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1429 – 2008

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{]amWnIXbpw {]mtbmKnIXbpw
{]amWnIXbpw {]mtbmKnIXbpw

ijiG\r;î

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 1 1 {]amWnIXbpw {]mtbmKnIXbpw ijiG\r;î ]cn-tim-[\ : apl½Zv kzmZnJv aZo\n tIm]tdäohv Hm^okv t^mÀ ImÄ

]cn-tim-[\ :

apl½Zv kzmZnJv aZo\n

tIm]tdäohv Hm^okv t^mÀ ImÄ & ssKU³kv . Z½mw þ kuZn Atd_y

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akD)kyj/[

egadlgknjdrk; pulegrkalu L#l|kijsRy fjgkrla\jH, c[SflYf*sx#l; Lir[ alYfaldk'k. Lisr c[fkfj)k'k. LiSrlm[ c|lu\jrk; ele Salvr\jrk; SrGalGÏ\j'k; Sfmk'k. cIÔ; fjØ dxjHrj'k; pk<[svu[fjdxjHrj'k; LiSrlm[ gÊ Sfmk'k. LiR iqjdlMjuisg ejq/j)lrlgkaj#. Li R iqjSdmjhl)juisg SrGiqj rm\lrk; :gkaj#. Lir#lsf uFlGÒ :glPUSrujs#'k; Lir[ e (kdlgjs#'k; ak|+p[ L#l|kijsRy plcrk; pof rkalsn'k; BlR clÊU; i|j)k'k. ãT\j~lKck'Èä t' fhsdMjH fl(xksm dg *xjhk= TO Yzr[F; LH T\j~lK LhlpOTH i |[uu[rjt' ShDr\jsRy ijiG\raln[. ssCD[ ssEcH T~[R Lhj LH~kL[plrj tqkfj, ãLH~ ulRä alcjd YecjÓJdgj&fln[ Yec[fkf ShDr;. YeilvdR Sulmk= LrkPlirikaluj ~r[Ps/M Lmjc[Flregalu ij<u*X ShDdR Yealnjdaluj tqkfjs\xjuj&f[ Sdgx)lG)[ Kedlgs/mksa'fj rlhln[ Yec[fkfShDr; fGwa)[ sfgsÉmk\f[. eplrkepfGwa)[ dqjifk; YCaj&jMk![, Lrjil gUsa'[ Sfl'ju c[Fh*xjH Lmj)kyj/kdX rHdj ujMk![. iJq[vdX iglrjmuk![. rlFSrlm[ al/jg)k' Sflsml/; alrUilur)lgsRy p{<[mjujHs/mk'f[ zkndl;ÊSulsm KnG\nsa'[ icIj$f[ sv$k'k.

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TO c;g;>; f$lyl)lR trj)[ fOEJSDdju YeeÖrlF'[ alYfaln[ c[fkfjdX akqkirk;. LfjH ejs' c|dgj& cdhG)k; rÕj. TO ijiG\r; egjSClPj&[ Si! rjGS`C*X rHdju ~|k. ak|+p[ cIlpjD[ aprjSulmk;, TfjsRy sdMk; aMk; r 'l)ju ~|kalrUG rO<lp[éfjgkirÔekg;ê, ak|+p[ Lhj ekhlSÌgj, L~[pkH hfIJE[ SdlsflmjujH, ak| +p[ y$lR, T~[yl|J; sdl&j fkm*juiSglsm#l; ihju dm/lmkdxk![. yS^ B*xjHrj'k; cIJdgj S)nSa……

L~[pkH w^lG L~[pk#

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:akD;

r~j su ejReËHéT\j~lL[ê Tc[hlajsh L mjc[Flr*xjshl'sYf. af\jH LrjilgUaluk; Lyj ÉjgjS)!fk; L;zJdgj)s/Sm!fkalu a|H c;z fjdxjshl'kasYf Lf[. Yealn*X fHij<us\ iUd[fal)juk; Ky/j&k; QMriPj i'jgj)k'k. L#l|k eyuk'k î

(#θßγtFΡ$$sù çµ÷Ψtã öΝä39pκtΞ $tΒuρ çνρäãsù ãΑθߧ 9$# ãΝä39s?#u!$tΒuρ 

Þ rj*X)[ ycoH rHdjusfSÔl Lf[ rj*X cIJ

dgj)kd. tsÔl'jHrj'[ LS`|; rj*sx ijh)j

Sul LfjH rj'[ rj*X QqjÉ[ rjH)kduk; sv$k

d

ß

éij.dIk. 59î7ê

$ZàŠÏ xm öΝÎγøŠn=tæ y7≈sΨù=yör& !$yϑsù 4¯<uθs? tΒuρ ( ©!$# tí$sÛr& ôs)sù tΑθߧ 9$# ÆìÏÜム¨Β

Þ éL#l|kijsRyê pofsr :G Lrkcgj)k'kSil fJ

G&uluk; LiR L#l|ksi Lrkcgj&k. :G ejÔj gjÉkSil LigksmSaH dliH)lgrluj rjs' rl; rjSulzj&jMj#.ß éij.dIk. 4î80ê eSÊ ic[fkf TflujMkdomj, r~jvgUujH wlz gozgluj zaj)k'fjH rj'k; ÚwkalGÏs\ ijmlsf

ejÔkmgk'fjH rj'k; akc[hj;dxjHs/M vjh ij>lz*

LfjHejs' Plg

xksm alGÏY>;Cs\ Lf[ fmujMj#.

1

1 Yec[fkf alGÏY>;C*xksm vjh Kpl|gn*X Yzr[Fdl gR iqjSu ijCpJdgj)k'k![.

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 6 6
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ndX vÖhjfaluj, dlHelp*X Lmjefyj. LSfl sm dlgU*X ijCpJdgj)s/Sm! :iCUdf zOgi alG'fk; LrjilgUikaluj i'jgj)kduln[. Lfk sdl![ TO eAr\jH r~j su ejReËH, LfjsRy ulFlGf[FU;, afijPj, LfjsRy c[Flr;, t*jsr r~j su ejReËl;, Lfjr[ c|ludalu alGÏ*X ]sf#l;, Lfjr[ akÙjH fmÍ;rjH)k' do&kijh *kdX tsÔ#l; fkm*jui iUd[fal)lrk= Qgk YCaalnjijsm rm\k'f[. rak)[ rØujSh)[ Kpijuk !ldlrk; r+ksm KS`C; r'l)lrk; ele; r'luj selyk)k' tsRy gÊjflijSrlm[ Sfmkduln[. LiR t#l\jrk; dqjik=iRï K\g; sv$lR LG|rk;.

T\j~lT é ê sRy >l<lGf[F;

>l<ujH éT\~Lê t' Ydjuuksm Ydjul Plfkiln[ éT\j~lL[ê. Qgk ic[fkijsRy ej'jH vhj&lH, ejRfkmG'lH ts'ls)ulnfjsRy LG Ò;. éT\j~lL[ê t' ep;, t\jS&gkd, LSrI <j&k ejmj)kd, ejRfkmgkd, alGÏ; ejRfkmgkd, alf{ dcIJdgj)kd fkm*ju :Cu*X KXs)l=k'k. Ly~jujH éT\~LH dIkG:Rê t'[ eyuk; LFil LulX dIkG:rjsr ejReËj Lfjhk =fjrrkcgj&[ YeiG\j&k. LYedlg; éT\ ~LGycoHê t'[ eyuk;. LFil ycoH su ejR

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 7 7
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eËj, LS`|\jsRy dlH/lmkdX Lrkzaj&k, LS`| \jsRy alf{d KXs)l!k.

T\j~lTsRy clS(fjd LGÒ;

ijCIlc dlgU*xjhk; il)kdxjhk; YeiG\jdxj hk; KSeÊdxjhk; r~j su alf{dul)kd, LrkPl ir; sv$kd t'fln[ T\j~lL[. r~j YeiG\j &Selsh YeiG\j)kd, rjG~r[P; ck'\[ Lrkip rJu; siyk)s/Mf[ rj<jÓ; fkm*ju ijPjdxjH r~j tÔlSnl flHegUs/Mf[ Lfjrrkcgj&[ Yei G\j)kd, YeiG\jdxjH cÙoGÑ rj$\k; hÊUik; K!ldkd, LS/lqln[ Yec[fkf LrkPlir; clPUal ikd. 1

ijCIlcdlgU*xjhk= T\j~lL[î

r~j ijCIcj&sf#l; QglX ijCIcj)kd, ij CIcj)s/mk' dlgU; rjG~r[PalSnl ~jp[L\lSnl pJrjsRy Lmjc[Flr*xjHs/MflSnl pJrjsRy Lmj c[Flrs\ fdG)k'flSnl af\jsRy egjeoGÑ fsu dx(s/mk\k'flSnl t'J rjhs)ls) r~j t*srulSnl ijCIcj&f[ LSf gJfjujH ijCIcj )kd, r~j ijCIcj&k t'fk dlgn\lH ijCIcj )kdï LS/lqln[ ijCIlc\jhk= LrkPlir; K!l uj\Jgkd.

1 hjclrkH Ly~[ 1 î416,417, LH akL[wakHicJ\[1î81

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8

il)kdxjhk= T\j~lL[î

r~j uksm il)kdX tsÔl'[ LrIGf[Fal )kduk; flHegUs/mkduk; sv$k'kSil Li wJijf \jH YeliG\jdal)k'fjhln[ il)kdxjhk= T\j ~lL[ K!luj\Jgkd. Lf#lsf Sdih; il)kdxksm hjejdX :iG\j&[ Kgkijmkd, Yealnivr*X svl #j/yukd t'k=fksdl!#. Kpl|gn\jr[î r~j eyÉk î

ééBlR tYedlg; rac[)gj)k'f[ rj*X d!kSil, LYedlg; rj*X rac[dgj)kd.êê 1 r~j uksm Yec[fkf il)jsr T\j~lL[ sv$H, r~j rac[)gj&fkSelsh rac[)gj)H sdl!ln[ clPUalikd. r~j eyÉkî

éérj*X egc[eg; Lcou dlnj)gkf[, rj*X LSrUl'U; d{Yfjaaluj ijhduËj eyugkf[.êê 2 Tijsm Yec[fkfil)jsr T\j~lK sv$H Lcouuk; d{Yfj aalu ijhduËj/yuhk; KSeÊj)H sdl!lnk!l ikd. r~j eyÉk î

1 ~kDlgj 2 î 131,132, 2 akc[hj; î 44 î 1986

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9

ééQglX, flR eAj& LyjijHrj'[ i#fk; Svlpj)s/ Mk, éSvlpj&irkSrsgê flR arÍjhl)juf[ ay&k si &lH Lir[ LÔUrlxjH fJujHrj'k= akD/M Pgj /j)s/mk;.êê 1 Yec[fkf ivrs\ T\j~lL[ sv$H KedlgYepalufk; Cgjulufkalu Lyji[ Yevgj/j)H sdl!k; Svlpj&iG)kSrsg Lfk ay&k si)lfjgj )H sdl!kalnk!luj\Jgkd.

YeiG\jdxjhk= T\j~lL[î

r~j YeiG\j&Selsh, YeiG\j& alGSÏn, r~j YeiG\j&k t' dlgn\lH rlak; YeiG\j )H sdl!ln[ YeiG\jdxjhk= T\j~lL[ clPU alikd.

r~j YeiG\j&f[ Selsht'[ eyulR dlgn; YeiG\juksm goeik; Sdlhik; iUfUc[Faluj s)ls!lgk T\j~lL[ T#fs'. r~j YeiG\j& alGSÏnt'k eyÉlH, Yec[fkf YeiG\r\jsRy hÊU\jhk; rj$\jhk; r~j uksm rj$\jSrlmk; hÊUS\lmk; :f[alGÒal u e(lxj\ak!likd, sv$k' YeiG\r; rjG~r[P alSnl ck'\lSnl t'frkcgj&[ dG+s\ rjG Ñuj)kd t'fln[. dlgn; YeiG\r; Kegje[xi aluj YeilvdR uksm YeiG\rS\lm[ Q\lhk; rj$

1 LH~lrj, cI|J|k\jGajpjî 2135

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10

\jhk; hÊU\jhk; iUfUc[Falujs)ls!lgk LrkPl ir; T# fs'. r~j YeiG\j&k t'f[ dlgn\lHt'k rl; eyÉfjsRy ijiÊ, dG+\jsRy goeik; hÊU ik; Sulwj&ki'lhk; KS`C; Yeilvdsr LrkPli r; sv$kd, alf{dukXs)l=kd t'flujs#(jH Qgj)hk; Lf[ T\j~lL[ :dj# t'fln[. YeiG\jujhk= T\j~lTsr Q'kdomj ijCpJ dgj&lH, rl; SrlÙjH r~j su T\j~lL[ sv $lR KS`Cj&lHï LS`|; t*srulSnl SrlsÙmk \f[ : goe\jH SrlsÙmk)H LrjilgUaln[. LF il L#l|kijsRy claJeU; cjÓj)lsr' KS`CS\l sm Ye>lSflpu; akfH cogUlc[fau; isg SrlÙkakyj )k' akqkiR dlgU*xjH rj'k; CgJgs\ ejmj&k rjG\kd. QglX SrlÙ[ akyj)k' ]flrk; vjh dlgU *xjHrj'[ ijMkrj'lH LulX r~j su T\j~lL[ svu[firldj#. edhjsRy dky&k cau; alYf; Li ujH rj'[ ijMkrj'lhk; T\j~lL[ svu[firldj#. hÊU\jhk; rl; r~j SrlsÙmk\ LSf alGSÏn SrlsÙmk)H LrjilgUaln[. LFil rl; r+ksm SrlÙksdl![ L#l|kijsRy YeJfj hÊUajM[ KS`Cs\ rjGÑuj)kd, rjG~r[P SrlÙkdXLpl L[, DplL[, SrG&SrG' SrlÙ[- ck'\[ SrlÙkdX t'j*sr r~j ]sflgk dlgn\lhlSnl SrlsÙ mk\f[ LSf hÊU\jH SrlsÙmk\[ YeiG\jsu rjG

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 11 11
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11

Ñuj)kd. TO dlgU*xln[ r~j SrlÙkSrlË alG SÏn SrlsÙmk)Ht'f[ sdl![ dlgUal)k'f[. 1 r~j SrlÙkSrlËk t'f[ dlgn\lhk; rl; SrlsÙmk)H LrjilgUaln[. LfjrlHfs' g!lxk dX L#l|kijsRy dHersdls!S'lnik; ycoH uksm vgUsuS'lnik; Qgk YeiG\j sv$k'k. Li gjH QglX fsRy KS`C\jhk; goe\jhk; r~j u#l \ asËlglsxuln[ éLulX svu[fk t' dlgn \lHê ejReËk'sf(jH LulX r~j su ejReËju irldj#.

KSeÊdxjH r~j su ejReËHî

r~j ds$lqj&sfSÔl Lf[, ]sflgk goe \jhlSnl alGÏ\jhlSnl KSeÊj&f[ : goe\jH, LS`|; KSeÊj&k t'f[ dlgn\lH rlak; ds$l qj)Hsdl!ln[ KSeÊdxjhk= T\j~lL[ clPUal ikd. YeiG\r\jhk= T\j~lTH eyus/M rj~ r[PrdX fs'uln[ KSeÊdxjhk; K=f[. Kpl|gn \jr[î r~j coSgUlpuSixdxjH rac[)gj)k'f[

1 r~j )[ YeSfUdaluj KS`C*xk; YeiG\jdxksm goe*xk; c[Fjgs/MflulH, LiujH r~j su éejÔkmG'ksdl![ê e (k SvgH elmk=f#. ijcIlhlu SrlÙk; éakyj)lsf fkmG &uluj ejmj)k' SrlÙ[ê glYfjrac[)lg; rjG~r[Palsn 'fk; Tfjrk= Kpl|gnaln[. T\j~lTsRy ij<u; r~j cakplu\jr[ rjuaal)ju hÊU*xkaluk; goe* xkaluk; ~r[Ps/MiujH alYf; egjajfs/mk'k.

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KSeÊj&k. LS/lX r~j su Lrkzaj)k'iG :

cau\[ r~j KSeÊj& gJfjujH LS`|; KSeÊj &k t' dlgn\lH rac[dlg; KSeÊj)n;. 1

akDlhEf[ étfjgliHê T\j~lTr[ SrGijgkÓ;

r~j Sulm[ tfjglihldsM, ijCIlc\jhk; il )jhk; YeiG\jujhk; KSeÊujhksals)igk;.

ijCIlc\jhk= akDlhEî

QglX r~j ijCIcj&fjsrfjgjH ijCIcj) hln[ ijCIlcdlgU*xjH r~j Sulm[ akDlhE étfj glikdê t'fjsRy ijiÊ. Kpl|gn\jr[î QglX pJrjH LrjilgUaluk; L yjus/mk' rj<jÓalu Qgk c;zfjsu LrkiprJu sa'[ ijCIcj)kd. Ls#(jH QglX pJrjH LrjilgU aluk; Lyjus/mk' LrkiprJuSal, rj<jÓSal :u c;zfjsu Lf[ rjG~r[Palsn'[ ijCIcj)kd, L#l |kijsRy pJrjH Lfjhj#l\f[ ekfkfluj K!l)kd. L#l|kijsRy pJrjrk; ycoH sdl!k i'fjrk; tfjgjH rm)k'iG L#l|kijsRy QOhjul)xln[, T<[m)lgln[ t'[ ijCIcj)kd.

1 T~[rk ssfaj$, aw[aoKH Eflil 10î 409. Tal; :ajpj, LH T|[dl; 1î226-227

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il)kdxjhk= akDlhEî

QglX r~j uksm il)kdX tsÔl'[ flHe gUs/mk'kSil Lf[ KSeÊj)H sdl!ln[ il)kd xjhk= akDlhE K!likd. Ls#(jH : il)kdX ijxj&yjuj)k' rjG~r[P;, rj<jÓ;, fkm*ju ijPjd sx wJijf\jH YeliG\jdal)lfjgj)H sdl!k; Yec[fkf akDlhEuk!ldk;.

YeiG\jdxjhk= akDlhEî

r~j Qgk YeiG\jsvu[fk, Lf[ rjG~r[P : YeiG\r; rjG~r[PalujMkdomj QglX

aln[.

LfjHrj'k; sfËj Sisyl'jSh)[ Seldk'ksi(jH

Lf[ r~j uksm YeiG\jSulmk= tfjglihln[.

KSeÊdxjhk= akDlhEî

Qgk YeiG\j r~j KSeÊj&k. Yec[fkf YeiG \j rj<jÓalujMkdomj QglX Lf[ YeliG\jdal)k'k si(jH Lf[ KSeÊujhk= tfjg[ YeiG\j)hln[. ck'\lu QgkdlgU; KSeÊj)k'fjhk; dyl| \lu Qgk dlgU; YeiG\j)k'fjhk; akDlhE igk 'j#. YefUkf, ilwj~[érjG~r[P;ê ds$lqj)kSÙlqk; |yl;érj<jÓ;ê YeiG\j)kSÙlqkaln[ akDlhEuk!l dk'f[. Tijsm akDlhE étfjgliHê il)jShl, YeiG \jujShl, KSeÊujShl :dsM1

1 Tal; :ajpj, LH T|[dl; 1î227

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14

T\j~lTr[ c[Fhdlh*xkaluk= ~r[P;

]sf(jhksalgk YeiG\j Qgk YeSfUd dlhS\l c[FhS\l c;>ij&k t'f[ sdl!kalYf; : YeiG \jukaluj c[Fh\jrk; dlh\jrk; ulsflgk ~r[Pik aj#. : YeiG\jukaluj ~r[Ps/M Lfj'k ~l|U

alu asËlgk sfxjiksdl!#lsf. r~j Qgk YeiG \jujhosm : YeiG\j)/ky; asËlgk sfxji[ sdl![ TO YeiG\j T' c[Fh\jr[ YeSfUdaln[, Ls#(jH T' dlh\jr[ YeSfUdaln[ t'[ YeSfUdal)julH rlak; LYedlg; sv$n;. fIilE[ dL[~)[ vkËk; YeSfUdal)jufk; Tc[fjhl; |wykH Lc[ipjrk; yk)krkH ualrj)k; - Li g!k; Tc[fjhl; sv$k' fjH iUfUc[f goealsn(jhk; 1 - rjG~r[P SrlÙ[ yaplrjH YeSfUdal)jufk;, LyEujH rjH)H pkH|w[w[ QÙfjr[ YeSfUdal)jufk;, TOpkH EjfI[G C%lH Q'jrk; TOpkH Lp[|l pkH|jw[w e\jrk; YeSfUdal)jufk; TO ij<u\jH Kpl|gn*xln[. t'lH YeSfUdalsulgk KS`Caj#lsf r~j ulp{

C[vjdalSul :dc[ajdalSul

YeiG\j&fjH akfl

1 |wykH Lc[ipjsr vk;~j&ksdl!k; Ls#(jH ssd sdlS!l imjsdlS!l Lfjsr fmij, SC<; Li vk;~j &k sdl!kaln[ Tc[fjhlaksvS$!f[. t'lH ykdkrkH ualrj ihf[ ssdsdl![ Qgk fin fmijs)l!ln[ Tc[fjhlak sv$H. ijiî

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~LéLrkPlir;ê sv$H afdJua#. Qgk rac[)lg; sdlS!l, Ty*j flacj)H sdlS!l Qgk c[Fhs\ YeSfUdal)lR KS`Caj#lsfï r~j Qgjm\[ Ty*k duk; Ty*juS/lX Lijsm rac[)gj)kduk; sv u[fk. LfjrlH fs' rl; : c[Fh\[ sv'jy*j flacj)lrk; Lijsm rac[dgj)lrk; YeSfUdal)k 'ksi(jH Cgjulu >l<ujH eyÉlH r+X r~j su Lrkzaj)k'isgl LrkPlir; sv$k'iSgl L#. KaykH ElyoD[ wr*sx fmÉ c;>i; TO ij<u\jH yjS/lGM[ sv$s/Mjgj)k'k. Qgk ulYfujH wr*X Qgk c[FhS\)[ P{fjs/M[ Seldk'f[ LS` |; d!k. Lfjsr)kyj&[ LS`|; Svlpj&k. LiG eyÉkî r~j Lijsm rac[)gj&jMk![. LS`|; eyÉk î

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" rjC[vu;, Sip)lG rCj&f[ f*xksm r~jalgksm LiCj<[m*X ejRfkmgkduk; : c[Fh*X :glP r rm\kilrk= vG&kdxk; aA*xkal)kduk; sv u[ffjrlH alYfaln[. r~j rac[dgj& Qgk c[Fh s\\kSÙlX :Gs)(jhk; rac[)lgcaualulH LiR rac[dgj)sM Ls#(jH LiR c[Fh; ijMk

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"ycohk#l|j rac[)gj&flu rac[)lgc[Fh*xjH ]sf(jhksalgjm\[ rac[)lg; QglX)[ :c'alulH Lijsm LiR rac[dgj)sM, T#lsu(jH QglX Lij sm rac[)gj)lR S~lPeoG%; hÊUajmgkf[." 2 TO ic[fkfsu :ujC LmjigujMky/j&[ eyÉkî

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L~[f|jH ér~j |w[wjr[ i'S/lX Ty*j\la cj& c[Fh;.ê Ty*H ck'\#. fJG&uluk; ycohk #l|j Lijsm Ty*juf[ LS`|; ekys/mlR KS`Cj )kSÙlX ekys/mlR ]Ëik; cOdgUak= c[Fh; Lfln[ t'f[ sdl![ alYfaln[.3 Tc[hlajd Shlds\ :Pjdlgjden[@jfG TO :C us\ c[FjgJdgj&jMk![. ssCDkHTc[hl; T~[rk

1 Ef[|kH~lgj 1î569, aw[aoK Eflil 10î410 éssCDkH Tc[hl; T~[rk ssfaj$ eyÉkî TO c;>i; cI|J|lu crpjrlH c[Fjgs/Mjgj)k'k.ê 2 akD[fcykH akD[fcjG, L~kHa|lcjrjH |rEj, 2î177 3 cI|J|[ akc[hj; 2î951

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 17 17
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ssfaj$ , LS`|\jsRy aw[aoL[ Efliujhk; 1 Tal; :ajpj , LS`|\jsRy T|[dlajhk; TO ij<u; c[FjgJdgj&jgj)k'k. Tal; :ajpj eyÉkî “…r~j uksm Qgk YeiG\j Qgk YeSfUd c[FhS\l cau S\l c;>ij&k t'fjrlH Lf[ alf{dul)k'fjrk; LfjH LrkPlir\jrk; ulsflgk eqkfkaj#. Yec[fk f YeiG\r; YeilvdR :iG\j&[ svu[flhk; Ts#(jhk; Cgj. t'lH asËlgk sfxjik sdl![ :

YeiG\r; ]sf(jhk; Qgk c[Fh\jSrl dlh\jSrl YeSfUdalsn'yjuj&lh#lsf. LS/lX LfjH Lrk Plir; LrjilgUaluj. LyEujH |w[w[ YeSfUdaldk 'Selsh, rac[)lg*X LfjsRy cau\jH ~r[Pj faldk'Selsh, SrlÙ[ yaplrjH YeSfUdaldk'f[ Selsh." 2

r~j uksm YeiG\jdX

T\j~lL[ sv$s/mk' ij<u\jH r~j uksm YeiG\jdX ao'luj ij>wj)s/mk; Liî-

Q'[- LH LE[:hkH wj~j#ju

rjH)kd, Tgj)kd, dkmj)kd, Ky*kd t'k fkm*ju YeiG\jdxln[ LH LE[:hkH wj~j#ju éssrcGÏjd YeiG\jdXê. LrkPlir; sv$s/mk' ij<u\jH Li g![ Tr*xln[.

1 T~[rkss\aj$, aw[aoL[ Eflil 10î409 2 Tal; :ajpj ,LH T|[dl; j 1î226

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 18 18
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1. r~j uksm T\g; YeiG\jdX)/ky; : Ye iG\jdX rjG~r[PsaS'l ck's\S'l Lyj uj)k' asËlgk Yealn; i'i. ihfk ssdsdl ![ fj'kd, Tgk'[ ao'jy)luj dkmj)kd, ihf[ >lz; si&[ Ky*lR djm)kdSelhk=f[. T ijsm LrkPlir; afegal)jujgj)k'k.

2. r~j uksm YeiG\jdX)/ky; Li afdJual

sn'yjuj)k' sfxji[ i'jMj#. L\g; YeiG \jdX sal\\jH t#liG)k; LrkiprJu sa' Lmjc[Flr\jH egjajfaln[. Tal; ClfIj~j eyuk'kî "dlgn; L'elrJ uS\lmk= T<[m; Selhk= ssrcGÏjdaluj ark<U gjH KOMs/M YeSfUdfdX LigjHrj'k; tmk\[ alËlSrl, Yed{fUl KOMs/Mfjsr rJ)jalËlSrl :i CUs/mlif#." 1 ~l|Ualu sfxjikdX ck'\lsn'[ ijxj&yj uj)l\ T\g; YeiG\jdsx LrkPlir; sv$k' fjH afegalu ijPjsuÔ[ t'fjH en[@jfØlG)[ g!>jYelualn[î

1ê T\g; YeiG\jdX LrkPlir; sv$H ck'\l n[. L~pk#l|j ~[rk KaG T\g; YeiG\jdX YeliG\jdal)lyk!lujgk'k. r~j : YeiG\j ulp{C[vjdaluj svu[fflsn(jhk; Cgj.

1 Tal; ClfIj~j, LH akilEDl\[ 2î108

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 19 19
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2ê LHLE[:hkH wj~j#ujH asËlgk sfxji[ T#l \jmS\lx; dlh; LfjH LrkPlir; sv$H af; rjuaal)jujMj#. >ogjeÊ; cI|l~jdxksm il)kdxk; YeiG\jdxk; Tfln[. KaG ik; :ujC uk; Ligj- Hs/mk;- Ligksm il)kdX rl; akÙknG\juS#l? 1 T\g; LE[LhkH wj~j#ujH r~j rlMk rm/rkcgj&k; rlMkcYÙpluarkcgj&k; YeiG\j&i KXs/mk;. wk^Pgj)kd fh/li[ Pgj)kd, akmj rJMj ixG\kd Selhk=sf#l; Tfj'[ Kpl|gn*xln[. Lijsmsu#l; LidX LrkiprJusa'#lsf asËl 'k; Lyjuj)k'j#. : YeiG\j)/ky; Li afegal sn'yjuj)k' sfxji[ igl\jmS\lx; dlh;. 2

g![- r~j )[ YeSfUdalsn'yjuj)s/M YeiG\jdX

YeilvdR )[ YeSfUdalsn' fhsdMjr[ fl sq LrkiprJuik; rjG~r[Pik; rj<jÓikalu vjh dlgU*X en[@jfG tÑj/yÉjMk![. LiujH vjh sf#l; YeilvdR )[ YeSfUdalsn'fjH en[@j fG)[ ]dl>jYeluik; aËk vjhf[ YeilvdR )[

1 T~[rkssfaj$, L\iÍkhk iH icJh Sew[ 105, 106 a w[aoKH Eflil10î409 Tal; :ajpj, LHT|[dl;1î227-228 éT~[rk KaG ijsRy T\g; YeiG\jdX Tal; T~[rk ~\Iuksm LHT~lr\kH dk~[y 1î240-245H Srl)kd. 2 S}l. KaykH L<[dG, LE[:hk'~j$[ 1î235-236

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YeSfUdalSnl t'fjH >j'fuk; rjhrjH)k'k![.- Lf[ Tijsm LeYzFj&[ eg\j/yuk'j#.

YeilvdR )[ YeSfUdsa'[ eyus/MfjH Lrk iprJualui)[ Kpl|gn*Xî

rlhjhPjd; c[YfJdsx QSgcau\[ ijil|; dqj)kd. a|[y[ T#lsf ijil|; dqj)H. Qgk c[YfJ cISp|s\ Yeilvd )[ ijil|; dqj )lR plr; sv$k'ksi(jH Lisx ijil|; dqj)H.

YeilvdR )[ YeSfUdsa'[ eyus/MfjH rjG ~r[Palui)[ Kpl|gn;î

glYfj rac[)lg; éf|w[wkp[ ê

YeilvdR )[ YeSfUdsa'[ eyus/MfjH rj<j Óalui)[ Kpl|gn*Xî

c)l\[ akfH fj'H K=j, si=k=j Selhk= pkGzr[Pak=i fj'H.

TO eyus/M YeSfUdfdxjH :gk; r~j Sulm[ e(lxjdxldlif#. LfjH LrkPlir; T#. 1 Tal; COdlrj eyÉkî "uFlGf[F\jH, YeilvdR frj)[ YeSfUdalsn'[ rS+lm[ fky'[ eyÉfjH :gkSa LS`|s\ ejReËlif#. Yec[fkf YeiG\j

1 Tal; :ajpj, LH T|[dl; 1î228

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]flulhk; Cgj, rak)f[ ~lPdalsn'yjuj)k' afijPjuk!(jh#lsf." 1

TO zn\jH doMj ilujS)!iujHs/Mfln[ï YeilvdR vjh cI|l~jdsx vjhSg)lX vjh ij<u*xjH YeSfUdal)juf[. Kplî- Dksscal ij sRy clÊU; YeilvdR g![ iUd[fjdxksm clÊU

\jr[ fkhUal)juf[. asËl'[, L~o~kGp :ykalc;

éKp[|ju\[ê Lyk\S/lX r~j

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ao'[. LH LE[:H L\L^kpj$È

r~j )[ wj~j#j$\[ L#l\fk;, YeSfUdal sn'yjuj)s/ml\fk; wr*X)[ afsa'[ ijiÊj )s/mk'fkalu YeiG\jdxln[ fL^kpjulu é:gl Pruluê YeiG\jdX. LidxjH r~j su Lrk Plir; sv$hk; alf{dukXsdl=hk; dH/j)s/M

Yelualu Sdlhlmjsr

2

1 Tal; COdlrj, TGClpkH Ek|oH 1î228

2 Kp[|j$fjH Sdlhlmjr[ Qgk iuÍ[ fjdun;. éijiîê

3 cI|J|kH ~kDlgj î2807, 5556. Tal; ClfIj~j, LH akilEDl\[ 2î245-246

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fln[. r~j f*xksm YeiG\r*xjH Lmjc[Flr; Lidxln[. L#l|k eyÉk î

×πuΖ|¡xm îοuθóé& «!$# ÉΑθßuÎû öΝä3s9 tβ%x. ôs)©9

Þ fJG&uluk; rj*X)[ L#l|kijsRy pofrjH K\ aalu alf{duk![ ß éij.dIk. 33î21ê

t'lH afegalu Liuksm cI>li*X sfxjikdX )rkcgj&[ rjG~r[P;, ck'\[ t'j*sr iUfUlc s/mk'fln[.

T\j~lTH vjh ckYePlr flfIjdrjua*X

T\j~lTsRy >l<Uik; ulFlGf[FUikaluj ~ r[Ps/M[ akdxjH covj/j& ij<u*xksm c[FjgJ dgnsaS'ln; vjh flfIjdrjua*X Tijsm KnG \k'k.

Q'[î Tc[hlajsRy c[Fler; L#l|kijH rj'k= i|[ujhk; Cgjuluj c[Fjgs/M Yealn*xjhkaln[. L#lsf ark<U~kÓjujShl ark<U~kÓj sasrsÉ mk\ dlgU*xjShl L#. ijCkÓ dIkG:rjShl fjgkck '\jShl i# dH/rlcIgSal rjSglPrlw[BSul i- 'lH i'sf#l; rl; cIJdgj)hk; Li CjgÍli|j&[ YeliG\jdal)lR P{fjdlnj)hk; LrjilgUaln[ï

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: dlgU*X YeiG\j)lrk=fldsM KSeÊj)lrk =fldsM.

LfjrlH chEkdxlu cv[VgjfG Yealn *X tijsmulSnl, Lijsm Li)rkcgj&ln[ vhj &f[. Qgk iUd[fj sfxjijH rjhsdl!irlsn(jH LulX SrGalGÏ\jhlsn'[ LiG ijPjeyukaluj gk'k. 1 Tal; ck|[gj eyÉkî "L#l|kijHrj'ldk'k gjclh\[. Lf[ t\j)H alYfaldk'k ycoH uksm ~lPUf, Lfjr[ dJq[s/mH r+ksm SaH rjG~r[P aln[." 2 Tal; fI|lij eyÉkî "Tc[hlajsRy elp; caG/n\jSRyuk; cG%lHarl L;zJdgj)k'fj SRyuk; eky\ln[ Ky&krjH)kd." Yec[fkf il)[ iUlDUlrj&ksdl![ T~[rk L~jH TÍkH |rEj eyÉkî "LFil ijCkÓ dIkG:rj'k; fjgkck'\j'k; caG/j)l\isRyuk; Lfjr[ dJsqlfk*l\iSRy uk; Tc[hl; écaG/n;ê Ky)kduj#. LfjrlH Lfj s'fjgjH LiR fjgjulfjgj)n;, fsRy ~kÓjsdl S!l, vjÔsdlS!l, Lrkalr; sdlS!l, Lisu tfjG)lfjgj)kduk; Sin;." 3 Yefj>lClhjulu Lhj ijsRy il)kdX tYf ckÕg;à LS`|; eyÉkî "rj*X :xkdsx Lrkdgj )k'f[ coÊj)n;. dlgn; QglX cIGÏlidlCj

1 TO ij<u\jH Tal; T~[rk cJgJsRy il)kdX ckrrk`lgjaj 140 Srl)kd.

2 Ef[|kH ~lgj 13 î 504 3 Cy|k LH LDJp\j fI|lij$ 1 î219

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 24 24
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dxksm YeiG\jdX sv$k;. ej'Jm[- Lulsx)kyj&k= L#l|kijsRy LyjijrlH- LulX Srsgayjukduk; rgdlG|gluigksm YeiG\jdX sv$kduk; sv$k; LrÔg; agns/mkduk; LulX rgdlidlCjuluj alykduk;sv$k;. asËlglX rgdlG|gluigksm YeiG \j sv$k; ej'Jm[- Lulsx)kyj&k= L#l|kijsRy LyjijrlH- LulX alyjayjukduk; cIGÏlG|gksm YeiG\jsv$kduk; sv$k;. LrÔg; LulX agn s/mk; LulX cIGzlidlCjuluj\Jgk;. ic[fkf Tflujgjs) :xkdsx Lrkdgj)kdulsn(jH agj& isg Lrkzaj)kd. wJij&jgj)k'isgu#. agj&iG t'fksdl![ LS`|; ijgHvo!k'f[ YeilvdR ujSh)k; YeilvdR uksm Lgka cI|l~jdxjSh)k aln[. " 1

Tal; L~kÍjrlp[ eyÉkî r~jvgUdxk; cfU alGÏ*xk;, Plglxaluj ark<U~kÓj)[ sixjs/mks' fjsrfjgjH igk;. esÊ akc[hj;dsx c;~r[Pj&jm S\lx; TO c;ZMr\jH Yealn*X LrkPlir; sv$H LrjilgUaln[. ~kÓjs)fjsg'[ Yedmaluj Sfl'k' ij<ualn[ï :G\idlgj SrlÙ[ dIplL[ iJMk'fk; rac[)lg; dpIlL[ iJMk'j# t'fk;. 2

1 Tal; ClfIj~j, LH TL[fjcl; 2î358

2 Ef[|kH~lgj 4î192. Tal; T~[rk|wG eyÉkî L~k cjrlpjsRy TO il)[ Lhj ijsRy asËlgk il)jSh )[ ijgH vo!k'f[Selhk![, LS`|; eyÉkî "pJR ark<U~kÓj)[ Sfl'k'frkcgj&lujgk'ksi(jH dlhk

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 25 25
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g![î Qgk akc[hj; fsRy wJijf\jsRy akqkdlgU*xj hk; ]sflgk YeiG\r; sdl!kigk'kSil Lfj- r[ akÙluj Yec[fkf YeiG\r\jsRy afijPjsu sÔ'[ LSrI<j)hk; Lf[ Ky/kigk\hk; rjG~r[P aln[. dlgn;, r~j eyÉk î

ééQglX Qgk YeiG\j svu[fkï Lfjr[ r+ksm d H/rujs#(jH Lf[ f=s/Sm!fln[.êê 1 TO ffI \jsRy YeliG\jdfusYf Yeilvdsr LrkPlir; sv$k'fjsRy uFlGf[F iC;. Tfk c;~r[Paluj Tal; ClfIj~j eyÉkî "CgJL\jsRy ijPjijh)k dxjH frj)[ Cy:)s/ml\ éafegal)s/ml\ê fjsr SfmjS/ldk'isg#l; CgJL\jsr selxj)k' igln[[. :sgls) CgJL\jsr Dn[@j)k'kSil LisRy Dn[@rYeiG\r; ~lfIjhln[. :sg(jhk; ijPjijh)kdxjH frj)[ Cy:)s/ml\f[ sv$lR :Yz|j&lH LisRy YeiG\r; ~lfIjhln[." 2 ao'[î ycoH asu T\j~lL[ sv$kdsu'[ ey ÉlH, ijCkÓdIkG:rjHï Lf[ L#l|kijHrj'[ Yeil vdrk= i|[u[ :sn'[ egjznj&[ LfjH i'

yuksm Lmj>lz; fmihlujgk'k LfjsRy akdX>lz; fmik'fjSr)lX dgnJualuf[." Tal; L|[ap,[ akc[rp[î1267, Tal; L~opliop[ , ckrRî 162

1 akc[hj; 1718

2 Tal; ClfIj~j , LHakilEDl\[ 2î333

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 26 26
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akqkiR dH/rdxk; rjSglPr*xk; YeliG\jdal) hjhosmuln[. LYedlg; ijCkÓ ck'\jsr YeliG\j dal)hkaln[. r~j eyÉk î

"Lyjun;, trj)[ dIkG:rk; LSflsml/; ffk hUalufk; rHds/Mjgj)k'k. Lyjun;, trj)[ dIkG :rk; LSflsml/; ffkhUalufk; rHds/Mjgj)k 'k." 1 Tal; LfIlL[ eyÉkî "ycohk#l|j su Lrk cgj)H, dIkG:rjSruk; fjgkck'\jSruk; ejReË hln[." 2 L#lal rlcjyk`JR cL[pj eyÉkî "ycohk #l|j sdl![ i'sfSÔl Lf[ QlSgl iUd[fjuk; cIJdgj)kduk; ejReËkduk; sv$H ~lPUfuln[. Qgj)hk; LfjH tfjg[ YeiG\j)lif#. Qgk ijPj r~j Yealnal)julH L#l|k Yealnal)juf[ Selsh fs'uln[. Lf[ ds$lqj)k'fjH QglX)k; ijM[iJq[vSul QqjdqjSil T# fs'. Qglxksm il)k; YeilvdsRy il)kdSx)lX akÔj/j)H Lrkip rJua#." 3

rlh[î :glPruksm idk/jHs/Mfk; r~j sv$lfj gj'fkalui, LFil r~j uksm dlh\[ Lf[ sv$l rk= SfMak!lujMk; r~j Lf[ svu[fj#. t(jH

1 Tal; L|[ap[ 4 î 131 cI|J|kH wlajL[ 1î516 2 plgjaj 1 î 77 3 fE[cJykÍLpj 7 î 333

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r~j uksm dlhSC<; Lf[ sv$H ~jp[L\[ :n[. Lf[ sv$lfjgj)H ck'\kaln[ . r~jpjrlSZl<;, Tc[ylL[-ajL[ylw[ gli[ sdl!lmH, |jw[y :SZl<j )H, ekfkiHcglSZl<; fkm*juisu#l; Lfjr[ Kpl|gnaln[. r~j eyÉkî

ééQglX Qgk YeiG\jsvu[fk Lfj'[ r+ksm dH /ruj#(jH Lf[ f=s/Sm!fln[.êê 1 Tal; alhjd[ eyÉkî "L'[ér~j uksm dlh\[ê pJr#l\f[ Ts'l gj)hk; pJrlikduj#. " 2 ssCDkH Tc[hl; T~[rk ssfaj$ eyÉkî "fk mG&uluj éycohk#l|j ê KSeÊj&f[ KSeÊj)H ck'\ln[. fkmG&uluj YeliG\jdal)juf[ YeiG \j)H ck'\ldk'f[ Selsh " 3 Tal; T~[rkdFJG eyÉkî "t'lH L|hkck '\j iHwalL\[, cI|l~jdxjHrj'[ c[Fjgs/ml\ ]sflgk il)jsrdkyj&k; YeiG\jsudkyj&k; LiG eyuk'f[ Lf[ ~jp[L\[ éaf\jH rofraluf[ê :n[ t'ln[. dlgn; Lsflgk eknU dlgUalujgk s'(jH LiG LfjSh)[ rS+)lX ak'jM[ sv#k alujgk'k." 4

1 akc[hj; 1718 2 Tal; ClfIj~j , LH TL[fjcIl; 1 î49 3 T~[rk ssfaj$ , aw[aoKH Eflil 26 î 172 4 T~[rk dFJG, fE[cJykH dIkG:rjH LpJ; 4 î156

C¯n_mDÊp¶x 28 28
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LÖ[î wr*X)[ af\jsRy Lmjc[Flr ij<u* xjhldsM ClDlegalu ij<u*xjhldsM ]sflgk ij<u\jSRyuk; iUd[fgoeik; c[ekm>l<Uik; sdl !ln[ CgJL\[ LifJGÑaluf[. Yec[fkf ij<u *X :glPrldlgU*xjhlulhk;, YduijYdu*xjhl ulhk;, calPlrcr[Pj, ukÓ;, gl<[YmJu;, clÙ\j d;fkm*ju SaDhdxjhlulhk; Cgj.

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