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vlwikd ;f onf wlnv D wG v f yfaom *kPo f u

d m© jzifh
vnf;aumif;? wlnv D w G vf yfaom tcGit hf a&;
rsm;jzifvh nf;aumif; arG;zGm;vmolrsm; jzpfonf/
xkod wl ühdk qifjcifww Hk &m;ESihf aumif;qk;d cGjJ cm;
odjrifpdwfwkdh ½SdMuí tcsif;csif; nDtpfukd
armifESrpdwf"mwfjzifU qufqHusifUokH;oifU\/

(tjynfjynfqdkif&m
vlYtcGifhta&;aMujimpmwrf;
tykd'f - 1)

v uFm w r ef r *¾ Z if ; 47
oD&v d uFmEdik if o H nf Ak'b ¨ momEdik if wH pfck jzpf jzpfonf/ ]]rdro d nfom rdrb d 0\ yJu h idk qf &m}}[laom
onft h jyif Ak'b ¨ momudk avhvmvdo k nfh ynm½Siw f Ydk jrwfA'k \ ¨ tqk;H trukMd unfv h Qif Ak'b ¨ momonf vlom;
pdwf0ifpm;aomEdkifiHwpfckjzpfonfukdvnf; awGU&\/ tm;vk;H \ *kPo f ud m© tm;jzifw h nl rD ?I tcGit hf a&;tm;
t*Fvyd b f mompum;uk½d ;Hk ok;H bmomwpfct k jzpf tok;H jzifwh n l rD u I kd todtrSwjf yK vufcaH Mumif; tvGex f if
jyKaeojzifh Ak'¨bmompmayrsm;ukdvnf; t*Fvdyf ½Sm;vS\/ jrwfAk'¨onf 'DCedum,f? orÜom'eD,
bmomjzifh oifMum;ay;Ekid af om wuúov dk rf sm;pGmvnf; okwv f m (3?93) atmufygpum;vk;H wkjYd zifh þoabm
½S\d / jrefrm? xkid ;f ? uk&d ;D ,m;? w½kw?f *syef? b*Fvm; w&m;ukd trTr;f wifawmfrcl \ hJ / (1) twåum& = uk, d f
a'h½fS paom Edik if rH sm;rS vma&mufynmoif,Ml uonfh wkid vf yk af qmifr?I (2)yk&o d um&=vlom;\vkyaf qmifr?I
Edik if jH cm;om;ausmif;om;rsm;udv k nf; tjrJvv dk dk awGU (3)yk&o d xmr=vlUcGet f m;? (4)yk&o d 0D&, d = vlU0D&, d ?
ae&\/ þEdik if ½H dS wuúov dk tf oD;oD;wGif M.A wef; (5)yk&o d y&uúr=vlUvkv YH ? (6) yk&o d "&,S = vlUwm0ef/
ukd wufa&mufoif,Ml uonfh ausmif;om;rsm;onf xkjYd yif ]]vlwidk ;f bk&m;jzpfEikd o f nf}} [laom
Xmetvku d f pmwrf;i,frsm; wifoiG ;f &\/ pma&;ol Oya'ojzifh vlom;tm;vk;H twGuf wef;wlnrD Q oabm
vnf; M.A wef;wufa&mufpOfu wwforQ t*Fvyd f w&m;tjrifudk xyfavmif;tm;jznfah y;vku d af vonf/
pmuav;jzifh pmwrf;av;wpfapmif a&;Edik af tmif MudK; "r®y'wGif ]rdro d nfom rdr\ d uk, d u f ,G &f m (twåm[d
pm;cJ&h \/ xkBd udK;pm;rI\&v'ftjzpf ]]Social Aspects twåaem emaxm)}[k qkx d m;ojzifh vlom;tm;vk;H
of Theravada Buddhism}}[laom acgif;pOfjzifh pmwrf; onf vGwv f yfrt I jynfjh zifh arG;zGm;vmonfrmS tao
wpfapmifwifoiG ;f Edik cf o hJ nf/ xkpd mwrf;a&;pOfu ½Sm tcsmyifjzpfawmh\/ xkjYd yif vlwidk ;f bk&m;jzpfEikd o f nf
azGpkaqmif;xm;aom tcsdKU tcsuftvufrsm;onf [k qkx d m;jyefojzifh Ak'b ¨ momwGif *kPo f u d m© t&?
pmwrf;ESiw hf u
dk ½f ukd rf oufqidk o f jzifh xnfo h iG ;f razmfjy tcGit hf a&;t& rwlnw D m b,frmS ½Sad wmhrnfenf;/
cJ?h ,cktcsdex f d ukeMf urf;rSwpf t k jzpfjzifoh m ½daS ecJ\ h / vlom;tm;vk;H twGuf wlnv D w G vf yfonfh þuJo h aYdk om
þaqmifyg;\&nf½, G cf sufonf rdr\ d ukeMf urf;rSwpf k wajy;nDtcGit hf a&;ukd tjcm;rnfonfh bmomw&m;
tcsdKUudt k ajccHí txufwiG f azmfjyxm;onfh tjynf wGifrQ rawGUEdkifay/ Ak'¨bmomonf vlom;tjzpf
jynfqikd &f m vlUtcGit hf a&;aMujimpmwrf; tyk'd f (1)yg (rEkówåbm0-humanity)\ wefz;dk ukd tav;xm;NyD;
oabmw&m;rsm;ukd Ak'b ¨ mom½Iaxmifrh S ok;H oyfwifjy vlom;\ qifjcifww Hk &m;ESihf aumif;qk;d cGjJ cm; odjrif
&efjzpfonf/ pdww f \ Ykd ta&;ygrIudk tNrJwap a½SUwef;wifavh½\ dS /

wlnDvGwfvyfaom *kPfodu©mESifU tcGifhta&; qifjcifwkHw&m;ESifh aumif;qkd;cGJjcm;odjrifpdwf


aMujimpmwrf;tyk'd (f 1)onf vlUtcGit hf a&; qifjcifww Hk &m; (Reason)ESihf aumif;qk;d cGjJ cm;
tm;vkH;\ wu,fYtajccHtusqkH; jzpf\/ okdYaomf odjrifpdwf (Conscience)ESpfrdsK;vkH;ukd Ak'¨bmomu
þtyd'k yf gtcsufrsm;onf Ak'b ¨ momtwGuf topf vufc\ H ? odaYk omf aumif;qk;d cGjJ cm;odjrifpw d u f kd Ak'¨
tqef; r[kwaf y/ tb,haf Mumifq h adk omf ¤if;wko Yd nf bmomu todrw S rf jyKoa,mif trsm;u trSwrf mS ;
Ak'b
¨ mom\vlraI &;tjrif oabmxm;ESihf tESpo f m& aeMuonf/ qifjcifwkHw&m;ESifh aumif;qkd;cGJjcm;
tm;jzifh wlnaD eaomaMumifyh if jzpfonf/ Ak'b ¨ mom odjrifpdwfonf &ifcsif;quf t`rGmnDaemifjzpfonf/
tjrift& vlUtcGit hf a&;onf oabmw&m;tjrifEiS hf tNrJvv dk dk 'Gew
f aJG e\/ cGjJ cm;í r&paumif;ay/ trSef
ukd,fusifhw&m;tjrif[laom tajccHtcsufESpfckrS tm;jzifh þtcsufwo Ydk nf Ak'b
¨ momtwGuf txl;
aygufzmG ;vmjcif; jzpfonf/ oabmw&m; tjrift& tqef;r[kwfay/ jrwfAk'¨onf ESpfaygif;ESpfaxmif
vlom;tm;vk;H onf vGwv f yfrt I jynfjh zifh arG;zGm;vm ausmu f wnf;u þoabmw&m;rsm;udk azmfxw k jf yocJh
Mujy;D uk,
d Mfh ur®muk,d f zefw;D Edik cf iG ½hf odS nf[k Ak'b ¨ mom \/ Ak'b ¨ mom\ vlom;tay: t"dymÜ ,fziG q hf rdk uI Mdk unfh
u vufc, H MHk unfxm;\/ vlom;wko Yd nf zef;qif;½Sif v§sif þoabmw&m;onf ykrd adk y:vGiv f m\/ ]]um&
wpfa,mufa,muf\ zef;qif;cHowå0grsm; r[kwf? Pmum&PHçukovmukovHrewdZmemwDwd rEkaóm
aMumif;usdK;quf ur®e, d mrt& arG;zGm;vmMujcif;om -taMumif;tusdK;? taumif;tqkd;ukd odwwfaom
jzpf\/ xkaYd Mumifh rdrMd ur®monf rdrv d ufxrJ mS yif ½S\ d / aMumifh vlrnf\}}[k Ak'b ¨ momu zGiqhf x dk m;\/ þzGihf
vGwv f yfciG [hf ol nf vlom;wk\ Yd arG;&mygtcGit hf a&; qkcd sufonf vlom;\wefz;dk ukd txG#t f xdyo f Ydk a&muf

48 v uFm w r ef r *¾ Z if ;
atmifjr§iw hf ifay;vku d \ f / xkaYd Mumifh bmoma&;? vlrI [k t"dymÜ ,f&onfh ]]oaAÁowåm? oaAÁygPm? oaAÁ
a&;?ynma&; ponfjzifh vlUta&;aygif;rsm;pGmudk NyD; blwm}}[laom a0g[m&wku Yd kd Ak'p¨ maywGif rsm;pGmawGU
ajrmufatmif jrif&eftwGuf vlom;\ qifjcifww Hk &m; &\/ Ak'b ¨ momwkid ;f EIww f uf&avmufatmif xif½mS ;
ESihf aumif;qk;d cGjJ cm;odjrifpw d of nf t"duZmwfaqmif vSonfh arwåow k f (okweå ?d O&*¾0*¾)wGif ]]wpfO;D wnf;
rsm; jzpfMu\/ aysmf½iT Nf idr;f csrf;onfh vlUabmiftoku d f aom om;tay:wGix f m;aom rdcif\arwåmuJo h Ydk ouf
t0ef;wpfcu k kd wnfaqmuf&mwGiv f nf; ¤if;wko Yd nf ½St
d m;vk;H tay: arwåmxm;&ef}} jrwfA'k u ¨ nTeMf um;
r½Srd jzpfvt dk yfaom tajccHw&m;rsm; jzpf\/ tb,fh xm;onf/ Ak'b ¨ momwGif ]]arwåm - tuefo Y wfrhJ
aMumifq h akd omf ¤if;wko Yd nf trSm;trSeu f dk cGjJ cm;apEdik f arwåm}}ESifh ]]t0d[ðo-tMurf;rzuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;
aom ÚmPftjrifudk jzpfay:apwwf\/ xkjYd yif uk, d u f sihf vrf;pOf}}wdkYonf þtajccHoabmw&m;rS pwifí
w&m;wefzkd;ukd wdkif;wmEdkif&ef t&nftcsif;wpfrdsK; wjznf;jznf; ckid rf mvmjcif;jzpfonf/ xkaYd Mumifh vlraI &;
jzpfNy;D trSeu f dk a½G;cs,w f wf&efvnf; nTejf ywwfonf/ e,fy,fwiG v f nf; þtajccHoabmw&m;ukd vku d ef m
wpfcgw&HwiG f vlom;wk\ Yd owdapmifph nf;rI (owdajE)´ usifhokH;&efrSm EdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;rStp atmufajc
udv k nf; jzpfay:apwwf\/ jynforl sm;tqk;H vlom;tm;vk;H wGif wm0ef½\ dS / odrYk oS m
þESprf sd K;ESihf ywfoufí Ak'b ¨ mom\ nTef vlom;tm;vHk;udk wef;wlnDrQxm;í qufqHEdkifrnf
Mum;csufudk umvmrokw(f tH?1?198)wGif awGU jzpfonf/
Edkifayonf/ xkdokwfwGif qifjcifwkH
w&m;jzifh taumif;tqkd; cGJjcm; wef;wlnDrQ oabmw&m;
wwf&ef enf;vrf;csjyxm;\/
wef;wlnDrQpepfukd
taumif;tqd;k ? trSm;trSef
vuf a wG U usif h o k H ; &mwG i f
ukd a½G;cs,fqkH;jzwf&mwGif
abmif t uef Y t owf r sm;
olrsm;ajymwkid ;f vufrcHbJ
,cifu½Scd o hJ vk,d ckvnf;
rdr\ d usKd ;aMumif;qifjcifrI
½SdaeqJyifjzpfonf/ þ
qifjcifww Hk &m;ESihf udu k f
tcsuu f o dk wdjyK&ayrnf/
nDro S m vufcu H sifo
h ;Hk &ef
]]vlom;tm;vk;H wGif wef;
wdusjywfom;pGm rdeaYf wmf
wlnrD QtcGit hf a&;½So d nf}}
rlxm;\/
[laom tjynfjynfqikd &f m
vlt Y cGit hf a&; aMujimpmwrf;
nDtpfuadk rmifErS pdw"f mwf onf tjynft h pkH azmfjyjcif;rsdK;
vlom;tcsif;csif; tjyef r[kw?f jyXmef;csuftnTe;f rQ azmfjy
tvSefqufqHa&;ESifhywfoufí Ak'¨bm jcif;jzpfonf/ trSew f u,f qkv d cdk surf mS
omonf ]]nDtpfuadk rmifErS pdw"f mwf}}[laom abmif ]]t&nftcsi;f tedrt hf jrif?h ywf0ef;usif taumif;tqk;d ?
xuf ykrd dk us,fjyefo Y nfh ]]uefo Y wfrhJ (taem "do) tom;ta&mif? rsdK;½d;k Zmwd rnfoyYdk if uGjJ ym;aeygap
arwåm}}pdwjf zifh qufqMH u&ef oGeo f ifneT jf yxm;\/ vlwpfO;D wpfa,mufukd rnfonfh taMumif;aMumifrh Q
þoabmxm;tjrifonf ]]nDtpfukdarmifESr pdwf cGjJ cm;qufqrH I rjyK&}}[k qkv d jdk cif;jzpfonf/
"mwf}}xuf ykrd u dk s,fjyefo
Y jzifh qlMuKHerd jhf rifh ouf½dS Ak'b ¨ momonf xkad bmifuefo Y wfcsurf sm;ukd
owå0gtm;vkH; tusKH;0ifae\/ acwfopf vlrIaA' MunfNh y;D vlw\ Ydk "mwfco H bm0ESihf qDavsmaf om tajccH
ynm½Siw f oYdk nf vlUtzGUJ tpnf;oufoufuo dk m aZmif; wlnrD w I pfcuk dk axmufjyxm;\/ xkaYd Mumifh ]]vlom;
ay;í ajymaeMu\/ vlrSwpfyg; tjcm;ouf½SdwkdY\ tm;vkH;onf *kPfodu©mtm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;?
tusdK;pD;yGm;udk vspfvsL½IaecJMh uonf/ Ak'b ¨ momonf tcGit hf a&;tm;jzifah omfvnf;aumif; wef;wlnrD Q jzpf
bmomw&m;wpfct k aejzifah omfvnf;aumif;? 'óe onf}}[k vufcx H m;\/
wpf&yftaejzifh aomfvnf;aumif; ouf½t dS m;vk;H ab; xktd ajccHwn l rD o I nf taMumif;tcsurf sm;pGm
uif;&efumG usef;rmaysmf½iT pf mG aexkid Ef ikd af &; [laom ukdtrSDjyKí ay:aygufvmjcif; jzpf\/ ,if;wkdYteuf
tajccHoabmw&m;ukd t"du xm;\/ ouf½t dS m;vk;H ZD0aA'ESihf rEkóaA'[laom taMumif;ESprf sd K;onf

v uFm w r ef r *¾ Z if ; 49
y"metusqkH; jzpfonf[k Ak'¨bmomu vufcH\/ (okweå ?d |?2?186) ]]vlwpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D uGjJ ym;rI}}[lonf
tjcm;opfyif? wd&pämefww Ydk iG f rsdK;pdwt f rsdK;rsdK;uGjJ ym; pum;ajym&mwGif OD;b? a':jzL ponfjzifh tac:ta0:
aomfvnf; vlUrsdK;pdwo f nfum; wpfrsdK;wnf;om jzpf om uGjJ ym;onf/f ]]vlom;tjzpf}}[laom tajccHtm;
onf[k ZD0aA'ynm½Siw f u
Ydk qko d nf/ ,aeYacwfuo YJ Ydk jzifu h m; bmrQ uGjJ ym;rIr½S[ d k qkv d o dk nf/
"mwfcpJG rf;oyfrrI jyKbJ vufawGUavhvm pl;prf;rIt& 'DCedum,fvm t*¾nokwo f nf rEkóaA'
ay:xGufvmaom þtqkdonf vlom;tm;vkH;\ ynm½Siw f \ Ydk tqku d o dk ufaojy&ef taumif;qk;H om
tajccHwlnDrIoabmw&m;ukd jyefvnfazmfxkwfay; "uwpfcjk zpfonf/ ,if;okw\ f tpwGi]f ]vlom;tcsif;
aom acwf o pf Z D 0 aA'ynm½S i f w k d Y \ tjrif E S i f h csif; twlwyl if jzpf\/ bmrQuGjJ ym;rI r½S}d }[kazmfjy
wpfoabmwnf;yif jzpfonf/ xm;onf/ «tanoH o'domeHa,0 aem to'domeH/
þtjrifonf Ak't ¨ bd"r®mESiv hf nf; udu k n f D ('D?3?77)/ þoabmw&m;onf obm0"r®EiS q hf aD vsmf
ae\/ vlom;tm;vk;H onf y#doaE¨oabmt& ukov dk f \? ("ar®ae0) vk;H 0 qefu Y sifrI r½Syd g ( aem t"ar®e)
\tusdK; ukov0dygufjzifh vljzpfvm&olcsnf;jzpf\/ [k qufvufazmfjyxm;ao;\/ xkdYjyif vlUtokduf
]]ÚmPfyg0ifr?I ryg0ifro I m xl;jcm;onf}}[k tbd"r®m t0ef;wpfck ½Sio f ef&yfwnfEikd af &;twGuf vlom;wkYd
wGif qkx d m;\/ qif;&Jcsr;f om? tedrt hf jrif?h ywf0ef;usif onf rjzpfrae½kef;uefvIyf½Sm;&\/ ,if;wkdY\ vkyf
taumif;tqk;d rSm vlUrsdK;ADZpdwEf iS hf rqkid af y/ þt&m aqmifrI rwlujJG ym;jcif;aMumifh wnfNird af om vlUabmif
rsm;onfum; y0wåt d usKd;rsm;omjzpf\/ tqifeh rd ehf rd hf avmuwGif vlraI &; uGjJ ym;rIrsm; ay:aygufvm&jyef
arG;zGm;vmolonf txufwef;okYd wufomG ;Edik o f vkd onf/ xku d jJG ym;rIonf vlUtzGUJ tpnf;\ abmiftwGi;f
txufwef;ususarG;zGm;vmolvnf; atmufoYdk avsm okYd a&mufvmaomtcgwGif tqd;k 0g;qk;H taetxm;okYd
usomG ;Edik \f / trSetf m;jzifh vlrq I ufqaH &;avmuwGif a&mufvmonf[í l vnf; axmufjyxm;\/
qif ; &J c srf ; om? &mxl ; ted r f h t jrif h ? ywf 0 ef ; usif Ak'j¨ rwfpmG onf xkad cwfu tdE´, d Edik if w H iG f
taumif;tqk;d ? rsdK;½d;k rwlnrD ?I tom;ta&mifujJG ym;rI jzpfay:aeonfh vlraI &;tajctaeukd Munfah wmfrí l
ponfjzifh tay:,H (y0wåt d udsK;)ukd Munfjh cif;xuf þoabmw&m;ukd rdefYawmfrl[ef½Sd\/ a½S;acwf
vlom;\rl&if;Zpfjrpfukd jrifatmifMunfhEdkifrIu ykdí tdE´d,EdkifiHwGif ]]tvkyfMurf;orm; vlqif;&Jrsm;udk
ta&;MuD;\/ þtwkid ;f Munfjh rifvs§ if ]]vlom;tm;vk;H ok'´? ukeaf &mif;uke0f ,fvyk o f nfh ukeo f nfrsd K; vlcsrf;
twlwo l m jzpfonf? bmrQjcm;em;rI r½S}d }qko d nfudk omrsm;ukd 0ó? tkycf sKyfov l w l ef;pm;ukd cwå, d ? bm
awGUvmrnfjzpfonf/ oma&;acgif;aqmif vkyo f rl sm;ukd jAm[®P}}[k cGjJ cm;
vlwpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D rwlujGJ ym;rIEiS yhf wfoufí owfrw S í f qdik ;f bkwt f rsKd ;rsKd ;wyfMu\/ þcGjJ cm;rIonf
ajym&vQif Ak'b ¨ mompmayvm xif½mS ;onfh pum;ESihf vlrq I ufqaH &;e,fy,foYdk 0ifa&mufvmaomtcg ½Iyf
ajym&ayrnf/ ]]vlwt Ydk Mum;? rwljym;um;? pum;t&m? axG;oGm;awmh\/ vlraI &;qkid &f m jyóemaygif;rsm;pGmwdYk
ac:jcif;omwnf;}} «a0gum&Hp rEkaóokç omrnm, ay:aygufvmcJh\/ Ak'¨jrwfpGmonf xkdjyóemwkdY\
y0kpöwd/ (okwåed?374)/ a0g[m&rawåe 0kpöwDdwd/ tajccHtaMumif;wpfckjzpfaom cGJjcm;rIpepfqkd;ukd
vk;H 0vufrcH? twdtvif; qefu Y sifawmfrcl \ hJ /
wpfcsdeu f tar&duef paom tcsdKUEdik if MH uD;
rsm;wGifvnf; tom;ta&mifcGJjcm;rI pepfqkd;wpfck
arwåm\oabmrSm xkdxkdyk*¾dKvf owå0gwkdh\ ½Scd \
hJ / tom;rnf;olwu Ydk dk ESrd chf squfqNH yD; uRefZmwf
tusdK;pD;yGm;ukd vkdvm;jcif;yif jzpf\/ oGi;f cJMh u\/ þuJo h Ydk cGjJ cm;qufqrH u I dk taMumif;jyKNyD;
xkdarwåmonfvnf; rnfolrnf0g\ tusdK;pD;yGm; vlrsdK;wpfpEk iS w hf pfpk ppfjzpfMuonfh tajctaexdyif
a&mufco hJ nf/ w&m;rrQwonfh þpepfq;dk ukd wku d f
ponfjzifU tuefhtowfyrmPrxm;bJ zsuf&mwGif rmwifvo l muif;(1924-1968)onf vl
owå0gtm;vkH; wpfom;wnf; jzpfaom rnf;wk\ Yd pHjyacgif;aqmif;wpfa,muf jzpfvmcJ\ h / vGef
cJo
h nfh q,fpEk pS t f wGi;f u uarÇm'D;,m;Edik if w H iG v f nf;
(taem"do)arwåmrsdK; jzpf\/ crmeDacgif;aqmif ykad ygh (1925-1998)vufxufwiG f
vlrsdK;a&;? 0g'a&;wku Yd dk taMumif;jyKNyD; vlt Y oufaygif;

50 v uFm w r ef r *¾ Z if ;
oef;csDí qk;H ½I;H cJ&h \/ oD&v d uFmwGiv f nf; vlrsdK;pGpJ w d f
rsm;aMumifh q,fpEk pS af ygif; ok;H qufrQ jynfwiG ;f ppf
jzpfcJh&\/ vGefcJhonfh okH;ESpfwmumvtwGif;rSmyif
vlaygif;ig;aomif;cefY toufqkH;½IH;cJh&onf/
avmuvlom;wko Yd nf ykxZk Ofrsm;jzpfMuonfh
tavQmuf twåukd a½SUwef;wifwwfMuonf/ twå\
oabmrSm ig? ightokid ;f t0ef;? ighvrl sdK;? ighEidk if H ponf
jzifh ZGwt f wif;zufw, G x f m;wwfaomoabm jzpf\/
vltcsif;csif;ukd twåtjrifjzifMh unfv h Qif ighom;? igh
orD;? ighvrl sdK;?ighbmom?ighEidk if pH onfjzifh cGjJ cm;owf
rSwrf w I Ydk ay:aygufvmNrJjzpfonf/ xkt d wåudk tajccH
NyD; vkcd sifr?I axmifvmT ;rI? tjrifrmS ;rIwYdk aygif;qkrH ad om Ak'¨bmomtjrift& vlom;tm;vkH;onf
tcg ZGwt f wif;zufw, G x f m;rIonf ykrd cdk idk rf mvmNyD; ]]arG;zGm;&jcif;qif;&J? tkrd if;&jcif;qif;&J? aoqk;H &jcif;
ighvrl sdL;? olUvlrsd K;? bk&ifo h m;? pma&;om;? olaX;om;? qif;&J}}[laom tajccHe, d mrw&m;wku Yd kd rnforl qkd
olawmif;pm;om; ponfjzifh rnDrQonfh cGjJ cm;quf vlwikd ;f MuKHawGU&rnf/ þoabmw&m;udk Ak'b ¨ momu
qHrw I Ydk yg0ifvmjyefonf/ cJjG cm;qufqrH w I Ydk ½Sad eorQ eHygwfwpf opömw&m;tjzpf azmfjyxm;\/ opömw&m;
vlrq I ufqaH &;jyóemwkYd ½Sad eOD;;rnfjzpfonf/ quf [lonf bufvu dk rf u
I if;\/ tajctae? tcsdet f cgESihf
qHa&;jyóemrsm; ½Sad eorQ aysmf½iT Nf idr;f csrf;onf?h nD yk*Kd¾ vfuv dk u kd Nf yD; rajymif;vJwwfay/ tm;vk;H twGuf
nGwrf Qwonfh vlUabmiftoku d t f 0ef;wpfcu k kd b,f tcsdew f idk ;f rSeu f efae\/ or®w? pma&;? olaX;? qif;&J
awmhrQ wnfaqmufEidk rf nf r[kwaf y/ om;? vljzL? vlrnf; ponfjzifh cGjJ cm;rI r½daS y/ vlom;
xku d o hJ aYdk om vlUabmiftoku d t f 0ef;wpfcu k kd wkid ;f rnforl qkd þobm0"r®wu Ydk dk wpfajy;nD MuKHawGU
wnfaqmufEikd &f eftwGuf vltcsif;csif;qufq&H mwGif &rnf jzpfonf/
arwåmtjrifjzifh qufq&H ef jrwfpmG bk&m;u oGeo f if xkjYd yif vlom;wkid ;f wGif pdwyf idk ;f qkid &f m wk;d
awmfrcl \ hJ / arwåm\oabmrSm xkx d ydk *k Kd¾ vfowå0gwk\ Yd wufjrifrh m;atmif vkyEf ifkd pf rG ;f ½dMS u\/ pdwyf idk ;f qkid &f m
tusdK;pD;yGm;ukd vkv d m;jcif;yif jzpf\/ xkad rwåmonf wk;d wufjrifrh m;rIrw S pfqifh tqkyd g b0qif;&J'u k w © u Ykd dk
vnf; rnforl nf0g\ tusdK;pD;yGm; ponfjzifh tuefY ausmfveG í f aemufq;Hk yef;wkid o f Ydk a&mufEikd pf rG ;f vnf;
towfyrmPrxm;yJ owå0gtm;vk;H wpfom;wnf; vlom;wkid ;f wGif ½dMS uavonf/ þoabmukd Ak'b ¨ m
jzpfaom (taem"do)arwåmrsdK; jzpf\/ þarwåmtjrif om\eHygwfav;opömw&m;wGif txift½Sm; awGUEkid f
rsdK;jzifh qufqaH omtcg vlw\ Ydk t&nftcsif; tedrhf avonf/
tjrif?h ywf0ef;usif taumif;tqk;d ? tom;ta&mif Ak'b ¨ momtjrif ½Iaxmifrh MS unfv h Qif aMujim
uGjJ ym;rI? rsKd ;½d;k rwlnrD w I u Ydk dk rawGUawmhbJ vlom;tjzpf pmwrf;yg oabmw&m;rsm;onf vlom;xk wpfcv k ;Hk \
[laom rl&if;Zpfjrpfudk Munfw h wfvmrnf jzpf\/ xkd aumif;usdK; (A[kZe[dw)ukd a½S;½Iaom tcsufrsm;jzpf
tcg rdro d nfvnf; vljzpf\? rdrEd iS hf rl&if;Zpfjrpftm; aMumif;awGU&\/ xl;jcm;csuu f m; Ak'b ¨ mom\ vlraI &;
jzifh wpfcw k nf;jzpfaom tjcm;vlrsm;onfvnf; rdrEd iS hf tjrifonfaMujimpmwrf;yg oabmw&m;wdEYk iS hf wlnD
wpfom;wnf;yifjzpfonf[k oabmaygufvmrnf jzpf ae½Ho k mru ¤if;wkx Yd uf ykí
d us,fjyefeY uf½idI ;f aom
onf/ xko d Ykd oabmaygufvmaomtcg tqift h wef;? oabmxm;tjrifrsm;yif yg0ifaeaMumif; ok;H oyfwifjy
ywf0ef;usif? vlrsdK;rnfoyYdk if uJjG ym;aeygap Nidr;f csrf; tyfygonf/
aysmf½iT pf &m vlUtoku d t f 0ef;wpfcu k dk twlvufwí JG t&Sif0PÖod&D
Ref:
wnfaqmufEikd rf nf jzpfygonf/ 1. Religion and Culture in the Development of Human Rights
in Sri Lanka. SLF, Colombo: 1982.
]]vlom;tm;vk;H onf twlwyl if jzpfonf/ 2. Perera, L. P. N. Buddhism and Human Rights. Karunaratne
bmrQ jcm;em;rI r½d}S }[laom tajccHoabmw&m;ukd & Sons Ltd, Colombo: 1991.
3. Vannasiri, U. Social Aspects of Theravada Buddhism. M.A
"r®tjrifjzifh Munfv h Qif ykí d ay:vGi\ f / Ak'b ¨ mom\
Essay, PGIPBS, U Kelaniya, Sri Lanka: 2002.
opömtjrifwu Ydk þoabmw&m;ukd xyfavmif;tm; 4. OD;a&Tatmif? tjrifrsm;ajymif;vJjcif;ESifh tawG;tjrifpmpkrsm;?
jznfhay;xm;avonf/ &mjynfhpmtkyfwdkuf? &efukef? 2000/

v uFm w r ef r *¾ Z if ; 51