 1 (to form Area 3) Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes AADD.2 You should obtain the following image: 3.DX. RADIUS=10) Copy the area to create the bottom right circle (DX=69) (AGEN.DY.5.DZ) r .Area#.Main Menu > Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > By Lines AL.# Copies (include original).6.

Extrude the base Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal The following window will appear once you select the area .r Copy both circles to create the upper circles (DY=62) Subtract the three circles from the main base (ASBA.ALL) r You should obtain the following: 4.3.

Note. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation.r Fill in the window as shown (length of extrusion = 26mm). while the third defines the orientation of the working plane. the first keypoint defines the origin. r Create the following keypoints X 109 109 159 Y 102 2 102 Z 0 0 sqrt(3)/0. You may have observed that geometry can only be created in the X-Y plane. Change the working plane As in the previous example.102 into the command line) . we will define the working plane by aligning it to 3 Keypoints. in order to create the back of the Spindle Base.100. Again. (Alternatively. to extrude the area in the negative z direction you would simply enter -26. we need to change the working plane.6. we need to create a new working plane where the X-Y plane is parallel to the back.101. type KWPLAN. Therefore.1. (Alternatively. type VOFFST.02 #100 #101 #102 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane.26 into the command line) Create the Back 1.

YCENTER=180. WIDTH=102. RADIUS=51) Add the 2 areas together r r 3.2. Add the base and the back together r Add the two volumes together Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Volumes VADD.26 4. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 26mm) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > Extrude > (-Areas-) Along Normal VOFFST.1.27. . Create the back area r Create the base rectangle (XCORNER=0. HEIGHT=180) Create a circle to obtain the curved top (XCENTER=51. YCORNER=0.2 You should now have the following geometry Note that the planar areas between the two volumes were not added together.

r Add the planar areas together (don't forget the other side!) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Operate > (-Booleans-) Add > Areas AADD.180.5. RADIUS=18. Area 3 5. Create the Upper Cylinder r Create the outer cylinder (XCENTER=51. DEPTH=60) Subtract the volumes to obtain a hole r r r You should now have the following geometry: Create the Rib .51. . RADIUS=32. DEPTH=60) Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Volumes-) Cylinder > Solid Cylinder CYL4. . YCENTER=180.60 Add the volumes together Create the inner cylinder (XCENTER=51. Area 1.32. . YCENTER=180. Area 2.

the first keypoint defines the origin.202 into the command line) 2. 203.0 into the command line) r Create the following keypoints X -20 0 -20 Y 61 61 61 Z 26 26 30 #200 #201 #202 r Align the working plane to the 3 keypoints Recall when defining the working plane. Change active coordinate system We now need to update the coordiante system to follow the working plane changes (ie make the new Work Plane origin the active coordinate) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Change Active CS to > Working Plane CSYS. 204 . type WPCSYS.200. Change the working plane r First change the active coordinate system back to the global coordinate system (this will make it easier to align to the new coordinate system) Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Global Cartesian (Alternatively.57735*26) + 38 Y 0 sqrt(3)/2*76 Z 0 0 r Create the rib area through keypoints 200. (Alternatively. Create the area r Create the keypoints corresponding to the vertices of the rib X #203 #204 129-(0. the second keypoint defines the x-axis orientation. type KWPLAN.4 3.-1.57735*26) 129-(0. while the third defines the orientation of the working plane.1.201.1.

. Add the volumes together You should obtain the following: Quitting ANSYS To quit ANSYS.200.203. Extrude the area (length of extrusion = 20mm) 5. . In the dialog box that appears..Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > (-Areas-) Arbitrary > Through KPs A. select 'QUIT' from the ANSYS Toolbar or select 'Utility Menu'/'File'/'Exit.204 4.'. click on 'Save Everything' (assuming that you want to) and then click on 'OK'.

Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Harmonic Dynamic .0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Effects of Self Weight for a Cantilever Beam 2. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.. /title.Modal Dynamic ..

. K. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. 3. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.#.67 iii. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . enter the following geometric properties: i.y. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. 6.. Total beam height: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 50 mm. 7.0) (1000.1..y.. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. and rotation about the Z axis). This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes. > Add.z) 1 2 (0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 500 ii.x... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete..z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) 4. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 4166.ANSYS Inc.

3 8. For this example we will use an element edge length of 100mm.. 10.0 2.. Density DENS: 7. Define Gravity It is necessary to define the direction and magnitude of gravity for this problem. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. enter the following density for steel: i. r .. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Define Element Density Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Density In the window that appears.86e-6 9.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Fill it in as shown to define an acceleration of 9.81m/s2 in the y direction. r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Inertia > Gravity. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. The following window will appear.ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

Also note that a positive acceleration in the y direction stimulates gravity in the negative Y direction. DK. This indicates that an acceleration has been defined in the y direction..8 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. There should now be a red arrow pointing in the positive y direction.Note: Acceleration is defined in terms of meters (not 'mm' as used throughout the problem).0. This is because the units of acceleration and mass must be consistent to give the product of force units (Newtons in this case). ACEL. .ALL.1.9.

4.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.2 .777mm 2. > Def + undef edge PLDISP.. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: The maximum deflection was shown to be 5. Show the deformation of the beam General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape .

' and select the file.. A .. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the maximum displacement was found to be 5.PDF version is also available for printing. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.777mm. Open the . This is in agreement with the theortical value. .As observed in the upper left hand corner.

Modal Dynamic .0. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.Harmonic Dynamic . A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.

5. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.K# Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. /title. > Add. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ... 6.. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . For this problem we will use the BEAM3 element. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.y) 1 2 (0.. Distributed Loading 3. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. and rotation about the Z axis).0) 4. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line L. With only 3 degrees of freedom..K#.x.ANSYS Inc. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.#.0) (1000.y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.

Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10mm x 10mm. 7. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines..333 iii. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. ... For this example we will use an element length of 100mm.3 8. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. 9.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.ii.

enter a value of 1 in the field 'VALI Pressure value at node I' then click 'OK'. 3.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. over the entire length of the beam. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX and UY constrained) and fix Keypoint 2 in the y direction (UY constrained). of 1000 N/m or 1 N/mm. . Apply Loads We will apply a distributed load.0 2. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. r r r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Beams Click 'Pick All' in the 'Apply F/M' window. As shown in the following figure.

.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

In the window that appears. . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP... Plot Principle stress distribution As shown previously. 4.Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' you must change some settings. we need to use element tables to obtain principle stresses for line elements.2 2. select 'Pressures' in the pull down menu of the 'Surface Load Symbols' section. Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols.

Click 'Add. r As shown in the plot below. These are the nodes that are at the ends of each element. Select 'SMAXI' from the 'LabI' pull down menu and 'SMAXJ' from the 'LabJ' pull down menu Note: r ANSYS can only calculate the stress at a single location on the element. we decided to extract the stresses from the I and J nodes of each element.. For this problem. we wanted the principal stresses for the elements.. click 'Apply' 5. . select 'NMISC. A list of available codes for each element can be found in the ANSYS help files.1. type help BEAM3 in the ANSYS Input window).. 3 for the 'J' nodes. (ie. In the second window of the same section. the maximum stress occurs in the middle of the beam with a value of 750 MPa. In the third window enter '1' anywhere after the comma 4. Repeat steps 2 to 4 but change 'SMAXI' to 'SMAXJ' in step 3a and change '1' to '3' in step 3d.. 7. 6. enter 'SMAXI' in the 'User Label for Item' section b. 9. Click 'OK'. The 'Element Table Data' window should now have two variables in it. For this example. In the first window in the 'Results Data Item' section scroll down and select 'By sequence num' c. For the BEAM3 element this is categorized as NMISC. ' d. Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table 2.' 3. 1 for the 'I' nodes and NMISC. Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Line Elem Res. 8. Click 'Close' in the 'Element Table Data' window. In the window that appears a.

.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .. .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from.PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. A .

the load will added incrementally. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . To solve this problem. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations). Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . contact elements). Index There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status (ex. After each increment.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.

069e-5 iii.0) 3. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis..0) (5. 6.125 inches.. 4. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. and rotation about the Z axis).ANSYS Inc. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 5 inches: Keypoint Coordinates (x.03125 ii.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.. > Add. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: . Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. 5.y) 1 2 (0.. With only 3 degrees of freedom. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 4.. 2.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.25 x 0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0.125 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. 1.

not non-linear material properties.. 7. Young's modulus EX: 30e6 ii. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH.. 8.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. we would have to consider non-linear material properties.1 " (50 element divisions along the line). for example.3 If you are wondering why a 'Linear' model was chosen when this is a non-linear example. it is because this example is for non-linear geometry. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 0.0 2. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.i. If we were considering a block of wood. The following image will appear: .

This will set the initial substep to 1/5 th of the total load. If the Automatic Time Stepping was off. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy.Ensure the following selections are made (as shown above) A. Enter 5 as the number of substeps. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. however. The following example explains this: Assume that the applied load is 100 lb*in. this takes time. there would be 5 load steps (each increasing by 1/5 th of the total load): s s s s s 20 lb*in 40 lb*in 60 lb*in 80 lb*in 100 lb*in . C. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.

the load steps directly from 10 lbs to 20 lbs). You may select only a specific iten (ie Nodal DOF solution) to decrease processing time. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. stress stiffening is automatically included. D. F. Output OUTRES Stress Stiffness SSTIF Newton Raphson NROPT Convergence Values CNVTOL 3. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. E. the program will automatically choose the Newton-Raphson options. Function Load Step Command Comments KBC Loads are either linearly interpolated (ramped) from the one substep to another (ie the load will increase from 10 lbs to 20 lbs in a linear fashion) or they are step functions (ie. and the full Newton-Raphson with unsymmetric matrices of elements. By default. the first step size will still be 20 lb*in. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file.Now. When large static deformations are permitted (as they are in this case). the program checks the out-of-balance load for any active DOF. For more information about these commands. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints . the remaining substeps will be determined based on the response of the material due to the previous load increment. For some special nonlinear cases. the modified Newton-Raphson. By default. Options include the full Newton-Raphson. this can cause divergence because some elements do not provide a complete consistent tangent. the load is ramped. This command activates stress stiffness effects in nonlinear analyses. By default. NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. By default. with the Automatic Time Stepping is on. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. However. You may wish to use the stepped loading for rate-dependent behaviour or transient load steps. the previously computed matrix. all of the solution items are written at the end of each load step. type help followed by the command into the command line. This command controls the solution data written to the database.

4.Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -100 lb*in moment in the MZ direction at the right end of the beam (Keypoint 2) 5. . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screan for NonLinear Analyses This shows the convergence of the solution.

> DOF solution.1 2.General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1..Y. UY PLNSOL.0. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu... View the deformed shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape. > Def + undeformed PLDISP.1 .U..

Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. UX Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. this is not realistic for large deflections. Define Variables . these horizontal deflections are calculated by ANSYS. However. General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object and the step sizes of the load. the load was applied in steps.> DOF solution. The step size was automatically determined in ANSYS 1. As you recall. List Horizontal Displacement If this example is performed as a linear model there will be no nodal deflection in the horizontal direction due to the small deflections assumptions. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.3.. However.. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. Modeling the system non-linearly.

. > Nodal DOF results Select Keypoint 2 (Node 2) when prompted Complete the following window as shown to define the translational displacement in the y direction.. Graph Results over time r Select TimeHist Postpro > Graph Variables.. Enter 2 (UY) as the 1st variable to graph (shown below) r .r Select: TimeHist Postpro > Define Variables > Add.. r r Translational displacement of node 2 is now stored as variable 2 (variable 1 being time) 2.

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HTML version.PDF version is also available for printing. A ..Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.' and select the file. . Now go to 'File > Read input from.. Open the .

Harmonic Dynamic . Title and Axis Labels The title of the graph is really just the time value of the last calculated iteration.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. An example of such a plot is shown below and will be used throughout the explanation. For more information regarding setting the time value.0 This will act as an explanation of what the Graphical Solution Tracking plot is acutally describing. see Chapter 8. . and many other solution control option. This can be changed with the Time command before the Solve command is issued.Modal Dynamic . the time at the end of the analysis was set to 1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Graphical Solution Tracking Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.5 of the Structural Analysis Guide in the Help file.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta 1. In this example.

ANSYS iterates until the F L2 value is below the F CRIT value. such as this. a peak follow everytime the L2 value drops below the CRIT value.001). However. these substeps are basically portions of the total load being applied over time. this graph relates to forces and moments. which this graph is taken from. The y-axis is labelled Absolute Convergence Norm. In simpler terms. or MINREF (which defaults to 0. In the case of a structural analysis. which is discussed in the help file. One may inquire why the F CRIT value increases as the number of iterations increases. it uses a solver (Newton-Raphson. Curves and Legend As can be guessed from the legend labels. Generally. The value of TOLER defaults to 0. This value is equal to the product of VALUE x TOLER. The L2 norm is the SRSS of the force imbalances for all DOF's. we will look at the force curves.5% for loads. many iterations will be required. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta The x-axis is labelled Cumulative Iteration Number. this is the SRSS of the difference between the calculated internal force at a particular DOF and the external force in that direction. If this graph were from a thermal analysis. For each parameter.ANSYS Inc. The default value of VALUE is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the applied loads. etc) that iterates to find a solution. for more information about changing iteration settings. This is because the analysis is made up of a number of substeps. As can be seen in the graph above. As ANSYS steps through non-linear analysis. These values are graphed because they are the corresponding values in the solution vector for the DOF's that are active in the elements being used. The length of the graph in these cases can be quite long. you can see Chapter 8. For instance. This value can be changed using the CNVTOL command. if the solution is highly non-linear. s The F CRIT curve refers to the convergence criteria force value. this absolute convergence norm refers to non-normalized values (ie there are units associated with these values). This is what will be explained next. it is deemed the solution is within tolerance of the correct solution and it moves on to the next substep. In reality it doesn't really matter because it is only a comparison that is going on. when the curves peak this is the start of a new substep. or is not converging. 2. as expected. Again. Once this occurs. very few iterations will be required and thus the length of the graph will be small. the curves may be for temperature.5 in the help file. In the case of a structural example. For each substep. which ever is greater. a 100N load broken up with 20 substeps means 20. Thus. For ease of explanation. . 5N loads will be applied consequtively until the entire 100N is applied. Some analyses use normalized values. the F CRIT value at the start will be 1/20th of the final F CRIT value. there are two curves plotted. s The F L2 curve refers to the L2 Vector Norm of the forces. If the problem is relatively linear.

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Nonlinear Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. This method is not recommended for accurate. .0 to solve a simple buckling problem. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints.Harmonic Dynamic . large-deflection. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. load perterbations. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. However. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. in real-life. For this type of analysis. Eigenvalue Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. static analysis to predict buckling loads. real-world buckling prediction analysis. material nonlinearities and gaps.Modal Dynamic .Transient Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Dynamic . ie. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. 2.

.ANSYS Inc. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . The required load to cause buckling. Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.Eigen-Value Buckling Analysis 3. Define Keypoints . Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section. will be calculated.. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2. /title. applied at the top-center of the beam. rigidly constrained at the bottom.

Total Beam Height HEIGHT: 10 This defines a beam with a height of 10 mm and a width of 10 mm. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 833. 6. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.y) 1 2 (0.1. 7.#..3 . > Add. K. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.0) (0. enter the following geometric properties: i. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. and rotation about the Z axis). This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes..333 iii. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.....Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS . Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii..Y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoints Coordinates (x.2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.X. Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.100) 4. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.

The last option in the solution menu will either be 'Unabridged menu' (which means you are currently looking at the abridged version) or 'Abriged Menu' (which means you are looking at the unabridged menu). Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. change the [SSTIF][PSTRES] item to 'Prestress ON'. r You must first ensure that you are looking at the unabridged solution menu so that you can select Analysis Options in the Analysis Type submenu. This is required in eigenvalue buckling analysis. prestress effects must be activated.0 2. If you are looking at the abridged menu. which ensures the stress stiffness matrix is calculated.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.8. Activate prestress effects To perform an eigenvalue buckling analysis. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 10 mm (10 element divisions along the line). Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options In the following window. 9.. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. select the unabridged version.. r r .

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints The eignenvalue solver uses a unit force to determine the necessary buckling load. 4. Applying a load other than 1 will scale the answer by a factor of the load.3. Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -1 N to the top of the beam (keypoint 2). Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained). .

However. 7. Specify Buckling Analysis Options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options . FINISH Normally at this point you enter the postprocessing phase. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. with a buckling analysis you must re-enter the solution phase and specify the buckling analysis.The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. 5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 6. Be sure to close the solution menu and re-enter it or the buckling analysis may not function properly. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Eigen Buckling ANTYPE.1 8.

Expand the solution r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Expansion Pass. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Expand Modes . r .. You may have to select the 'Unabridged Menu' again to make this option visible. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 10. An expansion pass is necessary if you want to review the buckled mode shape(s). The 'Block Lanczos' method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems and uses the sparse matrix solver.. Exit the Solution processor Close the solution menu and click FINISH at the bottom of the Main Menu. as shown below. This time. and ensure that it is on.. In more complex analyses the Block Lanczos method may not be adequate and the Subspace method would have to be used. FINISH Again it is necessary to exit and re-enter the solution phase. The 'Subspace' method could also be used.r Complete the window which appears. is for an expansion pass. Select 'Block Lanczos' as an extraction method and extract 1 mode. 11.. however it tends to converge slower as it is a more robust solver. 9. however.

/POST1 SET.r Complete the following window as shown to expand the first mode 12. If more than one mode was selected in the steps above. Display the Mode Shape r Select General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set to bring up the data for the last mode calculated. which is in Newtons for this example.123). Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.LIST 2. The value listed under 'TIME/FREQ' is the load (41. View the Buckling Load To display the minimum load required to buckle the beam select General Postproc > List Results > Detailed Summary. Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape r . the corresponding loads would be listed here as well.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS K.Y . Nonlinear Buckling Analysis 3. /TITLE. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2..#..X.Non-Linear Buckling Analysis Ensure that you have completed the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this portion of the tutorial Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

Cross-sectional area AREA: 100 ii.. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 833. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x.333 iii. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. enter the following geometric properties: i. Total beam height HEIGHT: 10 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 10 x 10 millimeters.1. 6. and rotation about the Z axis).... Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. Young's modulus EX: 200e3 ii.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.y) 1 2 (0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.2 5.. L.3 8. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. 7. With only 3 degrees of freedom. > Add. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis. Define Mesh Size .0) (0. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.100) 4.

Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH. The following image will appear: .0 2.1 9... Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 1 mm (100 element divisions along the line). Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. ESIZE..

C. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. E. this takes time. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. F. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 . however. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. B. D. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure Line Search is 'On'.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained).000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). . For more information about these commands. 3. type help followed by the command into the command line. Also apply a -250 N load in the FX direction on Keypoint 2. The model should now look like the window shown below.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. 4. This horizontal load will persuade the beam to buckle at the minimum buckling load. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a -50.

5. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

View the deformed shape r To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below).This shows the convergence of the solution. . General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

r General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape.1 .. > Def + undeformed PLDISP..

0.1 .Y. > DOF solution..U.r View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.. UY PLNSOL.

you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. . you can obtain the results (such as deflection. stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor. However.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. The following window should open automatically. 1. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown.

Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. .If it does not open automatically. r Double-click Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable.

This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > YComponent of Force. On the Time History Variable window. click the add button again. This will make the reaction force the x-variable.r To add another variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r . Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK.

2. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. so you must change them manually. .

the point where a large deflection occured due to a small increase in force..The plot shows how the beam became unstable and buckled with a load of approximately 40. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.123 N. This is slightly less than the eigen-value solution of 41. Open the .. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . which was expected due to non-linear geometry issues discussed above.HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from.000 N. A .

Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic .Modal Dynamic . the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium".UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta For this analysis. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. In such a case. ANSYS Inc. For instance. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.

/title..X.. Define Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2. In the 'Real Constants for LINK1' window. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.2 4. NonLinear Materials 2. L. For this problem we will use the LINK1 (2D spar) element. Cross-sectional area AREA: 25 ii.. 5.Y We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure to create a beam with a length of 100 millimeters: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS /PREP7 K. 6. > Add.1.0) (0. enter the following geometric properties: i. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's) and can only be used in 2D analysis.100) 3. enter the following geometric properties for steel: ...#..y) 1 2 (0. Initial Strain: 0 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 5 x 5 millimeters.

003 0. When the data for the first point is input. approximating the curve with linear interpolation between the points.i.004 0. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. It should look like the one shown above.025 0 75 150 225 240 250 300 .3 Now that the initial properties of the material have been outlined. Curve Points Strain Stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0.002 0. the stress-strain data must be included. click Graph to see the curve. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Nonlinear > Elastic > Multilinear Elastic The following window will pop up. click Add Point to add another. These are points from the stress-strain curve shown above.005 0. Fill in the STRAIN and STRESS boxes with the following data.001 0. Young's modulus EX: 75e3 ii. Then click OK. When all the points have been inputed.

Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Manual Size > Size Cntrls > Lines > All Lines.250 0.. The following image will appear: .. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.060 0.200 0..150 0.8 9 10 11 12 13 0. 8. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH..ALL Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot.275 355 390 420 435 449 450 To get the problem geometry back.100 0.0 2. /REPLOT 7. For this example we will specify an element edge length of 5 mm (20 element divisions along the line). Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control.

Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. Ensure Line Search is 'On'. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Ensure Large Static Displacements are permitted (this will include the effects of large deflection in the results) B. This will set the initial substep to 1/20 th of the total load.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. D. The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. however. C. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. Therefore. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 1. E. . data for every load step is written to the database. this takes time. This option is used to help the Newton-Raphson solver converge. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on. This means rather than just recording the data for the last load step. Enter 20 as the number of substeps. F. you can plot certain parameters over time.

000 N load in the FY direction on the top of the beam (Keypoint 2). 4. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 1000 NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). 5. For more information about these commands.B. 3. type help followed by the command into the command line. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Place a 10. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE The following will appear on your screen for NonLinear Analyses .

This shows the convergence of the solution. General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. To view the element in 2D rather than a line: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape and turn 'Display of element' ON (as shown below). .

.1 .0. > DOF solution. UY PLNSOL.U. View the deflection contour plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu.Y..2.

Define Variables r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro. 1. However. Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results As shown. you may wish to view time history results such as the deflection of the object over time. The following window should open automatically. . stress and bending moment diagrams) the same way you did in previous examples using the General Postprocessor.Other results can be obtained as shown in previous linear static analyses. you can obtain the results (such as deflection.

If it does not open automatically. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement (as shown below) and click OK. Pick the uppermost node on the beam and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. .

so you must change them manually. Graph Results over Time r Click on UY_2 in the Time History Variables window. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. Pick the lowermost node on the beam and click OK. This time select Reaction Forces > Structural Forces > Y-Component of Force. click the add button again. On the Time History Variable window. This will make the reaction force the x-variable. click the circle in the 'X-Axis' column for FY_3. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window.r To add another variable. . The Time History Variables window should now look like this: r 2. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately.

HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. The difference can be attributed to the ANSYS solver including large deflection calculations. Open the . you will see the solutions are very similar.This plot shows how the beam deflected linearly when the force. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . was low (in the linear range).PDF version is also available for printing.. This is because the stress in the beam is in the plastic range and thus no longer relates to strain linearly.. Now go to 'File > Read input from. However.' and select the file. the deflection (proportional to strain) began to increase at a greater rate. and subsequently the stress. When you verify this example analytically. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. as the force increased.

If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. .Harmonic Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. please use the links below.

Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Modal ANTYPE.. Set options for analysis type: r Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.2 2.ANSYS Inc. The following window will appear . Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

of modes to expand' Click 'OK' Note that the default mode extraction method chosen is the Reduced Method. This is the fastest method as it reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (see below). select the Subspace method and enter 5 in the 'No. The Subspace Method extracts modes for all DOF's.r As shown. It is therefore more exact but. it also takes longer to compute (especially when the complex geometries). r r r The following window will then appear For a better understanding of these options see the Commands manual. of modes to extract' Check the box beside 'Expand mode shapes' and enter 5 in the 'No. .

. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.r For this problem. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 (ie all DOFs constrained). Verify extracted modes against theoretical predictions r Select: General Postproc > Results Summary. . The following window will appear The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS.. we will use the default options so click on OK. 4. 3.

64 285. we would have to model the cantilever using 15 or more elements depending upon the highest mode frequency of interest). The first four mode shapes should look like the following: r . Select 'Def + undef edge' The first mode shape will now appear in the graphics window. this mesh would have to be refined even more (i.1 Note: To obtain accurate higher mode frequencies.54 Percent Error 0. Select 'Def + undef edge'. As above choose General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.0 0. 2. r To view the next mode shape.51 472.0 0.300 52.311 51.94 145.01 145.22 ANSYS 8. View Mode Shapes r Select: General Postproc > Read Results > First Set This selects the results for the first mode shape r Select General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed shape .1 0.e.68 285.69 472. select General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set .2 0. instead of 10 elements.

Animate Mode Shapes r Select Utility Menu (Menu at the top) > Plot Ctrls > Animate > Mode Shape The following window will appear .3.

r r

**Keep the default setting and click 'OK' The animated mode shapes are shown below.
**

s

Mode 1

s

Mode 2

s

Mode 3

s

Mode 4

**Using the Reduced Method for Modal Analysis
**

This method employs the use of Master Degrees of Freedom. These are degrees of freedom that govern the dynamic characteristics of a structure. For example, the Master Degrees of Freedom for the bending modes of cantilever beam are

For this option, a detailed understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure is required. However, going this route means a smaller

(reduced) stiffness matrix, and thus faster calculations. The steps for using this option are quite simple.

q

Instead of specifying the Subspace method, select the Reduced method and specify 5 modes for extraction. Complete the window as shown below

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Note:For this example both the number of modes and frequency range was specified. ANSYS then extracts the minimum number of modes between the two.

q

Select Solution > Master DOF > User Selected > Define When prompted, select all nodes except the left most node (fixed). The following window will appear:

q

q

Select UY as the 1st degree of freedom (shown above). The same constraints are used as above.

The following table compares the mode frequencies in Hz predicted by theory and ANSYS (Reduced). Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 8.311 51.94 145.68 285.69 472.22 ANSYS 8.300 52.01 145.66 285.71 473.66 Percent Error 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3

As you can see, the error does not change significantly. However, for more complex structures, larger errors would be expected using the reduced method.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic - Modal Dynamic - Harmonic Dynamic - Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 - 100 Hz. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. These 3 methods are the Full , Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods. However, this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS, please use the links below. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links.

**Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type (Harmonic) Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Harmonic ANTYPE,3 2. Set options for analysis type:

r

Select: Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options.. The following window will appear

r

As shown, select the Full Solution method, the Real + imaginary DOF printout format and do not use lumped mass approx. Click 'OK' The following window will appear. Use the default settings (shown below).

r

3. Apply Constraints

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes The following window will appear once you select the node at x=0 (Note small changes in the window compared to the static examples):

r

Constrain all DOF as shown in the above window

4. Apply Loads:

r

Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Select the node at x=1 (far right) The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply a load with a real value of 100 and an imaginary value of 0 in the positive 'y' direction

r

r

Note: By specifying a real and imaginary value of the load we are providing information on magnitude and phase of the load. In this case the magnitude of the load is 100 N and its phase is 0. Phase information is important when you have two or more cyclic loads being applied to the structure as these loads could be in or out of phase. For harmonic analysis, all loads applied to a structure must have the SAME FREQUENCY. 5. Set the frequency range

r

Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequency > Freq and Substps... As shown in the window below, specify a frequency range of 0 - 100Hz, 100 substeps and stepped b.c..

r

By doing this we will be subjecting the beam to loads at 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz, ..... 100 Hz. We will specify a stepped boundary condition (KBC) as this will ensure that the same amplitude (100 N) will be applyed for each of the frequencies. The ramped option, on the other hand, would ramp up the amplitude where at 1 Hz the amplitude would be 1 N and at 100 Hz the amplitude would be 100 N. You should now have the following in the ANSYS Graphics window

6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

We want to observe the response at x=1 (where the load was applyed) as a function of frequency. We cannot do this with General PostProcessing (POST1), rather we must use TimeHist PostProcessing (POST26). POST26 is used to observe certain variables as a function of either time or frequency. 1. Open the TimeHist Processing (POST26) Menu Select TimeHist Postpro from the ANSYS Main Menu. 2. Define Variables

In our case it is assigned Frequency. r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer.. select Utility Menu > List > nodes). (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1.In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted. By default. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear . Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. and the following window should pop up. which is node #2..

The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r . Click OK. Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement.

3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: . List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.3.

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. .4. Plot UY vs. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.

Note that we get peaks at frequencies of approximately 8. To get a better view of the response.94Hz. This corresponds with the predicted frequencies of 8. r Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axis The following window will appear .3 and 51 Hz.311 and 51. view the log scale of UY.

change the Y-axis scale to 'Logarithmic' Select Utility Menu > Plot > Replot You should now see the following r r .r As marked by an 'A' in the above window.

. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. .0. Open the . See the help file for instructions.This is the response at node 2 for the cyclic load applied at this node from 0 .PDF version is also available for printing. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..100 Hz.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from. Use the 'Define Variables' and 'Store Data' functions under TimeHist Postpro.HTML version. r For ANSYS version lower than 7. the 'Variable Viewer' window is not available.

.

If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. for example. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. For our case.Modal Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Harmonic Dynamic .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . a static analysis may be used instead. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. .

we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). the higher the mode frequency we will capture. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. After the application of the load. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f .ANSYS Inc. The smaller the time step. However.

However. Define Analysis Type r Select Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The following window will appear. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs). However. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. It is the quickest of the three methods. q q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. In other words. please use the links below. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. Therefore. In ANSYS. If you haven't created the model in ANSYS. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem The simple cantilever beam is used in all of the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. All types of non-linearities are allowed. Select 'Reduced' as shown. Because of the reduced size of the matrices. the calculations are much quicker. Both the command line codes and the GUI commands are shown in the respective links. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. if stresses and forces are of interest than. r . It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.

choose UY as the first dof in this window r For an explanation on Master DOFs. The following window will open. 3. Define Master DOFs r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select all nodes except the left most node (at x=0). . Constrain the Beam Solution Menu > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On nodes Fix the left most node (constrain all DOFs). see the section on Using the Reduced Method for modal analysis.2.

We will go ahead and save each load step in a file for later use. initial displacement and initial velocity. The following time history curve shows our load steps and time steps.4. a constant time step is required throughout the time range. a. for this example we can skip this step. Apply Loads We will define our impulse load using Load Steps. . This is highly recommended especially when we have many load steps and we wish to re-run our solution. Therefore.. This will specify a time step size of 0.001.Time Step . However. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Load Step 1 . s set a time of 0 for the end of the load step (as shown below). We can define each load step (load and time at the end of load segment) and save them in a file for future solution purposes. two sets of initial conditions are required. Since the equations for a transient dynamic analysis are of second order. ii. s set [DELTIM] to 0. Define Load Step We need to establish initial conditions (the condition at Time = 0). at the same time solve for each load step after we are done defining it. We can also solve for each load step after we define it. Note that for the reduced method. both default to zero.Initial Conditions i.001 seconds to be used for this load step.

iii. Write Load Step File s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File The following window will appear .

and set a time of 0. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 2 c. Load Step 3 i. ii. Load Step 2 i.Time Step .s Enter LSNUM = 1 as shown above and click 'OK' The load step will be saved in a file jobname..001 for the end of the load step iii. Enter a force in the FY direction of value -100 N. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Delete > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and delete the load at x=1. Define Load Step s Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes and select the right most node (at x=1).s01 b. ii. Specify Time and Time Step Options s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . Specify Time and Time Step Options .

1. and set a time of 1 for the end of the load step iii. (To get a list of nodes and their attributes. Define Variables In here we have to define variables that we want to see plotted.s Select Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Time . select Utility Menu > List > nodes). . By default. r Complete the window as shown above to solve using LS files 1 to 3.Time Step . Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To view the response of node 2 (UY) with time we must use the TimeHist PostProcessor (POST26). We want to see the displacement UY at the node at x=1. which is node #2.. Write Load Step File Solution > Load Step Opts > Write LS File Enter LSNUM = 3 5. In our case it is assigned Frequency. Variable 1 is assigned either Time or Frequency. Solve the System r Select Solution > Solve > From LS Files The following window will appear.

and the following window should pop up.. r Select Add (the green '+' sign in the upper left corner) from this window and the following window should appear .r Select TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer..

Graphically select node 2 when prompted and click OK.r We are interested in the Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Y-Component of displacement. Click OK. The 'Time History Variables' window should now look as follows r .

List Stored Variables r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'List' button.2. 3 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following window will appear listing the data: .

2 buttons to the left of 'Add' The following graph should be plotted in the main ANSYS window. Plot UY vs. .3. frequency r In the 'Time History Variables' window click the 'Plot' button.

. one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results as the response of the structure is of utmost interest in transient dynamic analysis. we would have to expand the reduced solution. We also see another response at a higher frequency. s s Expand the Solution For most problems. We may have captured some response at the second mode at 52 Hz of the beam. This is the first mode of the cantilever beam and we have been able to capture it. if stresses and forces are of interest. We did not specify damping for our system.A few things to note in the response curve s There are approximately 8 cycles in one second. However. Note that the response does not decay as it should not.

For this case.08 and 0. we can view the deformed shape at each of the 10 solutions we expanded. This will expand 10 solutions withing the range of 0. Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > Range of Solu's Complete the window as shown below.11 seconds. Review the results in POST1 Review the results using either General Postprocessing (POST1) or TimeHist Postprocessing (POST26). Damped Response of the Cantilever Beam . 1.08 and 0..Let's say we are interested in the beam's behaviour at peak responses. and switch it to ON in the window that pops open.11 seconds r r r 2. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 3. We should then expand a few or all solutions around one peak (or dip). We will expand 10 solutions within the range of 0. Expand the solution r Select Finish in the ANSYS Main Menu Select Solution > Analysis Type > ExpansionPass..

We did not specify damping in our transient analysis of the beam.00000000 OMEGA. 0. 0. 1. but now we will consider damping.00000000 .00000000 CGLOC.REDU.00000000 . 0._TINY DELTIM. The file should look like the following. TINTP. 1.00000000 . Dynamic Analysis _LSNUM= 1 ANTYPE. 0.ANSYS RELEASE 5.DEFA ACEL. q . -1. 5. We can easily change a few values in these files and re-run our whole solution from these load case files.00000000 TREF.00000000 . 0.00000000 NCNV. 0. 0.00000000 . 0. /COM. 0. q Open up the first load step file (Dynamic.ROTZ..UX . 0 DOMEGA. We will now re-run our transient analysis.00000000 BETAD. 0.00000000 0. 0. 0.7.00000000 .1 UP20010418 14:44:02 08/20/2001 /NOPR /TITLE.00000000 D.00000000 TINTP.00000000 .00000000 q Change the damping value BETAD from 0 to 0.s01) for editing Utility Menu > File > List > Other > Dynamic. 1. We will have to re-run the job for the new load step files.00000000 . 0.00000000 DMPRAT.00000000 0.00000000 . /GOPR 1.01 in all three load step files.00000000 . Here is where the use of load step files comes in handy.UY .R5. 0.00000000 . 0.00000000 .00000000 . 0. Select Utility Menu > file > Clear and Start New. 0. . -1. D.00000000 0.000000000E-03. 0. 0. 1. 0.00000000 ALPHAD.00000000 . 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.500000000 . 0. D.0. 0.DAMP BFUNIF. 0.00000000 DCGOMG. 4 TRNOPT.00000000 0. . 0. 0..00000000 .00000000 ERESX.000000000E-03 TIME.00000000 CGOMEGA..00000000 .s01.0. We specify damping at the same time we specify our time & time steps for each load step.TEMP.00000000 ..R5.

' . Open the .. and in the window that opens up select files from 1 to 3 in steps of 1. After selecting MDOFs... simply go to Solution > (-Solve-) From LS files .q Repeat the steps shown above up to the point where we select MDOFs. Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version. plot up the response at node 2 in POST26.. The damped response should look like the following q Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. After the results have been calculated. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.

and select the file. .PDF version is also available for printing. A .

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .Harmonic Dynamic . Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.Modal Dynamic .

we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Width=1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.05 AESIZE.ALL. Apply Constraints . Height=1 BLC4. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.KXX.ALL Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0.1.1.1 4. 5. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node. Quad 4Node 55 ET.0. Quad 4node 55).PLANE55 For this example. Y=0.10 6..0. 1.. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Give example a Title 2.0 2.05 7. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.ANSYS Inc.

Heat Generation. or Radiation. Heat Flow. r r The following window will appear: . constraints can be in the form of Temperature.options cannot be selected. Heat Flux. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line.For thermal problems. In this example. Convection. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. all 4 sides of the block have fixed temperatures.

Temperature TEMP . > DOF solution.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the side to a constant temperature of 500 Using the same method. r 3. constrain the remaining 3 sides to a constant value of 100 Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints... Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Recall that the nodes on the top of the plate were constrained first..PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Decreasing the mesh size can minimize this effect. Open the . then 'overwritten' when the side constraints were applied. one must be aware of the limitations in the results at the corners. . however. followed by the side and bottom constraints.' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.. The top corner nodes were therefore first constrained at 500C. the top corners are held at a temperature of 100.Note that due to the manner in which the boundary contitions were applied.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Thermal .Harmonic Dynamic .Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/ Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.Modal Dynamic . Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/ convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.0 to solve simple thermal examples.

05 AESIZE. Width=1.10 This will specify a thermal conductivity of 10 W/m*C. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.ALL Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 10 MP. Y=0.1. Give example a Title 2.0 2.1. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid. Apply Conduction Constraints . Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0.. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.ALL. 1. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 3. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.05 7. 5.1. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1 4.0. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Steady-State ANTYPE.ANSYS Inc.PLANE55 As in the conduction example. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners > X=0. Quad 4node 55).KXX.0. 6. Height=1 BLC4..

The following window will appear: r .In this example. constrain the left side of the block to a constant value of 100 C r r 3. Apply Convection Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the right side of the block. all 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Lines Select the top line of the block and constrain it to a constant value of 500 C Using the same method. while convection occurs on the other 2 sides.

r . Note that VALJ and VAL2J have been left blank. This will specify a convection of 10 W/m2*C and an ambient temperature of 100 degrees Celcius.r Fill in the window as shown. This is because we have uniform convection across the line. Apply Insulated Boundary Conditions r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines Select the bottom of the block. 4.

Note: you do not need to enter a Bulk (or ambient) temperature You should obtain the following: 5. > DOF solution. thereby modeling an insulated wall. Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu .r Enter a constant Film coefficient (VALI) of 0. Temperature TEMP .. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. This will eliminate convection through the side..

This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.HTML version. .' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.. Open the .. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. A .

Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic .0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.Harmonic Dynamic . Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . Also. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.040 kJ/kg*K.Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.Modal Dynamic . The example is constrained as shown in the following figure. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution.

1 4.920 6. Quad 4node 55). we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid.2.C. Quad 4Node 55 ET.1.ALL At this point..ALL.04 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density > DENS = 920 MP. Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic > KXX = 5 (Thermal conductivity) MP. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.ANSYS Inc. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0. Width=1.KXX. /Title.1. Create geometry Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners X=0.0. Y=0. Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas > 0. Height=1 BLC4.05 AESIZE.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title. the model should look like the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.10 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat > C = 2.0.PLANE55 For this example.05 7.DENS. > click 'Add' > Select Thermal Mass Solid.1. 5.1..Transient Thermal Conduction 2..04 MP.1. Mesh Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > Pick All AMESH.

so click OK.Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.4 The window shown below will pop up. We will use the defaults. . Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient ANTYPE.

.2. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up.

Min no. of substeps to 100. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown . of substeps to 20. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 300 and Automatic time stepping to ON. Max no.

Heat Generation. 3. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. r Solution > Define Loads > Apply Note that all of the -Structural.D) Set Line search to ON . Convection. Apply Constraints For thermal problems. By writing the data at every step. Basically. or Radiation. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. Heat Flux. This is due to the type of element (PLANE55) selected. Thermal > Temperature > On Nodes Click the Box option (shown below) and draw a box around the nodes on the top line and then click OK. 2 sides of the block have fixed temperatures and the other two are insulated.options cannot be selected. r r . For a complete description of what these options do. In this example. you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. Heat Flow. refer to the help file.

The following window will appear: .

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 100 K: 5. > DOF solution.r Fill the window in as shown to constrain the top to a constant temperature of 500 K Using the same method.. constrain the bottom line to a constant value of 100 K Orange triangles in the graphics window indicate the temperature contraints. r 4. Temperature TEMP . Results Using ANSYS Plot Temperature General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu ..

Fill in the window as shown. from 100 to 500. specify the contour range. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Uniform Contours.Animate Results Over Time r First. .. user specified.. with 8 contours.

Auto contour scaling OFF. Fill in the following window as shown (20 frames.r Then animate the data. DOF solution > TEMP) . 0 .. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Time..300 Time Range.

You can see how the temperature rises over the area over time. Also. The heat flows from the higher temperature to the lower temperature constraints as expected. As can be seen. thus the validity of the ANSYS simulation has been proven. . the curves are practically identical. Shown below are analytical and ANSYS generated temperature vs time curves for the center of the block. you can see how it reaches equilibrium when the time reaches approximately 200 seconds.

Analytical Solution .

. The following window should open automatically. Creating the Temperature vs. Time Graph r Select: Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro.ANSYS Generated Solution Time History Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

node 261.If it does not open automatically. Pick the center node on the mesh. r Select Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > Temperature (as shown below) and click OK. select Main Menu > TimeHist Postpro > Variable Viewer r Click the add button in the upper left corner of the window to add a variable. and click OK in the 'Node for Data' window. .

r The Time History Variables window should now look like this: .

which is why only 20 substeps are used in this tutorial. This will greatly increase the computational time required though. . as the mesh is adequate to capture the response. increasing the number of substeps from say 20 to 300. so you must change them manually. r The labels on the plot are not updated by ANSYS. reducing the mesh size will do little in this case. Twenty substeps gives an adequate and quick approximation of the solution. From experience. Note how this plot does not exactly match the plot shown above.2. To cause the solution to converge. Graph Results over Time r Ensure TEMP_2 in the Time History Variables window is highlighted. This is because the solution has not completely converged. will cause the solution to converge. r Click the graphing button in the Time History Variables window. Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes and re-label the X and Y-axis appropriately. Instead. one of two things can be done: decrease the mesh size or increase the number of substeps used in the transient analysis.

' and select the file.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.PDF version is also available for printing.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS..HTML version. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. . Open the .

Transient Thermal-Conduction Thermal-Mixed Bndry Transient Heat Axisymmetric ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Effect of Self Weight Distributed Loading NonLinear Analysis Solution Tracking Buckling NonLinear Materials Dynamic . In this case.Modal Dynamic . As a warning. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below.Harmonic Dynamic . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta . we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making.

Y1. /title..X2. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Create Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By Dimensions RECTNG. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.ANSYS Inc. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Axisymmetric Tube 2.X1..Y2 .

Turn on Axisymmetry While the Element Types window is still open. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Solid.ALL Click the Pick All button to create a single area. 6.For an axisymmetric problem. axisymmetry is not supported. to create the geometry mentioned above. ANSYS will rotate the area around the y-axis at x=0. click the Options.. Under Element behavior K3 select Axisymmetric. For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Structural. 5. button. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. . Triangle 6node) element. Therefore. We are going to define 3 overlapping rectangles as defined in the following table: Rectangle X1 X2 Y1 Y2 1 2 3 0 20 0 5 15 20 0 0 100 20 95 100 4. Many elements support axisymmetry.... Add Areas Together Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Add > Areas AADD. we must define a U-shape. however if the Ansys Elements Reference (which can be found in the help file) does not discuss axisymmetric applications for a particular element type.

Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. 9. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Your model should know look like this: . Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 8.7. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm.

0 2. .Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. at x=0.C. ANSYS automatically calculates which DOF's should be constrained for the line of symmetry. > On Lines Pick the two edges on the left. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B. command.C. as shown below. By using the symmetry B. we could have constrained the lines in the x-direction to create the symmetric boundary conditions. Since the element we are using only has 2 DOF's per node. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.

then click OK.r Utility Menu > Select > Entities Select Nodes and By Location from the scroll down menus. Click Y coordinates and type 50 into the input box as shown below. .

click on Cancel to close the window. Apply a load of 100 in the FY direction. Once you've clicked Sele All. otherwise it would be free to float up or down. The location to constrain the model in the y-direction (y=50) was chosen because it is along a symmetry plane. . these nodes won't move in the y-direction according to theory. Therefore.Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes > Pick All Constrain the nodes in the y-direction (UY). This is required to constrain the model in space. 3. 4. click Sele All to reselect all nodes. Utility Menu > Select > Entities In the select entities window. It is important to always reselect all entities once you've finished to ensure future commands are applied to the whole model and not just a few entities. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the top left corner of the area and click OK.

Apply a load of -100 in the FY direction. r 5.r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Pick the bottom left corner of the area and click OK. The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

2.The stress across the thickness at y = 50mm is 0. Select Nodes > By Location > Y coordinates and type 45. as shown below and click OK.Max box..182 MPa.. Determine the Stress Through the Thickness of the Tube r Utility Menu > Select > Entities.55 in the Min. .

r If you take the average of the stress in the y-direction over the thickness of the tube..18552 + 0. such as corners. By clicking on 3/4 expansion you can produce the figure shown at the beginning of this tutorial.r General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution > Stress > Components SCOMP The following list should pop up. the stress in the tube is 0. it is assumed the stress is evenly distributed across the thickness. Thus..182 MPa. This is only true when the location is far from any stress concentrators. The following window will appear. (0. matching the analytical solution. Plotting the Elements as Axisymmetric Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Symmetry Expansion > 2-D Axi-symmetric. we must average the stress over the thickness. The average is used because in the analytical case. .17866)/2. 3. to approximate the analytical solution.

HTML version.4.. rectangular plate. Thus. with a rectangular hole in the middle..PDF version is also available for printing. Now go to 'File > Read input from. If this is done. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. . but leave out the key option which enables axisymmetric modelling. the model is a flat. Both the stress distribution and deformed shape change drastically. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Extra Exercise It is educational to repeat this tutorial. A .' and select the file. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. as expected due to the change in geometry. when using axisymmetry be sure to verify the solutions you get are reasonable to ensure the model is infact axisymmetric. The rest of the commands remain the same. Open the .

This tutorial will introduce: q Contact Elements APDL q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below. a wall thickness of 10.7.

Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. It is therefore required that the types of elements are defined prior to creating the elements. Open preprocessor menu /PREP7 2.. and rotation about the X. COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint).Catapult 3. This element has 6 degrees of freedom (translation along the X.Y and Z axis). Y and Z axis. Define Element Types For this problem. /title. . 3 types of elements are used: PIPE16. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . COMBIN14 (Spring-Damper) ..

Define Real Constants Real Constants must be defined for each of the 3 element types. Click 'OK'. enter the following geometric properties (then click 'OK'): X-Y transnational stiffness K1: 1e9 . In the 'Real Constants for COMBIN7' window. Define COMBIN14 Now we will define the spring elements. b. a. s Select 'Combination'. UZ. and ROTY) can be constrained with different levels of flexibility. there should now be three types of elements defined. the PIPE16 element can be used to create the 3D structure. 4.a.. ROTY). PIPE16 s Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete.. UY. UY). > click 'Add' s Select 'Pipe'. 'Spring damper 14' s Click on 'OK' In the 'Element Types' window. For this example. Define COMBIN7 COMBIN7 (Revolute Joint) will allow the catapult to rotate about nodes 1 and 2. c. COMBIN7 (Joint) Five of the degrees of freedom (UX. s Select 'Combination'. 'Revolute Joint 7' s Click 'Apply'. Define PIPE16 With 6 degrees of freedom.. s Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. 'Elast straight 16' s Click on 'Apply' You should see 'Type 1 PIPE16' in the 'Element Types' window. ROTX. s s s Click 'Add' Select 'Type 2 COMBIN7'. then click 'OK' OD = 40 TKWALL = 10 'Set 1' will now appear in the dialog box b. These can be defined by the 3 real constants: K1 (UX. K2 (UZ) and K3 (ROTX. > click 'Add' s Select Type 1 PIPE16 and click 'OK' s Enter the following properties. we will use high values for K1 through K3 since we only expect the model to rotate about the Z axis.

y.1000) (1000. Young's modulus EX: 200000 Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.1000) (1000.0. enter the give the properties of Steel then click 'OK'.33 6. By having high values for the stiffness in the X-Y plane and along the Z axis.z) (0..0) . ensure that Material Model Number 1 is selected 3.#.0) (0. N.x. Define Nodes Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Nodes > In Active CS. In the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window. s Enter the following geometric properties: Spring constant K: 5 In the 'Element Types' window. 5. Define Element Material Properties 1. Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models 2.z We are going to define 13 Nodes for this structure as given in the following table (as depicted by the circled numbers in the figure above): Node 1 2 3 4 Coordinates (x. Click 'OK'. there should now be three types of elements defined. Note: The constants that we define in this problem refer to the relationship between the coincident nodes. we are essentially constraining the two coincident nodes to each other. Select Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic 4..0. COMBIN14 (Spring) s Click 'Add' s Select 'Type 3 COMBIN14'. In the window that appears.0.0.y. c.s Z directional stiffness K2: 1e9 Rotational stiffness K3: 1e9 'Set 2' will now appear in the dialog box.

0) (0. The following window will appear.0.500) (0.1000.0.500) (400. ..0. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes .0. 'Material number' is set to 1.0.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (0.1000) (0.1500) (0.-500) 7.. Then click 'OK'. and 'Real constant set number' is set to 1. Create PIPE16 elements a.500) (0. Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 1 PIPE16.1000.0) (700.400.1000) (0.700.

node a. Node a Node b 1 2 1 2 3 10 9 7 12 6 5 4 3 4 8 8 8 5 . the first entry would be: E. Note: because it is difficult to graphically select the nodes you may wish to use the command line (for example.b. node b Create the following elements joining Nodes 'a' and Nodes 'b'. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E.1.6).

Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes . three nodes are required. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 2 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 2.13 12 5 6 6 13 3 4 You should obtain the following geometry (Oblique view) 8. Two nodes are coincident at the point of rotation. The axis would be the line from the coincident nodes to the other node. The other node for the joint defines the axis of rotation. Create COMBIN7 (Joint) elements a. Create elements When defining a joint. Then click 'OK' b. The elements that connect to the joint must reference each of the coincident points.

Then click 'OK' b. you can list all the elements defined in the model. 10.node a. select Utilities Menu > List > Elements > Nodes + Attributes.node a. we do not need to mesh our model. node c Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b Node c 1 2 9. It is the elements that ANSYS uses to solve the model. node b Create the following lines joining Node 'a' and Node 'b' Node a Node b 5 8 8 6 9 10 11 11 NOTE: To ensure that the correct nodes were used to make the correct element in the above table. Define element type Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Ensure that the 'Element type number' is set to 3 COMBIN7 and that 'Real constant set number' is set to 3. 11.E. we would have had to create elements in our model by meshing the lines. If we initially defined our model using keypoints and lines. Meshing Because we have defined our model using nodes and elements. node b. To do this. Create elements Preprocessor > (-Modeling-) Create > Elements > (-Auto Numbered-) Thru Nodes E. Plot Elements Utility Menu > Plot > Elements . Create COMBIN14 (Spring) elements a.

0 2..You may also wish to turn on element numbering and turn off keypoint numbering Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering . Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 3.. Allow Large Deflection Solution > Sol'n Controls > basic NLGEOM. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Displacement > On Nodes . ON Because the model is expected to deform considerably. we need to include the effects of large deformation.

r

Fix Nodes 3, 4, 12, and 13. (ie - all degrees of freedom are constrained).

**4. Apply Loads Solution > (-Loads-) Apply > (-Structural-) > Force/Moment > On Nodes
**

r

Apply a vertical point load of 1000N at node #7.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Note: To have the constraints and loads appear each time you select 'Replot' in ANSYS, you must change some settings under Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Symbols.... In the window that appears check the box beside 'All Applied BC's' in the 'Boundary Condition Symbol' section.

5. Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Note: During the solution, you will see a yellow warning window which states that the "Coefficient ratio exceeds 1.0e8". This warning indicates that the solution has relatively large displacements. This is due to the rotation about the joints.

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

1. Plot Deformed Shape General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape PLDISP.2

2. Extracting Information as Parameters In this problem, we would like to find the vertical displacement of node #7. We will do this using the GET command. a. Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... b. The following window will appear. Select 'Results data' and 'Nodal results' as shown then click 'OK'

c. Fill in the 'Get Nodal Results Data' window as shown below:

d. To view the defined parameter select Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...

Therefore the vertical displacement of Node 7 is 323.78 mm. This can be repeated for any of the other nodes you are interested in.

Command File Mode of Solution

The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Open the .HTML version, copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Now go to 'File > Read input from...' and select the file. A .PDF version is also available for printing.

UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL

ANSYS UTILITIES

BASIC TUTORIALS

INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS

ADVANCED TUTORIALS

POSTPROC. TUTORIALS

COMMAND LINE FILES

PRINTABLE VERSION

Design Optimization

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables, deciding which variables to use as design, state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. However, the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

Index

Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta

ANSYS Inc.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

**Preprocessing: Defining the Problem
**

1. Give example a Title

Utility Menu > File > Change Title ... /title, Design Optimization 2. Enter initial estimates for variables To solve an optimization problem in ANSYS, parameters need to be defined for all design variables.

r r

Select: Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters... In the window that appears (shown below), type W=20 in the ‘Selection’ section

r r r r

Click ‘Accept’. The 'Scalar Parameters' window will stay open. Now type H=20 in the ‘Selection’ section Click ‘Accept' Click ‘Close’ in the ‘Scalar Parameters’ window.

NOTE: None of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values. 3. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS... K,#,x,y We are going to define 2 Keypoints for this beam as given in the following table:

Keypoints Coordinates (x,y) 1 2 (0,0) (1000,0)

4. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L,1,2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5. Create Hard Keypoints Hardpoints are often used when you need to apply a constraint or load at a location where a keypoint does not exist. For this case, we want to apply a force 3/4 of the way down the beam. Since there are not any keypoints here and we can't be certain that one of the nodes will be here we will need to specify a hardpoint

r

Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > Hard PT on line > Hard PT by ratio. This will allow us to create a hardpoint on the line by defining the ratio of the location of the point to the size of the line Select the line when prompted Enter a ratio of 0.75 in the 'Create HardPT by Ratio window which appears.

r

r

You have now created a keypoint labelled 'Keypoint 3' 3/4 of the way down the beam. 6. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete... For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes, and rotation about the Z axis). 7. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants... > Add... In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window, enter the following geometric properties: (Note that '**' is used instead '^' for exponents) i. Cross-sectional area AREA: W*H ii. Area moment of inertia IZZ: (W*H**3)/12

iii. Thickness along Y axis: H NOTE: It is important to use independent variables to define dependent variables such as the moment of inertia. During the optimization, the width and height will change for each iteration. As a result, the other variables must be defined in relation to the width and height. 8. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears, enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... For this example we will specify an element edge length of 100 mm (10 element divisions along the line). 10. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' LMESH,ALL

**Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving
**

1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE,0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Pin Keypoint 1 (ie UX, UY constrained) and constrain Keypoint 2 in the Y direction. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a vertical (FY) point load of -2000N at Keypoint 3

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below.

4. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE

**Postprocessing: Viewing the Results
**

Extracting Information as Parameters:

To perform an optimization, we must extract the required information. In this problem, we would like to find the maximum stress in the beam and the volume as a result of the width and height variables. 1. Define the volume

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add...

r

The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the volume of the beam.

Note that this is the volume of each element. If you were to list the element table you would get a volume for each element. Therefore, you have to sum the element values together to obtain the total volume of the beam. Follow the instructions below to do this.

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Sum of Each Item... A little window will appear notifying you that the tabular sum of each element table will be calculated. Click 'OK' You will obtain a window notifying you that the EVolume is now 400000 mm2

r

**2. Store the data (Volume) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Elem table sums' the following window will appear. Select the items shown to store the Volume as a parameter.

r

r

Now if you view the parameters (Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters...) you will see that Volume has been added. 3. Define the maximum stress at the i node of each element in the beam

r

Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table... > Add... The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum stress at the i node of each element and store it as 'SMAX_I'.

r

Note that nmisc,1 is the maximum stress. For further information type Help beam3 into the command line Now we will need to sort the stresses in descending order to find the maximum stress

r

Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems Complete the window as shown below to sort the data from 'SMAX_I' in descending order

r

**4. Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter
**

r

Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data... In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears, fill it in as shown to obtain the maximum value.

r

r

5. Define maximum stress at the j node of each element for the beam

. fill it in as shown previously . Fill this table as done previously. View the parametric data Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters Note that the maximum stress is 281. Comp selection box r r r 6. we can now solve the optimization problem. This is so that ANSYS can iteratively run solutions to our problem based on different values for the variables that we will define. name the parameter 'SMaxJ'.1). Store the data (Max Stress) as a parameter r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data. However. .r Select General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table. In the window which appears select 'Results Data' and 'Other operations' In the that appears. This will give you the max stress at the j node. r Select Utility Menu > File > Write DB Log File. Select the largest of SMAXJ and SMAXI r Type SMAX=SMAXI>SMAXJ into the command line This will set the largest of the 2 values equal to SMAX. select 'SMAX_J' in the Item. > Add.. r r 7. this is not always the case.. However. 1.3 (instead of NMISC.. Select General Postproc > List Results > Sorted Listing > Sort Elems to sort the stresses in descending order.25 which is much larger than the allowable stress of 200MPa Design Optimization Now that we have parametrically set up our problem in ANSYS based on our initial width and height dimensions. however. In this case the maximum values for each are the same.. 8. Write the command file It is necessary to write the outline of our problem to an ANSYS command file.. however make the following changes: s save the data as 'SMAX_J' (instead of 'SMAX_I') s The element table data enter NMISC...

UY..(W*H**3)/12.ORDE.2... . Design Optimization *SET..1. . . ..1 FITEM.200000 MPDATA.. If you open the command file in a text editor such as Notepad...P51X.start70.. .LINE.ALL.3 !* LESIZE.'C:\Program Files\Ansys Inc\v70\ANSYS\apdl\'. ..1.1. .2... . !* ET.2.1 !* /GO DK...RATI.0..1. !* !* MPTEMP.. 20 *SET.ANSYS RELEASE 7.2 . K..PRXY.0 UP20021010 16:10:03 05/26/2003 /input.. .. .W .W*H. LMESH. .0 FLST..0 MPDATA. 1 FINISH /SOL !* ANTYPE. .EX..1. 2 !* HPTCREATE. MPTEMP.UX.H . FLST.1..0.2.1 FITEM. it should similar to this: /BATCH ! /COM.ORDE. 20 /PREP7 K.0.1 /title.100..0.1.1.0. .1.. 1. L. ..r r In the window that appears type a name for the command file such as ‘optimize.3.1..1000.BEAM3 !* !* R.0.H.ans.75. .txt’ Click ‘OK’.2.1.3..

1.UY. . ETABLE.2.P51X. The following is a list of the changes which need to be made to this file (which was created using the GUI method) r Line 32 . .ORDE..SMaxI. ETABLE. the actual items that were chosen need to be entered.NMISC.SMAXI>SMAXJ ! LGWRITE. 3 !* ESORT. If you created the geometry etc.SORT.SMAX. . .Volume. Save and close the file once you have made all of the required changes.UY.0.EVOLUME AVPRIN. .3. Therefore.. ETABLE.SMax_J.0. Change this to: DK.COMMENT Several small changes need to be made to this file prior to commencing the optimization. .-2000 ! /STATUS.optimization.P51X.SOLU SOLVE FINISH /POST1 AVPRIN. if you used GUI to create this file there are several occasions where you used the graphical picking device.UX.NMISC.ETAB.0. !* *GET. . . .EVolume. However. .SMAX_I.0.UY.0.SORT.UX. . .SMAX_J. !* SSUM !* *GET. .1.3 !* /GO FK.0. .SMaxJ.1.2. .0.MAX *SET. . most of these changes will already be made. using command line code. .SSUM.1. FLST.MAX AVPRIN..ETAB. .DK. The code 'P51X' symbolizes the graphical selection.0.0.1 FITEM.0.VOLU. To modify the file simply open it using notepad and make the required changes.0.C:\Temp\. !* *GET. .0.P51X.ITEM.!* /GO DK. .SMax_I.FY. 1 !* ESORT.0.

Change to: DK.3. we will be minimizing the volume of the beam. we need to define ranges and tolerances for each variable. none of the variables defined in ANSYS are allowed to have negative values.0. Assign the Command File to the Optimization r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Analysis File > Assign r In the file list that appears. . r Click ‘OK’. 2. State Variables (SVs) Dependent variables that change as a result of changing the DVs. . we will select a range of 10 to 50 mm for each. Define Variables and Tolerances ANSYS needs to know which variables are critical to the optimization. Changing either variable has a direct effect on the solution of the problem. . Without this SV.0. select the filename that you created when you wrote the command file. we need to know which variables have an effect on the variable to be minimized. These variables are necessary to constrain the design.0. 3.-2000 Change to: FK.0. If you are comfortable with command line coding. you should remove the lines which you are certain are not required. For the width and height.P51X.This specifies the constraints at keypoint 1 r Line 37 . In our problem.UY. Objective Variable (OV) The objective variable is the one variable in the optimization that needs to be minimized.2. our optimization will continue until both the width and height are zero. . To define variables.P51X. Because a small change in either the width or height has a profound effect . This would minimize the weight to zero which is not a useful result. . the SV is the maximum stress in the beam.FK. . Now that we have decided our design variables. This specifies the constraints at keypoint 2 Line 42 . . In this example.FY. ANSYS categorizes three types of variables for design optimization: Design Variables (DVs) Independent variables that directly effect the design objective. the width and height of the beam are the DVs. In this example our objective is to minimize the volume of a beam which is directly related to the weight of the beam.UY. . In this example. NOTE: As previously stated.DK. .FY.-2000 This specifies the force applied on the beam r There are also several lines which can be removed from this file.

01mm..01MPa. we will select a tolerance of 0. Define the Design Variables (width and height of beam) s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Variables.. . We will set the tolerance to 200mm3.. Define the State Variables s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > State Variables.. we do not need to define an allowable range. s s Repeat the above steps to specify the variable limits for the width of the beam (identical to specifications for height) b. Because the volume variable is the objective variable... This tolerance was chosen because it is significantly smaller than the initial magnitude of the volume of 400000mm3 (20mm x 20mm x 1000mm).. > Add. > Add. Tolerances are necessary in that they tell ANSYS the largest amount of change that a variable can experience before convergence of the problem.. Complete the window as shown below to specify the variable limits and tolerances for the height of the beam. a. For the stress variable. we will select a range of 195 to 200 MPa with a tolerance of 0.on the volume of the beam.

. Defaults to 10. Define the Objective Variable s s s Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Objective. Defaults to 100% DELTA forward difference (%) applied to the design variable range that is used to compute the gradient.2 Click ‘OK’. If you have trouble with getting a particular problem to converge it would be a good idea to try a different method of solution to see what might be wrong. Run the Optimization r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Run. DELTA = 0.... it is advisable to use different solution methods.001) c. 6. For this problem we will use a First-Order Solution method.2% 7.. To ensure that you are not finding a solution at a local minimum.. r r r r r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Method / Tool. SIZE % that is applied to the size of each line search step. Define the Optimization Method There are several different methods that ANSYS can use to solve an optimization problem. Select ‘VOLUME’ in the ‘Parameter Name’ section. method/type and maximum iterations are correct. Click ‘OK’. s Enter: Lower Limit (MIN = 195) s Upper Limit (MAX = 200) s Feasibility Tolerance (TOLER = 0.s In the window fill in the following sections s Select 'SMAX' in the ‘Parameter Name’ section.. confirm that the analysis file. In the ‘Begin Execution of Run’ window. Under Convergence Tolerance. Percent forward diff. Defaults to 0. Note: the significance of the above variables is explained below: NITR Max number of iterations. In the ‘Specify Optimization Method’ window select ‘First-Order’ Click ‘OK’ Enter: Maximum iterations (NITR = 30). enter 200. Percent step size SIZE = 100.

This problem will take about 15 minutes and run through 19 iterations.. Ensure that 'Graph' is selected (as opposed to 'List') r . Complete the window as shown to obtain a graph of the height and width of the beam changing with each iteration A. C. and the stress is equal to 199... For the ‘X-variable parameter’ select ‘Set number’. 2.16 mm.83 MPa with a volume of 386100mm2. height=29. You will probably see that the width=13. View the Results 1. For the ‘Y-variable parameter’ select ‘H’ and ‘W’.The solution of an optimization problem can take awhile before convergence.24 mm. B.. View Final Parameters Utility Menu > Parameters > Scalar Parameters. View graphical results of each variable during the solution r Select Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > Graphs / Tables.

you will see a graph of width and height throughout the optimization.. .. Click 'OK' Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls In the graphics window. Enter ‘Width and Height (mm)’ for the ‘Y-axis label’.. In the window.Now you may wish to specify titles for the X and Y axes r r r r r Select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes.. You can print the plot by selecting Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Hard Copy. enter ‘Number of Iterations’ for the ‘X-axis label’ section.

Now go to 'File > Read input from. A .. .PDF version is also available for printing..You can plot graphs of the other variables in the design by following the above steps. Alternatively.' and select the file. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. displacement. all of the results data (ie stress. In addition.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. . copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. you could list the data by selecting Main Menu > Design Opt > Design Sets > List. Open the . Instead of using width and height for the y-axis label and variables. bending moments) are available from the General Postproc menu.HTML version.. use whichever variable is necessary to plot.

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Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.5 MPa. v = 0. For this example. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. Apply loads to the super-element . A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. however. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. substructuring will be used for the wood block.

2.. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). Apply remaining loads to the model. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).XCORNER. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.. Enter 'GEN' for the jobname 2.. Give Generation Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . 3.WIDTH. Create geometry of the super-element Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. Expansion Pass: Creating the Super-element Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Topdown substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.YCORNER. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 40 Width = 100 Height = 100 4. .

1 Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. For this example we will use an element edge length of 10mm.For this problem we will use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Young's modulus EX: 10000 (MPa) ii. enter the following geometric properties for wood: i. each with 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Select Substructuring Analysis Options It is necessary to define the substructuring analysis options r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options The following window will appear. r .29 6. Ensure that the options are filled in as shown. 7. 5. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . This element has 4 nodes. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH.SUBST 2.. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Substructuring ANTYPE..

r . Select Master Degrees of Freedom Master DOFs must be defined at the interface between the super-element and other elements in addition to points where loads/ constraints are applied. r Select Solution > Master DOFs > User Selected > Define Select the Master DOF as shown in the following figure. With the option SEPR.s s s Sename (the name of the super-element matrix file) will default to the jobname. In this case. 3. the stiffness matrix or load matrix can be printed to the output window if desired. the stiffness matrix is to be generated.

set the 1st degree of freedom to All DOF .r In the window that appears.

4. 5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes Place a load of 5N in the x direction on the top left hand node The model should now appear as shown in the figure below. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 6. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE .

WIDTH.XCORNER. Define the Super-element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Create geometry of the non-superelement (Silicone) Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. Give Use Pass a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname .. including the super-elements from the Generation Pass. Select 'Super-element' (MATRIX50) 5.HEIGHT Create a rectangle with the dimensions (all units in mm): XCORNER (WP X) = 0 YCORNER (WP Y) = 0 Width = 100 Height = 40 ...Use Pass: Using the Super-element The Use Pass is where we model the entire model. USE Enter 'USE' for the jobname 3..YCORNER. FILNAME. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 Now we need to bring the Super-element into the model 4. Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

. Mesh the block Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' AMESH. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. we need to offset the super-element nodes Determine the number of nodes in the existing model r r Select Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Scalar Data . 9. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. Offset Node Numbering Since both the super-element and the non-superelement were created independently..1 10.. The following window will appear.. Therefore.. 7. enter the following geometric properties for silicone: i. Select Model Data. If we bring in the super-element with similar node numbers. they contain similarly numbered nodes (ie both objects will have node #1 etc.). Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Areas > All Areas . For this block we will again use an element edge length of 10mm. We will again use PLANE42 (2D structural solid). Define the Non-Superelement Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. . Young's modulus EX: 2.6.41 8. the nodes will overwrite existing nodes from the non-superelements..5 (MPa) ii. For Selected set as shown. Note that is is imperative that the nodes of the nonsuperelement match up with the super-element MDOFs.

r Fill in the following window as shown to set MaxNode = the highest node number r r Offset the node numbering Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > BY CS Transfer Fill in the following window as shown to offset the node numbers and save the file as GEN2 .

Couple Node Pairs at Interface of Super-element and Non-Superelements Select the nodes at the interface r r Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities .SUB File..r r Read in the super-element matrix Select Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Super-elements > From . Y coordinates.. Select Nodes. By Location. The following window will appear.. . 40 as shown.. Enter 'GEN2' as the Jobname of the matrix file in the window (shown below) r Utility Menu > Plot > Replot 11.

r Couple the pair nodes at the interface Select Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Coincident Nodes Re-select all of the nodes Select Utility Menu > Select > Entities . Apply super-element load vectors . In the window that appears.0 2. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the bottom line (ie all DOF constrained) 3. click 'Nodes > By Num/Pick > From Full > Sele All' r r Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Define Analysis Type Solution > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE..

. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution .) You should find that the super-element is element 41 r Select Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Super-element The following window will appear. Fill it in as shown to apply the super-element load vector. Translation USUM PLNSOL..U.0.SUM.r Determine the element number of the super-element (Select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering. Save the database Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.1 .db SAVE Save the database to be used again in the expansion pass 5. > DOF solution.. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. r 4.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below). .Note that only the deformation for the non-superelements is plotted.

Expansion Pass: Expanding the Results within the Super-element To obtain the solution for all elements within the super-element you will need to perform an expansion pass. FILNAME... Change the Jobname back to Generation pass Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname . Clear the existing database Utility Menu > File > Clear & Start New 2. GEN Enter 'GEN' for the jobname . Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.

r 2. Fill it in as shown to select the super-element. r 3. r .db .. The following window will appear. Activate Expansion Pass r Enter the Solution mode by selecting Main Menu > Solution or by typing /SOLU into the command line. Fill it in as shown to expand the solution.ON' into the command line to initiate the expansion pass. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load Step Opts > ExpansionPass > Single Expand > By Load Step. Type 'EXPASS.. Enter the Super-element name to be Expanded r Select Solution > Load STEP OPTS > ExpansionPass > Single Expand >Expand Superelem . RESUME Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1...3.. The following window will appear.. Resume Generation Pass Database Utility Menu > File > Resume Jobname.

Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE General Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.. > DOF solution. Show the Displacement Contour Plot General Postproc > Plot Results > (-Contour Plot-) Nodal Solution .1 .SUM.0.4.U.. Translation USUM PLNSOL.

This results agree with what was found without using substructuring (see figure below).Note that only the deformation for the super-elements is plotted (and that the contour intervals have been modified to begin at 0). .

HTML version... . Open the .PDF version is also available for printing.' and select the file. Now go to 'File > Read input from. A . This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.

the link will attemp to expand. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.the solutions and . One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. stress is created in the link. .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem.. with no internal stresses. Loads will not be applied to the link. A steel link. However. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. For convenience. a thermal conductivity of 60.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide.

Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . and write them to memory. However.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this link as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x. Although the geometry must remain constant. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file.Create Geometry and Define Thermal Properties 1. the geometry is kept constant. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution.1. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis.x.." Thus.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.0) (1. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. where the thermal effects will be applied. K. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. For our case.#. Thermal Stress Example 2.y. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.y. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS. the analyses are coupled.z) 1 2 (0.. It is important to note. and using it with any following coupled environments. For instance. /title. Thermal Environment .2 .0) 4.. the element types can change. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis. For a listing. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment.

Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears.Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2. enter the following geometric properties: i... . > Add. Write Environment The thermal environment (the geometry and thermal properties) is now fully described and can be written to memory to be used at a later time. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' 10. 9.5 8. For this problem we will use the LINK33 (Thermal Mass Link 3D conduction) element. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. This element is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. 5. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines... Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.. 6.. enter the TITLE Thermal and click OK. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. Cross-sectional area AREA: 4e-4 This defines a beam with a cross-sectional area of 2 cm X 2 cm.1 meters. In the 'Real Constants for LINK33' window.. KXX: 60. representing a link 1 meter long.. 7. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.

Young's Modulus EX: 200e9 ii.11. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. material properties. 1. etc. Clear Environment Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Clear > OK Doing this clears all the information prescribed for the geometry. only the material properties need to be modified as the geometry is staying the same. all that is required is to detail the structural variables. This will switch to the complimentary structural element automatically. A warning saying you should modify the new element as necessary will pop up. which is defining the structural environment. It does not clear the geometry however. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. so it can be used in the next stage. For more information on this element. Structural Environment .Define Physical Properties Since the geometry of the problem has already been defined in the previous steps. see the help file. In this case it is LINK 8.3 . In this case. Switch Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type Choose Thermal to Struc from the scoll down list. 2. such as the element type. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.

enter the TITLE Struct Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. ALPX: 12e-6 3. Preprocessor > Physics > Environment > Write In the window that appears. Read in the Thermal Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose thermal and click OK. Write Environment The structural environment is now fully described.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Thermal Expansion Coef > Isotropic i. .0 2.

Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Temperature > On Keypoints Set the temperature of Keypoint 1.rth. This information is saved in a file labelled Jobname. click Unabridged Menu at the bottom of the Solution menu. Since the jobname wasn't changed at the beginning of the analysis. 3. This should make it visible. The thermal solution has now been obtained. you will see it is a uniform 348 K. were . If you plot the steady-state temperature on the link. . this data can be found as file. enter the file name File. as expected. the left-most point. 6. 4.rth. 8. If this is not done.rth is the thermal results file. This couples the results from the solution of the thermal environment to the information prescribed in the structural environment and uses it during the analysis.rth. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE 5. Close the Solution Menu Main Menu > Finish It is very important to click Finish as it closes that environment and allows a new one to be opened without contamination. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix Keypoint 1 for all DOF's and Keypoint 2 in the UX direction. Include Thermal Effects Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Temperature > From Therm Analy As shown below. you will get error messages. to 348 Kelvin.If the Physics option is not available under Solution. 7. We will use these results in determing the structural effects. Read in the Structural Environment Solution > Physics > Environment > Read Choose struct and click OK.

Hand Calculations Hand calculations were performed to verify the solution found using ANSYS: . 10. Define Reference Temperature Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Settings > Reference Temp For this example set the reference temperature to 273 degrees Kelvin.9. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.

Get Stress Data Since the element is only a line. General Postproc > Element Table > Define Table > Add Fill in the window as shown below.1 ETABLE.LS.1 3. 2. the stress in the link should be a uniform 180 MPa in compression. the stress can't be listed in the normal way. [CompStr > By Sequence Num > LS > LS. an element table must be created first. Instead.CompStress. List the Stress Data .As shown.

Note the stress in each element: -0. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.180e9 Pa.General Postproc > Element Table > List Elem Table > COMPSTR > OK PRETAB. or 180 MPa in compression as expected.CompStr The following list should appear.

Now go to 'File > Read input from.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. Open the . .This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. A .HTML version..' and select the file.PDF version is also available for printing.

TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. Thus. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. rather than increasing mesh density. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. computational time can be kept to a minimum. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

/title. Activate the p-Method Solution Options ANSYS Main Menu > Preferences /PMETH. as shown below .. P-Method Meshing 2.ON Select p-Method Struct.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

100) .z) 1 2 3 4 5 6 (0.#. K.100) (20.y.x.100) (45.3.52) (55.y. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS..0) (0.z We are going to define 12 keypoints for this geometry as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.52) (80. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 4..

11. 6.7 8 9 10 11 12 (100. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.5.8.100) (100.2. .0) 5.9.6.48) (45.1.12 Click each of the keypoints in numerical order to create the area shown below. Create Area Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitrary > Through KPs A.0) (80.0) (55.3..10..4.7.48) (20.

Thickness THK: 10 This defines an element with a thickness of 10 mm. 8. and Plane145.. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Solid148 and Shell150 which have structural DOF's.. enter the following geometric properties: i. Choose Plane stress + TK for Analysis Type. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. shown below.For this problem we will use the PLANE145 (p-Elements 2D Quad) element. Other types of p-elements exist in the ANSYS library. It can support a polynomial with maximum order of eight. Young's modulus EX: 200000 . Solid147. In the 'Real Constants for PLANE145' window.. For now we will leave them as default. click Options. This element has eight nodes with 2 degrees of freedom each (translation along the X and Y axes). to open the keyoptions window. These include Solid127 and Solid128 which have electrostatic DOF's.. After clicking OK to select the element. 7. > Add. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. For more information on these elements. Plane146.. Keyopts 1 and 2 can be used to set the starting and maximum p-level for this element type. go to the Element Library in the help file.

ii. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. .. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. 10. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 9. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.0 2. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up..

Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Pressure > On Lines Apply a pressure of -100 N/mm^2 The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. . of substeps to 100. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left side of the area (ie all DOF constrained) 4. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep 3.A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 1 and Automatic time stepping to ON B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Min no. Max no. of substeps to 20.

Read in the Last Data Set General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set 2. select Stress > von Mises SEQV . Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1.5. Plot Equivalent Stress General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solu In the window that pops up.

The following stress distribution should appear. .

3. . Plot p-Levels General Postproc > Plot Results > p-Method > p-Levels The following distribution should appear.

For more complex geometries. As a comparison. and one with a mesh 5 times finer are shown below. . these orders may go as high as 8. a plot of the stress distribution for a normal h-element (PLANE2) model using the same mesh.Note how the order of the polynomial increased in the area with the greatest range in stress. This allowed the elements to more accurately model the stress distribution through that area.

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Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing. You can use a mesh that is relatively coarse. . Open the . A .' and select the file. care should be taken using p-elements as they can sometimes give poor results or take a long time to converge. Now go to 'File > Read input from. the mesh density had to be increased by 5 times to get the accuracy that the p-elements delivered.. and still get reasonable results.As one can see from the two plots. This is the benefit of using p-elements. thus computational time will be low.HTML version. However.

they just have zero stiffness and thus have no affect on the model. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Element death is the "turning off" of elements according to some desired criterion. Element birth is also possible. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. For further information.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to outline the steps required to use element death to model melting of a material. The elements are still technically there. see Chapter 10 of the Advanced Guide in the ANSYS help file regarding element birth and death. This tutorial doesn't take into account heat of fusion or changes in thermal properties over temperature ranges. rather it is concerned with the element death procedure. More accurate models using element death can then be created as required. The model will be an infinitely long rectangular block of material 3cm X 3cm as shown below. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Melting Using Element Death Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. but will not be discussed here. It will be subject to convection heating which will cause the block to "melt".UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.

enter the following properties: . Create Rectangle Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners Fill in the window with the following dimensions: WP X = 0 WP Y = 0 Width = 0. /title.03 Height = 0. This element has 4 nodes and a single DOF (temperature) at each node.0. Specific Heat C: 2040 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Density In the window that appears.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Conductivity > Isotropic In the window that appears.8 Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Thermal > Specific Heat In the window that appears. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Thermal Conductivity KXX: 1. PLANE55 can only be used for 2 dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis.. we will use PLANE55 (Thermal Solid. For this example.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1..03 4. enter the following properties: i.0.03. Quad 4node 55).0. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Element Death 2.03 BLC4.0. 5. enter the following properties: i.

so click OK. For this example we will use an element edge length of 0. 7. Density DENS: 920 6. Turn on Newton-Raphson solver Due to a glitch in the ANSYS software..i. you . Therefore. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.4 2. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. We will use the defaults.0005m. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Transient The window shown below will pop up. there is no apparent way to do this with the graphical user interface. ANTYPE..

FULL into the commmand line. C) Set the Frequency to Write every substep. 3. B) Set Number of substeps to 20. Set Solution Controls Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Controls The following window will pop up. A) Set Time at end of loadstep to 60 and Automatic time stepping to OFF. Click on the NonLinear tab at the top and fill it in as shown .must type NROPT. This step is necessary as element killing can only be done when the NR solver has been used.

By writing the data at every step. refer to the help file. Apply Initial Conditions Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Initial Condit'n > Define > Pick All Fill in the IC window as follows to set the initial temperature of the material to 268 K: . you can create animations over time and the other options help the problem converge quickly. E) Set the Maximum number of iterations to 100. For a complete description of what these options do. the time at the end of the load step is how long the transient analysis will run and the number of substeps defines how the load is broken up. 4. Basically.D) Set Line search to ON .

Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Thermal > Convection > On Lines > Pick All Fill in the pop-up window as follows.5. Heat Flux. constraints can be in the form of Temperature. . Heat Generation. with a film coefficient of 10 and a bulk temperature of 368. or Radiation. Heat Flow. Convection. In this example. Apply Boundary Conditions For thermal problems. all external surfaces of the material will be subject to convection with a coefficient of 10 W/m^2*K and a surrounding temperature of 368 K.

The model should now look as follows: .

Assume the material melts at 273 K. or turn off.. Create Element Table Element death can be used in various ways.. the user can manually kill. we will use data from the analysis to kill the necessary elements to model melting. We must create an element table containing the temperature of all the elements. . r From the General Postprocessor menu select Element Table > Define Table.r Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Prepare for Element Death 1. For instance. Read Results General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set SET. Here.LAST 2. elements to create the desired effect.

' Fill the window in as shown below.r Click on 'Add. 3. thus any element with a temperature of 273 or greater must be killed to simulate melting. r We can now select elements from this table in the temperature range we desire. with a title Melty and select DOF solution > Temperature TEMP and click OK... . Utility Menu > Select > Entities Use the scroll down menus to select Elements > By Results > From Full and click OK. Select Elements to Kill Assume that the melting temperature is 273 K.

.Ensure the element table Melty is selected and enter a VMIN value of 273 as shown.

. The reason for the warning is ANSYS defaults to a multi-frame restart. Select Live Elements Utility Menu > Select > Entities Fill in the window as shown with Elements > Live Elem's > Unselect and click Sele All. which this analysis doesn't call for. Restart the Analysis Solution > Analysis Type > Restart > OK You will likely have two messages pop up at this point. thus it is just warning the user. Postprocessing: Viewing Results 1. Since all elements above melting temperature had been selected. this will kill only those elements.all into the command line. The other option is to use Solution > Load Step Opts > Other > Birth & Death > Kill Elements and graphically pick all the melted elements. and close the warning message. Click OK to restart the analysis. This is much too time consuming in this case. Kill Elements The easiest way to do this is to type ekill.Solution Phase: Killing Elements 1. 2.

select Elements > Live Elem's > From Full and click OK. .With the window still open.

View Results General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > DOF solution > Temperature TEMP The final melted shape should look as follows: .2.

. Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. That way. using command line code. Open the . . to more accurately model element death over time.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. Now go to 'File > Read input from. more accurately modelling the heating process. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.HTML version.This procedure can be programmed in a loop. Rather than running the analysis for a time of 60 and killing any elements above melting temperature at the end. a check can be done after each substep to see if any elements are above the specified temperature and be killed at that point.PDF version is also available for printing. A .' and select the file. the prescribed convection can then act on the elements below those killed.

causing it to bend and contact the lower. and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. as shown below. are 100mm long.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. Contact Elements 2. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper. The beams.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta 1. /title. have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa. 10mm x 10mm in cross-section... Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title .

For this problem we will use the PLANE42 (Solid.. Define Areas Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Area > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4. 10) (50. 100.WP X. r While the Element Types window is still open.. WP Y. 0. 100.. .. This allows a thickness to be input for the elements. 5. 15. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Change Element behavior K3 to Plane strs w/ thk as shown below. This element has 2 degrees of freedom at each node (translation along the X and Y).../PREP7 3. Width.WP Y. > Add. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Height We are going to define 2 rectangles as described in the following table: Rectangle Variables (WP X.Height) 1 2 (0. 10) 4.. click Options...Width. Quad 4node 42) element.

.. For this problem we will use the CONTAC48 (Contact. This way... Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.3 7.. click Options. It initiates a process during the solution calculations where the time step or load step. depending on what the user has specified in the solution controls. For this example we will use an element edge length of 2mm.. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line.. Change Contact time/load prediction K7 to Reasonabl T/L inc. CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in 2-D. incremements slowly when contact is immenent. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. pt-to-surf 48) element. 6. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' 9. This is an important step. 8. Define the Type of Contact Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. . one surface won't penetrate too far into the other and cause the solution to fail. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Lines. Thickness THK: 10 This defines a beam with a thickness of 10 mm.In the 'Real Constants for PLANE42' window. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. enter the following geometric properties: i. r While the Element Types window is still open.

When one surface comes into "contact" with the other. so be sure to read the help file on contact so you can recognize when your solution is not converging and why. A good rule of thumb is to start with a low value of KN and see how the solution converges (start watching the ANSYS Output Window). This will be covered below. Normal contact stiffness KN: 200000 CONTAC48 elements basically use a penalty approach to model contact.. such as TARGE169. Thus. ANSYS recommends a value between 0. Define Real Constants for the Contact Elements Preprocessor > Real Constants.. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one of the target nodes. the behaviour of the model is like the two surfaces have made contact. When using contact elements in your own analyses. A small value of TOLS. Other contact elements. to function. Target length tolerance TOLS: 10 Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target. resulting in convergence difficulties. require a target element. As the surfaces approach each other. ANSYS can calculate when the two prescribed surfaces have made contact. This KN value can greatly affect your solution.It is important to note. ii.01 and 100 times Young's modulus for the material.. > Add. In the 'Real Constants for CONTAC48' window. is usually enough to prevent such difficulties. 10. If it takes a lot of iterations to converge for a single substep. Since this "spring" is so stiff. you should decrease KN. given in %. ANSYS numerically puts a spring of stiffness KN between the two. the contact element is slowly "crushed" until it's upper node(s) lie along the same line as the lower node(s). rather than node to element edge.. The ANSYS help file has plenty of useful information regarding contact elements and is worth reading. . If there is too much penetration. In this situation. such as CONTA175. enter the following properties: i. This is useful for problems when node to node contact is likely to occur. be sure to understand how the elements work. CONTAC48 elements are created in the space between two surfaces prescribed by the user. you should increase KN.

. Define Nodes for Creating Contact Elements Unlike the normal meshing sequence used for most elements.. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. source nodes are those that will move into contact with the other surface. However. where as target nodes are those that are contacted. Select the top beam and click OK. when the geometry is complex. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities.The other real constants can be used to model sliding friction. tolerances. Information about these other constants can be found in the help file. These terms are important when using the automatic contact element mesher to ensure the elements will correctly model contact between the surfaces. Sets of nodes that are likely to come into contact must be defined and used to generate the necessary elements. In this simple case. ANSYS has many recommendations about which nodes to select and whether they should act as target nodes or source nodes. This will ensure any nodes that are selected in the next few steps will be from the upper beam. Select Areas and By Num/Pick from the pull down menus. A strong understanding of how the elements work is important when using contact elements for your own analysis. First. In this case. contact elements must be defined in a slightly different manner.. 11. . etc. select From Full from the radio buttons and click OK. you may inadvertantly select a node from the wrong surface and it could cause problems during element generation. the source nodes will be selected. it is not too hard to ensure you select the correct nodes..

Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus.. Y coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter a value of 15 and click OK. .Select Nodes and By Location from the pull down menus. s Utility Menu > Select > Entities. X coordinates and Reselect from the radio buttons and enter values of 50.. This will select the nodes above the lower beam. This will select all nodes along the bottom of the upper beam.100.

... you should only have the following nodes remaining. Utility Menu > List > Nodes.s Now if you list the selected nodes.

In this case. thus those are the only nodes we will use to create the contact elements. as a list of nodes to be used in other functions. s Utility Menu > Select > Comp/Assembly > Create Component Enter the component name Source as shown below. the only nodes that could make contact with the lower beam are those directly above it. If you have a lot of contact elements. it takes a great deal of computational time to reach a solution. .It is important to try and limit the number of nodes you use to create contact elements. Source. This can be very useful in other applications as well. Now we can use this component. and click OK.

.. Utility Menu > Select > Entities. Be sure to reselect all nodes before starting to select others. and click the Sele All button. clicking the Also Select radio button.Now select the target nodes. This is done by opening the entity select menu... When creating the component this time. Generate Contact Elements Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements > Elem Attributes Fill the window in as shown below. and click the Sele All button... enter the name Target. . Utility Menu > Select > Entities. s s s Click the lower area for the area select. select the nodes on the lower beam directly under the upper beam. This is done by opening the entity select menu. clicking the Also Select radio button. Using the same procedure as above. 12. The Y coordinate is 10 The X coordinates vary from 50 to 100. IMPORTANT: Be sure to reselect all the nodes before continuing. These values will be the ones you'll use. This ensures ANSYS knows that you are dealing with the contact elements and the associated real constants.

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling> Create > Elements > Surf / Contact > Node to Surf The following window will pop up. . Select the node set SOURCE from the first drop down menu (Ccomp) and TARGET from the second drop down menu (Tcomp). The rest of the selections remain unchanged.

the contact elements don't get plotted on the screen so it is sometimes difficult to tell they are there. If you wish. you can plot the elements (Utility Menu > Plot > Elements) and turn on element numbering (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering > . Unfortunately. your model should look like the following.At this point.

. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. you can see little purple stars (Contact Nodes) and thin purple lines (Target Elements) numbered "2" which correspond to the contact elements.0 2.Elem/Attrib numbering > Element Type Numbers). If you zoom in on the contact areas. The following image will appear: . The preprocessor stage is now complete. Set Solution Controls r Select Solution > Analysis Type > Sol'n Control. shown below.. Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.

The Automatic Time Step feature will determine an appropriate balance. B. This feature also activates the ANSYS bisection feature which will allow recovery if convergence fails. Automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine appropriate sizes to break the load steps into. C. Decreasing the step size usually ensures better accuracy. Enter a maximum number of substeps of 1000. this takes time. Ensure the following selection is made under the 'Nonlinear' tab (as shown below) A. This stops the program if the solution does not converge after 1000 steps. E. Ensure Maximum Number of Iterations is set to 100 . This will set the initial substep to 1/100 th of the total load.Ensure the following selections are made under the 'Basic' tab (as shown above) A. Ensure all solution items are writen to a results file. Enter 100 as the number of substeps. Enter a minimum number of substeps of 20. D. however. Ensure Automatic time stepping is on.

For more information about these commands. leave these relatively high at first. Also. the contact nodes may be driven through the target elements before ANSYS "realizes" it has happened. 3. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes . These solution control values are extremely important in determining if your analysis will succeed or fail. if the maximum number of substeps or iterations is left too low. Once everything is working. If you have too few substeps.NOTE There are several options which have not been changed from their default values. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines Fix the left end of the upper beam and the right end of the lower beam (ie all DOF constrained) 4. Again. Therefore it is important to choose a relatively large number of substeps initially to ensure the model is defined properly. ANSYS may stop the analysis before it has a chance to converge to a solution. In this case the solution will resemble that of an analysis that didn't have contact elements defined at all. type help followed by the command into the command line. you can reduce the number of substeps to optimize the computational time.

The applied loads and constraints should now appear as shown in the figure below. Open postprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > General Postproc /POST1 . thus we will use a point load for simplicity. 5. the displacement or stress near the load is not of interest in this analyis. this is a point load on a 2D surface. This type of loading should be avoided since it will cause a singularity. Note. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results 1. However.Apply a load of -10000 in the FY direction to the center of the top surface of the upper beam.

This is of huge importance! I lost many hours trying to figure out why the contact elements weren't working. Adjust Contour Scale Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours > Non-Uniform Contours Fill in the window as follows: This should produce the following stress distribution plot: .0 (true scale) radio button.2. If you leave the scaling as default. when in fact it was just due to the displacement scaling to which ANSYS defaulted. Show the Stress Distribution in the Beams General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises 4. Adjust Graphical Scaling Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Displacement Scaling Click the 1. 3. then click ok. many times it will look like your contact nodes have gone through the target elements.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. producing a stress distribution in both.HTML version. A .As seen in the figure. Now go to 'File > Read input from. . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.PDF version is also available for printing.. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..' and select the file. the load on the upper beam caused it to deflect and come in contact with the lower beam. Open the .

Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. It is assumed the user has been exposed to basic coding and can follow the logic. This will be a very basic introduction to APDL. height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples. covering things like variable definition and simple looping.20 *ask. using a length of 200 m.How many cross supports even number.HEIGHT.100 *ask. please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. The following discussion will attempt to explain the commands used in the code.LENGTH. a height of 10 m and 20 divisions. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta /prep7 *ask.2 . finish /clear ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Preprocessing: Use of APDL Shown below is the APDL code used to construct the truss shown above.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Springs and Joints Design Optimization Substructuring Coupled Field p-Element Element Death Contact Elements APDL ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.DIVISION.How tall is the truss.How long is the truss. Variables including length.

1.i.ex.1.KEYP.NUM_K.100 mp.GT.LE.0.j.200000 mp.1 .i.0 *else k.DIVISION.i.1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if.1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L.1.1.3 esize.X_COORD.link1 r..THEN k.1.(KEYP+1) *if.0.KEYP.1.prxy.THEN L.DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0 *do.HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do.KEYP.X_COORD.(DIVISION-1).OSCILATE.(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et.

Par. Variable Definition Using the "=" Command ANSYS allows the user to define a variable in a few ways. and INC is the increment value that the parameter will be increased by during each iteration of the loop. *ask. IVAL is the initial value the parameter starts as. It is necessary to use a *ENDDO command at the end of the loop to locate where ANSYS should look for the next command once the loop has finished.2. 4. LENGTH can be used in other commands rather than typing in 200 m. Any code directly following the *else command will be carried out when the original statement is false. 2. in the code above there is a statement: *if. It is used in the following manner: 'the variable you wish to define' = 'some arguement'. the *ASK command can be used define a variable.10_K. the user can place code that will utilize the repetative characteristics of the loop. FVAL. However. The 100 value at the end of the string is the default value if the user were to enter no value and just hit the enter key. IVAL. If it is not true it will skip to the *else command. but this is usually only used for data that will change from run to run. the most intutitive method is to use "=". *do.. This value is stored under the variable LENGTH. In this case. as seen in the line defining DELTA_L 3. As seen above. The *SET command can also be used to define variables. In between the *DO and *ENDDO. Thus in later parts of the code.THEN. *DO Loops Do-loops are useful when you want to repeat a command a known number of times. Any code directly following the *if command will be carried out if the statement is true. is greater than zero. An *endif command is necessary after all code in the *if and *else sections to define an ending. *ASK Command The *ASK command prompts the user to input data for a variable.OSCILATE. Command File Mode of Solution . For example.1 is a do-loop which increases the parameter "i" from 1 to 10 in steps of 1. where Par is the parameter that will be incremented by the loop. This argument can be a single value. *IF Statement If-statements can be used as decision makers. determining if a certain case has occured. This command is only used in conjunction with the *if command. then...10). FVAL is the final value the parameter will reach.GT. see the help file.1. This translates to "if the variable.8.lmesh.9. For more information on this command.100 prompts the user for a value describing the length of the truss.How long is the truss. OSCILATE. (ie 1.all finish 1. The syntax for the expression is *DO.".i. or a mathematical expression.0.LENGTH.. INC.3. For example.

HTML version. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. .' and select the file. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..PDF version is also available for printing.. Open the . A . Now go to 'File > Read input from.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 . etc.) of the following example. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam 2.. Stress. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . /title.

enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.Length Where: Width: Height: Length: 40mm 60mm 400mm 4. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears. Y and Z directions).Width. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Global > Size esize.all Solution: Assigning Loads and Solving 1. 5.0. Create Block Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volumes > Block > By 2 Corners & Z BLC4.0.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static .Height. 7.3 6.3. Mesh the volume Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Volumes > Free > click 'Pick All' vmesh.20 For this example we will use an element size of 20mm. This element has 8 nodes each with 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X. For this problem we will use the SOLID45 (3D Structural Solid) element.

Only the selected section is shown without any remaining faces or edges shown . Solve the System Solution > (-Solve-) Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results Now since the purpose of this tutorial is to observe results within different cross-sections of the colume. therefore. 3. 4. For this example we are trying to display a section. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas Fix the left hand side (should be labeled Area 1). q Type Description Visual Representation SECT or (1) Section display. q Offset the working plane for a cross section view (WPOFFS) Select the TYPE of display for the section(/TYPE). we will first outline the steps required to view a slice.0 2. 5. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of 2500N downward on the back right hand keypoint (Keypoint #7). or 8 are relevant and are summarized in the table below. options 1.ANTYPE.

r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu . let's view deflection of the entire model. This is the same as SECT but the outline of the entire model is shown. Deflection Before we begin selecting cross sections. This is as though you have cut off a portion of the model and the remaining model can be seen ZQSL or (8) QSLICE Z-buffered display. q Align the cutting plane with the working plane(/CPLANE) 1.CAP or (5) Capped hidden diplay.

offset the working plane to the desired position. To illustrate how to take a cross section. increase Global X to 30 (Width/2) and rotate Y by +90 degrees Select the type of plot and align the cutting plane with the working plane (Note that in GUI. these two steps are combined) Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden-Line Options Fill in the window that appears as shown below to select /TYPE=ZQSL and /CPLANE=Working Plane r . let's take one halfway through the beam in the YZ plane r First.From this one may wish to view several cross sections through the YZ plane. halfway through the beam Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Offset WP by Increments In the window that appears.

As desired. you should now have the following: .

0.-1. note that the command lines required to do the same are as follows: WPOFFS. Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Hidden Line Options. First we need to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.1 ! Offset the working plane for cross-section view ! Rotate the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP Also note that to realign the working plane with the active coordinate system.0. And change the 'Type of Plot' to 'Non-hidden' r Select: General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises .This can be repeated for any slice.0 WPROTA.1.0..0 2.Width/2. Select: Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Align WP with > Active Coord Sys (NOTE: To check the position of the WP.1 /TYPE.SUM. select Utility Menu > WorkPlane > Show WP Status) Next we need to change /TYPE to the default setting(no hidden or section operations).8 PLNSOL. Equivalent Stress Again. simply use: WPCSYS. let's view stresses within the entire model..0. however.90 /CPLANE.U.

Let's say that we want to take a closer look at the base of the beam through the XY plane. You should now see the following: .0. we are going to use command line: WPOFFS. Also note that we are using the capped hidden display this time.1/16*Length /CPLANE.5 PLNSOL.1 /TYPE.0.0.1 ! Offset the working plane ! Cutting plane defined to use the WP ! Use the capped hidden display Note that we did not need to rotate the WP because we want to look at the XY plane which is the default).EQV.S.1. Because it is much easier.

type help ancut into the command line. just change the Item to be contoured to 'Stress' 'von Mises' You will then be asked to select 3 nodes. the ANSYS commands are not as user friendly as they could be. Finally. the sweep direction. r r . r Select: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Q-Slice Contours In the window that appears. the origin. bottom left hand side corner as the Y axis. In the graphics window. let's show an animation of the Von Mises stress through the beam. Animation Now. select the node in the back. but please bear with me. so select any node in the z direction (parallel to the first node).3. select the node at the origin of the coordinate system as the origin of the sweep (the sweep will start there). for something a little more impressive. Next. For more information on how to modify the animation. the sweep direction is in the Z direction.. and the Y axis. Unfortunately. You should now see an animated version of the contour slices through the beam..

Now go to 'File > Read input from. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse.' and select the file.Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS...PDF version is also available for printing. A . Open the .HTML version. .

one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta In this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction Index This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing. Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. For example.

100 r Create a rectangle where the bottom left corner has the coordinates 0.WP X. Give the example a Title r Utility Menu > File > Change Title .0. The remaining area should look as shown below. select the areas to be subtracted (ie. the rectangle) and click OK. /title.0 and the width and height are 200 and 100 respectively. Parameters WP X WP Y Radius 50 100 150 50 50 50 10 10 10 Circle 1 2 3 5. Use of Paths for Post Processing 2. select the area to remain (ie.Radius r Create three circles with parameters shown below.0. Then.. Define Rectangular Ares r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Rectangle > By 2 Corners BLC4.WP Y.. Subtract the Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Areas r First.Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1.200. 4. r . Open preprocessor menu r ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3. the circles) and click OK. Create Circles r Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Circle > Solid Circle cyl4.

click 'Options. Define Real Constants r Preprocessor > Real Constants. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i... In the 'Element Types' window. 8. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii.3 ... r For this problem we will use the PLANE2 (Solid Triangle 6node) element.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. > Add.6.. Define Element Material Properties r Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic r In the window that appears.' and set 'Element behavior' to Plane strs w/thk r 7... r In the 'Real Constants for PLANE2' window. This element has 2 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes). enter a thickness of 10. Define the Type of Element r Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.

10. r For this example we will use an element edge length of 5mm. . Mesh the Area r Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Areas > Free > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.. Define Analysis Type r Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE.9.. Define Mesh Size r Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Areas > All Areas. The model should now look like the figure below. uniform pressure of -200 on the top of the area. Apply Constraints r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines r Constrain the bottom of the area in the UY direction.0 2. Apply Loads r Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Pressure > On Lines r Apply a constant. 3.

1. Both cases will be plotted below on a split screen. However. Contour Plot r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout Fill in the 'Window Layout' as seen below r . if the stress near the holes are of interest.4. which would have the distribution over the entire plate. Solve the System r Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results To see the stress distribution on the plate. you could create a path through the center of the plate and plot the stress on that path. you could create a normal contour plot.

r General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu > Stress > von Mises The display should now look like this. .

Create Path r General PostProc > Path Operations > Define Path > By Location In the window. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Layout and select 'Window 2 > Bottom Half > Do not replot'. r Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window On or Off. select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Erase Option > Erase Between Plots and ensure there is no check-mark. Turn window 1 'off'. name the path Cutline and set the 'Number of divisions' to 1000 r . shown below. r r 2. To keep window 1 visible during replots. meaning this function off. To have the next graph plot in the bottom half of the screen. you must make a couple of changes.To ensure the top plot is not erased when the second plot is created.

Map the Stress onto the Path Now the path is defined.r Fill the next two window in with the following parameters Parameters Path Point Number X Loc Y Loc Z Loc 1 2 0 200 50 50 0 0 When the third window pops up. you must choose what to map to the path. click 'Cancle' because we only enabled two points on the path in the previous step. r General Postproc > Path Operations > Map onto Path Fill the next window in as shown below [Stress > von Mises] and click OK. or in other words. For this example. r . equivalent stress is desired. what results should be available to the path. 3.

Plot the Path Data r General Postproc > Path Operations > Plot Path Item > On Geometry Fill the window in as shown below r . so disregard the warning. This is of little concern though. since there are plenty of points that do lie on interpolation points to produce the necessary plot.r The warning shown below will probably pop up. This is just saying that some of the 1000 points you defined earlier are not on interpolation points (special points on the elements) therefore there is no data to map. 4.

Note. . Due to resolution restrictions. there will be dots on the plot showing node locations. these dots are not shown here.The display should look like the following.

copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse..This plot makes it easy to see how the stress is concentrated around the holes.PDF version is also available for printing.HTML version. A . Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS. Open the .' and select the file. .. Now go to 'File > Read input from.

By plotting this data on a curve. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.. Length of the following beam using tables. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem 1. Give the example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Use of Tables for Data Plots . with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above. a special type of array. rather than using a contour plot.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs. /title. finer resolution can be achieved.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC..

2 Create a line joining Keypoints 1 and 2 5.y.. Define the Type of Element Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.z) 1 2 (0. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axes.. enter the following geometric properties: i. 6.1. Create Lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > In Active Coord L.z We are going to define 2 keypoints for this beam as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants.. 7. Define Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS.0) (400. Define Element Material Properties ...x.. Total beam height: 40 This defines a beam with a height of 40 mm and a width of 60 mm. K. Open preprocessor menu ANSYS Main Menu > Preprocessor /PREP7 3.2. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Cross-sectional area AREA: 2400 ii. > Add. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window.#.y. and rotation about the Z axis).0) 4.. Area moment of inertia IZZ: 320e3 iii.

enter the following geometric properties for steel: i. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Solution Phase: Assigning Loads and Solving 1.Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.3 8. Define Analysis Type Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis > Static ANTYPE. Apply Constraints Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoints Fix keypoint 1 (ie all DOF constrained) 3. 9. For this example we will use an element edge length of 20mm.. Apply Loads Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Keypoints Apply a load of -2500N on keypoint 2. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines. The model should now look like the figure below.. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0.0 2. Young's modulus EX: 200000 ii. .

Thus the table must have at least 21 rows. Solve the System Solution > Solve > Current LS SOLVE Postprocessing: Viewing the Results It is at this point the tables come into play. > OK. Number of Nodes Since we wish to plot the verticle deflection vs length of the beam. but they can be used for much more.. For this example there are 21 nodes. Therefore. a special type of array.. 1. are basically matrices that can be used to store and process data from the analysis that was just run. Tables. This example is a simplified use of tables. 2.4. For more information type help in the command line and search for 'Array Parameters'. it is necessary to determine how many nodes exist in the model. the location and verticle deflection of each node must be recorded in the table. Utility Menu > List > Nodes. Create the Table .

Note there are 22 rows. Click OK and then close the 'Define/Edit' window.1].2. the horizontal location of the nodes will be recorded r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . 3.. Enter Data into Table First. The reason for this will be explained below. Fill it out as shown [Graph > Table > 22.r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Add r The window seen above will pop up.. In the window shown below. select Model Data > Nodes r . one more than the number of nodes.

2)' fills in the table starting in row 1. r .1)' fills in the table starting in row 1. Next. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1. and continues down the column.r Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1. column 2. and continues down the column. column 1.2) > All > DOF solution > UY]. Naming the array parameter 'Graph(1... > Results data > Nodal results Fill the next window in as shown below and click OK [Graph(1.1) > All > Location > X]. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Get Array Data . the vertical displacement will be recorded.

Arrange the Data for Ploting Users familiar with the way ANSYS numbers nodes will realize that node 1 will be on the far left. Thus.4. r Utility Menu > Parameters > Array Parameters > Define/Edit > Edit . and the rest of the nodes are numbered sequentially from left to right. This is why a table with 22 rows was created. to provide room to move this data. as it is keypoint 1. This causes problems during plotting. thus the information for the last node must be moved to the final row of the table. the second row in the table contains the data for the last node. node 2 will be on the far right (keypoint 2).

and paste it into the appropriate column (right click > Paste or Ctrl+V). r . Cut one of the cells to be moved (right click > Copy or Ctrl+X). press the down arrow to get to the bottom of the table. with the X-location data on the X-axis and the vertical deflection on the Y-axis. Fill it in as shown. When both values have been moved check to ensure the two entries in row 2 are zero. Select File > Apply/Quit 5. UY = -0. Plot the Data r Utility Menu > Plot > Array Parameters The following window will pop up.r The data for the end of the beam (X-location = 400.833) is in row two.

To see the changes to the labels. select Utility Menu > Replot The plot should look like the one seen below..r To change the axis labels select Utility Menu > Plot Ctrls > Style > Graphs > Modify Axes . r r ..

Now go to 'File > Read input from.. A .Command File Mode of Solution The above example was solved using a mixture of the Graphical User Interface (or GUI) and the command language interface of ANSYS.' and select the file.. . Open the .HTML version. This problem has also been solved using the ANSYS command language interface that you may want to browse. copy and paste the code into Notepad or a similar text editor and save it to your computer.PDF version is also available for printing.

0.1.beam3 r.100.1.333.UofA ANSYS Tutorial X-Sectional Results Advanced X-Sec Res Data Plotting Graphical Properties ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.5 lmesh.3 esize.0 dk.100.ex.833.all.2. Since the purpose of this tutorial is not to build or analysis a model. changing the background colour. etc.0 This tutorial covers some of the methods that can be employed to change how the output to the screen looks.0.10 mp.0 L. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Changing Graphical Properties Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. For instance. finish /clear /title.all finish /solu antype.1.2 et. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1. Changing Graphical Properties /prep7 K. please copy the following code and paste it into the input line below the utility menu.0 K.1.prxy. numbering the nodes.1.1.all Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.200000 mp.

. The following window will appear: .2..fy. Number the Nodes Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Numbering.fk.-100 solve finish You should obtain the following screen: Graphical Options 1.

You should get the following: . However. select the node numbering and plot the nodes. To remedy this problem.From this window you can select which items you wish to number. When you click OK. select the same item you just numbered from the Utility > Plot menu and the numbering will show up. This could be because you had previously selected a plot of a different item. For instance. the window will disappear and your model should be numbered appropriately. sometimes the numbers won't show up.

the nodes have been numbered. These extra symbols may not be necessary. Symbol Toggles Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Symbols . The arrows on the left and the right are the force that was applied and the resulting external reactive forces and moments. 2. You can also see some other information that ANSYS is providing. The triangles on the left are the constraints and the coordinate triad is also visible.As shown. so the next section will show how to turn these symbols off.

. there are no Surface or Body Loads. so those sections won't be used. In our case. or Initial Conditions. click on None to turn off all the force and reaction symbols. Under the Boundary conditions section.This window allows the user to toggle many symbols on or off.

Triad Toggle Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Window Controls > Window Options .The result should be as follows: 3.

Notice how it is much easier to see the node numbers near the origin now.This window also allows the user to toggle many things on and off. The following output should be the result. the legend or title can be turned off. . select Not Shown from the Location of triad drop down menu. it is things associated with the window background. To turn off the triad. In this case. As shown in the window. etc.

.4. . Element Shape Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Size and Shape..

Click on the toggle box beside [/ESHAPE] to turn on element shapes and click OK to close the window. The following should appear. it is sometime difficult to visualize what the elements really look like. ANSYS can display the elements shapes based on the real constant description. To aid in this process. thus elements are not going to show up.When using line elements. . Recall we selected a plot of just the nodes. don't be alarmed. If there is no change in output. such as BEAM3. Select Utility Menu > Plot > Elements.

but they have volume according to the real constants.As shown... View Orientation Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Pan Zoom Rotate. 5. . To get a better 3-D view of the model. you can change the view orientation. the elements are no longer just a line.

such as isometric or oblique. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Middle mouse button the model will zoom or rotate on the plane of the screen. Basic rotating. Using these options. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Left mouse button the model will translate. translate the view and zoom. . This is very handy when you just want to quickly change the orientation of the model. it's easy to see the elements in 3D.This window allows the user to rotate the view. You can also select predefined views. translating and zooming can also be done using the mouse. By holding the Control button on the keyboard and holding the Right mouse button the model will rotate about all axis.

6.. If you don't like the colours of the contour. General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solution > DOF Solution > USUM If the contour divisions are not appropriate. . plot the deformation contour for the beam. Under non-uniform contours. they can be changed. Changing Contours First. those can also be changed.. Under uniform contours. be sure to click on User specified if you are inputing your own contour divisions. Utility Meny > PlotCtrls > Style > Contours Either Uniform or Non-uniform Contours can be selected. you can create a logarithmic contour division or some similiar contour where uniform divisions don't capture the information you desire. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Contour Colours.

but don't want a black background. Here we are only using Window 1. Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Colours > Window Colours.. Changing Background Colour Perhaps you desire to use a plot for a presentation.The colours for each division can be selected from the drop down menus. and we'll set the background colour to white. .. Select the background colour you desire for the window you desire. 7.

select Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Capture Image. If there is information that needs to be added. Notice how all the text disappeared..The resulting display is shown below.. Under the File heading. . select Save As. such as contour values. this can be done in other graphic editors. This is because the text colour is also white. To save the display.

the PlotCtrls menu is a good place to start. as is the help file. . If you are looking for a specific option. these are just a few.There are lots of other option that can be used to change the presentation of data in ANSYS.

You may directly cut and paste from here to a text editor. or if you'd like to save the whole file. see the next item in this list. you would do the following: Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta q q q From the File menu. delete errors from your GUI use and make changes as desired. You can now edit this file with a text editor to clean it up. The output window shows the progress of this procedure..cmd) is stored and select it. enter the command File -> Save DB Log File This saves the equivalent ANSYS commands that you entered in the GUI mode. This assumes a good knowledge of the ANSYS command language and the associated options. If you know what some of the commands and are unsure of others. Any errors and warnings will be listed in this window. select Read Input from.cmd start up either the GUI or text mode of ANSYS ANSYS Inc. you may not have a full view of your structure in the graphic window. to a text file. Setup and solve the problem as you normally would using the ANSYS graphic user interface (GUI). You may need to select Plot -> .g. GUI Command File Loading To run this command file from the GUI. e. When it is complete. Then before you are finished. execute the desired operation from the GUI and then go to File -> List -> Log File.. Now ANSYS will execute the commands from that file. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Running the Command File To run the ANSYS command file. frame. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Creation and Execution Generating the Command File There are two choices to generate the command file: 1. Change to the appropriate directory where the file (frame. This will then open up a new window showing the command line equivialent of all commands entered to this point.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Directly type in the commands into a text file from scratch.. q q save the ASCII text commands in a text file. 2.

Let's assume that we don't turn the menu mode on. Assuming that you started ANSYS using the commands. Command Line File Loading Alternatively.cmd.. you may need to point it to the proper directory. /myfiles/ansys/frame for example. At this point you could type in /menu. type /input. If ANSYS can not find the file in the current directory.. etc. X11c.. you can now use the post-processor to view element deflections. Then read in the file as before File -> Read Input from. you should first of all clear the current model from ANSYS.. mode). but you might not want to turn on the full graphic mode if working on a slow machine or if you are executing the program remotely. . make those changes in a separate window in a text editor. Save those changes to disk.start This full procedure of loading in command files and clearing jobs and starting over again can be completed as many times as desired.cmd and yes that is a comma (.x11c This has now started ANSYS in the text mode and has told it what graphic device to use (in this case an X Windows. Select File -> Clear & Start New.on. you can also read in the command file right from the ANSYS command line. you would use the following syntax /input. Assuming that the analysis worked properly. To rerun the command file. If you want to fix some errors or make some changes to the command file./myfiles/ansys/frame If you want to rerun a new or modified file. If the file was in the directory.) between frame and cmd.frame.q q q q Elements or Plot -> Lines or what have you... then from the ANSYS input window.frame. it is necessary to clear the current model in memory with the command /clear. /ansys52/bin/ansysu52 and then entered /show. stress. If the command file is in the current directory for ANSYS.

theta1.x2. .xcoord..kp2.z2 cylind.kp1.ANSYS Command Groupings ANSYS contains hundreds of commands for generating geometry....x1.z2.kp2 larc.l2.kp1.rad2.rad (kp3 defines plane) see online help spline.theta1.rad1.kp3.z1. kp8 va.kp2..z1.rad2..kp1. setting up different analysis types and post-processing. The following is only a brief summary of some of the more common commands used for structural analysis.kp2.kp2.theta2 see online help circle spline a al v va vext vdrag Solid Modeling (Primitives) rectng block cylind sphere prism cone torus .a1.y1.y2. .x1.kp#. .zcoord l.. a10 see online help see online help rectng.kp1.y2 block.rad1.theta2 sphere. kp6 a.a2.kp1. kp18 a.l1. Category Basic Geometry Command k l larc Description keypoint definition straight line creation circular arc line (from keypoints) circular line creation (creates keypoints) spline line through keypoints area definition from keypoints area definition from lines volume definition from keypoints volume definition from areas create volume from area extrusion create volume by dragging area along path rectangle creation block volume creation cylindrical volume creation spherical volume creation various volume creation commands Syntax k. applying loads and constraints.ycoord.y1.x2. l10 v... . ..

.Boolean Operations aadd aglue asba aina vadd vlgue vsbv vinv Elements & Meshing adds separate areas to create single area creates new areas by glueing (properties remain separate) creat new area by area substraction create new area by area intersection aadd.a1.a2 aina.area2. current type is set by type type.r1. c4 may define as many as required.. .area1.number.a1.type may define as many as required.line2. . current type is set by mat mat.size.c0.number mp. a9 volume boolean operations see online help et type defines element type set current element type pointer et.a2. ... a9 aglue.inc or amesh.a1. current type is set by real real.....number esize.a1.number. .all amesh.line1.a2. a9 asba.inc or lmesh.number r. .r2..label.number. r6 may define as many as required.a2.c1.all r real define real constants for elements sets current real constant pointer mp sets material properties for elements mat esize eshape lmesh sets current material property pointer sets size or number of divisions on lines controls element shape mesh line(s) amesh mesh area(s) .ndivs use either size or ndivs see online help lmesh..

FY.vol2.ROTY.MY.UZ.label.ALL dl.value labels: UX.UZ.node#.ROTY.label.ROTZ.inc or vmesh.line#. ASYM (antisymmetry) fk.ROTX.kp#.UY.kp#.UY.all see online help see online help see online help see online help see online help allsel dk.label. reset selection defines a DOF constraint on a keypoint Constraints dk d defines a DOF constraint on a node defines (anti)symmetry DOF constraints on a line defines a dl Loads fk f defines a force at a node .value labels: FX.ROTZ.MX.ROTX.MZ ksel nsel lsel asel nsla allsel select a subset of keypoints select a subset of nodes select a subjset of lines select a subset of areas select nodes within selected area(s) select everything i.value labels: UX.FY.FZ.FZ.MX.label.ALL d.MY.area#.value labels: FX.node#.MZ f.vmesh Sets & Selection mesh volume(s) vmesh.e.vol1.label labels: SYMM (symmetry).

2. ndivs + 1 (in steps of one) x = x1 + dx*(i-1) k. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION ANSYS Command File Programming Features The following ANSYS command listing.5 ! ! the above command prompts the user for input to be entered into the ! variable "ndivs". It illustrates: q Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation q q q entering parameters (variables) prompting the user for parameters performing calculations with paramaters.0 *ENDDO *ELSE k.ndivs.i. ! /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! x1 = 5 ! define some parameters x2 = 10 *ask.THEN ! if "ndivs" is greater than "1" dx = (x2-x1)/ndivs *DO.x.0.endif r looping Index This example file does not do anything really useful in itself besides generate keypoints along a line.Enter number of divisions (default 5). shows some of the commonly used programming features in the ANSYS command file language known as ADPL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language).0 *ENDIF Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.then .0 k.ndivs+1. a default of "5" is used ! *IF.x2. note that the syntax and functions are similar to FORTRAN control structures r if .GT.0.1.x1. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.1 ! do i = 1. but it does illustrate some of the "programming features" of the ANSYS command language.ndivs.else . if only is entered.1.0.i.1.

kp.! /pnum.coord ! turn keypoint numbering on ! plot keypoints ! list all keypoints with coordinates ...1 kplot klist.all.

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Basic Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Basic Tutorials. plane stress and uniform pressure loading will be introduced in the creation and analysis of this 2-Dimensional object. extrusion.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Two Dimensional Truss Basic functions will be shown to provide you with a general knowledge of command line codes. Intermediate ANSYS functions will be shown in detail to provide you with a more general understanding of how to use ANSYS.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. copying and working plane orienation to create 3-Dimensional objects. This tutorial will introduce techniques such as filleting. ANSYS 7. Bicycle Space Frame Plane Stress Bracket Index Solid Modeling Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. Boolean operations.

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Dynamic Analysis . TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Intermediate Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Intermediate Tutorials.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Effect of Self Weight Incorporating the weight of an object into the finite element analysis is shown in this simple cantilever beam example. In this tutorial both the Eigenvalue and Nonlinear methods are used to solve a simple buckling problem.Transient Thermal Examples . This tutorial will explore the harmonic analyis capabilities of ANSYS. This tutorial will explore the modal analyis capabilities of ANSYS. ANSYS 7. Distributed Loading Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta NonLinear Analysis Buckling NonLinear Materials ANSYS Inc. The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.Harmonic Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta Dynamic Analysis . The application of distributed loads and the use of element tables to extract data is expalined in this tutorial.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Analysis of a pure conduction boundary condition example.Modal Dynamic Analysis .Pure Conduction . A large moment is applied to the end of a cantilever beam to explore Geometric Nonlinear behaviour (large deformations). This tutorial will explore the transient analyis capabilities of ANSYS.

Modelling Using Axisymmetry . Utilizing axisymmetry to model a 3-D structure in 2-D to reduce computational time. Analysis of heat conduction over time.Transient Heat Conduction Analysis of a Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated boundary condition example.Mixed Convection/Conduction/ Insulated Thermal Examples .Thermal Examples .

The use of ANSYS physics environments to solve a simple structural/ thermal problem. Model of two beams coming into contact with each other. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS Parametric Design Language Design a truss using parametric variables. The use of Substructuring in ANSYS is used to solve a simple problem. Design Opimization Index Substructuring Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Using P-Elements Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta Melting Using Element Death Contact Elements ANSYS Inc. The use of Design Optimization in ANSYS is used to solve for unknown parameters of a beam.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC. Using element death to model a volume melting.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Springs and Joints The creation of models with multiple elements types will be explored in this tutorial. Additionally. elements COMBIN7 and COMBIN14 will be explained as well as the use of parameters to store data. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Advanced Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Advanced Tutorials. ANSYS 7. The stress distribution of a model is solved using p-elements and compared to h-elements.

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The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 was used to create all of these tutorials Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation Viewing Cross Sectional Results The method to view cross sectional results for a volume are shown in this tutorial. a special type of array. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Command Line Tutorials (Postproc Tutorials) The following documents contain the command line code for the Postproc Tutorials. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS 7. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot results using tables. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Index Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc.

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1 k. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .-1 k.STATIC ! this is a general version of VM125 converted to metric rin=2*0.0254 rout=8*0.0254 ndiv=20 arc=360 emis1=0. ANSYS Command Listing /PREP7 /TITLE. This is a general version of one of the verification examples converted to metric units.0.UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.0 k.5 T1=700 T2=400 offset=273 stefbolt=5.5.0. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS ANTYPE.0.8.1.7 emis2=0.0.1 ! inches to metres Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ! degrees C ! to convert to degrees K ! metric version ! center of tube 1 ! center of retort ANSYS Inc.0.0.699*10**(-8) k. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Radiation Example Problem Description Radiation heat transfer between concentric cylinders will be modeled in this example.7.0 k.6.

1...s.all lsel.x.s.7.rin LMESH. generated counter-clockwise ! HEAT CONDUCTING BAR.1 csys.stefbolt WRITE.ALL lsel..1.1 R.1 TYPE.KXX.ndiv ET..rout..2 SE.1.TEMP ET.KXX.arc.1..1.1.SUB ! SUPERELEMENT (RADIATION MATRIX) ! defines superelement and where its written to ! TEMPERATURE OFFSET FOR ABSOLUTE SCALE .6.. generated clockwise ! outer cylinder..emis1 EMIS.1 STEF.1 lsel.MATRIX50.1 MAT.x. SUPPRESS SOLUTION OUTPUT ! UNIT CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (ARBITRARY) ! CONDUCTIVITY of inner cylinder (arbitrary) ! cylindrical coord system ! CONDUCTIVITY of outer cylinder (arbitrary) ! reset to rect coord system ! ! ! ! HIDDEN PROCEDURE FOR VIEW FACTORS GEOMETRY SPECIFICATION 2-D Stefan-Boltzmann constant WRITE RADIATION MATRIX TO FILE VM125.1 ESIZE.1 MP..all csys.2.arc.VM125 FINISH /PREP7 DOF.2.loc..2 lsel..emis2 VTYPE.VM125 TOFFST.offset ! inner cylinder.rin.circle.8.ndiv CIRCLE.0 GEOM.2.0 FINISH /AUX12 EMIS.7.5.all MP.1 MAT.LINK32.loc.rout LMESH.

rin ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES /com /COM.0 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE FINISH ! SELECT OUTER CYLINDER NODES ! T1 = 273 + 700 DEG.ALL.rin D.s.loc.s.loc.TEMP.1) = 'Q(W/m) ' ! the 1 below is for unit length numer=stefbolt*2*pi*rin*1*((offset+T1)**4-(offset+T2)**4) exact=numer/(1/emis1+(rin/rout)*(1/emis2-1)) .rout D.T2 nsel.ALL.x.T1 nsel.Q.ITEM.all csys.CHAR.x.HEAT *DIM.:) :) heat flow from outer to inner :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM OUTER TO INNER CYLINDER FSUM.s..1 nsel.0.all nsel.TEMP.csys.loc.1 nsel.x.2 *DIM.HEAT ! only from selected nodes !!! nsel.loc.x.3 LABEL(1.FSUM.all *GET. K ! SELECT INNER CYLINDER NODES ! T2 = 273 + 400 DEG.all nsel.s.VALUE. K /POST1 csys.1.LABEL.rout ! select outer cylinder nodes /com /COM.1.:) :) heat flow from inner to outer :) :) /com PRRSOL ! PRINT HEAT FLOW FROM INNER TO OUTER CYLINDER nsel.

F10.*VFILL.2).VM125 RESULTS COMPARISON -------------/COM.3).' '.1).2).' '. FINISH .1).1F5. | TARGET | ANSYS | RATIO /COM.F10. *VWRITE.VALUE(1.DATA.1).------------------------------------------------------/COM.VALUE(1.DATA.ABS(Q/exact) /COM /COM.3) (1X.LABEL(1.1.exact *VFILL.VALUE(1.' '.Q *VFILL.DATA.VALUE(1.3) /COM.VALUE(1.1.A8. /COM.--------------.VALUE(1.

nedit . Some commonly used commands are: Ctrl x save and exit Ctrl o save. puts the contents of the buffer at the cursor location Note that the mouse and the delete and insert keys do not have any effect in pico. The bookstore and CNS carry such manuals. To use pico to edit the file test.dat.dat at the UNIX prompt. one simply types pico test. but have a steep learning curve. while the remaining have a graphical user interface. It is the same editor that is used in the Pine mail package that you may have tried out with your Unix GPU account. but the backspace key does work normally.UNIX Applications Editors The are several editors available on the system. so they are always available. press this key. The first three mentioned below are text based. You will probably require a tutorial/reference book to help you get started with either of these editors. don't exit Ctrl r read an external file into the present file Ctrl 6 mark text. vi & emacs The vi and emacs editors are very powerful. In pico. the commonly used editing commands are listed at the bottom of its screen. pico A very simple editor that is sufficient for most work is pico. The ^ character represents the control (Crtl) key. then use the cursor keys to mark text Ctrl k cut text to a buffer or just delete it Ctrl u uncut text. These editors have the advantage that most every UNIX system that you'll come across will have them. for example.

Problems with File Names: Note that Windows editors cannot access files which do not comply to the 8. PFE: Another option is a powerful text editor called Programmer's File Editor. Create an icon for this program by using the New menu item in the Program Manager. This editor is available as freeware for Windows on the winsite (also know as CICA) archive (see FTP) so that you can obtain a copy for your computer at home. undo. it is not possible to use the Windows editors to directly edit some UNIX files. ensure that the UNIX option is selected: select Save As from the File menu. Very nice. Note that UNIX and DOS have different conventions for storing carriage returns in text files. It uses a very small font and is only useful for editing small text files. For this reason. Therefore.3 file format used by DOS.nedit is a very simple to use. This editor features undo and allows you to edit multiple text files of any size and save them in a DOS or UNIX format. and then renamed back to its original name. It is located in /usr/ local/winapps/pfe directory and it is called pfe.. and block delimiting with the mouse. saved. It features pull-down menus. From a UNIX command window.. It could then be edited.exe (look under the r: drive). check it out! Windows Editors Two other editors are available by starting up the Microsoft Windows emulator. An easy work-around is to rename the file to a DOS-legal name. NotePad: The first of these editors is called notepad and it is available in the Windows Accessories folder. Applications . type wabi or win. multiple file editing. yet powerful X Windows editor. The appendix describes several customizations that you may want to consider for the PFE editor. and look at the option in the dialog box. Files must be saved in a UNIX format if they are to be used by compilers and Matlab. when saving files in PFE.

ANSYS can create rather large files when running and saving. heat transfer and fluid problems.ANSYS ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modeling package for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. Type xansys52 at the UNIX prompt and a small launcher menu will appear. The text mode is useful for people who wish to simply submit batch command files to perform an analysis or if they wish to work on projects at home. Select the Run Interactive Now menu item. as well as acoustic and electro-magnetic problems. you may enter ANSYS commands. select your desired font size. it can be changed in the little startup launcher menu that first appeared. Press Enter to continue. To start ANSYS. and then save/delete the appropriate files when you are done. If the text used in ANSYS is a little too small for your taste. To start the X-Windows portion of the program.. check . issue the following two commands at the ANSYS prompt: /show.x11c /menu. Some scrolling text will go by and then stop. Press Enter to continue. ANSYS can be run as a text mode program (the default startup mode) or as a true X-Windows application. 2. over a modem. Some scrolling of text will go by and then stop. From this menu. Once this is done. These problems include: static/dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear).. From the next dialog box that appears. it is necessary to select the Interactive . two methods are avialable: 1. therefore it is advisable to start up ANSYS in the /scratch directory. Then choose GUI configuration. You many want to check out some detailed online ANSYS tutorials. item. If you've got some time. A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands. An alternate method to start ANSYS is to type ansys at the UNIX prompt.on A multi-windowed environment now appears from which to enter your commands.

performs finite element analysis. For further information on this program. . Pro/Engineer Pro/Engineer is a parametric 3D solid modeling and drafting software tool. see Dr. including static analysis. click on the car figure. If you've got some time. For further information on using ANSYS. sensitivity studies.out the ANSYS Web page. see Dr. Rampant Rampant is a general purpose inviscid. If you've got some time and want to see some more beautiful pictures. Toogood. Yokota. like that shown above. Fyfe. Pro/Mechanica can be run integrated with Pro/E or in stand-alone mode. see Dr. check out the Parametric Technology Corporation Web page. check out the Fluent Web page. A companion program. laminar and turbulent flow modeling package. Pro/Mechanica. Tutorials for Release 20 are available in the bookstore. For more information about this program. To see a detailed enlargement of the ribbon flow on the car. and design optimization.

execute the program as follows: test > output where test is the name of the executable. To change the executable's output name to test. Note that the .out.f Sending compiler error messages to a file: If you want to send the compiler output.f sub1.out (logical. we would compile the program in the following way: xlf -o test test./ preceding the name of the executable can be omitted if the current directory '. For example: xlf main. such as error messages. For example you might have a main program and several subroutine files. you now type.' is in your path (this is changed in your .f sub1. for example. It is possible (and usually desirable) to have source code in multiple files. see Configuration Files)./a.f and sub1.e. For learning about the compiler's many options. and output is the name of the file to which the output . your file must be named something like test.cshrc file. consider using a make file to simplify the program's maintenance.f Normally no options are required.f sub2.F. .f sub3. i. redirecting it). you can do it by appending >& errorfile to the xlf command line. type the command.f and not test.FORTRAN The FORTRAN compiler is invoked by typing: xlf [-options] filename. Capturing program output: To send output from a program to a file instead of the screen (i.f and send any compiler output to the file errorfile. This program would be run by entering . e. xlf by itself./test. isn't it?). Note that the name of the FORTRAN program must have an extension of lower case 'f'.for or TEST.f >& errorfile will compile main. to a file. These can be compiled and linked in one-step by: xlf -o main main. the name of the resulting executable will default to a.f. If your program code consists of many files and libraries.f To run this program. If you compile a program using the syntax xlf test.

the prompt will not appear on the screen. and not actually exit the editor. Note that it is only necessary to save the file. You will normally want to start Matlab from the X Windows screen to take advantage of the graphical environment. Matlab commands may then be issued from this prompt. After you are finished writing all that you want to this file. Normally you will want to be editing and running Matlab . printed and even imported into a word processor.m files created on under DOS/Windows and UNIX environments have different formats and will cause errors in Matlab if you try to run them in the other environment unless you make the necessary conversions when copying them to/from your floppy disk (see Floppy Disks). Matlab displays its start-up logo and the usual Matlab prompt (>>) appears. Be sure to save any edited files to disk before trying to run them from Matlab.m files. you can still run your program this way. and what data to enter. The resulting text file may then be edited. The keyboard will still accept the input. because it too is being sent to the output file. if you know when to enter data. If the program normally prompts the user for input. The most convenient method to do this is to open up a second window (see X Windows) and run a text editor from this window. MATLAB Matlab is a general purpose programming and analysis package with a wealth of built-in numerical. It is often necessary to save text output from a Matlab session for documentation purposes. In that way it is quick to toggle back and forth between the Matlab and editor windows.will be sent. type: diary filename where filename is the name of the file where Matlab will echo all keyboard commands and all ensuing text output from the program. Matlab is started from a terminal window by entering: matlab When started. This is accomplished by means of the diary command. So. symbolic and plotting functions. Note that only the output from those commands that you issue after the diary command will be written to this file. From the Matlab prompt. To obtain a PostScript printer file of a currently displayed graph in Matlab. however. as Matlab only has the copy on disk available to it.m files and the second window to run them from Matlab. turn off the diary function with the diary off command. Note that the text . In this way you will have one window to edit your . you simply type: .

Note that if you are going to be remotely running an X Windows application.labs You may also need to access another mecxx workstation from within the MecE 3-3 lab for such purposes as printing and resetting a hung workstation.labs through to mec30.print -dps filename where the switch dps specifies device PostScript and filename is the name of the file that the PostScript printing commands will be written to. A great source of Matlab information and useful programs (*. Depending from where you are trying to access these computers. you simply need enter the xhost hostname command to set this up. For example. One such program is available from CNS and is called Micro X-Win (it is available in GSB room 240 for $20). For example. It is a Windows based program and its emulation speed is good when running locally on the fast network backbone on campus. but is very slow when running it over a modem. by issuing the command. Remote Access You may gain access to this lab from other computers on campus or even at home by starting up a telnet session (or via a remote login) to connect to one of the lab's workstations. See the section on Printing regarding how one prints PostScript files. if you were in another lab on campus with telnet capabilities. you may need to enter the full address of these workstations which has the form mecxx. Once the job is completed. . such as the labs in Cameron and CAB. you must have an X server running on your local machine. If you have logged in remotely from another X Windows machine.ualberta. Also avoid rlogins to mec24 as it is a major file server for the network. you may login onto workstation 18 from any other workstation in the lab. However if you have logged in from a PC or MAC from another place on campus or at home.labs.ca (where xx is any workstation number from 01 to 30).labs. The workstations are named mec01. The rlogin command is useful for this purpose. you will need to acquire and run an X server program. logout immediately as there are only 2 remote logins open to that workstation. rlogin mec18 Avoid rlogins and telnets into mec12 unless you are having a PostScript file printed.m files) can be found by checking out the Mathworks Web page. you could access workstation mec08 by entering the command: telnet mec08.

newsgroups and WWW. Many applications. To use E-mail then. You must first create ASCII text files or PostScript files and then use one of the procedures listed below. note the upper case DISPLAY and the trailing :0 (zero). then your E-mail address is jblow@gpu. This file is printed in the small room. The laser printer in the little room outside Mec 3-3 is a PostScript printer.ca. see FTP. PostScript files: PostScript files are files in a special language that only certain printers can understand. If your CNS login id is jblow. In this command. lpr filename where filename is the name of the text file to print. This is specified with the following command: setenv DISPLAY location:0 where location is your current workstation name (hostname) or your local IP address. Do not send PostScript printer files to this printer! Up-to-date printing instructions are found in the file: /usr/local/doc/printer. for example.labs machines do not have an e-mail program on them. For more information on using some of the services offered by the internet. . To use it. with an accompanying banner page with your username on it. E-Mail and the Internet Having a GPU account means that you can send and receive E-Mail. Black & White Printing Text Files: It is possible to print pure text files (ASCII). The mecxx. type. but GPU does. either through lynx. Pine is based on the pico editor. Printing Printing is not performed by directly sending printing commands from a particular application.ualberta. just outside the main part of the lab.The other thing that you must do when running an X Windows application remotely is to tell the remote workstation where the X output is to be sent. to the printers located in the small room just outside the main part of the computing lab. telnet or rlogin to mec12 and type. it is necessary to rlogin or telnet to GPU. free of charge. such as ANSYS and Matlab have the capability to save pictures as PostScript files. and is easy to use and fairly selfexplanatory.txt. To do this. You can enter the mail program called pine.srv. or by typing pine at the prompt.

both require encapsulated PostScript files (or eps files): CNS Versatec Color Plotter: this facility permits output plot sizes from 8 1/2" X 11" to 33" X 44" for a very reasonable price. To print from Windows applications in Wabi. getting started. you must print to a PostScript file and print it using this procedure (see Wabi Printing). It is then necessary to call extension 5433 (on campus) and tell them what file to print.20 per page. the number of copies and whether or not you want the printout on paper or overhead transparencies. you must use FTP to copy your eps file to the IP address: 129. your job (but not your file) will be deleted. There are two facilities on campus for printing these files. The c indicates the plot is to be made in color. If you fail to do so. Color PostScript Printing Many applications can output color PostScript files to display results. The output is picked up and paid for in the basement of the Education Building (Instructional Resource Center. One option is to consider the possibilities listed in the section below on color printing. room B-111). issue the command: plotpostscript filename. Large PostScript Files: note that very large PostScript files will probably not print on this printer due to the large transfer times required to copy the file to the printer. The plots are picked up and paid for in the General Services Building. or appendices. Within one minute you must insert your copycard (a library PhotoCard) in the machine beside the printer.145 (see FTP).eps is the name of the PostScript eps file and scale is a scaling factor from 1 to 4 (a factor of 1 is for an 8 1/2" X 11" page and 4 is for a 33" X 44" poster). room 240.eps scale c where filename.128. From a GPU account login. Prints are $0. Education PostScript Color Printer: To use this service. . For further information.85. see table of contents.lprps filename where filename is the name of a PostScript file. If you have problems with this you will have to print the file elsewhere.

#.height K.4. reaction forces. width. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. E. 3*width/2.2.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p. 0 ! keypoint. A. y K. 0. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials. p. width/2. x. and stress for the truss system shown below. Note that Young's Modulus. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering.123) ! /title. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.3. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections.1. 0 K. height .Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K.

FY.U.0 ! ! apply loads ! FK.UY. ! ! define lines ! L.5.5.3.2 L.5 L. 2*width.SUM.1.1.1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH. 5*width/2.4.7.2 PLNSOL.3 L.-210e3 FK.1.6.-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL.3 L.5 L.1.0.-280e3 FK.1. 3*width.K.7 0 height 0 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 ! ! element definition ! ET.EX.3250 MP.ALL. Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1.F PLDISP.LINK1 R.7.ALL.3.1.3.7 L. spring element ! real constant #1.0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK.5.6.FY.1. .1.2. K. Young's modulus: 200 GPa LESIZE. K.5. .1.all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK.200e3 ! element type #1.FY.6 L.7.4 L.-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK.6 L.4 L.FY.2.1 ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection .4.

SAXL PLETAB.ETABLE.NOAV ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress .SAXL.SAXL.LS. 1 PRETAB.

3 L.4 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . and stress for the truss system shown below. width/2. 0 K.5. Note that Young's Modulus.123) ANSYS Command Listing ! ANSYS command file to perform 2D Truss Tutorial (Chandrupatla p.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss. 5*width/2. 3*width/2. reaction forces. 3*width. is 200GPa while the crass sectional area. 0 K. is 3250mm2 for all of the elements. height K. This is the first of four introductory ANSYS tutorials.html Two Dimensional Truss Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.3.2.2 ! line connecting kpoint 1 and 2 L.1. Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering. height K. 2*width. #. 0 ! ! define lines ! L. E. x. y K.123) ! /title. Bridge Truss Tutorial /PREP7 ! preprocessor phase ! ! define parameters (mm) height = 3118 width = 3600 ! ! define keypoints ! K. A.4. p.height K.1. width.mece.6.ualberta.7.1. 0.www.2. Problem Description Determine the nodal deflections. (Modified from Chandrupatla & Belegunda.2.3 L. 0 ! keypoint.0 to solve a simple 2D Truss problem.

**University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Truss/Truss.html
**

L,3,4 L,3,5 L,4,5 L,4,6 L,5,6 L,5,7 L,6,7 ! ! element definition ! ET,1,LINK1 R,1,3250 MP,EX,1,200e3

! element type #1; spring element ! real constant #1; Xsect area: 3200 mm^2 ! material property #1; Young's modulus: 200 GPa

LESIZE,ALL, , ,1,1,1 ! specify divisions on unmeshed lines LMESH,all ! mesh all lines ! FINISH ! finish pre-processor ! /SOLU ! enter solution phase ! ! apply some constraints DK,1,ALL,0 ! define a DOF constraint at a keypoint DK,7,UY,0 ! ! apply loads ! FK,1,FY,-280e3 ! define a force load to a keypoint FK,3,FY,-210e3 FK,5,FY,-280e3 FK,7,FY,-360e3 ! SOLVE ! solve the resulting system of equations FINISH ! finish solution /POST1 PRRSOL,F PLDISP,2 PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1 ETABLE,SAXL,LS, 1 PRETAB,SAXL PLETAB,SAXL,NOAV ! List Reaction Forces ! Plot Deformed shape ! Contour Plot of deflection ! Axial Stress ! List Element Table ! Plot Axial Stress

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

3D Space Frame Example

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0

! ! ! ! !

turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force

! Solve the problem

FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j

! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18 /FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

**3D Space Frame Example
**

Problem Description

The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bicycle frame shown in the following figure. The frame is to be built of hollow aluminum tubing having an outside diameter of 25mm and a wall thickness of 2mm for the main part of the frame. For the rear forks, the tubing will be 12mm outside diameter and 1mm wall thickness.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 3D Bicycle Space Frame /title,3D Bicycle Space Frame /prep7 ! Enter the pre-processor

! Define Some Parameters x1 x2 y1 y2 z1 = = = = = 500 825 325 400 50 ! ! ! ! ! These parameters are not required; i.e. one could directly enter in the coordinates into the keypoint definition below. However, using parameters makes it very easy to quickly make changes to your model!

! Define Keypoints K,1, 0,y1, 0 K,2, 0,y2, 0 K,3,x1,y2, 0 K,4,x1, 0, 0 K,5,x2, 0, z1 K,6,x2, 0,-z1 ! k,key-point number,x-coord,y-coord,z-coord

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

! Define Lines Linking Keypoints L,1,2 L,2,3 L,3,4 L,4,1 L,4,6 L,4,5 L,3,5 L,3,6 ! Define Element Type ET,1,pipe16 KEYOPT,1,6,1 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R,1,25,2 ! r,real set number,outside diameter,wall thickness R,2,12,1 ! second set of real constants - for rear forks ! Define Material Properties MP,EX,1,70000 MP,PRXY,1,0.33 ! mp,Young's modulus,material number,value ! mp,Poisson's ratio,material number,value ! l,keypoint1,keypoint2

! these last two line are for the rear forks

! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into LESIZE,ALL,20 ! lesize,line number(all lines),size of element ! Line Meshing REAL,1 LMESH,1,6,1 REAL,2 LMESH,7,8 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,0 ! ! ! ! ! turn on real property set #1 mesh those lines which have that property set mesh lines 1 through 6 in steps of 1 activate real property set #2 mesh the rear forks

! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type,static (dk command)

! Define Displacement Constraints on Keypoints DK,1,UX,0,,,UY,UZ DK,5,UY,0,,,UZ DK,6,UY,0,,,UZ

! dk,keypoint,direction,displacement,,,direction,direction

! Define Forces on Keypoints FK,3,FY,-600 FK,4,FY,-200 SOLVE FINISH SAVE

(fk command)

!fk,keypoint,direction,force ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/post1 /WIND,ALL,OFF /WIND,1,LTOP /WIND,2,RTOP /WIND,3,LBOT /WIND,4,RBOT GPLOT

! Enter the general post processor

/GCMD,1, PLDISP,2 !Plot the deformed and undeformed edge /GCMD,2, PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1

! ! ! ! !

Set up Element Table information Element tables are tables of information regarding the solution data You must tell Ansys what pieces of information you want by using the etable command: etable,arbitrary name,item name,data code number

! The arbitrary name is a name that you give the data in the table ! It serves as a reference name to retrieve the data later ! Use a name that describes the data and is easily remembered. ! The item name and data code number come off of the tables provided. ! Examples: ! For the VonMises (or equivalent) stresses at angle 0 at both ends of the ! element (node i and node j); etable,vonmi0,nmisc,5 etable,vonmj0,nmisc,45 ! For the Axial stresses at angle 0 etable,axii0,ls,1 etable,axij0,ls,33 ! For the Direct axial stress component due to axial load (no bending) ! Note it is independent of angular location. etable,diri,smisc,13 etable,dirj,smisc,15 ! ADD OTHERS THAT YOU NEED IN HERE... ! To plot the data, simply type ! plls, name for node i, name for node j ! for example, /GCMD,3, PLLS,vonmi0,vonmj0 /GCMD,4, PLLS,axii0,axij0 /CONT,2,9,0,,0.27 /CONT,3,9,0,,18 /CONT,4,9,-18,,18

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bike/Print.html

/FOC,ALL,-0.340000,,,1 /replot PRNSOL,DOF,

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

Plane Stress Bracket

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 thickness R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 200000 MPa MP,PRXY,1,0.3 1, 0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL FINISH ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a

! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material

! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines ! Exit preprocessor

/SOLU ANTYPE,0 DL,4, ,ALL,0 SFL,2,PRES,-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL,S,EQV

! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem

University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials - www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.html

**Plane Stress Bracket
**

Verification Example

The first step is to simplify the problem. Whenever you are trying out a new analysis type, you need something (ie analytical solution or experimental data) to compare the results to. This way you can be sure that you've gotten the correct analysis type, units, scale factors, etc. The simplified version that will be used for this problem is that of a flat rectangular plate with a hole shown in the following figure:

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Verification /title, 2D Plane Stress Verification /PREP7 BLC4,0,0,200,100 CYL4,100,50,20 ASBA,1,2 ET,1,PLANE42 KEYOPT,1,3,3 R,1,20 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 AESIZE,ALL,5 AMESH,ALL ! ! ! ! Preprocessor rectangle, bottom left corner coords, width, height circle,center coords, radius substract area 2 from area 1

!element Type = plane 42 ! This is the changed option to give the plate a thickness ! Real Constant, Material 1, Plate Thickness ! Material Properties, Young's Modulus, Material 1, 200000 ! Material Properties, Major Poisson's Ratio, Material 1, ! Element sizes, all of the lines, 5 mm ! Mesh the lines

Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta

-1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.PRES.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 SFL.www.ALL. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBP/Verif_Print.2.4.mece.S.ualberta.0 DL.EQV ! Exit preprocessor ! Solution ! The type of analysis (static) ! Apply a Displacement to Line 4 to all DOF ! Apply a Distributed load to Line 2 ! Solve the problem Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title.20.20 BLC4. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.80. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.50.0.Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.-20. plane stress. The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.80. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.0.20.0. and uniform pressure loading.50 CYL4.60 ! Enter the pre-processor .100 CYL4.80. A figure of the plate is shown below. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.0.20 CYL4.20.

ALL.80. DL.50.ALL CYL4.20.ALL.12.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.0 . 9.3. DL.30 CYL4.0 .0.10 ASBA.0 .1.force ! Solve the problem . DL.PRXY.real set number.0 .FY.ALL from base area 6 ! Boolean Addition .Poisson's ratio.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .ALL.9.0.10 CYL4.0 ! amesh.1.. 7.material number.Young's modulus.14. 8. DL.PLANE82 KEYOPT.subtracts all areas (other than 6) ! Define Element Type ET.AADD.ALL.0 .0 . DL.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH..keypoint.material number. DL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.ALL.13.ALL.1.EX.20 ! r.ALL. .value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.1.direction.1.all areas.3 ! mp.80.6. DL.0.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.10.11.5 ! lesize.200000 MP.value ! mp.ALL.0 . plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.ALL.-1000 SOLVE (fk command) !fk.

10.0.EQV.ALL.DOF.8 /CONT.4.2.EQV.4. PLNSOL.1.3.10.2.0. PLNSOL..U.OFF /WIND.1 /GCMD.FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND.LTOP /WIND.10.0..2.EPTO.1 /GCMD.0.RBOT GPLOT ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD. PLDISP. PLNSOL.ALL.1.1 /replot PRNSOL. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions ..2 /GCMD.05e-3 /FOC.1 /CONT.0036 /CONT.3.0.3.LBOT /WIND.SUM.340000.0..0.-0.0.4..RTOP /WIND.S.

This plate will be fixed at the two small holes on the left and have a load applied to the larger hole on the right.html Plane Stress Bracket Introduction This tutorial is the second of three basic tutorials created to illustrate commom features in ANSYS.www.0.80. ANSYS Command Listing ! Command File mode of 2D Plane Stress Bracket /title. A figure of the plate is shown below. This bracket is to be built from a 20 mm thick steel plate.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The plane stress bracket tutorial builds upon techniques covered in the first tutorial (3D Bicycle Space Frame). and uniform pressure loading.mece. Problem Description The problem to be modeled in this example is a simple bracket shown in the following figure.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print. plane stress.ualberta. it is therefore essential that you have completed that tutorial prior to beginning this one.100 ! Enter the pre-processor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . 2D Plane Stress Bracket /prep7 ! Create Geometry BLC4.0. The 2D Plane Stress Bracket will introduce boolean operations.

6. DL.value ! mp.0 . 7.ALL CYL4.10.200000 MP.html CYL4.0 .ALL.ALL. plate thickness ! Define Material Properties MP.material number.0.mece.1. DL.keypoint.value ! Plane stress element with thickness ! Define the number of elements each line is to be divided into AESIZE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.80.50.0.10 CYL4.0 ! amesh.real set number.0 .80.EX.0.Young's modulus. DL.1.9.0 ! There is probably a way to do these all at once.material number.13.1.ALL ! Boolean Addition .50 CYL4.PLANE82 KEYOPT.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.50.static (dl command) ! Define Displacement Constraints on Lines DL.0 .PRXY.20.direction.ALL.3.0 .20.0 .subtracts all areas (other than 6) from ba ! Define Element Type ET.ALL. .60 AADD. 9. DL. 8.ALL.FY.1.3 ! Define Real Constants ! (Note: the inside diameter must be positive) R.5 ! lesize.1. all areas ! Finish pre-processing ! Enter the solution processor ! Analysis type.0.0.20.12.-20.20.30 CYL4.size of element ! Area Meshing AMESH.all areas. ! Define Forces on Keypoints FK.20 BLC4.ALL. DL.11.-1000 (fk command) !fk.add all of the areas together ! Create Bolt Holes ! Boolean Subtraction .ALL.0 . DL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE..ALL..10 ASBA.3 ! mp.www.ALL. DL.Poisson's ratio.20 CYL4.14.80.20 ! r.80.force Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .

PLNSOL.1 /replot PRNSOL.OFF /WIND.1 /GCMD.0..RBOT GPLOT ! Solve the problem ! Finish the solution processor ! Save your work to the database ! Enter the general post processor /GCMD.10.html SOLVE FINISH SAVE /post1 /WIND..10.ualberta.ALL. PLDISP. PLNSOL. PLNSOL.3.1.0.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Bracket/Print.4.340000.EQV.DOF.4.4.2.2.1 /CONT.0.EQV.LBOT /WIND.0036 /CONT.U.www.S.1 /GCMD.0.LTOP /WIND.RTOP /WIND. ! Plot the deformed and undeformed edge ! Plot the deflection USUM ! Plot the equivalent stress ! Plot the equivalent strain ! Set contour ranges ! Focus point ! Prints the nodal solutions Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta ..SUM.2 /GCMD.10.0.05e-3 /FOC.0.ALL.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..EPTO.3.2.8 /CONT.0.-0..0.3.mece.

The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials.Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure. Filleting. copying. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure. . Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. and working plane orientation will be covered in detail. extrusion/sweeping.

2.1 BLC4.1.6.4.22.5.0.1mm between ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints .0.0.ALL ! Sweep K. .0. .14 AADD.2.1.360.2001.-0.11) AL.2.0. .1001.3.0.8.1.0.5 AADD.ALL CYL4.3..1002.0 ! Keypoints ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.5.3.1002.5 CYL4.7. AL.1.3.10.10.2..0.1.0.8..3.2.5.4.5. . .5.26.0.1 AGEN.5.5.0.ALL LFILLT. 1001 and 1002 K. lines 30 and 7 LFILLT.0 K.5 BLC4..5 AADD.7.3.2 ASBA.0 VROTAT.2.0 K. .0.9 lines 9.1001.11.6 AGEN...ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4..2002.

45.2.0.69 AGEN.0.20 L.ALL VOFFST.101.82 K.20 K.0.12 Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4. .5.51.180.1 KWPLAN.100.2002.2.2 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes . .11 vsbv.2. .5.26 VOFFST.3.9 vsbv.7 vsbv. .6.10 AGEN.6.all.0.2003 CSYS.4.109.8.1.1 VGEN. .1.8.all.6.0.7 AADD.51 AADD.62 ASBA.5.-20.102.1.101.6.all.7.1. .102.8.180 CYL4.sqrt(3)/0.102. .0 K.159.5.26 VADD.2 CYL4.0. . .20 LARC.6 vsbv.2.82 K.3.102 K.0.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.5.8 vsbv.4.10 vsbv.5.20.102 BLC4.25.0 K.K.1. .5 vsbv.-20.109.102.5 CYL4.20 LARC.100.-1.5.0.0.2.27.2.02 KWPLAN. .2003.all.2001.5.7.4.109.0.1.26 K. .6 AL.13.

129-(0.180.38 AADD.57735*26). .202. .200.37 CYL4. .201.36.0 K.200.AADD.-1. 129-(0.7.0 A.200. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together .60 VSBV.26 K.61.0.201.5.32.3 CYL4.26 K.203.-20.180.1. .0 system K.204.51.-20.-1.34.60 VADD. .61.0.32.57735*26) + 38.61. VADD.2.20.1 WPCSYS.18. sqrt(3)/2*76.33.30 KWPLAN. .203.204 VOFFST.4 ! Add areas ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.202 CSYS.51.

and working plane orientation will be covered in detail.mece. it is therefore essential that you complete the tutorials in order. Filleting.www. We will create a solid model of the pulley shown in the following figure.html Solid Model Creation Introduction This tutorial is the last of three basic tutorials devised to illustrate commom features in ANSYS. extrusion/sweeping.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . copying. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . Each tutorial builds upon techniques covered in previous tutorials. The Solid Modelling Tutorial will introduce various techniques which can be used in ANSYS to create solid models. Two Solid Models will be created within this tutorial. We will also create a solid model of the Spindle Base shown in the following figure.ualberta.

ualberta.0.www.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.0.5.3..5.ALL CYL4.0 K.0.3.0.-0.2002. .14 AADD.2..2.1001.5.0.360.26.4.0 VROTAT.0.html ANSYS Command Listing Pulley Model /PREP7 BLC4.3. .5.0.ALL LFILLT..0.0.5 CYL4.3.8.1.0.1..4.6.22.1 ! Keypoints ! Sweep area 4 about axis formed by keypoints 1001 ! Create rectangles ! Add the areas together ! Create circles ! Subtract an area ! Mirrors an area ! Adds all areas !Create a fillet radius of 0.2.1002.5..1002.8.2003.11.2. K.2001.2 ASBA.1001.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5 AADD.7.mece. AL.1 BLC4.1.10.5.1. .. .7.3.3.3.0.5.5 BLC4.1.2.0.1mm between lines 30 ! Creates fillet area (arbitrary area using lines Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .2..9 AL. LFILLT. .ALL ! Sweep K.0.1 AGEN.6 AGEN.5 AADD.0 K. .0 K.

.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .5.2.109.100.20.51.2003 CSYS.27.20 L.8.9 vsbv. .2 AADD. . . .all.0.1.5.6.8.6 AL.5.-20.5. .0.102.33.0.7 vsbv.37 ! Create rectangle ! Keypoints ! Line arcs ! Creates area from 4 lines ! ! ! ! ! Now called area 3 Area 1 Mirrors area 1 Mirrors again Subtracts areas ! Creates volume from area ! Keypoints ! Defines working plane ! Create rectangle ! Create circle ! Add them together ! Volume from area ! Add volumes ! Add areas Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .www.69 AGEN.ualberta.sqrt(3)/0.7 AADD.102.1 VGEN.6 vsbv.5.13.12 !Align WorkPlane with keypoints ! Change Active CS to Global Cartesian Y ! Create circle ! Pattern the circle every 45 degrees Spindle Base Model /PREP7 BLC4.51 AADD. .0.2.0 K.all.101.6.32.4.1.5 vsbv.5.26 K.7.25.82 K.102 K.all.2.0.4.mece.2 CYL4.0 !Subtract areas vsbv.0. .8 vsbv.100.20 LARC.html KWPLAN.2.102 BLC4.0. .-1.109.20 K.26 VADD.1.109.62 ASBA.180.5 CYL4.20 LARC.26 VOFFST.6.5.102.02 KWPLAN.1.0.3.180 CYL4.5.-20.0 K.2002.159.10 AGEN.8.36.4.0.45. . .101.all.2. .11 vsbv.34.7.10 vsbv.1.82 K.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print.6.ALL VOFFST.38 AADD.2.1.2001.102.

61. .203.204. .180.60 VADD.4 ! ! ! ! Create cylinder Add volumes Another cylinder Subtract it ! This re-aligns the WP with the global coordinate system ! Keypoints ! Shift working plane ! Change active coordinate system ! Keypoints K.57735*26) + 38.-20.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .51.-1.32. sqrt(3)/2*76.-20.-1.200.1.0 A.26 K.60 VSBV.7.201.202 CSYS.18. .1 WPCSYS.30 KWPLAN.57735*26).200.61.51.203.0.0.mece.129-(0. .204 VOFFST.180.0 K. ALL ! Create area from keypoints ! Volume from area ! Add it together Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .61.2. .26 K.202.0 K. . 129-(0.20.200.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CBT/Solid/Print. VADD.3 CYL4.5.html CYL4.201.ualberta.

0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.1.0 L.2 ET.Width*Height.1.1.Width*(Height**3)/12. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.2.0.0 K. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.200000 ! Young's Modulus ! Create Keypoints !** = exponent .EX.Length. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1. ANSYS Command Listing /Title.Height MP.

DENS.0 DK. ACEL. LMESH.1.Length/10.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.ALL.86e-6 LESIZE.7.8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.PRXY.0.ALL.3 MP.2 ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape .0.MP..9.

EX.1.DENS.3 ! Poisson's ratio MP. Effects of Self Weight /PREP7 Length = 1000 Width = 50 Height = 10 K.1.1.0 K.1.86e-6 ! Density LESIZE.www.html Effect of Self Weight on a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the required steps to account for the weight of an object in ANSYS.2.Height MP.Length.2 ET. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print.Length/10.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . LMESH.Width*(Height**3)/12.1.PRXY.0.0.0 ! Size of line elements ! Mesh line 1 ! Enter solution mode ! Static analysis !** = exponent ! Create Keypoints Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .Width*Height.1.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 L.ualberta.ALL.200000 ! Young's Modulus MP.BEAM3 ! Set element type R.mece. ANSYS Command Listing /Title. Loads will not be applied to the beam shown below in order to observe the deflection caused by the weight of the beam itself.

ALL.www.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Density/Print..8 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.0.html DK.ualberta.2 ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Set gravity constant ! Display deformed shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1. ACEL.9.

0. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.0.0 K.2.1000.0 L.1. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K. ANSYS Command Listing /title.2 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line .1. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.

SMAXJ.I.SMAXI.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data .SMAXI.1.SMAXJ... 1 ETABLE.PRES.1.1.833.0 SFBEAM.PRXY.0 ! Beam3 element type ! Real constants .ET.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.BEAM3 R.333.10 MP.area.0.2 ETABLE.NMISC.NMISC.1.0.1.UY.ALL.200000 MP.UX.1.0 DK.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100.2.EX.33 ESIZE.100 LMESH.UY DK. 3 PLLS.1.

Application of Distributed Loads Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.BEAM3 ! Define the keypoints ! Create the line ! Beam3 element type Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . ANSYS Command Listing /title.1.1000.0.2 ET..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. Please note that this material was also covered in the 'Bicycle Space Frame' tutorial under 'Basic Tutorials'.0.ualberta.1.mece.. The cross-section of the beam is 10mm x 10mm while the modulus of elasticity of the steel is 200GPa.0 L.2. The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how to apply distributed loads and use element tables to extract data. A distributed load of 1000 N/m (1 N/mm) will be applied to a solid steel beam with a rectangular cross section as shown in the figure below. Distributed Loading of a Beam /PREP7 K.ht.1.0 K.

www.10 MP..0 SFBEAM.100 LMESH.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.1.1. 1 ETABLE.I.SMAXI.1.0.mece.0 DK.SMAXJ.UY DK.2 ETABLE..833.0 ! Real constants . 3 PLLS. R..1.PRXY.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.SMAXI.1.NMISC.height ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Roller on keypoint 2 ! Apply distributed load ! Plot deformed shape ! Create data for element table ! Plot ETABLE data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .UY.2.NMISC.200000 MP.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Distributed/Print.UX.333..SMAXJ.PRES.33 ESIZE.ht.ALL.100.area.ualberta.EX.0.

plane42. one above top of the other.0.0.01 ! thickness 0. /title..UofA ANSYS Tutorial Creating Files Features Basic Tutorials Intermediate Tutorials Advanced Tutorials PostProc Tutorials Radiation ANSYS UTILITIES BASIC TUTORIALS INTERMEDIATE TUTORIALS ADVANCED TUTORIALS POSTPROC.7. with a small separation.3. 1. This command file is also useful to demonstate the use of sets or selections to group nodes/keypoints or to select a single node/keypoint to which boundary conditions will be applied.01 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . plane stress w/thick. 0.1. TUTORIALS COMMAND LINE FILES PRINTABLE VERSION Contact Element Example The ANSYS contact element CONTACT48 allows friction to be modelled as a normal force only or as a normal force and a shear force. nodal.2 ! define rectangular areas RECTNG. Index Contributions Comments MecE 563 Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta ANSYS Inc. In this model there are two blocks.2.1 ! activate element type 1 R. The top block experiences a load and comes into contact with the lower block..4 aplot ! define element type ET.5.Sample of CONTACT48 element type /prep7 RECTNG.10. strs out type.5.2. The top block is cantilevered while the bottom block is tied to ground.2 ! element type 1..

1 ! nsel.1 real.0.contac48.2.2.35 mat. 20e3 MP.3 MP.! define material properties MP..2.mat.1.1 r.2 amesh.20e3.1.EX.1 esize.1 amesh.1 eplot ! turn on material color shading ! ! ! ! set meshing size turn on material set #1 real set #1 mesh area 1 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Young's modulus (10 times less rigid!) ! Poisson's ratio ET.NUXY. 0.2 /pnum..source.s.99.y. 0.s.EX.5 mat.7. 2. 200e3 MP.0.node ! ! then the target nodes allsel select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area call this group of nodes 'source' ! relect everything .area.r.2 ! nsla.10 TYPE...NUXY.3 ! meshing esize.0.loc. 1.01 ! cm.2 ! activates or sets this element type real.005.2.2D contact elements keyo.1 ! defines second element type .2 ! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel.2.

100 autots.target.node gcgen.1 nsla.area.on nropt.y.0 ! Ground bottom nodes on bottom block allsel nsel.x.s.s.2.on pred.full.source.all.7.loc.0 ! when vmin = vmax (0 here).r.target.s.5 ksel.r.s.99.all.x.1.-100 allsel time.all.asel.stat.loc.loc.y.01 cm. a small tolerance is used d.loc.3 finish /solution antype.4 fk.2..loc.5 ksel.20.all..on solve finish ! auto time stepping ! predictor on ! Newton-Raphson on .new ! ! ! ! select bottom area select nodes in this area the top layer of nodes from this area call this selection 'target' ! generate contact elements between defined nodes !Ground upper left hand corner of top block ksel.4 dk.s.y.1 nsubst.fy.r.0 ! Give top right corner a vertical load allsel ksel.all.y.loc.1 nsel.

0. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.0.0.1.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor .3 esize.0 l.0.1 lmesh.069e-5.0. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.2 et.1.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.30.0.4.5.1.03125.1.2.prxy. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status.ex.1.0e6 mp. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities . To solve this problem. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.125 mp. izz.beam3 r.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k. After each increment. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).0 k.1.NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. the load will added incrementally. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.0.

-100 solve /post1 pldisp.on ! auto time stepping nsubst.on ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis autots.1.mz.static nlgeom.1 PRNSOL.1 ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load.X ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections .2. min # substeps=1 outres.U.all fk.1000.all ! save results of all iterations dk. max # substeps=1000.all.5./solu antype.

4. This tutorial will deal specifically with Geometric Nonlinearities .0 k.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple nonlinear analysis of the beam shown below.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 l.1. There are several causes for nonlinear behaviour such as Changing Status. the stiffness matrix will be adjusted before increasing the load.0.0.1.0.2 et.0e6 mp.ualberta.1.069e-5.5.all finish ! define keypoints ! 5" beam (length) ! define line ! ! ! ! Beam area.30.beam3 r.3 esize.NonLinear Analysis of Cantilever Beam k.html NonLinear Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. The solution will be compared to the equivalent solution using a linear response.ex. After each increment.mece.0.1.125 mp. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 ! start preprocessor /title.2. the load will added incrementally. To solve this problem.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.0.0.03125. height of beam Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! element size of 0.1 lmesh.1" ! mesh the line ! stop preprocessor Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . izz. Material Nonlinearities and Geometric Nonlinearities (change in response due to large deformations).www.1.prxy.1.

all.on autots.html /solu antype.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.2.mece.5.1 PRNSOL.all dk.mz.U.all fk.1 outres.X ! start solution phase ! static analysis ! turn on non-linear geometry analysis ! auto time stepping ! Size of first substep=1/5 of the total load. max # substeps=10 ! save results of all iterations ! constrain all DOF on ground ! applied moment ! display deformed mesh ! lists horizontal deflections Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinear/Print.www.1000.on nsubst.1.-100 solve /post1 pldisp.static nlgeom.

This method is not recommended for accurate. This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. 2. in reallife. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. static analysis to predict buckling loads.Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 to solve a simple buckling problem. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. load perterbations. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. . Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. However. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. ie. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real-world structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. largedeflection. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. For this type of analysis. Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. material nonlinearities and gaps. real-world buckling prediction analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions.

Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET. applied at the top-center of the beam.PRXY.1.0.1.BEAM3 R.200000 MP.ALL.1.EX. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode ! Before you can do a buckling analysis. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.0.833.0.2.STATIC ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.100 L.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ANSYS .1.1.2 ESIZE.This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.100. rigidly constrained at the bottom. will be calculated.10 MP.0 K.10 LMESH. area (mm^2).3 K. I (mm^4). The required load to cause buckling.333.

1. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info . since all loads are scaled during the analysis.STATIC ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.1.1.1 LMESH.0.PRXY. I.0 K.0 L.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for . Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape /TITLE.subspace.10 K.LANB.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.0.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .ON DK.1.EX.0.0.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.LIST SET.1. height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line .100.ON MXPAND.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load.LAST PLDISP NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options .2.3 R.ALL FK.FY.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.2 ESIZE.BUCKLE BUCOPT.333. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.100.833.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).200000 MP.1.2.PSTRES.1.

20 NEQIT.0 FK.3 /AXLAB.1000 AUTOTS.NLGEOM.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.ON LNSRCH.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.2.Y.F.1.Y XVAR.1 DK.ALL NSUBST.2 PLVAR.X.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! ! Non-linear geometry solution supported Stores bunches of output Load broken into 5 load steps Use 20 load steps to find solution Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.Y NSOL.1.FY.ON /ESHAPE.2.3.2.-50000 FK.2.ALL.ON OUTRES.U.ALL.FX.

This is known as classical Euler buckling analysis. Buckling loads for several configurations are readily available from tabulated solutions. Each load has an associated buckled mode shape. It is recommended that you complete the NonLinear Tutorial prior to beginning this tutorial Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. load perterbations. This method is not recommended for accurate. structural imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most realworld structures from reaching their eigenvalue predicted buckling strength. suddenly a very small increase in the load will cause very large deflections). Eigenvalue Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength of an ideal elastic structure. this is the shape that the structure assumes in a buckled condition.html Buckling Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta . Its mode of operation is very simple: it gradually increases the applied load until a load level is found whereby the structure becomes unstable (ie. ie. Nonlinear Nonlinear buckling analysis is more accurate than eigenvalue analysis because it employs non-linear. There are two primary means to perform a buckling analysis: 1. static analysis to predict buckling loads. It computes the structural eigenvalues for the given system loading and constraints. 2. real-world buckling prediction analysis. The true non-linear nature of this analysis thus permits the modeling of geometric imperfections. in real-life.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print. it over-predicts the expected buckling loads. material nonlinearities and gaps. large-deflection. note that small off-axis loads are necessary to initiate the desired buckling mode. However.www.ualberta.mece. For this type of analysis.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 to solve a simple buckling problem.

0.2 ESIZE.html This tutorial will use a steel beam with a 10 mm X 10 mm cross section.1.100. height (mm) Young's modulus (in MPa) Poisson's ratio ! Define the geometry of beam (100 mm high) ! Draw the line ! Set element size to 1 mm ! Mesh the line ! Enter the solution mode Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .BEAM3 R.Eigenvalue Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ET.10 MP.mece.100 L.1.0.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.10 LMESH.EX.0 K.1.0.1. ANSYS Command Listing Eigenvalue Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .PRXY. I (mm^4).www.333.ualberta.833.200000 MP.ALL. applied at the top-center of the beam. will be calculated.1. area (mm^2). The required load to cause buckling.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Enter the preprocessor ! ! ! ! Define the element of the beam to be buckled Real Consts: type 1.3 K. rigidly constrained at the bottom.1.

STATIC PSTRES.ALL ! Static analysis (not buckling) ! Non-linear geometry solution supported ! Stores bunches of output ! Young's modulus (in Pa) ! Poisson's ratio ! area.Time/Freq listing is the force required for buckling (in N for this case).University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.1.833.LIST SET.ON MXPAND. SOLVE FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.1.1.10 K.ualberta.0.ALL. I.1 SOLVE FINISH /SOLU EXPASS.BUCKLE BUCOPT.BEAM3 ! Define element as beam3 MP.LANB. one mode ! Re-enter solution mode to expand info . height ! Lower node ! Upper node (100 mm high) ! Draws line ! Sets element size to 1 mm ! Mesh line Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .2. Read in data for the desired mode Plots the deflected shape NonLinear Buckling FINISH /CLEAR ! These two commands clear current data /TITLE.2 ESIZE.required during buckling analysis Constrain the bottom of beam Load the top vertically with a unit load.STATIC NLGEOM.LAST PLDISP ! Enter the solution mode again to solve buckling ! Buckling analysis ! Buckling options . This is done so the eigenvalue calculated will be the actual buckling load. since all loads are scaled during the analysis.necessary ! An expantion pass will be performed ! Specifies the number of modes to expand ! ! ! ! ! Enter post-processor List eigenvalue solution .2.subspace.100.1.PRXY.ON OUTRES.1.1 LMESH.3 R.1.ON DK.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.EX.-1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Before you can do a buckling analysis.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. ANSYS needs the info from a static analysis Prestress can be accounted for .333.www. Nonlinear Buckling Analysis /PREP7 ! Enter the preprocessor ET.100.0.0 L.200000 MP.0.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.0 K.FY.0.ALL FK.html ANTYPE.

20 NEQIT.1.LOAD /REPLOT ! Load broken into 5 load steps ! Use 20 load steps to find solution ! Auto time stepping ! Plots the beam as a volume rather than line ! Constrain bottom ! ! ! ! Apply load slightly greater than predicted required buckling load to upper node Add a horizontal load (0.Y NSOL.F.2.ALL.ualberta.0 FK.mece.-250 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.2.ON /ESHAPE.1000 AUTOTS.5% FY) to initiate buckling ! ! ! ! ! Time history post processor Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis Plots variable 3 on y-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2002 University of Alberta .FX.2 PLVAR.U.2.www.3.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.2.Y XVAR.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .Y.X.html NSUBST.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Buckling/Print.3 /AXLAB.ON LNSRCH.-50000 FK.FY.1 DK.

0..25 MP.MELA.2.. This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.0 k.EX.1. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". In such a case.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model. ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points TBPT.LINK1 R. The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.100 l. For instance.1. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.0.0.1.2 ET.PRXY.1.75 .75000 MP.12.1.1.1. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa). For this analysis.001.1.3 TB.

.150 TBPT.ON LNSRCH..004.5 LMESH.2.1000.LOAD /REPLOT ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Changes y label ! Changes X label .15.005.435 TBPT.ON NSUBST.0 DK.TBPT.2.all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.2.Y.ALL AUTOTS..U..2 PLVAR.1 OUTRES.Y.1 PLNSOL.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.1.449 TBPT.002..Y XVAR..1..0.420 TBPT..all FK.ALL.025.25...1000 ANTYPE.20.3 /AXLAB.390 TBPT.450 ESIZE...2.275.06..FY...003.X...225 TBPT.3..DEFLECTION /AXLAB..240 TBPT.1.U.300 TBPT..F.355 TBPT.Y NSOL...250 TBPT.ON NEQIT.

ualberta.1.mece. For instance. The material then begins to yield and the relationship becomes plastic and nonlinear. a multilinear stress-strain relationship can be included which follows the stress-strain curve of the material being used.0.25 ! Enter Preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area of 25 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . This will allow ANSYS to more accurately model the plastic deformation of the material.1. In such a case.www.1.2. a simple tension speciment 100 mm X 5 mm X 5 mm is constrained at the bottom and has a load pulling on the top.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.LINK1 R. NonLinear Materials Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This specimen is made out of a experimental substance called "WhoKilledKenium". The stress-strain curve for the substance is shown above.100 l. the case when a large force is applied resulting in a stresses greater than yield strength.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . For this analysis.0 k... ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /prep7 k. Note the linear section up to approximately 225 MPa where the Young's Modulus is constant (75 GPa).2 ET.0.1.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to include material nonlinearities in an ANSYS model.

250 TBPT.Y.449 TBPT...12.3.003.300 TBPT.25..390 TBPT.EX.1..PRXY..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .all FINISH /SOLU NLGEOM.2.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/NonLinearMat/Prin.275...ON LNSRCH.X.LOAD /REPLOT ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Create a table of 12 data points ! to map the stress-strain curve ! Data points ! Element size 5 ! Line mesh all lines ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! ! ! Nonlinear geometry on 20 load steps Output data for all load steps Auto time-search on Line search on 1000 iteration maximum ! Static analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Load on keypoint 2 ! Enter post processor ! Show element shape ! Plot deflection contour ! ! ! ! Enter time history Reads force data in variable 2 Reads y-deflection data into var 3 Make variable 2 the x-axis ! Changes y label ! Changes X label Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1000...1..ualberta.www..3 /AXLAB.Y.10000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /ESHAPE.435 TBPT..U.ON NEQIT.ALL AUTOTS.ALL.1 PLNSOL.0.MELA.450 ESIZE.005.Y XVAR..002.2..225 TBPT.mece.2..15..150 TBPT.ON NSUBST..Y NSOL.025.1 FINISH /POST26 RFORCE.75000 MP.240 TBPT....06.355 TBPT.75 TBPT..3 TB.0.all FK.1.U.1.004.2 PLVAR. MP.1.1000 ANTYPE.DEFLECTION /AXLAB.2.. TBPT.FY.5 LMESH...001.1 OUTRES.20.1.0 DK..F..420 TBPT.

2.EX.1 FINISH ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' .8.2.0001.0.0.7830 LESIZE.33e-10.1.0.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file shows the command line codes necessary to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.0 K.BEAM3 R.ALL.0 L.01 MP.1.33 MP..1.068e11 MP. /TITLE.0.1.. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1.1.10 LMESH.PRXY.2 ET.1.1.DENS.Dynamic.0 /PREP7 K.

.Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials.

y) 1 2 5. Give example a Title Utility Menu > File > Change Title . Open preprocessor menu 2.0) (1. Give example a Jobname Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ... Enter 'Dynamic' for the jobname 4.. Create Keypoints Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS We are going to define 2 keypoints (the beam vertices) for this structure as given in the following table: Keypoint Coordinates (x.0) . 1. Define Lines (0.Creation of the Cantilver Beam used in the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials This file describes the GUI (Graphic User Interface) steps to create the following cantilever beam in ANSYS.. 3.

double click on 'Linear' followed by 'Density' in the 'Define Material Model Behavior' Window Enter a density of 7830 Note: For dynamic analysis.. Young's modulus EX: 2. With only 3 degrees of freedom. enter the following geometric properties for steel: i.Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines > Straight Line Create a line between Keypoint 1 and Keypoint 2.. the BEAM3 element can only be used in 2D analysis.. Cross-sectional area AREA: 0. 10. both the stiffness and the material density have to be specified. This element has 3 degrees of freedom (translation along the X and Y axis's.. Define Real Constants Preprocessor > Real Constants. Area Moment of Inertia IZZ: 8. Define Element Types Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete.01 m x 0. Mesh the frame Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh > Lines > click 'Pick All' Close this window to return to the Dynamic Analysis Tutorials. Poisson's Ratio PRXY: 0. 6. > Add.0001 ii. 8. .. In the 'Real Constants for BEAM3' window. enter the following geometric properties: i. 7. For this example we will specify 10 element divisions along the line. 9.3 To enter the density of the material.33e-10 iii. For this problem we will use the BEAM3 (Beam 2D elastic) element. Define Element Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic In the window that appears.068e11 ii. Total beam height HEIGHT: 0.. and rotation about the Z axis).01 m.01 This defines an element with a solid rectangular cross section 0. Define Mesh Size Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > ManualSize > Lines > All Lines...

I.7830 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.DENS.01 MP.1.2.33e-10.0.0 L.1.0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.EX.0.1. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.PRXY.068e11 MP. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density .1.2 ET.0 K.2.0001.8.1.Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1.0.BEAM3 R.33 MP.1.

0.5 DK.LIST SET. ..FRONT MXPAND.SUBSP.10.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.10 LMESH.5 EQSLV.LESIZE.1..ALL.5. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! List solutions ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.0 ! Element size ! Mesh line ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.2 MODOPT.

height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .EX.www.0001. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.PRXY.1.068e11 MP.0 L.html Modal Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7..33e-10.8.1.0.0.33 MP.ALL.1.1.mece.0.1.DENS.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.7830 LESIZE.I.0.ualberta.10 LMESH.1.2 ET.1.1.BEAM3 R.01 MP.0 K.. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to do a simple modal analysis of the cantilever beam shown below.1 ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.2.

LIST SET. .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Modal/Print.2 MODOPT.FIRST PLDISP ANMODE.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .SUBSP.mece.www.5 DK.5 EQSLV. 5 modes Frontal solver Expand 5 modes ! Constrain keypoint one ! Display first mode shape ! Animate mode shape Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1.0 ! List solutions ! ! ! ! Modal analysis Subspace.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5.FRONT MXPAND.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 SET.0.ualberta.10.

We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. These 3 methods are the Full . .100 Hz.Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.

0.This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.1.Y.EX.33e-10. NSUBST..100. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.10 LMESH.2.2.1.1.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.8.BEAM3 R.1.100 HARFRQ.0001.0.DENS.0 L.1. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.0.2.0.MERGE PRVAR.PRXY.068e11 MP.100.01 MP.3 DK.ALL FK..2 PLVAR.0 K.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area. UY_2 STORE. However.2.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.ALL.33 MP.1.2.FY. KBC.2 ET.7830 LESIZE.I.1.1.U.1.0.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line ! Print data ! Plot data .

ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print. These 3 methods are the Full .html Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.ualberta.www. The frequency of the load will be varied from 1 .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to explain the steps required to perform Harmonic analysis the cantilever beam shown below.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . We will now conduct a harmonic forced response test by applying a cyclic load (harmonic) at the end of the beam. ANSYS provides 3 methods for conducting a harmonic analysis.100 Hz.mece. Reduced and Modal Superposition methods. Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . The figure below depicts the beam with the application of the load.

1. this method makes use of the full stiffness and mass matrices and thus is the slower and costlier option.0001.. However.0.1.U.html This example demonstrates the Full method because it is simple and easy to use as compared to the other two methods.2.1 SOLVE FINISH /POST26 NSOL.MERGE PRVAR.ALL FK.01 MP. KBC.2.8. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /TITLE.0.3 DK. Dynamic Analysis /PREP7 K.EX.ALL.100.BEAM3 R.33 MP.0.2 ! Get y-deflection data ! Print data ! Plot data ! Harmonic analysis ! Constrain keypoint 1 ! Apply force ! Frequency range ! Number of frequency steps ! Stepped loads ! Enter keypoints ! Create line ! Element type ! Real Const: area.1.33e-10.PRXY.100 HARFRQ.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .1.1.0 L..100.FY.2.2 ET.ualberta.Y. UY_2 STORE.1.1.www.2.I.1.0.0 K.7830 LESIZE.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.height ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh line Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . NSUBST.2.1.0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Harmonic/Print.mece.2 PLVAR.DENS.10 LMESH.068e11 MP.

a static analysis may be used instead.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a timevarying load. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. for example. . For our case. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered.Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important.

. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior. All types of non-linearities are allowed. We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. q The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. In ANSYS. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. Therefore. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies.Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure. The smaller the time step. However. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. In other words. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. After the application of the load. The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response). the higher the mode frequency we will capture.

0 L.ALL.1.Dynamic. However. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand.EX.0.1. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.2.0 /PREP7 K.DENS.33e-10.2. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results.7830 LESIZE.1..1. .11.REDUC. if stresses and forces are of interest than.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end .UY.2. .BEAM3 R.ALL D. q We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.PRXY.1.FY.33 MP.1.. M. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis. DELTIM.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE..0001.0.0.068e11 MP.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response. we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.1. However.01 MP.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.10 LMESH.2. It is the quickest of the three methods.0.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .S. NSEL. the calculations are much quicker.ALL F.2 ET.1.0 K.8.q The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).1.All. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case).. TRANS TRNOPT.

'.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.0.0 !* LSSOLVE.ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.' NSOL.2.U. time !Please note. .2.Y. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved. UY_2 STORE.1 KBC. ! Sets time to 0. if you are using a later version of ANSYS. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.2.MERGE PLVAR.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.3. In this case.!At time equals 0.001s TIME.'rdsp'.2.'Dynamic'.0 FDELE.001 KBC.1.

ualberta. Copyright 2003 . For our case. Transient dynamic analysis is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under a time-varying load. where there is a sharp load change in a fraction of time. for example.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to show the steps involved to perform a simple transient analysis.http://www. The time frame for this type of analysis is such that inertia or damping effects of the structure are considered to be important. a static analysis may be used instead.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. we will impact the end of the beam with an impulse force and view the response at the location of impact. If inertia effects are negligible for the loading conditions being considered. Cases where such effects play a major role are under step or impulse loading conditions.html Transient Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.mece.University of Alberta .

The size of the time step is governed by the maximum mode frequency of the structure we wish to capture. we track the response of the beam at discrete time points for as long as we like (depending on what it is that we are looking for in the response).html Since an ideal impulse force excites all modes of a structure.http://www. a modal analysis of the structure should be initially performed to provide information about the structure's dynamic behavior.mece. It requires a good understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structure. we must resolve our step size such that we will have 20 discrete points per period of the highest mode frequency. Therefore. In other words. In ANSYS. The rule of thumb in ANSYS is time_step = 1 / 20f where f is the highest mode frequency we wish to capture. The smaller the time step. the response of the beam should contain all mode frequencies. Copyright 2003 . We have to apply a load over a discrete amount of time dt. After the application of the load. It should be noted that a transient analysis is more involved than a static or harmonic analysis.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.University of Alberta . the higher the mode frequency we will capture. However. we cannot produce an ideal impulse force numerically. transient dynamic analysis can be carried out using 3 methods.

7830 LESIZE.html The Full Method: This is the easiest method to use.0.REDUC.1.ALL. but it requires a good deal of understanding of the problem at hand. if stresses and forces are of interest than.mece.FY. Because of the reduced size of the matrices.11 ! Define Master DOFs ! Reselect all nodes ! Constrain left end ! Load right end Copyright 2003 ..1. However. M.1.2 ET. It is however very CPU intensive to go this route as full system matrices are used.All.1.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print.0. NSEL.PRXY. TRANS TRNOPT.ualberta.UY.8. The Mode Superposition Method: This method requires a preliminary modal analysis.2.11.ALL D.0001.-100 !* ! This sets the jobname to 'Dynamic' ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Connect keypoints with line ! Element type ! Real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Density ! Element size ! Mesh the line ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! reduced solution method ! Specifies the time step sizes ! select nodes 2 .33e-10.Dynamic.1.BEAM3 R.1.1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. DELTIM.ALL F.01 MP. this method handles only linear problems (such as our cantilever case). we would have to Expand the Reduced Solution.2.0. the calculations are much quicker.EX. Usually one need not go further than Reviewing the Reduced Results. We will use the Reduced Method for conducting our transient analysis.10 LMESH..0. However.2.. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /TITLE. The Reduced Method: This method reduces the system matrices to only consider the Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOFs).0 K.0 /PREP7 K. It is the quickest of the three methods. Dynamic Analysis /FILNAME.University of Alberta .1. ..2.0.http://www.33 MP. All types of non-linearities are allowed. as factored mode shapes are summed to calculate the structure's response.068e11 MP.S.DENS.1.001 !At time equals 0s NSEL.0 L. .

In this case.'.html !At time equals 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Transient/Print. if you are using a later version of ANSYS. UY_2 STORE.' NSOL.1. replace the !* found in the code !with LSWRITE and the problem should be solved.001 KBC.1 KBC.MERGE PLVAR.0 FDELE.http://www. ! Sets time to 0.ualberta.mece.1 FINISH /POST26 FILE.'Dynamic'.University of Alberta .3.001s TIME. !you will probably have to issue the LSWRITE command at the !end of each load step for the LSSOLVE command to function !properly.2.2. time !Please note.0. Copyright 2003 .ALL !* !At time equals 1s TIME.2.001 seconds ! Ramped load step ! Delete the load at the end ! Sets time to 1 second ! Ramped load step ! solve multiple load steps ! Enter time history ! Calls the dynamic file ! Calls data for UY deflection at node 2 ! Stores the data ! Plots vs.'rdsp'.2.0 !* LSSOLVE.U.Y.

The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure.0.0 blc4.1.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.0. then width and height .0 height=1. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.length. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. PLANE55 ! Thermal element only ! area .one corner.

TEMP.500 NSEL.height D.Y.1.X.TEMP.LOC.0 D.TEMP.100 NSEL.A.10 ESIZE.LOC.LOC.LOC.MP.length NSEL.ALL.ALL NSEL.KXX.A. ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! contour plot of temperatures .0.S.S.X.Y..length/20 AMESH.ALL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 NSEL.

length.10 ESIZE. The Simple Conduction Example is constrained as shown in the following figure. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 10 W/m*C and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.h.0 to solve a simple conduction problem.0.www..1.0 blc4.one corner.1.KXX.length/20 AMESH.0 height=1.ualberta. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.ALL ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area . Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.. ANSYS Command Listing /title. Simple Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.mece.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . then width and height Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . PLANE55 MP.

S.LOC.mece.length NSEL.ALL.ualberta.Y..h.500 NSEL.0.TEMP.ALL. ! contour plot of temperatures ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0 D.TEMP.X..X.LOC..100 NSEL.LOC.Y.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Conduction/Print.height D.S.TEMP.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.www.LOC.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .0 NSEL.ALL NSEL.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL. FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.A.A.

0 to solve simple thermal examples. PLANE55 MP.1.one corner. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.KXX.0. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.0 height=1.0 blc4. then width and height .10 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! area .length. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.1. The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/ Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0.Thermal .

ALL.X.0.ALL.ALL.0 NSEL.LOC.100 NSEL.S.CONV.CONV.MAT.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.ALL.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.500 NSEL.length SF.X.ALL NSEL. ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! contour plot of temperatures .0 D.LOC.10.S.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.LOC.TEMP.LOC..S.Y.length/20 AMESH.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.height D.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.TEMP.0 SF.1 ESIZE.Y.S.TEMP.1 TYPE.100 NSEL.

one corner.1.1 TYPE.0 to solve simple thermal examples. height ! mesh 2D areas ET.0.length.Mixed Boundary Example (Conduction/Convection/Insulated) Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Analysis of a simple conduction as well a mixed conduction/convection/insulation problem will be demonstrated.0 height=1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print. then width and height Copyright 2003 .0 blc4.ualberta.1. Simple Convection Example /PREP7 ! define geometry length=1.html Thermal .10 MAT.mece.1 ESIZE.length/20 ! Thermal element only ! 10 W/mC ! number of element sub-divisions/side ! area .KXX.University of Alberta . The Mixed Convection/Conduction/Insulated Boundary Conditions Example is constrained as shown in the following figure (Note that the section is assumed to be infinitely long): ANSYS Command Listing /title. PLANE55 MP.http://www.0.

500 NSEL.Y.University of Alberta .CONV.X.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.S.LOC.LOC.0.mece.LOC.0 NSEL.TEMP.X.TEMP.height D.Y.S.ALL.ALL ! convection BC's NSEL.CONV.100 NSEL..100 NSEL.ALL.0 D.10.ALL.ALL NSEL.0 SF.ALL ! Insulated BC's NSEL.http://www.ALL.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/cit/convection/print.S.0 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.S.LOC.TEMP. ! contour plot of temperatures ! bottom edge ! insulate edge ! right edge ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500C ! select nodes on three sides ! apply fixed temp of 100C ! STEADY-STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS Copyright 2003 .length SF.html AMESH.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.

040 kJ/kg*K. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/ m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry . ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem.Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial. Also. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.

8.100.20.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1.300 nropt.all kbc.500 PLNSOL.100 NSEL.0.S.0.Dens.20 neqit.1.kxx.0.height D.100 autots.Temp.LOC.length.0..5.ALL.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.1.500 ! area . height ! mesh 2D areas ET.Y.0 blc4.0 height=1.TEMP ANTIME.2.Y.TEMP.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT.2.ALL.05 AMESH.on outres.all.920 mp. PLANE55 MP.s.one corner.all.LOC.0 nsubst.5 ESIZE.full lumpm.c.. then width and height ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.ALL IC.length=1.TEMP.4 time.ALL NSEL.500 NSEL.040 mp.0 D.off lnsrch. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time .1.0.0.

Special thanks to Jesse Arnold for the analytical solution shown at the end of the tutorial.ualberta.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .mece.length.0.www. the density of the material is 920 kg/m^3 and the specific heat capacity (c) is 2.0 to solve a simple transient conduction problem. It is beneficial if the Thermal-Conduction tutorial is completed first to compare with this solution. Also.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print.0 blc4.0. The example is constrained as shown in the following figure.040 kJ/kg*K. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Simple Conduction Example /PREP7 ! Enter preprocessor ! define geometry length=1. height ! area . then width and height Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .html Transient Thermal Conduction Example Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. Thermal conductivity (k) of the material is 5 W/m*K and the block is assumed to be infinitely long.0 height=1.one corner.

ALL.100 NSEL.0.20 neqit.all.100 autots.all kbc.8.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/TransCond/Print. of iterations = 100 Auto time search on Line search on Output data for all substeps ! ! ! ! ! ! Thermal element only Density Specific heat capacity Thermal conductivity Element size Mesh area ! select nodes on top with y=height ! apply fixed temp of 500K ! apply fixed temp of 100K ! Initial Conditions: 100K Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .www.2.ALL NSEL.height D.05 AMESH.S.c.100 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 /CONT..500 PLNSOL.5.ALL.4 time.TEMP.all.0.2.TEMP ANTIME.1 ! fixed temp BC's NSEL.Y.1.on outres.Temp.0.0 D.920 mp.1.ALL IC..full lumpm.040 mp.500 ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Define a contour range Plot temperature contour Animate temp over time ! Transient analysis ! Time at end = 300 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson = full Lumped mass approx off 20 substeps Max no.1.ualberta.100.Y.off lnsrch.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.5 ESIZE.mece.20.kxx.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .300 nropt.500 NSEL.0 nsubst.s.Dens.LOC.LOC.1.html ! mesh 2D areas ET. PLANE55 MP.TEMP.1.0.

point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect.Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. . As a warning. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model. In this case.

plane2 keyopt.all finish /solu antype.45.y.uy.all.all nsel.1.50 d.5 rectng.1.-100 fk.12.1.all.prxy.s.all et.20.20.0 dl.fy.x.symm lsel.y.all fk.0.100 aadd.0..100 rectng.0 nsel.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.fy.200000 mp.0.1 mp.s.95. Axisymmetric Tube /prep7 /triad.s.off rectng.55 prnsol.1.loc.0.100 solve finish /post1 nsel.0.1.20.loc.15.ex.0 lsel.loc.comp ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes .2 amesh.3.s.3 esize.

.3 /replot ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle .1.nsel..1.2.27.10 /view.all /expand.axis.

ualberta.0 This tutorial is intended to outline the steps required to create an axisymmetric model.www. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. A 3/4 cross section view of the tube is shown below. point loads will create discontinuities in the your model near the point of application. In this case.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ... If you chose to use these types of loads in your own modelling. Point loads will be applied at the center of the top and bottom plate to make an analytical verification simple to calculate. we will only be concerned about the stress distribution far from the point of application. Modelling Using Axisymmetry Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.mece.. As a warning. be very careful and be sure to understand the theory of how the FEA package is appling the load and the assumption it is making. The model will be that of a closed tube made from steel.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print. so the discontinuities will have a negligable effect. Axisymmetric Tube Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .

1..s.all fk.mece.0.2.12.100 aadd.axis.3 /replot ! Turns off origin triad marker ! Create 3 overlapping rectangles ! Add the areas together ! ! ! ! Define element type Turns on axisymmetry Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh the area ! Static analysis ! Select the lines at x=0 ! Symmetry constraints ! Re-select all lines ! Node select at y=50 ! Constrain motion in y ! Re-select all nodes ! Apply point loads in center ! Select nodes from y=45 to y=55 ! List stresses on those nodes ! Re-select all nodes ! Expand the axisymmetric elements ! Change the viewing angle Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .loc.95.1.1.comp nsel.27.20..0 dl.15.55 prnsol.all.200000 mp.fy.0 nsel.0 lsel.x.s.s.all /expand.100 solve finish /post1 nsel. /prep7 /triad.loc.50 d.loc.plane2 keyopt..0.0.prxy.1 mp.2 amesh.0.all nsel..1.www.-100 fk.y.symm lsel.1.5 rectng.45.all finish /solu antype.10 /view.ex.3 esize.all.100 rectng..uy.0.fy.1.off rectng.all et.ualberta.3.y.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CIT/Axisymmetric/Print.1.20..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .s.20.

a wall thickness of 10.Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. ANSYS Command Listing .1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. This tutorial will introduce: q q q the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.7.

500 N.11.1e9. 400. 0. 0.2.13 E. 5 E. 0 N. 4 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity .1e9.10 R. 6 E. 1. 5 E.12. 9. 8 E.1. 0. 0. 0.1 MAT. 1. 0.10./title.1500 N.1000.40.1000 N. 3. 0.13. 9.1e9 R. 3 E. 3. 1.0. 0 N. 7. 0. 3 E. 0. 6. . 0.1.5. 400. 6 E.2.1000.3. 8 E. 0.-500 TYPE. 8 E. 6.3. 5.1000. Catapult /PREP7 ET.1 REAL. 8. 500 N.13. 5.1000 N.1.COMBIN14 R.PRXY.1000. 0 N. 4 E. 0. 0.EX. MP. 2.1 E.10.1000 N.1.12. 700. 2. . 0.PIPE16 ET. 0. 4 E. 0 N. 0. 0. 4.12. 0. 2. 500 N. 700.200000 MP.1000 N.33 N. 7.COMBIN7 ET.

0 NLGEOM.2 E.KP. 11 TYPE.Y ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.7.12.TYPE.NODE..12.FY.5.VERT7.8 E.3.3 E.2 REAL.. 11 E.2 *GET. 10.0 /PNUM.8.4.0.ALL.ELEM.7.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.4. 9.13 F.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.3 REAL. 2. 1.ON NSUBST.6 /PNUM.5 D.13 ! Load node 7 .U.

1.COMBIN7 ET.COMBIN14 R.10 ! Element type 1 ! Element type 2 ! Element type 3 ! Real constants 1 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .3.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .7.PIPE16 ET.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print.ualberta.html Application of Joints and Springs in ANSYS Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 5. This tutorial will introduce: the use of multiple elements in ANSYS elements COMBIN7 (Joints) and COMBIN14 (Springs) obtaining/storing scalar information and store them as parameters. Catapult /PREP7 ET. A 1000N vertical load will be applied to a catapult as shown in the figure below.1.1. The catapult is built from steel tubing with an outer diameter of 40 mm. The springs have a stiffness of 5 N/mm.www. ANSYS Command Listing /title. a wall thickness of 10.2. and a modulus of elasticity of 200GPa.40.mece.

8 E. 8 E.ON ! Real constants 2 ! Real constants 3 ! Young's modulus (Material 1) ! Poisson's ratio (Material 1) ! Node locations ! Turn on Element 1 ! Turn on Real constants 1 ! Turn on Material 1 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 2 ! Turn on Real constants 2 ! Element connectivity ! Turn on Element 3 ! Turn on Real constants 3 ! Element connectivity ! Number nodes ! Number elements ! Enter solution phase ! Static analysis ! Non-linear geometry on Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1e9 R.1000. 0.1 /REPLOT FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 9. 10.2 REAL.0 NLGEOM.1000. 4 TYPE.1 REAL. 0. 4. 9.1e9.5. 2. 0. 1.10. 3. 400.5.33 N.EX.200000 MP. 8 E. 0.13 E.1 E. 4 E. 2. 0 N. MP. 0 N. 5.1500 N.1000 N. 6 E. 7. 8.3. 2.3 E. 0.12. 6 E.1 MAT. 700. 500 N.-500 TYPE. 5 E. 0 N. 3 E. .PRXY.mece. 4 E.3 REAL. 700. 0. 0. 0. 0. 5.6 /PNUM.12.1000 N.ualberta.2 E.1e9.KP.1.10. 1. 0. 0. 500 N. 500 N. 1. 0. 6. 1. 0. .1. 7. 400.html R.11. 6. 9. 0.12.8. 0.1000. 0.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print. 11 TYPE. 0. 11 E. 3.0 /PNUM.www. 5 E.1000 N.13. 0 N.ELEM.2.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . 3 E. 0.13.1000. 8 E.0. 2.1000 N.

13 F.www.7.ualberta.ALL.13 ! Load node 7 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .FY.12.mece.U.2 *GET.12.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Joints/Print..7.NODE.3.Y ! 5 Load steps of equal size ! Constrain nodes 3.0.4.5 D.html NSUBST.4.VERT7.-1000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLDISP.

0 L.2 HPTCREATE..1. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam.1. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.0 K.BEAM3 R. deciding which variables to use as design. ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Mesh size ! Mesh line .200000 MP. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.EX.H. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.1. Design Optimization *set.0.W.W*H.RATI.2. However.20 K.H. height MP.1. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.LINE..0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS.(W*H**3)/12.1. ET. not '^').3 ESIZE. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.100 LMESH.1.I (note '**'.. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial.PRXY. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.1. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.0.20 *set.ALL FINISH /SOLU ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! Element type ! Real consts: area.1000.75..Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0.

001 MPa.X.SMAXJ.ETAB.1.txt as analysis file ! Height design variable.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL. Percent step size. ! Height state variable.0 FK. min 10 mm.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.Number of Iterations /AXLAB.FY.EVOLUME ETABLE.ITEM.0.FIRS OPFRST.NMISC.10. min 10 mm.DV.50.SMAX_I.3.001 mm.0. forward difference OPEXE PLVAROPT.SV.SORT. max 50 mm.200.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.MAX ETABLE.SMAX. *GET.ETAB.200 OPTYPE.. SSUM *GET..0.50.195..SMAXI.H.SORT.VOLUME.001 tolerance 0.SMAX_I.EVolume..0.2.0 DK.2. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.H.1.UX. Percent ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data . max 50 ! Width design variable.1.001 MPa OPVAR.30.txt.VOLU.-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE.W /AXLAB.txt ! Assign optimize.100.0.'txt'. tolerance 0.0 DK.DV.W.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.NMISC.UY. min 195 MPa.SMAX.MAX *SET.ANTYPE..SMAX_J.10.Volume.SMAX_J.0.'optimize'.OBJ.optimize.. *GET.001mm OPVAR.0 DK.SSUM.UY.001mm OPVAR.3 node ESORT.1.Y..1 node ESORT. max 200 ! Volume as object variable. tolerance 0.

3 ! Set an initial height of 20 mm ! Set an initial width of 20 mm ! Keypoint locations ! Create line ! Create hardpoint 75% from left side ! ! ! ! Element type Real consts: area.ualberta. However.PRXY. This will involve creating the geometry utilizing parameters for all the variables.0. Design Optimization *set.75. ANSYS Command Listing /prep7 /title.0.2 HPTCREATE. The maximum stress anywhere in the beam cannot exceed 200 MPa.RATI.0 K.H.EX. the width and height of the beam cannot be smaller than 10mm.I (note '**'.www.20 K..1.1.LINE. Design Optimization Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.1.1. deciding which variables to use as design. not '^').1.20 *set. state and objective variables and setting the correct tolerances for the problem to obtain an accurately converged solution in a minimal amount of time.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce a method of solving design optimization problems using ANSYS..200000 MP.2. A beam has a force of 1000N applied as shown below.W.. The use of hardpoints to apply forces/constraints in the middle of lines will also be covered in this tutorial. The purpose of this optimization problem is to minimize the weight of the beam without exceeding the allowable stress.0 L. It is necessary to find the cross sectional dimensions of the beam in order to minimize the weight of the beam. MP.mece.0...1.W*H. ET. The beam is to be made of steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.1..BEAM3 R.(W*H**3)/12.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .H.height Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1000..

3.3 ESORT. min 10 mm.optimize.NMISC. max 200 MPa.0.OBJ. tol Height state variable.1.FIRS OPFRST.0 DK. to Width design variable. min 195 MPa.SMAX.EVOLUME ETABLE..001 OPVAR. tolerance 200 mm^2 ! First-order analysis ! Max iteration.1 ESORT.1.DV.50.10.001 OPVAR. *GET..SMAX_J.0.0 DK.SMAX..0.DV.NMISC. max 50 mm.'txt'. max 50 mm.SMAX_I.2.C:\TEMP /OPT OPANL..University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .MAX *SET.001 OPVAR.10..SMAXI.0.ualberta.txt. min 10 mm.100 LMESH.ETAB.0 FK.SMAXI>SMAXJ LGWRITE.ETAB.VOLU. Percent forwar ! Run optimization ! Graph optimation data Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .H.X.ITEM.txt ! Assign optimize.www.0.200.Width and Height (mm) /REPLOT ! Mesh size ! Mesh line ! Static analysis ! Pin keypoint 1 ! Support keypoint 2 ! Force at hardpoint ! Volume of single element ! Sum all volumes ! Create parameter 'Volume' for volume of beam ! Create parameter 'SMaxI' for max stress at I nod ! Create parameter 'SMaxJ' for max stress at J nod ! Create parameter 'SMax' as max stress ! Save logfile to C:\Temp\optimize.SMAX_I.txt as analysis file ! ! ! ! Height design variable.SORT.FY.UY..H.1.SMAX_J.30.Volume.SSUM. Percent step size..'optimize'.50.SORT.'C:\Temp\' OPVAR.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Optimization/Print.VOLUME.0.UX.EVolume.195.0 DK..MAX ETABLE.SMAXJ. SSUM *GET.Number of Iterations /AXLAB. OPEXE PLVAROPT.. ESIZE.100.W..-2000 SOLVE FINISH /POST1 ETABLE. Volume as object variable.W /AXLAB.UY.SV.200 OPTYPE.mece. *GET.1.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.Y.

please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. then super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).5 MPa.Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1. v = 0. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. Apply remaining loads to the model.29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2. Apply loads to the super-element 2. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems. A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass). The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. For this example. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. however. ANSYS Command Listing . A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS. substructuring will be used for the wood block. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. 3.

amesh.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.FX.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.PLANE42 TYPE.2.0.41 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 ! Second material property set for silicon .40.S.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.0 F.Y.LOC.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.db ! GEN.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.1.2.ALL NSEL..1.2.2 NSEL.X.100.EXT M.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.1. START /FILNAME.PRXY.10.5 MP.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.0.140 NSEL.S.ALL NSEL.0.LOC.PRXY.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.ALL.R.100.ALL.EX. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP.2 MP.1.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE.5 NSEL.0.0.GEN.! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. 2.EX.SUBST SEOPT.

GEN2.ALL. ! Expansion pass info SOLVE ! Initiate expansion pass solution.GEN2 SE..0 NSEL.1 SFE.S.SELV.1 ! Superelement ET.MaxNode.S.0.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.USE ! Superelement name to be expanded EXPSOL.ALL.RST FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.SUM.1.STATIC NSEL.0.SUM..LOC.ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.1 *GET.1.Y..Y.2 amesh.1 ESEL.MaxNode.1.1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.NODE.1.MATRIX50 TYPE. mat. superelement solution written to GEN.10.! Meshing AESIZE.LOC.1.ON.0 D.ALL ESEL.ALL NSEL.U.2 real.GEN2 NSEL.YES ! Activate expansion pass SEEXP.ALL.MAX SETRAN.NUM.S.U.40 CPINTF.GEN RESUME ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area ! ! ! ! ! ! ! MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database /SOLU ! Enter SOLUTION EXPASS.TYPE..1 Full ! Plot deflection contour .GEN.

substructuring will be used for the wood block. Expansion Pass Expand the reduced solution to obtain the solution at all DOFs for the super-element. A force will be applied to the structure as shown in the following figure. then Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . please note that this model is not one which requires the use of substructuring. The use of substructuring in ANSYS is a three stage process: 1.41) which is rigidly attached to the ground. however.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . A simple example will be demonstrated to explain the steps required. Apply remaining loads to the model. For this example. Select the degrees of freedom to save (master DOFs) and to discard (slave DOFs). 3. Apply loads to the super-element 2.. Note that a this method is a bottom-up substructuring (each super-element is created separately and then assembled in the Use Pass).29) connected to a block of silicone (E = 2.www. The example involves a block of wood (E =10 GPa v =0.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin. Substructuring Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This reduces the required computation time and also allows the solution of very large problems.mece. Top-down substructuring is also possible in ANSYS (the entire model is built. The solution will consist of the reduced solution tor the super-element and the complete solution for the non-superelements. Use Pass Create the full model including the super-element created in the generation pass. Substructuring is a procedure that condenses a group of finite elements into one super-element. v = 0..5 MPa. Generation Pass Generate the super-element by condensing several elements together.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to show the how to use substructuring in ANSYS.

ALL NSEL.S.2 NSEL.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.FX.ALL.www.1. This method is suitable for smaller models and has the advantage that the results for multiple super-elements can be assembled in postprocessing.5 NSEL.140 NSEL.0.40 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties ET.ualberta.Y. START /FILNAME.1.SUB created ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Change jobname to use ! Create Geometry of non superelements blc4.GEN.100 ! Creates rectangle ! Define material properties of wood section ET.LOC.PLANE42 ! Element type MP.ALL NSEL.29 ! Poisson's ratio ! meshing AESIZE..db ! GEN.PRXY.100.2.40.2 ! Element type ! Turns on element type 2 Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .0.S.ALL.LOC.R.EXT M.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .X.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH ! USE PASS FINISH /CLEAR /FILNAME.USE /PREP7 ! SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATION PASS ! Name = GEN and no printed output ! Select all external nodes ! Make all selected nodes master DOF's ! Reselect all nodes ! Select the corner node ! Load it ! Reselect all nodes ! Saves file to jobname.1.GEN ! Change jobname /PREP7 ! Create Geometry blc4.0.. ANSYS Command Listing ! Bottom-Up Substructuring ! GENERATION PASS .0 F. super-element are created by selecting the appropriate elements).1 FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.100.EX.10.Build the superelement portion of the model FINISH /CLEAR.0.1. amesh.mece.SUBST SEOPT. 10000 ! Young's Modulus MP..PLANE42 TYPE.

1 FINISH ! EXPANSION PASS /CLEAR /FILNAME.0.1.MATRIX50 TYPE.1.USE EXPSOL. MP.ALL.NUM.1 SFE.2 amesh.GEN2 SE. mat.5 MP.MAX SETRAN..GEN2 NSEL.1.LOC.0 NSEL.1 ! Superelement ET.S.40 CPINTF.SUM.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .GEN RESUME /SOLU EXPASS.1 *GET.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Substructuring/Prin.NODE.1.U.ualberta. 2. SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL...mece.41 ! Meshing AESIZE..1.1 ESEL.MaxNode.SELV.2.U.0.MaxNode.ALL..1 ! Second material property set for silicon ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Turns on Material 2 Turns on real constants 2 Mesh the area MATRIX50 is the superelement type Turns on element type 1 determine the max number of nodes node number offset Read in superelement matrix Select nodes at interface Couple node pairs at interface ! Static analysis ! Select all nodes at y = 0 ! Constrain those nodes ! Reselect all nodes ! Element select ! Apply super-element load vector ! Reselect all elements ! Enter post processing ! Plot deflection contour ! Clear database ! Change jobname back to generation pass jobname ! Restore generation pass database ! ! ! ! ! Enter SOLUTION Activate expansion pass Superelement name to be expanded Expansion pass info Initiate expansion pass solution.2 real.Y.www.LOC.EX.ALL ESEL.TYPE.GEN2.SUM.10.2.0.S.ON. Full superelement sol ! Plot deflection contour Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .ALL FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.YES SEEXP.GEN.PRXY.S.ALL NSEL.0 D.ALL SAVE SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.ALL.STATIC NSEL..Y.

It is important to note. with no internal stresses.. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. .0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. the geometry is kept constant. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. and using it with any following coupled environments. the link will attemp to expand. For a listing. The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. For convenience. However.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. and write them to memory. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. A steel link. Loads will not be applied to the link. Although the geometry must remain constant. However. the analyses are coupled. the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. For instance. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K). A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments." Thus. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled . a thermal conductivity of 60.Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model.. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such. where the thermal effects will be applied. the element types can change. For our case. stress is created in the link.

.CompStress.write.alpx.60. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.1.analysis.temp.1 ! ! ! ! ! Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress .UX.thermal physics.0 solve finish /post1 etable.temp.1 lmesh.kxx. mp.1.0 physics.273 dk.2 et.clear finish /solu antype.link33 r.2.. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.0.1.struct physics..4e-4.1.1.2.0 k.clear ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment etchg.1..LS.prxy.1.all.struct ldread.0.0 l.0.tts mp.3 mp..rth environment tref.348 solve finish /solu physics.1.0 dk.ex.read.all physics.1.read.200e9 mp.12e-6 physics.1.write.5 esize.1.thermal dk.

CompStress ! Print the element table .PRETAB.

. the analyses are coupled.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. a thermal conductivity of 60. For our case. with no internal stresses. and using it with any following coupled environments.mece. A steel link.ualberta. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link.the solutions and procedures associated with a particular engineering discipline [will be referred to as] a physics analysis. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75 C (348 K).www. "A sequentially coupled physics analysis is the combination of analyses from different engineering disciplines which interact to solve a global engineering problem. stress is created in the link. where the thermal effects will be applied.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline a simple coupled thermal/structural analysis. When the input of one physics analysis depends on the results from another analysis. the link will attemp to expand. However.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . For convenience. Preprocessing: Defining the Problem According to Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide. is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0 C (273 K). A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis.." Thus. However. the geometry is kept constant.html Coupled Structural/Thermal Analysis Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. each different physics environment must be constructed seperately so they can be used to determine the coupled physics solution. since it is pinned this cannot occur and as such.5 W/m*K and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6 /K. it is important to note that a single set of nodes will exist for the entire model. Loads will not be applied to the link. . only a temperature change of 75 degrees Celsius. By creating the geometry in the first physical environment. we will create the geometry in the Thermal Environment.

0..12e-6 physics.mece..ualberta.write.2 et. the element types can change.clear finish /solu antype.0 k.4e-4.. and write them to memory. mp.clear etchg.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print. The process requires the user to create all the necessary environments.273 dk.2.1.read.all physics.link33 r.kxx.0.1.tts mp.1.0 dk. It is important to note.thermal physics.ex. which are basically the preprocessing portions for each environment.5 esize.1.0 l.0 physics.2.1 lmesh.1.3 mp. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.temp.0. see Chapter 2 of the ANSYS Coupled-Field Guide located in the help file. however that only certain combinations of elements can be used for a coupled physics analysis.prxy. For instance.html Although the geometry must remain constant.UX.60.1.0 ! Re-enter the solution phase ! Read in the struct environment ! Apply loads derived from thermal environment ! Apply structural constraints ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints ! Line connecting keypoints ! Element type ! Area ! Thermal conductivity ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Element size Mesh line Write physics environment as thermal Clear the environment Element type Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Expansion coefficient Write physics environment as struct ! ! ! ! Enter the solution phase Static analysis Read in the thermal environment Apply a temp of 75 to keypoint 1 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .rth tref. Then in the solution phase they can be combined to solve the coupled analysis.temp.1.1.struct ldread.all.www. thermal elements are required for a thermal analysis while structural elements are required to deterime the stress in the link. Thermal Stress Example /prep7 k.348 solve finish /solu physics.1..1.alpx. For a listing.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .200e9 mp.write.thermal dk..struct physics.1.read.

1 PRETAB.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .LS.CompStress ! Enter postprocessor ! Create an element table for link stress ! Print the element table Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/Coupled/Print.www.CompStress.html solve finish /post1 etable.ualberta.

computational time can be kept to a minimum. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. .0. Thus. rather than increasing mesh density. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. By keeping mesh density rather coarse.

2.1.100.100 k.200000 mp.loc.ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.2.x.1.x.100 k.48 k.all.0 nsubst.100.45.9.10.20.12.6.45.3.100 ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .52 k.0 dl.loc.1.0.3.10.s.0 k.20 outres.3 r.9.5.3 esize.8.100 k. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 .4.3.1.7..80.on /prep7 k.48 k.55.20. P-Method Meshing /pmeth.11.80.5.all lsel.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.8.1.11.0 a.52 k.5 amesh.all.100.1 lsel.0.all time.100 k.12 et.plane145 keyopt.all finish /solu antype.all lsel.1.0 k.6.prxy.ex.1.0 k.10 mp.7.4.0.20.55.s.

all solve finish /post1 set.last plesol.-100 lsel.sfl.s.all.eqv ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress .pres.

on ! Initialize p-method in ANSYS Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.ualberta. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . P-Method Meshing /pmeth.0.mece. rather than increasing mesh density. computational time can be kept to a minimum.www. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. Thus. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.

-100 lsel.100.1.4.all.all finish /solu antype.2.loc.0 a.eqv ! Enter preprocessor ! Keypoints defining geometry ! Create area from keypoints ! ! ! ! ! Element type Plane stress with thickness option Real constant .s.6.loc.x..0 dl.plane145 keyopt.3 r.0.52 k.1.9.7. all DOF's ! Re-select all lines ! Line select at x=100 ! Apply a pressure ! Re-select all lines ! Enter postprocessor ! Select last set of data ! Plot the equivalent stress Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .80.1.100 k.all lsel.20 outres.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/PElement/Print.1.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .20.12.100.0.all.80.5.55.www.100 k.prxy.8.3 esize.html /prep7 k.x.3.s.9.s.last plesol.1.100.all solve finish /post1 set.48 k.10 mp.6.45.mece.3.20.7.0 k.ualberta.1.10.8.0.2.12 et.ex.all time.10.all lsel.thickness Young's modulus Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! ! ! ! Static analysis Number of substeps Output data for all substeps Time at end = 1 ! Line select at x=0 ! Constrain the line.55.45.all.0 k.52 k.0 nsubst.100 sfl.11.5.100 k.11.1.48 k.3.200000 mp.1 lsel.100 k.4.0 k.20.5 amesh.pres.

computational time can be kept to a minimum. the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.3.2. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.0.1.0 k.03. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.03 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor . By keeping mesh density rather coarse. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. Thus. rather than increasing mesh density. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.0. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.0 k.0.0.03.

268 nsel.temp.2.0.melty. 20 Max no.4 time.Dens.4. of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.s.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.2040 mp.off lnsrch. not ramped ! Initial conditions.03 a.all.60 nropt.all finish ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson .kxx.273 finish /solu antype.conv.all /gst.melty.0005 amesh.all.20 neqit.0 nsubst.368 nsel.etab.rest ekill.k.10.0.4 ! Connect the keypoints to form area ! mesh 2D areas ET.Plane55 MP.all kbc.last etable.all esel..all.1.1.100 autots.1.s. esel.c.1.ext sf.off solve finish /post1 set.all finish /solu antype.1 IC.920 mp.8 esize.full lumpm.1. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor ! ! ! ! Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements .0.3.on outres.temp.1.

last esel.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ./post1 set.live plnsol.s.

The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.0.html Using P-Elements Introduction This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 k.4.0 k.2.mece.1.1. Convection Example /prep7 ! define geometry k.ualberta. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution.0.0.03. By keeping mesh density rather coarse. computational time can be kept to a minimum.0.0.03 a. Thus.3.03.4 ! Define keypoints ! Enter the preprocessor ! Connect the keypoints to form area Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta . the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below.0. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.3.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .www. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements.0. rather than increasing mesh density.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.03 k.

268 nsel.0005 amesh.all kbc..1.c.melty.all /gst.8 esize.ext sf.920 mp.0.last esel.s.temp.all.kxx.100 autots.on outres. 20 Max no.mece.html ! mesh 2D areas ET.rest ekill.www.Plane55 MP.1.full lumpm.all finish /solu antype.10. temp = 268 ! ! ! ! Node select all exterior nodes Apply a convection BC Reselect all nodes Turn off graphical convergence monitor Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .ualberta.Dens.etab.20 neqit.conv.60 nropt.368 nsel.ca/tutorials/ansys/AT/BirthDeath/print.s.1.all.1.2040 mp.0 nsubst.1 IC.temp ! ! ! ! Re-enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Select all live elements Plot the temp contour of the live elements ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Enter postprocessor Read in last subset of data Create an element table Select all elements from table above 273 Re-enter solution phase Restart analysis Kill all selected elements Re-select all elements ! Element type ! Define density ! Define specific heat ! Define heat transfer coefficient ! Mesh size ! Mesh area ! Enter solution phase ! Transient analysis ! Time at end of analysis ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Newton Raphson . of iterations Auto time search off Line search on Output data for all substeps Load applied in steps.off solve finish /post1 set.off lnsrch.live plnsol.all finish /post1 set.melty.4 time.temp. not ramped ! Initial conditions.full Lumped mass off Number of substeps.273 finish /solu antype. esel.all.s.1.all esel.last etable.

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100

H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2 ! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0

select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source'

relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100

! ! ! ! !

Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

Contact Elements

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of the tutorial is to describe how to utilize contact elements to simulate how two beams react when they come into contact with each other. The beams, as shown below, are 100mm long, 10mm x 10mm in cross-section, have a Young's modulus of 200 GPa, and are rigidly constrained at the outer ends. A 10KN load is applied to the center of the upper, causing it to bend and contact the lower.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /title,Contact Elements /prep7 ! Top Beam X1=0 Y1=15 L1=100 H1=10 ! Bottom Beam X2=50 Y2=0 L2=100 H2=10 ! Create Geometry blc4,X1,Y1,L1,H1 blc4,X2,Y2,L2,H2

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

! define element type ET,1,plane42 keyopt,1,3,3 type,1 R, 1, 10 ! ! ! ! element type 1 plane stress w/thick activate element type 1 thickness 0.01

! define material properties MP,EX, 1, 200e3 MP,NUXY,1, 0.3 ! meshing esize,2 amesh,all ET,2,contac48 keyo,2,7,1 r,2,200000,,,,10 TYPE,2 real,2 ! set meshing size ! mesh area 1 ! defines second element type - 2D contact elements ! contact time/load prediction ! activates or sets this element type ! activates or sets the real constants ! Young's modulus ! Poisson's ratio

! define contact nodes and elements ! first the contact nodes asel,s,area,,1 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,Y1 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,source,node ! ! then the target nodes allsel ! asel,s,area,,2 ! nsla,s,1 ! nsel,r,loc,y,H2 ! nsel,r,loc,x,X2,(X2+L2/2)! cm,target,node ! gcgen,source,target,3 finish /solut antype,0 time,1 autots,on nsubst,100,1000,20 outres,all,all neqit,100 ! ! ! ! ! Sets time at end of run to 1 sec Auto time-stepping on Number of sub-steps Write all output Max number of iterations select top area select the nodes within this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this group of nodes 'source' relect everything select bottom area select nodes in this area select bottom layer of nodes in this area select the nodes above the other beam call this selection 'target'

! generate contact elements between defined nodes

nsel,s,loc,x,X1 ! Constrain top beam nsel,r,loc,y,Y1,(Y1+H1) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(X2+L2) ! Constrain bottom beam

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CAT/contact/print.html

nsel,r,loc,y,Y2,(Y2+H2) d,all,all nsel,all nsel,s,loc,x,(L1/2+X1) nsel,r,loc,y,(Y1+H1) f,all,fy,-10000 nsel,all solve finish /post1 /dscale,1,1 /CVAL,1,20,40,80,160,320,640,1280,2560 PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1 ! Apply load

Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta

ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20

*ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1 OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo

KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

**ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL)
**

Introduction

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to familiarize the user with the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). This will be a very basic introduction to APDL, covering things like variable definition and simple looping. Users familiar with basic programming languages will probably find the APDL very easy to use. To learn more about APDL and see more complex examples, please see the APDL Programmer's Guide located in the help file. This tutorial will cover the preprocessing stage of constructing a truss geometry. Variables including length, height and number of divisions of the truss will be requested and the APDL code will construct the geometry.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

finish /clear /prep7 *ask,LENGTH,How long is the truss,100 *ask,HEIGHT,How tall is the truss,20 *ask,DIVISION,How many cross supports even number,2 DELTA_L NUM_K = COUNT = X_COORD = (LENGTH/(DIVISION/2))/2 DIVISION + 1 -1 = 0

*do,i,1,NUM_K,1 COUNT = COUNT + 1

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/cl/cat/apdl/apdl.html

OSCILATE = (-1)**COUNT X_COORD = X_COORD + DELTA_L *if,OSCILATE,GT,0,THEN k,i,X_COORD,0 *else k,i,X_COORD,HEIGHT *endif *enddo KEYP = 0 *do,j,1,DIVISION,1 KEYP = KEYP + 1 L,KEYP,(KEYP+1) *if,KEYP,LE,(DIVISION-1),THEN L,KEYP,(KEYP+2) *endif *enddo et,1,link1 r,1,100 mp,ex,1,200000 mp,prxy,1,0.3 esize,,1 lmesh,all finish

Copyright 2003 - University of Alberta

Viewing X-Sectional Results

Introduction

This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation, Stress, etc.) of the following example.

**ANSYS Command Listing
**

FINISH /CLEAR /Title, Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4,0,0,Width,Height,Length /ANGLE, 1 ,60.000000,YS,1 /REPLOT,FAST ET,1,SOLID45 MP,EX,1,200000 MP,PRXY,1,0.3 esize,20 vmesh,all FINISH ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume

0.1 /TYPE.Length KSEL.0.0.All.1 WPOFFS.1 /TYPE.U.1.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.All.5 PLNSOL.Width FK.43.X.8 WPCSYS.R.Height KSEL.1.LOC.1/16*Length /CPLANE.0.90 /CPLANE.05.S.2 ! Animate the slices .0.1.EQV.0.S.LOC.S.Z.0.0 ASEL.Y.0 ASEL.-1./SOLU ANTYPE.-2500 KSEL.ALL KSEL.7.SUM.0 WPOFFS.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.0.LOC.14.LOC.0.R.ALL.5.0 DA.0.0.Z.Width/2.0 WPROTA.1.FY.

www.Length /ANGLE.1 /REPLOT.3 esize.0.1.all ! Creates a rectangle ! Rotates the display ! Fast redisplay ! Element type ! Young's Modulus ! Poisson's ratio ! Element size ! Mesh the volume Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta . etc.Width.Height. ANSYS Command Listing FINISH /CLEAR /Title.60.SOLID45 MP.ualberta.0.000000. Cross-Sectional Results of a Simple Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ! All dims in mm Width = 60 Height = 40 Length = 400 BLC4.1.20 vmesh.200000 MP. 1 .0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .EX.html Viewing X-Sectional Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to view cross sectional results (Deformation.mece.PRXY.) of the following example.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.1.FAST ET. Stress.YS.

All.-1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/Slice/Print.8 WPCSYS.LOC.43.1.0.0.0.All.5.R.0 ASEL.EQV.S.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .14.0.5 PLNSOL.-2500 KSEL.SUM.ALL SOLVE FINISH /POST1 PLNSOL.0 ASEL.1 /TYPE.1/16*Length /CPLANE.1.0.ualberta.05.FY.LOC.LOC.0.Width FK.Width/2.1 WPOFFS.0.Length KSEL.Height KSEL.Y.X.0.U.ALL KSEL.html FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE.2 ! Animate the slices Copyright © 2001 University of Alberta .1 /TYPE.1 ! Enter solution mode ! ! ! ! Static analysis Area select at z=0 Constrain the area Reselect all areas ! Select certain keypoint ! Force on keypoint ! Reselect all keypoints ! Solve ! Enter post processor ! ! ! ! ! Plot deflection Offset the working plane for cross-section view Rotate working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP QSLICE display ! Deflines working plane location ! ! ! ! Offset the working plane Cutting plane defined to use the WP Use the capped hidden display Plot equivalent stress !Animation ANCUT.Z.0 DA.0.www.0 WPOFFS.Z.1.7.S.R.0.1.ALL.0 WPROTA.S.90 /CPLANE.mece.LOC.

0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.10 cyl4. a plot of the stress along that path can be made.50.10 cyl4.50. For example.100. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.1. distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate.0.100 cyl4. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform. In this tutorial. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.0.50. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used.10 asba. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.150.50.200.all .

prxy..loc.AVG nsel.1.200000 mp.y.s.all nsel.s.bot nsel.1.s.0 dl.eqv.S.SEQV..NODE ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes ..all..1.ex.200.all PLPAGM.2.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.1.5 amesh.top /POST1 PLNSOL.et.50 ppath.1.1.0.3 R.1..all.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.eqv.1000 ppath.off /noerase /window..2.100 SFL.loc.S.0..1 /window.cutline.plane2.PRES.2.50 path.3 esize.y.y.200.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.loc.2.50 PDEF.10 mp.

200.0. Defining Paths /PREP7 ! create geometry BLC4.. one may want to determine the effects of stress concentrators along a certain path. In this tutorial. For example. The plate is constrained in the y-direction at the bottom and a uniform.ualberta.mece.100 Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes..0.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to create and use 'paths' to provide extra detail during post processing.www. Three holes are drilled through the vertical centerline of the plate.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials . distributed load is pulling on the top of the plate. Rather than plotting the entire contour plot. a plot of the stress along that path can be made. a steel plate measuring 100 mm X 200 mm X 10 mm will be used. Advanced X-Sectional Results: Using Paths to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.

s.2.10 asba.eqv.1.1.10 mp..50.3 esize.-2000/10 allsel solve finish ! plot results /window.ualberta.2.mece.50.3 R. cyl4.200000 mp.100.0 dl.150.all et..SEQV.s.www.PRES.50.prxy.top /POST1 PLNSOL.1.eqv.0.all...off /noerase /window.all finish /solu ! apply constraints lsel.NODE ! select line for contraint application ! constrain all DOF's on this face ! ! ! ! Plane element thickness of plane Young's Modulus Poisson's ratio ! mesh size ! area mesh ! restore entire selection ! apply a pressure load on a line ! solve resulting system of equations ! define a window (top half of screen) ! plot stress in xx direction (deformed and undeformed edge) ! ! ! ! ! define define choose define define a window (bottom half of screen) nodes to define path nodes half way through structure a path labeled cutline endpoint nodes on path ! calculate equivalent stress on path ! show graph on plot with nodes Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .1 /window.cutline.all PLPAGM.1.10 cyl4.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/AdvancedX-SecRes.AVG nsel.50.S.100 SFL..ex.200.0.plane2.1.y.loc.2..5 amesh.2.10 cyl4.50 ppath.all.s..1000 ppath.y.200.UY allsel ! apply loads allsel lsel.1.loc.y.50 path.all nsel.1.1.bot nsel.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .loc..S..50 PDEF.

3 k.1.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry . finer resolution can be achieved.0 k.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.0. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.I.0 l.1.1.Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.prxy.1.elementsize lmesh. Length of the following beam using tables.0.ex. rather than using a contour plot. By plotting this data on a curve.2. a special type of array. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other.2 esize.2400.40 mp.length.1.all finish /solu ! Mesh size ! Mesh ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.beam3 r.1. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.320e3.200000 mp. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.

1 For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.TABLE. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels .2.graph(1.all.1).0 400 *vget.u.fy.y. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.1).1).graph(rows.0 *set.graph(2.2.all.node.graph(2.graph(1.node.graph(rows.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.x.antype.1.x *vget.2).loc.2.node.all fk.loc. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.y *set.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note.graph.x *vget.2) /axlab.node.2.2).rows.2).2) which is for UY @ x = ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly *vget.graph(1.u.Vertical Deflection /replot ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.1).Length /axlab.y *vplot.static dk.graph(1.

a special type of array.0 l.2.200000 mp. ANSYS Command Listing finish /clear /title.ualberta.www.ex. Data Plotting: Using Tables to Post Process Results Introduction This tutorial was created using ANSYS 7.320e3.h.I. It will be rigidly constrained at one end and a -2500 N load will be applied to the other..prxy. This tutorial will use a steel beam 400 mm long.0.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials .40 mp. rather than using a contour plot.1.2 esize.3 k.2400.0 The purpose of this tutorial is to outline the steps required to plot Vertical Deflection vs.1. finer resolution can be achieved.beam3 r.1.Height Youngs Modulus Poisson's Ratio ! Geometry Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .. with a 40 mm X 60 mm cross section as shown above.1.elementsize ! Mesh size ! ! ! ! Beam3 element Area.1.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.length.0 k. By plotting this data on a curve.mece.0.1. Length of the following beam using tables. Use of Tables for Data Plots /prep7 elementsize = 20 length = 400 et.

graph(1.x.graph(rows.node.node.u.graph(1. but at the end ! of the table ! Plot the data in the table ! Change the axis labels Copyright © 2003 University of Alberta .mece.u.2.node. there are 21 nodes in the mesh.2).graph(1.2) /axlab.x *vget.0 *set.1).2.y *set.1).h.1) which is for x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Delete data in (2.loc. ! the table must have (#nodes + 1) rows rows = ((length/elementsize + 1) + 1) *DIM.all.x *vget.www.2.ca/tutorials/ansys/CL/CPP/DataPlotting/Print.2).fy.2).1 *vget.all finish /solu antype.graph(1.all fk.y.1.graph.1).2) which is for UY @ x = 400 ! otherwise graph is not plotted properly ! Re-enter the data for x = 400.graph(rows.y *vplot.TABLE.0 *vget.rows.University of Alberta ANSYS Tutorials ..Length /axlab.graph(2..node.Vertical Deflection /replot For the procedure below ! Creat a table called "graph" ! 22 rows x 2 columns x 1 plane ! Put node locations in the x direction ! in the first column for all nodes ! Put node deflections in the y direction ! in the second column ! Delete data in (2.-2500 solve finish /post1 ! Mesh ! Static analysis ! Constrain one end fully ! Apply load to other end ! Note. lmesh.2.1).static dk.loc.all.ualberta.graph(2.

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